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Sample records for stringent filtering criteria

  1. The effect of increasingly stringent diagnostic criteria on sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sex differences in premorbid function and symptomatology were examined as increasingly stringent criteria for schizophrenia were applied to 182 male and 139 female . psychotic patients. The male/female ratio rose from 1.6 among those meeting the CATEGO 'broad' criteria for schizophrenia to 3.7 among those satisfying ...

  2. Legal status and source of offenders' firearms in states with the least stringent criteria for gun ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittes, Katherine A; Vernick, Jon S; Webster, Daniel W

    2013-02-01

    Gun possession by high-risk individuals presents a serious threat to public safety. U.S. federal law establishes minimum criteria for legal purchase and possession of firearms; many states have laws disqualifying additional categories for illegal possession. We used data from a national survey of state prison inmates to calculate: 1) the proportion of offenders, incarcerated for crimes committed with firearms in 13 states with the least restrictive firearm purchase and possession laws, who would have been prohibited if their states had stricter gun laws; and 2) the source of gun acquisition for offenders who were and were not legally permitted to purchase and possess firearms. Nearly three of ten gun offenders (73 of 253 or 28.9%) were legal gun possessors but would have been prohibited from purchasing or possessing firearms when committing their most recent offense if their states had stricter prohibitions. Offenders who were already prohibited under current law acquired their gun from a licensed dealer, where a background check is required, five times less often than offenders who were not prohibited (3.9% vs. 19.9%; χ(2)=13.31; p≤0.001). Nearly all (96.1%) offenders who were legally prohibited, acquired their gun from a supplier not required to conduct a background check. Stricter gun ownership laws would have made firearm possession illegal for many state prison inmates who used a gun to commit a crime. Requiring all gun sales to be subject to a background check would make it more difficult for these offenders to obtain guns.

  3. Criteria for calculating the efficiency of HEPA filters during and after design basis accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; First, M.W.; Anderson, W.L.; Gilbert, H.; Jacox, J.W.

    1994-12-01

    We have reviewed the literature on the performance of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters under normal and abnormal conditions to establish criteria for calculating the efficiency of HEPA filters in a DOE nonreactor nuclear facility during and after a Design Basis Accident (DBA). The literature review included the performance of new filters and parameters that may cause deterioration in the filter performance such as filter age, radiation, corrosive chemicals, seismic and rough handling, high temperature, moisture, particle clogging, high air flow and pressure pulses. The deterioration of the filter efficiency depends on the exposure parameters; in severe exposure conditions the filter will be structurally damaged and have a residual efficiency of 0%. Despite the many studies on HEPA filter performance under adverse conditions, there are large gaps and limitations in the data that introduce significant error in the estimates of HEPA filter efficiencies under DBA conditions. Because of this limitation, conservative values of filter efficiency were chosen when there was insufficient data

  4. Variable Step Size Maximum Correntropy Criteria Based Adaptive Filtering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Radhika

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Maximum correntropy criterion (MCC based adaptive filters are found to be robust against impulsive interference. This paper proposes a novel MCC based adaptive filter with variable step size in order to obtain improved performance in terms of both convergence rate and steady state error with robustness against impulsive interference. The optimal variable step size is obtained by minimizing the Mean Square Deviation (MSD error from one iteration to the other. Simulation results in the context of a highly impulsive system identification scenario show that the proposed algorithm has faster convergence and lesser steady state error than the conventional MCC based adaptive filters.

  5. Thermo-mechanical failure criteria for x-ray windows and filters and comparison with experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    Synchrotron x-ray windows are vacuum separators and are usually made of thin beryllium metal. Filters are provided upstream of the window to filter out the soft x-rays to protect the window from overheating and failing. The filters are made of thin carbon products or sometimes beryllium, the same material as the window. Because the window is a vacuum separator, understanding its potential structural failure under thermal load is very important. Current structural failure models for the brazed windows and filters under thermal stresses are not very accurate. Existing models have been carefully examined and found to be inconsistent with the actual failure modes of windows tested. Due to the thinness of the filter/window, the most likely failure mode is thermal buckling. In fact, recent synchrotron tests conducted in Japan on window failures bear out this position. In this paper, failure criteria for filters/windows are proposed, and analyses are performed and compared with the experimental results from various sources. A consistent result is found between the analysis and reported experiments. A series of additional analyses based on the proposed failure criteria is also carried out for filter and window designs for the third generation synchrotron beamline front ends. Comparative results are presented here

  6. Criteria for calculating the efficiency of deep-pleated HEPA filters with aluminum separators during and after design basis accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; First, M.W.; Anderson, W.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    We have reviewed the literature on the performance of HEPA filters under normal and abnormal conditions to establish criteria for calculating the efficiency of HEPA filters in a DOE nonreactor nuclear facility during and after a Design Basis Accident (DBA). This study is only applicable to the standard deep-pleated HEPA filter with aluminum separators as specified in ASME N509[1]. Other HEPA filter designs such as the mini-pleat and separatorless filters are not included in this study. The literature review included the performance of new filters and parameters that may cause deterioration in the filter performance such as filter age, radiation, corrosive chemicals, seismic and rough handling, high temperature, moisture, particle clogging, high air flow and pressure pulses. The deterioration of the filter efficiency depends on the exposure parameters; in severe exposure conditions the filter will be damaged and have a residual efficiency of 0%. There are large gaps and limitations in the data that introduce significant error in the estimates of HEPA filter efficiencies under DBA conditions. Because of this limitation, conservative values of filter efficiency were chosen. The estimation of the efficiency of the HEPA filters under DBA conditions involves three steps: (1) The filter pressure drop and environmental parameters are determined during and after the DBA, (2) Comparing the filter pressure drop to a set of threshold values above which the filter is damaged. There is a different threshold value for each combination of environmental parameters, and (3) Determining the filter efficiency. If the filter pressure drop is greater than the threshold value, the filter is damaged and is assigned 0% efficiency. If the pressure drop is less, then the filter is not damaged and the efficiency is determined from literature values of the efficiency at the environmental conditions.

  7. Criteria for calculating the efficiency of deep-pleated HEPA filters with aluminum separators during and after design basis accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; First, M.W.; Anderson, W.L.

    1995-01-01

    We have reviewed the literature on the performance of HEPA filters under normal and abnormal conditions to establish criteria for calculating the efficiency of HEPA filters in a DOE nonreactor nuclear facility during and after a Design Basis Accident (DBA). This study is only applicable to the standard deep-pleated HEPA filter with aluminum separators as specified in ASME N509[1]. Other HEPA filter designs such as the mini-pleat and separatorless filters are not included in this study. The literature review included the performance of new filters and parameters that may cause deterioration in the filter performance such as filter age, radiation, corrosive chemicals, seismic and rough handling, high temperature, moisture, particle clogging, high air flow and pressure pulses. The deterioration of the filter efficiency depends on the exposure parameters; in severe exposure conditions the filter will be damaged and have a residual efficiency of 0%. There are large gaps and limitations in the data that introduce significant error in the estimates of HEPA filter efficiencies under DBA conditions. Because of this limitation, conservative values of filter efficiency were chosen. The estimation of the efficiency of the HEPA filters under DBA conditions involves three steps: (1) The filter pressure drop and environmental parameters are determined during and after the DBA, (2) Comparing the filter pressure drop to a set of threshold values above which the filter is damaged. There is a different threshold value for each combination of environmental parameters, and (3) Determining the filter efficiency. If the filter pressure drop is greater than the threshold value, the filter is damaged and is assigned 0% efficiency. If the pressure drop is less, then the filter is not damaged and the efficiency is determined from literature values of the efficiency at the environmental conditions

  8. Three different criteria for the design of two-dimensional zero phase FIR digital filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, E.; Johansen, M.; Conradsen, Knut

    1993-01-01

    An error criterion for the design of FIR filters is proposed. Filters with relatively many free filter coefficients are designed using the Chebyshev, the weighted-least-squares (WLS), and a new partitioned minimax error criterion, and the performance of the filters is compared. A general and fast...... technique for the WLS design is also presented.>...

  9. Separability Filter for Localizing Abnormal Pupil: Identification Criteria of Input Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutik Ida Rosanti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Separability filter method is a reliable method for pupil detection. However, so far this method is implemented for detecting pupil of normal eye, while for abnormal eye such as cataract and glaucoma patients; they have different characteristics of pupil such as color, shape and radius size of pupil. In this paper we propose to use separability filter for detecting pupil of abnormal patients with different characteristics. We faced a problem about radius size, shape and color of pupil; therefore we implemented Hough Transform, Blob area and Brightness for identifying input images before applying separability filter. The experiment results show that we can increase performance of pupil detection for abnormal eye to be 95.65%.

  10. The Grading Entropy-based Criteria for Structural Stability of Granular Materials and Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janos Lőrincz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with three grading entropy-based rules that describe different soil structure stability phenomena: an internal stability rule, a filtering rule and a segregation rule. These rules are elaborated on the basis of a large amount of laboratory testing and from existing knowledge in the field. Use is made of the theory of grading entropy to derive parameters which incorporate all of the information of the grading curve into a pair of entropy-based parameters that allow soils with common behaviours to be grouped into domains on an entropy diagram. Applications of the derived entropy-based rules are presented by examining the reason of a dam failure, by testing against the existing filter rules from the literature, and by giving some examples for the design of non-segregating grading curves (discrete particle size distributions by dry weight. A physical basis for the internal stability rule is established, wherein the higher values of base entropy required for granular stability are shown to reflect the closeness between the mean and maximum grain diameters, which explains how there are sufficient coarser grains to achieve a stable grain skeleton.

  11. Circuitry linking the Csr and stringent response global regulatory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Adrianne N; Patterson-Fortin, Laura M; Vakulskas, Christopher A; Mercante, Jeffrey W; Potrykus, Katarzyna; Vinella, Daniel; Camacho, Martha I; Fields, Joshua A; Thompson, Stuart A; Georgellis, Dimitris; Cashel, Michael; Babitzke, Paul; Romeo, Tony

    2011-06-01

    CsrA protein regulates important cellular processes by binding to target mRNAs and altering their translation and/or stability. In Escherichia coli, CsrA binds to sRNAs, CsrB and CsrC, which sequester CsrA and antagonize its activity. Here, mRNAs for relA, spoT and dksA of the stringent response system were found among 721 different transcripts that copurified with CsrA. Many of the transcripts that copurified with CsrA were previously determined to respond to ppGpp and/or DksA. We examined multiple regulatory interactions between the Csr and stringent response systems. Most importantly, DksA and ppGpp robustly activated csrB/C transcription (10-fold), while they modestly activated csrA expression. We propose that CsrA-mediated regulation is relieved during the stringent response. Gel shift assays confirmed high affinity binding of CsrA to relA mRNA leader and weaker interactions with dksA and spoT. Reporter fusions, qRT-PCR and immunoblotting showed that CsrA repressed relA expression, and (p)ppGpp accumulation during stringent response was enhanced in a csrA mutant. CsrA had modest to negligible effects on dksA and spoT expression. Transcription of dksA was negatively autoregulated via a feedback loop that tended to mask CsrA effects. We propose that the Csr system fine-tunes the stringent response and discuss biological implications of the composite circuitry. © Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Is ionizing radiation regulated more stringently than chemical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.; Pack, S.R.; Hattemer-Frey, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    It is widely believed that United States government agencies regulate exposure to ionizing radiation more stringently than exposure to chemical carcinogens. It is difficult to verify this perception, however, because chemical carcinogens and ionizing radiation are regulated using vastly different strategies. Chemical carcinogens are generally regulated individually. Regulators consider the risk of exposure to one chemical rather than the cumulative radiation exposure from all sources. Moreover, standards for chemical carcinogens are generally set in terms of quantities released or resultant environmental concentrations, while standards for ionizing radiation are set in terms of dose to the human body. Since chemicals and ionizing radiation cannot be compared on the basis of equal dose to the exposed individual, standards regulating chemicals and ionizing radiation cannot be compared directly. It is feasible, however, to compare the two sets of standards on the basis of equal risk to the exposed individual, assuming that standards for chemicals and ionizing radiation are equivalent if estimated risk levels are equitable. This paper compares risk levels associated with current standards for ionizing radiation and chemical carcinogens. The authors do not attempt to determine whether either type of risk is regulated too stringently or not stringently enough but endeavor only to ascertain if ionizing radiation is actually regulated more strictly than chemical carcinogens

  13. Flight Hardware Packaging Design for Stringent EMC Radiated Emission Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortz, Charlene L.; Huang, Chi-Chien N.; Ravich, Joshua A.; Steiner, Carl N.

    2013-01-01

    This packaging design approach can help heritage hardware meet a flight project's stringent EMC radiated emissions requirement. The approach requires only minor modifications to a hardware's chassis and mainly concentrates on its connector interfaces. The solution is to raise the surface area where the connector is mounted by a few millimeters using a pedestal, and then wrapping with conductive tape from the cable backshell down to the surface-mounted connector. This design approach has been applied to JPL flight project subsystems. The EMC radiated emissions requirements for flight projects can vary from benign to mission critical. If the project's EMC requirements are stringent, the best approach to meet EMC requirements would be to design an EMC control program for the project early on and implement EMC design techniques starting with the circuit board layout. This is the ideal scenario for hardware that is built from scratch. Implementation of EMC radiated emissions mitigation techniques can mature as the design progresses, with minimal impact to the design cycle. The real challenge exists for hardware that is planned to be flown following a built-to-print approach, in which heritage hardware from a past project with a different set of requirements is expected to perform satisfactorily for a new project. With acceptance of heritage, the design would already be established (circuit board layout and components have already been pre-determined), and hence any radiated emissions mitigation techniques would only be applicable at the packaging level. The key is to take a heritage design with its known radiated emissions spectrum and repackage, or modify its chassis design so that it would have a better chance of meeting the new project s radiated emissions requirements.

  14. Comparison of urine iodine/creatinine ratio between patients following stringent and less stringent low iodine diet for radioiodine remnant ablation of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Jee Ho; Kim, Byung Il; Ha, Ji Su; Chang, Sei Joong; Shin, Hye Young; Choi, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Do Min; Kim, Chong Soon

    2006-01-01

    A low iodine diet (LID) for 1 ∼ 2 weeks is recommended for patients who undergoing radioiodine remnant ablation. However, the LID educations for patients are different among centers because there is no concrete recommendation for protocol of LID. In this investigation, we compared two representative types of LID protocols performed in several centers in Korea using urine iodine to creatinine tatio (urine I/Cr). From 2006, April to June, patients referred to our center for radioiodine remnant ablation of thyroid cancer from several local hospitals which had different LID protocols were included. We divided into two groups, stringent LID for 1 week and less stringent LID for 2 weeks, then measured their urine I/Cr ratio with spot urine when patients were admitted to the hospital. Total 27 patients were included in this investigation (M:F = 1:26; 13 in one-week stringent LID; 14 in two-week less stringent LID). Average of urine I/Cr ratio was 127.87 ± 78.52 μ g/g in stringent LID for 1 week, and 289.75 ± 188.24 μ g/g in less stringent LID for 2 weeks. It was significantly lower in stringent LID for 1 week group (ρ = 0.008). The number of patients whose urine I/Cr ratios were below 100 μ g/g was 6 of 13 in stringent LID for 1 week group, and 3 of 14 in less stringent LID for 2 weeks group. Stringent LID for 1 week resulted in better urinary I/Cr ratio in our investigation compared with the other protocol. However it still resulted in plenty of inadequate range of I/Cr ratio, so more stringent protocol such as stringent LID for 2 weeks is expected more desirable

  15. An application of PSO algorithm for multi-criteria geometry optimization of printed low-pass filters based on conductive periodic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckiewicz, Adam; Butrylo, Boguslaw

    2017-08-01

    In this paper we discussed the results of a multi-criteria optimization scheme as well as numerical calculations of periodic conductive structures with selected geometry. Thin printed structures embedded on a flexible dielectric substrate may be applied as simple, cheap, passive low-pass filters with an adjustable cutoff frequency in low (up to 1 MHz) radio frequency range. The analysis of an electromagnetic phenomena in presented structures was realized on the basis of a three-dimensional numerical model of three proposed geometries of periodic elements. The finite element method (FEM) was used to obtain a solution of an electromagnetic harmonic field. Equivalent lumped electrical parameters of printed cells obtained in such manner determine the shape of an amplitude transmission characteristic of a low-pass filter. A nonlinear influence of a printed cell geometry on equivalent parameters of cells electric model, makes it difficult to find the desired optimal solution. Therefore an optimization problem of optimal cell geometry estimation with regard to an approximation of the determined amplitude transmission characteristic with an adjusted cutoff frequency, was obtained by the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. A dynamically suitable inertia factor was also introduced into the algorithm to improve a convergence to a global extremity of a multimodal objective function. Numerical results as well as PSO simulation results were characterized in terms of approximation accuracy of predefined amplitude characteristics in a pass-band, stop-band and cutoff frequency. Three geometries of varying degrees of complexity were considered and their use in signal processing systems was evaluated.

  16. Bulk development and stringent selection of microsatellite markers in the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li-Jun; Li, Ze-Min; Wang, Ze-Hua; Zhu, Liang; Gong, Ya-Jun; Chen, Min; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2016-05-20

    Recent improvements in next-generation sequencing technologies have enabled investigation of microsatellites on a genome-wide scale. Faced with a huge amount of candidates, the use of appropriate marker selection criteria is crucial. Here, we used the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis for an empirical microsatellite survey and validation; 132,251 candidate microsatellites were identified, 92,102 of which were perfect. Dinucleotides were the most abundant category, while (AG)n was the most abundant motif. Sixty primer pairs were designed and validated in two natural populations, of which 30 loci were polymorphic, stable, and repeatable, but not all in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) and linkage equilibrium. Four marker panels were constructed to understand effect of marker selection on population genetic analyses: (i) only accept loci with single nucleotide insertions (SNI); (ii) only accept the most polymorphic loci (MP); (iii) only accept loci that did not deviate from HWE, did not show SNIs, and had unambiguous peaks (SS) and (iv) all developed markers (ALL). Although the MP panel resulted in microsatellites of highest genetic diversity followed by the SNI, the SS performed best in individual assignment. Our study proposes stringent criteria for selection of microsatellites from a large-scale number of genomic candidates for population genetic studies.

  17. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tugwell, Peter; Boers, Maarten; D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter requires that criteria be met to demonstrate that the outcome instrument meets...... the criteria for content, face, and construct validity. METHODS: Discussion groups critically reviewed a variety of ways in which case studies of current OMERACT Working Groups complied with the Truth component of the Filter and what issues remained to be resolved. RESULTS: The case studies showed...... that there is broad agreement on criteria for meeting the Truth criteria through demonstration of content, face, and construct validity; however, several issues were identified that the Filter Working Group will need to address. CONCLUSION: These issues will require resolution to reach consensus on how Truth...

  18. HEPA Filter Vulnerability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    This assessment of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter vulnerability was requested by the USDOE Office of River Protection (ORP) to satisfy a DOE-HQ directive to evaluate the effect of filter degradation on the facility authorization basis assumptions. Within the scope of this assessment are ventilation system HEPA filters that are classified as Safety-Class (SC) or Safety-Significant (SS) components that perform an accident mitigation function. The objective of the assessment is to verify whether HEPA filters that perform a safety function during an accident are likely to perform as intended to limit release of hazardous or radioactive materials, considering factors that could degrade the filters. Filter degradation factors considered include aging, wetting of filters, exposure to high temperature, exposure to corrosive or reactive chemicals, and exposure to radiation. Screening and evaluation criteria were developed by a site-wide group of HVAC engineers and HEPA filter experts from published empirical data. For River Protection Project (RPP) filters, the only degradation factor that exceeded the screening threshold was for filter aging. Subsequent evaluation of the effect of filter aging on the filter strength was conducted, and the results were compared with required performance to meet the conditions assumed in the RPP Authorization Basis (AB). It was found that the reduction in filter strength due to aging does not affect the filter performance requirements as specified in the AB. A portion of the HEPA filter vulnerability assessment is being conducted by the ORP and is not part of the scope of this study. The ORP is conducting an assessment of the existing policies and programs relating to maintenance, testing, and change-out of HEPA filters used for SC/SS service. This document presents the results of a HEPA filter vulnerability assessment conducted for the River protection project as requested by the DOE Office of River Protection

  19. Rapid Curtailing of the Stringent Response by Toxin-Antitoxin Encoded mRNases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Chengzhe; Roghanian, Mohammad; Jørgensen, Mikkel Girke

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli regulates its metabolism to adapt to changes in the environment, in particular to stressful downshifts in nutrient quality. Such shifts elicit the so-called stringent response coordinated by the alarmone guanosine tetra- and pentaphosphate [(p)ppGpp]. At sudden amino-acid (aa......RNase-encoding TA modules present in the wt strain. This observation suggested that toxins are part of the negative feedback to control the (p)ppGpp level during early stringent response. We built a ribosome trafficking model to evaluate the fold of increase in the RelA activity just after the onset of aa...... %. IMPORTANCE: The early stringent response elicited by amino-acid starvation is controlled by a sharp increase of the cellular (p)ppGpp level. Toxin-antitoxin encoded mRNases are activated by (p)ppGpp through enhanced degradation of antitoxins. The present work shows that this activation happens at a very...

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of proteins involved in the stringent response in plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Doshun; Ihara, Yuta; Nishihara, Hidenori; Masuda, Shinji

    2017-07-01

    The nucleotide (p)ppGpp is a second messenger that controls the stringent response in bacteria. The stringent response modifies expression of a large number of genes and metabolic processes and allows bacteria to survive under fluctuating environmental conditions. Recent genome sequencing analyses have revealed that genes responsible for the stringent response are also found in plants. These include (p)ppGpp synthases and hydrolases, RelA/SpoT homologs (RSHs), and the pppGpp-specific phosphatase GppA/Ppx. However, phylogenetic relationship between enzymes involved in bacterial and plant stringent responses is as yet generally unclear. Here, we investigated the origin and evolution of genes involved in the stringent response in plants. Phylogenetic analysis and primary structures of RSH homologs from different plant phyla (including Embryophyta, Charophyta, Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and Glaucophyta) indicate that RSH gene families were introduced into plant cells by at least two independent lateral gene transfers from the bacterial Deinococcus-Thermus phylum and an unidentified bacterial phylum; alternatively, they were introduced into a proto-plant cell by a lateral gene transfer from the endosymbiotic cyanobacterium followed by gene loss of an ancestral RSH gene in the cyanobacterial linage. Phylogenetic analysis of gppA/ppx families indicated that plant gppA/ppx homologs form an individual cluster in the phylogenetic tree, and show a sister relationship with some bacterial gppA/ppx homologs. Although RSHs contain a plastidial transit peptide at the N terminus, GppA/Ppx homologs do not, suggesting that plant GppA/Ppx homologs function in the cytosol. These results reveal that a proto-plant cell obtained genes for the stringent response by lateral gene transfer events from different bacterial phyla and have utilized them to control metabolism in plastids and the cytosol.

  1. The stringent response regulates adaptation to darkness in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Rachel D; Higgins, Sean A; Flamholz, Avi; Nichols, Robert J; Savage, David F

    2016-08-16

    The cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus relies upon photosynthesis to drive metabolism and growth. During darkness, Synechococcus stops growing, derives energy from its glycogen stores, and greatly decreases rates of macromolecular synthesis via unknown mechanisms. Here, we show that the stringent response, a stress response pathway whose genes are conserved across bacteria and plant plastids, contributes to this dark adaptation. Levels of the stringent response alarmone guanosine 3'-diphosphate 5'-diphosphate (ppGpp) rise after a shift from light to dark, indicating that darkness triggers the same response in cyanobacteria as starvation in heterotrophic bacteria. High levels of ppGpp are sufficient to stop growth and dramatically alter many aspects of cellular physiology, including levels of photosynthetic pigments and polyphosphate, DNA content, and the rate of translation. Cells unable to synthesize ppGpp display pronounced growth defects after exposure to darkness. The stringent response regulates expression of a number of genes in Synechococcus, including ribosomal hibernation promoting factor (hpf), which causes ribosomes to dimerize in the dark and may contribute to decreased translation. Although the metabolism of Synechococcus differentiates it from other model bacterial systems, the logic of the stringent response remains remarkably conserved, while at the same time having adapted to the unique stresses of the photosynthetic lifestyle.

  2. Structural characterization of the stringent response related exopolyphosphatase/guanosine pentaphosphate phosphohydrolase protein family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ole; Laurberg, Martin; Liljas, Anders

    2004-01-01

    Exopolyphosphatase/guanosine pentaphosphate phosphohydrolase (PPX/GPPA) enzymes play central roles in the bacterial stringent response induced by starvation. The high-resolution crystal structure of the putative Aquifex aeolicus PPX/GPPA phosphatase from the actin-like ATPase domain superfamily h...

  3. Filter arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.

    2017-08-01

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.

  4. Solutions for Dioctyl Phthalate (DOP) tested high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters destined for disposal at Hanford, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gablin, K.A.

    1992-11-01

    In January 1992, Argonne National Laboratory East, Environmental and Waste Management Program, learned that a chemical material used for testing of all HEPA filters at the primary source, Flanders Filter, Inc. in Washington, NC, was considered a hazardous chemical by Washington State Dangerous Waste Regulations. These regulations are under the jurisdiction of the Washington Administration Code, Chapter 173-303, and therefore directly under impact the Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria. Dioctyl Phthalate, ''DOP'' as it is referred to in chemical abbreviation form, is added in small test quantities at the factory, at three Department of Energy (DOE) operated HEPA filter test facilities, and in the installed duct work at various operating laboratories or production facilities. When small amounts of radioactivity are added to the filter media in operation, the result is a mixed waste. This definition would normally only develop in the state of Washington since their acceptance criteria is ten times more stringent then the US Environmental Protection Agencys' (US EPA). Methods of Processing will be discussed, which will include detoxification, physical separation, heat and vacuum separation, and compaction. The economic impact of a mixed waste definition in the State of Washington, and an Low Level Waste (LLW) definition in other locations, may lend this product to be a prime candidate for commercial disposal in the future, or a possible de-listing by the State of Washington

  5. The Stringent Response Induced by Phosphate Limitation Promotes Purine Salvage in Agrobacterium fabrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapragasam, Smitha; Deochand, Dinesh K; Meariman, Jacob K; Grove, Anne

    2017-10-31

    Agrobacterium fabrum induces tumor growth in susceptible plant species. The upregulation of virulence genes that occurs when the bacterium senses plant-derived compounds is enhanced by acidic pH and limiting inorganic phosphate. Nutrient starvation may also trigger the stringent response, and purine salvage is among the pathways expected to be favored under such conditions. We show here that phosphate limitation induces the stringent response, as evidenced by production of (p)ppGpp, and that the xdhCSML operon encoding the purine salvage enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase is upregulated ∼15-fold. The xdhCSML operon is under control of the TetR family transcription factor XdhR; direct binding of ppGpp to XdhR attenuates DNA binding, and the enhanced xdhCSML expression correlates with increased cellular levels of (p)ppGpp. Xanthine dehydrogenase may also divert purines away from salvage pathways to form urate, the ligand for the transcription factor PecS, which in the plant pathogen Dickeya dadantii is a key regulator of virulence gene expression. However, urate levels remain low under conditions that produce increased levels of xdhCSML expression, and neither acidic pH nor limiting phosphate results in induction of genes under control of PecS. Instead, expression of such genes is induced only by externally supplemented urate. Taken together, our data indicate that purine salvage is favored during the stringent response induced by phosphate starvation, suggesting that control of this pathway may constitute a novel approach to modulating virulence. Because bacterial purine catabolism appears to be unaffected, as evidenced by the absence of urate accumulation, we further propose that the PecS regulon is induced by only host-derived urate.

  6. Wien filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mook, H.W.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a Wien filter provided with electrodes for generating an electric field, and magnetic poles for generating a magnetic field, said electrodes and magnetic poles being positioned around and having a finite length along a filter axis, and being positioned around the filter axis

  7. Rectifier Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Bladyko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains definition of a smoothing factor which is suitable for any rectifier filter. The formulae of complex smoothing factors have been developed for simple and complex passive filters. The paper shows conditions for application of calculation formulae and filters

  8. FILTER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, J.B.; Torrey, J.V.P.

    1958-08-26

    A process is described for reconditioning fused alumina filters which have become clogged by the accretion of bismuth phosphate in the filter pores, The method consists in contacting such filters with faming sulfuric acid, and maintaining such contact for a substantial period of time.

  9. Filter unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Kazuo; Nagao, Koji; Akiyama, Toshio; Tanaka, Fumikazu; Osumi, Akira; Hirao, Yasuhiro.

    1997-01-01

    The filter unit is used by attaching to a dustproof mask, and used in a radiation controlled area such as in a nuclear power plant. The filter unit comprises sheet-like front and back filtering members disposed vertically in parallel, a spacer for keeping the filtering members to a predetermined distance and front and back covering members for covering the two filtering members respectively. An electrostatic filter prepared by applying resin-fabrication to a base sheet comprising 100% by weight of organic fibers as fiber components, for example, wool felt, synthetic fiber non-woven fabric, wool and synthetic fiber blend non-woven fabric and then electrifying the resin is used for the filtering members. Then, residue of ashes can be eliminated substantially or completely after burning them. (I.N.)

  10. Wien filter

    OpenAIRE

    Mook, H.W.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a Wien filter provided with electrodes for generating an electric field, and magnetic poles for generating a magnetic field, said electrodes and magnetic poles being positioned around and having a finite length along a filter axis, and being positioned around the filter axis such that electric and magnetic forces induced by the respective fields and exerted on an electrically charged particle moving substantially along the fileter axis at a certain velocity

  11. Derivation and validation of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, Michelle; Orbai, Ana-Maria; Alarcón, Graciela S

    2012-01-01

    The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) group revised and validated the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) classification criteria in order to improve clinical relevance, meet stringent methodology requirements, and incorporate new...

  12. Air Quality and Health Benefits of China's Recent Stringent Environmental Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Xue, T.; Zhang, Q.; Geng, G.; He, K.

    2016-12-01

    Aggressive emission control measures were taken by China's central and local governments after the promulgation of the "Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan" in 2013. We evaluated the air quality and health benefits of this ever most stringent air pollution control policy during 2013-2015 by utilizing a two-stage data fusion model and newly-developed cause-specific integrated exposure-response functions (IER) developed for the Global Burden of Disease (GBD). The two-stage data fusion model predicts spatiotemporal continuous PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm) concentrations by integrating satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements, PM2.5 concentrations from measurement and air quality model, and other ancillary information. During the years of analysis, PM2.5 concentration dropped significantly on national average and over heavily polluted regions as identified by Mann-Kendall analysis. The national PM2.5-attributable mortality decreased by 72.8 (95% CI: 59.4, 85.2) thousand (6%) from 1.23 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.39) million in 2013 to 1.15 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.31) million in 2015 due to considerable reduction (i.e. 18%) of population-weighted PM2.5 from 61.4 to 50.5 µg/m3. Meteorological variations between 2013 and 2015 were estimated to raise the PM2.5 levels by 0.24 µg/m3 and national mortality by 2.1 (95% CI: 1.6, 2.6) thousand through sensitivity tests, which implies the dominant role of anthropogenic impacts on PM2.5 abatement and attributable mortality reduction. Our study affirms the effectiveness of China's recent air quality policy, however, due to the possible supralinear shape of C-R functions, health benefits induced by air quality improvement in these years are limited. We therefore appeal for continuous implementation of current policies and further stringent measures from both air quality improvement and public health protection perspectives.

  13. Does dishonesty really invite third-party punishment? Results of a more stringent test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Naoki; Ohtsubo, Yohsuke

    2015-05-01

    Many experiments have demonstrated that people are willing to incur cost to punish norm violators even when they are not directly harmed by the violation. Such altruistic third-party punishment is often considered an evolutionary underpinning of large-scale human cooperation. However, some scholars argue that previously demonstrated altruistic third-party punishment against fairness-norm violations may be an experimental artefact. For example, envy-driven retaliatory behaviour (i.e. spite) towards better-off unfair game players may be misidentified as altruistic punishment. Indeed, a recent experiment demonstrated that participants ceased to inflict third-party punishment against an unfair player once a series of key methodological problems were systematically controlled for. Noticing that a previous finding regarding apparently altruistic third-party punishment against honesty-norm violations may have been subject to methodological issues, we used a different and what we consider to be a more sound design to evaluate these findings. Third-party punishment against dishonest players withstood this more stringent test. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Emission reductions in transition economies: A result of output contraction or more stringent environmental policy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zugravu, N.; Millock, K. [University Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne (France); Duchene, G. [University Paris 12, Creteil (France)

    2007-07-01

    Countries in Central and Eastern Europe significantly reduced their CO{sub 2} emissions between 1996 and 2001. Was this emission reduction just the fortuitous result of the major economic transformation undergone by those countries in the transition away from a centralized plan economy? Or is the emission reduction rather a result of more stringent environmental policy? The objective of the article is to answer this question through a model of the relation between environmental quality and enforcement, on the one hand, and environmental quality and economic growth, on the other hand. The authors develop structural equations for the demand (emissions) and supply (environmental stringency) of pollution. The supply equation takes into account the institutional quality of the country (control of corruption and political stability) as well as consumer preferences for environmental quality, as proxied by per capita revenue and unemployment. The system is estimated by three stage least squares on a sample of three groups of countries for comparative analysis: Central and Eastern European countries, Western European countries, and emerging economies. The results indicate that, all else equal, the scale effect on its own would have increased industrial CO{sub 2} emissions in the Central and Eastern European countries in the sample by 44.6% between 1996 and 2001. The composition effect accounted for a corresponding reduction in emissions by 16%. The technique effect had the largest marginal impact, corresponding to a 37.4% reduction in emissions.

  15. The Stringent Response Promotes Antibiotic Resistance Dissemination by Regulating Integron Integrase Expression in Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Strugeon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Class 1 integrons are genetic systems that enable bacteria to capture and express gene cassettes. These integrons, when isolated in clinical contexts, most often carry antibiotic resistance gene cassettes. They play a major role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacteria. The key element of integrons is the integrase, which allows gene cassettes to be acquired and shuffled. Planktonic culture experiments have shown that integrase expression is regulated by the bacterial SOS response. In natural settings, however, bacteria generally live in biofilms, which are characterized by strong antibiotic resilience and by increased expression of stress-related genes. Here, we report that under biofilm conditions, the stringent response, which is induced upon starvation, (i increases basal integrase and SOS regulon gene expression via induction of the SOS response and (ii exerts biofilm-specific regulation of the integrase via the Lon protease. This indicates that biofilm environments favor integron-mediated acquisition of antibiotic resistance and other adaptive functions encoded by gene cassettes.

  16. Filter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanin, V.R.

    1990-01-01

    The multidetector systems for high resolution gamma spectroscopy are presented. The observable parameters for identifying nuclides produced simultaneously in the reaction are analysed discussing the efficiency of filter systems. (M.C.K.)

  17. Adaptation to fluctuating temperatures in an RNA virus is driven by the most stringent selective pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Arribas

    Full Text Available The frequency of change in the selective pressures is one of the main factors driving evolution. It is generally accepted that constant environments select specialist organisms whereas changing environments favour generalists. The particular outcome achieved in either case also depends on the relative strength of the selective pressures and on the fitness costs of mutations across environments. RNA viruses are characterized by their high genetic diversity, which provides fast adaptation to environmental changes and helps them evade most antiviral treatments. Therefore, the study of the adaptive possibilities of RNA viruses is highly relevant for both basic and applied research. In this study we have evolved an RNA virus, the bacteriophage Qβ, under three different temperatures that either were kept constant or alternated periodically. The populations obtained were analyzed at the phenotypic and the genotypic level to characterize the evolutionary process followed by the virus in each case and the amount of convergent genetic changes attained. Finally, we also investigated the influence of the pre-existent genetic diversity on adaptation to high temperature. The main conclusions that arise from our results are: i under periodically changing temperature conditions, evolution of bacteriophage Qβ is driven by the most stringent selective pressure, ii there is a high degree of evolutionary convergence between replicated populations and also among populations evolved at different temperatures, iii there are mutations specific of a particular condition, and iv adaptation to high temperatures in populations differing in their pre-existent genetic diversity takes place through the selection of a common set of mutations.

  18. The rapidly evolving centromere-specific histone has stringent functional requirements in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Maruthachalam; Kwong, Pak N; Menorca, Ron M G; Valencia, Joel T; Ramahi, Joseph S; Stewart, Jodi L; Tran, Robert K; Sundaresan, Venkatesan; Comai, Luca; Chan, Simon W-L

    2010-10-01

    Centromeres control chromosome inheritance in eukaryotes, yet their DNA structure and primary sequence are hypervariable. Most animals and plants have megabases of tandem repeats at their centromeres, unlike yeast with unique centromere sequences. Centromere function requires the centromere-specific histone CENH3 (CENP-A in human), which replaces histone H3 in centromeric nucleosomes. CENH3 evolves rapidly, particularly in its N-terminal tail domain. A portion of the CENH3 histone-fold domain, the CENP-A targeting domain (CATD), has been previously shown to confer kinetochore localization and centromere function when swapped into human H3. Furthermore, CENP-A in human cells can be functionally replaced by CENH3 from distantly related organisms including Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have used cenh3-1 (a null mutant in Arabidopsis thaliana) to replace endogenous CENH3 with GFP-tagged variants. A H3.3 tail domain-CENH3 histone-fold domain chimera rescued viability of cenh3-1, but CENH3's lacking a tail domain were nonfunctional. In contrast to human results, H3 containing the A. thaliana CATD cannot complement cenh3-1. GFP-CENH3 from the sister species A. arenosa functionally replaces A. thaliana CENH3. GFP-CENH3 from the close relative Brassica rapa was targeted to centromeres, but did not complement cenh3-1, indicating that kinetochore localization and centromere function can be uncoupled. We conclude that CENH3 function in A. thaliana, an organism with large tandem repeat centromeres, has stringent requirements for functional complementation in mitosis.

  19. Stringently Defined Otitis Prone Children Demonstrate Deficient Naturally Induced Mucosal Antibody Response to Moraxella catarrhalis Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabin Ren

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat is a prominent mucosal pathogen causing acute otitis media (AOM. We studied Mcat nasopharyngeal (NP colonization, AOM frequency and mucosal antibody responses to four vaccine candidate Mcat proteins: outer membrane protein (OMP CD, oligopeptide permease (Opp A, hemagglutinin (Hag, and Pilin A clade 2 (PilA2 from stringently defined otitis prone (sOP children, who experience the greatest burden of disease, compared to non-otitis prone (NOP children. sOP children had higher NP colonization of Mcat (30 vs. 22%, P = 0.0003 and Mcat-caused AOM rates (49 vs. 24%, P < 0.0001 than NOP children. Natural acquisition of mucosal antibodies to Mcat proteins OMP CD (IgG, P < 0.0001, OppA (IgG, P = 0.018, Hag (IgG and IgA, both P < 0.0001, and PilA2 (IgA, P < 0.0001 was lower in sOP than NOP children. Higher levels of mucosal IgG to Hag (P = 0.039 and PilA2 (P = 0.0076, and IgA to OMP CD (P = 0.010, OppA (P = 0.030, and PilA2 (P = 0.043 were associated with lower carriage of Mcat in NOP but not sOP children. Higher levels of mucosal IgG to OMP CD (P = 0.0070 and Hag (P = 0.0003, and IgA to Hag (P = 0.0067 at asymptomatic colonization than those at onset of AOM were associated with significantly lower rate of Mcat NP colonization progressing to AOM in NOP compared to sOP children (3 vs. 26%, P < 0.0001. In conclusion, sOP children had a diminished mucosal antibody response to Mcat proteins, which was associated with higher frequencies of asymptomatic NP colonization and NP colonization progressing to Mcat-caused AOM. Enhancing Mcat antigen-specific mucosal immune responses to levels higher than achieved by natural exposure will be necessary to prevent AOM in sOP children.

  20. Role of the Stringent Stress Response in the Antibiotic Resistance Phenotype of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedo, Sandra; Tomasz, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus(MRSA) requires the presence of an acquired genetic determinant,mecAormecC, which encode penicillin-binding protein PBP2A or PBP2A', respectively. Although all MRSA strains share a mechanism of resistance, the phenotypic expression of beta-lactam resistance shows considerable strain-to-strain variation. The stringent stress response, a stress response that results from nutrient limitation, was shown to play a key role in determining the resistance level of an MRSA strain. In the present study, we validated the impact of the stringent stress response on transcription and translation ofmecAin the MRSA clinical isolate strain N315, which also carries known regulatory genes (mecI/mecR1/mecR2andblaI/blaR1) formecAtranscription. We showed that the impact of the stringent stress response on the resistance level may be restricted to beta-lactam resistance based on a "foreign" determinant such asmecA, as opposed to resistance based on mutations in the nativeS. aureusdeterminantpbpB(encoding PBP2). Our observations demonstrate that high-level resistance mediated by the stringent stress response follows the current model of beta-lactam resistance in which the native PBP2 protein is also essential for expression of the resistance phenotype. We also show that theStaphylococcus sciuri pbpDgene (also calledmecAI), the putative evolutionary precursor ofmecA, confers oxacillin resistance in anS. aureusstrain, generating a heterogeneous phenotype that can be converted to high and homogenous resistance by induction of the stringent stress response in the bacteria. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Criteria CSR

    OpenAIRE

    Vovk, V.; Zateyshikova, O.

    2014-01-01

    In the article the theoretical aspects regarding criteria for assessing CSR proposed by A. Carroll, including: economic, legal, ethical, philanthropic. Based on this, it is proposed to characterize these criteria with respect to the interested parties (stakeholders), including: investors, shareholders suppliers, customers, employees, society and the state. This will make a qualitative assessment of the presence and depth using social responsibility in the company, as well as determine the ext...

  2. Direct-to-physician and direct-to-consumer advertising: Time to have stringent regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, S; Gowri, S; Tyagi, V; Kohli, S; Jain, R; Kapil, P; Bhardwaj, A

    2015-01-01

    the opinion regarding DTCA, 69.9% physicians had a patient discussing DTCA that was clinically inappropriate. One hundred (64.5%) out of 155 physicians opined that DTCA encourage patients to attend physicians regarding preventive healthcare. On the contrary, 82/155 (52.9%) physicians felt that DTCA would damage the same. Similarly, 69 out of the total 100 patients felt that drug advertisements aid them to have better discussions with their treating physicians. Surprisingly, a large majority (91/100) were of the opinion that only safe drugs are allowed to be advertised. To conclude, from the findings of this study both the physicians and patients should be cautious and not overzealous while dealing with drug advertisements or promotional literature. More stringent scrutiny and issue of WLs or blacklisting of indulging pharmaceutical companies are mandatory by the regulatory agency to contain the same.

  3. Generalised Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Friston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a Bayesian filtering scheme for nonlinear state-space models in continuous time. This scheme is called Generalised Filtering and furnishes posterior (conditional densities on hidden states and unknown parameters generating observed data. Crucially, the scheme operates online, assimilating data to optimize the conditional density on time-varying states and time-invariant parameters. In contrast to Kalman and Particle smoothing, Generalised Filtering does not require a backwards pass. In contrast to variational schemes, it does not assume conditional independence between the states and parameters. Generalised Filtering optimises the conditional density with respect to a free-energy bound on the model's log-evidence. This optimisation uses the generalised motion of hidden states and parameters, under the prior assumption that the motion of the parameters is small. We describe the scheme, present comparative evaluations with a fixed-form variational version, and conclude with an illustrative application to a nonlinear state-space model of brain imaging time-series.

  4. Eyeglass Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Biomedical Optical Company of America's suntiger lenses eliminate more than 99% of harmful light wavelengths. NASA derived lenses make scenes more vivid in color and also increase the wearer's visual acuity. Distant objects, even on hazy days, appear crisp and clear; mountains seem closer, glare is greatly reduced, clouds stand out. Daytime use protects the retina from bleaching in bright light, thus improving night vision. Filtering helps prevent a variety of eye disorders, in particular cataracts and age related macular degeneration.

  5. Synthetic Peptides to Target Stringent Response-Controlled Virulence in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Murine Cutaneous Infection Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pletzer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms continuously monitor their surroundings and adaptively respond to environmental cues. One way to cope with various stress-related situations is through the activation of the stringent stress response pathway. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa this pathway is controlled and coordinated by the activity of the RelA and SpoT enzymes that metabolize the small nucleotide secondary messenger molecule (pppGpp. Intracellular ppGpp concentrations are crucial in mediating adaptive responses and virulence. Targeting this cellular stress response has recently been the focus of an alternative approach to fight antibiotic resistant bacteria. Here, we examined the role of the stringent response in the virulence of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and the Liverpool epidemic strain LESB58. A ΔrelA/ΔspoT double mutant showed decreased cytotoxicity toward human epithelial cells, exhibited reduced hemolytic activity, and caused down-regulation of the expression of the alkaline protease aprA gene in stringent response mutants grown on blood agar plates. Promoter fusions of relA or spoT to a bioluminescence reporter gene revealed that both genes were expressed during the formation of cutaneous abscesses in mice. Intriguingly, virulence was attenuated in vivo by the ΔrelA/ΔspoT double mutant, but not the relA mutant nor the ΔrelA/ΔspoT complemented with either gene. Treatment of a cutaneous P. aeruginosa PAO1 infection with anti-biofilm peptides increased animal welfare, decreased dermonecrotic lesion sizes, and reduced bacterial numbers recovered from abscesses, resembling the phenotype of the ΔrelA/ΔspoT infection. It was previously demonstrated by our lab that ppGpp could be targeted by synthetic peptides; here we demonstrated that spoT promoter activity was suppressed during cutaneous abscess formation by treatment with peptides DJK-5 and 1018, and that a peptide-treated relA complemented stringent response double mutant strain exhibited reduced peptide

  6. Evaluation of HEPA filter service life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fretthold, J.K.; Stithem, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), has approximately 10,000 High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters installed in a variety of filter plenums. These ventilation/filtration plenum systems are used to control the release of airborne particulate contaminates to the environment during normal operations and potential accidents. This report summarizes the results of destructive and non-destructive tests on HEPA filters obtained from a wide variety of ages and service conditions. These tests were performed to determine an acceptable service life criteria for HEPA filters used at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). A total of 140 filters of various ages (1972 to 1996) and service history (new, aged unused, used) were tested. For the purpose of this report, filter age from manufacture date/initial test date to the current sample date was used, as opposed to the actual time a filter was installed in an operating system

  7. Digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hamming, Richard W

    1997-01-01

    Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s

  8. Blended particle filters for large-dimensional chaotic dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majda, Andrew J.; Qi, Di; Sapsis, Themistoklis P.

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in contemporary data science is the development of statistically accurate particle filters to capture non-Gaussian features in large-dimensional chaotic dynamical systems. Blended particle filters that capture non-Gaussian features in an adaptively evolving low-dimensional subspace through particles interacting with evolving Gaussian statistics on the remaining portion of phase space are introduced here. These blended particle filters are constructed in this paper through a mathematical formalism involving conditional Gaussian mixtures combined with statistically nonlinear forecast models compatible with this structure developed recently with high skill for uncertainty quantification. Stringent test cases for filtering involving the 40-dimensional Lorenz 96 model with a 5-dimensional adaptive subspace for nonlinear blended filtering in various turbulent regimes with at least nine positive Lyapunov exponents are used here. These cases demonstrate the high skill of the blended particle filter algorithms in capturing both highly non-Gaussian dynamical features as well as crucial nonlinear statistics for accurate filtering in extreme filtering regimes with sparse infrequent high-quality observations. The formalism developed here is also useful for multiscale filtering of turbulent systems and a simple application is sketched below. PMID:24825886

  9. Recommendations for Evaluating Multiple Filters in Ballast Water Management Systems for US Type Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli,  cfu of intestinal enterococci, and ə cfu of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae). To meet these stringent discharge standards, most...Four standard methods have been developed to evaluate particle removal efficiency in air filters: (1) Weight arrestance test, (2) Atmospheric dust

  10. The implementation of modern digital technology in x-ray medical diagnosis in Republic of Moldova - a stringent necessity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosca, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    The study includes analyses of current technical state of radiodiagnostic equipment from the Public Medico-Sanitary Institution of Ministry of Health of Republic of Moldova (IMSP MS RM). The traditional radiodiagnostic apparatuses were morally and physically outrun at 96,6% (in regional MSPI - 93,5%), inclusive the dental one - 92,0% (in raional MSPI - 97,2%), X-Ray exam -100%, mobile - 84,1% etc. The exploitation of the traditional radiodiagnostic apparatuses with high degree of physical and moral wear essentially diminished the quality of profile investigation, creates premises for diagnostic error perpetrating, increase the collective ionizing irradiation of population etc. In recent years the subvention of MSPI HM RM with digital radiodiagnostic equipment was started. This process is very hard unfold because of grave socio-economic crises in Republic of Moldova. Despite these obstacles the subvention of MSPI HM RM with digital equipment represents a stringent necessity and a time request.

  11. The mechanism of heterogeneous beta-lactam resistance in MRSA: key role of the stringent stress response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choonkeun Kim

    Full Text Available All methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA strains carry an acquired genetic determinant--mecA or mecC--which encode for a low affinity penicillin binding protein -PBP2A or PBP2A'--that can continue the catalysis of peptidoglycan transpeptidation in the presence of high concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics which would inhibit the native PBPs normally involved with the synthesis of staphylococcal cell wall peptidoglycan. In contrast to this common genetic and biochemical mechanism carried by all MRSA strains, the level of beta-lactam antibiotic resistance shows a very wide strain to strain variation, the mechanism of which has remained poorly understood. The overwhelming majority of MRSA strains produce a unique--heterogeneous--phenotype in which the great majority of the bacteria exhibit very poor resistance often close to the MIC value of susceptible S. aureus strains. However, cultures of such heterogeneously resistant MRSA strains also contain subpopulations of bacteria with extremely high beta-lactam MIC values and the resistance level and frequency of the highly resistant cells in such strain is a characteristic of the particular MRSA clone. In the study described in this communication, we used a variety of experimental models to understand the mechanism of heterogeneous beta-lactam resistance. Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA that received the mecA determinant in the laboratory either on a plasmid or in the form of a chromosomal SCCmec cassette, generated heterogeneously resistant cultures and the highly resistant subpopulations that emerged in these models had increased levels of PBP2A and were composed of bacteria in which the stringent stress response was induced. Each of the major heterogeneously resistant clones of MRSA clinical isolates could be converted to express high level and homogeneous resistance if the growth medium contained an inducer of the stringent stress response.

  12. Global energy scenarios meeting stringent CO2 constraints - cost-effective fuel choices in the transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azar, Christian; Lindgren, Kristian; Andersson, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess fuel choices in the transportation sector under stringent global carbon constraints. Three key questions are asked: (i) when is it cost-effective to carry out the transition away from gasoline/diesel; (ii) to which fuel is it cost-effective to shift; and (iii) in which sector is biomass most cost-effectively used? These questions are analyzed using a global energy systems model (GET 1.0), with a transportation module, where vehicle costs (fuel cell, reformer and storage tank), infrastructure and primary energy availability are treated explicitly. The model is run under the assumption that atmospheric concentrations of CO 2 should be stabilized at 400 ppm. Three main results emerge: (i) despite the stringent CO 2 constraints, oil-based fuels remain dominant in the transportation sector over the next 50 years; and (ii) once a transition towards alternative fuels takes place, the preferred choice of fuel is hydrogen, even if we assume that hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are substantially more costly than methanol fuel cell vehicles. There may, under some circumstances, be a transient period of several decades with a significant share of methanol in the transportation sector. (iii) Biomass is most cost-effectively used in the heat and process heat sectors. If carbon sequestration from biomass is allowed, biomass is primarily used for hydrogen generation since small-scale heat applications are not suitable for carbon sequestration. Detailed sensitivity analyses show that these results are robust with respect to several parameters. Some policy conclusions are drawn

  13. Nuclear controls are stringent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnekus, D.

    1983-01-01

    The peace-time application of nuclear power in South Africa, the organisations concerned and certain provisions laid down by the Act on Nuclear Energy, aimed at safeguarding the general public, are discussed

  14. Passive Power Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Künzi, R.

    2015-06-15

    Power converters require passive low-pass filters which are capable of reducing voltage ripples effectively. In contrast to signal filters, the components of power filters must carry large currents or withstand large voltages, respectively. In this paper, three different suitable filter struc tures for d.c./d.c. power converters with inductive load are introduced. The formulas needed to calculate the filter components are derived step by step and practical examples are given. The behaviour of the three discussed filters is compared by means of the examples. P ractical aspects for the realization of power filters are also discussed.

  15. Filter replacement lifetime prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Hendrik F.; Klein, Levente I.; Manzer, Dennis G.; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2017-10-25

    Methods and systems for predicting a filter lifetime include building a filter effectiveness history based on contaminant sensor information associated with a filter; determining a rate of filter consumption with a processor based on the filter effectiveness history; and determining a remaining filter lifetime based on the determined rate of filter consumption. Methods and systems for increasing filter economy include measuring contaminants in an internal and an external environment; determining a cost of a corrosion rate increase if unfiltered external air intake is increased for cooling; determining a cost of increased air pressure to filter external air; and if the cost of filtering external air exceeds the cost of the corrosion rate increase, increasing an intake of unfiltered external air.

  16. Tap water filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Moen PureTouch filters remove impurities from tap water without removing fluoride. These carbon block filters consist of finely powdered activated carbon that is combined with a plastic binder material and heated to form a hollow cylinder. The blocks are further wrapped with material to improve performance and reduce clogging. The filters are available with different filtering capabilities (Table 1). The filters mount in the faucet spout or under the sink.

  17. Are Dutch residents ready for a more stringent policy to enhance the energy performance of their homes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middelkoop, Manon van; Vringer, Kees; Visser, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Investments in the energy performance of houses offer good prospects for reducing energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. However, people are not easily convinced of the need to take measures to improve the energy performance of their houses, even when financial benefits outweigh the costs. This article analyses the factors that influence the decision for improving the energy performance of existing homes, including policy instruments. Subsequently, the article provides policy suggestions on how to stimulate energy performance improvements. Both owners and tenants (50–70%) support government policy on energy performance improvements to existing homes. Nevertheless, people also have strong feelings of autonomy regarding their homes. Our results underline the importance of well-informed and competent decision-makers. Introducing the use of Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs) into the tax system for energy and residential buildings might therefore be an effective way to increase the interest of owners in the EPC, improve the use and effect of this informative instrument, and make the first step towards bridging the tension between autonomy and more stringent instruments.

  18. Comparison of Prediction-Error-Modelling Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2007-01-01

    Single and multi-step prediction-error-methods based on the maximum likelihood and least squares criteria are compared. The prediction-error methods studied are based on predictions using the Kalman filter and Kalman predictors for a linear discrete-time stochastic state space model, which is a r...

  19. Optimal Control of Electrified Powertrains with the Use of Drive Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovee, Katherine

    In today's world, automotive manufacturers face the difficult challenge of building vehicles that are capable of meeting the increasingly stringent fuel economy and emissions standards, while also maintaining the performance and drive quality that consumers have come to expect. The automotive industry's response to this has been to make increasingly advanced vehicles that require more complex control systems, often resulting in longer development times and higher costs. One way to help reduce the development time and cost associated with these advanced vehicles is to use a model-based design approach. This approach allows engineers to design more of the vehicle's control system in a virtual environment, before hardware is available to test the control software. While model-based design techniques have helped reduce the amount of development time and cost that is needed to design the control system for a vehicle, these model-based techniques may not fully account for a vehicle's drive quality characteristics. Many of the energy management optimal control algorithms for hybrid vehicles designed in virtual environments today are capable of achieving high fuel economy numbers, but may result in poor drive quality characteristics when implemented on a vehicle. Therefore, a new methodology is needed to account for a vehicle's drive quality during the initial stages of a vehicle's control development. The research presented here describes a new methodology where drive quality metrics are added to the optimal control algorithm's cost function, in order to allow the algorithm to find a good balance between fuel economy and drive quality. Although some research has been previously published in this area, the majority of research does not specifically link the criteria used to improve drive quality to the physical behavior of the vehicle. Other research solves the optimal energy management problem to minimize fuel consumption, but then filters the results to prevent drive

  20. THREE THEORIES OF COGNITIVE REPRESENTATION AND CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING TRAINING EFFECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomic, W.; Kingma, J.

    2008-01-01

    The development of cognitive representation is the main theme of the three classic theories on how children learn new concepts (Piaget, Bruner, Vygotsky). However, these theories do not agree on evaluation standards for training effectiveness. According to Piaget, it is only when stringent criteria

  1. Sensitivity and Specificity of Proposed DSM-5 Criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Marianne L.; Robins, Diana L.; Jashar, Dasal; Brennan, Laura; Fein, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis is based on behavioral presentation; changes in conceptual models or defining behaviors may significantly impact diagnosis and uptake of ASD-specific interventions. The literature examining impact of DSM-5 criteria is equivocal. Toddlers may be especially vulnerable to the stringent requirements of…

  2. Stringently Defined Otitis Prone Children Demonstrate Deficient Naturally Induced Mucosal Antibody Response toMoraxella catarrhalisProteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dabin; Murphy, Timothy F; Lafontaine, Eric R; Pichichero, Michael E

    2017-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis ( Mcat ) is a prominent mucosal pathogen causing acute otitis media (AOM). We studied Mcat nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization, AOM frequency and mucosal antibody responses to four vaccine candidate Mcat proteins: outer membrane protein (OMP) CD, oligopeptide permease (Opp) A, hemagglutinin (Hag), and Pilin A clade 2 (PilA2) from stringently defined otitis prone (sOP) children, who experience the greatest burden of disease, compared to non-otitis prone (NOP) children. sOP children had higher NP colonization of Mcat (30 vs. 22%, P  = 0.0003) and Mcat -caused AOM rates (49 vs. 24%, P  P  P  = 0.018), Hag (IgG and IgA, both P  P  P  = 0.039) and PilA2 ( P  = 0.0076), and IgA to OMP CD ( P  = 0.010), OppA ( P  = 0.030), and PilA2 ( P  = 0.043) were associated with lower carriage of Mcat in NOP but not sOP children. Higher levels of mucosal IgG to OMP CD ( P  = 0.0070) and Hag ( P  = 0.0003), and IgA to Hag ( P  = 0.0067) at asymptomatic colonization than those at onset of AOM were associated with significantly lower rate of Mcat NP colonization progressing to AOM in NOP compared to sOP children (3 vs. 26%, P  NP colonization and NP colonization progressing to Mcat -caused AOM. Enhancing Mcat antigen-specific mucosal immune responses to levels higher than achieved by natural exposure will be necessary to prevent AOM in sOP children.

  3. Stringent constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section from subhalo searches with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, Asher; Hooper, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The dark matter halo of the Milky Way is predicted to contain a very large number of smaller subhalos. As a result of the dark matter annihilations taking place within such objects, the most nearby and massive subhalos could appear as point-like or spatially extended gamma-ray sources, without observable counterparts at other wavelengths. In this paper, we use the results of the Aquarius simulation to predict the distribution of nearby subhalos, and compare this to the characteristics of the unidentified gamma-ray sources observed by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Focusing on the brightest high latitude sources, we use this comparison to derive limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section. For dark matter particles lighter than ~200 GeV, the resulting limits are the strongest obtained to date, being modestly more stringent than those derived from observations of dwarf galaxies or the Galactic Center. We also derive independent limits based on the lack of unidentified gamma-ray sources with discernible spatial extension, but these limits are a factor of ~2-10 weaker than those based on point-like subhalos. Lastly, we note that four of the ten brightest high-latitude sources exhibit a similar spectral shape, consistent with 30-60 GeV dark matter particles annihilating to b quarks with an annihilation cross section on the order of sigma v ~ (5-10) x 10^-27 cm^3/s, or 8-10 GeV dark matter particles annihilating to taus with sigma v ~ (2.0-2.5) x 10^-27 cm^3/s.

  4. On-line filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkerk, C.

    1978-01-01

    Present day electronic detectors used in high energy physics make it possible to obtain high event rates and it is likely that future experiments will face even higher data rates than at present. The complexity of the apparatus increases very rapidly with time and also the criteria for selecting desired events become more and more complex. So complex in fact that the fast trigger system cannot be designed to fully cope with it. The interesting events become thus contaminated with multitudes of uninteresting ones. To distinguish the 'good' events from the often overwhelming background of other events one has to resort to computing techniques. Normally this selection is made in the first part of the analysis of the events, analysis normally performed on a powerful scientific computer. This implies however that many uninteresting or background events have to be recorded during the experiment for subsequent analysis. A number of undesired consequences result; and these constitute a sufficient reason for trying to perform the selection at an earlier stage, in fact ideally before the events are recorded on magnetic tape. This early selection is called 'on-line filtering' and it is the topic of the present lectures. (Auth.)

  5. HEPA filter monitoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, K. N.; Johnson, C. M.; Aiken, W. F.; Lucerna, J. J.; Barnett, R. L.; Jensen, R. T.

    1986-07-01

    The testing and replacement of HEPA filters, widely used in the nuclear industry to purify process air, are costly and labor-intensive. Current methods of testing filter performance, such as differential pressure measurement and scanning air monitoring, allow determination of overall filter performance but preclude detection of incipient filter failure such as small holes in the filters. Using current technology, a continual in-situ monitoring system was designed which provides three major improvements over current methods of filter testing and replacement. The improvements include: cost savings by reducing the number of intact filters which are currently being replaced unnecessarily; more accurate and quantitative measurement of filter performance; and reduced personnel exposure to a radioactive environment by automatically performing most testing operations.

  6. Bias aware Kalman filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drecourt, J.-P.; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews two different approaches that have been proposed to tackle the problems of model bias with the Kalman filter: the use of a colored noise model and the implementation of a separate bias filter. Both filters are implemented with and without feedback of the bias into the model state...... are illustrated on a simple one-dimensional groundwater problem. The results show that the presented filters outperform the standard Kalman filter and that the implementations with bias feedback work in more general conditions than the implementations without feedback. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved........ The colored noise filter formulation is extended to correct both time correlated and uncorrelated model error components. A more stable version of the separate filter without feedback is presented. The filters are implemented in an ensemble framework using Latin hypercube sampling. The techniques...

  7. UV holographic filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyashova, Zoya N.

    2017-11-01

    A new approach to UV holographic filter's manufacturing, when the filters are the volume reflection holograms, working in UV region in the second Bragg diffraction order, is offered. The method is experimentally realized for wavelength of 266 nm.

  8. MST Filterability Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Duignan, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-12

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The low filter flux through the ARP has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Recent filter flux has averaged approximately 5 gallons per minute (gpm). Salt Batch 6 has had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. In addition, at the time the testing started, SRR was assessing the impact of replacing the 0.1 micron filter with a 0.5 micron filter. This report describes testing of MST filterability to investigate the impact of filter pore size and MST particle size on filter flux and testing of filter enhancers to attempt to increase filter flux. The authors constructed a laboratory-scale crossflow filter apparatus with two crossflow filters operating in parallel. One filter was a 0.1 micron Mott sintered SS filter and the other was a 0.5 micron Mott sintered SS filter. The authors also constructed a dead-end filtration apparatus to conduct screening tests with potential filter aids and body feeds, referred to as filter enhancers. The original baseline for ARP was 5.6 M sodium salt solution with a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 1.7 M.3 ARP has been operating with a sodium concentration of approximately 6.4 M and a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 2.5 M. SRNL conducted tests varying the concentration of sodium and free hydroxide to determine whether those changes had a significant effect on filter flux. The feed slurries for the MST filterability tests were composed of simple salts (NaOH, NaNO2, and NaNO3) and MST (0.2 – 4.8 g/L). The feed slurry for the filter enhancer tests contained simulated salt batch 6 supernate, MST, and filter enhancers.

  9. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirwan, John R; Boers, Maarten; Hewlett, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter presupposes an explicit framework for identifying the relevant core outcomes that are......OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter presupposes an explicit framework for identifying the relevant core outcomes...

  10. Oriented Fiber Filter Media

    OpenAIRE

    R. Bharadwaj; A. Patel, S. Chokdeepanich, Ph.D.; G.G. Chase, Ph.D.

    2008-01-01

    Coalescing filters are widely used throughout industry and improved performance will reduce droplet emissions and operating costs. Experimental observations show orientation of micro fibers in filter media effect the permeability and the separation efficiency of the filter media. In this work two methods are used to align the fibers to alter the filter structure. The results show that axially aligned fiber media improve quality factor on the order of 20% and cutting media on an angle from a t...

  11. HEPA filter encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates-Anderson, Dianne D.; Kidd, Scott D.; Bowers, John S.; Attebery, Ronald W.

    2003-01-01

    A low viscosity resin is delivered into a spent HEPA filter or other waste. The resin is introduced into the filter or other waste using a vacuum to assist in the mass transfer of the resin through the filter media or other waste.

  12. Filter service system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Cheryl L [Peoria, IL; Nordyke, Daniel S [Arlington Heights, IL; Crandell, Richard A [Morton, IL; Tomlins, Gregory [Peoria, IL; Fei, Dong [Peoria, IL; Panov, Alexander [Dunlap, IL; Lane, William H [Chillicothe, IL; Habeger, Craig F [Chillicothe, IL

    2008-12-09

    According to an exemplary embodiment of the present disclosure, a system for removing matter from a filtering device includes a gas pressurization assembly. An element of the assembly is removably attachable to a first orifice of the filtering device. The system also includes a vacuum source fluidly connected to a second orifice of the filtering device.

  13. Thermal and structural behavior of filters and windows for synchrotron x-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Hahn, U.; Dejus, R.; Kuzay, T.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains the following discussions: Introduction: Use of filters and windows in the front end designs; An interactive code for 3D graphic viewing of absorbed power in filters/windows and a new heat load generation algorithm for the finite element analysis; Failure criteria and analysis methods for the filter and window assembly; Comparison with test data and existing devices in HASYLAB; Cooling the filter: Radiation cooling or conduction cooling?; Consideration of window and filter thickness: Thicker or thinner?; Material selection criteria for filters/windows; Photon transmission through filters/windows; Window and filter design for APS undulators; Window and filter design for APS wigglers; and Window design for APS bending magnet front ends

  14. Packaging design criteria for the Hanford Ecorok Packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Hanford Ecorok Packaging (HEP) will be used to ship contaminated water purification filters from K Basins to the Central Waste Complex. This packaging design criteria documents the design of the HEP, its intended use, and the transportation safety criteria it is required to meet. This information will serve as a basis for the safety analysis report for packaging

  15. Balanced microwave filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Jiasheng; Medina, Francisco; Martiacuten, Ferran

    2018-01-01

    This book presents and discusses strategies for the design and implementation of common-mode suppressed balanced microwave filters, including, narrowband, wideband, and ultra-wideband filters This book examines differential-mode, or balanced, microwave filters by discussing several implementations of practical realizations of these passive components. Topics covered include selective mode suppression, designs based on distributed and semi-lumped approaches, multilayer technologies, defect ground structures, coupled resonators, metamaterials, interference techniques, and substrate integrated waveguides, among others. Divided into five parts, Balanced Microwave Filters begins with an introduction that presents the fundamentals of balanced lines, circuits, and networks. Part 2 covers balanced transmission lines with common-mode noise suppression, including several types of common-mode filters and the application of such filters to enhance common-mode suppression in balanced bandpass filters. Next, Part 3 exa...

  16. Exhaust gas filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Tadamasa; Hiraki, Akimitsu.

    1993-01-01

    A filter material formed by joining glass clothes to both surfaces of a glass fiber non-woven fabric is used. The filter material is disposed at the inside of a square filter material support frame made of stainless steel. The filter material is attached in a zig-zag manner in the flowing direction of the exhaust gases so as to increase the filtration area. Separators, for example, made of stainless steel are inserted between the filter materials. The separator is corrugated so as to sandwich and support the filter materials from both sides by the ridged crests. The longitudinal bottom of the separator formed by corrugating it defines a flow channel of the exhaustion gases. The longitudinal bottom is also used as a channel for back blowing air. With such a constitution, combustion gases of radioactive miscellaneous solid wastes can be completely filtered. In addition, a back wash can be conducted under high temperature. (I.N.)

  17. Changing ventilation filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackney, S.

    1980-01-01

    A filter changing unit has a door which interlocks with the door of a filter chamber so as to prevent contamination of the outer surfaces of the doors by radioactive material collected on the filter element and a movable support which enables a filter chamber thereonto to be stored within the unit in such a way that the doors of the unit and the filter chamber can be replaced. The door pivots and interlocks with another door by means of a bolt, a seal around the periphery lip of the first door engages the periphery of the second door to seal the gap. A support pivots into a lower filter element storage position. Inspection windows and glove ports are provided. The unit is releasably connected to the filter chamber by bolts engaging in a flange provided around an opening. (author)

  18. Development and evaluation of a cleanable high efficiency steel filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Weber, F.; Wilson, P.; Lopez, R.; Valha, G.; Conner, J.; Garr, J.; Williams, K.; Biermann, A.; Wilson, K.; Moore, P.; Gellner, C.; Rapchun, D.; Simon, K.; Turley, J.; Frye, L.; Monroe, D.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a high efficiency steel filter that can be cleaned in-situ by reverse air pulses. The filter consists of 64 pleated cylindrical filter elements packaged into a 6l0 x 6l0 x 292 mm aluminum frame and has 13.5 m 2 of filter area. The filter media consists of a sintered steel fiber mat using 2 μm diameter fibers. We conducted an optimization study for filter efficiency and pressure drop to determine the filter design parameters of pleat width, pleat depth, outside diameter of the cylinder, and the total number of cylinders. Several prototype cylinders were then built and evaluated in terms of filter cleaning by reverse air pulses. The results of these studies were used to build the high efficiency steel filter. We evaluated the prototype filter for efficiency and cleanability. The DOP filter certification test showed the filter has a passing efficiency of 99.99% but a failing pressure drop of 0.80 kPa at 1,700 m 3 /hr. Since we were not able to achieve a pressure drop less than 0.25 kPa, the steel filter does not meet all the criteria for a HEPA filter. Filter loading and cleaning tests using AC Fine dust showed the filter could be repeatedly cleaned by reverse air pulses. The next phase of the prototype evaluation consisted of installing the unit and support housing in the exhaust duct work of a uranium grit blaster for a field evaluation at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, TN. The grit blaster is used to clean the surface of uranium parts and generates a cloud of UO 2 aerosols. We used a 1,700 m 3 /hr slip stream from the 10,200 m 3 /hr exhaust system

  19. Global gene expression during stringent response in Corynebacterium glutamicum in presence and absence of the rel gene encoding (pppGpp synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinowski Jörn

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The stringent response is the initial reaction of microorganisms to nutritional stress. During stringent response the small nucleotides (pppGpp act as global regulators and reprogram bacterial transcription. In this work, the genetic network controlled by the stringent response was characterized in the amino acid-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum. Results The transcriptome of a C. glutamicum rel gene deletion mutant, unable to synthesize (pppGpp and to induce the stringent response, was compared with that of its rel-proficient parent strain by microarray analysis. A total of 357 genes were found to be transcribed differentially in the rel-deficient mutant strain. In a second experiment, the stringent response was induced by addition of DL-serine hydroxamate (SHX in early exponential growth phase. The time point of the maximal effect on transcription was determined by real-time RT-PCR using the histidine and serine biosynthetic genes. Transcription of all of these genes reached a maximum at 10 minutes after SHX addition. Microarray experiments were performed comparing the transcriptomes of SHX-induced cultures of the rel-proficient strain and the rel mutant. The differentially expressed genes were grouped into three classes. Class A comprises genes which are differentially regulated only in the presence of an intact rel gene. This class includes the non-essential sigma factor gene sigB which was upregulated and a large number of genes involved in nitrogen metabolism which were downregulated. Class B comprises genes which were differentially regulated in response to SHX in both strains, independent of the rel gene. A large number of genes encoding ribosomal proteins fall into this class, all being downregulated. Class C comprises genes which were differentially regulated in response to SHX only in the rel mutant. This class includes genes encoding putative stress proteins and global transcriptional regulators that might be

  20. Filter material charging apparatus for filter assembly for radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, J.M.; O'Nan, A. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A filter charging apparatus for a filter assembly is described. The filter assembly includes a housing with at least one filter bed therein and the filter charging apparatus for adding filter material to the filter assembly includes a tank with an opening therein, the tank opening being disposed in flow communication with opposed first and second conduit means, the first conduit means being in flow communication with the filter assembly housing and the second conduit means being in flow communication with a blower means. Upon activation of the blower means, the blower means pneumatically conveys the filter material from the tank to the filter housing

  1. The diffuse ensemble filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Yang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A new class of ensemble filters, called the Diffuse Ensemble Filter (DEnF, is proposed in this paper. The DEnF assumes that the forecast errors orthogonal to the first guess ensemble are uncorrelated with the latter ensemble and have infinite variance. The assumption of infinite variance corresponds to the limit of "complete lack of knowledge" and differs dramatically from the implicit assumption made in most other ensemble filters, which is that the forecast errors orthogonal to the first guess ensemble have vanishing errors. The DEnF is independent of the detailed covariances assumed in the space orthogonal to the ensemble space, and reduces to conventional ensemble square root filters when the number of ensembles exceeds the model dimension. The DEnF is well defined only in data rich regimes and involves the inversion of relatively large matrices, although this barrier might be circumvented by variational methods. Two algorithms for solving the DEnF, namely the Diffuse Ensemble Kalman Filter (DEnKF and the Diffuse Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (DETKF, are proposed and found to give comparable results. These filters generally converge to the traditional EnKF and ETKF, respectively, when the ensemble size exceeds the model dimension. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the DEnF eliminates filter collapse, which occurs in ensemble Kalman filters for small ensemble sizes. Also, the use of the DEnF to initialize a conventional square root filter dramatically accelerates the spin-up time for convergence. However, in a perfect model scenario, the DEnF produces larger errors than ensemble square root filters that have covariance localization and inflation. For imperfect forecast models, the DEnF produces smaller errors than the ensemble square root filter with inflation. These experiments suggest that the DEnF has some advantages relative to the ensemble square root filters in the regime of small ensemble size, imperfect model, and copious

  2. Choice of external criteria in back pain research: Does it matter? Recommendations based on analysis of responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik H; Hartvigsen, Jan; Korsholm, Lars

    2007-01-01

    standardised response mean (SRM). Results demonstrated small variations in ROC(auc) across the external criteria for all outcome measures. 7% more patients were classified as improved in the group receiving the 15-point TQ compared to the 7-point TQ (stringent standard). SRMs were higher for the retrospective......Understanding a change score is indispensable for interpretation of results from clinical studies. One way of determining the relevance of change scores is through the use of transition questions that assesses patients' retrospective perception of treatment effect. Unfortunately, results from...... scale evaluating the importance of the perceived change. Four external criteria were generated using both stringent and less stringent standards to dichotomise patients. Discrimination was determined using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC(auc)) and responsiveness using...

  3. Silicon photonics non-resonant wavelength filters: comparison between AWGs, echelle gratings, and cascaded Mach-Zehnder filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaerts, Wim; Pathak, Shibnath; Ruocco, Alfonso; Dwivedi, Sarvagya

    2015-02-01

    We present a comparison of different silicon photonics-based wavelength filters for different design criteria (e.g. channel spacing, number of channels, ...) and different performance metrics (e.g. insertion loss or crosstalk ). In this paper we compare only non-resonant filters, or finite-impulse response (FIR) filters, such as Arrayed Waveguide Gratings, Echelle Gratings and higher-order cascades of Mach-Zehnder filters. We derive the strengths and weaknesses from their operational principles and confirm those with experimental data from fabricated devices and extrapolated simulations.

  4. Generic Kalman Filter Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisano, Michael E., II; Crues, Edwin Z.

    2005-01-01

    The Generic Kalman Filter (GKF) software provides a standard basis for the development of application-specific Kalman-filter programs. Historically, Kalman filters have been implemented by customized programs that must be written, coded, and debugged anew for each unique application, then tested and tuned with simulated or actual measurement data. Total development times for typical Kalman-filter application programs have ranged from months to weeks. The GKF software can simplify the development process and reduce the development time by eliminating the need to re-create the fundamental implementation of the Kalman filter for each new application. The GKF software is written in the ANSI C programming language. It contains a generic Kalman-filter-development directory that, in turn, contains a code for a generic Kalman filter function; more specifically, it contains a generically designed and generically coded implementation of linear, linearized, and extended Kalman filtering algorithms, including algorithms for state- and covariance-update and -propagation functions. The mathematical theory that underlies the algorithms is well known and has been reported extensively in the open technical literature. Also contained in the directory are a header file that defines generic Kalman-filter data structures and prototype functions and template versions of application-specific subfunction and calling navigation/estimation routine code and headers. Once the user has provided a calling routine and the required application-specific subfunctions, the application-specific Kalman-filter software can be compiled and executed immediately. During execution, the generic Kalman-filter function is called from a higher-level navigation or estimation routine that preprocesses measurement data and post-processes output data. The generic Kalman-filter function uses the aforementioned data structures and five implementation- specific subfunctions, which have been developed by the user on

  5. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  6. Variational Bayesian Filtering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmídl, Václav; Quinn, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 10 (2008), s. 5020-5030 ISSN 1053-587X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Bayesian filtering * particle filtering * Variational Bayes Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 2.335, year: 2008 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/AS/smidl-variational bayesian filtering.pdf

  7. Nanofiber Filters Eliminate Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    With support from Phase I and II SBIR funding from Johnson Space Center, Argonide Corporation of Sanford, Florida tested and developed its proprietary nanofiber water filter media. Capable of removing more than 99.99 percent of dangerous particles like bacteria, viruses, and parasites, the media was incorporated into the company's commercial NanoCeram water filter, an inductee into the Space Foundation's Space Technology Hall of Fame. In addition to its drinking water filters, Argonide now produces large-scale nanofiber filters used as part of the reverse osmosis process for industrial water purification.

  8. Independent task Fourier filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, H. John

    2001-11-01

    Since the early 1960s, a major part of optical computing systems has been Fourier pattern recognition, which takes advantage of high speed filter changes to enable powerful nonlinear discrimination in `real time.' Because filter has a task quite independent of the tasks of the other filters, they can be applied and evaluated in parallel or, in a simple approach I describe, in sequence very rapidly. Thus I use the name ITFF (independent task Fourier filter). These filters can also break very complex discrimination tasks into easily handled parts, so the wonderful space invariance properties of Fourier filtering need not be sacrificed to achieve high discrimination and good generalizability even for ultracomplex discrimination problems. The training procedure proceeds sequentially, as the task for a given filter is defined a posteriori by declaring it to be the discrimination of particular members of set A from all members of set B with sufficient margin. That is, we set the threshold to achieve the desired margin and note the A members discriminated by that threshold. Discriminating those A members from all members of B becomes the task of that filter. Those A members are then removed from the set A, so no other filter will be asked to perform that already accomplished task.

  9. Randomized Filtering Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katriel, Irit; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    of AllDifferent and is generalization, the Global Cardinality Constraint. The first delayed filtering scheme is a Monte Carlo algorithm: its running time is superior, in the worst case, to that of enforcing are consistency after every domain event, while its filtering effectiveness is analyzed......Filtering every global constraint of a CPS to are consistency at every search step can be costly and solvers often compromise on either the level of consistency or the frequency at which are consistency is enforced. In this paper we propose two randomized filtering schemes for dense instances...

  10. Design of the Trap Filter for the High Power Converters with Parallel Interleaved VSCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gohil, Ghanshyamsinh Vijaysinh; Bede, Lorand; Teodorescu, Remus

    2014-01-01

    The power handling capability of the state-of-the-art semiconductor devices is limited. Therefore, the Voltage Source Converters (VSCs) are often connected in parallel to realize high power converter. The switching frequency semiconductor devices, used in the high power VSCs, is also limited....... Therefore, large filter components are often required in order to meet the stringent grid code requirements imposed by the utility. As a result, the size, weight and cost of the overall system increase. The use of interleaved carriers of the parallel connected VSCs, along with the high order line filter...

  11. Design and specification of optical bandpass filters for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Tsvetanov, Zlatan; Woodruff, Robert A.; Mooney, Thomas A.

    1998-08-01

    Advanced optical bandpass filters for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) advanced camera for surveys (ACS) have been developed on a filer-by-filter basis through detailed studies which take into account the instrument's science goals, available optical filter fabrication technology, and developments in ACS's charge-coupled-device detector technology. These filters include a subset of filters for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey which are optimized for astronomical photometry using today's charge-coupled- devices. In order for ACS to be truly advanced, these filters must push the state-of-the-at in performance in a number of key areas at the same time. Important requirements for these filters include outstanding transmitted wavefront, high transmittance, uniform transmittance across each filter, spectrally structure-free bandpasses, exceptionally high out of band rejection, a high degree of parfocality, and immunity to environmental degradation. These constitute a very stringent set of requirements indeed, especially for filters which are up to 90 mm in diameter. The highly successful paradigm in which final specifications for flight filters were derived through interaction amongst the ACS Science Team, the instrument designer, the lead optical engineer, and the filter designer and vendor is described. Examples of iterative design trade studies carried out in the context of science needs and budgetary and schedule constraints are presented. An overview of the final design specifications for the ACS bandpass and ramp filters is also presented.

  12. Dual Regulation of Bacillus subtilis kinB Gene Encoding a Sporulation Trigger by SinR through Transcription Repression and Positive Stringent Transcription Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutaro Fujita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is known that transcription of kinB encoding a trigger for Bacillus subtilis sporulation is under repression by SinR, a master repressor of biofilm formation, and under positive stringent transcription control depending on the adenine species at the transcription initiation nucleotide (nt. Deletion and base substitution analyses of the kinB promoter (PkinB region using lacZ fusions indicated that either a 5-nt deletion (Δ5, nt -61/-57, +1 is the transcription initiation nt or the substitution of G at nt -45 with A (G-45A relieved kinB repression. Thus, we found a pair of SinR-binding consensus sequences (GTTCTYT; Y is T or C in an inverted orientation (SinR-1 between nt -57/-42, which is most likely a SinR-binding site for kinB repression. This relief from SinR repression likely requires SinI, an antagonist of SinR. Surprisingly, we found that SinR is essential for positive stringent transcription control of PkinB. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA analysis indicated that SinR bound not only to SinR-1 but also to SinR-2 (nt -29/-8 consisting of another pair of SinR consensus sequences in a tandem repeat arrangement; the two sequences partially overlap the ‘-35’ and ‘-10’ regions of PkinB. Introduction of base substitutions (T-27C C-26T in the upstream consensus sequence of SinR-2 affected positive stringent transcription control of PkinB, suggesting that SinR binding to SinR-2 likely causes this positive control. EMSA also implied that RNA polymerase and SinR are possibly bound together to SinR-2 to form a transcription initiation complex for kinB transcription. Thus, it was suggested in this work that derepression of kinB from SinR repression by SinI induced by Spo0A∼P and occurrence of SinR-dependent positive stringent transcription control of kinB might induce effective sporulation cooperatively, implying an intimate interplay by stringent response, sporulation, and biofilm formation.

  13. Use of dried spots of whole blood, plasma, and mother's milk collected on filter paper for measurement of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayele, Workenesh; Schuurman, Rob; Messele, Tsehaynesh; Dorigo-Zetsma, Wendelien; Mengistu, Yohannes; Goudsmit, Jaap; Paxton, William A.; de Baar, Michel P.; Pollakis, Georgios

    2007-01-01

    We studied the use of dried spots of bodily fluids (plasma, whole blood, and mother's milk) on filter paper as a means of sample collection and storage for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral load testing under stringent field conditions. Plasma placed directly in lysis buffer, which

  14. An LLCL Power Filter for Single-Phase Grid-Tied Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Weimin; He, Yuanbin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new topology of higher order power filter for grid-tied voltage-source inverters, named the LLCL filter, which inserts a small inductor in the branch loop of the capacitor in the traditional LCL filter to compose a series resonant circuit at the switching frequency...... to the inverter system control. The parameter design criteria of the proposed LLCL filter is also introduced. The comparative analysis and discussions regarding the traditional LCL filter and the proposed LLCL filter have been presented and evaluated through experiment on a 1.8-kW-single-phase grid-tied inverter...

  15. Grid Filter Design for a Multi-Megawatt Medium-Voltage Voltage Source Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rockhill, A.A.; Liserre, Marco; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    constraints. To achieve this goal, new concepts such as virtual harmonic content and virtual filter losses are introduced. Moreover, a new passive damping technique that provides the necessary damping with low losses and very little degradation of the high-frequency attenuation is proposed.......This paper describes the design procedure and performance of an LCL grid filter for a medium-voltage neutral point clamped (NPC) converter to be adopted for a multimegawatt wind turbine. The unique filter design challenges in this application are driven by a combination of the medium voltage...... converter, a limited allowable switching frequency, component physical size and weight concerns, and the stringent limits for allowable injected current harmonics. Traditional design procedures of grid filters for lower power and higher switching frequency converters are not valid for a multi...

  16. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Chernov, Alexey

    2016-01-06

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). In terms of computational cost vs. approximation error the asymptotic performance of the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) is superior to the EnKF s.

  17. Interdigital filter design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, WP

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A new synthesis procedure for interdigital filters with shorted-pin feeds is developed by relating the coupling factors and external Qs to the physical structure of the filter. This new procedure is easily understood and applied, extremely flexible...

  18. China exported birefringent filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Mao, Weijun; Lu, Haitian; Zhu, Yong

    2001-09-01

    Since 1960s, Nanjing Astronomical Instrument Research center of CAS have been developing the birefringent filters for China solar observatories, the most famous one in the world is the 0.15Å(0.12Å)/5324Å(4861Å) filter for the 35cm Solar Magnetic Field Telescope of the Huairou Solar Station of Beijing Observatory. The big success in the field of Lyot filter has been proved by the international solar physics circle, since 1988, Japanese and Korean astronomers have been paying a lot of orders for making Lyot filters from China, up to now we have exported 11 sets of such sophisticated optical instruments, they have been used for routine solar observations in the observatories and planetaria in the two countries. We also begin to repair old Lyot filters made by Germany and France from foreign countries, as India and Germany.

  19. Sub-micron filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Frederick [Sanford, FL; Kaledin, Leonid [Port Orange, FL

    2009-10-13

    Aluminum hydroxide fibers approximately 2 nanometers in diameter and with surface areas ranging from 200 to 650 m.sup.2/g have been found to be highly electropositive. When dispersed in water they are able to attach to and retain electronegative particles. When combined into a composite filter with other fibers or particles they can filter bacteria and nano size particulates such as viruses and colloidal particles at high flux through the filter. Such filters can be used for purification and sterilization of water, biological, medical and pharmaceutical fluids, and as a collector/concentrator for detection and assay of microbes and viruses. The alumina fibers are also capable of filtering sub-micron inorganic and metallic particles to produce ultra pure water. The fibers are suitable as a substrate for growth of cells. Macromolecules such as proteins may be separated from each other based on their electronegative charges.

  20. Filter cake breaker systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo H.F. [Poland Quimica Ltda., Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Drilling fluids filter cakes are based on a combination of properly graded dispersed particles and polysaccharide polymers. High efficiency filter cakes are formed by these combination , and their formation on wellbore walls during the drilling process has, among other roles, the task of protecting the formation from instantaneous or accumulative invasion of drilling fluid filtrate, granting stability to well and production zones. Filter cake minimizes contact between drilling fluid filtrate and water, hydrocarbons and clay existent in formations. The uniform removal of the filter cake from the entire interval is a critical factor of the completion process. The main methods used to breaking filter cake are classified into two groups, external or internal, according to their removal mechanism. The aim of this work is the presentation of these mechanisms as well their efficiency. (author)

  1. A Comb Filter Design Method Using Linear Phase FIR Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yosuke; Kawamura, Arata; Iiguni, Youji

    This paper proposes a comb filter design method which utilizes two linear phase FIR filters for flexibly adjusting the comb filter's frequency response. The first FIR filter is used to individually adjust the notch gains, which denote the local minimum gains of the comb filter's frequency response. The second FIR filter is used to design the elimination bandwidths for individual notch gains. We also derive an efficient comb filter by incorporating these two FIR filters with an all-pass filter which is used in a conventional comb filter to accurately align the nulls with the undesired harmonic frequencies. Several design examples of the derived comb filter show the effectiveness of the proposed comb filter design method.

  2. Ceramic fiber reinforced filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinton, David P.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Lowden, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.

  3. Impact of ANSI 2009 criteria for performance testing in TLD personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MeenaI, P.; Rakesh, R.B.; Srivastava, Kshama; KoIambe, D.H.; Sapra, B.K.

    2014-01-01

    External Quality Assurance in TLD Personnel Monitoring Service was initiated in 1985, for periodic performance evaluation of various TLD Laboratories through postal exercise. Presently, all the 16 laboratories involved in Personnel Monitoring Service are covered under QA exercise. Since beginning, American National Standards Institute (ANSI) criteria have been adopted for performance testing in QA exercise. Presently, ANSI 2001 performance criteria along with ISO trumpet curve analysis method are being used for performance evaluation. In 2009, ANSI modified the performance evaluation criteria and this study evaluates its impact and feasibility of implementation of ANSI 2009 criteria in the quality assurance program for personnel monitoring. The performance of some laboratories evaluated using both ANSI 2001 and ANSI 2009 criteria have been discussed. The study shows that the ANSI 2009 criteria is more stringent and encourages even distribution of bias and standard deviation. This can be implemented with suitable modifications for performance evaluation

  4. Circuits and filters handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    A bestseller in its first edition, The Circuits and Filters Handbook has been thoroughly updated to provide the most current, most comprehensive information available in both the classical and emerging fields of circuits and filters, both analog and digital. This edition contains 29 new chapters, with significant additions in the areas of computer-aided design, circuit simulation, VLSI circuits, design automation, and active and digital filters. It will undoubtedly take its place as the engineer's first choice in looking for solutions to problems encountered in the design, analysis, and behavi

  5. Paul Rodgersi filter Kohilas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    28. I Kohila keskkoolis kohaspetsiifiline skulptuur ja performance "Filter". Kooli 130. aastapäeva tähistava ettevõtmise eesotsas oli skulptor Paul Rodgers ja kaks viimase klassi noormeest ئ Marko Heinmäe, Hendrik Karm.

  6. Dust filter testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupoux, J.

    1975-01-01

    The composition of dust filters used in cleanup systems for radioactive gaseous effluents is described as well as the technical controls, especially efficiency measured by a soda fluorescein aerosol [fr

  7. Vena cava filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmberger, T.

    2007-01-01

    Fulminant pulmonary embolism is one of the major causes of death in the Western World. In most cases, deep leg and pelvic venous thrombosis are the cause. If an anticoagulant/thrombotic therapy is no longer possible or ineffective, a vena cava filter implant may be indicated if an embolism is threatening. Implantation of the filter is a simple and safe intervention. Nevertheless, it is necessary to take into consideration that the data base for determining the indications for this treatment are very limited. Currently, a reduction in the risk of thromboembolism with the use of filters of about 30%, of recurrences of almost 5% and fatal pulmonary embolism of 1% has been reported, with a risk of up to 20% of filter induced vena cava thrombosis. (orig.) [de

  8. Perspectives on Nonlinear Filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2015-01-07

    The solution to the problem of nonlinear filtering may be given either as an estimate of the signal (and ideally some measure of concentration), or as a full posterior distribution. Similarly, one may evaluate the fidelity of the filter either by its ability to track the signal or its proximity to the posterior filtering distribution. Hence, the field enjoys a lively symbiosis between probability and control theory, and there are plenty of applications which benefit from algorithmic advances, from signal processing, to econometrics, to large-scale ocean, atmosphere, and climate modeling. This talk will survey some recent theoretical results involving accurate signal tracking with noise-free (degenerate) dynamics in high-dimensions (infinite, in principle, but say d between 103 and 108 , depending on the size of your application and your computer), and high-fidelity approximations of the filtering distribution in low dimensions (say d between 1 and several 10s).

  9. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  10. Switching power supply filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prithvi R. (Inventor); Abare, Wayne (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A filter for a switching power supply. The filter includes a common mode inductor with coil configurations allowing differential mode current from a dc source to pass through but attenuating common mode noise from the power supply so that the noise does not reach the dc source. The invention also includes the use of feed through capacitors at the switching power supply input terminals to provide further high-frequency noise attenuation.

  11. Spatial filter issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.E.; Estabrook, K.G.; Milam, D.; Sell, W.D.; Van Wonterghem, R.M.; Feil, M.D.; Rubenchick, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments and calculations indicate that the threshold pressure in spatial filters for distortion of a transmitted pulse scales approximately as I O.2 and (F number-sign) 2 over the intensity range from 10 14 to 2xlO 15 W/CM 2 . We also demonstrated an interferometric diagnostic that will be used to measure the scaling relationships governing pinhole closure in spatial filters

  12. Inorganic UV filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Berbel Manaia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, concern over skin cancer has been growing more and more, especially in tropical countries where the incidence of UVA/B radiation is higher. The correct use of sunscreen is the most efficient way to prevent the development of this disease. The ingredients of sunscreen can be organic and/or inorganic sun filters. Inorganic filters present some advantages over organic filters, such as photostability, non-irritability and broad spectrum protection. Nevertheless, inorganic filters have a whitening effect in sunscreen formulations owing to the high refractive index, decreasing their esthetic appeal. Many techniques have been developed to overcome this problem and among them, the use of nanotechnology stands out. The estimated amount of nanomaterial in use must increase from 2000 tons in 2004 to a projected 58000 tons in 2020. In this context, this article aims to analyze critically both the different features of the production of inorganic filters (synthesis routes proposed in recent years and the permeability, the safety and other characteristics of the new generation of inorganic filters.

  13. Biological Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page contains links to Technical Documents pertaining to Biological Water Quality Criteria, including, technical assistance documents for states, tribes and territories, program overviews, and case studies.

  14. Functional design criteria for project W-252, phase II liquid effluent treatment and disposal. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatch, C.E.

    1995-05-01

    This document is the Functional Design Criteria for Project W-252. Project W-252 provides the scope to provide BAT/AKART (best available technology...) to 200 Liquid Effluent Phase II streams (B-Plant). This revision (Rev. 2) incorporates a major descoping of the project. The descoping was done to reflect a combination of budget cutting measures allowed by a less stringent regulatory posture toward the Phase II streams

  15. Condition Monitoring of a Process Filter Applying Wireless Vibration Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka KOSKELA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel wireless vibration-based method for monitoring the degree of feed filter clogging. In process industry, these filters are applied to prevent impurities entering the process. During operation, the filters gradually become clogged, decreasing the feed flow and, in the worst case, preventing it. The cleaning of the filter should therefore be carried out predictively in order to avoid equipment damage and unnecessary process downtime. The degree of clogging is estimated by first calculating the time domain indices from low frequency accelerometer samples and then taking the median of the processed values. Nine different statistical quantities are compared based on the estimation accuracy and criteria for operating in resource-constrained environments with particular focus on energy efficiency. The initial results show that the method is able to detect the degree of clogging, and the approach may be applicable to filter clogging monitoring.

  16. Defect detection in textured materials using optimized filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Pang, G H

    2002-01-01

    The problem of automated defect detection in textured materials is investigated. A new approach for defect detection using linear FIR filters with optimized energy separation is proposed. The performance of different feature separation criteria with reference to fabric defects has been evaluated. The issues relating to the design of optimal filters for supervised and unsupervised web inspection are addressed. A general web inspection system based on the optimal filters is proposed. The experiments on this new approach have yielded excellent results. The low computational requirement confirms the usefulness of the approach for industrial inspection.

  17. Sensory Pollution from Bag Filters, Carbon Filters and Combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Weschler, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    Used ventilation filters are a major source of sensory pollutants in air handling systems. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the net effect that different combinations of filters had on perceived air quality after 5 months of continuous filtration of outdoor suburban air. A panel...... that contained AC and a synthetic fiber cartridge filter that contained AC. Air that had passed through used filters was most acceptable for those sets in which an AC filter was used downstream of the particle filter. Comparable air quality was achieved with the stand-alone bag filter that contained AC...

  18. Dual Criteria Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten Igel

    2014-01-01

    The most popular models of decision making use a single criterion to evaluate projects or lotteries. However, decision makers may actually consider multiple criteria when evaluating projects. We consider a dual criteria model from psychology. This model integrates the familiar tradeoffs between...

  19. Green Supplier Selection Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaeian, Narges; Golinska, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    to determine prevalent general and environmental supplier selection criteria and develop a framework which can help decision makers to determine and prioritize suitable green supplier selection criteria (general and environmental). In this research we considered several parameters (evaluation objectives......) to establish suitable criteria for GSS such as their production type, requirements, policy and objectives instead of applying common criteria. At first a comprehensive and deep review on prevalent and green supplier selection literatures performed. Then several evaluation objectives defined to assess the green......Green supplier selection (GSS) criteria arise from an organization inclination to respond to any existing trends in environmental issues related to business management and processes, so GSS is integrating environmental thinking into conventional supplier selection. This research is designed...

  20. Choosing and using astronomical filters

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Martin

    2014-01-01

    As a casual read through any of the major amateur astronomical magazines will demonstrate, there are filters available for all aspects of optical astronomy. This book provides a ready resource on the use of the following filters, among others, for observational astronomy or for imaging: Light pollution filters Planetary filters Solar filters Neutral density filters for Moon observation Deep-sky filters, for such objects as galaxies, nebulae and more Deep-sky objects can be imaged in much greater detail than was possible many years ago. Amateur astronomers can take

  1. Achieving stringent climate targets. An analysis of the role of transport and variable renewable energies using energy-economy-climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietzcker, Robert Carl

    2014-07-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is threatening the welfare of mankind. Accordingly, policy makers have repeatedly stated the goal of slowing climate change and limiting the increase of global mean temperature to less than 2 C above pre-industrial times (the so-called ''two degree target''). Stabilizing the temperature requires drastic reductions of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to nearly zero. As the global system of energy supply currently relies on fossil fuels, reducing GHG emissions can only be achieved through a full-scale transformation of the energy system. This thesis investigates the economic requirements and implications of different scenarios that achieve stringent climate mitigation targets. It starts with the analysis of characteristic decarbonization patterns and identifies two particularly relevant aspects of mitigation scenarios: deployment of variable renewable energies (VRE) and decarbonization of the transport sector. After investigating these fields in detail, we turned towards one of the most relevant questions for policy makers and analyzed the trade-off between the stringency of a climate target and its economic requirements and implications. All analyses are based on the improvement, application, comparison, and discussion of large-scale IAMs. The novel ''mitigation share'' metric allowed us to identify the relevance of specific technology groups for mitigation and to improve our understanding of the decarbonization patterns of different energy subsectors. It turned out that the power sector is decarbonized first and reaches lowest emissions, while the transport sector is slowest to decarbonize. For the power sector, non-biomass renewable energies contribute most to emission reductions, while the transport sector strongly relies on liquid fuels and therefore requires biomass in combination with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) to reduce emissions. An in-depth investigation of the solar power

  2. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Haakon

    2016-01-08

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a sequential filtering method that uses an ensemble of particle paths to estimate the means and covariances required by the Kalman filter by the use of sample moments, i.e., the Monte Carlo method. EnKF is often both robust and efficient, but its performance may suffer in settings where the computational cost of accurate simulations of particles is high. The multilevel Monte Carlo method (MLMC) is an extension of classical Monte Carlo methods which by sampling stochastic realizations on a hierarchy of resolutions may reduce the computational cost of moment approximations by orders of magnitude. In this work we have combined the ideas of MLMC and EnKF to construct the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) for the setting of finite dimensional state and observation spaces. The main ideas of this method is to compute particle paths on a hierarchy of resolutions and to apply multilevel estimators on the ensemble hierarchy of particles to compute Kalman filter means and covariances. Theoretical results and a numerical study of the performance gains of MLEnKF over EnKF will be presented. Some ideas on the extension of MLEnKF to settings with infinite dimensional state spaces will also be presented.

  3. Investigation of the Ability of Filters to Stop Erosion through Cracks in Dams

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Youngjin

    2003-01-01

    The ability of a filter to stop erosion through cracks in the core of a embankment dam requires that the filter be graded so that it will restrain movement of particles from the core, and that the filter be truly cohesionless, so that it will not crack even when subjected to the same types of deformations that cause cracks in the core. To achieve resistance to cracking, most current filter criteria require that the filter should contain no more than 5% of material finer than the #200 siev...

  4. Stringent and reproducible tetracycline-regulated transgene expression by site-specific insertion at chromosomal loci with pre-characterised induction characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papanastasiou Antigoni M

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to regulate transgene expression has many applications, mostly concerning the analysis of gene function. Desirable induction characteristics, such as low un-induced expression, high induced expression and limited cellular heterogeneity, can be seriously impaired by chromosomal position effects at the site of transgene integration. Many clones may therefore need to be screened before one with optimal induction characteristics is identified. Furthermore, such screens must be repeated for each new transgene investigated, and comparisons between clones with different transgenes is complicated by their different integration sites. Results To circumvent these problems we have developed a "screen and insert" strategy in which clones carrying a transgene for a fluorescent reporter are first screened for those with optimal induction characteristics. Site-specific recombination (SSR is then be used repeatedly to insert any new transgene at the reporter transgene locus of such clones so that optimal induction characteristics are conferred upon it. Here we have tested in a human fibrosarcoma cell line (HT1080 two of many possible implementations of this approach. Clones (e.g. Rht14-10 in which a GFP reporter gene is very stringently regulated by the tetracycline (tet transactivator (tTA protein were first identified flow-cytometrically. Transgenes encoding luciferase, I-SceI endonuclease or Rad52 were then inserted by SSR at a LoxP site adjacent to the GFP gene resulting stringent tet-regulated transgene expression. In clone Rht14-10, increases in expression from essentially background levels (+tet to more than 104-fold above background (-tet were reproducibly detected after Cre-mediated insertion of either the luciferase or the I-SceI transgenes. Conclusion Although previous methods have made use of SSR to integrate transgenes at defined sites, none has effectively combined this with a pre-selection step to identify

  5. Adaptive lifting scheme with sparse criteria for image coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaniche, Mounir; Pesquet-Popescu, Béatrice; Benazza-Benyahia, Amel; Pesquet, Jean-Christophe

    2012-12-01

    Lifting schemes (LS) were found to be efficient tools for image coding purposes. Since LS-based decompositions depend on the choice of the prediction/update operators, many research efforts have been devoted to the design of adaptive structures. The most commonly used approaches optimize the prediction filters by minimizing the variance of the detail coefficients. In this article, we investigate techniques for optimizing sparsity criteria by focusing on the use of an ℓ 1 criterion instead of an ℓ 2 one. Since the output of a prediction filter may be used as an input for the other prediction filters, we then propose to optimize such a filter by minimizing a weighted ℓ 1 criterion related to the global rate-distortion performance. More specifically, it will be shown that the optimization of the diagonal prediction filter depends on the optimization of the other prediction filters and vice-versa. Related to this fact, we propose to jointly optimize the prediction filters by using an algorithm that alternates between the optimization of the filters and the computation of the weights. Experimental results show the benefits which can be drawn from the proposed optimization of the lifting operators.

  6. Adaptive digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Kovačević, Branko; Milosavljević, Milan

    2013-01-01

    “Adaptive Digital Filters” presents an important discipline applied to the domain of speech processing. The book first makes the reader acquainted with the basic terms of filtering and adaptive filtering, before introducing the field of advanced modern algorithms, some of which are contributed by the authors themselves. Working in the field of adaptive signal processing requires the use of complex mathematical tools. The book offers a detailed presentation of the mathematical models that is clear and consistent, an approach that allows everyone with a college level of mathematics knowledge to successfully follow the mathematical derivations and descriptions of algorithms.   The algorithms are presented in flow charts, which facilitates their practical implementation. The book presents many experimental results and treats the aspects of practical application of adaptive filtering in real systems, making it a valuable resource for both undergraduate and graduate students, and for all others interested in m...

  7. Stack filter classifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Just as linear models generalize the sample mean and weighted average, weighted order statistic models generalize the sample median and weighted median. This analogy can be continued informally to generalized additive modeels in the case of the mean, and Stack Filters in the case of the median. Both of these model classes have been extensively studied for signal and image processing but it is surprising to find that for pattern classification, their treatment has been significantly one sided. Generalized additive models are now a major tool in pattern classification and many different learning algorithms have been developed to fit model parameters to finite data. However Stack Filters remain largely confined to signal and image processing and learning algorithms for classification are yet to be seen. This paper is a step towards Stack Filter Classifiers and it shows that the approach is interesting from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.

  8. Automated electronic filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Amal

    2017-01-01

    This book describes a novel, efficient and powerful scheme for designing and evaluating the performance characteristics of any electronic filter designed with predefined specifications. The author explains techniques that enable readers to eliminate complicated manual, and thus error-prone and time-consuming, steps of traditional design techniques. The presentation includes demonstration of efficient automation, using an ANSI C language program, which accepts any filter design specification (e.g. Chebyschev low-pass filter, cut-off frequency, pass-band ripple etc.) as input and generates as output a SPICE(Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) format netlist. Readers then can use this netlist to run simulations with any version of the popular SPICE simulator, increasing accuracy of the final results, without violating any of the key principles of the traditional design scheme.

  9. DOE Standard: Fire protection design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-07-01

    The development of this Standard reflects the fact that national consensus standards and other design criteria do not comprehensively or, in some cases, adequately address fire protection issues at DOE facilities. This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard replaces certain mandatory fire protection requirements that were formerly in DOE 5480.7A, ``Fire Protection``, and DOE 6430.1A, ``General Design Criteria``. It also contains the fire protection guidelines from two (now canceled) draft standards: ``Glove Box Fire Protection`` and ``Filter Plenum Fire Protection``. (Note: This Standard does not supersede the requirements of DOE 5480.7A and DOE 6430.1A where these DOE Orders are currently applicable under existing contracts.) This Standard, along with the criteria delineated in Section 3, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  10. DOE Standard: Fire protection design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    The development of this Standard reflects the fact that national consensus standards and other design criteria do not comprehensively or, in some cases, adequately address fire protection issues at DOE facilities. This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard replaces certain mandatory fire protection requirements that were formerly in DOE 5480.7A, ''Fire Protection'', and DOE 6430.1A, ''General Design Criteria''. It also contains the fire protection guidelines from two (now canceled) draft standards: ''Glove Box Fire Protection'' and ''Filter Plenum Fire Protection''. (Note: This Standard does not supersede the requirements of DOE 5480.7A and DOE 6430.1A where these DOE Orders are currently applicable under existing contracts.) This Standard, along with the criteria delineated in Section 3, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities

  11. Filters in topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdin, Blaise

    1999-01-01

    In this article, a modified (``filtered'') version of the minimum compliance topology optimization problem is studied. The direct dependence of the material properties on its pointwise density is replaced by a regularization of the density field using a convolution operator. In this setting...... it is possible to establish the existence of solutions. Moreover, convergence of an approximation by means of finite elements can be obtained. This is illustrated through some numerical experiments. The ``filtering'' technique is also shown to cope with two important numerical problems in topology optimization...

  12. Alarm filtering and presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses alarm filtering and presentation in the control room of nuclear and other process control plants. Alarm generation and presentation is widely recognized as a general process control problem. Alarm systems often fail to provide meaningful alarms to operators. Alarm generation and presentation is an area in which computer aiding is feasible and provides clear benefits. Therefore, researchers have developed several computerized alarm filtering and presentation approaches. This paper discusses problems associated with alarm generation and presentation. Approaches to improving the alarm situation and installation issues of alarm system improvements are discussed. The impact of artificial intelligence (AI) technology on alarm system improvements is assessed. (orig.)

  13. Historic and future trends of vehicle emissions in Beijing, 1998-2020: A policy assessment for the most stringent vehicle emission control program in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Wu, Xiaomeng; Li, Mengliang; Ge, Yunshan; Liang, Bin; Xu, Yueyun; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Huan; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2014-06-01

    As a pioneer in controlling vehicle emissions within China, Beijing released the Clean Air Action Plan 2013-2017 document in August 2013 to improve its urban air quality. It has put forward this plan containing the most stringent emission control policies and strategies to be adopted for on-road vehicles of Beijing. This paper estimates the historic and future trends and uncertainties in vehicle emissions of Beijing from 1998 to 2020 by applying a new emission factor model for the Beijing vehicle fleet (EMBEV). Our updated results show that total emissions of CO, THC, NOx and PM2.5 from the Beijing vehicle fleet are 507 (395-819) kt, 59.1 (41.2-90.5) kt, 74.7 (54.9-103.9) kt and 2.69 (1.91-4.17) kt, respectively, at a 95% confidence level. This represents significant reductions of 58%, 59%, 31% and 62%, respectively, relative to the total vehicle emissions in 1998. The past trends clearly posed a challenge to NOx emission mitigation for the Beijing vehicle fleet, especially in light of those increasing NOx emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) which have partly offset the reduction benefit from light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs). Because of recently announced vehicle emission controls to be adopted in Beijing, including tighter emissions standards, limitations on vehicle growth by more stringent license control, promotion of alternative fuel technologies (e.g., natural gas) and the scrappage of older vehicles, estimated vehicle emissions in Beijing will continue to be mitigated by 74% of CO, 68% of THC, 56% of NOx and 72% of PM2.5 in 2020 compared to 2010 levels. Considering that many of the megacities in China are facing tremendous pressures to mitigate emissions from on-road vehicles, our assessment will provide a timely case study of significance for policy-makers in China.

  14. Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA develops water quality criteria based on the latest scientific knowledge to protect human health and aquatic life. This information serves as guidance to states and tribes in adopting water quality standards.

  15. Aquatic Life Criteria - Atrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertaining to Acute and Chronic Ambient Water Quality Aquatic Life Criteria for Atrazine (Freshwater and Salt Water). This document contains the safe levels of Atrazine in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  16. Aquatic Life Criteria - Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertain to Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality criteria for Copper (2007 Freshwater, 2016 Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Copper in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  17. Aquatic Life Criteria - Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents related to EPA's final 2013 Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Ammonia (Freshwater). These documents pertain to the safe levels of Ammonia in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  18. Criteria Air Emissions Trends

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Emissions Trends site provides national trends of criteria pollutant and precursor emissions data based on the the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) from...

  19. Multimodal freight investment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Literature was reviewed on multi-modal investment criteria for freight projects, examining measures and techniques for quantifying project benefits and costs, as well as ways to describe the economic importance of freight transportation. : A limited ...

  20. Aquatic Life Criteria - Cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertaining to 2016 Acute and Chronic Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Cadmium (Freshwater, Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Cadmium in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  1. Statistically-Efficient Filtering in Impulsive Environments: Weighted Myriad Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Juan G

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear filtering theory has been largely motivated by the characteristics of Gaussian signals. In the same manner, the proposed Myriad Filtering methods are motivated by the need for a flexible filter class with high statistical efficiency in non-Gaussian impulsive environments that can appear in practice. Myriad filters have a solid theoretical basis, are inherently more powerful than median filters, and are very general, subsuming traditional linear FIR filters. The foundation of the proposed filtering algorithms lies in the definition of the myriad as a tunable estimator of location derived from the theory of robust statistics. We prove several fundamental properties of this estimator and show its optimality in practical impulsive models such as the -stable and generalized- . We then extend the myriad estimation framework to allow the use of weights. In the same way as linear FIR filters become a powerful generalization of the mean filter, filters based on running myriads reach all of their potential when a weighting scheme is utilized. We derive the "normal" equations for the optimal myriad filter, and introduce a suboptimal methodology for filter tuning and design. The strong potential of myriad filtering and estimation in impulsive environments is illustrated with several examples.

  2. Testing particle filters on convective scale dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslehner, Mylene; Craig, George. C.; Janjic, Tijana

    2014-05-01

    Particle filters have been developed in recent years to deal with highly nonlinear dynamics and non Gaussian error statistics that also characterize data assimilation on convective scales. In this work we explore the use of the efficient particle filter (P.v. Leeuwen, 2011) for convective scale data assimilation application. The method is tested in idealized setting, on two stochastic models. The models were designed to reproduce some of the properties of convection, for example the rapid development and decay of convective clouds. The first model is a simple one-dimensional, discrete state birth-death model of clouds (Craig and Würsch, 2012). For this model, the efficient particle filter that includes nudging the variables shows significant improvement compared to Ensemble Kalman Filter and Sequential Importance Resampling (SIR) particle filter. The success of the combination of nudging and resampling, measured as RMS error with respect to the 'true state', is proportional to the nudging intensity. Significantly, even a very weak nudging intensity brings notable improvement over SIR. The second model is a modified version of a stochastic shallow water model (Würsch and Craig 2013), which contains more realistic dynamical characteristics of convective scale phenomena. Using the efficient particle filter and different combination of observations of the three field variables (wind, water 'height' and rain) allows the particle filter to be evaluated in comparison to a regime where only nudging is used. Sensitivity to the properties of the model error covariance is also considered. Finally, criteria are identified under which the efficient particle filter outperforms nudging alone. References: Craig, G. C. and M. Würsch, 2012: The impact of localization and observation averaging for convective-scale data assimilation in a simple stochastic model. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.,139, 515-523. Van Leeuwen, P. J., 2011: Efficient non-linear data assimilation in geophysical

  3. The ATLAS event filter

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, H P; Boissat, C; Davis, R; Duval, P Y; Etienne, F; Fede, E; Francis, D; Green, P; Hemmer, F; Jones, R; MacKinnon, J; Mapelli, Livio P; Meessen, C; Mommsen, R K; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Nacasch, R; Negri, A; Pinfold, James L; Polesello, G; Qian, Z; Rafflin, C; Scannicchio, D A; Stanescu, C; Touchard, F; Vercesi, V

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the studies for the ATLAS Event Filter is given. The architecture and the high level design of the DAQ-1 prototype is presented. The current status if the prototypes is briefly given. Finally, future plans and milestones are given. (11 refs).

  4. Spectral Ensemble Kalman Filters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandel, Jan; Kasanický, Ivan; Vejmelka, Martin; Fuglík, Viktor; Turčičová, Marie; Eben, Kryštof; Resler, Jaroslav; Juruš, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2014), EMS2014-446 [EMS Annual Meeting /14./ & European Conference on Applied Climatology (ECAC) /10./. 06.10.2014-10.10.2014, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S Grant - others:NSF DMS -1216481 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data assimilation * spectral filter Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  5. Filter and Passband Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, A. T.

    1984-01-01

    Problems associated with achieving precision in photometric measurements of stars are examined. The thermal stabilization of glass and interference filters and the determination of correct analytic representations of bandwidth effects in data reduction are particularly discussed. Spectral sampling requirements are also addressed.

  6. Ceramic HEPA Filter Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, M A; Bergman, W; Haslam, J; Brown, E P; Sawyer, S; Beaulieu, R; Althouse, P; Meike, A

    2012-04-30

    Potential benefits of ceramic filters in nuclear facilities: (1) Short term benefit for DOE, NRC, and industry - (a) CalPoly HTTU provides unique testing capability to answer questions for DOE - High temperature testing of materials, components, filter, (b) Several DNFSB correspondences and presentations by DNFSB members have highlighted the need for HEPA filter R and D - DNFSB Recommendation 2009-2 highlighted a nuclear facility response to an evaluation basis earthquake followed by a fire (aka shake-n-bake) and CalPoly has capability for a shake-n-bake test; (2) Intermediate term benefit for DOE and industry - (a) Filtration for specialty applications, e.g., explosive applications at Nevada, (b) Spin-off technologies applicable to other commercial industries; and (3) Long term benefit for DOE, NRC, and industry - (a) Across industry, strong desire for better performance filter, (b) Engineering solution to safety problem will improve facility safety and decrease dependence on associated support systems, (c) Large potential life-cycle cost savings, and (d) Facilitates development and deployment of LLNL process innovations to allow continuous ventilation system operation during a fire.

  7. Improving Artificial Neural Network Forecasts with Kalman Filtering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we examine the use of the artificial neural network method as a forecasting technique in financial time series and the application of a Kalman filter algorithm to improve the accuracy of the model. Forecasting accuracy criteria are used to compare the two models over different set of data from different companies ...

  8. Digital Simulation of a Hybrid Active Filter - An Active Filter in Series with a Shunt Passive Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Sitaram, Mahesh I; Padiyar, KR; Ramanarayanan, V

    1998-01-01

    Active filters have long been in use for the filtering of power system load harmonics. In this paper, the digital simulation results of a hybrid active power filter system for a rectifier load are presented. The active filter is used for filtering higher order harmonics as the dominant harmonics are filtered by the passive filter. This reduces the rating of the active filter significantly. The DC capacitor voltage of the active filter is controlled using a PI controller.

  9. Numerical study of canister filters with alternatives filter cap configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, A. N.; Daud, A. R.; Abdullah, K.; Seri, S. M.; Razali, M. A.; Hushim, M. F.; Khalid, A.

    2017-09-01

    Air filtration system and filter play an important role in getting a good quality air into turbo machinery such as gas turbine. The filtration system and filter has improved the quality of air and protect the gas turbine part from contaminants which could bring damage. During separation of contaminants from the air, pressure drop cannot be avoided but it can be minimized thus helps to reduce the intake losses of the engine [1]. This study is focused on the configuration of the filter in order to obtain the minimal pressure drop along the filter. The configuration used is the basic filter geometry provided by Salutary Avenue Manufacturing Sdn Bhd. and two modified canister filter cap which is designed based on the basic filter model. The geometries of the filter are generated by using SOLIDWORKS software and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software is used to analyse and simulates the flow through the filter. In this study, the parameters of the inlet velocity are 0.032 m/s, 0.063 m/s, 0.094 m/s and 0.126 m/s. The total pressure drop produce by basic, modified filter 1 and 2 is 292.3 Pa, 251.11 Pa and 274.7 Pa. The pressure drop reduction for the modified filter 1 is 41.19 Pa and 14.1% lower compared to basic filter and the pressure drop reduction for modified filter 2 is 17.6 Pa and 6.02% lower compared to the basic filter. The pressure drops for the basic filter are slightly different with the Salutary Avenue filter due to limited data and experiment details. CFD software are very reliable in running a simulation rather than produces the prototypes and conduct the experiment thus reducing overall time and cost in this study.

  10. Digital Filters for Low Frequency Equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyril, Marni; Abildgaard, J.; Rubak, Per

    2001-01-01

    Digital filters with high resolution in the low-frequency range are studied. Specifically, for a given computational power, traditional IIR filters are compared with warped FIR filters, warped IIR filters, and modified warped FIR filters termed warped individual z FIR filters (WizFIR). The results...... indicate that IIR filters are the most effective in a number of situations....

  11. Acceptance criteria considerations for miscellaneous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irvine, A.R.; Forsberg, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    EPA standards set forth limitations regarding releases to the accessible environment adjacent to a geologic repository. The NRC criteria pertaining to waste form and engineered barrier performance place certain restrictions on the physical and chemical nature of the waste form and require substantially complete confinement of radioactivity until the high-heat-production period is past. After this period, the annual release of radionuclides from the waste package is normally limited to 1 part in 100,000 of the amounts calculated to be present at 1000-y decay. The regulation permits deviation from these criteria in exceptional circumstances. One such circumstance might be the absence of a significant perturbation in temperature around the stored waste. The lack of significant heat release will eliminate the hydrologic driving force for dispersal of radionuclides. Exceptional circumstances which potentially could justify a less stringent long-term release criterion are: small quantity of radioactivity, the nature of the radioactive species, and the nature of the geology in which the waste is to be emplaced. Because the MW after a suitable decay period have low heat release rates per unit volume, they apparently could be so emplaced in a repository that there would be no compelling need, according to the reasoning presented in 10 CFR 60, for a 1000-y container. Regarding attainment of the specified long-term release rate criterion, neither the solubility limits for the various waste forms nor the conductance of potential migration barriers are currently adequately characterized. The relatively small total heat generation rate for the MW in combination with the usual low volumetric heat generation rate apparently will allow application of migration barriers in a low temperature environment where barrier performance would be expected to be unchanged with time

  12. Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate...... amounts of water. Also, the trade-off in the filter spacing remains unexplored, despite its simple formulation: A filter too coarse will allow suitably sized prey to pass unintercepted, whereas a filter too fine will cause strong flow resistance. We quantify the feeding flow of the filter......-feeding choanoflagellate Diaphanoeca grandis using particle tracking, and demonstrate that the current understanding of microbial filter feeding is inconsistent with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and analytical estimates. Both approaches underestimate observed filtration rates by more than an order of magnitude...

  13. Analog filters in nanometer CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Uhrmann, Heimo; Zimmermann, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the basics of analog filters and the poor transistor characteristics in nanometer CMOS 10 high-performance analog filters developed by the authors in 120 nm and 65 nm CMOS are described extensively. Among them are gm-C filters, current-mode filters, and active filters for system-on-chip realization for Bluetooth, WCDMA, UWB, DVB-H, and LTE applications. For the active filters several operational amplifier designs are described. The book, furthermore, contains a review of the newest state of research on low-voltage low-power analog filters. To cover the topic of the book comprehensively, linearization issues and measurement methods for the characterization of advanced analog filters are introduced in addition. Numerous elaborate illustrations promote an easy comprehension. This book will be of value to engineers and researchers in industry as well as scientists and Ph.D students at universities. The book is also recommendable to graduate students specializing on nanoelectronics, microelectronics ...

  14. Summarized water quality criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempster, P.L.; Hattingh, W.H.J.; Van Vliet, H.R.

    1980-08-01

    The available world literature from 27 sources on existing water quality criteria are summarized for the 15 main uses of water. The minimum, median and maximum specified values for 96 different determinands are included. Under each water use the criteria are grouped according to the functional significance of the determinands e.g. aesthetic/physical effects, high toxic potential, low toxic potential etc. A synopsis is included summarizing salient facts for each determinand such as the conditions under which it is toxic and its relationship to other determinands. The significance of the criteria is briefly discussed and the importance of considering functional interactions between determinands emphasized in evaluating the potential for toxic or beneficial effects. From the source literature it appears that the toxic potential, in addition to being determined by concentration, is also affected by the origin of the substance concerned, i.e. whether from natural sources or from anthropogenic pollution

  15. The Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filter: A Filter Bank Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Rickard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For computational efficiency, it is important to utilize model structure in particle filtering. One of the most important cases occurs when there exists a linear Gaussian substructure, which can be efficiently handled by Kalman filters. This is the standard formulation of the Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF. This contribution suggests an alternative formulation of this well-known result that facilitates reuse of standard filtering components and which is also suitable for object-oriented programming. Our RBPF formulation can be seen as a Kalman filter bank with stochastic branching and pruning.

  16. On fractional filtering versus conventional filtering in economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigmatullin, Raoul R.; Omay, Tolga; Baleanu, Dumitru

    2010-04-01

    In this study, we compare the Hodrick-Prescott Filter technique with the Fractional filtering technique that has recently started to be used in various applied sciences like physics, engineering, and biology. We apply these filtering techniques to quarterly GDP data from Turkey for the period 1988:1-2003:2. The filtered series are analyzed using Minimum Square Error (MSE) and real life evidence. In the second part of the study, we use simulated data to analyze the statistical properties of the aforementioned filtering techniques.

  17. Multilevel particle filter

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2016-01-06

    This talk will pertain to the filtering of partially observed diffusions, with discrete-time observations. It is assumed that only biased approximations of the diffusion can be obtained, for choice of an accuracy parameter indexed by l. A multilevel estimator is proposed, consisting of a telescopic sum of increment estimators associated to the successive levels. The work associated to O( 2) mean-square error between the multilevel estimator and average with respect to the filtering distribution is shown to scale optimally, for example as O( 2) for optimal rates of convergence of the underlying diffusion approximation. The method is illustrated on some toy examples as well as estimation of interest rate based on real S&P 500 stock price data.

  18. Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate...

  19. Effectiveness of cleanup criteria relative to an accidental nuclear release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; Yuan, Y.C.

    1988-01-01

    In the event of an accidental nuclear release, the associated long-term radiological risks would result primarily from ground contamination pathways. Cleanup of the contaminated ground surfaces is a necessary step toward reducing the radiological risk to the general population. Ideally, the radiological risk decreases as the level of cleanup effort increases; however, as the cleanup criterion (i.e., the required contaminant concentration after cleanup) becomes more stringent, the cleanup effort may become prohibitively costly. This study examines several factors that are important in determining the effectiveness of the cleanup criteria for selected radionuclides: (a) annual individual dose commitment (mrem/yr), (b) total population environmental dose commitment (person-rem), and (c) total area (km 2 ) requiring cleanup following an accident. To effectively protect the general population, the benefits of cleanup should be weighed against the potentially large increase in cleanup area (and the associated costs) as the cleanup criterion becomes more stringent. The effectiveness of cleanup will vary, depending largely on site-specific parameters such as population density and agricultural productivity as well as on the amount and type of radionuclide released. Determination of an optimum cleanup criterion should account for all factors, including a comprehensive cost/benefit analysis

  20. Matched-Filter Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Tabatabaei

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional infrared thermography techniques, including pulsed and lock-in thermography, have shown great potential for non-destructive evaluation of broad spectrum of materials, spanning from metals to polymers to biological tissues. However, performance of these techniques is often limited due to the diffuse nature of thermal wave fields, resulting in an inherent compromise between inspection depth and depth resolution. Recently, matched-filter thermography has been introduced as a means for overcoming this classic limitation to enable depth-resolved subsurface thermal imaging and improving axial/depth resolution. This paper reviews the basic principles and experimental results of matched-filter thermography: first, mathematical and signal processing concepts related to matched-fileting and pulse compression are discussed. Next, theoretical modeling of thermal-wave responses to matched-filter thermography using two categories of pulse compression techniques (linear frequency modulation and binary phase coding are reviewed. Key experimental results from literature demonstrating the maintenance of axial resolution while inspecting deep into opaque and turbid media are also presented and discussed. Finally, the concept of thermal coherence tomography for deconvolution of thermal responses of axially superposed sources and creation of depth-selective images in a diffusion-wave field is reviewed.

  1. Controlling flow conditions of test filters in iodine filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, R.; Laine, J.

    1979-03-01

    Several different iodine filter and test filter designs and experience gained from their operation are presented. For the flow experiments, an iodine filter system equipped with flow regulating and measuring devices was built. In the experiments the influence of the packing method of the iodine sorption material and the influence of the flow regulating and measuring divices upon the flow conditions in the test filters was studied. On the basis of the experiments it has been shown that the flows through the test filters always can be adjusted to a correct value if there only is a high enough pressure difference available across the test filter ducting. As a result of the research, several different methods are presented with which the flows through the test filters in both operating and future iodine sorption system can easily be measured and adjusted to their correct values. (author)

  2. Design of multiplier-less sharp non-uniform cosine modulated filter banks for efficient channelizers in software defined radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaeen Kalathil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Forthcoming software defined radios require filter banks which satisfy stringent specifications efficiently with low implementation complexity. Cosine modulated filter banks (CMFB have simple and efficient design procedure. The different wireless standards have different channel spacing or bandwidths and hence demand non-uniform decomposition of subbands. The non-uniform CMFB can be obtained from a uniform CMFB in a simple and efficient approach by merging the adjacent channels of the uniform CMFB. Very narrow transition width filters with low complexity can be achieved using frequency response masking (FRM filter as prototype filter. The complexity is further reduced by the multiplier-less realization of filter banks in which the least number of signed power of two (SPT terms is achieved by representing the filter coefficients using canonic signed digit (CSD representation and then optimizing using suitable modified meta-heuristic algorithms. Hybrid meta-heuristic algorithms are used in this paper. A hybrid algorithm combines the qualities of two meta-heuristic algorithms and results in improved performances with low implementation complexity. Highly frequency selective filter banks characterized by small passband ripple, narrow transition width and high stopband attenuation with non-uniform decomposition of subbands can be designed with least the implementation complexity, using this approach. A digital channelizer can be designed for SDR implementations, using the proposed approach. In this paper, the non-uniform CMFB is designed for various existing wireless standards.

  3. A new look at the economic disposal of contaminated aerosol filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinhuber, D.; Stiehl, H.H.; Schroth, W.

    1977-01-01

    HEPA filter elements loaded with radioactive aerosols represent a large percentage of the radioactive waste of nuclear plants. The HEPA filter elements used at present in air filter units are not suitable to an economic disposal and space-saving final storage on account of their construction. New concepts for HEPA filters are necessary from the point of view of waste disposal. The criteria of these new designs are as follows: reduction of space required for HEPA filters used at the same or even increased flow rates and with the same efficiency; essentially smaller dimensions of HEPA filters for storage in waste containers; removal without contamination, volume reduction (without contamination) for disposal of the HEPA filters; smallest possible volume of the HEPA filters after processing for final storage. The construction of HEPA filters as a result of the requirements mentioned above and taking into consideration the present stage of technology is explained. The advantages of such construction with regard to the criteria mentioned before are presented in comparison with the HEPA filters at present in use

  4. Radiological design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J.M.; Andersen, B.V.; Carter, L.A.; Waite, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Many new nuclear facilities are unsatisfactory from a radiation protection point of view, particularly when striving to maintain occupational exposure as low as practicable 'ALAP'. Radiation protection is achieved through physical protective features supplemented by administrative controls. Adequate physical protective feature should be achieved during construction so that supplemental administrative controls may be kept simple and workable. Many nuclear facilities fall short of adequate physical protective features, thus, remedial and sometimes awkward administrative procedures are required to safely conduct work. In reviewing the various handbooks, reports and regulations which deal with radiation protection, it may be noted that there is minimal radiological design guidance for application to nuclear facilities. A set of criteria or codes covering functional areas rather than specific nuclear facility types is badly needed. The following are suggested as functional areas to be considered: characterization of the Facility; siting and access; design exposure limits; layout (people and materials flow); ventilation and effluent control; radiation protection facilities and systems. The application of such radiological design criteria early in the design process would provide some assurance that nuclear facilities will be safe, flexible, and efficient with a minimum of costly retrofitting or administrative restrictions. Criteria which we have found helpful in these functional areas is discussed together with justification for adoption of such criteria and identification of problems which still require solution

  5. Comments on confinement criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurak, V.; Schroer, B.; Swieca, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    For a QED 2 model with SU(n) flavour, the nature of the physical states space is more subtle than one expects on the basis of the loop criterion for confinement. One may have colour confinement without confinement of the fundamental flavour representation. Attempts to formulate confinement criteria in which the quark fields play a more fundamental role are discussed [pt

  6. Sharpening minimum-phase filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic Dolecek, G.; Fernandez-Vazquez, A.

    2013-02-01

    The minimum-phase requirement restricts that filter has all its zeros on or inside the unit circle. As a result the filter does not have a linear phase. It is well known that the sharpening technique can be used to simultaneous improvements of both the pass-band and stop-band of a linear-phase FIR filters and cannot be used for other types of filters. In this paper we demonstrate that the sharpening technique can also be applied to minimum-phase filters, after small modification. The method is illustrated with one practical examples of design.

  7. A Short Note on t-filters, I-filters and Extended Filters on Residuated Lattices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Víta, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 271, 15 July (2015), s. 168-171 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1826 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : t-filters * I-filters * extended filters * residuated lattices Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.098, year: 2015

  8. Optimisation of digital noise filtering in the deconvolution of ultrafast kinetic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banyasz, Akos; Dancs, Gabor; Keszei, Erno

    2005-01-01

    Ultrafast kinetic measurements in the sub-picosecond time range are always distorted by a convolution with the instrumental response function. To restore the undistorted signal, deconvolution of the measured data is needed, which can be done via inverse filtering, using Fourier transforms, if experimental noise can be successfully filtered. However, in the case of experimental data when no underlying physical model is available, no quantitative criteria are known to find an optimal noise filter which would remove excessive noise without distorting the signal itself. In this paper, we analyse the Fourier transforms used during deconvolution and describe a graphical method to find such optimal noise filters. Comparison of graphically found optima to those found by quantitative criteria in the case of known synthetic kinetic signals shows the reliability of the proposed method to get fairly good deconvolved kinetic curves. A few examples of deconvolution of real-life experimental curves with the graphical noise filter optimisation are also shown

  9. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Hakon

    2016-06-14

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in the setting of finite dimensional signal evolution and noisy discrete-time observations. The signal dynamics is assumed to be governed by a stochastic differential equation (SDE), and a hierarchy of time grids is introduced for multilevel numerical integration of that SDE. The resulting multilevel EnKF is proved to asymptotically outperform EnKF in terms of computational cost versus approximation accuracy. The theoretical results are illustrated numerically.

  10. Advances in Collaborative Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Yehuda; Bell, Robert

    The collaborative filtering (CF) approach to recommenders has recently enjoyed much interest and progress. The fact that it played a central role within the recently completed Netflix competition has contributed to its popularity. This chapter surveys the recent progress in the field. Matrix factorization techniques, which became a first choice for implementing CF, are described together with recent innovations. We also describe several extensions that bring competitive accuracy into neighborhood methods, which used to dominate the field. The chapter demonstrates how to utilize temporal models and implicit feedback to extend models accuracy. In passing, we include detailed descriptions of some the central methods developed for tackling the challenge of the Netflix Prize competition.

  11. Human Systems Design Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of designing more humanised computer systems. This problem can be formally described as the need for defining human design criteria, which — if used in the design process - will secure that the systems designed get the relevant qualities. That is not only...... the necessary functional qualities but also the needed human qualities. The author's main argument is, that the design process should be a dialectical synthesis of the two points of view: Man as a System Component, and System as Man's Environment. Based on a man's presentation of the state of the art a set...... of design criteria is suggested and their relevance discussed. The point is to focus on the operator rather than on the computer. The crucial question is not to program the computer to work on its own conditions, but to “program” the operator to function on human conditions....

  12. Intelligent intefrace design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicard, Y.; Siebert, S.; Thebault, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    Optimum adequation between control means and the capacities of the teams of operators is sought for to achieve computerization of control and monitoring interfaces. Observation of the diagnosis activity of populations of operators in incident situations on a simulator enables design criteria well-suited to the characteristics of the detection, interpretation of symptoms and incident location tasks to be defined. A software tool based on a qualitative approach enables the design process to be systematized

  13. WARM JUPITERS NEED CLOSE ''FRIENDS'' FOR HIGH-ECCENTRICITY MIGRATION—A STRINGENT UPPER LIMIT ON THE PERTURBER'S SEPARATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Subo [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Road 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Katz, Boaz; Socrates, Aristotle [Institute for Advanced Study, 1 Einstein Dr., Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2014-01-20

    We propose a stringent observational test on the formation of warm Jupiters (gas-giant planets with 10 days ≲ P ≲ 100 days) by high-eccentricity (high-e) migration mechanisms. Unlike hot Jupiters, the majority of observed warm Jupiters have pericenter distances too large to allow efficient tidal dissipation to induce migration. To access the close pericenter required for migration during a Kozai-Lidov cycle, they must be accompanied by a strong enough perturber to overcome the precession caused by general relativity, placing a strong upper limit on the perturber's separation. For a warm Jupiter at a ∼ 0.2 AU, a Jupiter-mass (solar-mass) perturber is required to be ≲ 3 AU (≲ 30 AU) and can be identified observationally. Among warm Jupiters detected by radial velocities (RVs), ≳ 50% (5 out of 9) with large eccentricities (e ≳ 0.4) have known Jovian companions satisfying this necessary condition for high-e migration. In contrast, ≲ 20% (3 out of 17) of the low-e (e ≲ 0.2) warm Jupiters have detected additional Jovian companions, suggesting that high-e migration with planetary perturbers may not be the dominant formation channel. Complete, long-term RV follow-ups of the warm-Jupiter population will allow a firm upper limit to be put on the fraction of these planets formed by high-e migration. Transiting warm Jupiters showing spin-orbit misalignments will be interesting to apply our test. If the misalignments are solely due to high-e migration as commonly suggested, we expect that the majority of warm Jupiters with low-e (e ≲ 0.2) are not misaligned, in contrast with low-e hot Jupiters.

  14. Inducible Expression of Agrobacterium Virulence Gene VirE2 for Stringent Regulation of T-DNA Transfer in Plant Transient Expression Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkovskienė, Erna; Paškevičius, Šarūnas; Werner, Stefan; Gleba, Yuri; Ražanskienė, Aušra

    2015-11-01

    Agrotransfection with viral vectors is an effective solution for the transient production of valuable proteins in plants grown in contained facilities. Transfection methods suitable for field applications are desirable for the production of high-volume products and for the transient molecular reprogramming of plants. The use of genetically modified (GM) Agrobacterium strains for plant transfections faces substantial biosafety issues. The environmental biosafety of GM Agrobacterium strains could be improved by regulating their T-DNA transfer via chemically inducible expression of virE2, one of the essential Agrobacterium virulence genes. In order to identify strong and stringently regulated promoters in Agrobacterium strains, we evaluated isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactoside-inducible promoters Plac, Ptac, PT7/lacO, and PT5/lacOlacO and cumic acid-inducible promoters PlacUV5/CuO, Ptac/CuO, PT5/CuO, and PvirE/CuO. Nicotiana benthamiana plants were transfected with a virE2-deficient A. tumefaciens strain containing transient expression vectors harboring inducible virE2 expression cassettes and containing a marker green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene in their T-DNA region. Evaluation of T-DNA transfer was achieved by counting GFP expression foci on plant leaves. The virE2 expression from cumic acid-induced promoters resulted in 47 to 72% of wild-type T-DNA transfer. Here, we present efficient and tightly regulated promoters for gene expression in A. tumefaciens and a novel approach to address environmental biosafety concerns in agrobiotechnology.

  15. Filter and Filter Bank Design for Image Texture Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randen, Trygve

    1997-12-31

    The relevance of this thesis to energy and environment lies in its application to remote sensing such as for instance sea floor mapping and seismic pattern recognition. The focus is on the design of two-dimensional filters for feature extraction, segmentation, and classification of digital images with textural content. The features are extracted by filtering with a linear filter and estimating the local energy in the filter response. The thesis gives a review covering broadly most previous approaches to texture feature extraction and continues with proposals of some new techniques. 143 refs., 59 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Leukodepletion blood filters: filter design and mechanisms of leukocyte removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzik, S

    1993-04-01

    Modern leukocyte removal filters have been developed after years of refinement in design. Current filters are composite filters in which synthetic microfiber material is prepared as a nonwoven web. The filter material may be surface modified to alter surface tension or charge to improve performance. The housing design promotes effective contact of blood with the filter material and decreases shear forces. The exact mechanisms by which these filters remove leukocytes from blood components are uncertain, but likely represent a combination of both physical and biological processes whose contributions to leukocyte removal are interdependent. Small-pore microfiber webs result in barrier phenomena that permit retention of individual cells and increase the total adsorptive area of the filter. Modifications in surface charge can increase or decrease cell attraction to the fibers. Optimum interfacial surface tensions between blood cells, plasma, and filter fibers not only permit effective blood flow through small fiber pores, but also facilitate cell contact with the material. Barrier retention is a common mechanism for all modern leukocyte-removal filters and applies to all leukocyte subtypes. Because barrier retention does not depend on cell viability, it is operative for cells of any age and will retain any nondeformable cell, including whole nuclei from lymphocytes or monocytes. Barrier retention is supplemented by retention by adhesion. RBCs, lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, and platelets differ in their relative adhesiveness to filter fibers. Different adhesive mechanisms are used in filters designed for RBCs compared with filters designed for platelets. Although lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes can adhere directly to filter fibers, the biological mechanisms underlying cell adhesion may differ for these cell types. These differences may depend on expression of cell adhesion molecules. In the case of filtration of fresh RBCs, platelet-leukocyte interaction

  17. Intelligibility of bandpass filtered speech: The effect of filter types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Noam; Kishon-Rabin, Liat

    2017-12-01

    Many studies have examined the contribution of different spectral bands to speech intelligibility, measuring recognition scores of filtered speech stimuli. For a given filter bandwidth, the influence of filter properties on such experiments has been studied mainly with respect to transition band slopes. The objective of the present study was to determine whether nominal transition band slope is a sufficient characterization of filter properties. Several types of filters, both finite impulse response and infinite impulse response types were examined in three experiments to determine if details of the transition band behavior, as well as group delay properties, had any influence on recognition scores. The results of a total of 72 participants showed that for 1/3 octave passbands, differences between filters having the same nominal transition band slopes, but of different types, were large and statistically significant. Linearity of phase response, however, did not influence the results. Further experiments using passband widths of 1/2 and 2/3 octaves revealed that only for the latter the difference in recognition scores between filter types ceased to be significant. These results have important implications for studies which involve filtered speech as well as models that employ different types of filters to emulate peripheral auditory processing.

  18. Tandem HEPA filter tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, B G; Osetek, D J

    1978-02-01

    Current methods for evaluating the performance and reliability of high-efficiency air cleaning systems use forward light-scattering photometers and DOP aerosol. This method is limited to measuring protection factors of 10(4) or 10(5) and has poor sensitivity to particles less than .3 micron. More accurate determination of system performance could be made by measuring two filter stages with a single test. Because of the large protection factors of a two-stage system, it is necessary to use high challenge aerosol concentrations and long downstream sampling times. Concentrations were measured using an intra-cavity laser light-scattering aerosol spectrometer which is capable of detection of single particles ranging in size from 0.07 to 3.00 micron diameter. The results of several tests with challenge aerosols of both NaCl and DOP yielded protection factors ranging from 1.4 x 10(7) to 3.0 x 10(9) for two HEPA filters in series.

  19. Nanoparticle optical notch filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasinadhuni, Pradeep Kumar

    Developing novel light blocking products involves the design of a nanoparticle optical notch filter, working on the principle of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). These light blocking products can be used in many applications. One such application is to naturally reduce migraine headaches and light sensitivity. Melanopsin ganglion cells present in the retina of the human eye, connect to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN-the body's clock) in the brain, where they participate in the entrainment of the circadian rhythms. As the Melanopsin ganglion cells are involved in triggering the migraine headaches in photophobic patients, it is necessary to block the part of visible spectrum that activates these cells. It is observed from the action potential spectrum of the ganglion cells that they absorb light ranging from 450-500nm (blue-green part) of the visible spectrum with a λmax (peak sensitivity) of around 480nm (blue line). Currently prescribed for migraine patients is the FL-41 coating, which blocks a broad range of wavelengths, including wavelengths associated with melanopsin absorption. The nanoparticle optical notch filter is designed to block light only at 480nm, hence offering an effective prescription for the treatment of migraine headaches.

  20. Investigation of cooling methods and thickness considerations in the filter/window assembly for synchrotron radiation beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Kuzay, T.M.; Hahn, U.

    1993-01-01

    Synchrotron x-ray windows are vacuum separators and are usually made of thin beryllium metal. Filters are provided upstream to absorb the soft x-rays so that the window can be protected from overheating, which could result in failure. The filters are made of thin carbon products or sometimes beryllium, the same material as the window. When the synchrotron x-rays pass through a filter or window, part of the photons will be absorbed by the filter or window. The absorbed photons cause heat to build up within the filter or window. Successful filter and window designs should effectively dissipate the heat generated by the absorbed photons and guarantee the safety of the filter and window. The cooling methods typically used in a filter or window design are conduction and radiation cooling or a combination of the two. The different cooling methods were first examined with regard to efficiency and effectiveness in different temperature ranges. Analysis results are presented for temperature distribution and corresponding thermal stresses in the filter and window. Another important issue to be resolved in designing a filter/window assembly is how to select the thickness of the filters and windows. This paper focuses on the criteria for choosing the thickness of a filter: whether it is better to use a few thick filters or a series of thin ones; how to determine the minimum/maximum thickness; and the difference in thickness considerations for the window versus the filter. Numerical investigations are presented

  1. Reconfigurable Mixed Mode Universal Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelofer Afzal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel mixed mode universal filter configuration capable of working in voltage and transimpedance mode. The proposed single filter configuration can be reconfigured digitally to realize all the five second order filter functions (types at single output port. Other salient features of proposed configuration include independently programmable filter parameters, full cascadability, and low sensitivity figure. However, all these features are provided at the cost of quite large number of active elements. It needs three digitally programmable current feedback amplifiers and three digitally programmable current conveyors. Use of six active elements is justified by introducing three additional reduced hardware mixed mode universal filter configurations and its comparison with reported filters.

  2. Transmitted-light microscopy - a new method for surface structure analysis of cleanable non-woven dust filter media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rud, Heimo; Mauschitz, Gerd; Höflinger, Wilhelm

    2007-06-18

    With regard to the more stringent legislation in environmental protection strong efforts have been made to reduce fine dust emissions. As a result filter devices equipped with dry operating cleanable textile filter media have become one of the most favoured separation techniques for fine dust. For improvement of cleanable filter media it is necessary to understand the influence of their structure on their filtration behaviour and to develop parameters for characterising their clogging and penetration behaviour. The aim of the research work presented in this paper was to improve the already developed reflected-light method [W. Koschutnig, G. Mauschitz, W. Höflinger, Charakterisierung der Oberflächenbehandlung und des Verstopfungsverhaltens von abreinigbaren Staubfiltermedien mittels Bildanalyse, CIT 76, 2004, 10, 5 pp.] to get a structure parameter of cleanable non-woven dust filter media, which can give information about the particle penetration. To reach this goal transmitted-light is used instead of reflected-light. By that way images with higher contrast will be achieved which enable to define a mean hydraulic diameter for the pores near the outer surface of cleanable non-woven dust filter media. Experimental measurements were carried out which prove that the mean hydraulic pore diameter can be a measure for the particle penetration of a filter medium. The pore volume equivalent, which can be used as a measure of the dust storage capacity of the filter medium can also be detected by the transmitted-light method.

  3. DSP Control of Line Hybrid Active Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dan, Stan George; Benjamin, Doniga Daniel; Magureanu, R.

    2005-01-01

    Active Power Filters have been intensively explored in the past decade. Hybrid active filters inherit the efficiency of passive filters and the improved performance of active filters, and thus constitute a viable improved approach for harmonic compensation. In this paper a parallel hybrid filter...... is studied for current harmonic compensation. The hybrid filter is formed by a single tuned Le filter and a small-rated power active filter, which are directly connected in series without any matching transformer. Thus the required rating of the active filter is much smaller than a conventional standalone...... active filter. Simulation and experimental results obtained in laboratory confirmed the validity and effectiveness of the control....

  4. Speech Enhancement by Modified Convex Combination of Fractional Adaptive Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Geravanchizadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new adaptive filtering techniques used in speech enhancement system. Adaptive filtering schemes are subjected to different trade-offs regarding their steady-state misadjustment, speed of convergence, and tracking performance. Fractional Least-Mean-Square (FLMS is a new adaptive algorithm which has better performance than the conventional LMS algorithm. Normalization of LMS leads to better performance of adaptive filter. Furthermore, convex combination of two adaptive filters improves its performance. In this paper, new convex combinational adaptive filtering methods in the framework of speech enhancement system are proposed. The proposed methods utilize the idea of normalization and fractional derivative, both in the design of different convex mixing strategies and their related component filters. To assess our proposed methods, simulation results of different LMS-based algorithms based on their convergence behavior (i.e., MSE plots and different objective and subjective criteria are compared. The objective and subjective evaluations include examining the results of SNR improvement, PESQ test, and listening tests for dual-channel speech enhancement. The powerful aspects of proposed methods are their low complexity, as expected with all LMS-based methods, along with a high convergence rate.

  5. Digital filtering in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T.R.; Sampathkumaran, S.

    1982-01-01

    Digital filtering is a powerful mathematical technique in computer analysis of nuclear medicine studies. The basic concepts of object-domain and frequency-domain filtering are presented in simple, largely nonmathemaical terms. Computational methods are described using both the Fourier transform and convolution techniques. The frequency response is described and used to represent the behavior of several classes of filters. These concepts are illustrated with examples drawn from a variety of important applications in nuclear medicine

  6. Advanced simulation of digital filters

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, Gerald S.

    1980-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited An Advanced Simulation of Digital Filters has been implemented on the IBM/67 computer utilizing Tektronix hardware and software. The program package is appropriate for persons beginning their study of digital signal processing or for filter analysis. The ASDF programs provide the user with an interactive method by which filter pole and zero locations can be manipulated. Graphical output on both the Tektronix graphics screen and the ...

  7. Multi-filter spectrophotometry simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Kim A. S.; Gibson, Brad K.; Hickson, Paul

    1993-01-01

    To complement both the multi-filter observations of quasar environments described in these proceedings, as well as the proposed UBC 2.7 m Liquid Mirror Telescope (LMT) redshift survey, we have initiated a program of simulated multi-filter spectrophotometry. The goal of this work, still very much in progress, is a better quantitative assessment of the multiband technique as a viable mechanism for obtaining useful redshift and morphological class information from large scale multi-filter surveys.

  8. Adaptive filtering and change detection

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafsson, Fredrik

    2003-01-01

    Adaptive filtering is a classical branch of digital signal processing (DSP). Industrial interest in adaptive filtering grows continuously with the increase in computer performance that allows ever more conplex algorithms to be run in real-time. Change detection is a type of adaptive filtering for non-stationary signals and is also the basic tool in fault detection and diagnosis. Often considered as separate subjects Adaptive Filtering and Change Detection bridges a gap in the literature with a unified treatment of these areas, emphasizing that change detection is a natural extensi

  9. The intractable cigarette 'filter problem'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Bradford

    2011-05-01

    When lung cancer fears emerged in the 1950s, cigarette companies initiated a shift in cigarette design from unfiltered to filtered cigarettes. Both the ineffectiveness of cigarette filters and the tobacco industry's misleading marketing of the benefits of filtered cigarettes have been well documented. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, American cigarette companies spent millions of dollars to solve what the industry identified as the 'filter problem'. These extensive filter research and development efforts suggest a phase of genuine optimism among cigarette designers that cigarette filters could be engineered to mitigate the health hazards of smoking. This paper explores the early history of cigarette filter research and development in order to elucidate why and when seemingly sincere filter engineering efforts devolved into manipulations in cigarette design to sustain cigarette marketing and mitigate consumers' concerns about the health consequences of smoking. Relevant word and phrase searches were conducted in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library online database, Google Patents, and media and medical databases including ProQuest, JSTOR, Medline and PubMed. 13 tobacco industry documents were identified that track prominent developments involved in what the industry referred to as the 'filter problem'. These reveal a period of intense focus on the 'filter problem' that persisted from the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s, featuring collaborations between cigarette producers and large American chemical and textile companies to develop effective filters. In addition, the documents reveal how cigarette filter researchers' growing scientific knowledge of smoke chemistry led to increasing recognition that filters were unlikely to offer significant health protection. One of the primary concerns of cigarette producers was to design cigarette filters that could be economically incorporated into the massive scale of cigarette production. The synthetic plastic cellulose acetate

  10. Web site Evaluation Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojdgan binesh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The ever-increasing evolution of the Internet and the growing number of the resources accessible through this medium, has turned the issue of resource evaluation of the internet-based information into a controversial and cogent issue. By nature, the internet milieu is uncontrollable. It concomitantly contains both verifiable and unverifiable information. Thus it behooves the internet users to develop resource evaluation and critical thinking skills in order to discern appropriate quality resources. Through review and comparison of the available checklists, the present paper endeavors to offer criteria for website evaluation

  11. Bridging the ensemble Kalman filter and particle filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stordal, Andreas Stoerksen; Karlsen, Hans A.; Naevdal, Geir; Skaug, Hans J.; Valles, Brice

    2009-12-15

    The nonlinear filtering problem occurs in many scientific areas. Sequential Monte Carlo solutions with the correct asymptotic behavior such as particle filters exist but they are computationally too expensive when working with high-dimensional systems. The ensemble Kalman filter is a more robust method that has shown promising results with a small sample size but the samples are not guaranteed to come from the true posterior distribution. By approximating the model error with Gaussian kernels we get the advantage of both a Kalman correction and a weighting step. The resulting Gaussian mixture filter has the advantage of both a local Kalman type correction and the weighting/re sampling step of a particle filter. The Gaussian mixture approximation relies on a tunable bandwidth parameter which often has to be kept quite large in order to avoid weight collapse in high dimensions. As a result, the Kalman correction is too large to capture highly non-Gaussian posterior distributions. In this paper we have extended the Gaussian mixture filter (Hoteit et al., 2008b) and also made the connection to particle filters more transparent. In particular we introduce a tuning parameter for the importance weights. In the last part of the paper we have performed a simulation experiment with the Lorenz40 model where our method has been compared to the EnKF and a full implementation of a particle filter. The results clearly indicate that the new method has advantages compared to the standard EnKF. (Author)

  12. AER image filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rodríguez, F.; Linares-Barranco, A.; Paz, R.; Miró-Amarante, L.; Jiménez, G.; Civit, A.

    2007-05-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows real-time virtual massive connectivity among huge number of neurons located on different chips.[1] By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timing), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Neurons generate "events" according to their activity levels. That is, more active neurons generate more events per unit time and access the interchip communication channel more frequently than neurons with low activity. In Neuromorphic system development, AER brings some advantages to develop real-time image processing system: (1) AER represents the information like time continuous stream not like a frame; (2) AER sends the most important information first (although this depends on the sender); (3) AER allows to process information as soon as it is received. When AER is used in artificial vision field, each pixel is considered like a neuron, so pixel's intensity is represented like a sequence of events; modifying the number and the frequency of these events, it is possible to make some image filtering. In this paper we present four image filters using AER: (a) Noise addition and suppression, (b) brightness modification, (c) single moving object tracking and (d) geometrical transformations (rotation, translation, reduction and magnification). For testing and debugging, we use USB-AER board developed by Robotic and Technology of Computers Applied to Rehabilitation (RTCAR) research group. This board is based on an FPGA, devoted to manage the AER functionality. This board also includes a micro-controlled for USB communication, 2 Mbytes RAM and 2 AER ports (one for input and one for output).

  13. Safety and reliability criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, R.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear power plants and, in particular, reactor pressure boundary components have unique reliability requirements, in that usually no significant redundancy is possible, and a single failure can give rise to possible widespread core damage and fission product release. Reliability may be required for availability or safety reasons, but in the case of the pressure boundary and certain other systems safety may dominate. Possible Safety and Reliability (S and R) criteria are proposed which would produce acceptable reactor design. Without some S and R requirement the designer has no way of knowing how far he must go in analysing his system or component, or whether his proposed solution is likely to gain acceptance. The paper shows how reliability targets for given components and systems can be individually considered against the derived S and R criteria at the design and construction stage. Since in the case of nuclear pressure boundary components there is often very little direct experience on which to base reliability studies, relevant non-nuclear experience is examined. (author)

  14. Particle Kalman Filtering: A Nonlinear Framework for Ensemble Kalman Filters

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2010-09-19

    Optimal nonlinear filtering consists of sequentially determining the conditional probability distribution functions (pdf) of the system state, given the information of the dynamical and measurement processes and the previous measurements. Once the pdfs are obtained, one can determine different estimates, for instance, the minimum variance estimate, or the maximum a posteriori estimate, of the system state. It can be shown that, many filters, including the Kalman filter (KF) and the particle filter (PF), can be derived based on this sequential Bayesian estimation framework. In this contribution, we present a Gaussian mixture‐based framework, called the particle Kalman filter (PKF), and discuss how the different EnKF methods can be derived as simplified variants of the PKF. We also discuss approaches to reducing the computational burden of the PKF in order to make it suitable for complex geosciences applications. We use the strongly nonlinear Lorenz‐96 model to illustrate the performance of the PKF.

  15. Digital notch filter based active damping for LCL filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Wenli; Yang, Yongheng; Zhang, Xiaobin

    2015-01-01

    LCL filters are widely used in Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) inverters. However, it also introduces a pair of unstable resonant poles that may challenge the controller stability. The passive damping is a convenient possibility to tackle the resonance problem at the cost of system overall efficiency....... In this paper, a notch filter based active damping without the requirement of additional sensors is proposed, where the inverter current is employed as the feedback variable. Firstly, a design method of the notch filter for active damping is presented. The entire system stability has then been investigated......, which has revealed that negative variations of the resonant frequency can seriously affect the system stability. In order to make the controller more robust against grid impedance variations, the notch filter frequency is thus designed smaller than the LCL filter resonant frequency, which is done...

  16. Application of DFT Filter Banks and Cosine Modulated Filter Banks in Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Pei; Vaidyanathan, P. P.

    1994-01-01

    None given. This is a proposal for a paper to be presented at APCCAS '94 in Taipei, Taiwan. (From outline): This work is organized as follows: Sec. II is devoted to the construction of the new 2m channel under-decimated DFT filter bank. Implementation and complexity of this DFT filter bank are discussed therein. IN a similar manner, the new 2m channel cosine modulated filter bank is discussed in Sec. III. Design examples are given in Sec. IV.

  17. Criteria to Extract High-Quality Protein Data Bank Subsets for Structure Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carugo, Oliviero; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    It is often necessary to build subsets of the Protein Data Bank to extract structural trends and average values. For this purpose it is mandatory that the subsets are non-redundant and of high quality. The first problem can be solved relatively easily at the sequence level or at the structural level. The second, on the contrary, needs special attention. It is not sufficient, in fact, to consider the crystallographic resolution and other feature must be taken into account: the absence of strings of residues from the electron density maps and from the files deposited in the Protein Data Bank; the B-factor values; the appropriate validation of the structural models; the quality of the electron density maps, which is not uniform; and the temperature of the diffraction experiments. More stringent criteria produce smaller subsets, which can be enlarged with more tolerant selection criteria. The incessant growth of the Protein Data Bank and especially of the number of high-resolution structures is allowing the use of more stringent selection criteria, with a consequent improvement of the quality of the subsets of the Protein Data Bank.

  18. Design of SAW FIR filters for quadrature binary modulation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, A J; Malocha, D C; Belkerdid, M A

    1993-01-01

    Approaches for designing surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters used in pulsed quadrature binary modulation (QBM) systems are presented. Several previously defined pulse shapes were implemented by a SAW filter and showed good QBM system performance with respect to modulation envelope nonuniformity (AM) and intersymbol interference (ISI). A new approach to QBM pulse shape definition using both frequency- and time-domain design criteria is described. This approach allows families of new pulse shapes having various levels of AM and spectral confinement to be designed. The approaches to the design equations are presented, and examples of specific pulse shapes and their implementation using SAW filters are given. Time- and frequency-domain results of iteratively designed pulse shapes for application to QBM systems are also presented, showing good performance.

  19. National Recommended Water Quality Criteria

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Recommended Water Quality Criteria is a compilation of national recommended water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life and human health...

  20. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, K

    2005-01-01

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser safety audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe use of Lasers references this requirement in several sections: (1) Section 1.3.2 LSO Specific Responsibilities states under Hazard Evaluation, ''The LSO shall be responsible for hazards evaluation of laser work areas''; (2) Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''; and (3) Appendix D, under Survey and Inspections, it states, ''the LSO will survey by inspection, as considered necessary, all areas where laser equipment is used''. Therefore, for facilities using Class 3B and or Class 4 lasers, audits for laser safety compliance are expected to be conducted. The composition, frequency and rigueur of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms. In many institutions, a sole Laser Safety Officer (LSO) or a number of Deputy LSO's perform these audits. For that matter, there are institutions that request users to perform a self-assessment audit. Many items on the common audit list and the associated findings are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the LSO or auditor in particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage is an example; to one set of eyes a particular arrangement might be completely adequate, while to another the installation may be inadequate. In order to provide more consistency, the National Ignition Facility Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (NIF-LLNL) has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. These criteria are distributed to laser users, and they serve two broad purposes: first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor, and second, it is an

  1. Implicit LES using adaptive filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guangrui; Domaradzki, Julian A.

    2018-04-01

    In implicit large eddy simulations (ILES) numerical dissipation prevents buildup of small scale energy in a manner similar to the explicit subgrid scale (SGS) models. If spectral methods are used the numerical dissipation is negligible but it can be introduced by applying a low-pass filter in the physical space, resulting in an effective ILES. In the present work we provide a comprehensive analysis of the numerical dissipation produced by different filtering operations in a turbulent channel flow simulated using a non-dissipative, pseudo-spectral Navier-Stokes solver. The amount of numerical dissipation imparted by filtering can be easily adjusted by changing how often a filter is applied. We show that when the additional numerical dissipation is close to the subgrid-scale (SGS) dissipation of an explicit LES the overall accuracy of ILES is also comparable, indicating that periodic filtering can replace explicit SGS models. A new method is proposed, which does not require any prior knowledge of a flow, to determine the filtering period adaptively. Once an optimal filtering period is found, the accuracy of ILES is significantly improved at low implementation complexity and computational cost. The method is general, performing well for different Reynolds numbers, grid resolutions, and filter shapes.

  2. Level 3 filters at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    The Level 3 stage in CDF online filtering is currently under development. This system should support a flexible division between online and offline software filters within the constraints of the full data acquisition system. Multimicroprocessor (MMP) structures like the ACP system used by CDF could be improved with multi-rank architectures to meet SSC requirements

  3. Chopped filter for nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, J.

    1980-12-01

    Some of the theoretical and practical factors affecting the energy resolution of a spectrometry system are considered, specially those related to t he signal-to-noise ratio, and a time-variant filter with the transfer function of the theoretical optimum filter, during its active time, is proposed. A prototype has been tested and experimental results are presented. (Author) [pt

  4. Mobile filters in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuter, R.

    1979-01-01

    The need for filters with high efficiencies which may be used at any place originated in nuclear power plants. Filters of this type, called Filtermobil, have been developed by Sulzer. They have been used successfully in nuclear plants for several years. (orig.) [de

  5. Tunable Multiband Microwave Photonic Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mable P. Fok

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for multifunctional devices, the use of cognitive wireless technology to solve the frequency resource shortage problem, as well as the capabilities and operational flexibility necessary to meet ever-changing environment result in an urgent need of multiband wireless communications. Spectral filter is an essential part of any communication systems, and in the case of multiband wireless communications, tunable multiband RF filters are required for channel selection, noise/interference removal, and RF signal processing. Unfortunately, it is difficult for RF electronics to achieve both tunable and multiband spectral filtering. Recent advancements of microwave photonics have proven itself to be a promising candidate to solve various challenges in RF electronics including spectral filtering, however, the development of multiband microwave photonic filtering still faces lots of difficulties, due to the limited scalability and tunability of existing microwave photonic schemes. In this review paper, we first discuss the challenges that were facing by multiband microwave photonic filter, then we review recent techniques that have been developed to tackle the challenge and lead to promising developments of tunable microwave photonic multiband filters. The successful design and implementation of tunable microwave photonic multiband filter facilitate the vision of dynamic multiband wireless communications and radio frequency signal processing for commercial, defense, and civilian applications.

  6. Diabatic initialization using recursive filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Peter; Huang, Xiang-Yu

    1994-10-01

    Several initialization schemes based on recursive filters are formulated and tested with a numerical weather prediction model, HIRLAM. These have an advantage over schemes which use non-recursive filters in that they derive the initialized values from a diabatic trajectory passing through the original analysis. The changes to the analysed fields are comparable in size to typical observational errors. A non-recursive implementation of the recursive filters makes the new initialization schemes as easy to use as the original non-recursive filter schemes. It also allows use of higher-order filters without added cost. An initialization method using a 6th order filter is compared to a scheme based on an non-recursive optimal filter, and is found to produce similar results for less than half the computational cost. If the sole aim is noise suppression, a filter whose output validates later than the initial time may be used. The advantage of this is that computation time is further reduced and phase error completely eliminated.

  7. Derivative free filtering using Kalmtool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayramoglu, Enis; Hansen, Søren; Ravn, Ole

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a toolbox enabling easy evaluation and comparison of different filtering algorithms. The toolbox is called Kalmtool 4 and is a set of MATLAB tools for state estimation of nonlinear systems. The toolbox contains functions for extended Kalman filtering as well as for DD1 fi...

  8. Filters in Fuzzy Class Theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kroupa, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 14 (2008), s. 1773-1787 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA AV ČR KJB100300502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : filter * prime filter * fuzzy class theory Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.833, year: 2008

  9. Approximately Liner Phase IIR Digital Filter Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Ćertić

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, uniform and nonuniform digital filter banks based on approximately linear phase IIR filters and frequency response masking technique (FRM are presented. Both filter banks are realized as a connection of an interpolated half-band approximately linear phase IIR filter as a first stage of the FRM design and an appropriate number of masking filters. The masking filters are half-band IIR filters with an approximately linear phase. The resulting IIR filter banks are compared with linear-phase FIR filter banks exhibiting similar magnitude responses. The effects of coefficient quantization are analyzed.

  10. Cleaning of porous filters in fossilized bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo Otero, A.; Sancho Rod, J.

    1965-01-01

    In this report are established the optimum working conditions of a filter cleaning system by blow back. For this purpose it was determined in the first place the blow back air rate necessary to have a good cleaning. The reasons for which it was not possible until now to control the pressure in a fluidized bed calcination reactor are analyzed and a criteria is established to calculate the optimum floe necessary to clean efficiently a porous by this procedures. (Author)

  11. Sample quality criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Charles A; Wagner, Claas

    2015-01-01

    The concept of Sample Quality Criteria (SQC) is the initial step in the scientific approach to representative sampling. It includes the establishment of sampling objectives, Decision Unit (DU), and confidence. Once fully defined, these criteria serve as input, in addition to material properties, to the Theory of Sampling for developing a representative sampling protocol. The first component of the SQC establishes these questions: What is the analyte(s) of concern? What is the concentration level of interest of the analyte(s)? How will inference(s) be made from the analytical data to the DU? The second component of the SQC establishes the DU, i.e., the scale at which decisions are to be made. On a large scale, a DU could be a ship or rail car; examples for small-scale DUs are individual beans, seeds, or kernels. A well-defined DU is critical because it defines the spatial and temporal boundaries of sample collection. SQC are not limited to a single DU; they can also include multiple DUs. The third SQC component, the confidence, establishes the desired probability that a correct inference (decision) can be made. The confidence level should typically correlate to the potential consequences of an incorrect decision (e.g., health or economic). The magnitude of combined errors in the sampling, sample processing and analytical protocols determines the likelihood of an incorrect decision. Thus, controlling error to a greater extent increases the probability of a correct decision. The required confidence level directly affects the sampling effort and QC measures.

  12. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, K.

    2005-01-01

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe Use of Lasers references this requirement through several sections. One such reference is Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''. The composition, frequency and rigor of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms It is common for audit findings from one inspector or inspection to the next to vary even when reviewing the same material. How often has one heard a comment, ''well this area has been inspected several times over the years and no one ever said this or that was a problem before''. A great number of audit items, and therefore findings, are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the auditor to particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage, to one set of eyes might be completely adequate, while to another, inadequate. In order to provide consistency, the Laser Safety Office of the National Ignition Facility Directorate has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. The criteria are distributed to laser users. It serves two broad purposes; first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor. Second, it is an opportunity to explain audit items to the laser user and thus the reasons for some of these items, such as labelling of beam blocks

  13. Criteria for Assessing Naturalistic Inquiries as Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Yvonna S.; Guba, Egon G.

    Research on the assessment of naturalistic inquiries is reviewed, and criteria for assessment are outlined. Criteria reviewed include early foundational and non-foundational criteria, trustworthiness criteria, axiomatic criteria, rhetorical criteria, action criteria, and application/transferability criteria. Case studies that are reports of…

  14. Industrial Production Forecasting with Kalman Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, M. Filomena

    2009-09-01

    Under certains conditions commonly used forecast methods reveal themselves inappropriate for the desired result. Thus it is therefore required to resort to other methods deemed more adequate to the desired results. The main purpose of this work is to investigate the suitability of the Kalman filtering as short term forecast method. The work data set was made of qualitative surveys of conjunture and the index of industrial production. Along the work it is studied the application of this method to a set of qualitative and quantitative information. The ultimate objective is the attainment of short term forecast models for the industrial production index of the transforming industry. After the previous treatment of the data, a number of models are estimated and validated. At the end of this process two models are selected: the two better adjusted in accordance with criteria previously established. The next step in process, following the choice of the models, is the repetition of the sellected models estimation using all sample, after which the actual forecast is done. The results obtained with the described methods have shown sufficiently coincident with the estimates supplied by Portuguese National Institute of Statistics for the same period. The application of Kalman filtering to a set of qualitative and quantitative information in the attainment of models of short term forecasts appears quit promising thus.

  15. Decision criteria in PSA applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, J.E.; Pulkkinen, U.; Rosqvist, T.; Simola, K.

    2001-11-01

    Along with the adoption of risk informed decision making principles, the need for formal probabilistic decision rule or criteria has been risen. However, there are many practical and theoretical problems in the application of probabilistic criteria. One has to think what is the proper way to apply probabilistic rules together with deterministic ones and how the criteria are weighted with respect to each other. In this report, we approach the above questions from the decision theoretic point of view. We give a short review of the most well known probabilistic criteria, and discuss examples of their use. We present a decision analytic framework for evaluating the criteria, and we analyse how the different criteria behave under incompleteness or uncertainty of the PSA model. As the conclusion of our analysis we give recommendations on the application of the criteria in different decision situations. (au)

  16. Modeling and Analysing of Air Filter in Air Intake System in Automobile Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Manikantan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As the legislations on the emission and performance of automobiles are being made more stringent, the expected performance of all the subsystems of an internal combustion engine is also becoming crucial. Nowadays the engines are downsized, and their power increased the demand on the air intake system that has increased phenomenally. Hence, an analysis was carried on a typical air filter fitted into the intake system to determine its flow characteristics. In the present investigation, a CAD model of an existing air filter was designed, and CFD analysis was done pertaining to various operating regimes of an internal combustion engine. The numerical results were validated with the experimental data. From the postprocessed result, we can see that there is a deficit in the design of the present filter, as the bottom portion of the filter is preventing the upward movement of air. Hence, the intake passage can be rearranged to provide an upward tangential motion, which can enhance the removal of larger dust and soot particles effectively by the inertial action of air alone.

  17. CDTI target selection criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, C. L.; Davis, C. M.; Jackson, C. B.; Mcclellan, V. A.

    1984-01-01

    A Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) is a cockpit instrument which provides information to the aircrew on the relative location of aircraft traffic in the vicinity of their aircraft (township). In addition, the CDTI may provide information to assist in navigation and in aircraft control. It is usually anticipated that the CDTI will be integrated with a horizontal situation indicator used for navigational purposes and/or with a weather radar display. In this study, several sets of aircraft traffic data are analyzed to determine statistics on the number of targets that will be displayed on a CDTI using various target selection criteria. Traffic data were obtained from an Atlanta Terminal Area Simulation and from radar tapes recorded at the Atlanta and Miami terminal areas. Results are given in the form of plots showing the average percentage of time (or probability) that an aircraft equipped with a CDTI would observe from 0 to 10 other aircraft on the display for range settings on the CDTI up to 30 n. mi. and using various target discrimination techniques.

  18. ACR appropriateness criteria jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalani, Tasneem; Couto, Corey A; Rosen, Max P; Baker, Mark E; Blake, Michael A; Cash, Brooks D; Fidler, Jeff L; Greene, Frederick L; Hindman, Nicole M; Katz, Douglas S; Kaur, Harmeet; Miller, Frank H; Qayyum, Aliya; Small, William C; Sudakoff, Gary S; Yaghmai, Vahid; Yarmish, Gail M; Yee, Judy

    2013-06-01

    A fundamental consideration in the workup of a jaundiced patient is the pretest probability of mechanical obstruction. Ultrasound is the first-line modality to exclude biliary tract obstruction. When mechanical obstruction is present, additional imaging with CT or MRI can clarify etiology, define level of obstruction, stage disease, and guide intervention. When mechanical obstruction is absent, additional imaging can evaluate liver parenchyma for fat and iron deposition and help direct biopsy in cases where underlying parenchymal disease or mass is found. Imaging techniques are reviewed for the following clinical scenarios: (1) the patient with painful jaundice, (2) the patient with painless jaundice, and (3) the patient with a nonmechanical cause for jaundice. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2013 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Criteria of site assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, P.; Fuchs, H.

    1975-01-01

    The criteria which lead to the choice of a particular site for a nuclear power station are in general very similar to those which would apply to any other type of power station. The principal differences derive from the simpler transport problems for the fuel compared with, say, solid fuel and the special safety considerations which attach to nuclear reactors. The search for a suitable site obviously starts by considering where the power is needed, i.e. where the load centers are and also the existing transmission network which may help to bring the power from a more remote site to the load centers. This economic incentive to put the plant close to loads conflicts directly with the nuclear safety argument which favours more remote siting, and part of the problem of site selection is to reconcile these two matters. In addition, there are many other important matters which will be considered later concerning the adequacy of cooling water supplies, foundation conditions, etc., all of which must be examined in considerable detail. (orig./TK) [de

  20. FHR Generic Design Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, G.F.; Holcomb, D.E.; Cetiner, S.M.

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this document is to provide an initial, focused reference to the safety characteristics of and a licensing approach for Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs). The document does not contain details of particular reactor designs nor does it attempt to identify or classify either design basis or beyond design basis accidents. Further, this document is an initial attempt by a small set of subject matter experts to document the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs for a larger audience. The document is intended to help in setting the safety and licensing research, development, and demonstration path forward. Input from a wider audience, further technical developments, and additional study will be required to develop a consensus position on the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs. This document begins with a brief overview of the attributes of FHRs and then a general description of their anticipated safety performance. Following this, an overview of the US nuclear power plant approval process is provided that includes both test and power reactors, as well as the role of safety standards in the approval process. The document next describes a General Design Criteria (GDC)–based approach to licensing an FHR and provides an initial draft set of FHR GDCs. The document concludes with a description of a path forward toward developing an FHR safety standard that can support both a test and power reactor licensing process.

  1. FHR Generic Design Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an initial, focused reference to the safety characteristics of and a licensing approach for Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs). The document does not contain details of particular reactor designs nor does it attempt to identify or classify either design basis or beyond design basis accidents. Further, this document is an initial attempt by a small set of subject matter experts to document the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs for a larger audience. The document is intended to help in setting the safety and licensing research, development, and demonstration path forward. Input from a wider audience, further technical developments, and additional study will be required to develop a consensus position on the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs. This document begins with a brief overview of the attributes of FHRs and then a general description of their anticipated safety performance. Following this, an overview of the US nuclear power plant approval process is provided that includes both test and power reactors, as well as the role of safety standards in the approval process. The document next describes a General Design Criteria (GDC) - based approach to licensing an FHR and provides an initial draft set of FHR GDCs. The document concludes with a description of a path forward toward developing an FHR safety standard that can support both a test and power reactor licensing process.

  2. Criteria for performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Weiss

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Using a cognitive task (mental calculation and a perceptual-motor task (stylized golf putting, we examined differential proficiency using the CWS index and several other quantitative measures of performance. The CWS index (Weiss and Shanteau, 2003 is a coherence criterion that looks only at internal properties of the data without incorporating an external standard. In Experiment 1, college students (n = 20 carried out 2- and 3-digit addition and multiplication problems under time pressure. In Experiment 2, experienced golfers (n = 12, also college students, putted toward a target from nine different locations. Within each experiment, we analyzed the same responses using different methods. For the arithmetic tasks, accuracy information (mean absolute deviation from the correct answer, MAD using a coherence criterion was available; for golf, accuracy information using a correspondence criterion (mean deviation from the target, also MAD was available. We ranked the performances of the participants according to each measure, then compared the orders using Spearman's rextsubscript{s}. For mental calculation, the CWS order correlated moderately (rextsubscript{s} =.46 with that of MAD. However, a different coherence criterion, degree of model fit, did not correlate with either CWS or accuracy. For putting, the ranking generated by CWS correlated .68 with that generated by MAD. Consensual answers were also available for both experiments, and the rankings they generated correlated highly with those of MAD. The coherence vs. correspondence distinction did not map well onto criteria for performance evaluation.

  3. Simplified design of filter circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, John

    1999-01-01

    Simplified Design of Filter Circuits, the eighth book in this popular series, is a step-by-step guide to designing filters using off-the-shelf ICs. The book starts with the basic operating principles of filters and common applications, then moves on to describe how to design circuits by using and modifying chips available on the market today. Lenk's emphasis is on practical, simplified approaches to solving design problems.Contains practical designs using off-the-shelf ICsStraightforward, no-nonsense approachHighly illustrated with manufacturer's data sheets

  4. Gas cleaning with Granular Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Natvig, Ingunn Roald

    2007-01-01

    The panel bed filter (PBF) is a granular filter patented by A. M. Squires in the late sixties. PBFs consist of louvers with stationary, granular beds. Dust is deposited in the top layers and on the bed surface when gas flows through. PBFs are resistant to high temperatures, variations in the gas flow and hot particles. The filter is cleaned by releasing a pressure pulse in the opposite direction of the bulk flow (a puff back pulse). A new louver geometry patented by A. M. Squires is the filte...

  5. Advanced simulation of digital filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, G. S.

    1980-09-01

    An Advanced Simulation of Digital Filters has been implemented on the IBM 360/67 computer utilizing Tektronix hardware and software. The program package is appropriate for use by persons beginning their study of digital signal processing or for filter analysis. The ASDF programs provide the user with an interactive method by which filter pole and zero locations can be manipulated. Graphical output on both the Tektronix graphics screen and the Versatec plotter are provided to observe the effects of pole-zero movement.

  6. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.S. Connolly; G.D. Forsythe

    2000-09-30

    DuPont Lanxide Composites, Inc. undertook a sixty-month program, under DOE Contract DEAC21-94MC31214, in order to develop hot gas candle filters from a patented material technology know as PRD-66. The goal of this program was to extend the development of this material as a filter element and fully assess the capability of this technology to meet the needs of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation systems at commercial scale. The principal objective of Task 3 was to build on the initial PRD-66 filter development, optimize its structure, and evaluate basic material properties relevant to the hot gas filter application. Initially, this consisted of an evaluation of an advanced filament-wound core structure that had been designed to produce an effective bulk filter underneath the barrier filter formed by the outer membrane. The basic material properties to be evaluated (as established by the DOE/METC materials working group) would include mechanical, thermal, and fracture toughness parameters for both new and used material, for the purpose of building a material database consistent with what is being done for the alternative candle filter systems. Task 3 was later expanded to include analysis of PRD-66 candle filters, which had been exposed to actual PFBC conditions, development of an improved membrane, and installation of equipment necessary for the processing of a modified composition. Task 4 would address essential technical issues involving the scale-up of PRD-66 candle filter manufacturing from prototype production to commercial scale manufacturing. The focus would be on capacity (as it affects the ability to deliver commercial order quantities), process specification (as it affects yields, quality, and costs), and manufacturing systems (e.g. QA/QC, materials handling, parts flow, and cost data acquisition). Any filters fabricated during this task would be used for product qualification tests

  7. Pragmatic circuits signals and filters

    CERN Document Server

    Eccles, William

    2006-01-01

    Pragmatic Circuits: Signals and Filters is built around the processing of signals. Topics include spectra, a short introduction to the Fourier series, design of filters, and the properties of the Fourier transform. The focus is on signals rather than power. But the treatment is still pragmatic. For example, the author accepts the work of Butterworth and uses his results to design filters in a fairly methodical fashion. This third of three volumes finishes with a look at spectra by showing how to get a spectrum even if a signal is not periodic. The Fourier transform provides a way of dealing wi

  8. Face Recognition using Gabor Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad MOHSIN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An Elastic Bunch Graph Map (EBGM algorithm is being proposed in this research paper that successfully implements face recognition using Gabor filters. The proposed system applies 40 different Gabor filters on an image. As aresult of which 40 images with different angles and orientation are received. Next, maximum intensity points in each filtered image are calculated and mark them as Fiducial points. The system reduces these points in accordance to distance between them. The next step is calculating the distances between the reduced points using distance formula. At last, the distances are compared with database. If match occurs, it means that the image is recognized.

  9. Remotely operated top loading filter housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.J.; Carter, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    A high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter system was developed for the Fuel Processing Facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The system utilizes commercially available HEPA filters and allows in-cell filters to be maintained using operator-controlled remote handling equipment. The remote handling tasks include transport of filters before and after replacement, removal and replacement of the filter from the housing, and filter containment

  10. Concrete ensemble Kalman filters with rigorous catastrophic filter divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, David; Majda, Andrew J; Tong, Xin T

    2015-08-25

    The ensemble Kalman filter and ensemble square root filters are data assimilation methods used to combine high-dimensional, nonlinear dynamical models with observed data. Ensemble methods are indispensable tools in science and engineering and have enjoyed great success in geophysical sciences, because they allow for computationally cheap low-ensemble-state approximation for extremely high-dimensional turbulent forecast models. From a theoretical perspective, the dynamical properties of these methods are poorly understood. One of the central mysteries is the numerical phenomenon known as catastrophic filter divergence, whereby ensemble-state estimates explode to machine infinity, despite the true state remaining in a bounded region. In this article we provide a breakthrough insight into the phenomenon, by introducing a simple and natural forecast model that transparently exhibits catastrophic filter divergence under all ensemble methods and a large set of initializations. For this model, catastrophic filter divergence is not an artifact of numerical instability, but rather a true dynamical property of the filter. The divergence is not only validated numerically but also proven rigorously. The model cleanly illustrates mechanisms that give rise to catastrophic divergence and confirms intuitive accounts of the phenomena given in past literature.

  11. FIONDA (Filtering Images of Niobium Disks Application): Filter application for Eddy Current Scanner data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boffo, C.; Bauer, P.

    2005-01-01

    As part of the material QC process, each Niobium disk from which a superconducting RF cavity is built must undergo an eddy current scan [1]. This process allows to discover embedded defects in the material that are not visible to the naked eye because too small or under the surface. Moreover, during the production process of SC cavities the outer layer of Nb is removed via chemical or electro-chemical etching, thus it is important to evaluate the quality of the subsurface layer (in the order of 100nm) where superconductivity will happen. The reference eddy current scanning machine is operated at DESY; at Fermilab we are using the SNS eddy current scanner on loan, courtesy of SNS. In the past year, several upgrades were implemented aiming at raising the SNS machine performance to that of the DESY reference machine [2]. As part of this effort an algorithm that enables the filtering of the results of the scans and thus improves the resolution of the process was developed. The description of the algorithm and of the software used to filter the scan results is presented in this note. This filter application is a useful tool when the coupling between the signal associated to the long range probe distance (or sample thickness) variation and that associated to inclusions masks the presence of defects. Moreover instead of using indirect criteria (such as appearance on screen), the filter targets precisely the topology variations of interest. This application is listed in the FermiTools database and is freely available

  12. Regenerable Carbon Filter, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Regenerable Carbon Filter (RCF) is proposed for the removal of carbonaceous particulate matter produced in Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) processes....

  13. Buffers and vegetative filter strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Helmers; Thomas M. Isenhart; Michael G. Dosskey; Seth M. Dabney

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of buffers and vegetative filter strips relative to water quality. In particular, we primarily discuss the herbaceous components of the following NRCS Conservation Practice Standards.

  14. Dimensional reduction in nonlinear filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Sowers, R. B.; Sri Namachchivaya, N.

    2010-02-01

    The theory of nonlinear filtering forms the framework of many data assimilation problems. When the rates of change of different variables differ by orders of magnitude, efficient data assimilation can be accomplished by constructing nonlinear filtering equations for the coarse-grained signal. We consider the conditional law of a signal given the observations in a multi-scale context. In particular, we study how scaling interacts with filtering via stochastic averaging. This is an extension of our previous work (Park et al 2008 Stoch. Dyn. 8 543-60) where the observation process depended only on the fast variable, so the filter became independent of the observation in the limit. Here, we investigate a more realistic setting in which the observation depends on both the slow and the fast variables. Paper dedicated to Professor Manfred Denker on the occasion of his 65th birthday.

  15. Ion trajectories quadrupole mass filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursu, D.; Lupsa, N.; Muntean, F.

    1994-01-01

    The present paper aims at bringing some contributions to the understanding of ion motion in quadrupole mass filters. The theoretical treatment of quadrupole mass filter is intended to be a concise derivation of the important physical relationships using Mathieu functions. A simple iterative method of numerical computation has been used to simulate ion trajectories in an ideal quadrupole field. Finally, some examples of calculation are presented with the aid of computer graphics. (Author) 14 Figs., 1 Tab., 20 Refs

  16. Current Conveyor Based Multifunction Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Manish Kumar; M.C. Srivastava; Umesh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a current conveyor based multifunction filter. The proposed circuit can be realized as low pass, high pass, band pass and elliptical notch filter. The circuit employs two balanced output current conveyors, four resistors and two grounded capacitors, ideal for integration. It has only one output terminal and the number of input terminals may be used. Further, there is no requirement for component matching in the circuit. The parameter resonance frequency (\\omega_0) and bandw...

  17. Stochastic processes and filtering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Jazwinski, Andrew H

    1970-01-01

    This unified treatment of linear and nonlinear filtering theory presents material previously available only in journals, and in terms accessible to engineering students. Its sole prerequisites are advanced calculus, the theory of ordinary differential equations, and matrix analysis. Although theory is emphasized, the text discusses numerous practical applications as well.Taking the state-space approach to filtering, this text models dynamical systems by finite-dimensional Markov processes, outputs of stochastic difference, and differential equations. Starting with background material on probab

  18. Filter Fabrics for Airport Drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    pneumatically filling a woven polypropylene stocking with sand and vibrating it into a prebored hole, while another method uses a polyester nonwoven fabric...Selected Nonwoven Filter Fabrics," Letter Report, June 1977, U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, CE, Vicksburg, Miss. 18. BalL, J. E...woven and nonwoven plastic filter fabric. It has been developed based on limited field performance observations and the laboratory test evaluation of

  19. Multi-Criteria Recommender Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adomavicius, Gediminas; Manouselis, Nikos; Kwon, Youngok

    This chapter aims to provide an overview of the class of multi-criteria recommender systems. First, it defines the recommendation problem as a multicriteria decision making (MCDM) problem, and reviews MCDM methods and techniques that can support the implementation of multi-criteria recommenders. Then, it focuses on the category of multi-criteria rating recommenders - techniques that provide recommendations by modelling a user's utility for an item as a vector of ratings along several criteria. A review of current algorithms that use multi-criteria ratings for calculating predictions and generating recommendations is provided. Finally, the chapter concludes with a discussion on open issues and future challenges for the class of multi-criteria rating recommenders.

  20. Derivation and Validation of Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Classification Criteria for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Michelle; Orbai, Ana-Maria; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Gordon, Caroline; Merrill, Joan T.; Fortin, Paul R.; Bruce, Ian N.; Isenberg, David; Wallace, Daniel J.; Nived, Ola; Sturfelt, Gunnar; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Hanly, John G.; Sanchez-Guerrero, Jorge; Clarke, Ann; Aranow, Cynthia; Manzi, Susan; Urowitz, Murray; Gladman, Dafna; Kalunian, Kenneth; Costner, Melissa; Werth, Victoria P.; Zoma, Asad; Bernatsky, Sasha; Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo; Khamashta, Munther A.; Jacobsen, Soren; Buyon, Jill P.; Maddison, Peter; Dooley, Mary Anne; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F.; Ginzler, Ellen; Stoll, Thomas; Peschken, Christine; Jorizzo, Joseph L.; Callen, Jeffrey P.; Lim, S. Sam; Fessler, Barri J.; Inanc, Murat; Kamen, Diane L.; Rahman, Anisur; Steinsson, Kristjan; Franks, Andrew G.; Sigler, Lisa; Hameed, Suhail; Fang, Hong; Pham, Ngoc; Brey, Robin; Weisman, Michael H.; McGwin, Gerald; Magder, Laurence S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The Systemic Lupus Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) revised and validated the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) SLE classification criteria in order to improve clinical relevance, meet stringent methodology requirements and incorporate new knowledge in SLE immunology. Methods The classification criteria were derived from a set of 702 expert-rated patient scenarios. Recursive partitioning was used to derive an initial rule that was simplified and refined based on SLICC physician consensus. SLICC validated the classification criteria in a new validation sample of 690 SLE patients and controls. Results Seventeen criteria were identified. The SLICC criteria for SLE classification requires: 1) Fulfillment of at least four criteria, with at least one clinical criterion AND one immunologic criterion OR 2) Lupus nephritis as the sole clinical criterion in the presence of ANA or anti-dsDNA antibodies. In the derivation set, the SLICC classification criteria resulted in fewer misclassifications than the current ACR classification criteria (49 versus 70, p=0.0082), had greater sensitivity (94% versus 86%, p<0.0001) and equal specificity (92% versus 93%, p=0.39). In the validation set, the SLICC Classification criteria resulted in fewer misclassifications (62 versus 74, p=0.24), had greater sensitivity (97% versus 83%, p<0.0001) but less specificity (84% versus 96%, p<0.0001). Conclusions The new SLICC classification criteria performed well on a large set of patient scenarios rated by experts. They require that at least one clinical criterion and one immunologic criterion be present for a classification of SLE. Biopsy confirmed nephritis compatible with lupus (in the presence of SLE autoantibodies) is sufficient for classification. PMID:22553077

  1. A quantum extended Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emzir, Muhammad F; Woolley, Matthew J; Petersen, Ian R

    2017-01-01

    In quantum physics, a stochastic master equation (SME) estimates the state (density operator) of a quantum system in the Schrödinger picture based on a record of measurements made on the system. In the Heisenberg picture, the SME is a quantum filter. For a linear quantum system subject to linear measurements and Gaussian noise, the dynamics may be described by quantum stochastic differential equations (QSDEs), also known as quantum Langevin equations, and the quantum filter reduces to a so-called quantum Kalman filter. In this article, we introduce a quantum extended Kalman filter (quantum EKF), which applies a commutative approximation and a time-varying linearization to systems of nonlinear QSDEs. We will show that there are conditions under which a filter similar to a classical EKF can be implemented for quantum systems. The boundedness of estimation errors and the filtering problem with ‘state-dependent’ covariances for process and measurement noises are also discussed. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the quantum EKF by applying it to systems that involve multiple modes, nonlinear Hamiltonians, and simultaneous jump-diffusive measurements. (paper)

  2. Experience with three percutaneous vena cava filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCowan, T.C.; Ferris, E.J.; Harshfield, D.L.; Hassell, D.R.; Baker, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-one Kimray-Greenfield, 33 bird's nest, and 19 Amplatz vena cava filters were placed percutaneously. The Kimray-Greenfield filter was the most difficult to insert. The major problem was the insertion site, which required venipuncture with a 24-F catheter. Minor hemorrhage was frequent, and femoral vein thrombosis occurred in four patients. No migration, caval thrombosis, or pulmonary emboli were seen after Kimray-Greenfield filter placement. The bird's nest filter was relatively easy to insert, although in two cases the filter prongs could not be adequately seated in the wall of the inferior vena cava. Three patients with bird's nest filters had thrombosis below the filter, and three filters migrated to the heart. One migrated filter could not be removed. One patient had multiple small pulmonary emboli at autopsy. No other pulmonary emboli after filter placement were noted. The Amplatz filter was the easiest of the three filters to insert. Only one patient with an Amplatz filter had thrombosis of the vena cava below the filter. No filter migrations were documented, and no recurrent pulmonary emboli were found on clinical or radiologic follow-up. The Amplatz vena cava filter is easier to place than percutaneous Kimray-Greenfield or bird's nest filters, has a low complication rate, and has proven to be clinically effective in preventing pulmonary emboli

  3. Fibromyalgia diagnosis and diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Frederick; Häuser, Winfried

    2011-11-01

    Abstract Criteria for fibromyalgia developed from the conceptualization and hypotheses of Smythe and Moldofsky in 1977 and gradually evolved to a set of classification criteria endorsed by the American College of Rheumatology that emphasized tender points and widespread pain, measures of decreased pain threshold. In 2010, American College of Rheumatology fibromyalgia diagnostic criteria were published that abandoned the tender point count and placed increased emphasis of patient symptoms. The 2010 criteria also contained severity scales and offered physicians the opportunity to assess polysymptomatic distress on a continuous scale. This enabled physicians who were opposed to the idea of fibromyalgia to also assess and diagnose patients using an alternative nomenclature.

  4. Active-Varying Sampling-Based Fault Detection Filter Design for Networked Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Long Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with fault detection filter design for continuous-time networked control systems considering packet dropouts and network-induced delays. The active-varying sampling period method is introduced to establish a new discretized model for the considered networked control systems. The mutually exclusive distribution characteristic of packet dropouts and network-induced delays is made full use of to derive less conservative fault detection filter design criteria. Compared with the fault detection filter design adopting a constant sampling period, the proposed active-varying sampling-based fault detection filter design can improve the sensitivity of the residual signal to faults and shorten the needed time for fault detection. The simulation results illustrate the merits and effectiveness of the proposed fault detection filter design.

  5. Combining the IADPSG criteria with the WHO diagnostic criteria for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five pregnancy outcomes were observed, namely, pre‑eclampsia, shoulder dystocia or birth injury, birth weight ≥4.0 kg, clinical neonatal hypoglycaemia and birth asphyxia. Results: Twenty‑eight participants (21.5%) had GDM by the IADPSG criteria (GDMIADPSG) and 21 (16.2%) women had GDM by the WHO criteria ...

  6. Making Fe0-Based Filters a Universal Solution for Safe Drinking Water Provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Naseri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Metallic iron (Fe0-based filtration systems have the potential to significantly contribute to the achievement of the United Nations (UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs of substantially improving the human condition by 2030 through the provision of clean water. Recent knowledge on Fe0-based safe drinking water filters is addressed herein. They are categorized into two types: Household and community filters. Design criteria are recalled and operational details are given. Scientists are invited to co-develop knowledge enabling the exploitation of the great potential of Fe0 filters for sustainable safe drinking water provision (and sanitation.

  7. Belavkin filter for mixture of quadrature and photon counting process with some control techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Naman; Parthasarathy, Harish; Upadhyay, D. K.

    2018-03-01

    The Belavkin filter for the H-P Schrödinger equation is derived when the measurement process consists of a mixture of quantum Brownian motions and conservation/Poisson process. Higher-order powers of the measurement noise differentials appear in the Belavkin dynamics. For simulation, we use a second-order truncation. Control of the Belavkin filtered state by infinitesimal unitary operators is achieved in order to reduce the noise effects in the Belavkin filter equation. This is carried out along the lines of Luc Bouten. Various optimization criteria for control are described like state tracking and Lindblad noise removal.

  8. Sensory pollution from bag-type fiberglass ventilation filters: Conventional filter compared with filters containing various amounts of activated carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Fadeyi, M.O.; Clausen, Geo

    2009-01-01

    was judged to be significantly better than the air downstream of the 6-month-old F7 filter, and was comparable to that from an unused F7 filter. Additionally, the combination filters removed more ozone from the air than the F7 filter, with their respective fractional removal efficiencies roughly scaling......As ventilation filters accumulate particles removed from the airstream, they become emitters of sensory pollutants that degrade indoor air quality. Previously we demonstrated that an F7 bag-type filter that incorporates activated carbon (a "combination filter") reduces this adverse effect compared...... to an equivalent filter without carbon. The aim of the present study was to examine how the amount of activated carbon (AC) used in combination filters affects their ability to remove both sensory offending pollutants and ozone. A panel evaluated the air downstream of four different filters after each had...

  9. Filter-adsorber aging assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winegardner, W.K. [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    An aging assessment of high-efficiency particulate (HEPA) air filters and activated carbon gas adsorption units was performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (USNRC) Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. This evaluation of the general process in which characteristics of these two components gradually change with time or use included the compilation of information concerning failure experience, stressors, aging mechanisms and effects, and inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods (ISMM). Stressors, the agents or stimuli that can produce aging degradation, include heat, radiation, volatile contaminants, and even normal concentrations of aerosol particles and gasses. In an experimental evaluation of degradation in terms of the tensile breaking strength of aged filter media specimens, over forty percent of the samples did not meet specifications for new material. Chemical and physical reactions can gradually embrittle sealants and gaskets as well as filter media. Mechanisms that can lead to impaired adsorber performance are associated with the loss of potentially available active sites as a result of the exposure of the carbon to airborne moisture or volatile organic compounds. Inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods have been established to observe filter pressure drop buildup, check HEPA filters and adsorbers for bypass, and determine the retention effectiveness of aged carbon. These evaluations of installed filters do not reveal degradation in terms of reduced media strength but that under normal conditions aged media can continue to effectively retain particles. However, this degradation may be important when considering the likelihood of moisture, steam, and higher particle loadings during severe accidents and the fact it is probable that the filters have been in use for an extended period.

  10. 21 CFR 211.72 - Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filters. 211.72 Section 211.72 Food and Drugs FOOD... shall not release fibers into such products. Fiber-releasing filters may be used when it is not possible to manufacture such products without the use of these filters. If use of a fiber-releasing filter is...

  11. Water washable stainless steel HEPA filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Terrance D.

    2001-01-01

    The invention is a high efficiency particulate (HEPA) filter apparatus and system, and method for assaying particulates. The HEPA filter provides for capture of 99.99% or greater of particulates from a gas stream, with collection of particulates on the surface of the filter media. The invention provides a filter system that can be cleaned and regenerated in situ.

  12. Unscented Kalman filtering for articulated human tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen Lindbo Larsen, Anders; Hauberg, Søren; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2011-01-01

    -of-the-art trackers utilize particle filters, our unimodal likelihood model allows us to use an unscented Kalman filter. This robust and efficient filter allows us to improve the quality of the tracker while using substantially fewer likelihood evaluations. The system is compared to one based on a particle filter...

  13. A class of orthogonal nonrecursive binomial filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, R. A.

    1971-01-01

    The time- and frequency-domain properties of the orthogonal binomial sequences are presented. It is shown that these sequences, or digital filters based on them, can be generated using adders and delay elements only. The frequency-domain behavior of these nonrecursive binomial filters suggests a number of applications as low-pass Gaussian filters or as inexpensive bandpass filters.

  14. Principles and Criteria for Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beghin, D.; Cervetto, D.; Hansen, Peter Friis

    1997-01-01

    The mandate of ISSC Committee IV.1 on principles and Criteria for Design is to report on the following:The ongoing concern for quantification of general economic and safety criteria for marine structures and for the development of appropriate principles for rational life cycle design using...

  15. AFRICAN PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT CRITERIA: YORUBA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This analysis presents personality assessment criteria often used by the Yoruba as psychological tools to position an individual on the social responsibility scale and also to determine the norm compliant level of the Yoruba person. The study focused on four core criteria upon which such assessment is anchored, namely, ...

  16. Criteria for controlled atmosphere chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.N.

    1980-03-01

    The criteria for design, construction, and operation of controlled atmosphere chambers intended for service at ORNL are presented. Classification of chambers, materials for construction, design criteria, design, controlled atmosphere chamber systems, and operating procedures are presented. ORNL Safety Manual Procedure 2.1; ORNL Health Physics Procedure Manual Appendix A-7; and Design of Viewing Windows are included in 3 appendices

  17. Mathematics Teachers' Criteria of Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ural, Alattin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine mathematics teachers' decisions about dimensions of the geometric figures, criteria of dimension and consistency of decision-criteria. The research is a qualitative research and the model applied in the study is descriptive method on the basis of general scanning model. 15 mathematics teachers attended the…

  18. Diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheltens, P.; Hijdra, A. H.

    1998-01-01

    The term vascular dementia implies the presence of a clinical syndrome (dementia) caused by, or at least assumed to be caused by, a specific disorder (cerebrovascular disease). In this review, the various sets of criteria used to define vascular dementia are outlined. The various sets of criteria

  19. MHD-ETF design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retallick, F.D.

    1978-04-01

    This document establishes criteria to be utilized for the design of a pilot-scale (150 to 300 MW thermal) open cycle, coal-fired MHD/steam plant. Criteria for this Engineering Test Facility (ETF) are presented relative to plant siting, plant engineering and operations, MHD-ETF testing, costing and scheduling.

  20. New criteria to identify spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Arne; Krishna, M.

    In this paper we give some new criteria for identifying the components of a probability measure, in its Lebesgue decomposition. This enables us to give new criteria to identify spectral types of self adjoint operators on Hilbert spaces, especially those of interest....

  1. New criteria to identify spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Arne; Krishna, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we give some new criteria for identifying the components of a probability measure, in its Lebesgue decomposition. This enables us to give new criteria to identify spectral types of self-adjoint operators on Hilbert spaces, especially those of interest....

  2. Progress towards the use of disposable filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macphail, I.

    1979-08-01

    Thermally degradable materials have been evaluated for service in HEPA filter units used to filter gases from active plants. The motivation was to reduce the bulk storage problems of contaminated filters by thermal decomposition to gaseous products and a solid residue substantially comprised of the filtered particulates. It is shown that while there are no commercially available alternatives to the glass fibre used in the filter medium, it would be feasible to manufacture the filter case and spacers from materials which could be incinerated. Operating temperatures, costs and the type of residues for disposal are discussed for filter case materials. (U.K.)

  3. [Diagnostic criteria in acute neuromyelitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panea, Cristina; Petrescu, Simona; Monica, Pop; Voinea, Liliana; Dascălu, Ana-Maria; Nicolae, Miruna; Ungureanu, E; Panca, Aida; Grădinaru, Sânziana

    2007-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica, also known as Devic disease, was identified in the 19th century, is one of the inflammatory idiopathic demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system, often mistaken for severe multiple sclerosis. In 1999 it had been proposed diagnostic criteria for neuromyelitis optica, but in 2006 these criteria were revised by Dean Wingerchuck. These criteria are 99% sensitive and 90% specific for differentiating neuromyelitis optica from multiple sclerosis that present with optic neuritis or a myelitis syndrome. In the following article we present clinical, spinal and cerebral MR imaging, serological and aspects of cerebrospinal fluid examination features of neuromyelitis optica and the revised criteria of neuromyelitis optica established in 2006. The recently identified serum antibody biomarker: neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin G (NMO Ig G), which target aquaporin 4 water channel, distinguish neuromyelitis optica from multiple sclerosis, is one of the revised criteria of neuromyelitis optica.

  4. User perspectives on relevance criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2002-01-01

    , partially relevant, or not relevant to their information need; and explained their decisions in an interview. Analysis revealed 29 criteria, discussed positively and negatively, that were used by the participants when selecting passages that contributed or detracted from a document's relevance...... implications for relevance feedback in information retrieval systems, suggesting that systems accept and utilize multiple positive and negative relevance criteria from users. Systems designers may want to focus on supporting content criteria followed by full text criteria as these may provide the greatest cost....... These criteria can be grouped into six categories: abstract (e.g., citability, informativeness), author (e.g., novelty, discipline, affiliation, perceived status), content (e.g., accuracy/validity, background, novelty, contrast, depth/scope, domain, citations, links, relevant to other interests, rarity, subject...

  5. Failure Criteria for Reinforced Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathkjen, Arne

    Failure of materials is often characterized as ductile yielding, brittle fracture, creep rupture, etc., and different criteria given in terms of different parameters have been used to describe different types of failure. Only criteria expressing failure in terms of stress are considered in what...... follows. The reinforcement here consists of long bars or fibres and complete bond between matrix and reinforcement is assumed so that no problems arising from incomplete transfer of adhesive and frictional forces are discussed. During loading, the reinforcement may yield, but total failure does not take...... certain restrictions on the form of the failure criteria for anisotropic materials. In section 2, some failure criteria for homogenous materials are reviewed. Both isotropic and anisotropic materials are described, and in particular the constraints imposed on the criteria from the symmetries orthotropy...

  6. Hydrocyclone for pre-filtering of irrigation water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soccol Olívio José

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of water containing suspended sediments causes serious problems to irrigation systems. Choosing the right filtering system type and capacity is essential to avoid increases in operational and maintenance costs of irrigation resulting from the need for cleaning and frequent component replacing. Pre-filters, such as the hydrocyclone, are important for their significant capability of retaining particles suspended in the water. Data on hydrocyclones performance for pre-filtering of irrigation water can be found in the literature, but research data in Brazil are scarce. Therefore, four Rietema type hydrocyclones (50 mm diameter were constructed, one with circular-end and the other three presenting rectangular-end feeding tubes. The evaluation of hydrocyclones performance was conducted by using suspensions of fine sand and clay soil particles under varied pressure differentials. The comparison criteria were the discharge and the separation capability, given by total efficiency and reduced total efficiency. The hydrocyclone with circular-end feeding tube presented the highest indexes for the adopted criteria, considering sand and soil suspensions.

  7. A biological oil adsorption filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasila, A.

    2005-01-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore. (author)

  8. A biological oil adsorption filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasila, A. [University of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering and Household Technology

    2005-12-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore. (author)

  9. Compact, Pneumatically Actuated Filter Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighy, Bradley D.

    2003-01-01

    A compact, pneumatically actuated filter shuttle has been invented to enable alternating imaging of a wind-tunnel model in two different spectral bands characteristic of the pressure and temperature responses of a pressure and temperature-sensitive paint. This filter shuttle could also be used in other settings in which there are requirements for alternating imaging in two spectral bands. Pneumatic actuation was chosen because of a need to exert control remotely (that is, from outside the wind tunnel) and because the power leads that would be needed for electrical actuation would pose an unacceptable hazard in the wind tunnel. The entire shuttle mechanism and its housing can be built relatively inexpensively [camera used for viewing the wind-tunnel model. The mechanism includes a pneumatic actuator connected to a linkage. The linkage converts the actuator stroke to a scissor-like motion that places one filter in front of the camera and the other filter out of the way. Optoelectronic sensors detect tabs on the sliding panels for verification of the proper positioning of the filters.

  10. A biological oil adsorption filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasila, Antti

    2004-12-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore.

  11. Testing HEPA filters with uranine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalon, S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports experience gained at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in buying HEPA filters that were tested for efficiency without DOP. In preparing specifications for bid, we considered whether to test only a sample with DOP or to test every filter with some other aerosol. The choice of other aerosols was among air, salt, and uranine. The authors decided to specify that bidders choose between the British sodium flame test and the French uranine test or propose an acceptable alternative. One bidder proposed cutting an extra flap of paper off each filter, testing it with DOP, and checking the filter for leaks with air. The chosen supplier tested the efficiencies of his filters with uranine and counted the particles with a laser particle spectrometer. Part of this paper explains how the authors evaluated the different tests. The rest of it describes the test equipment, the upstream concentration and its constancy, the particle size distribution and its constancy, the penetration of different size particles, how discriminating the test was, and the issues that it raised

  12. Spectral filtering for plant production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, R.E.; McMahon, M.J.; Rajapakse, N.C.; Becoteau, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Research to date suggests that spectral filtering can be an effective alternative to chemical growth regulators for altering plant development. If properly implemented, it can be nonchemical and environmentally friendly. The aqueous CuSO{sub 4}, and CuCl{sub 2} solutions in channelled plastic panels have been shown to be effective filters, but they can be highly toxic if the solutions contact plants. Some studies suggest that spectral filtration limited to short EOD intervals can also alter plant development. Future research should be directed toward confirmation of the influence of spectral filters and exposure times on a broader range of plant species and cultivars. Efforts should also be made to identify non-noxious alternatives to aqueous copper solutions and/or to incorporate these chemicals permanently into plastic films and panels that can be used in greenhouse construction. It would also be informative to study the impacts of spectral filters on insect and microbal populations in plant growth facilities. The economic impacts of spectral filtering techniques should be assessed for each delivery methodology.

  13. GPU Accelerated Vector Median Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Rifat; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-01-01

    Noise reduction is an important step for most image processing tasks. For three channel color images, a widely used technique is vector median filter in which color values of pixels are treated as 3-component vectors. Vector median filters are computationally expensive; for a window size of n x n, each of the n(sup 2) vectors has to be compared with other n(sup 2) - 1 vectors in distances. General purpose computation on graphics processing units (GPUs) is the paradigm of utilizing high-performance many-core GPU architectures for computation tasks that are normally handled by CPUs. In this work. NVIDIA's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) paradigm is used to accelerate vector median filtering. which has to the best of our knowledge never been done before. The performance of GPU accelerated vector median filter is compared to that of the CPU and MPI-based versions for different image and window sizes, Initial findings of the study showed 100x improvement of performance of vector median filter implementation on GPUs over CPU implementations and further speed-up is expected after more extensive optimizations of the GPU algorithm .

  14. Nitrogen Removal in a Full-Scale Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant with Activated Sludge and Trickling Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Nourmohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, more stringent effluent requirements concerning the nutrients effluent values have been imposed by legislation and social concern. In this study, efficiency of total nitrogen removal in activated sludge and trickling filter processes (AS/TF was investigated in Tehran North wastewater treatment plant. Biological system in this site was included, anoxic selector tank, aeration tank, final sedimentation, and trickling filter. A part of treated wastewater before chlorination was mixed with supernatant of dewatered sludge and fed to the trickling filter. Supernatant of dewatered sludge with high concentration of NH4-N was diluted by treated wastewater to provide complete nitrification in trickling filter Produced nitrate in trickling filter was arrived to the anoxic tank and converted to nitrogen gas by denitrification. According to the study result, low concentration of organic carbone and high concentration of NH4-N led to nitrification in TF, then nitrate denitrification to nitrogen gas occurred in selector area. NH4-N concentration decreased from 26.8 mg/L to 0.29 mg/L in TF, and NO3-N concentration increased from 8.8 mg/L to 27 mg/L in TF. Consequently, the total nitrogen decreased approximately to 50% in biological process. This efficiency has been observed in returned flow around 24% from final sedimentation into TF. It was concluded that, in comparison with biological nutrient removal processes, this process is very efficient and simple.

  15. Multiplier-free filters for wideband SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Christensen, Erik Lintz

    2001-01-01

    This paper derives a set of parameters to be optimized when designing filters for digital demodulation and range prefiltering in SAR systems. Aiming at an implementation in field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), an approach for the design of multiplier-free filters is outlined. Design results ar...... are presented in terms of filter complexity and performance. One filter has been coded in VHDL and preliminary results indicate that the filter can meet a 2 GHz input sample rate....

  16. Fast algorithm for Morphological Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Shan; Jiang Xiangqian; Scott, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    In surface metrology, morphological filters, which evolved from the envelope filtering system (E-system) work well for functional prediction of surface finish in the analysis of surfaces in contact. The naive algorithms are time consuming, especially for areal data, and not generally adopted in real practice. A fast algorithm is proposed based on the alpha shape. The hull obtained by rolling the alpha ball is equivalent to the morphological opening/closing in theory. The algorithm depends on Delaunay triangulation with time complexity O(nlogn). In comparison to the naive algorithms it generates the opening and closing envelope without combining dilation and erosion. Edge distortion is corrected by reflective padding for open profiles/surfaces. Spikes in the sample data are detected and points interpolated to prevent singularities. The proposed algorithm works well both for morphological profile and area filters. Examples are presented to demonstrate the validity and superiority on efficiency of this algorithm over the naive algorithm.

  17. HEPA filter concerns - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, J.F. [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently initiated a complete review of the DOE High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filter Program to identify areas for improvement. Although this process is currently ongoing, various issues and problems have already been identified for action that not only impacts the DOE HEPA filter program, but potentially the national and international air cleaning community as well. This paper briefly reviews a few of those concerns that may be of interest, and discusses actions initiated by the DOE to address the associated issues and problems. Issues discussed include: guidance standards, in-place testing, specifications, Test Facilities, portable units, vacuum cleaners, substitute aerosols, filter efficiencies, aging/shelf life/service life, fire suppression, handbook, Quality Products List (QPL), QA testing, and evaluations.

  18. Adaptive filtering primer with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Poularikas, Alexander D

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONSignal ProcessingAn ExampleOutline of the TextDISCRETE-TIME SIGNAL PROCESSINGDiscrete Time SignalsTransform-Domain Representation of Discrete-Time SignalsThe Z-TransformDiscrete-Time SystemsProblemsHints-Solutions-SuggestionsRANDOM VARIABLES, SEQUENCES, AND STOCHASTIC PROCESSESRandom Signals and DistributionsAveragesStationary ProcessesSpecial Random Signals and Probability Density FunctionsWiener-Khinchin RelationsFiltering Random ProcessesSpecial Types of Random ProcessesNonparametric Spectra EstimationParametric Methods of power Spectral EstimationProblemsHints-Solutions-SuggestionsWIENER FILTERSThe Mean-Square ErrorThe FIR Wiener FilterThe Wiener SolutionWiener Filtering ExamplesProblemsHints-Solutions-SuggestionsEIGENVALUES OF RX - PROPERTIES OF THE ERROR SURFACEThe Eigenvalues of the Correlation MatrixGeometrical Properties of the Error SurfaceProblemsHints-Solutions-SuggestionsNEWTON AND STEEPEST-DESCENT METHODOne-Dimensional Gradient Search MethodSteepest-Descent AlgorithmProblemsHints-Sol...

  19. Applications of nonwoven filter media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-11-01

    The multi-client technical and marketing report, Nonwovens in Filtration (1987) World Wide, has been completed by Filter Media Consulting, Inc. According to this 450-page report, $818 million in sales worldwide in nonwoven filter media represents a substantial segment of the entire nonwoven market. This total is mainly roll goods with a few exceptions. Meltblown composites represent $108 million, 13% of the total, and is the fastest growing segment as compared to needled felts, dry formed, thermobonded, spunbonded, wet laid and other unique processes, all extensively covered in this report. Included are 20 filtration applications covered in 190 pages, such as baghouse and dust filtration, Torit-type cartridge filters, HEPA/ULPA filtration, and heating, ventilation and air conditioning. Major markets are addressed, and trends in different fields are highlighted throughout the report.

  20. Analysing and Comparing Encodability Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin Peters

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Encodings or the proof of their absence are the main way to compare process calculi. To analyse the quality of encodings and to rule out trivial or meaningless encodings, they are augmented with quality criteria. There exists a bunch of different criteria and different variants of criteria in order to reason in different settings. This leads to incomparable results. Moreover it is not always clear whether the criteria used to obtain a result in a particular setting do indeed fit to this setting. We show how to formally reason about and compare encodability criteria by mapping them on requirements on a relation between source and target terms that is induced by the encoding function. In particular we analyse the common criteria full abstraction, operational correspondence, divergence reflection, success sensitiveness, and respect of barbs; e.g. we analyse the exact nature of the simulation relation (coupled simulation versus bisimulation that is induced by different variants of operational correspondence. This way we reduce the problem of analysing or comparing encodability criteria to the better understood problem of comparing relations on processes.

  1. On robust signal reconstruction in noisy filter banks

    CERN Document Server

    Vikalo, H; Hassibi, B; Kailath, T; 10.1016/j.sigpro.2004.08.011

    2005-01-01

    We study the design of synthesis filters in noisy filter bank systems using an H/sup infinity / estimation point of view. The H/sup infinity / approach is most promising in situations where the statistical properties of the disturbances (arising from quantization, compression, etc.) in each subband of the filter bank is unknown, or is too difficult to model and analyze. For the important special case of unitary analysis polyphase matrices we obtain an explicit expression for the minimum achievable disturbance attenuation. For arbitrary analysis polyphase matrices, standard state-space H/sup infinity / techniques can be employed to obtain numerical solutions. When the synthesis filters are restricted to being FIR, as is often the case in practice, the design can be cast as a finite-dimensional semi-definite program. In this case, we can effectively exploit the inherent non-uniqueness of the H/sup infinity / solution to optimize for an additional criteria. By optimizing for average performance in addition to th...

  2. Multidimensional filter bank signal reconstruction from multichannel acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Ka Lung; Do, Minh N

    2011-02-01

    We study the theory and algorithms of an optimal use of multidimensional signal reconstruction from multichannel acquisition by using a filter bank setup. Suppose that we have an N-channel convolution system, referred to as N analysis filters, in M dimensions. Instead of taking all the data and applying multichannel deconvolution, we first reduce the collected data set by an integer M×M uniform sampling matrix [Formula: see text], and then search for a synthesis polyphase matrix which could perfectly reconstruct any input discrete signal. First, we determine the existence of perfect reconstruction (PR) systems for a given set of finite-impulse response (FIR) analysis filters. Second, we present an efficient algorithm to find a sampling matrix with maximum sampling rate and to find a FIR PR synthesis polyphase matrix for a given set of FIR analysis filters. Finally, once a particular FIR PR synthesis polyphase matrix is found, we can characterize all FIR PR synthesis matrices, and then find an optimal one according to design criteria including robust reconstruction in the presence of noise.

  3. Adaptive filtering prediction and control

    CERN Document Server

    Goodwin, Graham C

    2009-01-01

    Preface1. Introduction to Adaptive TechniquesPart 1. Deterministic Systems2. Models for Deterministic Dynamical Systems3. Parameter Estimation for Deterministic Systems4. Deterministic Adaptive Prediction5. Control of Linear Deterministic Systems6. Adaptive Control of Linear Deterministic SystemsPart 2. Stochastic Systems7. Optimal Filtering and Prediction8. Parameter Estimation for Stochastic Dynamic Systems9. Adaptive Filtering and Prediction10. Control of Stochastic Systems11. Adaptive Control of Stochastic SystemsAppendicesA. A Brief Review of Some Results from Systems TheoryB. A Summary o

  4. Filter-extruded liposomes revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinna, Askell; Steiniger, Frank; Hupfeld, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    (pore-size, number of filter passages, and flow-rate), flow field-flow fractionation in conjunction with multi-angle laser light scattering (AF4-MALLS, Wyatt Technology Corp., Santa Barbara, CA) was employed. Liposome size-distributions determined by AF4-MALLS were compared with those of dynamic light...... is suggested to prepare large (300 nm) liposomes with rather narrow size distribution, based on the filter extrusion at defined flow-rates in combination with freeze-/ thaw-cycling and bench-top centrifugation....

  5. Quantized, piecewise linear filter network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    1993-01-01

    A quantization based piecewise linear filter network is defined. A method for the training of this network based on local approximation in the input space is devised. The training is carried out by repeatedly alternating between vector quantization of the training set into quantization classes...... and equalization of the quantization classes linear filter mean square training errors. The equalization of the mean square training errors is carried out by adapting the boundaries between neighbor quantization classes such that the differences in mean square training errors are reduced...

  6. 3D filtering technique in presence of additive noise in color videos implemented on DSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomaryov, Volodymyr I.; Montenegro-Monroy, Hector; Palacios, Alfredo

    2014-05-01

    A filtering method for color videos contaminated by additive noise is presented. The proposed framework employs three filtering stages: spatial similarity filtering, neighboring frame denoising, and spatial post-processing smoothing. The difference with other state-of- the-art filtering methods, is that this approach, based on fuzzy logic, analyses basic and related gradient values between neighboring pixels into a 7 fi 7 sliding window in the vicinity of a central pixel in each of the RGB channels. Following, the similarity measures between the analogous pixels in the color bands are taken into account during the denoising. Next, two neighboring video frames are analyzed together estimating local motions between the frames using block matching procedure. In the final stage, the edges and smoothed areas are processed differently in a current frame during the post-processing filtering. Numerous simulations results confirm that this 3D fuzzy filter perform better than other state-of-the- art methods, such as: 3D-LLMMSE, WMVCE, RFMDAF, FDARTF G, VBM3D and NLM, in terms of objective criteria (PSNR, MAE, NCD and SSIM) as well as subjective perception via human vision system in the different color videos. An efficiency analysis of the designed and other mentioned filters have been performed on the DSPs TMS320 DM642 and TMS320DM648 by Texas Instruments through MATLAB and Simulink module showing that the novel 3D fuzzy filter can be used in real-time processing applications.

  7. New insights into the regulatory pathways associated with the activation of the stringent response in bacterial resistance to the PBP2-targeted antibiotics, mecillinam and OP0595/RG6080.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumith, M; Mushtaq, S; Livermore, D M; Woodford, N

    2016-10-01

    The diazabicyclooctane β-lactamase inhibitor OP0595 (RG6080) also acts as an antibiotic, targeting PBP2 in Enterobacteriaceae, but this activity is vulnerable to mutational resistance. We used WGS to investigate the basis of this resistance. Twenty OP0595-selected mutants, comprising four derived from each of five different Escherichia coli strains, were sequenced on Illumina HiSeq. Reads from each mutant were mapped to the assembled genome of the corresponding parent. A variant-calling file generated with Samtools was parsed to determine genetic alterations. Besides OP0595, the mutants consistently showed decreased susceptibility to mecillinam, which likewise targets PBP2, and grew as stable round forms in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of OP0595. Among the 20 mutants, 18 had alterations in genes encoding tRNA synthase and modification functions liable to induce expression of the RpoS sigma factor through activation of the stringent response or had mutations suppressing inactivators of RpoS or the stringent response signal-degrading enzyme, SpoT. TolB was inactivated in one mutant: this activates RcsBC regulation and was previously associated with mecillinam resistance. The mechanism of resistance remained unidentified in one mutant. Both the RpoS and RcsBC systems regulate genes of cell division, including ftsAQZ that can compensate for loss or inhibition of PBP2, allowing survival of the challenged bacteria as stable round forms, as seen. WGS identified the global stringent response signal, entailing induction of RpoS, as the main mediator of mutational resistance to OP0595 in E. coli. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. In Situ Cleanable Alternative HEPA Filter Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, D. J.; Terry, M. T.

    2002-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, located at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina, is currently testing two types of filter media for possible deployment as in situ regenerable/cleanable High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters. The filters are being investigated to replace conventional, disposable, glass-fiber, HEPA filters that require frequent removal, replacement, and disposal. This is not only costly and subjects site personnel to radiation exposure, but adds to the ever-growing waste disposal problem. The types of filter media being tested, as part of a National Energy Technology Laboratory procurement, are sintered nickel metal and ceramic monolith membrane. These media were subjected to a hostile environment to simulate conditions that challenge the high-level waste tank ventilation systems. The environment promoted rapid filter plugging to maximize the number of filter loading/cleaning cycles that would occur in a specified period of time. The filters were challenged using nonradioactive simulated high-level waste materials and atmospheric dust; materials that cause filter pluggage in the field. The filters are cleaned in situ using an aqueous solution. The study found that both filter media were insensitive to high humidity or moisture conditions and were easily cleaned in situ. The filters regenerated to approximately clean filter status even after numerous plugging and in situ cleaning cycles. Air Techniques International is conducting particle retention testing on the filter media at the Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility. The filters are challenged using 0.3-mm di-octyl phthalate particles. Both the ceramic and sintered media have a particle retention efficiency > 99.97%. The sintered metal and ceramic filters not only can be cleaned in situ, but also hold great potential as a long life alternative to conventional HEPA filters. The Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Technical Report, ''HEPA Filters Used in the Department of

  9. Aquatic Life Criteria - Tributyltin (TBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertaining to 2004 Final Acute and Chronic Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Tributyltin (TBT) for freshwater and saltwater. These documents include the safe levels of TBT that should protect the majority of species.

  10. Aquatic Life Criteria - Cadmium Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertaining to 2016 Acute and Chronic Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Cadmium (Freshwater, Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Cadmium in water that should protect the majority of species.

  11. Effect of lubricant oil properties on the performance of gasoline particulate filter (GPF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Huifang; Lam, William; Remias, Joseph; Roos, Joseph; Seong, HeeJe; Choi, Seungmok

    2016-10-17

    Mobile source emissions standards are becoming more stringent and particulate emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines represent a particular challenge. Gasoline particulate filter (GPF) is deemed as one possible technical solution for particulate emissions reduction. In this work, a study was conducted on eight formulations of lubricants to determine their effect on GDI engine particulate emissions and GPF performance. Accelerated ash loading tests were conducted on a 2.4L GDI engine with engine oil injection in gasoline fuel by 2%. The matrix of eight formulations was designed with changing levels of sulfated ash (SASH) level, Zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDDP) level and detergent type. Comprehensive evaluations of particulates included mass, number, size distribution, composition, morphology and soot oxidation properties. GPF performance was assessed through filtration efficiency, back pressure and morphology. It was determined that oil formulation affects the particulate emission characteristics and subsequent GPF performance.

  12. Reliability criteria for voltage stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Carson W.; Silverstein, Brian L. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

    1994-12-31

    In face of costs pressures, there is need to allocate scare resources more effectively in order to achieve voltage stability. This naturally leads to development of probabilistic criteria and notions of rick management. In this paper it is presented a discussion about criteria for long term voltage stability limited to the case in which the time frames are topically several minutes. (author) 14 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Filtering Undesirable Flows in Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polevoy, G.; Trajanovski, S.; Grosso, P.; de Laat, C.; Gao, X.; Du, H.; Han, M.

    2017-01-01

    We study the problem of fully mitigating the effects of denial of service by filtering the minimum necessary set of the undesirable flows. First, we model this problem and then we concentrate on a subproblem where every good flow has a bottleneck. We prove that unless P=NP, this subproblem is

  14. Spectral Diagonal Ensemble Kalman Filters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasanický, Ivan; Mandel, Jan; Vejmelka, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2015), s. 485-497 ISSN 1023-5809 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S Grant - others:NSF(US) DMS -1216481 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data assimilation * ensemble Kalman filter * spectral representation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.321, year: 2015

  15. Radioactive liquid waste filtering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inami, Ichiro; Tabata, Masayuki; Kubo, Koji.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent clogging in filter materials and improve the filtration performance for radioactive liquid wastes without increasing the amount of radioactive wastes. Constitution: In a radioactive waste filtering device, a liquid waste recycling pipe and a liquid recycling pump are disposed for recycling the radioactive liquid wastes in a liquid wastes vessel. In this case, the recycling pipe and the recycling pump are properly selected so as to satisfy the conditions capable of making the radioactive liquid wastes flowing through the pipe to have the Reynolds number of 10 4 - 10 5 . By repeating the transportation of radioactive liquid wastes in the liquid waste vessel through the liquid waste recycling pipe by the liquid waste recycling pump and then returning them to the liquid waste vessel again, particles of fine grain size in the suspended liquids are coagulated with each other upon collision to increase the grain size of the suspended particles. In this way, clogging of the filter materials caused by the particles of fine grain size can be prevented, thereby enabling to prevent the increase in the rising rate of the filtration differential pressure, reduce the frequency for the occurrence of radioactive wastes such as filter sludges and improve the processing performance. (Kamimura, M.)

  16. Visualizing the application of filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus; Hertzum, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Through a mixed-design experiment we compare how emergency-department clinicians perform when solving realistic work tasks with an electronic whiteboard where the application of information filters is visualized either by blocking, colour-coding or blurring information. We find that clinicians pe...

  17. Toxic chemical risk acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, D.K.; Davis, J.; Lee, L.; Lein, P.; Omberg, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents recommendations of a subcommittee of the Westinghouse M ampersand 0 Nuclear Facility Safety Committee concerning toxic chemical risk acceptance criteria. Two sets of criteria have been developed, one for use in the hazard classification of facilities, and the second for use in comparing risks in DOE non-reactor nuclear facility Safety Analysis Reports. The Emergency Response Planning Guideline (ERPG) values are intended to provide estimates of concentration ranges for specific chemicals above which exposure would be expected to lead to adverse heath effects of increasing severity for ERPG-1, -2, and -3s. The subcommittee recommends that criteria for hazard class or risk range be based on ERPGs for all chemicals. Probability-based Incremental Cancer Risk (ICR) criteria are recommended for additional analyses of risks from all known or suspected human carcinogens. Criteria are given for both on-site and off-site exposure. The subcommittee also recommends that the 5-minute peak concentration be compared with the relevant criterion with no adjustment for exposure time. Since ERPGs are available for only a limited number of chemicals, the subcommittee has developed a proposed hierarchy of concentration limit parameters for the different criteria

  18. A standard test for filter media cleanliness | Van Staden | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After a series of tests on various filter media, using 6 stripping methods, 2 methods were identified that met the criteria in the first objective. The first, a magnetic stirrer method is a mechanical agitation method and the second, referred to as the cylinder inversion method, is a manual agitation method. Each of these methods ...

  19. Minimum cost research when defining a very high efficiency air filtering installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, F.; Seau, C.

    1974-01-01

    Economic criteria importance when establishing filtering projects is shown. In a first part, an optimization method of costs is studied. In the existing installations, it is necessary to study the operating costs, and eventually introduce changes in order to improve profitability. In the second part it is indicated how the Marcoule Center has solved this problem [fr

  20. Performance comparison of various time variant filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwata, M. [JEOL Engineering Co. Ltd., Akishima, Tokyo (Japan); Husimi, K.

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes the advantage of the trapezoidal filter used in semiconductor detector system comparing with the other time variant filters. The trapezoidal filter is the compose of a rectangular pre-filter and a gated integrator. We indicate that the best performance is obtained by the differential-integral summing type rectangular pre-filter. This filter is not only superior in performance, but also has the useful feature that the rising edge of the output waveform is linear. We introduce an example of this feature used in a high-energy experiment. (author)

  1. Design and construction of electronic filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becerril Z, E.R.; Moreno P, C.; Salinas B, E.

    1979-01-01

    The design and construction of very low frequencies electronic filters which will be used for carrying out analysis of pile noise at Mexico's Nuclear Center Triga Mark III Reactor, in order to realize measurements of its parameters is presented. NIM norms and active filters with lineal integrated circuits were used: a. Band pass filter from 10 to 500 hertz, band width 50. b. Low pass filter from 0.001 to 10 hertz in 3 steps. c. Kalman Bucy filter, an analogical simulation of this filter was undertaken, obtained from a mathematical model of a Zero power experimental reactor, with the purpose to establish a control searching. (author)

  2. Bottom loaded filter for radioactive liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendland, W.G.

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to equipment for filtering liquids and more particularly to filter assemblies for use with radioactive by-products of nuclear power plants. The invention provides a compact, bottom-loaded filter assembly that can be quickly and safely loaded and unloaded without the use of complex remote equipment. The assembly is integrally shielded and does not require external shielding. The closure hatch may be automatically aligned to facilitate quick sealing attachment after replacement of the filter cartridge, and the filter cartridge may be automatically positioned within the filter housing during the replacement operation

  3. High temperature filter for incinerator gas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, Francois; Brion, Jacques; Cousin, Michel; Delarue, Roger

    1969-01-01

    This note describes a regenerable filter for the hot filtering of incinerator gases. The filter is made of several wire gauze candles coated with asbestos fibers as filtering medium. Unburnt products, like carbon black, terminate their combustion on the filter, reducing the risk of clogging and enhancing the operation time to several hundreds of hours between two regeneration cycles. The filter was tested on a smaller scale mockup, and then on an industrial pilot plant with a 20 kg/h capacity during a long duration. This note describes the installation and presents the results obtained [fr

  4. A rigid porous filter and filtration method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Ta-Kuan; Straub, Douglas, Straub L.; Dennis, Richard A.

    1998-12-01

    The present invention involves a porous rigid filter comprising a plurality of concentric filtration elements having internal flow passages and forming external flow passages there between. The present invention also involves a pressure vessel containing the filter for the removal of particulate from high pressure particulate containing gases, and further involves a method for using the filter to remove such particulate. The present filter has the advantage of requiring fewer filter elements due to the high surface area- to-volume ratio provided by the filter, requires a reduced pressure vessel size, and exhibits enhanced mechanical design properties, improved cleaning properties, configuration options, modularity and ease of fabrication.

  5. Objective Motion Cueing Criteria Investigation Based on Three Flight Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaal, Petrus M. T.; Schroeder, Jeffery A.; Chung, William W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper intends to help establish fidelity criteria to accompany the simulator motion system diagnostic test specified by the International Civil Aviation Organization. Twelve air- line transport pilots flew three tasks in the NASA Vertical Motion Simulator under four different motion conditions. The experiment used three different hexapod motion configurations, each with a different tradeoff between motion filter gain and break frequency, and one large motion configuration that utilized as much of the simulator's motion space as possible. The motion condition significantly affected: 1) pilot motion fidelity ratings, and sink rate and lateral deviation at touchdown for the approach and landing task, 2) pilot motion fidelity ratings, roll deviations, maximum pitch rate, and number of stick shaker activations in the stall task, and 3) heading deviation after an engine failure in the takeoff task. Significant differences in pilot-vehicle performance were used to define initial objective motion cueing criteria boundaries. These initial fidelity boundaries show promise but need refinement.

  6. Social Advertising Quality: Assessment Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Kalmykov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the The purpose of the publication is development of existing criterial assessment in social advertising sphere. The next objectives are provided for its achievement: to establish research methodology, to develop the author’s version of necessary notional apparatus and conceptual generalization, to determine the elements of social advertising quality, to establish the factors of its quality, to conduct the systematization of existing criteria and measuring instruments of quality assessment, to form new criteria of social advertising quality, to apply received results for development of criterial assessment to determine the further research perspectives. Methods: the methodology of research of management of social advertising interaction with target audience, which has dynamic procedural character with use of sociological knowledge multivariate paradigmatic status, has been proposed. Results: the primary received results: the multivariate paradigmatic research basis with use of works of famous domestic and foreign scientists in sociology, qualimetry and management spheres; the definitions of social advertising, its quality, sociological quality provision system, target audience behavior model during social advertising interaction are offered; the quality factors with three groups by level of effect on consumer are established; the systematization of existing quality and its measure instruments assessment criteria by detected social advertising quality elements are conducted; the two new criteria and its management quality assessment measuring instruments in social advertising sphere are developed; the one of the common groups of production quality criteria – adaptability with considering of new management quality criteria and conducted systematization of existing social advertising creative quality assessment criteria development; the perspective of further perfection of quality criterial assessment based on social advertising

  7. Marginalized Particle Filtering Framework for Tuning of Ensemble Filters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmídl, Václav; Hofman, Radek

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 139, č. 11 (2011), s. 3589-3599 ISSN 0027-0644 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102013018; GA ČR GP102/08/P250 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : ensemble finter * marginalized particle filter * data assimilation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.688, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/AS/smidl-0367533.pdf

  8. A Study of Parallel Operation of an active Filter and passive Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports investigations of the parallel operations of a current controlled active filter and passive filters in a system with current harmonic sources. The task of reactive power and harmonic compensation is shared by the active filter and passive filters. The passive filters are used...... arrangements of the active and passive filters can operate relatively independently, also the compensation flexibility of the active filter can be fully exploited, such as one active filter for several harmonic sources.The simulation studies on various systems have been performed to evaluate the effectiveness...... of the systems. The results show that the power factor is corrected by the passive filters, harmonics are minimized by both active and passive filters and overloading of the filter system can be avoided....

  9. Programmable Baseband Filter for Multistandard Mobile Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Glarborg; Christensen, Kåre Tais; Bruun, Erik

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a channel selection filter for mobile communication systems using a direct down conversion architecture. The filter can be programmed to meet the requirements of different communication standards, including GSM (Global System for Mobile communication), WCDMA (Wideband Code...

  10. Deep Ultraviolet Macroporous Silicon Filters, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal describes a novel method to make deep and far UV optical filters from macroporous silicon. This type of filter consists of an array of...

  11. Blocking Detection Based on Synoptic Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Schalge

    2011-01-01

    minimum zonal width, and (iii a persistence filter to extract events with a minimum duration. Practical filter application is analysed in two case studies and the blocking climatologies for the Northern and the Southern Hemisphere.

  12. Cryptosporidium: A Guide to Water Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cryptosporidium Tracking in the United States CryptoNet Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... lt;/label> Parasites Home A Guide to Water Filters Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Filtering ...

  13. Kalman filtering with real-time applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chui, Charles K

    2017-01-01

    This new edition presents a thorough discussion of the mathematical theory and computational schemes of Kalman filtering. The filtering algorithms are derived via different approaches, including a direct method consisting of a series of elementary steps, and an indirect method based on innovation projection. Other topics include Kalman filtering for systems with correlated noise or colored noise, limiting Kalman filtering for time-invariant systems, extended Kalman filtering for nonlinear systems, interval Kalman filtering for uncertain systems, and wavelet Kalman filtering for multiresolution analysis of random signals. Most filtering algorithms are illustrated by using simplified radar tracking examples. The style of the book is informal, and the mathematics is elementary but rigorous. The text is self-contained, suitable for self-study, and accessible to all readers with a minimum knowledge of linear algebra, probability theory, and system engineering. Over 100 exercises and problems with solutions help de...

  14. Media filter drain : modified design evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The media filter drain (MFD), a stormwater water quality treatment best management practice, consists of media made up of : aggregate, perlite, gypsum and dolomite in a trench located along roadway shoulders with gravel and vegetative pre-filtering f...

  15. A new martingale approach to Kalman Filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagchi, Arunabha

    1976-01-01

    A new derivation of continuous-time Kalman Filter equations is presented. The underlying idea has been previously used to derive the smoothing equations. A unified approach to filtering and smoothing problems has thus been achieved.

  16. Reactor tank UT acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    The SRS reactor tanks are constructed of type 304 stainless steel, with 0.5 inch thick walls. An ultrasonic (UT) in-service inspection program has been developed for examination of these tanks, in accordance with the ISI Plan for the Savannah River Production Reactors Process Water System (DPSTM-88-100-1). Prior to initiation of these inspections, criteria for the disposition of any indications that might be found are required. A working group has been formed to review available information on the SRS reactor tanks and develop acceptance criteria. This working group includes nationally recognized experts in the nuclear industry. The working group has met three times and produced three documents describing the proposed acceptance criteria, the technical basis for the criteria and a proposed initial sampling plan. This report transmits these three documents, which were prepared in accordance with the technical task plan and quality assurance plan for this task, task 88-001-A- 1. In addition, this report summarizes the acceptance criteria and proposed sampling plan, and provides further interpretation of the intent of these three documents where necessary

  17. Facial recognition using composite correlation filters designed with multiobjective combinatorial optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Andres; Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.; Kober, Vitaly; Trujillo, Leonardo

    2014-09-01

    Facial recognition is a difficult task due to variations in pose and facial expressions, as well as presence of noise and clutter in captured face images. In this work, we address facial recognition by means of composite correlation filters designed with multi-objective combinatorial optimization. Given a large set of available face images having variations in pose, gesticulations, and global illumination, a proposed algorithm synthesizes composite correlation filters by optimization of several performance criteria. The resultant filters are able to reliably detect and correctly classify face images of different subjects even when they are corrupted with additive noise and nonhomogeneous illumination. Computer simulation results obtained with the proposed approach are presented and discussed in terms of efficiency in face detection and reliability of facial classification. These results are also compared with those obtained with existing composite filters.

  18. A family of smoothing algorithms for electron and other spectroscopies based on the Chebyshev filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Camacho, E.; Garcia-Cortes, A.; Palacio, C.

    2006-01-01

    Smoothing is a useful tool to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of spectroscopic data. This paper reports a new family of smoothing formulas, the Chebyshev filters, which are derived approaching the original data to a polynomial and using the mini-max principle, that is, keeping the maximum error down to a minimum, as fitting criterion. The properties of the filters are studied analyzing their associated transfer functions in the frequency domain. This leads us to the concept of spectral window and spectral window width as tool and parameter, respectively, to remove the high frequency noise components accompanying the experimental data. Also, simple criteria to choose the appropriate width of the spectral windows are put forward. The behaviour of the filters is easy to understand and the filters are fast and simple to use and to program. Finally the proposed smoothing algorithms have been tested using synthetic data as well as X-ray photoelectron spectra and optical absorption spectra

  19. Penetration of superfluid turbulence through porous filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreman, L.R.; Snyder, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    The equilibrium concentration of superfluid turbulence on two sides of small-pore filters is studied as a function of pore size. The filter forms a common wall between two second-sound resonance cavities. The attenuation of standing waves of second sound is used to detect the turbulence which is created in the superfluid with a rotating paddle. We find that superfluid turbulence does not pass through filters of 7.5 nm diameter, but penetrates filters with 50-nm pores

  20. Common criteria for usability review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The propose of this paper is to present a literature review, in a grouping of common criteria for usability approaches of Bastien and Scapin (1993), Nielsen (1994), Shnneiderman(1998), Dix et al (1998), Preece et al (2005) and ISO 9241-110 (2006). After establishment of prerequisites for knowledge of the general characteristics of the users who will use the system, are defined and explained the criteria in common: consistency, user control, ease of learning, flexibility, errors management, reduction of excess and visibility system status. Although there is no determination as to which criteria should be considered when developing an interface and each author presents some specificity in their approach, it is observed that there is equivalence in the measures adopted usability.

  1. Combining the IADPSG criteria with the WHO diagnostic criteria for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, yet there are no universally accepted diagnostic ... pregnancy outcome than a diagnosis that meets only WHO or IADPSG criteria. Key words: .... GDM, hypertensive disorder, maternal age, maternal obesity, family history of ...

  2. Combining the IADPSG criteria with the WHO diagnostic criteria for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    glucose, 1‑hour and 2‑hour serum glucose. Serum glucose was analysed on the Roche/Hitachi 902 automatic analyzer. The women were classified as gestational diabetics and non‑gestational diabetic according to the WHO and IADPSG diagnostic criteria. Five pregnancy outcome parameters were observed during the ...

  3. Mixtures of skewed Kalman filters

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyoungmoon

    2014-01-01

    Normal state-space models are prevalent, but to increase the applicability of the Kalman filter, we propose mixtures of skewed, and extended skewed, Kalman filters. To do so, the closed skew-normal distribution is extended to a scale mixture class of closed skew-normal distributions. Some basic properties are derived and a class of closed skew. t distributions is obtained. Our suggested family of distributions is skewed and has heavy tails too, so it is appropriate for robust analysis. Our proposed special sequential Monte Carlo methods use a random mixture of the closed skew-normal distributions to approximate a target distribution. Hence it is possible to handle skewed and heavy tailed data simultaneously. These methods are illustrated with numerical experiments. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  4. Nonlinear image filtering within IDP++

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, S.K.; Wieting, M.G.; Brase, J.M.

    1995-02-09

    IDP++, image and data processing in C++, is a set of a signal processing libraries written in C++. It is a multi-dimension (up to four dimensions), multi-data type (implemented through templates) signal processing extension to C++. IDP++ takes advantage of the object-oriented compiler technology to provide ``information hiding.`` Users need only know C, not C++. Signals or data sets are treated like any other variable with a defined set of operators and functions. We here some examples of the nonlinear filter library within IDP++. Specifically, the results of MIN, MAX median, {alpha}-trimmed mean, and edge-trimmed mean filters as applied to a real aperture radar (RR) and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data set.

  5. Ceramic hot-gas filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Elizabeth Sokolinski; Forsythe, George Daniel; Domanski, Daniel Matthew; Chambers, Jeffrey Allen; Rajendran, Govindasamy Paramasivam

    1999-01-01

    A ceramic hot-gas candle filter having a porous support of filament-wound oxide ceramic yarn at least partially surrounded by a porous refractory oxide ceramic matrix, and a membrane layer on at least one surface thereof. The membrane layer may be on the outer surface, the inner surface, or both the outer and inner surface of the porous support. The membrane layer may be formed of an ordered arrangement of circularly wound, continuous filament oxide ceramic yarn, a ceramic filler material which is less permeable than the filament-wound support structure, or some combination of continuous filament and filler material. A particularly effective membrane layer features circularly wound filament with gaps intentionally placed between adjacent windings, and a filler material of ceramic particulates uniformly distributed throughout the gap region. The filter can withstand thermal cycling during backpulse cleaning and is resistant to chemical degradation at high temperatures.

  6. Filters: It's Not about Porn, Stupid!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Discusses libraries' uses of filters to prevent access to objectionable sites on the Internet. Highlights include the American Library Association's resolution against filters as a violation of First Amendment rights; patron's use of terminals for e-mail or games; using filters for collection management; and listservs and online resources…

  7. Notch filters for port-Hamiltonian systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksz, D.A.; Scherpen, J.M.A.; van der Schaft, A.J.; Steinbuch, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a standard notch filter is modeled in the port-Hamiltonian framework. By having such a port-Hamiltonian description it is proven that the notch filter is a passive system. The notch filter can then be interconnected with another (nonlinear) port-Hamiltonian system, while preserving the

  8. B Plant exhaust filter inventory analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, J.S.; Wootan, D.W.; Carter, L.L.; Bunch, W.L.; Covey, L.I.; Greenborg, J.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes a method for determining radionuclide inventories in filters using measurements of radiation fields that determine photon dose rates and photon-plus-electron dose rates between filter banks. The mathematical approach quantifies the curie inventories of filter banks by using the measured dose rates and the calculated Green's functions involving detector responses per unit source

  9. In situ microbial filter used for bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, M. Leslie; Taylor, Robert T.

    2000-01-01

    An improved method for in situ microbial filter bioremediation having increasingly operational longevity of an in situ microbial filter emplaced into an aquifer. A method for generating a microbial filter of sufficient catalytic density and thickness, which has increased replenishment interval, improved bacteria attachment and detachment characteristics and the endogenous stability under in situ conditions. A system for in situ field water remediation.

  10. Gradient based filtering of digital elevation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas; Andersen, Rune Carbuhn

    We present a filtering method for digital terrain models (DTMs). The method is based on mathematical morphological filtering within gradient (slope) defined domains. The intention with the filtering procedure is to improbé the cartographic quality of height contours generated from a DTM based on ...

  11. Liquid filter for liquids containing radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohleder, N.; Schwarz, F.

    1986-01-01

    A device for filtering radioactive liquids loaded with solids is described, which has a pressure-resistant housing with a lid and an incomer for the turbid liquid and a collecting space and drain for the filtrate at the bottom of the housing. A filter cartridge is present in this housing. Such a filtering device must be suitable for use in nuclear plants, must be easy to replace by remote control and must minimise the carrying over of radioactive particles. This problem should be solved by the filter cartridge consisting of a large number of horizontal filter plates stacked above one another, which carry a deep layer filter material acting in the sub-micron range. The turbid liquid runs into the centre of the stack of filter plates via a vertical central duct. The intermediate spaces between the filter places are connected to this central duct via the layer of filter material. The filter plates are sealed against one another on the outer circumference and have radial drain openings for the filtrate on the outside. The central duct is sealed at the lower end by a plate. When the filter cartridge is replaced, the radioactive waste in the filter cartridge remains safely enclosed and can be conditioned in suitable containers. (orig.) [de

  12. Electrically heated particulate filter restart strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-07-12

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a propagation module that estimates a propagation status of combustion of particulate matter in the particulate filter. A regeneration module controls current to the particulate filter to re-initiate regeneration based on the propagation status.

  13. 27 CFR 24.243 - Filtering aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filtering aids. 24.243... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.243 Filtering aids. Inert fibers, pulps, earths, or similar materials, may be used as filtering aids in the cellar treatment and...

  14. RETENTION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE BY NYLON FILTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on laboratory studies, recovery efficiencies of sulfur dioxide (SO2) were determined for nylon filters. The nylon filters used in these experiments were found to retain SO2. A relatively uniform amount (1.7%) was recoverable from each nylon filter, independent of relative...

  15. Fuzzy t-filters and their Properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Víta, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 247, 16 July (2014), s. 127-134 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1826 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : non-classical logics * algebra * fuzzy t-filters * t-filters * fuzzy filters * residuated lattices Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.986, year: 2014

  16. HF filter design and computer simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Rhea, Randall W

    1994-01-01

    A book for engineers who design and build filters of all types, including lumped element, coaxial, helical, dielectric resonator, stripline and microstrip types. A thorough review of classic and modern filter design techniques, containing extensive practical design information of passband characteristics, topologies and transformations, component effects and matching. An excellent text for the design and construction of microstrip filters.

  17. Simulasi Filter Pasif Dan Perbandingan Unjuk Kerjanya Dengan Filter Aktif Dan Filter Aktif Hibrid Dalam Meredam Harmonisa Pada Induction Furnace

    OpenAIRE

    Tanoto, Yusak; Limantara, Limboto; Khandy Lestanto, Khristian

    2005-01-01

    This paper describe about simulation of Passive Filter in analysis to reduce harmonics that happened in a load such as vacuum casting induction furnace 9 kW, 13.8 kVA, 200V, 3 Ph, 50/60 Hz, also gives comparison with Hybrid Active Filter and Active Filter which made satisfaction result on the previous research. The best result achieved on the use of Hybrid Active Filter on %ITHD for 4.27 % and %VTHD for 3.83%, while Active Filter gave on %ITHD for 5.14 % and %VTHD for 3.82%. There ...

  18. Filtering algorithm for dotted interferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterloh, K., E-mail: kurt.osterloh@bam.de [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Division VIII.3, Radiological Methods, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Buecherl, T.; Lierse von Gostomski, Ch. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer Radiochemie, Walther-Meissner-Str. 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Zscherpel, U.; Ewert, U. [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Division VIII.3, Radiological Methods, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Bock, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer Radiochemie, Walther-Meissner-Str. 3, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-09-21

    An algorithm has been developed to remove reliably dotted interferences impairing the perceptibility of objects within a radiographic image. This particularly is a major challenge encountered with neutron radiographs collected at the NECTAR facility, Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II): the resulting images are dominated by features resembling a snow flurry. These artefacts are caused by scattered neutrons, gamma radiation, cosmic radiation, etc. all hitting the detector CCD directly in spite of a sophisticated shielding. This makes such images rather useless for further direct evaluations. One approach to resolve this problem of these random effects would be to collect a vast number of single images, to combine them appropriately and to process them with common image filtering procedures. However, it has been shown that, e.g. median filtering, depending on the kernel size in the plane and/or the number of single shots to be combined, is either insufficient or tends to blur sharp lined structures. This inevitably makes a visually controlled processing image by image unavoidable. Particularly in tomographic studies, it would be by far too tedious to treat each single projection by this way. Alternatively, it would be not only more comfortable but also in many cases the only reasonable approach to filter a stack of images in a batch procedure to get rid of the disturbing interferences. The algorithm presented here meets all these requirements. It reliably frees the images from the snowy pattern described above without the loss of fine structures and without a general blurring of the image. It consists of an iterative, within a batch procedure parameter free filtering algorithm aiming to eliminate the often complex interfering artefacts while leaving the original information untouched as far as possible.

  19. Design criteria for advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennielou, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Design criteria for advanced reactors are discussed, including safety aspects, site selection, problems related to maintenance and possibility of repairing or replacing structures or components of a nuclear power plant, the human factor considerations. Bearing in mind that some of these criteria are the subject of consensus at international level, the author suggests to establish a table of different operator requirements, to prepare a dossier on the comparison of input data for probabilistic risk analysis, to take into consideration the means to control a severe accident from the very start of the design

  20. Decision modeling and acceptance criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2003-01-01

    formulation of decision criteria and public acceptance criteria connected to risk analysis of technical operations that may endanger human life and property. Public restrictions on the decisions concerning the design, construction and managing of the technical operation have in the past been imposed......, the owner that tries to optimize the net gain of the operation, and the public that has somewhat different preferences than the owner, but also strong interests in the success of the owner. The principles of rational decision are needed for appreciation of the problem. Recognizing that there is an insurance...

  1. Designing metallic iron based water filters: Light from methylene blue discoloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Btatkeu-K, B D; Tchatchueng, J B; Noubactep, C; Caré, S

    2016-01-15

    Available water filtration systems containing metallic iron (Fe(0) filters) are pragmatically designed. There is a lack of sound design criteria to exploit the full potential of Fe(0) filters. A science-based design relies on valuable information on processes within a Fe(0) filter, including chemical reactions, hydrodynamics and their relation to the performance of the filter. The aim of this study was to establish a simple method to evaluate the initial performance of Fe(0) filters. The differential adsorptive affinity of methylene blue (MB) onto sand and iron oxide is exploited to characterize the evolution of a Fe(0)/sand system using the pure sand system as operational reference. Five systems were investigated for more than 70 days: pure sand, pure Fe(0), Fe(0)/sand, Fe(0)/pumice and Fe(0)/sand/pumice. Individual systems were characterized by the extent of changes in pH value, iron breakthrough, MB breakthrough and hydraulic conductivity. Results showed that for MB discoloration (i) pure sand was the most efficient system, (ii) hybrid systems were more sustainable than the pure Fe(0) system, and (iii) the pores of used pumice are poorly interconnected. Characterizing the initial reactivity of Fe(0) filters using MB discoloration has introduced a powerful tool for the exploration of various aspects of filter design. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Diagnostic test systematic reviews: bibliographic search filters ("Clinical Queries") for diagnostic accuracy studies perform well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Monika; Wilczynski, Nancy L; McKibbon, Ann K; Garg, Amit X; Haynes, R Brian

    2009-09-01

    Systematic reviews of health care topics are valuable summaries of all pertinent studies on focused questions. However, finding all relevant primary studies for systematic reviews remains challenging. To determine the performance of the Clinical Queries sensitive search filter for diagnostic accuracy studies for retrieving studies for systematic reviews. We compared the yield of the sensitive Clinical Queries diagnosis search filter for MEDLINE and EMBASE to retrieve studies in diagnostic accuracy systematic reviews reported in ACP Journal Club in 2006. Twelve of 22 diagnostic accuracy reviews (452 included studies) met the inclusion criteria. After excluding 11 studies not in MEDLINE or EMBASE, 95% of articles (417 of 441) were captured by the sensitive Clinical Queries diagnosis search filter (MEDLINE and EMBASE combined). Of 24 studies not retrieved by the filter, 22 were not diagnostic accuracy studies. Reanalysis of the Clinical Queries filter without these 22 nondiagnosis articles increased its performance to 99% (417 of 419). We found no substantive impact of the two articles missed by the Clinical Queries filter on the conclusions of the systematic reviews in which they were cited. The sensitive Clinical Queries diagnostic search filter captured 99% of articles and 100% of substantive articles indexed in MEDLINE and EMBASE in diagnostic accuracy systematic reviews.

  3. Social Collaborative Filtering by Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Lei, Yu; Liu, Jiming; Li, Wenjie

    2017-08-01

    Recommender systems are used to accurately and actively provide users with potentially interesting information or services. Collaborative filtering is a widely adopted approach to recommendation, but sparse data and cold-start users are often barriers to providing high quality recommendations. To address such issues, we propose a novel method that works to improve the performance of collaborative filtering recommendations by integrating sparse rating data given by users and sparse social trust network among these same users. This is a model-based method that adopts matrix factorization technique that maps users into low-dimensional latent feature spaces in terms of their trust relationship, and aims to more accurately reflect the users reciprocal influence on the formation of their own opinions and to learn better preferential patterns of users for high-quality recommendations. We use four large-scale datasets to show that the proposed method performs much better, especially for cold start users, than state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms for social collaborative filtering based on trust.

  4. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.S. Connolly; G.D. Forsythe

    1998-12-22

    Advanced, coal-based power plants will require durable and reliable hot gas filtration systems to remove particulate contaminants from the gas streams to protect downstream components such as turbine blades from erosion damage. It is expected that the filter elements in these systems will have to be made of ceramic materials to withstand goal service temperatures of 1600 F or higher. Recent demonstration projects and pilot plant tests have indicated that the current generation of ceramic hot gas filters (cross-flow and candle configurations) are failing prematurely. Two of the most promising materials that have been extensively evaluated are clay-bonded silicon carbide and alumina-mullite porous monoliths. These candidates, however, have been found to suffer progressive thermal shock fatigue damage, as a result of rapid cooling/heating cycles. Such temperature changes occur when the hot filters are back-pulsed with cooler gas to clean them, or in process upset conditions, where even larger gas temperature changes may occur quickly and unpredictably. In addition, the clay-bonded silicon carbide materials are susceptible to chemical attack of the glassy binder phase that holds the SiC particles together, resulting in softening, strength loss, creep, and eventual failure.

  5. 7 CFR 1570.20 - Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Criteria § 1570.20 Criteria. The criteria considered by FAS in reviewing proposals for SOAP and COAP... initiatives will make toward realizing U.S. agricultural export goals and, in particular, in developing...

  6. Application of Self Cleaning Rapid Sand Filter in Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Rahmani

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapid sand filter is one of the most important units in the water treatment plants. It has some difficulties in operation such as backwashing. For the solving of this problem a rapid sand filter has designed and built with the self-cleaning backwashing system. This system consist of 3 main constituents; one galvanized siphon and two galvanized steel tanks. One of them is used for filtration and the other used for the storage of filtrated water in elevation for backwashing the system. Water enter from upside of the filter through the inlet pipe, and collected from the under drainage pipe. Then filter water conduct to the storage tank and exit from outlet pipe. In the beginning, the head loss was low, but because of bed clogging by suspended solids, it increases gradually to the designed head loss (1.2m. Then the system is outed of the service automatically and the backwash is began. The main data for the design of system selected from the hydraulic rules of siphons and rapid sand filter criteria. After essential calculations it was constructed and was started operation. For the hydraulic studies a known volume of storage tank was selected and the time needed for the fill (in filtration stage and empty (in backwash stage of water volume with volumetric method were measured. In hydraulic studies the filter surface rate (SOR was selected about 5-7.5m3/m2/hr (1.39-2.08 lit/sec and the flow of water in siphon, during the backwashing was measured 8.7 lit/sec. It can be seen that the siphon passes 4-6 times the inlet raw water thus a negative pressure will created in the siphon which causes the water above the sand bed to be discharged automatically and rinse water from elevated tank flow under the sand bed and back wash it. So according to this study self cleaning rapid sand filter is very useful for water filtration, especially in small population community. The construction of system is rapid, simple and economic.

  7. Switchable microwave photonic filter between high Q bandpass filter and notch filter with flat passband based on phase modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuan; Xu, Enming; Dong, Jianji; Zhou, Lina; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Xinliang

    2010-11-22

    We propose and demonstrate a novel switchable microwave photonic filter based on phase modulation. Both a microwave high Q bandpass filter and a microwave notch filter with flat passband are achieved respectively. And the switchability between them by tuning the two tunable optical bandpass filters is demonstrated. We also present a theoretical model and analytical expression for the proposed scheme. A frequency response of a high Q bandpass filter with a Q factor of 327 and a rejection ratio of exceeding 42 dB, and a frequency response of a notch filter with flat passband with a rejection ratio exceeding 34 dB are experimentally obtained. The operation frequency of microwave photonic filter is around 20 GHz.

  8. Validation of proposed diagnostic criteria (the "Budapest Criteria") for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harden, R.N.; Bruehl, S.; Perez, R.S.G.M.; Birklein, F.; Marinus, J.; Maihofner, C.; Lubenow, T.; Buvanendran, A.; Mackey, S.; Graciosa, J.; Mogilevski, M.; Ramsden, C.; Chont, M.; Vatine, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Current IASP diagnostic criteria for CRPS have low specificity, potentially leading to overdiagnosis. This validation study compared current IASP diagnostic criteria for CRPS to proposed new diagnostic criteria (the "Budapest Criteria") regarding diagnostic accuracy. Structured evaluations of

  9. HEPA Filter Use at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriskovich, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are relied upon at the Hanford site to support several different activities. Each facility relies upon the filters to provide the same function; remove radioactive particulate from various air streams. However, HEPA filters are operated in differing environmental conditions from one facility to another and the constituents in the air streams also differ. In addition, some HEPA filters at the Hanford site have been in service for several years. As a result, an assessment was performed which evaluated the service life and conditions of the HEPA filters at the Hanford site

  10. HEPA Filter Use at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRISKOVICH, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are relied upon at the Hanford site to support several different activities. Each facility relies upon the filters to provide the same function, remove radioactive particulate However, HEPA filters are operated in differing environmental conditions from one facility to another and the constituents in the air streams also differ. In addition, some HEPA filters at the Hanford site have been in service for several years. As a result, an assessment was performed which evaluated the service life and conditions of the HEPA filters at the Hanford site

  11. Modeling and Measurements of Novel Monolithic Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalbert Beyer

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents novel multilayer tuneable high Q-filters based on hairpin resonators including ferroelectric materials. This configuration allows the miniaturization of these filters to a size that makes them suitable for chip and package integration and narrow-band applications. The main focus was miniaturizing filters with coupled loops using multilayer dielectric substrates. A further goal was to increase the quality factor of these distributed filters by embedding high dielectric materials in a multilayer high- and low-k (dielectric constant substrate that is supported by LTCC technology. An improved W-shape bandpass filter was proposed with a wide stopband and approximately 5% bandwidth.

  12. Tunable electro-optic filter stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontecchio, Adam K.; Shriyan, Sameet K.; Bellingham, Alyssa

    2017-09-05

    A holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) tunable filter exhibits switching times of no more than 20 microseconds. The HPDLC tunable filter can be utilized in a variety of applications. An HPDLC tunable filter stack can be utilized in a hyperspectral imaging system capable of spectrally multiplexing hyperspectral imaging data acquired while the hyperspectral imaging system is airborne. HPDLC tunable filter stacks can be utilized in high speed switchable optical shielding systems, for example as a coating for a visor or an aircraft canopy. These HPDLC tunable filter stacks can be fabricated using a spin coating apparatus and associated fabrication methods.

  13. Adaptable Iterative and Recursive Kalman Filter Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear filters are often very computationally expensive and usually not suitable for real-time applications. Real-time navigation algorithms are typically based on linear estimators, such as the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and, to a much lesser extent, the unscented Kalman filter. The Iterated Kalman filter (IKF) and the Recursive Update Filter (RUF) are two algorithms that reduce the consequences of the linearization assumption of the EKF by performing N updates for each new measurement, where N is the number of recursions, a tuning parameter. This paper introduces an adaptable RUF algorithm to calculate N on the go, a similar technique can be used for the IKF as well.

  14. Linear Regression Based Real-Time Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misel Batmend

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces real time filtering method based on linear least squares fitted line. Method can be used in case that a filtered signal is linear. This constraint narrows a band of potential applications. Advantage over Kalman filter is that it is computationally less expensive. The paper further deals with application of introduced method on filtering data used to evaluate a position of engraved material with respect to engraving machine. The filter was implemented to the CNC engraving machine control system. Experiments showing its performance are included.

  15. Risk based seismic design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    In order to develop a risk based seismic design criteria the following four issues must be addressed: (1) What target annual probability of seismic induced unacceptable performance is acceptable? (2) What minimum seismic margin is acceptable? (3) Given the decisions made under Issues 1 and 2, at what annual frequency of exceedance should the safe-shutdown-earthquake (SSE) ground motion be defined? (4) What seismic design criteria should be established to reasonably achieve the seismic margin defined under Issue 2? The first issue is purely a policy decision and is not addressed in this paper. Each of the other three issues are addressed. Issues 2 and 3 are integrally tied together so that a very large number of possible combinations of responses to these two issues can be used to achieve the target goal defined under Issue 1. Section 2 lays out a combined approach to these two issues and presents three potentially attractive combined resolutions of these two issues which reasonably achieves the target goal. The remainder of the paper discusses an approach which can be used to develop seismic design criteria aimed at achieving the desired seismic margin defined in resolution of Issue 2. Suggestions for revising existing seismic design criteria to more consistently achieve the desired seismic margin are presented. (orig.)

  16. Evaluating Dependence Criteria for Caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striley, Catherine L W; Griffiths, Roland R; Cottler, Linda B

    2011-12-01

    Background: Although caffeine is the most widely used mood-altering drug in the world, few studies have operationalized and characterized Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) substance dependence criteria applied to caffeine. Methods: As a part of a nosological study of substance use disorders funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, we assessed caffeine use and dependence symptoms among high school and college students, drug treatment patients, and pain clinic patients who reported caffeine use in the last 7 days and also reported use of alcohol, nicotine, or illicit drugs within the past year ( n =167). Results: Thirty-five percent met the criteria for dependence when all seven of the adopted DSM dependence criteria were used. Rates of endorsement of several of the most applicable diagnostic criteria were as follows: 26% withdrawal, 23% desire to cut down or control use, and 44% continued use despite harm. In addition, 34% endorsed craving, 26% said they needed caffeine to function, and 10% indicated that they talked to a physician or counselor about problems experienced with caffeine. There was a trend towards increased caffeine dependence among those dependent on nicotine or alcohol. Within a subgroup that had used caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine in the past year, 28% fulfilled criteria for caffeine dependence compared to 50% for alcohol and 80% for nicotine. Conclusion: The present study adds to a growing literature suggesting the reliability, validity, and clinical utility of the caffeine dependence diagnosis. Recognition of caffeine dependence in the DSM-V may be clinically useful.

  17. Acoustic Wave Filter Technology-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Clemens C W

    2017-09-01

    Today, acoustic filters are the filter technology to meet the requirements with respect to performance dictated by the cellular phone standards and their form factor. Around two billion cellular phones are sold every year, and smart phones are of a very high percentage of approximately two-thirds. Smart phones require a very high number of filter functions ranging from the low double-digit range up to almost triple digit numbers in the near future. In the frequency range up to 1 GHz, surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters are almost exclusively employed, while in the higher frequency range, bulk acoustic wave (BAW) and SAW filters are competing for their shares. Prerequisites for the success of acoustic filters were the availability of high-quality substrates, advanced and highly reproducible fabrication technologies, optimum filter techniques, precise simulation software, and advanced design tools that allow the fast and efficient design according to customer specifications. This paper will try to focus on innovations leading to high volume applications of intermediate frequency (IF) and radio frequency (RF) acoustic filters, e.g., TV IF filters, IF filters for cellular phones, and SAW/BAW RF filters for the RF front-end of cellular phones.

  18. Electronic filters, hearing aids and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretson, A. Maynard (Inventor); O'Connell, Michael P. (Inventor); Zheng, Baohua (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An electronic filter for an electroacoustic system. The system has a microphone for generating an electrical output from external sounds and an electrically driven transducer for emitting sound. Some of the sound emitted by the transducer returns to the microphone means to add a feedback contribution to its electical output. The electronic filter includes a first circuit for electronic processing of the electrical output of the microphone to produce a filtered signal. An adaptive filter, interconnected with the first circuit, performs electronic processing of the filtered signal to produce an adaptive output to the first circuit to substantially offset the feedback contribution in the electrical output of the microphone, and the adaptive filter includes means for adapting only in response to polarities of signals supplied to and from the first circuit. Other electronic filters for hearing aids, public address systems and other electroacoustic systems, as well as such systems, and methods of operating them are also disclosed.

  19. Filter device for radioactive gaseous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Mikio; Suzuki, Masahiro.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose : To prevent captured particles from falling upon filter replacement by changing the positions for the gas inlet and outlet from those in the conventional device. Constitution : The filter device comprises a tightly closed vertical cylindrical vessel with an end plate and high efficiency granular filters (HEPA). Inlet and outlet nozzles are disposed at the upper and lower parts of the closed vessel on both sides of the HEPA filter. Radio-active gases are passed from above to below the HEPA filter and discharged from the outlet. In such a structure, captured particles are accumulated on the surface of the HEPA filter and do not fall even upon replacement of the HEPA filter. (Kawakami, Y.)

  20. Filter for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1989-01-01

    A filter for enriching the .sup.196 Hg content of mercury, including a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill of mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. The reactor is arranged around said filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of quartz, and are transparent to ultraviolet light. The .sup.196 Hg concentration in the mercury fill is less than that which is present in naturally occurring mercury, that is less than about 0.146 atomic weight percent. Hydrogen is also included in the fill and serves as a quenching gas in the filter, the hydrogen also serving to prevent disposition of a dark coating on the interior of the filter.

  1. Image Filtering with Field Programmable Gate Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arūnas Šlenderis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The research examined the use of field programmable gate arrays (FPGA in image filtering. Experimental and theoretical researches were reviewed. Experiments with Cyclone III family FPGA chip with implemented NIOS II soft processor were considered. Image filtering was achieved with symmetrical and asymmetrical finite impulse response filters with convolution kernel. The system, which was implemented with 3×3 symmetrical filter, which was implemented using the hardware description language, uses 59% of logic elements of the chip and 10 multiplication elements. The system with asymmetrical filter uses the same amount of logic elements and 13 multiplication elements. Both filter systems consume approx. 545 mW of power. The system, which is designed for filter implementation in C language, uses 65% of all logical elements and consumes 729 mW of power.Article in Lithuanian

  2. Analog Electronic Filters Theory, Design and Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, Hercules G

    2012-01-01

    Filters are essential subsystems in a huge variety of electronic systems. Filter applications are innumerable; they are used for noise reduction, demodulation, signal detection, multiplexing, sampling, sound and speech processing, transmission line equalization and image processing, to name just a few. In practice, no electronic system can exist without filters. They can be found in everything from power supplies to mobile phones and hard disk drives and from loudspeakers and MP3 players to home cinema systems and broadband Internet connections. This textbook introduces basic concepts and methods and the associated mathematical and computational tools employed in electronic filter theory, synthesis and design.  This book can be used as an integral part of undergraduate courses on analog electronic filters. Includes numerous, solved examples, applied examples and exercises for each chapter. Includes detailed coverage of active and passive filters in an independent but correlated manner. Emphasizes real filter...

  3. Performance analysis and design of filtering hydrocyclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. M. Vieira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The filtering hydrocyclone is a solid-liquid separation device patented by the Chemical Engineering Department at the Federal University of Uberlândia, which consists of a hydrocyclone whose conical section was replaced by a conical filtering wall. The objective of this work is to compare the performances of the filtering hydrocyclones designed by Bradley and by Rietema. The experimental results obtained with the filtering hydrocyclones under the same operational conditions as those used with the conventional device allow the conclusion that performance of the Bradley and Rietema types is significantly influenced by the filtering medium. Rietema's filtering hydrocyclones had a lower volumetric feed flowrate than the conventional device and Bradley's filtering hydrocyclones showed increases in this same variable. In both designs, overall efficiency was influenced by the underflow-to-throughput ratio.

  4. Signal enhancement with variable span linear filters

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob; Jensen, Jesper R

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces readers to the novel concept of variable span speech enhancement filters, and demonstrates how it can be used for effective noise reduction in various ways. Further, the book provides the accompanying Matlab code, allowing readers to easily implement the main ideas discussed. Variable span filters combine the ideas of optimal linear filters with those of subspace methods, as they involve the joint diagonalization of the correlation matrices of the desired signal and the noise. The book shows how some well-known filter designs, e.g. the minimum distortion, maximum signal-to-noise ratio, Wiener, and tradeoff filters (including their new generalizations) can be obtained using the variable span filter framework. It then illustrates how the variable span filters can be applied in various contexts, namely in single-channel STFT-based enhancement, in multichannel enhancement in both the time and STFT domains, and, lastly, in time-domain binaural enhancement. In these contexts, the properties of ...

  5. UV filters for lighting of plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doehring, T.; Koefferlein, M.; Thiel, S.; Seidlitz, H.K.; Payer, H.D. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Different filter glasses are available which provide absorption properties suitable for gradual changes of the spectral UV-B illumination of artificial lighting. Using a distinct set of lamps and filter glasses an acceptable simulation of the UV-B part of natural global radiation can be achieved. The ageing of these and other filter materials under the extreme UV radiation in the lamphouse of a solar simulator is presently unavoidable. This instability can be dealt with only by a precise spectral monitoring and by replacing the filters accordingly. For this reason attempts would be useful to develop real ozone filters which can replace glass filters. In any case chamber experiments require a careful selection of the filter material used and must be accompanied by a continuous UV-B monitoring.

  6. Merging particle filter for sequential data assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nakano

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A new filtering technique for sequential data assimilation, the merging particle filter (MPF, is proposed. The MPF is devised to avoid the degeneration problem, which is inevitable in the particle filter (PF, without prohibitive computational cost. In addition, it is applicable to cases in which a nonlinear relationship exists between a state and observed data where the application of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF is not effectual. In the MPF, the filtering procedure is performed based on sampling of a forecast ensemble as in the PF. However, unlike the PF, each member of a filtered ensemble is generated by merging multiple samples from the forecast ensemble such that the mean and covariance of the filtered distribution are approximately preserved. This merging of multiple samples allows the degeneration problem to be avoided. In the present study, the newly proposed MPF technique is introduced, and its performance is demonstrated experimentally.

  7. Signal Enhancement with Variable Span Linear Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benesty, Jacob; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    This book introduces readers to the novel concept of variable span speech enhancement filters, and demonstrates how it can be used for effective noise reduction in various ways. Further, the book provides the accompanying Matlab code, allowing readers to easily implement the main ideas discussed....... Variable span filters combine the ideas of optimal linear filters with those of subspace methods, as they involve the joint diagonalization of the correlation matrices of the desired signal and the noise. The book shows how some well-known filter designs, e.g. the minimum distortion, maximum signal......-to-noise ratio, Wiener, and tradeoff filters (including their new generalizations) can be obtained using the variable span filter framework. It then illustrates how the variable span filters can be applied in various contexts, namely in single-channel STFT-based enhancement, in multichannel enhancement in both...

  8. A Novel Nonadditive Collaborative-Filtering Approach Using Multicriteria Ratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chung Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although single-criterion recommender systems have been successfully used in several applications, multicriteria rating systems which allow users to specify ratings for various content attributes of individual items are gaining importance in recommendation context. An overall rating of an unrated item is often obtained by the weighted average method (WAM when criterion weights are available. However, the assumption of additivity for the WAM is not always reasonable. For this reason, this paper presents a new collaborative-filtering approach using multicriteria ratings, in which a nonadditive technique in Multicriteria decision making (MCDM, namely, the Choquet integral, is used to aggregate multicriteria ratings for unrated items. Subsequently, the system can recommend items with higher overall ratings for each user. The degrees of importance of the respective criteria are determined by a genetic algorithm. In contrast to the additive weighted average aggregation, the Choquet integral does not ignore the interaction among criteria. The applicability of the proposed approach to the recommendation of the initiators on a group-buying website is examined. Experimental results demonstrate that the generalization ability of the proposed approach performs well compared with other similarity-based collaborative-filtering approaches using multicriteria ratings.

  9. Adaptive noise Wiener filter for scanning electron microscope imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, K S; Teh, V; Nia, M E

    2016-01-01

    Noise on scanning electron microscope (SEM) images is studied. Gaussian noise is the most common type of noise in SEM image. We developed a new noise reduction filter based on the Wiener filter. We compared the performance of this new filter namely adaptive noise Wiener (ANW) filter, with four common existing filters as well as average filter, median filter, Gaussian smoothing filter and the Wiener filter. Based on the experiments results the proposed new filter has better performance on different noise variance comparing to the other existing noise removal filters in the experiments. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Batch Test Screening of Industrial Product/Byproduct Filter Materials for Agricultural Drainage Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry J. Allred

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Filter treatment may be a viable means for removing the nitrate (NO3−, phosphate (PO43−, and pesticides discharged with agricultural drainage waters that cause adverse environmental impacts within the U.S. on local, regional, and national scales. Laboratory batch test screening for agricultural drainage water treatment potential was conducted on 58 industrial product/byproduct filter materials grouped into six categories: (1 high carbon content media; (2 high iron content media; (3 high aluminum content media; (4 surfactant modified clay/zeolite; (5 coal combustion residuals; and (6 spent foundry sands. Based on a percent contaminant removal criteria of 75% or greater, seven industrial products/byproducts were found to meet this standard for NO3− alone, 44 met this standard for PO43−, and 25 met this standard for the chlorinated triazine herbicide, atrazine. Using a 50% or greater contaminant removal criteria, five of the industrial product/byproduct filter materials exhibited potential for removing NO3−, PO43−, and atrazine together; eight showed capability for combined NO3− and PO43− removal; 21 showed capability for combined PO43− and atrazine removal; and nine showed capability for combined NO3− and atrazine removal. The results of this study delineated some potential industrial product/byproduct filter materials for drainage water treatment; however, a complete feasibility evaluation for drainage water treatment of any of these filter materials will require much more extensive testing.

  11. Perspectives on the revised Ghent criteria for the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kodolitsch, Yskert; De Backer, Julie; Schüler, Helke; Bannas, Peter; Behzadi, Cyrus; Bernhardt, Alexander M; Hillebrand, Mathias; Fuisting, Bettina; Sheikhzadeh, Sara; Rybczynski, Meike; Kölbel, Tilo; Püschel, Klaus; Blankenberg, Stefan; Robinson, Peter N

    2015-01-01

    Three international nosologies have been proposed for the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome (MFS): the Berlin nosology in 1988; the Ghent nosology in 1996 (Ghent-1); and the revised Ghent nosology in 2010 (Ghent-2). We reviewed the literature and discussed the challenges and concepts of diagnosing MFS in adults. Ghent-1 proposed more stringent clinical criteria, which led to the confirmation of MFS in only 32%–53% of patients formerly diagnosed with MFS according to the Berlin nosology. Conversely, both the Ghent-1 and Ghent-2 nosologies diagnosed MFS, and both yielded similar frequencies of MFS in persons with a causative FBN1 mutation (90% for Ghent-1 versus 92% for Ghent-2) and in persons not having a causative FBN1 mutation (15% versus 13%). Quality criteria for diagnostic methods include objectivity, reliability, and validity. However, the nosology-based diagnosis of MFS lacks a diagnostic reference standard and, hence, quality criteria such as sensitivity, specificity, or accuracy cannot be assessed. Medical utility of diagnosis implies congruency with the historical criteria of MFS, as well as with information about the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic triggers, prognostic triggers, and potential complications of MFS. In addition, social and psychological utilities of diagnostic criteria include acceptance by patients, patient organizations, clinicians and scientists, practicability, costs, and the reduction of anxiety. Since the utility of a diagnosis or exclusion of MFS is context-dependent, prioritization of utilities is a strategic decision in the process of nosology development. Screening tests for MFS should be used to identify persons with MFS. To confirm the diagnosis of MFS, Ghent-1 and Ghent-2 perform similarly, but Ghent-2 is easier to use. To maximize the utility of the diagnostic criteria of MFS, a fair and transparent process of nosology development is essential. PMID:26124674

  12. Perspectives on the revised Ghent criteria for the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kodolitsch, Yskert; De Backer, Julie; Schüler, Helke; Bannas, Peter; Behzadi, Cyrus; Bernhardt, Alexander M; Hillebrand, Mathias; Fuisting, Bettina; Sheikhzadeh, Sara; Rybczynski, Meike; Kölbel, Tilo; Püschel, Klaus; Blankenberg, Stefan; Robinson, Peter N

    2015-01-01

    Three international nosologies have been proposed for the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome (MFS): the Berlin nosology in 1988; the Ghent nosology in 1996 (Ghent-1); and the revised Ghent nosology in 2010 (Ghent-2). We reviewed the literature and discussed the challenges and concepts of diagnosing MFS in adults. Ghent-1 proposed more stringent clinical criteria, which led to the confirmation of MFS in only 32%-53% of patients formerly diagnosed with MFS according to the Berlin nosology. Conversely, both the Ghent-1 and Ghent-2 nosologies diagnosed MFS, and both yielded similar frequencies of MFS in persons with a causative FBN1 mutation (90% for Ghent-1 versus 92% for Ghent-2) and in persons not having a causative FBN1 mutation (15% versus 13%). Quality criteria for diagnostic methods include objectivity, reliability, and validity. However, the nosology-based diagnosis of MFS lacks a diagnostic reference standard and, hence, quality criteria such as sensitivity, specificity, or accuracy cannot be assessed. Medical utility of diagnosis implies congruency with the historical criteria of MFS, as well as with information about the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic triggers, prognostic triggers, and potential complications of MFS. In addition, social and psychological utilities of diagnostic criteria include acceptance by patients, patient organizations, clinicians and scientists, practicability, costs, and the reduction of anxiety. Since the utility of a diagnosis or exclusion of MFS is context-dependent, prioritization of utilities is a strategic decision in the process of nosology development. Screening tests for MFS should be used to identify persons with MFS. To confirm the diagnosis of MFS, Ghent-1 and Ghent-2 perform similarly, but Ghent-2 is easier to use. To maximize the utility of the diagnostic criteria of MFS, a fair and transparent process of nosology development is essential.

  13. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew R. June; John L. Hurley; Mark W. Johnson

    1999-04-01

    Iron aluminide hot gas filters have been developed using powder metallurgy techniques to form seamless cylinders. Three alloys were short-term corrosion tested in simulated IGCC atmospheres with temperatures between 925 F and 1200 F with hydrogen sulfide concentrations ranging from 783 ppm{sub v} to 78,300 ppm{sub v}. Long-term testing was conducted for 1500 hours at 925 F with 78,300 ppm{sub v}. The FAS and FAL alloys were found to be corrosion resistant in the simulated environments. The FAS alloy has been commercialized.

  14. 40 CFR 258.24 - Air criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air criteria. 258.24 Section 258.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.24 Air criteria. (a) Owners or operators of all MSWLFs must ensure that the units not violate any...

  15. 46 CFR 385.51 - Criteria: Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criteria: Projects. 385.51 Section 385.51 Shipping... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS Criteria for Award § 385.51 Criteria: Projects. The criteria to be used by MarAd in evaluating all projects prior to award of a grant or cooperative agreement are as follows: (a...

  16. Reflexive criteria of sociological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R T Ubaydullaeva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the sociological criteria of explaining the way of thinking and actions of subjects, their spiritual and moral positions and intellectual forces that form the laws of social life. The author seeks to adapt such categories as ‘meaning of life’, ‘human dignity’, ‘rationality’ etc. for the purposes of sociological analysis by methodological construction of some real life dichotomies such as ‘subjective meaning and social function’, ‘the real and the ideal’, ‘the demanded and the excluded’. Thus, the author studies economic, political and technical processes in terms of both positivity and negativity of social interaction and states that given the increasing differentiation of the society and the contradictory trends of social development the reflexive criteria that take into account the socio-cultural nature of the man help to find one’s own model of development.

  17. Prioritizing Zakat Core Principles Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aam Slamet Rusydiana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Prioriting Zakat Core Principles CriteriaZakat Institution (OPZ is the intermediary organizations based on social. The entire of operating expense is taken from the zakat and infaq funds collected. The Zakat Core Principles are a starting point for the frameworks and standards of zakat-based governance best practices. The Zakat Core Principles is mainly aimed to improve the quality of the zakat systems by identifying such weaknesses in the existing of supervision and regulation. This study try to prioritize the Principles of ZCP and also the essential criteria from each level using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP.There are five core principles of charity principle, consisting of: regulation, supervision, collection and disbursement management, risk management, and audit and transparency. From these principles, the main priority is regulation following with audit and transparency.DOI: 10.15408/ess.v7i2.5275

  18. Four Criteria for Design Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hodges

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that the adoption of the four criteria we outline will strengthen future design theories and encourage existing design theories to expand or reconfigure in useful directions. We propose four criteria for design theory creation and evaluation. These are (1 the theory should have substantial design applications, and be applicable to any topic; (2 the theory should use propositions—if-then language—as a way of describing, explaining, and predicting actual and existing aspects of designing; (3 where appropriate, a new theory should accept and adopt propositions and language contained in other design theories; and (4 the theory should accommodate, or at least acknowledge, generative activity. We are not proposing a new general design theory—this paper outlines a strong approach to studying and building theory. Please also note that this essay does not pretend to exhaust a topic that has been discussed for at least the last 50 years.

  19. Development of combined absolute and activated charcoal filters and glove box activated charcoal filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.A.; Ramarathinam, K.; Deshingkar, D.S.; Kishore, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    Because of low maximum permissible concentration in air, airborne radioiodine must be removed from exhaust of nuclear facilities. Activated charcoal filters for glove-boxes and combined absolute and activated charcoal filters are currently being imported. In this work, activated charcoal filters of various types were developed using original as well as impregnated indigenous activated charcoals. These filters were evaluated for their iodine and methyl iodide removal efficiencies and pressure drop characteristics. The filters developed showed 99.9 + % removal efficiency both for iodine and methyl iodide. The pressure drop of the combined absolute and activated charcoal filters was even less than that of imported filters of this type. These filters can effectively substitute imported filters. (author)

  20. Projects on filter testing in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normann, B.; Wiktorsson, C.

    1985-01-01

    The Swedish nuclear power program comprises twelve light water reactors. Nine are boiling water reactors of ASEA-ATOM design and three are pressurized water reactors of Westinghouse design. Of these, ten are in operation and two are under construction and planned to go into operation during late 1984 and early 1985, respectively. Frequent tests on the penetration of particles through HEPA filters, regular tests on the adsorption of methyl iodide in the stand-by carbon filter units by laboratory testing are discussed. The proposed new regulations are based on many years of experience of filter system operation and of tests in-situ and in the laboratory. Moisture and water are factors that affect the functioning of filters. In addition, high loading of dust can give rise to increased penetration through HEPA filters, however pinholes could have less influence on the total penetration. Laboratory tests show that DOP particles retain 30-40% in 90 mm carbon filters (8-12 mesh). However no effect on the ability of carbon to adsorb methyl iodide after DOP contamination in combined carbon/HEPA filters has been observed. Leakage from ventilation ducts can cause radioactive contamination problems during filter testing with radioiodine. In-situ testing of control-room filters has been performed using inactive methyl iodide. A type of carbon bed not previously used in Sweden has been introduced. Testing of this filter type is discussed

  1. Passband switchable microwave photonic multiband filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jia; Fok, Mable P

    2015-11-02

    A reconfigurable microwave photonic (MWP) multiband filter with selectable and switchable passbands is proposed and experimentally demonstrated, with a maximum of 12 simultaneous passbands evenly distributed from 0 to 10 GHz. The scheme is based on the generation of tunable optical comb lines using a two-stage Lyot loop filter, such that various filter tap spacings and spectral combinations are obtained for the configuration of the MWP filter. Through polarization state adjustment inside the Lyot loop filter, an optical frequency comb with 12 different comb spacings is achieved, which corresponds to a MWP filter with 12 selectable passbands. Center frequencies of the filter passbands are switchable, while the number of simultaneous passbands is tunable from 1 to 12. Furthermore, the MWP multiband filter can either work as an all-block, single-band or multiband filter with various passband combinations, which provide exceptional operation flexibility. All the passbands have over 30 dB sidelobe suppression and 3-dB bandwidth of 200 MHz, providing good filter selectivity.

  2. In the shadow of the Cosmetic Directive — Inconsistencies in EU environmental hazard classification requirements for UV-filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobek, A.; Bejgarn, S.; Rudén, C.; Molander, L.; Breitholtz, M.

    2013-01-01

    UV-filters are chemicals with potentially environmental hazardous properties. In the European Union (EU), UV-filters contained in sunscreen products are currently regulated by the Cosmetic Directive (from July 2013 by the Cosmetic Products Regulation). Environmental hazard classifications according to the regulation on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP) must be determined for UV-filters contained in industrial chemical products, whereas UV-filters contained in sunscreens are exempted from CLP. In this study we determined the potential environmental hazard classifications of UV-filters and sunscreen products if the CLP regulation was to be required for cosmetic products. Two sunscreen products were evaluated in accordance with the aquatic environmental hazard criteria for mixtures. The results highlight that the inconsistencies in the current EU regulation of UV filters hamper the risk management of environmental hazards of UV filters used in cosmetic products. Almost 50% of the investigated UV-filters approved for use in cosmetic products on the European market according to the current Cosmetic Directive were identified to meet the CLP classification as being hazardous to the aquatic environment. Assuming a worst-case scenario, the two examined sunscreens could both be classified as hazardous to the aquatic environment with long-lasting effects according to CLP classification criteria. Hence, if the CLP regulation was applicable to sunscreen products, both brands could potentially be labelled with the environmental hazard pictogram and associated hazard and precautionary statements. Including cosmetic products, and thereby sunscreens, in the CLP regulation would contribute to a more harmonized and transparent regulation of potentially hazardous substances on the EU market. - Highlights: • UV-filters are used in both cosmetic and industrial products/applications • UV-filters in cosmetic products are excluded from CLP • We

  3. Evaluating Dependence Criteria for Caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Striley, Catherine L.W.; Griffiths, Roland R.; Cottler, Linda B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although caffeine is the most widely used mood-altering drug in the world, few studies have operationalized and characterized Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) substance dependence criteria applied to caffeine. Methods: As a part of a nosological study of substance use disorders funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, we assessed caffeine use and dependence symptoms among high school and college students, drug treatment patients, and pain clinic patients who re...

  4. Design and analysis of planar printed microwave and PBG filters using an FDTD method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tong, M.S.; Lu, Y.L.; Chen, Y.C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, various planar printed microwave and photonic band-gap (PBG) filters have been designed and analyzed by applying the finite difference time domain method, together with an unsplit-anisotropic perfectly matched layer technique as treatments of boundary conditions. The implemented...... solver was first validated by comparing the computed data with those published in literature, and a good agreement was observed between the results. Then, based on the specified design criteria, various microwave and PBG filters were designed and analyzed, in which the theoretical predictions matched...

  5. Good Criteria for Supply Chain Performance Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Kusrini

    2014-03-01

    conducted by distributing questionnaires to supply chain actors from different industry fields (both manufacturing and services in Indonesia using random sampling techniques. Data analysis using pairwise comparisons with an analytical Hierarchy Process model showed that efficient criteria were more important than effective criteria. Efficient criteria consisted of three sub-criteria: the amount of data is not too much and low cost and output is presented in a simple form. Effective criteria consisted of the criteria in the order of importance as follows: clarity, validity, comprehensiveness, responsiveness and dynamics. Further research is needed for developing a model that meets these criteria

  6. Repository operational criteria comparative analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hageman, J.P.; Chowdhury, A.H. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the ``Repository Operational Criteria (ROC) Feasibility Studies`` (or ROC task) was to conduct comprehensive and integrated analyses of repository design, construction, and operations criteria in 10 CFR Part 60 regulations considering the interfaces among the components of the regulations and impacts of any potential changes to those regulations. The ROC task addresses regulatory criteria and uncertainties related to the preclosure aspects of the geologic repository. Those parts of 10 CFR Part 60 that require routine guidance or minor changes to the rule were addressed in Hageman and Chowdhury, 1992. The ROC task shows a possible need for further regulatory clarity, by major changes to the rule, related to the design bases and siting of a geologic repository operations area and radiological emergency planning in order to assure defense-in-depth. The analyses, presented in this report, resulted in the development and refinement of regulatory concepts and their supporting rationale for recommendations for potential major changes to 10 CFR Pan 0 regulations.

  7. Two Wien Filter Spin Flipper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grames, J M; Benesch, J F; Clark, J; Hansknecht, J; Kazimi, R; Machie, D; Poelker, M; Stutzman, M L; Suleiman, R

    2011-03-01

    A new 4pi spin manipulator composed of two Wien filters oriented orthogonally and separated by two solenoids has been installed at the CEBAF/Jefferson Lab photoinjector. The new spin manipulator is used to precisely set the electron spin direction at an experiment in any direction (in or out of plane of the accelerator) and provides the means to reverse, or flip, the helicity of the electron beam on a daily basis. This reversal is being employed to suppress systematic false asymmetries that can jeopardize challenging parity violation experiments that strive to measure increasingly small physics asymmetries [*,**,***]. The spin manipulator is part of the ultra-high vacuum polarized electron source beam line and has been successfully operated with 100keV and 130keV electron beam at high current (>100 microAmps). A unique feature of the device is that spin-flipping requires only the polarity of one solenoid magnet be changed. Performance characteristics of the Two Wien Filter Spin Flipper will be summarized.

  8. Filter-Dense Multicolor Microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Kijani

    Full Text Available Immunofluorescence microscopy is a unique method to reveal the spatial location of proteins in tissues and cells. By combining antibodies that are labeled with different fluorochromes, the location of several proteins can simultaneously be visualized in one sample. However, because of the risk of bleed-through signals between fluorochromes, standard multicolor microscopy is restricted to a maximum of four fluorescence channels, including one for nuclei staining. This is not always enough to address common scientific questions. In particular, the use of a rapidly increasing number of marker proteins to classify functionally distinct cell populations and diseased tissues emphasizes the need for more complex multistainings. Hence, multicolor microscopy should ideally offer more channels to meet the current needs in biomedical science. Here we present an enhanced multi-fluorescence setup, which we call Filter-Dense Multicolor Microscopy (FDMM. FDMM is based on condensed filter sets that are more specific for each fluorochrome and allow a more economic use of the light spectrum. FDMM allows at least six independent fluorescence channels and can be applied to any standard fluorescence microscope without changing any operative procedures for the user. In the present study, we demonstrate an FDMM setup of six channels that includes the most commonly used fluorochromes for histology. We show that the FDMM setup is specific and robust, and we apply the technique on typical biological questions that require more than four fluorescence microscope channels.

  9. How Turkey Meets MPOWER Criteria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmi Bilir

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2003 World Health Assembly adopted an international treaty on tobacco control; FCTC, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Five year later World Health Organization (WHO declared the six effective approach for tobacco control, under the name of MPOWER. In the following years, WHO evaluated the level of implementation of MPOWER criteria in the countries. In this article, how Turkey implemented these six criteria will be discussed. Monitor tobacco use and prevention policies: Monitoring of tobacco use prevalence has been successfully monitored in Turkey through Global Adult Tobacco Survey, Global Youth Tobacco Survey and Health Professionals Tobacco Use Survey. Nevertheless, monitoring of tobacco industry activities was not successfully implemented. Protect people from tobacco smoke: Smoking was banned in most of the indoor public places in Turkey since 1996, and Turkey became a complete smoke-free country by the exposion of smoke-free places including the hospitality workplaces in 2008. Offer help to quit tobacco use: Although smoking cessation services has been a bit late in Turkey, availability of smoking cessation drugs and the establishment of free quitline services made Turkey successful in this regard. Warn about the dangers of tobacco: Since 1996, all TV channels have a duty of broadcasting programs on harms of tobacco use, not less than 90 minutes in a month and it has been implemented successfully. Additionally written messages indicating harms of tobacco has been printed on the packs since 1988 and pictures was added in 2010. But since the average surface area covered by the messages in less than 50% of the total surface of the pack, Turkey was not regarded as to meet the requirement. Enforce bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship: All kinds of tobacco advertisement and promotion was banned by the Law in 1996. But the tobacco products was not in closed boxes at the sales points. Turkey was not found as successful

  10. Flat zones filtering, connected operators, and filters by reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salembier, P; Serra, J

    1995-01-01

    This correspondence deals with the notion of connected operators. Starting from the definition for operator acting on sets, it is shown how to extend it to operators acting on function. Typically, a connected operator acting on a function is a transformation that enlarges the partition of the space created by the flat zones of the functions. It is shown that from any connected operator acting on sets, one can construct a connected operator for functions (however, it is not the unique way of generating connected operators for functions). Moreover, the concept of pyramid is introduced in a formal way. It is shown that, if a pyramid is based on connected operators, the flat zones of the functions increase with the level of the pyramid. In other words, the flat zones are nested. Filters by reconstruction are defined and their main properties are presented. Finally, some examples of application of connected operators and use of flat zones are described.

  11. Disparity filtering: proximity detection and segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, David; Horswill, Ian; von Kaenel, Peter

    1992-11-01

    Simple stereo disparity filters can provide `proximity detectors' shaped like concave shells in front of the observer. Ideally, these are isodisparity surfaces. In practice, a narrowly tuned filter results in a thin shell. The special case of the zero-disparity surface is called the horopter. A disparity filter can also be useful for distinguishing an object that lies on an isodisparity surface from its surroundings. These filters are much less expensive than stereographic scene interpretation since they are local operations. Similarly, they are also less general. We analyze the expected proximity sensitivity of one simple version of the disparity filter and compare this to its empirical performance. We also present some feature based and correlation based disparity filters and compare their `segmentation' performance on various scenes.

  12. Multi-Canister overpack internal HEPA filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, K.E.

    1998-01-01

    The rationale for locating a filter assembly inside each Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) rather than include the filter in the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) process piping system was to eliminate the potential for contamination to the operators, processing equipment, and the MCO. The internal HEPA filters provide essential protection to facility workers from alpha contamination, both external skin contamination and potential internal depositions. Filters installed in the CVD process piping cannot mitigate potential contamination when breaking the process piping connections. Experience with K-Basin material has shown that even an extremely small release can result in personnel contamination and costly schedule disruptions to perform equipment and facility decontamination. Incorporating the filter function internal to the MCO rather than external is consistent with ALARA requirements of 10 CFR 835. Based on the above, the SNF Project position is to retain the internal HEPA filters in the MCO design

  13. Filtering and control of wireless networked systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Dan; Yu, Li

    2017-01-01

    This self-contained book, written by leading experts, offers a cutting-edge, in-depth overview of the filtering and control of wireless networked systems. It addresses the energy constraint and filter/controller gain variation problems, and presents both the centralized and the distributed solutions. The first two chapters provide an introduction to networked control systems and basic information on system analysis. Chapters (3–6) then discuss the centralized filtering of wireless networked systems, presenting different approaches to deal with energy efficiency and filter/controller gain variation problems. The next part (chapters 7–10) explores the distributed filtering of wireless networked systems, addressing the main problems of energy constraint and filter gain variation. The final part (chapters 11–14) focuses on the distributed control of wireless networked systems.

  14. Design of Kalman filters for mobile robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Dall; Hansen, Karsten L.; Andersen, Nils Axel

    1999-01-01

    Kalman filters have for a long time been widely used on mobile robots as a location estimator. Many different Kalman filter designs have been proposed, using models of various complexity. In this paper, two different design methods are evaluated and compared. Focus is put on the common setup where...... the mobile robot is equipped with a dual encoder system supported by some additional absolute measurements. A common filter type for this setup is the odometric filter, where readings from the odometry system on the robot are used together with the geometry of the robot movement as a model of the robot....... If additional kinematic assumptions are made, for instance regarding the velocity of the robot, an augmented model can be used instead. This kinematic filter has some advantages when used intelligently, and it is shown how this type of filter can be used to suppress noise on encoder readings and velocity...

  15. FLOWING BILATERAL FILTER: DEFINITION AND IMPLEMENTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Moreaud

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The bilateral filter plays a key role in image processing applications due to its intuitive parameterization and its high quality filter result, smoothing homogeneous regions while preserving the edges of the objects. Considering the image as a topological relief, seeing pixel intensities as peaks and valleys, we introduce a way to control the tonal weighting coefficients, the flowing bilateral filter, reducing "halo" artifacts typically produced by the regular bilateral filter around a large peak surrounded by two valleys of lower values. In this paper we propose to investigate exact and approximated versions of CPU and parallel GPU (Graphical Processing Unit based implementations of the regular and flowing bilateral filter using the NVidia CUDA API. Fast implementations of these filters are important for the processing of large 3D volumes up to several GB acquired by x-ray or electron tomography.

  16. Dynamic beam filtering for miscentered patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Andrew; Shyr, William; Gang, Grace J; Stayman, J Webster

    2018-02-01

    Accurate centering of the patient within the bore of a CT scanner takes time and is often difficult to achieve precisely. Patient miscentering can result in significant dose and image noise penalties with the use of traditional bowtie filters. This work describes a system to dynamically position an x-ray beam filter during image acquisition to enable more consistent image performance and potentially lower dose needed for CT imaging. We propose a new approach in which two orthogonal low-dose scout images are used to estimate a parametric model of the object describing its shape, size, and location within the field of view (FOV). This model is then used to compute an optimal filter motion profile by minimizing the variance of the expected detector fluence for each projection. Dynamic filtration was implemented on a cone-beam CT (CBCT) test bench using two different physical filters: 1) an aluminum bowtie and 2) a structured binary filter called a multiple aperture device (MAD). Dynamic filtration performance was compared to a static filter in studies of dose and reconstruction noise as a function of the degree of miscentering of a homogeneous water phantom. Estimated filter trajectories were found to be largely sinusoidal with an amplitude proportional to the amount of miscentering. Dynamic filtration demonstrated an improved ability to keep the spatial distribution of dose and reconstruction noise at baseline levels across varying levels of miscentering, reducing the maximum noise and dose deviation from 53% to 15% and 42% to 14% respectively for the bowtie filter, and 25% to 8% and 24% to 15% respectively for the MAD filter. Dynamic positioning of beam filters during acquisition improves dose utilization and image quality over static filters for miscentered patients. Such dynamic filters relax positioning requirements and have the potential to reduce set-up time and lower dose requirements.

  17. Effects of Colored Filters on Visual Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    normal vision, yellow filters have been reported to reduce glare and improve overall visual performance.4-9 The claims of improved vision in dyslexia ...AFRL-RH-BR-TR-2008-0051 Effects of Colored Filters on Visual Function Thomas K. Kuyk Paul V. Garcia Northrop Grumman...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER F41624-02-D-7003 Effects of Colored Filters on Visual Function 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 63231F 6. AUTHOR

  18. Degradation of HEPA filters exposed to DMSO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Larsen, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) sprays are being used to remove the high explosive (HE) from nuclear weapons in the process of their dismantlement. A boxed 50 cmf HEPA filter with an integral prefilter was exposed to DMSO vapor and aerosols that were generated by a spray nozzle to simulate conditions expected in the HE dissolution operation. After 198 hours of operation, the pressure drop of the filter had increased form 1.15 inches to 2,85 inches, and the efficiency for 0.3 {mu}m dioctyl sebacate (DOS) aerosols decreased form 99.992% to 98.6%. Most of the DMSO aerosols had collected as a liquid pool inside the boxed HEPA. The liquid was blown out of the filter exit with 100 cmf air flow at the end of the test. Since the filter still met the minimum allowed efficiency of 99.97% after 166 hours of exposure, we recommend replacing the filter every 160 hours of operation or sooner if the pressure drop increases by 50%. Examination of the filter showed that visible cracks appeared at the joints of the wooden frame and a portion of the sealant had pulled away from the frame. Since all of the DMSO will be trapped in the first HEPA filter, the second HEPA filter should not suffer from DMSO degradation. Thus the combined efficiency for the first filter (98.6%) and the second filter (99.97%) is 99.99996% for 0.3 {mu}m particles. If the first filter is replaced prior to its degradation, each of the filters will have 99.97% efficiency, and the combined efficiency will be 99.999991%. The collection efficiency for DMSO/HE aerosols will be much higher because the particle size is much greater.

  19. Supervised scale-regularized linear convolutionary filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco; Lauze, Francois Bernard

    2017-01-01

    We start by demonstrating that an elementary learning task—learning a linear filter from training data by means of regression—can be solved very efficiently for feature spaces of very high dimensionality. In a second step, firstly, acknowledging that such high-dimensional learning tasks typically...... filter. In particular, we demonstrate that it clearly outperforms the de facto standard Tikhonov regularization, which is the one employed in ridge regression or Wiener filtering....

  20. Theory and design of microwave filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, Ian

    2000-01-01

    This is a thorough, graduate-level text which provides a single source for filter design including basic circuit theory, network synthesis and the design of a variety of microwave filter structures. The aim is to present design theories followed by specific examples with numerical simulations of the designs, with pictures of real devices wherever possible. The book is aimed at designers, engineers and researchers working in microwave electronics who need to design or specify filters.

  1. Momentum Strategies with L1 Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Dao, Tung-Lam

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we discuss various implementation of L1 filtering in order to detect some properties of noisy signals. This filter consists of using a L1 penalty condition in order to obtain the filtered signal composed by a set of straight trends or steps. This penalty condition, which determines the number of breaks, is implemented in a constrained least square problem and is represented by a regularization parameter ? which is estimated by a cross-validation procedure. Financial time seri...

  2. Switching non-local vector median filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes a novel image filtering method that removes random-valued impulse noise superimposed on a natural color image. In impulse noise removal, it is essential to employ a switching-type filtering method, as used in the well-known switching median filter, to preserve the detail of an original image with good quality. In color image filtering, it is generally preferable to deal with the red (R), green (G), and blue (B) components of each pixel of a color image as elements of a vectorized signal, as in the well-known vector median filter, rather than as component-wise signals to prevent a color shift after filtering. By taking these fundamentals into consideration, we propose a switching-type vector median filter with non-local processing that mainly consists of a noise detector and a noise removal filter. Concretely, we propose a noise detector that proactively detects noise-corrupted pixels by focusing attention on the isolation tendencies of pixels of interest not in an input image but in difference images between RGB components. Furthermore, as the noise removal filter, we propose an extended version of the non-local median filter, we proposed previously for grayscale image processing, named the non-local vector median filter, which is designed for color image processing. The proposed method realizes a superior balance between the preservation of detail and impulse noise removal by proactive noise detection and non-local switching vector median filtering, respectively. The effectiveness and validity of the proposed method are verified in a series of experiments using natural color images.

  3. Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-03-08

    A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

  4. Sensitivity filtering from a continuum mechanics perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole; Maute, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    In topology optimization filtering is a popular approach for preventing numerical instabilities. This short note shows that the well-known sensitivity filtering technique, that prevents checkerboards and ensures mesh-independent designs in density-based topology optimization, is equivalent to min...... to minimizing compliance for nonlocal elasticity problems known from continuum mechanics. Hence, the note resolves the long-standing quest for finding an explanation and physical motivation for the sensitivity filter....

  5. A Robust Control Framework for Malware Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Bloem, Michael; Alpcan, Tansu; Basar, Tamer

    2009-01-01

    We study and develop a robust control framework for malware filtering and network security. We investigate the malware filtering problem by capturing the tradeoff between increased security on one hand and continued usability of the network on the other. We analyze the problem using a linear control system model with a quadratic cost structure and develop algorithms based on H infinity-optimal control theory. A dynamic feedback filter is derived and shown via numerical analysis to be an impro...

  6. Degradation of HEPA filters exposed to DMSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.; LeMay, J.

    1994-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) sprays are being used to remove the high explosive (HE) from nuclear weapons in the process of their dismantlement. A boxed 50 cfm HEPA filter with an integral prefilter was exposed to DMSO vapor and aerosols that were generated by a spray nozzle to simulate conditions expected in the HE dissolution operation. After 198 hours of operation, the pressure drop of the filter had increased from 1.15 inches to 2.85 inches, and the efficiency for 0.3 μm dioctyl sebacate (DOS) aerosols decreased from 99.992% to 98.6%. Most of the DMSO aerosols had collected as a liquid pool inside the boxed HEPA. The liquid was blown out of the filter exit with 100 cfm air flow at the end of the test. Since the filter still met the minimum allowed efficiency of 99.97% after 166 hours of exposure, we recommend replacing the filter every 160 hours of operation or sooner if the pressure drop increases by 50%. Examination of the filter showed that visible cracks appeared at the joints of the wooden frame and a portion of the sealant had pulled away from the frame. Since all of the DMSO will be trapped in the first HEPA filter, the second HEPA filter should not suffer from DMSO degradation. Thus the combined efficiency for the first filter (98.6%) and the second filter (99.97%) is 99.99996% for 0.3μm particles. If the first filter is replaced prior to its degradation, each of the filters will have 99.97% efficiency, and the combined efficiency will be 99.999991%. The collection efficiency for DMSO/HE aerosols will be much higher because the particle size is much greater

  7. Electronically Tunable Resistorless Mixed Mode Biquad Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Yesil, A.; Kacar, F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new realization of elec¬tronically tunable mixed mode (including transadmittance- and voltage-modes) biquad filter with single input, three outputs or three inputs, single output using voltage differ-encing transconductance amplifier (VDTA), a recently introduced active element. It can simultaneously realize standard filtering signals: low-pass, band-pass and high-pass or by selecting input terminals, it can realize all five different filtering signals: low-pass, band-pa...

  8. Design of Active N-path Filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darvishi, M.; van der Zee, Ronan A.R.; Nauta, Bram

    2013-01-01

    A design methodology for synthesis of active N-path bandpass filters is introduced. Based on this methodology, a 0.1-to-1.2 GHz tunable 6th-order N-path channel-select filter in 65 nm LP CMOS is introduced. It is based on coupling N-path filters with gyrators, achieving a “flat‿ passband shape and

  9. The DSM diagnostic criteria for gender identity disorder in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Pfäfflin, Friedemann

    2010-04-01

    Apart from some general issues related to the Gender Identity Disorder (GID) diagnosis, such as whether it should stay in the DSM-V or not, a number of problems specifically relate to the current criteria of the GID diagnosis for adolescents and adults. These problems concern the confusion caused by similarities and differences of the terms transsexualism and GID, the inability of the current criteria to capture the whole spectrum of gender variance phenomena, the potential risk of unnecessary physically invasive examinations to rule out intersex conditions (disorders of sex development), the necessity of the D criterion (distress and impairment), and the fact that the diagnosis still applies to those who already had hormonal and surgical treatment. If the diagnosis should not be deleted from the DSM, most of the criticism could be addressed in the DSM-V if the diagnosis would be renamed, the criteria would be adjusted in wording, and made more stringent. However, this would imply that the diagnosis would still be dichotomous and similar to earlier DSM versions. Another option is to follow a more dimensional approach, allowing for different degrees of gender dysphoria depending on the number of indicators. Considering the strong resistance against sexuality related specifiers, and the relative difficulty assessing sexual orientation in individuals pursuing hormonal and surgical interventions to change physical sex characteristics, it should be investigated whether other potentially relevant specifiers (e.g., onset age) are more appropriate.

  10. Particle Kalman Filtering: A Nonlinear Bayesian Framework for Ensemble Kalman Filters*

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2012-02-01

    This paper investigates an approximation scheme of the optimal nonlinear Bayesian filter based on the Gaussian mixture representation of the state probability distribution function. The resulting filter is similar to the particle filter, but is different from it in that the standard weight-type correction in the particle filter is complemented by the Kalman-type correction with the associated covariance matrices in the Gaussian mixture. The authors show that this filter is an algorithm in between the Kalman filter and the particle filter, and therefore is referred to as the particle Kalman filter (PKF). In the PKF, the solution of a nonlinear filtering problem is expressed as the weighted average of an “ensemble of Kalman filters” operating in parallel. Running an ensemble of Kalman filters is, however, computationally prohibitive for realistic atmospheric and oceanic data assimilation problems. For this reason, the authors consider the construction of the PKF through an “ensemble” of ensemble Kalman filters (EnKFs) instead, and call the implementation the particle EnKF (PEnKF). It is shown that different types of the EnKFs can be considered as special cases of the PEnKF. Similar to the situation in the particle filter, the authors also introduce a resampling step to the PEnKF in order to reduce the risk of weights collapse and improve the performance of the filter. Numerical experiments with the strongly nonlinear Lorenz-96 model are presented and discussed.

  11. Strategic blue-green communication filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, W. J.

    1984-04-01

    The project began as an effort to construct narrowband, wide-field-of-view, large-aperture, plastic, birefringent filters suitable for blue-green communications. During the course of the study we investigated the use of crystalline materials in addition to plastic films, and we studied filter design theory in order to find designs more suitable to the blue-green system requirements. In addition, we constructed a quartz, 2A filter for the 1981 SLCAIR experiment. In this report we have included an introduction to the principles of narrowband, wide-field-of-view, birefringent filters. This section is included since the subject matter is not readily available except piecemeal in technical journals. Section 3 is a discussion of the materials which were considered during this study. It contains subsections devoted to crystals, plastics and analog element, respectively. A class of new lossless filter designs is described in Section 4. These designs are expected to provide a basis for high-transmission filters in the future. The operational SLCAIR-81 filter is described in Section 5. It was part of the successful experiment which demonstrated communication to the USN Dolphin, a research submarine. Finally, in Section 6 we describe the non-vignetting filter design which was discovered during this study. It represents a significant throughput advantage for crystal filters used in non-imaging applications.

  12. Multistage parallel-serial time averaging filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodosiou, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    Here, a new time averaging circuit design, the 'parallel filter' is presented, which can reduce the time jitter, introduced in time measurements using counters of large dimensions. This parallel filter could be considered as a single stage unit circuit which can be repeated an arbitrary number of times in series, thus providing a parallel-serial filter type as a result. The main advantages of such a filter over a serial one are much less electronic gate jitter and time delay for the same amount of total time uncertainty reduction. (orig.)

  13. Spatial Filtering Velocimetry Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Aizu, Yoshihisa

    2006-01-01

    The first monograph devoted exclusively to spatial filtering velocimetry, this book includes fundamental theory, imaging optics, signal analysis, spatial filtering devices and systems, plus applications. Also suitable as a tutorial for students and users who are unfamiliar with optics and signal processing, Spatial Filtering Velocimetry treats the principle and properties of this velocimetric technique in a concise and easily readable form, together with full appendices. The book reviews a wide range of systems and applications of the spatial-filtering technique for velocity and related measurements, putting forth examples useful in various fields of science, medicine, and engineering.

  14. Evaluation of self-contained HEPA filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt, T.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents the results of an evaluation of a self-contained high-efficiency particulate air filter (SHEPA) used in nuclear applications. A SCHEPA consists of filter medium encapsulated in a casing that is part of the system boundary. The SCHEPA filter serves as a combination of filter housing and filter. The filter medium is attached directly to the casing using adhesive as a bonding agent. A cylindrical connection in the middle of the end caps connects the filter assembly to adjoining ductwork. The SCHEPA must perform the functions of a filter housing, filter frame, and filter. It was recognized that the codes and standards do not address the SCHEPA specifically. Therefore, the investigation evaluated the SCHEPA against current codes and standards related to the functional requirements of an air-cleaning system. The specific standards used are required by DOE Order 6430.1A{sup 1} and include ASME N509{sup 3}, ASME N510{sup 4}, ERDA 76-21{sup 5}, MIL-F-51068F{sup 6}, NFPA 90A, {sup 7} and NFPA 91{sup 8}. The evaluation does not address whether the SCHEPA as a standard (off-the-shelf) filter could be upgraded to meet the current code requirements for an air-cleaning unit. The evaluation also did not consider how the SCHEPA was used in a system (e.g., whether it was under positive or negative pressure or whether it served as an air inlet filter to prevent contamination releases under system pressurization). The results of the evaluation show that, the SCHEPA filter does not meet design, fabrication, testing, and documentation requirements of ASME N509{sup 3} and ASME N510{sup 4}. The paper will identify these deficiencies. Specific exhaust system requirements and application should be considered when an evaluation of the SCHEPA filter is being performed in existing systems. When new designs are being comtemplated, other types of HEPA filter housings can be used in lieu of the SCHEPA filter.

  15. Signal Enhancement with Variable Span Linear Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benesty, Jacob; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    . Variable span filters combine the ideas of optimal linear filters with those of subspace methods, as they involve the joint diagonalization of the correlation matrices of the desired signal and the noise. The book shows how some well-known filter designs, e.g. the minimum distortion, maximum signal...... the time and STFT domains, and, lastly, in time-domain binaural enhancement. In these contexts, the properties of these filters are analyzed in terms of their noise reduction capabilities and desired signal distortion, and the analyses are validated and further explored in simulations....

  16. Realization of commercial high strength HEPA filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruedinger, V.; Ricketts, C.I.; Wilhelm, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    HEPA-filter media though having excellent particle removal efficiencies, remain characterized as rather brittle, fragile and weak materials. As a result, undesired structural damage followed by significant losses in filtration efficiency can easily occur in handling, transport, and even normal operation of filter units. In recent years extensive investigations into the structural limits of HEPA filters in dry air and under extended exposure to high humidity airflow have been carried out. In the course of this work the failure modes and the underlying failure mechanisms were thoroughly studied. On the basis of the information obtained, considerable improvements in the structural strength of HEPA filters could be achieved. As verified by removal efficiency tests, differential pressures up to 56kPa in dry air and 15kPa after extended operation under fog conditions were proven to be sustainable without mechanical damage to the filter medium. In cooperation with three major European filter manufacturers the know-how gained has been transferred into practical application through development of commercially available high-strength filter units. Three new KWU (Siemens-Kraftwerksunion) nuclear power plants in Germany have already been fully equipped with HEPA filters of this improved design. The German licensing authorities are now considering modifications of their requirement specifications to reflect the increased strength of the new filter units

  17. Characteristics of airflow turbulence behind HEPA filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, S.; Yuasa, K.; Arai, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Suwa, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The characteristics of airflow turbulence in unidirectional cleanroom are described in this paper. First, the airflow turbulence distribution is measured in a cleanbooth with a hot-wire anemometer. Through the analysis of turbulence intensity, the shape of pleated HEPA filter is found out to be an important factor of eddy generation in airflow, Secondly, turbulence distribution behind HEPA filter is measured in detail. It concludes that the shear stress, caused by the airflow difference between pleated concave and convex part of HEPA filter, makes eddy generation in airflow behind HEPA filter

  18. MR angiography with a matched filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Castro, J.B.; Riederer, S.J.; Lee, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    The technique of matched filtering was applied to a series of cine MR images. The filter was devised to yield a subtraction angiographic image in which direct current components present in the cine series are removed and the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the vascular structures is optimized. The S/N of a matched filter was compared with that of a simple subtraction, in which an image with high flow is subtracted from one with low flow. Experimentally, a range of results from minimal improvement to significant (60%) improvement in S/N was seen in the comparisons of matched filtered subtraction with simple subtraction

  19. A Game Theoretic Fault Detection Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Walter H.; Speyer, Jason L.

    1995-01-01

    The fault detection process is modelled as a disturbance attenuation problem. The solution to this problem is found via differential game theory, leading to an H(sub infinity) filter which bounds the transmission of all exogenous signals save the fault to be detected. For a general class of linear systems which includes some time-varying systems, it is shown that this transmission bound can be taken to zero by simultaneously bringing the sensor noise weighting to zero. Thus, in the limit, a complete transmission block can he achieved, making the game filter into a fault detection filter. When we specialize this result to time-invariant system, it is found that the detection filter attained in the limit is identical to the well known Beard-Jones Fault Detection Filter. That is, all fault inputs other than the one to be detected (the "nuisance faults") are restricted to an invariant subspace which is unobservable to a projection on the output. For time-invariant systems, it is also shown that in the limit, the order of the state-space and the game filter can be reduced by factoring out the invariant subspace. The result is a lower dimensional filter which can observe only the fault to be detected. A reduced-order filter can also he generated for time-varying systems, though the computational overhead may be intensive. An example given at the end of the paper demonstrates the effectiveness of the filter as a tool for fault detection and identification.

  20. Ridge filter design for carbon radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gata-Danil, G.; Parajpan, M.; Timoshenko, G.

    2008-01-01

    The design of a ridge filter intended for forming the uniform spread-out Bragg peak within a tumor at carbon radiotherapy is described. The computation of the ridge filter shape was carried out by an analytical algorithm and tested by MC simulation (GEANT4 code). Two kinds of the ridge filter were considered: stationary and movable. The influence on a ridge filter shape of the carbon beam energy and type of relative biological effectiveness dependence on the carbon ion linear energy transfer in tissue were examined

  1. Harmonic Detection at Initialization With Kalman Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Imran, Raja Muhammad; Shoro, Ghulam Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    the affect of harmonics on the supply. For the detection of these harmonics various techniques are available and one of that technique is the Kalman filter. In this paper we investigate that what are the consequences when harmonic detection system based on Kalman Filtering is initialized......Most power electronic equipment these days generate harmonic disturbances, these devices hold nonlinear voltage/current characteristic. The harmonics generated can potentially be harmful to the consumer supply. Typically, filters are integrated at the power source or utility location to filter out...

  2. Performance Estimation for Lowpass Ternary Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Shea Peter

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ternary filters have tap values limited to , , or . This restriction in tap values greatly simplifies the multipliers required by the filter, making ternary filters very well suited to hardware implementations. Because they incorporate coarse quantisation, their performance is typically limited by tap quantisation error. This paper derives formulae for estimating the achievable performance of lowpass ternary filters, thereby allowing the number of computationally intensive design iterations to be reduced. Motivated by practical communications systems requirements, the performance measure which is used is the worst-case stopband attenuation.

  3. Microwave filters and circuits contributions from Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Akio

    1970-01-01

    Microwave Filters and Circuits: Contributions from Japan covers ideas and novel circuits used to design microwave filter that have been developed in Japan, as well as network theory into the field of microwave transmission networks. The book discusses the general properties and synthesis of transmission-line networks; transmission-line filters on the image-parameter basis; and experimental results on a class of transmission-line filter constructed only with commensurate TEM lossless transmission lines. The text describes lines constants, approximation problems in transmission-line networks, as

  4. Hot-Gas Filter Ash Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, M.L.; Hurley, J.P.; Dockter, B.A.; O`Keefe, C.A.

    1997-07-01

    Large-scale hot-gas filter testing over the past 10 years has revealed numerous cases of cake buildup on filter elements that has been difficult, if not impossible, to remove. At times, the cake can blind or bridge between candle filters, leading to filter failure. Physical factors, including particle-size distribution, particle shape, the aerodynamics of deposition, and system temperature, contribute to the difficulty in removing the cake, but chemical factors such as surface composition and gas-solid reactions also play roles in helping to bond the ash to the filters or to itself. This project is designed to perform the research necessary to determine the fuel-, sorbent-, and operations-related conditions that lead to blinding or bridging of hot-gas particle filters. The objectives of the project are threefold: (1) Determine the mechanisms by which a difficult-to-clean ash is formed and how it bridges hot-gas filters (2) Develop a method to determine the rate of bridging based on analyses of the feed coal and sorbent, filter properties, and system operating conditions and (3) Suggest and test ways to prevent filter bridging.

  5. Frequency domain image filtering using cuda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, M.A.; Khan, U.A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the implementation of image filtering in frequency domain using NVIDIA's CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture). In contrast to signal and image filtering in spatial domain which uses convolution operations and hence is more compute-intensive for filters having larger spatial extent, the frequency domain filtering uses FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) which is much faster and significantly reduces the computational complexity of the filtering. We implement the frequency domain filtering on CPU and GPU respectively and analyze the speed-up obtained from the CUDA's parallel processing paradigm. In order to demonstrate the efficiency of frequency domain filtering on CUDA, we implement three frequency domain filters, i.e., Butter worth, low-pass and Gaussian for processing different sizes of images on CPU and GPU respectively and perform the GPU vs. CPU benchmarks. The results presented in this paper show that the frequency domain filtering with CUDA achieves significant speed-up over the CPU processing in frequency domain with the same level of (output) image quality on both the processing architectures. (author)

  6. Approximated Fractional Order Chebyshev Lowpass Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Freeborn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose the use of nonlinear least squares optimization to approximate the passband ripple characteristics of traditional Chebyshev lowpass filters with fractional order steps in the stopband. MATLAB simulations of (1+α, (2+α, and (3+α order lowpass filters with fractional steps from α = 0.1 to α = 0.9 are given as examples. SPICE simulations of 1.2, 1.5, and 1.8 order lowpass filters using approximated fractional order capacitors in a Tow-Thomas biquad circuit validate the implementation of these filter circuits.

  7. Ammonia separation in novel bio filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Hahne

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently used bio filters are suited for odor reduction in livestock keeping but not for ammonia separation. Therefore it was the objective to develop a novel bio filter system which was able to ensure a high and long-lasting ammonia separation. This novel bio filter, which is equipped with a pH control in a water swamp beneath the filter layer and a conductivity control for water discharge, was investigated in terms of ammonia separation and nitrogen disposition over several months under practical conditions. The results show a stable ammonia separation of more than 88 % if certain consecutively described operating conditions are kept.

  8. Late washing filter cleaning cycle demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.L.; McCabe, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    The DWPF Late Washing Facility will filter cesium and potassium tetraphenyl borate (TPB) solids using a Mott sintered metal filter, identical to the filter now used in the In-tank Precipitation Facility. The purpose of the late wash step is primarily to remove the nitrite salts from the slurry prior to delivery to DWPF. Periodic chemical cleaning of the filter will be required, presumably after each batch although the actual required frequency could not be determined on the lab-scale. Minimization of chemical cleaning solution volumes is key to maximizing the attainment of the Late Wash facility. This report summarizes work completed in experiments designed to identify minimum cleaning solution requirements

  9. Bites of Lists - mapping and filtering sublists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    The idea of applying map and filter functions on consecutive sublists instead of on individual list elements is discussed and developed in this paper. A non-empty, consecutive sublist is called a bite. Both map and filter functions accept a function parameter - a bite function - which...... is responsible for returning a prefix bite of a list. We develop families of bite functions via a collection of higher-order bite generators. On top of the bite generators, a number of bite mapping and bite filtering functions are introduced. We illustrate the usefulness of bite mapping and filtering via...

  10. Quantum Image Filtering in the Spatial Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Suzhen; Mao, Xuefeng; Zhou, Jing; Wang, Xiaofa

    2017-08-01

    Quantum image processing has developed rapidly in recent years. In this paper, we propose a framework of quantum image filtering in the spatial domain. We proved that a high quantum parallel method to correlate the image and the filter mask can be achieved, even though the quantum correlation of two sequences is physically impossible. In order to avoid this impossible, we use quantum addition operation instead of quantum multiplication. We provide the quantum circuit that can realize the filtering task and present several simulation results on grayscale images. The main advantage of the quantum version lies in the efficient correlation between the quantum image and the filter mask.

  11. Discrete stochastic processes and optimal filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Bertein, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Optimal filtering applied to stationary and non-stationary signals provides the most efficient means of dealing with problems arising from the extraction of noise signals. Moreover, it is a fundamental feature in a range of applications, such as in navigation in aerospace and aeronautics, filter processing in the telecommunications industry, etc. This book provides a comprehensive overview of this area, discussing random and Gaussian vectors, outlining the results necessary for the creation of Wiener and adaptive filters used for stationary signals, as well as examining Kalman filters which ar

  12. Frequency Domain Image Filtering Using CUDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Awais Rajput

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the implementation of image filtering in frequency domain using NVIDIA?s CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture. In contrast to signal and image filtering in spatial domain which uses convolution operations and hence is more compute-intensive for filters having larger spatial extent, the frequency domain filtering uses FFT (Fast Fourier Transform which is much faster and significantly reduces the computational complexity of the filtering. We implement the frequency domain filtering on CPU and GPU respectively and analyze the speed-up obtained from the CUDA?s parallel processing paradigm. In order to demonstrate the efficiency of frequency domain filtering on CUDA, we implement three frequency domain filters, i.e., Butterworth, low-pass and Gaussian for processing different sizes of images on CPU and GPU respectively and perform the GPU vs. CPU benchmarks. The results presented in this paper show that the frequency domain filtering with CUDA achieves significant speed-up over the CPU processing in frequency domain with the same level of (output image quality on both the processing architectures

  13. The intractable cigarette ‘filter problem’

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background When lung cancer fears emerged in the 1950s, cigarette companies initiated a shift in cigarette design from unfiltered to filtered cigarettes. Both the ineffectiveness of cigarette filters and the tobacco industry's misleading marketing of the benefits of filtered cigarettes have been well documented. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, American cigarette companies spent millions of dollars to solve what the industry identified as the ‘filter problem’. These extensive filter research and development efforts suggest a phase of genuine optimism among cigarette designers that cigarette filters could be engineered to mitigate the health hazards of smoking. Objective This paper explores the early history of cigarette filter research and development in order to elucidate why and when seemingly sincere filter engineering efforts devolved into manipulations in cigarette design to sustain cigarette marketing and mitigate consumers' concerns about the health consequences of smoking. Methods Relevant word and phrase searches were conducted in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library online database, Google Patents, and media and medical databases including ProQuest, JSTOR, Medline and PubMed. Results 13 tobacco industry documents were identified that track prominent developments involved in what the industry referred to as the ‘filter problem’. These reveal a period of intense focus on the ‘filter problem’ that persisted from the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s, featuring collaborations between cigarette producers and large American chemical and textile companies to develop effective filters. In addition, the documents reveal how cigarette filter researchers' growing scientific knowledge of smoke chemistry led to increasing recognition that filters were unlikely to offer significant health protection. One of the primary concerns of cigarette producers was to design cigarette filters that could be economically incorporated into the massive scale of cigarette

  14. Quality criteria for landscape visualisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldi, H.-P.; Witt, U. de

    1996-01-01

    The rapid expansion of wind energy utilisation in Western Europe can strain the limits of social acceptance with citizens living in wind development areas. One of the problems wind farm engineers and local authorities face is the visual impact of wind turbines. To determine the influence on the landscape visualisations of wind farms photorealistic compositions are used. In many cases it is part of the planning procedure. The quality of this visualization can strongly influence the success of the permission procedure. We will give criteria which can give help to reduce the possibility of unwanted manipulations. (author)

  15. Training review criteria and procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This document provides direction to NRC personnel for reviewing training programs at nuclear power plants to verify compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 50. 120 and 10 CFR 55 as applicable. It describes the process for evaluating the effectiveness of training programs, provides aids for collection of information during interviews and observations, and provides criteria for evaluating the implementation of a systems approach to training. This document is not intended to have the effect of a regulation, it establishes no binding requirements or interpretations of NRC regulations. It is intended as guidance only

  16. CFD simulation of an internal spin-filter: evidence of lateral migration and exchange flow through the mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo-Cardero, Alvio; Chico, Ernesto; Castilho, Leda R; Medronho, Ricardo A

    2009-11-01

    In the present work Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used to study the flow field and particle dynamics in an internal spin-filter (SF) bioreactor system. Evidence of a radial exchange flow through the filter mesh was detected, with a magnitude up to 130-fold higher than the perfusion flow, thus significantly contributing to radial drag. The exchange flow magnitude was significantly influenced by the filter rotation rate, but not by the perfusion flow, within the ranges evaluated. Previous reports had only given indirect evidences of this exchange flow phenomenon in spin-filters, but the current simulations were able to quantify and explain it. Flow pattern inside the spin-filter bioreactor resembled a typical Taylor-Couette flow, with vortices being formed in the annular gap and eventually penetrating the internal volume of the filter, thus being the probable reason for the significant exchange flow observed. The simulations also showed that cells become depleted in the vicinity of the mesh due to lateral particle migration. Cell concentration near the filter was approximately 50% of the bulk concentration, explaining why cell separation achieved in SFs is not solely due to size exclusion. The results presented indicate the power of CFD techniques to study and better understand spin-filter systems, aiming at the establishment of effective design, operation and scale-up criteria.

  17. Filter bed systems treating domestic wastewater in the Nordic countries - Performance and reuse of filter media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenssen, Petter D.; Krogstad, T.; Paruch, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Nine filter beds have been constructed in the Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Filter beds consist of a septic tank followed by an aerobic pre-treatment biofilter and a subsequent saturated flow grass-covered filter. Thus, filter beds are similar to subsurface flow construct...... with phosphorus, the light-weight aggregate, Filtralite®P used in the saturated bed is a suitable phosphorus fertilizer and additionally has a liming effect. © 2010 Elsevier B.V....

  18. The dry filter method for passive filtered venting of the containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freis, Daniel; Tietsch, Wolfgang; Obenland, Ralf; Kroes, Bert; Martinsteg, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Filtered Venting is a mitigative emergency measure to protect the containment from pressure failure in case of a severe accident. Filtered vent systems which are based on the Dry Filter Method (DFM) are proven technology, work completely passive, meet all functional requirements and show excellent performance with respect to filter efficiency. With such a system the release of radioactive fission products to the environment can be effectively minimized. Short and long term land contaminations can be avoided. (orig.)

  19. Review of the state-of-the-art of exhaust particulate filter technology in internal combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Bin; Zhan, Reggie; Lin, He; Huang, Zhen

    2015-05-01

    The increasingly stringent emission regulations, such as US 2010, Tier 2 Bin 5 and beyond, off-road Tier 4 final, and Euro V/5 for particulate matter (PM) reduction applications, will mandate the use of the diesel particulate filters (DPFs) technology, which is proven to be the only way that can effectively control the particulate emissions. This paper covers a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art DPF technologies, including the advanced filter substrate materials, the novel catalyst formulations, the highly sophisticated regeneration control strategies, the DPF uncontrolled regenerations and their control methodologies, the DPF soot loading prediction, and the soot sensor for the PM on-board diagnostics (OBD) legislations. Furthermore, the progress of the highly optimized hybrid approaches, which involves the integration of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) + (DPF, NOx reduction catalyst), the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst coated on DPF, as well as DPF in the high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) loop systems, is well discussed. Besides, the impacts of the quality of fuel and lubricant on the DPF performance and the maintenance and retrofit of DPF are fully elaborated. Meanwhile, the high efficiency gasoline particulate filter (GPF) technology is being required to effectively reduce the PM and particulate number (PN) emissions from the gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines to comply with the future increasingly stricter emissions regulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Time Line for Noncopers to Pass Return-to-Sports Criteria After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan, Erin H.; Axe, Michael J.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    after surgery. CONCLUSION Functional outcomes suggest that a subgroup of noncopers require additional supervised rehabilitation to pass stringent criteria to return to sports. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Therapy, level 2b. PMID:20195019

  1. High-performance information search filters for acute kidney injury content in PubMed, Ovid Medline and Embase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Ainslie M; Iansavichus, Arthur V; Haynes, R Brian; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Mehta, Ravindra L; Parikh, Chirag R; Garg, Amit X

    2014-04-01

    We frequently fail to identify articles relevant to the subject of acute kidney injury (AKI) when searching the large bibliographic databases such as PubMed, Ovid Medline or Embase. To address this issue, we used computer automation to create information search filters to better identify articles relevant to AKI in these databases. We first manually reviewed a sample of 22 992 full-text articles and used prespecified criteria to determine whether each article contained AKI content or not. In the development phase (two-thirds of the sample), we developed and tested the performance of >1.3-million unique filters. Filters with high sensitivity and high specificity for the identification of AKI articles were then retested in the validation phase (remaining third of the sample). We succeeded in developing and validating high-performance AKI search filters for each bibliographic database with sensitivities and specificities in excess of 90%. Filters optimized for sensitivity reached at least 97.2% sensitivity, and filters optimized for specificity reached at least 99.5% specificity. The filters were complex; for example one PubMed filter included >140 terms used in combination, including 'acute kidney injury', 'tubular necrosis', 'azotemia' and 'ischemic injury'. In proof-of-concept searches, physicians found more articles relevant to topics in AKI with the use of the filters. PubMed, Ovid Medline and Embase can be filtered for articles relevant to AKI in a reliable manner. These high-performance information filters are now available online and can be used to better identify AKI content in large bibliographic databases.

  2. Filtering observations without the initial guess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, T. M.; Abbondanza, C.; Gross, R. S.; Heflin, M. B.; Parker, J. W.; Soja, B.; Wu, X.

    2017-12-01

    Noisy geophysical observations sampled irregularly over space and time are often numerically "analyzed" or "filtered" before scientific usage. The standard analysis and filtering techniques based on the Bayesian principle requires "a priori" joint distribution of all the geophysical parameters of interest. However, such prior distributions are seldom known fully in practice, and best-guess mean values (e.g., "climatology" or "background" data if available) accompanied by some arbitrarily set covariance values are often used in lieu. It is therefore desirable to be able to exploit efficient (time sequential) Bayesian algorithms like the Kalman filter while not forced to provide a prior distribution (i.e., initial mean and covariance). An example of this is the estimation of the terrestrial reference frame (TRF) where requirement for numerical precision is such that any use of a priori constraints on the observation data needs to be minimized. We will present the Information Filter algorithm, a variant of the Kalman filter that does not require an initial distribution, and apply the algorithm (and an accompanying smoothing algorithm) to the TRF estimation problem. We show that the information filter allows temporal propagation of partial information on the distribution (marginal distribution of a transformed version of the state vector), instead of the full distribution (mean and covariance) required by the standard Kalman filter. The information filter appears to be a natural choice for the task of filtering observational data in general cases where prior assumption on the initial estimate is not available and/or desirable. For application to data assimilation problems, reduced-order approximations of both the information filter and square-root information filter (SRIF) have been published, and the former has previously been applied to a regional configuration of the HYCOM ocean general circulation model. Such approximation approaches are also briefed in the

  3. Nuclear reactor philosophy and criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atchison, R.J.

    1979-07-01

    Nuclear power plant safety criteria and principles developed in Canada are directed towards minimizing the chance of failure of the fuel and preventing or reducing to an acceptably low level the escape of fission products should fuel failure occur. Safety criteria and practices are set forth in the Reactor Siting Guide, which is based upon the concept of defence in depth. The Guide specifies that design and construction shall follow the best applicable code, standard or practice; the total of all serious process system failures shall not exceed one in three years; special safety systems are to be physically and functionally separate from process systems and each other; and safety systems shall be testable, with unavailability less than 10 - 3 . Doses to the most exposed member of the public due to normal operation, serious process failures, and dual failures are specified. Licensees are also required to consider the effects of extreme conditions due to airplane crashes, explosions, turbine disintegration, pipe burst, and natural disasters. Safety requirements are changing as nuclear power plant designs evolve and in response to social and economic pressures

  4. Donor selection criteria and procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agcaoili, N.R.

    1999-01-01

    Donor selection is one of the most important aspects of tissue banking practice. Without a good donor selection criteria, the results of any effort of trying to preserve tissues will have disastrous outcome for the recipient of these tissues. While with a very good and strict donor selection the Tissue Bank can guarantee safe and effective tissue allografts. There are significant aspects in the history and physical examination of the donor that must be emphasized. A donor exclusion criteria has also been formulated together with a list of all the needed laboratory examinations to eliminate possible diseases that may be transferred from the donor. The methods of procurement of tissue allografts from living and cadaver donors will be described. The limitations and advantages of each will be taken.There are also special restrictions that are important in the practice of removing the tissues from the donors. All the necessary equipment should be ready and the potential risk on the personnel should be known to all doing Tissue Banking

  5. Robust Ensemble Filtering and Its Relation to Covariance Inflation in the Ensemble Kalman Filter

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Xiaodong

    2011-12-01

    A robust ensemble filtering scheme based on the H∞ filtering theory is proposed. The optimal H∞ filter is derived by minimizing the supremum (or maximum) of a predefined cost function, a criterion different from the minimum variance used in the Kalman filter. By design, the H∞ filter is more robust than the Kalman filter, in the sense that the estimation error in the H∞ filter in general has a finite growth rate with respect to the uncertainties in assimilation, except for a special case that corresponds to the Kalman filter. The original form of the H∞ filter contains global constraints in time, which may be inconvenient for sequential data assimilation problems. Therefore a variant is introduced that solves some time-local constraints instead, and hence it is called the time-local H∞ filter (TLHF). By analogy to the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), the concept of ensemble time-local H∞ filter (EnTLHF) is also proposed. The general form of the EnTLHF is outlined, and some of its special cases are discussed. In particular, it is shown that an EnKF with certain covariance inflation is essentially an EnTLHF. In this sense, the EnTLHF provides a general framework for conducting covariance inflation in the EnKF-based methods. Some numerical examples are used to assess the relative robustness of the TLHF–EnTLHF in comparison with the corresponding KF–EnKF method.

  6. A containment-venting filter concept and its implementation at stainless-steel fiber filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillmann, H.G.; Pasler, H.

    1984-01-01

    Bursting of the PWR containment as a result of severe reactor accidents can be avoided by installation of accident filter systems which fulfill the function of a safety valve. This greatly reduces contamination of the environment by fission product release. The filter concept and its implementation using stainless-steel fiber filters and silver molecular sieves are described. (orig./HP)

  7. Non-linear DSGE Models, The Central Difference Kalman Filter, and The Mean Shifted Particle Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Martin Møller

    . The second contribution of this paper is to derive a new particle filter which we term the Mean Shifted Particle Filter (MSPFb). We show that the MSPFb outperforms the standard Particle Filter by delivering more precise state estimates, and in general the MSPFb has lower Monte Carlo variation in the reported...

  8. Retrievable Vena Cava Filters in Major Trauma Patients: Prevalence of Thrombus Within the Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahrer, Arie; Zippel, Douglas; Garniek, Alexander; Golan, Gil; Bensaid, Paul; Simon, Daniel; Rimon, Uri

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the prevalence of thrombus within a retrievable vena cava filter inserted prophylactically in major trauma patients referred for filter extraction. Between November 2002 and August 2005, 80 retrievable inferior vena cava filters (68 Optease and 12 Gunther-Tulip) were inserted into critically injured trauma patients (mean injury severity score 33.5). The filters were inserted within 1 to 6 (mean 2) days of injury. Thirty-seven patients were referred for filter removal (32 with Optease and 5 with Gunther-Tulip). The indwelling time was 7 to 22 (mean 13) days. All patients underwent inferior vena cavography prior to filter removal. There were no insertion-related complications and all filters were successfully deployed. Forty-three (54%) of the 80 patients were not referred for filter removal, as these patients continued to have contraindications to anticoagulation. Thirty-seven patients (46%) were referred for filter removal. In eight of them (22%) a large thrombus was seen within the filters and they were left in place, all with the Optease device. The other 29 filters (36%) were removed uneventfully.We conclude that the relatively high prevalence of intrafilter thrombi with the Optease filter may be explained by either spontaneous thrombus formation or captured emboli.

  9. Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Smartphone Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Chiang, Chih-Lin; Lin, Po-Hsien; Chang, Li-Ren; Ko, Chih-Hung; Lee, Yang-Han; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Global smartphone penetration has led to unprecedented addictive behaviors. The aims of this study are to develop diagnostic criteria of smartphone addiction and to examine the discriminative ability and the validity of the diagnostic criteria. We developed twelve candidate criteria for characteristic symptoms of smartphone addiction and four criteria for functional impairment caused by excessive smartphone use. The participants consisted of 281 college students. Each participant was systematically assessed for smartphone-using behaviors by psychiatrist's structured diagnostic interview. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of the candidate symptom criteria were analyzed with reference to the psychiatrists' clinical global impression. The optimal model selection with its cutoff point of the diagnostic criteria differentiating the smartphone addicted subjects from non-addicted subjects was then determined by the best diagnostic accuracy. Six symptom criteria model with optimal cutoff point were determined based on the maximal diagnostic accuracy. The proposed smartphone addiction diagnostic criteria consisted of (1) six symptom criteria, (2) four functional impairment criteria and (3) exclusion criteria. Setting three symptom criteria as the cutoff point resulted in the highest diagnostic accuracy (84.3%), while the sensitivity and specificity were 79.4% and 87.5%, respectively. We suggested determining the functional impairment by two or more of the four domains considering the high accessibility and penetration of smartphone use. The diagnostic criteria of smartphone addiction demonstrated the core symptoms "impaired control" paralleled with substance related and addictive disorders. The functional impairment involved multiple domains provide a strict standard for clinical assessment.

  10. Airborne Microorganism Disinfection by Photocatalytic HEPA Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotruedee Chotigawin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the efficacy of photocatalytic HEPA filters on microorganism disinfection in a closed-loop chamber and later applied it in an air purifier and tested its efficacy in an 8-m3 chamber and in a hospital. The photocatalytic filters were made by dip-coating a HEPA filter in a TiO2 slurry. In order to disinfect the microorganisms retained on the filter, UV-A light was irradiated onto the filter to create strong oxidative radicals which can destroy microorganisms. The findings showed that disinfection efficiency of the photocatalytic filters with high TiO2 loading was insignificantly higher than with lower loading. S. epidermidis was completely eliminated within 2 hours, while 86.8% of B. subtilis, 77.1% of A. niger, and 82.7% of P. citrinum were destroyed within 10 hours. When applying the photocatalytic filters into an air purifier in a 8-m3 chamber, it was found that as soon as the air purifier was turned on, 83.4% of S. epidermidis, 81.4% of B. subtilis, 88.5% of A. niger, and 75.8% of P. citrinum were removed from the air. In a hospital environment, the PCO air purifier efficacy was lower than that in the chamber. Besides, relative humidity, distances from the air purifier and room size were suspected to affect the efficacy of the photocatalytic filters.

  11. Filtering Redundant Data from RFID Data Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazalila Kamaludin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID enabled systems are evolving in many applications that need to know the physical location of objects such as supply chain management. Naturally, RFID systems create large volumes of duplicate data. As the duplicate data wastes communication, processing, and storage resources as well as delaying decision-making, filtering duplicate data from RFID data stream is an important and challenging problem. Existing Bloom Filter-based approaches for filtering duplicate RFID data streams are complex and slow as they use multiple hash functions. In this paper, we propose an approach for filtering duplicate data from RFID data streams. The proposed approach is based on modified Bloom Filter and uses only a single hash function. We performed extensive empirical study of the proposed approach and compared it against the Bloom Filter, d-Left Time Bloom Filter, and the Count Bloom Filter approaches. The results show that the proposed approach outperforms the baseline approaches in terms of false positive rate, execution time, and true positive rate.

  12. HEPA Filter Performance under Adverse Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, Michael; Hogancamp, Kristina; Alderman, Steven; Waggoner, Charles

    2007-01-01

    This study involved challenging nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters under a variety of conditions that can arise in Department of Energy (DOE) applications such as: low or high RH, controlled and uncontrolled challenge, and filters with physically damaged media or seals (i.e., leaks). Reported findings correlate filter function as measured by traditional differential pressure techniques in comparison with simultaneous instrumental determination of up and down stream PM concentrations. Additionally, emission rates and failure signatures will be discussed for filters that have either failed or exceeded their usable lifetime. Significant findings from this effort include the use of thermocouples up and down stream of the filter housing to detect the presence of moisture. Also demonstrated in the moisture challenge series of tests is the effect of repeated wetting of the filter. This produces a phenomenon referred to as transient failure before the tensile strength of the media weakens to the point of physical failure. An evaluation of the effect of particle size distribution of the challenge aerosol on loading capacity of filters is also included. Results for soot and two size distributions of KCl are reported. Loading capacities for filters ranged from approximately 70 g of soot to nearly 900 g for the larger particle size distribution of KCl. (authors)

  13. Filterability and Sludge Concentration in Membrane Bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lousada-Ferreira, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Thesis entitled “Filterability and Sludge Concentration in Membrane Bioreactors” aims at explaining the relation between Mixed Liquid Suspended Solids (MLSS) concentration, the amount of solids in the wastewater being treated, also designated as sludge, and filterability, being the ability of

  14. A Tool for Kalman Filter Tuning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkesson, Bernt Magnus; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2007-01-01

    The Kalman filter requires knowledge about the noise statistics. In practical applications, however, the noise covariances are generally not known. A method for estimating noise covariances from process data has been investigated. The method gives a least-squares estimate of the noise covariances......, which can be used to compute the Kalman filter gain....

  15. Sensory source strength of used ventilation filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Geo; Alm, Ole Martin; Fanger, Povl Ole

    2002-01-01

    A two-year-old filter was placed in a ventilation system recirculating the air in an experimental space. Via glass tubes supplied with a small fan it was possible to extract air upstream and downstream of the filter to an adjacent room. A panel could thus perform sensory assessments of the air from...

  16. potential bag filter for volatile organic amines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    VADDYPALLY SHIVAIAH

    2018-03-22

    Mar 22, 2018 ... be described as a potential bag filter for volatile organic amines. Keywords. Volatile organic amines; hydrogen ..... this bag filter, which can capture volatile amines to form. Figure 8. Thermal ellipsoid plot of ..... huber H, Baumann M and Amann A 2013 Blood and breath levels of selected volatile organic ...

  17. Gaussian shaping filter for nuclear spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, A.S.C. de.

    1980-01-01

    A theorical study of a gaussian shaping filter, using Pade approximation, for using in gamma spectroscopy is presented. This approximation has proved superior to the classical cascade RC integrators approximation in therms of signal-to-noise ratio and pulse simmetry. An experimental filter was designed, simulated in computer, constructed, and tested in the laboratory. (author) [pt

  18. Inverse Filtering Techniques in Speech Analysis | Nwachuku ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inverse filtering' has been applied. The unifying features of these techniques are presented, namely: 1. a basis in the source-filter theory of speech production, 2. the use of a network whose transfer function is the inverse of the transfer function of ...

  19. Enhancement of Electrolaryngeal Speech by Adaptive Filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espy-Wilson, Carol Y.; Chari, Venkatesh R.; MacAuslan, Joel M.; Huang, Caroline B.; Walsh, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    A study tested the quality and intelligibility, as judged by several listeners, of four users' electrolaryngeal speech, with and without filtering to compensate for perceptually objectionable acoustic characteristics. Results indicated that an adaptive filtering technique produced a noticeable improvement in the quality of the Transcutaneous…

  20. Variable Span Filters for Speech Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Benesty, Jacob; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2016-01-01

    optimal filters using a joint diagonalization as a basis. This gives excellent control over the performance, as we can optimize for noise reduction or signal distortion performance. Results from real data experiments show that the proposed variable span filters can achieve better performance than existing...

  1. Filtering microphonics in dark matter germanium experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, J.; Garcia, E.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Morales, A.; Nunz-Lagos, R.; Puimedon, J.; Saenz, C.; Villar, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    A technique for reducing the microphonic noise in a germanium spectrometer used in dark matter particles searches is described. Filtered energy spectra, corresponding to 48.5 kg day of data in a running experiment in the Canfranc tunnel are presented. Improvements of this filtering procedure with respect to the method of rejecting those events not distributed evenly in time are also discussed. (orig.)

  2. Filtering Meteoroid Flights Using Multiple Unscented Kalman Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansom, E. K.; Bland, P. A.; Rutten, M. G.; Paxman, J.; Towner, M. C.

    2016-11-01

    Estimator algorithms are immensely versatile and powerful tools that can be applied to any problem where a dynamic system can be modeled by a set of equations and where observations are available. A well designed estimator enables system states to be optimally predicted and errors to be rigorously quantified. Unscented Kalman filters (UKFs) and interactive multiple models can be found in methods from satellite tracking to self-driving cars. The luminous trajectory of the Bunburra Rockhole fireball was observed by the Desert Fireball Network in mid-2007. The recorded data set is used in this paper to examine the application of these two techniques as a viable approach to characterizing fireball dynamics. The nonlinear, single-body system of equations, used to model meteoroid entry through the atmosphere, is challenged by gross fragmentation events that may occur. The incorporation of the UKF within an interactive multiple model smoother provides a likely solution for when fragmentation events may occur as well as providing a statistical analysis of the state uncertainties. In addition to these benefits, another advantage of this approach is its automatability for use within an image processing pipeline to facilitate large fireball data analyses and meteorite recoveries.

  3. SELECTION CRITERIA FOR LIVER DONATION - A REVIEW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PRUIM, J; KLOMPMAKER, IJ; HAAGSMA, EB; BIJLEVELD, CMA; SLOOFF, MJH

    An overview of the criteria that are currently being used for the selection of liver donors is presented. The validity of the different criteria is discussed. The potential benefits of introducing other modalities is dealt with.

  4. ANI/MAELU engineering inspection criteria 8.3 ALARA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, L. [American Nuclear Insurers, West Hardford, CT (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this criteria section is to provide guidelines for programs whose intent is to achieve occupational doses and doses to members of the public that are as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The success that has been achieved by applying ALARA concepts at nuclear power plants is clearly illustrated by the major reductions in the annual cumulative dose to workers at many sites over the last few years. This success is the combined result of the general maturity of the nuclear industry, the intensive study of dose reduction practices by industry groups, and the successful sharing of experience and practices among plants. Source term reduction should be used as a primary ALARA mechanism. Methods which should be considered include: satellite and cobalt reduction, chemistry control, decontamination, submicron filters, zinc addition, hot spot reduction and permanent or temporary shielding.

  5. Learning algorithms for stack filter classifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zimmer, Beate G [TEXAS A& M

    2009-01-01

    Stack Filters define a large class of increasing filter that is used widely in image and signal processing. The motivations for using an increasing filter instead of an unconstrained filter have been described as: (1) fast and efficient implementation, (2) the relationship to mathematical morphology and (3) more precise estimation with finite sample data. This last motivation is related to methods developed in machine learning and the relationship was explored in an earlier paper. In this paper we investigate this relationship by applying Stack Filters directly to classification problems. This provides a new perspective on how monotonicity constraints can help control estimation and approximation errors, and also suggests several new learning algorithms for Boolean function classifiers when they are applied to real-valued inputs.

  6. Adaptive Filtering Algorithms and Practical Implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Diniz, Paulo S R

    2013-01-01

    In the fourth edition of Adaptive Filtering: Algorithms and Practical Implementation, author Paulo S.R. Diniz presents the basic concepts of adaptive signal processing and adaptive filtering in a concise and straightforward manner. The main classes of adaptive filtering algorithms are presented in a unified framework, using clear notations that facilitate actual implementation. The main algorithms are described in tables, which are detailed enough to allow the reader to verify the covered concepts. Many examples address problems drawn from actual applications. New material to this edition includes: Analytical and simulation examples in Chapters 4, 5, 6 and 10 Appendix E, which summarizes the analysis of set-membership algorithm Updated problems and references Providing a concise background on adaptive filtering, this book covers the family of LMS, affine projection, RLS and data-selective set-membership algorithms as well as nonlinear, sub-band, blind, IIR adaptive filtering, and more. Several problems are...

  7. Ammonia transformation in a biotrickling air filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Peter; Nielsen, Marie Louise; Andersen, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    A simple, tubular biotrickling filter was designed for optimal removal of ammonia and odour in ventilation air from a pig house. The removal and transformation of ammonia was studied in detail by analysis and modelling of chemical gradients through the filter. Good correspondence between...... measurements and model was obtained by using conventional substrate and inhibition kinetics of ammonium and nitrite oxidizing bacteria. Highest rates of ammonia removal were observed in the central section of the filter. Near the air outlet and water inlet the process was ammonia limited, while high nitrous...... acid concentrations almost excluded any biological activity near the air inlet and water outlet. Nitrous acid inhibition also stabilized pH at 6.5-7 all through the filter. Being sensitive to both ammonia and nitrous acid the nitrite oxidation process occurred mainly in the filter sections near the air...

  8. Compact microstrip bandpass filter with tunable notch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Silas; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Johansen, Tom Keinicke

    2014-01-01

    notch filter ensures an attenuation level of 19.3 dB to 27.3 dB in the frequency range from 360–480 MHz. The measured passband ripple of the combined filter is less than 0.5 dB, while the insertion loss for the simplest design is less than 1.7 dB only 10 MHz from the notch frequency. Even though......Two different designs combining a bandpass and a notch filter are developed to operate in the receiving band from 350–470 MHz. The bandpass filter is designed from a simple structure, by use of only four short circuited stubs and a half wavelength transmission line connecting the stubs. The tunable...... the wavelength on the selected substrate (εr = 3.55) is approximately 45 cm, the outer dimensions of the final filter only measure 10×10 cm2....

  9. Kalman filtering theory and practice with MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Grewal, M

    2015-01-01

    The definitive textbook and professional reference on Kalman Filtering fully updated, revised, and expanded This book contains the latest developments in the implementation and application of Kalman filtering. Authors Grewal and Andrews draw upon their decades of experience to offer an in-depth examination of the subtleties, common pitfalls, and limitations of estimation theory as it applies to real-world situations. They present many illustrative examples including adaptations for nonlinear filtering, global navigation satellite systems, the error modeling of gyros and accelerometers, inertial navigation systems, and freeway traffic control. Kalman Filtering: Theory and Practice Using MATLAB, Fourth Edition is an ideal textbook in advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate courses in stochastic processes and Kalman filtering. It is also appropriate for self-instruction or review by practicing engineers and scientists who want to learn more about this important topic.

  10. Varactor-tuned Substrate Integrated Evanescent Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Acar, Öncel; Dong, Yunfeng

    is considered. In contrast to other methods described in the literature, it avoids etching split ring resonators in the metal layer of the SIW. The filters presented here use varactors as tuning elements. The varactors (as well as DC decoupling circuits) are mounted on the surface of PCB bringing the lower...... metal layer of the waveguide to the top layer with metalized via holes. The present filters are analyzed using models based on impedance matrix representation. The developed models allow computationally efficient and relatively accurate prediction of the filter behavior in a wide frequency range (at...... least up to frequencies below the cut-off of the second propagating mode). This work investigates the applicability of the evanescent SIW approach to tunable filter realization. The advantages and disadvantages of the approach are analyzed. As an example, a second order microwave filter is designed...

  11. REMOVAL OF CYANOBACTERIA USING CONTINUOUS BACKWASHING FILTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Coelho Machado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming the cyanobacteria removal, the present research utilized the upflow double filtration as water treatment system (continuous backwashing filter and conventional ascendant filter, with filtration rate of 150 m³ (m² d-1 in both filters. The treatment tested was: coagulant addition in both filters inlet. The parameters evaluated were: turbidity, apparent color, true color, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, absorbance at 254 nm, chlorophyll a, cyanobacteria density and loss of load. The double filtration system has proven efficient to the cyanobacteria removal and worthwhile in terms of operational services, once it lessens the second filter washings, which allows obtaining a filtration period up to 293 h and a significant increase in the effective water production.

  12. Field of Particle Filters Image Inpainting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuzol, Anne; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Nielsen, Mads

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for solving the image inpainting problem based on a field of locally interacting particle filters. Image inpainting, also known as image completion, is concerned with the problem of filling image regions with new visually plausible data. In order to avoid the difficulty...... of solving the problem globally for the region to be inpainted, we introduce a field of local particle filters. The states of the particle filters are image patches. Global consistency is enforced by a Markov random field image model which connects neighbouring particle filters. The benefit of using locally...... interacting particle filters is that several competing hypotheses on inpainting solutions are kept active, allowing the method to provide globally consistent solutions on problems where other local methods may fail. We provide examples of applications of the developed method. Keywords: Inpainting · Image...

  13. Retention of fission products in air filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobnack, R.

    1986-01-01

    The plume from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor reached London in the morning of 1st May. Less than two weeks later, the Physics Department, University of Surrey, reported a measurable level of radioactivity in air filters. On 15th May air filters from within the air conditioning plant of the Radioisotope Department at the London Hospital were removed for radiation checks. Crude tests with a geiger counter gave readings of 5-10 times higher than background levels. Gamma-ray spectroscopy of the departmental air filters (AF1) using a 127 mm NaI detector revealed a pattern characteristic of emissions of fission products from a nuclear reactor. Another air filter (AF2), from the home of a member of staff, was much less active. Because of the complexity of the gamma-ray spectrum and the relatively high level of emission from the departmental air filter, a thorough investigation was carried out using a high purity germanium detector. (author)

  14. Substrate Integrated Evanescent Filters Employing Coaxial Stubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2015-01-01

    is designed, fabricated, and tested. The filter exhibits a transmission zero due to the implemented stubs. The problem of evanescent mode filter analysis is formulated in terms of conventional network concepts. This formulation is then used for modelling of the filters. Strategies to further miniaturization...... and small height of the waveguide. In this work, one of the realization methods of evanescent mode waveguides using a single layer substrate is considered. The method is based on the use of coaxial stubs as capacitive susceptances externally connected to a SIW. A microwave filter based on these principles...... of the microwave filter are discussed. The approach is useful in applications where a sharp roll-off at the upper stop-band is required....

  15. Particle filters for random set models

    CERN Document Server

    Ristic, Branko

    2013-01-01

    “Particle Filters for Random Set Models” presents coverage of state estimation of stochastic dynamic systems from noisy measurements, specifically sequential Bayesian estimation and nonlinear or stochastic filtering. The class of solutions presented in this book is based  on the Monte Carlo statistical method. The resulting  algorithms, known as particle filters, in the last decade have become one of the essential tools for stochastic filtering, with applications ranging from  navigation and autonomous vehicles to bio-informatics and finance. While particle filters have been around for more than a decade, the recent theoretical developments of sequential Bayesian estimation in the framework of random set theory have provided new opportunities which are not widely known and are covered in this book. These recent developments have dramatically widened the scope of applications, from single to multiple appearing/disappearing objects, from precise to imprecise measurements and measurement models. This book...

  16. Resin selection criteria for tough composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Smith, G. T.

    1983-01-01

    Resin selection criteria are derived using a structured methodology consisting of an upward integrated mechanistic theory and its inverse (top-down structured theory). These criteria are expressed in a "criteria selection space" which are used to identify resin bulk properties for improved composite "toughness". The resin selection criteria correlate with a variety of experimental data including laminate strength, elevated temperature effects and impact resistance.

  17. Criteria for onsite transfers of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opperman, E.K.; Jackson, E.J.; Eggers, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    A general description of the requirements for making onsite transfers of radioactive material is provided in Chapter 2, along with the required sequencey of activities. Various criteria for package use are identified in Chapters 3-13. These criteria provide protection against undue radiation exposure. Package shielding, containment, and surface contamination requirements are established. Criteria for providing criticality safety are enumerated in Chapter 6. Criteria for providing hazards information are established in Chapter 13. A glossary is provided

  18. Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Smartphone Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Chiang, Chih-Lin; Lin, Po-Hsien; Chang, Li-Ren; Ko, Chih-Hung; Lee, Yang-Han; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Global smartphone penetration has led to unprecedented addictive behaviors. The aims of this study are to develop diagnostic criteria of smartphone addiction and to examine the discriminative ability and the validity of the diagnostic criteria. Methods We developed twelve candidate criteria for characteristic symptoms of smartphone addiction and four criteria for functional impairment caused by excessive smartphone use. The participants consisted of 281 college students. Each parti...

  19. Alternate Derivation of Geometric Extended Kalman Filter by MEKF Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Lubin

    2017-01-01

    This note is devoted to deriving the measurement update of the geometric extended Kalman filter using the multiplicative extended Kalman filtering approach, resulting in the attitude estimator referred as geometric multiplicative extended Kalman filter. The equivalence of the derived geometric multiplicative extended Kalman filter and geometric extended Kalman filter is also demonstrated in this note.

  20. Replacement of fluid-filter elements without interruption of flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, R. A.; Ward, J. B.

    1969-01-01

    Gatling-type filter assembly, preloaded with several filter elements enables filter replacement without breaking into the operative fluid system. When the filter element becomes contaminated, a unit inner subassembly is rotated 60 degrees to position a clean filter in the line.

  1. Sampled data CT system including analog filter and compensating digital filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, G. H.; DallaPiazza, D. G.; Pelc, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    A CT scanner in which the amount of x-ray information acquired per unit time is substantially increased by using a continuous-on x-ray source and a sampled data system with the detector. An analog filter is used in the sampling system for band limiting the detector signal below the highest frequency of interest, but is a practically realizable filter and is therefore non-ideal. A digital filter is applied to the detector data after digitization to compensate for the characteristics of the analog filter, and to provide an overall filter characteristic more nearly like the ideal

  2. NUCLEAR RADIATION DOSIMETER USING COMPOSITE FILTER AND A SINGLE ELEMENT FILTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, E.; Shlaer, S.

    1964-04-21

    A nuclear radiation dosimeter is described that uses, in combination, a composite filter and a single element filter. The composite filter contains a plurality of comminuted metals having K-edges evenly distributed over the energy range of interest and the quantity of each of the metals is selected to result in filtering in an amount inversely proportional to the sensitivity of the film in the range over l00 kev. A copper filter is used that has a thickness to contribute the necessary additional correction in the interval between 40 and 100 kev. (AEC)

  3. Human attention filters for single colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Chubb, Charles; Wright, Charles E.; Sperling, George

    2016-01-01

    The visual images in the eyes contain much more information than the brain can process. An important selection mechanism is feature-based attention (FBA). FBA is best described by attention filters that specify precisely the extent to which items containing attended features are selectively processed and the extent to which items that do not contain the attended features are attenuated. The centroid-judgment paradigm enables quick, precise measurements of such human perceptual attention filters, analogous to transmission measurements of photographic color filters. Subjects use a mouse to locate the centroid—the center of gravity—of a briefly displayed cloud of dots and receive precise feedback. A subset of dots is distinguished by some characteristic, such as a different color, and subjects judge the centroid of only the distinguished subset (e.g., dots of a particular color). The analysis efficiently determines the precise weight in the judged centroid of dots of every color in the display (i.e., the attention filter for the particular attended color in that context). We report 32 attention filters for single colors. Attention filters that discriminate one saturated hue from among seven other equiluminant distractor hues are extraordinarily selective, achieving attended/unattended weight ratios >20:1. Attention filters for selecting a color that differs in saturation or lightness from distractors are much less selective than attention filters for hue (given equal discriminability of the colors), and their filter selectivities are proportional to the discriminability distance of neighboring colors, whereas in the same range hue attention-filter selectivity is virtually independent of discriminabilty. PMID:27791040

  4. UV filters for lighting of plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehring, T.; Koefferlein, M.; Thiel, S.; Seidlitz, H. K.; Payer, H. D.

    1994-01-01

    The wavelength dependent interaction of biological systems with radiation is commonly described by appropriate action spectra. Particularly effective plant responses are obtained for ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Excess shortwave UV-B radiation will induce genetic defects and plant damage. Besides the ecological discussion of the deleterious effects of the excess UV radiation there is increasing interest in horticultural applications of this spectral region. Several metabolic pathways leading to valuable secondary plant products like colors, odors, taste, or resulting in mechanical strength and vitality are triggered by UV radiation. Thus, in ecologically as well as in economically oriented experiments the exact generation and knowledge of the spectral irradiance, particularly near the UV absorption edge, is essential. The ideal filter 'material' to control the UV absorption edge would be ozone itself. However, due to problems in controlling the toxic and chemically aggressive, instable gas, only rather 'small ozone filters' have been realized so far. In artificial plant lighting conventional solid filter materials such as glass sheets and plastic foils (celluloseacetate or cellulosetriacetate) which can be easily handled have been used to absorb the UV-C and the excess shortwave UV-B radiation of the lamp emissions. Different filter glasses are available which provide absorption properties suitable for gradual changes of the spectral UV-B illumination of artificial lighting. Using a distinct set of lamps and filter glasses an acceptable simulation of the UV-B part of natural global radiation can be achieved. The aging of these and other filter materials under the extreme UV radiation in the lamphouse of a solar simulator is presently unavoidable. This instability can be dealt with only by a precise spectral monitoring and by replacing the filters accordingly. For this reason attempts would be useful to develop real ozone filters which can replace glass filters. In

  5. UV filters for lighting of plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehring, T.; Koefferlein, M.; Thiel, S.; Seidlitz, H. K.; Payer, H. D.

    1994-03-01

    The wavelength dependent interaction of biological systems with radiation is commonly described by appropriate action spectra. Particularly effective plant responses are obtained for ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Excess shortwave UV-B radiation will induce genetic defects and plant damage. Besides the ecological discussion of the deleterious effects of the excess UV radiation there is increasing interest in horticultural applications of this spectral region. Several metabolic pathways leading to valuable secondary plant products like colors, odors, taste, or resulting in mechanical strength and vitality are triggered by UV radiation. Thus, in ecologically as well as in economically oriented experiments the exact generation and knowledge of the spectral irradiance, particularly near the UV absorption edge, is essential. The ideal filter 'material' to control the UV absorption edge would be ozone itself. However, due to problems in controlling the toxic and chemically aggressive, instable gas, only rather 'small ozone filters' have been realized so far. In artificial plant lighting conventional solid filter materials such as glass sheets and plastic foils (celluloseacetate or cellulosetriacetate) which can be easily handled have been used to absorb the UV-C and the excess shortwave UV-B radiation of the lamp emissions. Different filter glasses are available which provide absorption properties suitable for gradual changes of the spectral UV-B illumination of artificial lighting. Using a distinct set of lamps and filter glasses an acceptable simulation of the UV-B part of natural global radiation can be achieved. The aging of these and other filter materials under the extreme UV radiation in the lamphouse of a solar simulator is presently unavoidable. This instability can be dealt with only by a precise spectral monitoring and by replacing the filters accordingly. For this reason attempts would be useful to develop real ozone filters which can replace glass filters. In

  6. Optimal filter bandwidth for pulse oximetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuban, Norbert; Niwayama, Masatsugu

    2012-10-01

    Pulse oximeters contain one or more signal filtering stages between the photodiode and microcontroller. These filters are responsible for removing the noise while retaining the useful frequency components of the signal, thus improving the signal-to-noise ratio. The corner frequencies of these filters affect not only the noise level, but also the shape of the pulse signal. Narrow filter bandwidth effectively suppresses the noise; however, at the same time, it distorts the useful signal components by decreasing the harmonic content. In this paper, we investigated the influence of the filter bandwidth on the accuracy of pulse oximeters. We used a pulse oximeter tester device to produce stable, repetitive pulse waves with digitally adjustable R ratio and heart rate. We built a pulse oximeter and attached it to the tester device. The pulse oximeter digitized the current of its photodiode directly, without any analog signal conditioning. We varied the corner frequency of the low-pass filter in the pulse oximeter in the range of 0.66-15 Hz by software. For the tester device, the R ratio was set to R = 1.00, and the R ratio deviation measured by the pulse oximeter was monitored as a function of the corner frequency of the low-pass filter. The results revealed that lowering the corner frequency of the low-pass filter did not decrease the accuracy of the oxygen level measurements. The lowest possible value of the corner frequency of the low-pass filter is the fundamental frequency of the pulse signal. We concluded that the harmonics of the pulse signal do not contribute to the accuracy of pulse oximetry. The results achieved by the pulse oximeter tester were verified by human experiments, performed on five healthy subjects. The results of the human measurements confirmed that filtering out the harmonics of the pulse signal does not degrade the accuracy of pulse oximetry.

  7. 49 CFR 80.15 - Selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selection criteria. 80.15 Section 80.15... § 80.15 Selection criteria. (a) The Secretary shall assign weights as indicated to the following eight selection criteria in evaluating and selecting among eligible projects to receive credit assistance: (1) The...

  8. 28 CFR 34.3 - Selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Selection criteria. 34.3 Section 34.3....3 Selection criteria. (a) All individual project applications will, at a minimum, be subject to review based on the extent to which they meet the following general selection criteria: (1) The problem...

  9. 40 CFR 258.40 - Design criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Design criteria. 258.40 Section 258.40... SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Design Criteria § 258.40 Design criteria. (a) New MSWLF units and lateral... State or as specified in § 258.40(e) for unapproved States. The design must ensure that the...

  10. 30 CFR 104.3 - Pattern criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pattern criteria. 104.3 Section 104.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PATTERN OF VIOLATIONS PATTERN OF VIOLATIONS § 104.3 Pattern criteria. (a) The criteria of this section shall be used to identify those mines...

  11. 45 CFR 1634.9 - Selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selection criteria. 1634.9 Section 1634.9 Public... FOR GRANTS AND CONTRACTS § 1634.9 Selection criteria. (a) The criteria to be used to select among... key staff; (6) The applicant's knowledge of the various components of the legal services delivery...

  12. Potential for Hepa filter damage from water spray systems in filter plenums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Fretthold, J.K.; Slawsld, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    The water spray systems in high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter plenums that are used in nearly all Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for protection against fire was designed under the assumption that the HEPA filters would not be damaged by the water sprays. The most likely scenario for filter damage involves filter plugging by the water spray, followed by the fan blowing out the filter medium. A number of controlled laboratory tests that were previously conducted in the late 1980s are reviewed in this paper to provide a technical basis for the potential HEPA filter damage by the water spray system in HEPA filter plenums. In addition to the laboratory tests, the scenario for HEPA filter damage during fires has also occurred in the field. Afire in a four-stage, HEPA filter plenum at Rocky Flats in 1980 caused the first three stages of HEPA filters to blow out of their housing and the fourth stage to severely bow. Details of this recently declassified fire are presented in this paper. Although these previous findings suggest serious potential problems exist with the current water spray system in filter plenum , additional studies are required to confirm unequivocally that DOE`s critical facilities are at risk.

  13. Performance of PrekotAC Filter Aids on Pressure Drop across Two Different Filter Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the performance of formulated PrekotAC filter aids on pressure drop across two different types of filter media, i.e polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE and polyimide (P84 was carried out in a laboratory scale fabric filtration system. Filter aids is applied in order to prolong the lifespan of the fabric filter by reducing the pressure drop across a filter cake. PrekotAC which is a combination of 90%wt activated carbon and 10%wt PreKotTM was tested under various material loadings of 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mg/mm2 at a constant filtration velocity of 5 m/min across its cake and filter media. The results showed that PrekotAC presents a lower pressure drop across the P84 compared to PTFE filter media under various material loadings. This is because of its different characteristics that effect the porosity of the filter media and allow a higher volumetric airflow passing through, resulting in lower pressure drop compared to PTFE filter media. In addition, the diversity in terms of particle size distribution of the formulated PrekotAC that increase its permeability property helps to reduce the pressure drop across the media and its filter cake. Thus, PrekotAC has a promising characteristic as a two in one filter aids, a pre-coating and adsorbent material for fabric filtration system.

  14. Passband-shifting filters through postgrowth modification of filter optical thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajesh R; Krol, Denise M; Bond, Steven W; Pocha, Michael D; Meyer, Glenn A; Behymer, Elaine; Sperry, Victor

    2002-12-01

    We describe a postgrowth method to produce passband filters with different center wavelengths from a single growth run by irreversibly changing the refractive index of a layer or a series of layers within the filter. This leads to a new type of filter, the passband-shifting filter, whose center wavelength can be irreversibly shifted from lambda0 to lambda0 - deltalambda after the filter has been grown. The passband shift can be controlled exactly by proper design of the multilayer. We present the theory behind passband-shifting-filter design along with transfer-matrix simulations and preliminary experimental results for a two-cavity filter, using lateral oxidation of AlxGa1-x As-based materials to effect the passband shift.

  15. Ventilation filters as sources of air pollution – Processes occurring on surfaces of used filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Halás, Oto; Clausen, Geo

    2004-01-01

    Ozone concentrations were monitored upstream and downstream of used filter samples following 24hours of ventilation with ozone- filtered air. The ozone concentration in the air upstream of the filters was maintained at ~75 ppb while the concentration downstream of the filters was initially between...... ~ 35 and 55 ppb and slowly increased over time. Within an hour the ozone concentration downstream of the filter had increased to ~ 70 ppb. In contrast, no change in ozone removal efficiency over time was observed for a new filter. The used filter samples were then placed for 24 hours in ambient air...... (ozone concentration air at an elevated temperature (100°C); or nitrogen. When subsequently placed in the air stream containing 75 ppb of ozone partial regeneration of the filter’s ozone removal capabilities was observed. Regeneration was greatest for the sample that had sat...

  16. Adaptive Current Control Method for Hybrid Active Power Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Minh Thuyen

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive current control method for Hybrid Active Power Filter (HAPF). It consists of a fuzzy-neural controller, identification and prediction model and cost function. The fuzzy-neural controller parameters are adjusted according to the cost function minimum criteria. For this reason, the proposed control method has a capability on-line control clings to variation of the load harmonic currents. Compared to the single fuzzy logic control method, the proposed control method shows the advantages of better dynamic response, compensation error in steady-state is smaller, able to online control is better and harmonics cancelling is more effective. Simulation and experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  17. The violin bridge as filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissinger, George

    2006-07-01

    The violin bridge filter role was investigated using modal and acoustic measurements on 12 quality-rated violins combined with systematic bridge rocking frequency f(rock) and wing mass decrements deltam on four bridges for two other violins. No isolated bridge resonances were observed; bridge motions were complex (including a "squat" mode near 0.8 kHz) except for low frequency rigid body pivot motions, all more or less resembling rocking motion at higher frequencies. A conspicuous broad peak near 2.3 kHz in bridge driving point mobility (labeled BH) was seen for good and bad violins. Similar structure was seen in averaged bridge, bridge feet, corpus mobilities and averaged radiativity. No correlation between violin quality and BH driving point, averaged corpus mobility magnitude, or radiativity was found. Increasing averaged-over-f(rock) deltam(g) from 0 to 0.12 generally increased radiativity across the spectrum. Decreasing averaged-over-deltam f(rock) from 3.6 to 2.6 kHz produced consistent decreases in radiativity between 3 and 4.2 kHz, but only few-percent decreases in BH frequency. The lowest f(rock) values were accompanied by significantly reduced radiation from the Helmholtz A0 mode near 280 Hz; this, combined with reduced high frequency output, created overall radiativity profiles quite similar to "bad" violins among the quality-rated violins.

  18. Filter Buffy Coats (FBC): a source of peripheral blood leukocytes recovered from leukocyte depletion filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, T P H; Zehnter, I; Hofmann, B; Zaisserer, J; Burkhart, J; Rapp, S; Weinauer, F; Schmitz, J; Illert, W E

    2005-12-20

    In compliance with federal regulations, blood banks routinely use leukocyte depletion filters to eliminate contaminating leukocytes from blood products such as red blood cell and platelet concentrates. We developed and optimized conditions to elute leukocytes adsorbed to these filters; resulting in leukocyte suspensions which we termed Filter Buffy Coats (FBCs). These Filter Buffy Coats can replace standard buffy coats for various research applications. After optimizing both the filter elution medium as well as elution protocols, we compared commonly used leukocyte depletion filters from four different manufacturers. Relative fractions as well as total recoveries of leukocyte subsets, such as lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes, found in Filter Buffy Coats were identified and compared among the filters as well as to standard buffy coats and whole blood. Flow cytometric analysis of Filter Buffy Coats confirmed the presence of T- and B-lymphocytes, NK cells and monocytes. Furthermore, a significant quantity of CD34(+) hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells (HSC/HPC) was detected in Filter Buffy Coats prepared from different filters, thus making FBCs a valuable source for research on HSC/HPC. Colony assays revealed that most of these CD34(+) cells are functional. Using immunomagnetic cell sorting (MACS), we isolated a variety of leukocyte populations from FBC mononuclear cells (Filter-PBMCs) including T lymphocytes (CD4(+), CD8(+), CD3(+)), B lymphocytes (CD19(+)), NK cells (CD56(+)), HSC/HPC (CD34(+), CD133(+)) or dendritic cells (BDCA-4(+)). Functional properties of Filter-PBMCs, as well as of some of these isolated leukocyte populations, were confirmed using standard assays. In summary, Filter Buffy Coats are a valuable and convenient source of different peripheral leukocyte populations and can replace standard buffy coat preparations for research applications.

  19. On-chip copper-dielectric interference filters for manufacturing of ambient light and proximity CMOS sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Laurent; Masarotto, Lilian; D'Aillon, Patrick Gros; Pellé, Catherine; Armand, Marilyn; Marty, Michel; Jamin-Mornet, Clémence; Lhostis, Sandrine; Le Briz, Olivier

    2014-07-10

    Filter technologies implemented on CMOS image sensors for spectrally selective applications often use a combination of on-chip organic resists and an external substrate with multilayer dielectric coatings. The photopic-like and near-infrared bandpass filtering functions respectively required by ambient light sensing and user proximity detection through time-of-flight can be fully integrated on chip with multilayer metal-dielectric filters. Copper, silicon nitride, and silicon oxide are the materials selected for a technological proof-of-concept on functional wafers, due to their immediate availability in front-end semiconductor fabs. Filter optical designs are optimized with respect to specific performance criteria, and the robustness of the designs regarding process errors are evaluated for industrialization purposes.

  20. TESTING OF THE DUAL ROTARY FILTER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D.; Fowley, M.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-08-29

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) installed and tested two hydraulically connected SpinTek rotary microfilter (RMF) units to determine the behavior of a multiple filter system. Both units were successfully controlled by a control scheme written in DELTA-V architecture by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Process Control Engineering personnel. The control system was tuned to provide satisfactory response to changing conditions during the operation of the multi-filter system. Stability was maintained through the startup and shutdown of one of the filter units while the second was still in operation. The installation configuration originally proposed by the Small Colum Ion Exchange (SCIX) project of independent filter and motor mountings may be susceptible to vibration. Significant stiffening of the filter and motor mounts was required to minimize the vibration. Alignment of the motor to the filter was a challenge in this test configuration. The deployment configuration must be easy to manipulate and allow for fine adjustment. An analysis of the vibration signature of the test system identified critical speeds. Whether it corresponds to the resonance frequency of a rotor radial vibration mode that was excited by rotor unbalance is uncertain based upon the measurements. A relative motion series should be completed on the filter with the final shaft configuration to determine if the resonances exist in the final filter design. The instrumentation selected for deployment, including the concentrate discharge control valve and flow meters, performed well. Automation of the valve control integrated well with the control scheme and when used in concert with the other control variables, allowed automated control of the dual RMF system. The one area of concern with the instrumentation was the condition resulting when the filtrate flow meter operated with less than three gpm. This low flow was at the lower range of performance for the flow meter. This should not be