WorldWideScience

Sample records for stringent environmental requirements

  1. Flight Hardware Packaging Design for Stringent EMC Radiated Emission Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortz, Charlene L.; Huang, Chi-Chien N.; Ravich, Joshua A.; Steiner, Carl N.

    2013-01-01

    This packaging design approach can help heritage hardware meet a flight project's stringent EMC radiated emissions requirement. The approach requires only minor modifications to a hardware's chassis and mainly concentrates on its connector interfaces. The solution is to raise the surface area where the connector is mounted by a few millimeters using a pedestal, and then wrapping with conductive tape from the cable backshell down to the surface-mounted connector. This design approach has been applied to JPL flight project subsystems. The EMC radiated emissions requirements for flight projects can vary from benign to mission critical. If the project's EMC requirements are stringent, the best approach to meet EMC requirements would be to design an EMC control program for the project early on and implement EMC design techniques starting with the circuit board layout. This is the ideal scenario for hardware that is built from scratch. Implementation of EMC radiated emissions mitigation techniques can mature as the design progresses, with minimal impact to the design cycle. The real challenge exists for hardware that is planned to be flown following a built-to-print approach, in which heritage hardware from a past project with a different set of requirements is expected to perform satisfactorily for a new project. With acceptance of heritage, the design would already be established (circuit board layout and components have already been pre-determined), and hence any radiated emissions mitigation techniques would only be applicable at the packaging level. The key is to take a heritage design with its known radiated emissions spectrum and repackage, or modify its chassis design so that it would have a better chance of meeting the new project s radiated emissions requirements.

  2. Emission reductions in transition economies: A result of output contraction or more stringent environmental policy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zugravu, N.; Millock, K. [University Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne (France); Duchene, G. [University Paris 12, Creteil (France)

    2007-07-01

    Countries in Central and Eastern Europe significantly reduced their CO{sub 2} emissions between 1996 and 2001. Was this emission reduction just the fortuitous result of the major economic transformation undergone by those countries in the transition away from a centralized plan economy? Or is the emission reduction rather a result of more stringent environmental policy? The objective of the article is to answer this question through a model of the relation between environmental quality and enforcement, on the one hand, and environmental quality and economic growth, on the other hand. The authors develop structural equations for the demand (emissions) and supply (environmental stringency) of pollution. The supply equation takes into account the institutional quality of the country (control of corruption and political stability) as well as consumer preferences for environmental quality, as proxied by per capita revenue and unemployment. The system is estimated by three stage least squares on a sample of three groups of countries for comparative analysis: Central and Eastern European countries, Western European countries, and emerging economies. The results indicate that, all else equal, the scale effect on its own would have increased industrial CO{sub 2} emissions in the Central and Eastern European countries in the sample by 44.6% between 1996 and 2001. The composition effect accounted for a corresponding reduction in emissions by 16%. The technique effect had the largest marginal impact, corresponding to a 37.4% reduction in emissions.

  3. The rapidly evolving centromere-specific histone has stringent functional requirements in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Maruthachalam; Kwong, Pak N; Menorca, Ron M G; Valencia, Joel T; Ramahi, Joseph S; Stewart, Jodi L; Tran, Robert K; Sundaresan, Venkatesan; Comai, Luca; Chan, Simon W-L

    2010-10-01

    Centromeres control chromosome inheritance in eukaryotes, yet their DNA structure and primary sequence are hypervariable. Most animals and plants have megabases of tandem repeats at their centromeres, unlike yeast with unique centromere sequences. Centromere function requires the centromere-specific histone CENH3 (CENP-A in human), which replaces histone H3 in centromeric nucleosomes. CENH3 evolves rapidly, particularly in its N-terminal tail domain. A portion of the CENH3 histone-fold domain, the CENP-A targeting domain (CATD), has been previously shown to confer kinetochore localization and centromere function when swapped into human H3. Furthermore, CENP-A in human cells can be functionally replaced by CENH3 from distantly related organisms including Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have used cenh3-1 (a null mutant in Arabidopsis thaliana) to replace endogenous CENH3 with GFP-tagged variants. A H3.3 tail domain-CENH3 histone-fold domain chimera rescued viability of cenh3-1, but CENH3's lacking a tail domain were nonfunctional. In contrast to human results, H3 containing the A. thaliana CATD cannot complement cenh3-1. GFP-CENH3 from the sister species A. arenosa functionally replaces A. thaliana CENH3. GFP-CENH3 from the close relative Brassica rapa was targeted to centromeres, but did not complement cenh3-1, indicating that kinetochore localization and centromere function can be uncoupled. We conclude that CENH3 function in A. thaliana, an organism with large tandem repeat centromeres, has stringent requirements for functional complementation in mitosis.

  4. Air Quality and Health Benefits of China's Recent Stringent Environmental Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Xue, T.; Zhang, Q.; Geng, G.; He, K.

    2016-12-01

    Aggressive emission control measures were taken by China's central and local governments after the promulgation of the "Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan" in 2013. We evaluated the air quality and health benefits of this ever most stringent air pollution control policy during 2013-2015 by utilizing a two-stage data fusion model and newly-developed cause-specific integrated exposure-response functions (IER) developed for the Global Burden of Disease (GBD). The two-stage data fusion model predicts spatiotemporal continuous PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm) concentrations by integrating satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements, PM2.5 concentrations from measurement and air quality model, and other ancillary information. During the years of analysis, PM2.5 concentration dropped significantly on national average and over heavily polluted regions as identified by Mann-Kendall analysis. The national PM2.5-attributable mortality decreased by 72.8 (95% CI: 59.4, 85.2) thousand (6%) from 1.23 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.39) million in 2013 to 1.15 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.31) million in 2015 due to considerable reduction (i.e. 18%) of population-weighted PM2.5 from 61.4 to 50.5 µg/m3. Meteorological variations between 2013 and 2015 were estimated to raise the PM2.5 levels by 0.24 µg/m3 and national mortality by 2.1 (95% CI: 1.6, 2.6) thousand through sensitivity tests, which implies the dominant role of anthropogenic impacts on PM2.5 abatement and attributable mortality reduction. Our study affirms the effectiveness of China's recent air quality policy, however, due to the possible supralinear shape of C-R functions, health benefits induced by air quality improvement in these years are limited. We therefore appeal for continuous implementation of current policies and further stringent measures from both air quality improvement and public health protection perspectives.

  5. A rapid response air quality analysis system for use in projects having stringent quality assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to solve air quality problems which frequently occur during iterations of the baseline change process. From a schedule standpoint, it is desirable to perform this evaluation in as short a time as possible while budgetary pressures limit the size of the staff available to do the work. Without a method in place to deal with baseline change proposal requests the environment analysts may not be able to produce the analysis results in the time frame expected. Using a concept called the Rapid Response Air Quality Analysis System (RAAS), the problems of timing and cost become tractable. The system could be adapted to assess other atmospheric pathway impacts, e.g., acoustics or visibility. The air quality analysis system used to perform the EA analysis (EA) for the Salt Repository Project (part of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program), and later to evaluate the consequences of proposed baseline changes, consists of three components: Emission source data files; Emission rates contained in spreadsheets; Impact assessment model codes. The spreadsheets contain user-written codes (macros) that calculate emission rates from (1) emission source data (e.g., numbers and locations of sources, detailed operating schedules, and source specifications including horsepower, load factor, and duty cycle); (2) emission factors such as those published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and (3) control efficiencies

  6. Waste management from reprocessing: a stringent regulatory requirements for high quality conditioned residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordier, J. C.; Greneche, D.; Devezeaux, J. G.; Dalcorso, J.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear waste production and management in France is governed by safety requirements imposed to all operators. French nuclear safety relies on two basic principles: · Responsibility of the nuclear operator, which expands to waste generated, · Safety basic objectives issued by national Safety Authority. For a long time the regulatory framework for waste production and management has been satisfactorily applied and has benefited to each actor of the process. LLW/MLW and HLW nuclear waste are currently conditioned in safe matrices or packages either likely to be disposed in surface repositories or designed with the intention to be disposed underground according to their radioactive content. France is looking into the case of VLLW and has already carried out a design for future disposal, the design being in the pipe. Other types of waste (i. e. radium bearing waste, graphite, and tritium content waste) are also considered in the whole framework of French waste management. (author)

  7. Environmental Requirements Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusack, Laura J.; Bramson, Jeffrey E.; Archuleta, Jose A.; Frey, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-08

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) is the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prime contractor responsible for the environmental cleanup of the Hanford Site Central Plateau. As part of this responsibility, the CH2M HILL is faced with the task of complying with thousands of environmental requirements which originate from over 200 federal, state, and local laws and regulations, DOE Orders, waste management and effluent discharge permits, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) response and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) corrective action documents, and official regulatory agency correspondence. The challenge is to manage this vast number of requirements to ensure they are appropriately and effectively integrated into CH2M HILL operations. Ensuring compliance with a large number of environmental requirements relies on an organization’s ability to identify, evaluate, communicate, and verify those requirements. To ensure that compliance is maintained, all changes need to be tracked. The CH2M HILL identified that the existing system used to manage environmental requirements was difficult to maintain and that improvements should be made to increase functionality. CH2M HILL established an environmental requirements management procedure and tools to assure that all environmental requirements are effectively and efficiently managed. Having a complete and accurate set of environmental requirements applicable to CH2M HILL operations will promote a more efficient approach to: • Communicating requirements • Planning work • Maintaining work controls • Maintaining compliance

  8. Federal Environmental Requirements for Construction

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This guide provides information on federal environmental requirements for construction projects. It is written primarily for owners of construction projects and for...

  9. The Impact on IPO Performance of More Stringent Listing Rules with a Pre-listing Earnings Requirement: Evidence from Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Wai-yan Cheng; Yan-leung Cheung; Yuen-ching Tse

    2005-01-01

    This study considers the impact of a change to listing rules covering IPO performance in the Hong Kong stock market. The change, introduced in 1994, imposed a three-year pre-listing earning requirement on new issues. The objective of this research is to screen out a subset of poor IPO performers. We find there is no significant difference in performance between IPOs before and after the regulatory change. We further divide our sample of IPOs registered before the regulatory change into two su...

  10. Environmental requirements in thermochemical and biochemical conversion of biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frings, R.M.; Mackie, K.L.; Hunter, I.R.

    1992-01-01

    Many biological and thermochemical processing options exist for the conversion of biomass to fuels. Commercially, these options are assessed in terms of fuel product yield and quality. However, attention must also be paid to the environmental aspects of each technology so that any commercial plant can meet the increasingly stringent environmental legislation in the world today. The environmental aspects of biological conversion (biogasification and bioliquefaction) and thermal conversion (high pressure liquefaction, flash pyrolysis, and gasification) are reviewed. Biological conversion processes are likely to generate waste streams which are more treatable than those from thermal conversion processes but the available data for thermal liquefaction are very limited. Close attention to waste minimisation is recommended and processing options that greatly reduce or eliminate waste streams have been identified. Product upgrading and its effect on wastewater quality also requires attention. Emphasis in further research studies needs to be placed on providing authentic waste streams for environmental assessment. (author)

  11. 13 CFR 500.206 - Environmental requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... environmental information; (B) Any previously prepared environmental reports or data relevant to the loan at... require contrary action. (ii) Subject to the limitations in paragraph (c)(4)(iii) of this section, the... integrated use of the natural and social sciences and the environmental design arts.” 42 U.S.C. 4332(A). If...

  12. 7 CFR 1779.9 - Environmental requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental requirements. 1779.9 Section 1779.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.9 Environmental requirements...

  13. Environmentally acceptable thread compounds: Requirements defined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringfellow, W.D.; Hendriks, R.V.; Jacobs, N.L.

    1993-01-01

    New environmental regulations on thread compounds are now being enforced in several areas with strong maritime tradition and a sensitive environment. These areas include Indonesia, Alaska and portions of Norway. The industry generally recognizes the environmental concerns but, with wider enforcement of regulations imminent, has not been able to define clearly the requirements for environmental compliance. This paper, written in collaboration with The Netherlands State Supervision of Mines, is based on the National Policy on Thread Compounds of The Netherlands. This national policy is representative of policies being followed by other North Sea governments. Similar policies might well be adopted by other governments worldwide. These policies will affect the operator, drilling contractor, and supplier. This paper provides a specific and detailed definition of thread compound requirements by addressing four relevant categories. The categories of interest are regulatory approval, environmental, health, and performance

  14. Is ionizing radiation regulated more stringently than chemical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.; Pack, S.R.; Hattemer-Frey, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    It is widely believed that United States government agencies regulate exposure to ionizing radiation more stringently than exposure to chemical carcinogens. It is difficult to verify this perception, however, because chemical carcinogens and ionizing radiation are regulated using vastly different strategies. Chemical carcinogens are generally regulated individually. Regulators consider the risk of exposure to one chemical rather than the cumulative radiation exposure from all sources. Moreover, standards for chemical carcinogens are generally set in terms of quantities released or resultant environmental concentrations, while standards for ionizing radiation are set in terms of dose to the human body. Since chemicals and ionizing radiation cannot be compared on the basis of equal dose to the exposed individual, standards regulating chemicals and ionizing radiation cannot be compared directly. It is feasible, however, to compare the two sets of standards on the basis of equal risk to the exposed individual, assuming that standards for chemicals and ionizing radiation are equivalent if estimated risk levels are equitable. This paper compares risk levels associated with current standards for ionizing radiation and chemical carcinogens. The authors do not attempt to determine whether either type of risk is regulated too stringently or not stringently enough but endeavor only to ascertain if ionizing radiation is actually regulated more strictly than chemical carcinogens

  15. Environmental impact statement requirements for CNEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciurciolo, Melisa N.; Mender, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the legal framework on Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) regarding the activities of the National Atomic Energy Commission (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, CNEA), and particularly, the Procedure for Internal Management of Environmental Impact Statements of CNEA (PN-PR-027). According to the distribution of powers stated in article 41 of the National Constitution, the environmental legal framework is constituted by National minimum standards for environmental protection and complementary provincial and municipal regulations. As a result, the EIA legal framework is not uniform across the Nation, and therefore, it differs according to the jurisdiction in which the activity subject to EIA is developed. Notwithstanding, the General Statute of the Environment (25.675) requires EIA for any project or activity developed in the National territory, which may cause a significant degradation to the environment, any of its components, or affect the populations' quality of life in a significant way. Since CNEA develops activities along the National territory, it is not possible to determine a uniform legal EIA framework for the entire Institution. Consequently, the binding requirements for Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) of CNEA activities differ among the activities developed in the different locations and atomic centers. In order to achieve a uniform environmental performance in CNEA, it has been considered necessary to uniform, in the internal sphere, the binding requirements for EIS, by means of a procedure written within the framework of the Environmental Management System of the Institution. The purpose of the Procedure for Internal Management of Environmental Impact Statements is to determine the requirements to be complied by the atomic centers, locations and enterprises associated with CNEA, regarding EIS Management. This Procedure shall apply to those projects and activities subjected to EIA, according to a

  16. Biological and Environmental Research Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaji, V. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Earth Science Grid Federation (ESGF); Boden, Tom [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cowley, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dart, Eli [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Dattoria, Vince [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Desai, Narayan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Egan, Rob [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Foster, Ian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Goldstone, Robin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gregurick, Susan [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Biological Systems Science Division; Houghton, John [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Program; Izaurralde, Cesar [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnston, Bill [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Joseph, Renu [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Climate and Environmental Sciences Division; Kleese-van Dam, Kerstin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lipton, Mary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Monga, Inder [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Pritchard, Matt [British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC), Oxon (United Kingdom); Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Strand, Gary [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO (United States); Stuart, Cory [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tatusova, Tatiana [National Inst. of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD (United States); Tierney, Brian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Thomas, Brian [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zurawski, Jason [Internet2, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In November 2012, ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the DOE SC organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the BER program office. Several key findings resulted from the review. Among them: 1) The scale of data sets available to science collaborations continues to increase exponentially. This has broad impact, both on the network and on the computational and storage systems connected to the network. 2) Many science collaborations require assistance to cope with the systems and network engineering challenges inherent in managing the rapid growth in data scale. 3) Several science domains operate distributed facilities that rely on high-performance networking for success. Key examples illustrated in this report include the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) and the Systems Biology Knowledgebase (KBase). This report expands on these points, and addresses others as well. The report contains a findings section as well as the text of the case studies discussed at the review.

  17. 7 CFR 1948.62 - Environmental impact requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Environmental impact requirements. 1948.62 Section... Development Assistance Program § 1948.62 Environmental impact requirements. (a) The policies and regulations... studied for environmental impacts. (c) Boundaries shall define the area within which the environmental...

  18. Meeting Environmental Requirements after a Bridge Collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This report is intended to assist transportation and environmental professionals in the event of a bridge collapse or similar emergency. It analyzes the environmental review process in five cases of bridge reconstruction following collapse in Florida...

  19. 7 CFR 2201.16 - Environmental requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... prepared environmental reports or data relevant to the Loan at issue; (C) Any environmental review prepared... contrary action. (ii) Subject to the limitations in paragraph (c)(4)(iii) of this section, the actions... decision making “utilize a systematic, interdisciplinary approach that will ensure the integrated use of...

  20. 13 CFR 400.206 - Environmental requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... information; (B) Any previously prepared environmental reports or data relevant to the loan at issue; (C) Any...) Subject to the limitations in paragraph (c)(4)(iii) of this section, the actions described in this... approach that will ensure the integrated use of the natural and social sciences and the environmental...

  1. 25 CFR 166.313 - Is environmental compliance required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Operations Management Management Plans and Environmental Compliance § 166.313 Is environmental... on Environmental Quality (40 CFR part 1500), and applicable tribal laws and regulations. Conservation... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is environmental compliance required? 166.313 Section 166...

  2. Why do shareholders require corporate environmental disclosure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charl de Villiers

    2010-12-01

    Shareholders prefer this information in a separate section of the annual report and on company websites. Shareholders want such disclosure to be prescribed by law and/or stock exchange rules. The most popular reason why they want environmental information disclosed, is to hold companies accountable for their environmental stewardship. A high percentage of shareholders also indicate that they want disclosure, because they are concerned about climate change. These findings imply that legislators and standard setters may have to consider changing disclosure laws and standards.

  3. 10 CFR 51.41 - Requirement to submit environmental information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement to submit environmental information. 51.41 Section 51.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations...

  4. 40 CFR 35.3580 - Environmental review requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental review requirements. 35.3580 Section 35.3580 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Drinking Water State Revolving Funds § 35.3580 Environmental review...

  5. 22 CFR 161.11 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements. 161.11 Section 161.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) Coordination of Other Requirements... comments. (d) Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act, 16 U.S.C. 661 et seq. (e) Section 309 of the Clean Air...

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of proteins involved in the stringent response in plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Doshun; Ihara, Yuta; Nishihara, Hidenori; Masuda, Shinji

    2017-07-01

    The nucleotide (p)ppGpp is a second messenger that controls the stringent response in bacteria. The stringent response modifies expression of a large number of genes and metabolic processes and allows bacteria to survive under fluctuating environmental conditions. Recent genome sequencing analyses have revealed that genes responsible for the stringent response are also found in plants. These include (p)ppGpp synthases and hydrolases, RelA/SpoT homologs (RSHs), and the pppGpp-specific phosphatase GppA/Ppx. However, phylogenetic relationship between enzymes involved in bacterial and plant stringent responses is as yet generally unclear. Here, we investigated the origin and evolution of genes involved in the stringent response in plants. Phylogenetic analysis and primary structures of RSH homologs from different plant phyla (including Embryophyta, Charophyta, Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and Glaucophyta) indicate that RSH gene families were introduced into plant cells by at least two independent lateral gene transfers from the bacterial Deinococcus-Thermus phylum and an unidentified bacterial phylum; alternatively, they were introduced into a proto-plant cell by a lateral gene transfer from the endosymbiotic cyanobacterium followed by gene loss of an ancestral RSH gene in the cyanobacterial linage. Phylogenetic analysis of gppA/ppx families indicated that plant gppA/ppx homologs form an individual cluster in the phylogenetic tree, and show a sister relationship with some bacterial gppA/ppx homologs. Although RSHs contain a plastidial transit peptide at the N terminus, GppA/Ppx homologs do not, suggesting that plant GppA/Ppx homologs function in the cytosol. These results reveal that a proto-plant cell obtained genes for the stringent response by lateral gene transfer events from different bacterial phyla and have utilized them to control metabolism in plastids and the cytosol.

  7. Environmental and nutritional requirements for tea cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajiboland Roghieh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis is an important beverage crop cultivated in the tropics and subtropics under acid soil conditions. Increased awareness of the health-promoting properties of the tea beverage has led to an increase in its level of consumption over the last decades. Tea production contributes significantly to the economy of several tea-cultivating countries in Asia and Africa. Environmental constrains, particularly water deficiency due to inadequate and/or poorly distributed rainfall, seriously limit tea production in the majority of tea-producing countries. It is also predicted that global climate change will have a considerable adverse impact on tea production in the near future. Application of fertilizers for higher production and increased quality and quantity of tea is a common agricultural practice, but due to its environmental consequences, such as groundwater pollution, the rate of fertilizer application needs to be reconsidered. Cultivation of tea under humid conditions renders it highly susceptible to pathogens and pest attacks. Application of pesticides and fungicides adversely affects the quality of tea and increases health risks of the tea beverage. Organic cultivation as an agricultural practice without using synthetic fertilizers and other chemical additives such as pesticides and fungicides is a sustainable and eco-friendly approach to producing healthy tea. A growing number of tea-producing countries are joining organic tea cultivation programmes in order to improve the quality and to maintain the health benefits of the tea produced.

  8. Environmental restoration remedial action quality assurance requirements document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cote, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    The environmental Restoration Remedial Action Quality Assurance Requirements Document (DOE/RL 90-28) defines the quality assurance program requirements for the US Department of Energy-Richland Field Office Environmental Restoration Remedial Action Program at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. This paper describes the objectives outlined in DOE/RL 90-28. The Environmental Restoration Remedial Action Program implements significant commitments made by the US Department of Energy in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order entered into with the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Environmental Protection Agency

  9. Requirements for detection of environmental crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisarić Milana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection and identification of ecological crimes requires specific, specialized knowledge of the competent authorities and the work of the police in detecting and proving involves cooperation with the competent inspection services and other organs. Of particular significance in detecting offenses of ecological criminal is timely and properly taking fisrt operation, in particular crime scene investigation and situational and reconstructive expertise. In order to find answers to the gold forensics issues when conducting investigation, and to identify, fix and secure traces and objects of the offense, it is necessary to engage experts in the appropriate field. In order found traces and objects to may be used in the criminal proceedings, they need to be processed in accordance with all the rules of criminalistics. Therefore, timely consultation between the police, the public prosecutor and the forensics are essential for the successful investigation and prosecution.

  10. The effect of increasingly stringent diagnostic criteria on sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sex differences in premorbid function and symptomatology were examined as increasingly stringent criteria for schizophrenia were applied to 182 male and 139 female . psychotic patients. The male/female ratio rose from 1.6 among those meeting the CATEGO 'broad' criteria for schizophrenia to 3.7 among those satisfying ...

  11. Circuitry linking the Csr and stringent response global regulatory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Adrianne N; Patterson-Fortin, Laura M; Vakulskas, Christopher A; Mercante, Jeffrey W; Potrykus, Katarzyna; Vinella, Daniel; Camacho, Martha I; Fields, Joshua A; Thompson, Stuart A; Georgellis, Dimitris; Cashel, Michael; Babitzke, Paul; Romeo, Tony

    2011-06-01

    CsrA protein regulates important cellular processes by binding to target mRNAs and altering their translation and/or stability. In Escherichia coli, CsrA binds to sRNAs, CsrB and CsrC, which sequester CsrA and antagonize its activity. Here, mRNAs for relA, spoT and dksA of the stringent response system were found among 721 different transcripts that copurified with CsrA. Many of the transcripts that copurified with CsrA were previously determined to respond to ppGpp and/or DksA. We examined multiple regulatory interactions between the Csr and stringent response systems. Most importantly, DksA and ppGpp robustly activated csrB/C transcription (10-fold), while they modestly activated csrA expression. We propose that CsrA-mediated regulation is relieved during the stringent response. Gel shift assays confirmed high affinity binding of CsrA to relA mRNA leader and weaker interactions with dksA and spoT. Reporter fusions, qRT-PCR and immunoblotting showed that CsrA repressed relA expression, and (p)ppGpp accumulation during stringent response was enhanced in a csrA mutant. CsrA had modest to negligible effects on dksA and spoT expression. Transcription of dksA was negatively autoregulated via a feedback loop that tended to mask CsrA effects. We propose that the Csr system fine-tunes the stringent response and discuss biological implications of the composite circuitry. © Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Environmental compliance requirements for uranium mines in northern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggit, P.; Zapantis, A.; Triggs, M.

    2001-01-01

    The current phase of uranium mining in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory of Australia began in the late 70's and is governed by a large number of legislative and administrative requirements. The primary responsibility for environmental regulation rests with the Northern Territory Government but the legislative framework is complex and involves agencies of the Commonwealth Government as well as the Aboriginal traditional owners. Two of the current uranium mining projects, Ranger and Jabiluka, are surrounded by the World Heritage listed Kakadu National Park. Thirteen former mines are located within the Park and one former mine, Nabarlek, is in the same catchment as part of the Park, in West Arnhem Land. For these reasons, environmental management at the operating mines has to be of the highest standard and environmental requirements are attached to all laws and agreements controlling the operating facilities. The paper describes the spirit and rationale behind the regulations as well as the operating details and methodology of the regulatory system in place for the operating mines. An integral part of the overall environmental protection regime is a bi-annual program of Environmental Audits and Environmental Performance Reviews and regular reporting to a stakeholder committee. Other elements include internal and external environmental auditing at the minesites as well as programs of routine monitoring, check monitoring and reporting on a scale and frequency rarely seen elsewhere. Public concern and perception is considered to be a valid issue requiring attention

  13. Environmental requirements for oil and gas operations in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystuen, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    The administration and regulation of environmental issues regarding the oil and gas industry in Saskatchewan were discussed. The political and cultural differences in Saskatchewan that make environmental processes distinct from its neighbouring jurisdictions were described. The following Saskatchewan legislation deals with environmental requirements: Environmental Management and Protection Act, Environmental Assessment Act, Oil and Gas Conservation Act, Wildlife Habitat Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Planning and Development Act, Forest Act, Water Corporation Act, Heritage Property Act, and Parks Act. The Saskatchewan Department of Energy and Mines (SEM) is the primary regulator of the upstream oil and gas industry. It regulates the construction, operation, reporting and abandonment requirements for oilfield operations. SEM also manages crude oil prior to refining and manages the wastes contaminated with crude oil. Provisions of the relevant Acts regarding drilling in environmentally sensitive areas, flaring requirements, transporting and disposing of oilfield wastes, road-building, operating restrictions, emergency response plans, spill clean-up responsibilities, well abandonment and site reclamation responsibilities were discussed. 8 refs., 2 tabs

  14. Review of orders and regulations requiring environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, E.; Cunningham, R.; Michael, D.

    1996-01-01

    With the increased awareness of and interest in potential ecological risks associated with past, current, and future Department of Energy (DOE) activities, DOE's Defense Programs (DP) Office of Technical and Environmental Support sponsored a study to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of the current compliance-driven environmental protection and assessment efforts relative to ecological concerns; (2) explore the need for a more focused, integrated approach to address ecological impacts; and (3) identify the requirements for an integrated approach. The study explored four questions. (a) Which federal regulations and DOE orders either explicitly require ecological assessments or implicitly require them through environmental protection language? (b) What currently is being done at selected DOE facilities to implement these regulations and orders? (c) What are private sector industries doing in terms of ecological risk assessments and how do industry approaches and issues compare with those of DOE? (d) What, if anything, in addition to current efforts is needed to ensure the protection of ecological resources associated with DOE facilities, to support defensible decision making, and to improve efficiency? The results of this study are presented in a report titled open-quotes Integrated, Comprehensive Ecological Impact Assessments In Support of Department of Energy Decision Makingclose quotes. This report is a companion document to that report. This report provides a more detailed discussion of the document reviews of the relevant environmental protection regulations and current and pending DOE orders. The main goal of the document reviews was to understand existing requirements for ecological data collection and impact assessments

  15. Identifying environmental safety and health requirements for an Environmental Restoration Management Contractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, W.H.; Cossel, S.C.; Alhadeff, N.; Lindamood, S.B.; Beers, J.A.

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of the Standards/Requirements Identification Program, developed partially in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 90-2, was to identify applicable requirements that established the Environmental Restoration Management Contractor's (ERMC) responsibilities and authorities under the Environmental Restoration Management Contract, determine the adequacy of these requirements, ascertain a baseline level of compliance with them, and implement a maintenance program that would keep the program current as requirements or compliance levels change. The resultant Standards/Requirements Identification Documents (S/RIDs) consolidate the applicable requirements. These documents govern the development of procedures and manuals to ensure compliance with the requirements. Twenty-four such documents, corresponding with each functional area identified at the site, are to be issued. These requirements are included in the contractor's management plan

  16. System requirements and design description for the environmental requirements management interface (ERMI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biebesheimer, E.

    1997-01-01

    This document describes system requirements and the design description for the Environmental Requirements Management Interface (ERMI). The ERMI database assists Tank Farm personnel with scheduling, planning, and documenting procedure compliance, performance verification, and selected corrective action tracking activities for Tank Farm S/RID requirements. The ERMI database was developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). This document was prepared by SAIC and edited by LMHC

  17. The Property Right and the Requirements of Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica NEGRUŢ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The environmental protection has lately become an essential component of the concept of sustainable development, along with the economic, social and cultural components. Being an objective of public interest, the environmental protection and conservation are essential to ensure the habitat necessary for continuing the human existence. Considering this aspect, the limitation of ownership required by certain laws has both a social and moral justification, the environmental protection having a direct link with the level of public health, which is a value of national interest. The legal limits of the ownership are restrictions brought by the law, considering aspects regarding the general interest of society. In this article we intend to emphasize, on the analysis and comparison of legislation and case law, the nature of the relationship between ownership of property and environmental rights, as well as the limitations of property rights in favor of environmental protection. As a conclusion, the environmental easements meet a wide national and international recognition and guarantee, the holder of the property having to exercise it in the interest of the whole community, including the protection and conservation of the environment. At the same time, we must consider that the right to property and environment are fundamental rights guaranteed by the Romanian Constitution itself, which makes us conclude that they converge and mutually enrich across the fundamental duties as well.

  18. Environmental requirements for flat plate photovoltaic modules for terrestrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The environmental test requirements that have been developed for flat plate modules purchased through Department of Energy funding are described. Concurrent with the selection of the initial qualification tests from space program experience - temperature cycling and humidity - surveys of existing photovoltaic systems in the field revealed that arrays were experiencing the following failure modes: interconnect breakage, delamination, and electrical termination corrosion. These coupled with application-dependent considerations led to the development of additional qualification tests, such as cyclic pressure loading, warped mounting surface, and hail. Rationale for the selection of tests, their levels and durations is described. Comparisons between field-observed degradation and test-induced degradation show a positive correlation with some of the observed field effects. Also, the tests are proving useful for detecting design, process, and workmanship deficiencies. The status of study efforts for the development of environmental requirements for field-related problems is reviewed.

  19. 40 CFR 158.260 - Experimental use permit data requirements for environmental fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for environmental fate. 158.260 Section 158.260 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Experimental use permit data requirements for environmental fate. All environmental fate data, as described in.... The following table shows the experimental use data requirements for environmental fate. The test...

  20. Accounting for environmental flow requirements in global water assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, A. V.; Ludwig, F.; Biemans, H.; Hoff, H.; Kabat, P.

    2014-12-01

    As the water requirement for food production and other human needs grows, quantification of environmental flow requirements (EFRs) is necessary to assess the amount of water needed to sustain freshwater ecosystems. EFRs are the result of the quantification of water necessary to sustain the riverine ecosystem, which is calculated from the mean of an environmental flow (EF) method. In this study, five EF methods for calculating EFRs were compared with 11 case studies of locally assessed EFRs. We used three existing methods (Smakhtin, Tennant, and Tessmann) and two newly developed methods (the variable monthly flow method (VMF) and the Q90_Q50 method). All methods were compared globally and validated at local scales while mimicking the natural flow regime. The VMF and the Tessmann methods use algorithms to classify the flow regime into high, intermediate, and low-flow months and they take into account intra-annual variability by allocating EFRs with a percentage of mean monthly flow (MMF). The Q90_Q50 method allocates annual flow quantiles (Q90 and Q50) depending on the flow season. The results showed that, on average, 37% of annual discharge was required to sustain environmental flow requirement. More water is needed for environmental flows during low-flow periods (46-71% of average low-flows) compared to high-flow periods (17-45% of average high-flows). Environmental flow requirements estimates from the Tennant, Q90_Q50, and Smakhtin methods were higher than the locally calculated EFRs for river systems with relatively stable flows and were lower than the locally calculated EFRs for rivers with variable flows. The VMF and Tessmann methods showed the highest correlation with the locally calculated EFRs (R2=0.91). The main difference between the Tessmann and VMF methods is that the Tessmann method allocates all water to EFRs in low-flow periods while the VMF method allocates 60% of the flow in low-flow periods. Thus, other water sectors such as irrigation can withdraw

  1. Environmental Restoration Program quality system requirements for the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cote, R.F.

    1993-11-01

    This document defines the quality system requirements for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, Environmental Restoration Program at the Hanford Site. The Quality System Requirements (OSR) for the Hanford Site integrates quality assurance requirements from the US Department of Energy Orders, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), and applicable industry standards into a single source document for the development of quality systems applicable to the Environmental Restoration Program activities. This document, based on fifteen criteria and divided intro three parts, provides user organizations with the flexibility to incorporate only those criteria and parts applicable to their specific scopes of work. The requirements of this document shall be applied to activities that affect quality based on a graded approach that takes into consideration the risk inherent in, as well as the importance of, specific items, services, and activities in terms of meeting ER Program objectives and customer expectations. The individual quality systems developed in accordance with this document are intended to provide an integrated management control system that assures the conduct of ER Program activities in a manner that protects human health and the environment

  2. 10 CFR 51.21 - Criteria for and identification of licensing and regulatory actions requiring environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY... § 51.21 Criteria for and identification of licensing and regulatory actions requiring environmental assessments. All licensing and regulatory actions subject to this subpart require an environmental assessment...

  3. 10 CFR 51.20 - Criteria for and identification of licensing and regulatory actions requiring environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY... § 51.20 Criteria for and identification of licensing and regulatory actions requiring environmental impact statements. (a) Licensing and regulatory actions requiring an environmental impact statement shall...

  4. Identifying environmental safety and health requirements for the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, W.H.; Cossel, S.C.; Alhadeff, N.; Lindamood, S.B.; Beers, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation will describe the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation's (FERMCO) Standards/Requirements Identification Documents (S/RlDs) Program, the unique process used to implement it, and the status of the program. We will also discuss the lessons learned as the program was implemented. The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Fernald site to produce uranium metals for the nation's defense programs in 1953. In 1989, DOE suspended production and, in 1991, the mission of the site was formally changed to one of environmental cleanup and restoration. The site was renamed the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). FERMCO's mission is to provide safe, early, and least-cost final clean-up of the site in compliance with all regulations and commitments. DOE has managed nuclear facilities primarily through its oversight of Management and Operating contractors. Comprehensive nuclear industry standards were absent when most DOE sites were first established, Management and Operating contractors had to apply existing non-nuclear industry standards and, in many cases, formulate new technical standards. Because it was satisfied with the operation of its facilities, DOE did not incorporate modern practices and standards as they became available. In March 1990, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued Recommendation 90-2, which called for DOE to identify relevant standards and requirements, conduct adequacy assessments of requirements in protecting environmental, public, and worker health and safety, and determine the extent to which the requirements are being implemented. The Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of DOE embraced the recommendation for facilities under its control. Strict accountability requirements made it essential that FERMCO and DOE clearly identify applicable requirements necessary, determine the requirements' adequacy, and assess FERMCO's level of compliance

  5. Comparison of urine iodine/creatinine ratio between patients following stringent and less stringent low iodine diet for radioiodine remnant ablation of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Jee Ho; Kim, Byung Il; Ha, Ji Su; Chang, Sei Joong; Shin, Hye Young; Choi, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Do Min; Kim, Chong Soon

    2006-01-01

    A low iodine diet (LID) for 1 ∼ 2 weeks is recommended for patients who undergoing radioiodine remnant ablation. However, the LID educations for patients are different among centers because there is no concrete recommendation for protocol of LID. In this investigation, we compared two representative types of LID protocols performed in several centers in Korea using urine iodine to creatinine tatio (urine I/Cr). From 2006, April to June, patients referred to our center for radioiodine remnant ablation of thyroid cancer from several local hospitals which had different LID protocols were included. We divided into two groups, stringent LID for 1 week and less stringent LID for 2 weeks, then measured their urine I/Cr ratio with spot urine when patients were admitted to the hospital. Total 27 patients were included in this investigation (M:F = 1:26; 13 in one-week stringent LID; 14 in two-week less stringent LID). Average of urine I/Cr ratio was 127.87 ± 78.52 μ g/g in stringent LID for 1 week, and 289.75 ± 188.24 μ g/g in less stringent LID for 2 weeks. It was significantly lower in stringent LID for 1 week group (ρ = 0.008). The number of patients whose urine I/Cr ratios were below 100 μ g/g was 6 of 13 in stringent LID for 1 week group, and 3 of 14 in less stringent LID for 2 weeks group. Stringent LID for 1 week resulted in better urinary I/Cr ratio in our investigation compared with the other protocol. However it still resulted in plenty of inadequate range of I/Cr ratio, so more stringent protocol such as stringent LID for 2 weeks is expected more desirable

  6. Environmental management requirements/defensible costs project. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) used a systems engineering approach to develop the first formal requirements baseline for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Environmental Management (EM) Programs. The recently signed Settlement Agreement with the State of Idaho (Batt Agreement), along with dramatically reduced EM funding targets from Department of Energy (DOE) headquarters, drove the immediacy of this effort. Programs have linked top-level requirements to work scope to cost estimates. All EM work, grouped by decision units, was scrubbed by INEL EM programs and by an independent open-quotes Murder Board.close quotes Direct participation of upper level management from LITCO and the DOE-Idaho Operations Office ensured best information and decisions. The result is a scrubbed down, defensible budget tied to top-level requirements for use in the upcoming DOE-Headquarters' budget workout, the Internal Review Board, the FY98 Activity Data Sheets submittal, and preparation of the FY97 control accounts and out-year plans. In addition to the remarkable accomplishments during the past eight weeks, major issues were identified and documented and follow-on tasks are underway which will lead to further improvements in INEL EM program management

  7. Defining environmental river flow requirements – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Acreman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Around the world, there is an increasing desire, supported by national and regional policies and legislation, to conserve or restore the ecological health and functioning of rivers and their associated wetlands for human use and biodiversity. To achieve this, many organisations have developed methods for defining “environmental flows‿, i.e. the flow regime required in a river to achieve desired ecological objectives. This paper reviews the various methods available and suggests a simple categorisation of the methods into four types: look-up tables, desk-top analysis; functional analysis and hydraulic habitat modelling. No method is necessarily better than another; each may be suitable for different applications. Whilst look-up methods are easy and cheap to apply, they can be expensive to develop, are less accurate and more suitable for scoping studies; in contrast, although hydraulic habitat modelling is more expensive to apply, it is suitable for impact assessment at specific sites. Each method would need to be used within a wider decision-support framework. These are generally either objective-based to define a target flow regime for a specific desired river status, or scenario-based to indicate the relative merits of various flow regime options for the river environment. Keywords: environmental flow, instream flow, river habitat modelling, building block method, flow scenario analysis, objective setting.

  8. 32 CFR 651.10 - Actions requiring environmental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) National Environmental Policy Act and..., renewal, or amendment), in accordance with AR 95-50. (f) Materiel development, operation and support... engineering, laser testing, and electromagnetic pulse generation. (i) Leases, easements, permits, licenses, or...

  9. Role of the Stringent Stress Response in the Antibiotic Resistance Phenotype of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedo, Sandra; Tomasz, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus(MRSA) requires the presence of an acquired genetic determinant,mecAormecC, which encode penicillin-binding protein PBP2A or PBP2A', respectively. Although all MRSA strains share a mechanism of resistance, the phenotypic expression of beta-lactam resistance shows considerable strain-to-strain variation. The stringent stress response, a stress response that results from nutrient limitation, was shown to play a key role in determining the resistance level of an MRSA strain. In the present study, we validated the impact of the stringent stress response on transcription and translation ofmecAin the MRSA clinical isolate strain N315, which also carries known regulatory genes (mecI/mecR1/mecR2andblaI/blaR1) formecAtranscription. We showed that the impact of the stringent stress response on the resistance level may be restricted to beta-lactam resistance based on a "foreign" determinant such asmecA, as opposed to resistance based on mutations in the nativeS. aureusdeterminantpbpB(encoding PBP2). Our observations demonstrate that high-level resistance mediated by the stringent stress response follows the current model of beta-lactam resistance in which the native PBP2 protein is also essential for expression of the resistance phenotype. We also show that theStaphylococcus sciuri pbpDgene (also calledmecAI), the putative evolutionary precursor ofmecA, confers oxacillin resistance in anS. aureusstrain, generating a heterogeneous phenotype that can be converted to high and homogenous resistance by induction of the stringent stress response in the bacteria. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. The future of irrigated agriculture under environmental flow requirements restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Amandine; Palazzo, Amanda; Havlik, Petr; Kabat, Pavel; Obersteiner, Michael; Ludwig, Fulco

    2016-04-01

    Water is not an infinite resource and demand from irrigation, household and industry is constantly increasing. This study focused on including global water availability including environmental flow requirements with water withdrawal from irrigation and other sectors at a monthly time-step in the GLOBIOM model. This model allows re-adjustment of land-use allocation, crop management, consumption and international trade. The GLOBIOM model induces an endogenous change in water price depending on water supply and demand. In this study, the focus was on how the inclusion of water resources affects land-use and, in particular, how global change will influence repartition of irrigated and rainfed lands at global scale. We used the climate change scenario including a radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m2 (RCP8.5), the socio-economic scenario (SSP2: middle-of-road), and the environmental flow method based on monthly flow allocation (the Variable Monthly Flow method) with high and low restrictions. Irrigation withdrawals were adjusted to a monthly time-step to account for biophysical water limitations at finer time resolution. Our results show that irrigated land might decrease up to 40% on average depending on the choice of EFR restrictions. Several areas were identified as future hot-spots of water stress such as the Mediterranean and Middle-East regions. Other countries were identified to be in safe position in terms of water stress such as North-European countries. Re-allocation of rainfed and irrigated land might be useful information for land-use planners and water managers at an international level to decide on appropriate legislations on climate change mitigation/adaptation when exposure and sensitivity to climate change is high and/or on adaptation measures to face increasing water demand. For example, some countries are likely to adopt measures to increase their water use efficiencies (irrigation system, soil and water conservation practices) to face water shortages, while

  11. 40 CFR 35.3140 - Environmental review requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3140 Environmental... nonpoint source pollution control (section 319) and estuary protection (section 320) projects that are also... project is environmentally sound; (ii) The legal remedies available to the public to challenge...

  12. 33 CFR 230.25 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... listing of environmental laws and orders is contained in table 3.4.3 of Economic and Environmental... Major Federal Actions, 4 January 1979. For general policy guidance, see Federal Register of April 12... Commission (IJC) or the International Boundary and Water Commission, United States and Mexico (IBWC) is...

  13. Climate Change and Requirement of Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mahatab

    Technology and policy play a twofold role in international environmental laws. Stronger environmental policies encourage new green technologies and likewise, better technologies make it easier to regulate. “Technology transfer” refers to the transfer from one party, an association or institution...... that developed the technology, to another that adopts, adapts, and uses it. As different kinds of threats posed by climate change are continuously increasing all over the world the issue of “technology transfer” especially the transfer of environmentally sound technologies has become one of the key topics...... of international environmental debates. This thesis addresses, firstly, the possible methods of technology transfer and secondly, how current international environmental laws play its role to facilitate the transfer. Accordingly, I have focused on the concerned provisions of Kyoto Protocol and its subsequent...

  14. 7 CFR 3407.8 - Actions normally requiring an environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 3407.8 Actions normally requiring an environmental impact statement. An... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actions normally requiring an environmental impact... will significantly affect the quality of the human environment, including those specified in § 3407.6(b). ...

  15. 14 CFR 1216.305 - Criteria for actions requiring environmental assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... environmental assessments. 1216.305 Section 1216.305 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Procedures for Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Agency Procedures § 1216.305 Criteria for actions requiring environmental assessments. (a) Whether a...

  16. 78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water... ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources Implementation... Secretary of the Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and...

  17. 40 CFR 158.1300 - Environmental fate data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... paddies. 6. Adsorption and desorption using a batch equilibrium method is preferred. However in some cases... transformation products. 7. Environmental chemistry methods used to generate data associated with this study must...

  18. Climate Change and Requirement of Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, Mahatab

    2011-01-01

    Technology and policy play a twofold role in international environmental laws. Stronger environmental policies encourage new green technologies and likewise, better technologies make it easier to regulate. “Technology transfer” refers to the transfer from one party, an association or institution that developed the technology, to another that adopts, adapts, and uses it. As different kinds of threats posed by climate change are continuously increasing all over the world the issue of “technolog...

  19. 40 CFR 161.290 - Environmental fate data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES Data Requirement Tables...] [R] [R] [R] [R] TGAI or PAIRA TGAI or PAIRA 161-1 Photodegradation: In water R R R R R TGAI or PAIRA... has been conducted. AAA(4) Required if pesticide residues do not readily dissipate in soil. AAA(5...

  20. Bulk Fuel Storage Requirements for Maintenance, Repair, and Environmental Projects at Fort Hood, Texas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carros, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    This report is one in a series that addresses the accuracy and reliability of maintenance, repair, environmental, and construction requirements for bulk fuel storage and delivery systems infrastructure...

  1. Synthetic Peptides to Target Stringent Response-Controlled Virulence in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Murine Cutaneous Infection Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pletzer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms continuously monitor their surroundings and adaptively respond to environmental cues. One way to cope with various stress-related situations is through the activation of the stringent stress response pathway. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa this pathway is controlled and coordinated by the activity of the RelA and SpoT enzymes that metabolize the small nucleotide secondary messenger molecule (pppGpp. Intracellular ppGpp concentrations are crucial in mediating adaptive responses and virulence. Targeting this cellular stress response has recently been the focus of an alternative approach to fight antibiotic resistant bacteria. Here, we examined the role of the stringent response in the virulence of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and the Liverpool epidemic strain LESB58. A ΔrelA/ΔspoT double mutant showed decreased cytotoxicity toward human epithelial cells, exhibited reduced hemolytic activity, and caused down-regulation of the expression of the alkaline protease aprA gene in stringent response mutants grown on blood agar plates. Promoter fusions of relA or spoT to a bioluminescence reporter gene revealed that both genes were expressed during the formation of cutaneous abscesses in mice. Intriguingly, virulence was attenuated in vivo by the ΔrelA/ΔspoT double mutant, but not the relA mutant nor the ΔrelA/ΔspoT complemented with either gene. Treatment of a cutaneous P. aeruginosa PAO1 infection with anti-biofilm peptides increased animal welfare, decreased dermonecrotic lesion sizes, and reduced bacterial numbers recovered from abscesses, resembling the phenotype of the ΔrelA/ΔspoT infection. It was previously demonstrated by our lab that ppGpp could be targeted by synthetic peptides; here we demonstrated that spoT promoter activity was suppressed during cutaneous abscess formation by treatment with peptides DJK-5 and 1018, and that a peptide-treated relA complemented stringent response double mutant strain exhibited reduced peptide

  2. 10 CFR 51.94 - Requirement to consider final environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement to consider final environmental impact statement. 51.94 Section 51.94 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act...

  3. 36 CFR 223.30 - Consistency with plans, environmental standards, and other management requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., environmental standards, and other management requirements. 223.30 Section 223.30 Parks, Forests, and Public... land and resource management plans and environmental quality standards and includes, as appropriate... Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.30 Consistency with plans, environmental...

  4. 38 CFR Appendix C to Part 200 - Actions Requiring Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Environmental Impact Statement C Appendix C to Part 200 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief ARMED FORCES RETIREMENT HOME COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Pt. 200, App. C Appendix C to Part 200—Actions Requiring Environmental Impact Statement The following actions are considered to be major Federal...

  5. 40 CFR 6.201 - Coordination with other environmental review requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coordination with other environmental review requirements. 6.201 Section 6.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... EFFECTS ABROAD OF EPA ACTIONS EPA's NEPA Environmental Review Procedures § 6.201 Coordination with other...

  6. Rapid species responses to changes in climate require stringent climate protection targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van A.J.H.; Leemans, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change book consolidates the scientific findings of the Exeter conference and gives an account of the most recent developments on critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, emission pathways and

  7. Managing Campus Energy: Compromising between Rapid Needs and Environmental Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambariyanto, Ambariyanto; Utama, Yos J.; Purwanto

    2018-02-01

    The utilization of energy, especially electricity at Diponegoro University campus continues to increase in line with the development of the university. This increase has a direct impact on the increased costs to be paid by the university. Some of the causes of increased utilization of electrical energy is the construction of new buildings to meet the needs, increased learning activities and education, research activities in the laboratory, and various other activities. On the other hand, the increase of energy utilization is considered not good from the environment point of view, especially the utilization of electrical energy coming from non sustainable resources. Efforts to compromise on both are to develop policies in developing environmentally friendly buildings, efficiency in utilization of electrical energy, and development of sustainable energy sources.

  8. The Deployment of Product-Related Environmental Legislation into Product Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela C. A. Pigosso

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental legislation is increasingly changing its focus from manufacturing-oriented to product-oriented instruments. Compliance with product-related environmental legislation is achieved by the incorporation of environmental requirements into the early phases of the product development process (PDP. Nevertheless, the deployment of product-related environmental legislation into product requirements is still a challenge. This study followed an inductive approach to propose a guideline to support the identification, analysis and deployment of product requirements based on product-related environmental legislation. The guideline is composed of nine steps, clustered into three groups according to their main objective: (A identification of environmental product-related legislation; (B identification of legislative topics to be considered for the deployment of requirements; and (C creation and validation of product requirements. The product requirements deployed are to be considered during the PDP. The guideline was evaluated in an expert consultation in a large manufacturing company, suggesting that it can be used to support the systematization and deployment of product-related environmental requirements.

  9. Adaptation to fluctuating temperatures in an RNA virus is driven by the most stringent selective pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Arribas

    Full Text Available The frequency of change in the selective pressures is one of the main factors driving evolution. It is generally accepted that constant environments select specialist organisms whereas changing environments favour generalists. The particular outcome achieved in either case also depends on the relative strength of the selective pressures and on the fitness costs of mutations across environments. RNA viruses are characterized by their high genetic diversity, which provides fast adaptation to environmental changes and helps them evade most antiviral treatments. Therefore, the study of the adaptive possibilities of RNA viruses is highly relevant for both basic and applied research. In this study we have evolved an RNA virus, the bacteriophage Qβ, under three different temperatures that either were kept constant or alternated periodically. The populations obtained were analyzed at the phenotypic and the genotypic level to characterize the evolutionary process followed by the virus in each case and the amount of convergent genetic changes attained. Finally, we also investigated the influence of the pre-existent genetic diversity on adaptation to high temperature. The main conclusions that arise from our results are: i under periodically changing temperature conditions, evolution of bacteriophage Qβ is driven by the most stringent selective pressure, ii there is a high degree of evolutionary convergence between replicated populations and also among populations evolved at different temperatures, iii there are mutations specific of a particular condition, and iv adaptation to high temperatures in populations differing in their pre-existent genetic diversity takes place through the selection of a common set of mutations.

  10. Rapid Curtailing of the Stringent Response by Toxin-Antitoxin Encoded mRNases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Chengzhe; Roghanian, Mohammad; Jørgensen, Mikkel Girke

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli regulates its metabolism to adapt to changes in the environment, in particular to stressful downshifts in nutrient quality. Such shifts elicit the so-called stringent response coordinated by the alarmone guanosine tetra- and pentaphosphate [(p)ppGpp]. At sudden amino-acid (aa......RNase-encoding TA modules present in the wt strain. This observation suggested that toxins are part of the negative feedback to control the (p)ppGpp level during early stringent response. We built a ribosome trafficking model to evaluate the fold of increase in the RelA activity just after the onset of aa...... %. IMPORTANCE: The early stringent response elicited by amino-acid starvation is controlled by a sharp increase of the cellular (p)ppGpp level. Toxin-antitoxin encoded mRNases are activated by (p)ppGpp through enhanced degradation of antitoxins. The present work shows that this activation happens at a very...

  11. 40 CFR 158.2060 - Biochemical pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides nontarget... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2060 Biochemical pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data...

  12. 40 CFR 158.2150 - Microbial pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides nontarget... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2150 Microbial pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data...

  13. 36 CFR 223.218 - Consistency with plans, environmental standards, and other management requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., environmental standards, and other management requirements. 223.218 Section 223.218 Parks, Forests, and Public... Special Forest Products § 223.218 Consistency with plans, environmental standards, and other management... with applicable land management plans. Each contract, permit, or other authorizing instrument shall...

  14. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air conditioning environmental test... conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements. The goal of an air conditioning test facility is... elements that are discussed are ambient air temperature and humidity, minimum test cell size, solar heating...

  15. Users' Requirements for Environmental Effects From Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems and Their Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreter, M.; Gray, M.; Falck, E.; Bonne, A.; Bell, M.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) is to support the safe, sustainable, economic and proliferation resistant use of nuclear technology to meet the needs of the 21. century. The first part of the project focusses on the development of an understanding of the requirements of possible users of innovative concepts for reactors and fuel cycle applications. This paper reports progress made on the identification of user requirements as they relate to the environment and environmental protection. The user requirements being formulated are intended to limit adverse environmental effects from the different facilities involved in the nuclear fuel cycles to be well below maximum acceptable levels. To determine if the user requirements are met, it is necessary to identify those factors that are relevant to assessment of the environmental performance of innovative nuclear systems. To this effect, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the Material Flow accounting (MFA) methodologies are being appraised for the suitability for application. This paper develops and provides the rationale for the 'users' requirements' as they are currently defined. Existing Environmental Impact Assessment and Materials Flow Accounting methodologies that can be applied to determine whether or not innovative technologies conform to the User Requirements are briefly described. It is concluded that after establishing fundamental principles, it is possible to formulate sets of general and specific users' requirements against which, the potential adverse environmental effects to be expected from innovative nuclear energy systems (INES) can be assessed. The application of these users' requirements should keep the adverse environmental effects from INES's within acceptable limits. (authors)

  16. The stringent response regulates adaptation to darkness in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Rachel D; Higgins, Sean A; Flamholz, Avi; Nichols, Robert J; Savage, David F

    2016-08-16

    The cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus relies upon photosynthesis to drive metabolism and growth. During darkness, Synechococcus stops growing, derives energy from its glycogen stores, and greatly decreases rates of macromolecular synthesis via unknown mechanisms. Here, we show that the stringent response, a stress response pathway whose genes are conserved across bacteria and plant plastids, contributes to this dark adaptation. Levels of the stringent response alarmone guanosine 3'-diphosphate 5'-diphosphate (ppGpp) rise after a shift from light to dark, indicating that darkness triggers the same response in cyanobacteria as starvation in heterotrophic bacteria. High levels of ppGpp are sufficient to stop growth and dramatically alter many aspects of cellular physiology, including levels of photosynthetic pigments and polyphosphate, DNA content, and the rate of translation. Cells unable to synthesize ppGpp display pronounced growth defects after exposure to darkness. The stringent response regulates expression of a number of genes in Synechococcus, including ribosomal hibernation promoting factor (hpf), which causes ribosomes to dimerize in the dark and may contribute to decreased translation. Although the metabolism of Synechococcus differentiates it from other model bacterial systems, the logic of the stringent response remains remarkably conserved, while at the same time having adapted to the unique stresses of the photosynthetic lifestyle.

  17. Structural characterization of the stringent response related exopolyphosphatase/guanosine pentaphosphate phosphohydrolase protein family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ole; Laurberg, Martin; Liljas, Anders

    2004-01-01

    Exopolyphosphatase/guanosine pentaphosphate phosphohydrolase (PPX/GPPA) enzymes play central roles in the bacterial stringent response induced by starvation. The high-resolution crystal structure of the putative Aquifex aeolicus PPX/GPPA phosphatase from the actin-like ATPase domain superfamily h...

  18. Potential impact of environmental requirements on petroleum products derived from synthetic crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Fuel quality proposals regarding gasoline and diesel fuels were discussed. Strict regulations on air emissions will mean changes in transportation fuel specifications which will ultimately impact on the refining industry. As fuel quality requirements become more stringent, refiners will need to look more closely at increasing the use of Canadian synthetic crude as a refinery feed. The fuel quality specifications with the potentially highest impact for the continued use of synthetic crude are those relating to sulphur, aromatics (including benzene), and olefins in gasoline and sulphur, aromatics and cetane in diesel fuel. Synthetic crude has an advantage in terms of gasoline sulphur content. The FCC feed is at a low enough sulphur level to result in gasoline components that would allow refiners to meet final gasoline sulphur levels of less than 100 ppm. In either case, synthetic middle distillate must be upgraded. Options that face the synthetic crude and refining industries are: (1) synthetic crude producers may install the process equipment needed to upgrade the middle distillate portion of their synthetic crude stream, (2) refiners may install equipment to upgrade just the diesel fuel portion of the middle distillate pool and jet fuel, and (3) a joint effort may be made by the two industries. The National Centre for Upgrading Technology (NCUT) and the Western Research Centre of Natural Resources Canada will continue to assist with research into improved catalysts for hydrotreating of middle distillates, and new lower cost processes for upgrading middle distillates from synthetic and conventional crude oils to meet future product requirements. 5 refs., 1 tab

  19. Meeting the requirements for a DOE environmental restoration project. The Fernald strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanoss, R.L.; Risenhoover, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental Restoration (ER) of five Operable Units (OU) at Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) includes compliance with the requirements of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA), National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and DOE Orders. Each regulatory driver has differing procedural requirements for documenting calculations, decisions, and actions involved in site cleanup. Integration of documentation and avoidance of duplication can save time and money. Such savings are being achieved by OU specific application of supporting studies, revised procedures, and guidance documents. Each OU is seeking appropriate opportunities to produce single documents that simultaneously fulfill the important requirements of the other regulations and DOE orders. These opportunities are evaluated at all phases of decision making, remedial design, and remedial action. Three essential processes precede environmental restoration/remedial action at a DOE site/project: 1. Completion of decision-making documents required by governing or applicable statutes. 2. Completion of important scientific and engineering analyses of remedial alternatives, and design and implementation of the remedial solution established in the CERCLA Record of Decision (ROD). 3. Preparation of DOE-mandated documentation to record engineering evaluations and cost estimates required for budgeting, decision making, and project management. Methodology and requirements for each process have developed from long, successful practice, but independently of each other. FERMCO, as new DOE contractor at Fernald and first Environmental Restoration Management Contractor (ERMC), is committed to a process of Continuous Performance Improvement (CPI). A major reevaluation of documentation and processes for support of environmental decision-making and design of cleanup activities to remediate the five OUs at the FEMP is being undertaken

  20. Environmental assessment requirements and process for hydroelectric rehabilitation in Ontario Hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental assessment (EA) requirements for modifications to Ontario Hydro's hydroelectric generating stations were reviewed. The environmental assessment requirements put forward by the Ministry of Natural Resources for modifications and upgrading of stations were described. The 3 main phases of the EA planning process i.e. (1) the concept stage, involving early feasibility studies, (2) the environmental assessment, external consultation and preliminary engineering investigations stage, and (3) project implementation and monitoring phase, were highlighted.. Screening mechanisms and means for EA harmonization of projects were discussed. The jurisdictions of the federal Environmental Assessment Review Process and the provincial EA processes were compared with regard to their application to hydroelectric rehabilitation. It was concluded thatat the federal and provincial regulatory levels harmonization efforts have been successful in avoiding duplication. . 5 figs

  1. 10 CFR 503.23 - Inability to comply with applicable environmental requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., OFE's decision will be based solely on an analysis of the petitioner's capacity to physically achieve... equipment; (ii) contracts signed, if any, for an alternate fuel supply and for the purchase and installation... inability to comply with applicable environmental requirements; (8) No alternate power supply exists, as...

  2. EU environmental requirements for energy sectors and their implications on promotion of renewable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streimikiene, D.; Bubeliene, J.

    2004-01-01

    The article deals with the main EU (European Union) environmental requirements to energy sector introduced by EU directives. Promotion of use of renewable energy sources are among priorities of EU energy policy because use of renewable energy source has positive impact on energy security, climate change mitigation and energy efficiency increase

  3. 25 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D - Cultural Resource and Environmental Requirements for the IRR Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cultural Resource and Environmental Requirements for the... LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian Reservation Roads Program Facilities Pt. 170, Subpt. D, App. A Appendix A to Subpart D—Cultural Resource and...

  4. User requirements for the Harmonization of Environmental Measurement Information System HEMIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crain, I.K.

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to define as much as possible, the functional requirements of the potential main users of the Harmonization of Environmental Measurement Information System, HEMIS. The resulting report is to be used as a basis for a rapid decision on technical approaches to system development, planning of schedule and costs, and to guide the system development and implementation process

  5. 40 CFR 1502.4 - Major Federal actions requiring the preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Major Federal actions requiring the preparation of environmental impact statements. 1502.4 Section 1502.4 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON..., could significantly affect the quality of the human environment. Statements shall be prepared on such...

  6. International evaluation of current and future requirements for environmental engineering education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenroth, E; Daigger, G T; Ledin, A; Keller, J

    2004-01-01

    The field of environmental engineering is developing as a result of changing environmental requirements. In response, environmental engineering education (E3) needs to ensure that it provides students with the necessary tools to address these challenges. In this paper the current status and future development of E3 is evaluated based on a questionnaire sent to universities and potential employers of E3 graduates. With increasing demands on environmental quality, the complexity of environmental engineering problems to be solved can be expected to increase. To find solutions environmental engineers will need to work in interdisciplinary teams. Based on the questionnaire there was a broad agreement that the best way to prepare students for these future challenges is to provide them with a fundamental education in basic sciences and related engineering fields. Many exciting developments in the environmental engineering profession will be located at the interface between engineering, science, and society. Aspects of all three areas need to be included in E3 and the student needs to be exposed to the tensions associated with linking the three.

  7. A new approach to determine the environmental qualification requirements for the safety related equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasnaoui, C.; Parent, G.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the environmental qualification of safety related equipment is to ensure that the plant defense-in-depth is not compromised by common mode failures following design basis accidents with a harsh environment. A new approach based on safety functions has been developed to determine what safety-related equipment is required to function during and after a design basis accident, as well as their environmental qualification requirements. The main feature of this approach is to use auxiliary safety functions established from safety requirements as credited in the safety analyses. This approach is undertaken in three steps: identification of the auxiliary safety functions of each main safety function; determination of the main equipment groups required for each auxiliary safety function; and review of the safety analyses for design basis accidents in order to determine the credited auxiliary safety functions and their mission times for each accident scenario. Some of the benefits of the proposed approach for the determination of the safety environmental qualification requirements are: a systematic approach for the review of safety analyses based on a safety function check list, and the insurance, with the availability of the safety functions, that Gentilly-2 defense-in-depth would not be compromised by design basis accidents with a harsh environment. (author)

  8. Assessing data quality for a federal environmental restoration project: Rationalizing the requirements of multiple clients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiszka, V.R.; Carlsen, T.M.

    1994-07-01

    Most environmental restoration projects at federal facilities face the difficult task of melding the quality assurance (QA) requirements of multiple clients, as well as dealing with historical data that are often of unknown quality. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we have successfully integrated the requirements of our multiple clients by carefully developing a QA program that efficiently meets our clients' needs. The Site 300 Experimental Test Site is operated by LLNL in support of its national defense program. The responsibility for conducting environmental contaminant investigations and restoration at Site 300 is vested in the Site 300 Environmental Restoration Project (Site 300 ERP) of LLNL's Environmental Restoration Division. LLNL Site 300 ERP must comply with the QA requirements of several clients, which include: the LLNL Environmental Protection Department, the DOE, the US Environmental Protection Agency-Region IX (EPA), the California Regional Water Quality Control Board -- Central Valley Region, and the California Department of Toxic Substances Control. This comprehensive QA program was used to determine the acceptability of historical data. The Site 300 ERP began soil and ground water investigations in 1982. However, we did not begin receiving analytical quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) data until 1989; therefore, the pre-1989 data that were collected are of unknown quality. The US EPA QAMS-005/80 defines data quality as the totality of features and characteristics of data that bears on its ability to satisfy a given purpose. In the current context, the characteristics of major importance are accuracy, precision, completeness, representativeness, and comparability. Using our established QA program, we determined the quality of this historical data based on its comparability to the post-1989 data. By accepting this historical data, we were able to save a considerable amount of money in recharacterization costs

  9. Implementation of requirements of environmental management (ISO 14000) for the decommissioning of the heavy water plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Maria I.; Otero de Eppenstein, Marta; Tosi, Lidia E.; Sabio, Manuel

    2000-01-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) of Argentina has a project of decommissioning in the heavy water plant (Planta Experimental de Agua Pesada - PEAP). The aim of this project is to get some experience for decommissioning of nuclear plants and to achieve knowledge about the application of the requirements in environmental management. The project is being carried out according to ISO 14001 standards 'Environmental Management Systems'. The objectives were taken from the model without any expectation of achieving the complete implementation or certification of the system. This report is a description of the acts that have been done. (author)

  10. Production of environmentally friendly aerated concrete with required construction and operational properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkach Evgeniya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of these studies is to justify the feasibility of recycling different types of industrial waste instead of conventional expensive raw materials in production of environmentally friendly aerated concrete with required construction and operational properties. The impact of wastes from various industries on the environmental condition of affected areas, as well as the results of their environmental assessment were analyzed to determine whether these wastes could be used in production of high-performance building materials. The assessment of industrial wastes in aerated concrete production suggests that industrial wastes of hazard class IV can be recycled to produce aerated concrete. An environmentally friendly method for large-scale waste recycling, including a two-step environmentally sustainable mechanism, was developed. The basic quality indicators of the modified aerated concrete proved that the environmental safety could be enhanced by strengthening the structure, increasing its uniformity and improving thermal insulation properties. The modified non-autoclaved aerated concrete products with improved physical and operational properties were developed. They have the following properties: density – D700; class of concrete – B3.5; thermal transmittance coefficient – 0.143 W/(m·°C; frost resistance – F75.

  11. The Stringent Response Induced by Phosphate Limitation Promotes Purine Salvage in Agrobacterium fabrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapragasam, Smitha; Deochand, Dinesh K; Meariman, Jacob K; Grove, Anne

    2017-10-31

    Agrobacterium fabrum induces tumor growth in susceptible plant species. The upregulation of virulence genes that occurs when the bacterium senses plant-derived compounds is enhanced by acidic pH and limiting inorganic phosphate. Nutrient starvation may also trigger the stringent response, and purine salvage is among the pathways expected to be favored under such conditions. We show here that phosphate limitation induces the stringent response, as evidenced by production of (p)ppGpp, and that the xdhCSML operon encoding the purine salvage enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase is upregulated ∼15-fold. The xdhCSML operon is under control of the TetR family transcription factor XdhR; direct binding of ppGpp to XdhR attenuates DNA binding, and the enhanced xdhCSML expression correlates with increased cellular levels of (p)ppGpp. Xanthine dehydrogenase may also divert purines away from salvage pathways to form urate, the ligand for the transcription factor PecS, which in the plant pathogen Dickeya dadantii is a key regulator of virulence gene expression. However, urate levels remain low under conditions that produce increased levels of xdhCSML expression, and neither acidic pH nor limiting phosphate results in induction of genes under control of PecS. Instead, expression of such genes is induced only by externally supplemented urate. Taken together, our data indicate that purine salvage is favored during the stringent response induced by phosphate starvation, suggesting that control of this pathway may constitute a novel approach to modulating virulence. Because bacterial purine catabolism appears to be unaffected, as evidenced by the absence of urate accumulation, we further propose that the PecS regulon is induced by only host-derived urate.

  12. Requirements for quality control of analytical data for the Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, J.

    1992-12-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Program was established for the investigation and remediation of inactive US Department of Energy (DOE) sites and facilities that have been declared surplus in terms of their previous uses. The purpose of this document is to Specify ER requirements for quality control (QC) of analytical data. Activities throughout all phases of the investigation may affect the quality of the final data product, thus are subject to control specifications. Laboratory control is emphasized in this document, and field concerns will be addressed in a companion document Energy Systems, in its role of technical coordinator and at the request of DOE-OR, extends the application of these requirements to all participants in ER activities. Because every instance and concern may not be addressed in this document, participants are encouraged to discuss any questions with the ER Quality Assurance (QA) Office, the Analytical Environmental Support Group (AESG), or the Analytical Project Office (APO)

  13. Electronic document management meets environmental restoration recordkeeping requirements: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    Efforts at migrating records management at five Department of Energy sites operated under management by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. for Environmental Restoration (ER) business activities are described. The corporate environment, project definition, records keeping requirements are described first. Then an evaluation of electronic document management technologies and of internal and commercially available systems are provided. Finally adopted incremental implementation strategy and lessons learned are discussed

  14. Environmental qualification design for NPP refurbishment to comply with revised licensing requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacBeth, M. J.; Hemmings, R. L.

    2002-01-01

    Recent Canadian Nuclear Regulatory decisions have imposed Environmental Qualification (EQ) requirements for twenty-four Reactor Building (RB) airlocks at the four-unit Pickering Nuclear Generating Station-B (PNGS-B) facility. This paper describes the EQ modification design work completed by CANATOM-NPM for the problematic aspects for such projects. The airlocks allow RB access while providing a containment boundary and are designed to prevent a potential breach of containment for all analysed station conditions. Each PNGS-B unit has three large equipment airlocks and three smaller personnel airlocks. The airlocks must function under postulated worst-case design basis accident(DBA) conditions for assigned mission durations. The design must ensure that accident conditions cannot spuriously initiate an un-requested door opening. CANATOM-NPM reviewed site data to specify the necessary EQ modifications required to satisfy licensing requirements while providing a correct and complete as-found record of the existing airlock installation. The design team assessed the installed airlocks configuration against environmental qualification requirements to finalize the list of necessary modifications. A comprehensive, cross-discipline review of proposed design changes was completed to identify any further changes required to satisfy the final EQ licensing goal. The design team also conducted a design review of the EQ modification installation strategy to integrate the design deliverables with the installation team requirements while attempting to minimize necessary outage time for EQ modification installations. This project was completed on schedule and within the cost limitations required by the client with comprehensive, high quality final design packages. Overall improvements were realized for OPG system drawings and the electronic documentation of design data. The EQ modifications designed by CANATOM-NPM will ensure the continued operation of the PNGS-B NPP past December 31

  15. 75 FR 13305 - Notice of Cancellation of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Criminal Alien Requirement 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... Federal Bureau of Prisons Notice of Cancellation of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Criminal... Statement (EIS) for the Criminal Alien Requirement 9 project (CAR 9). This notice briefly describes the... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Council of Environmental Quality Regulations (40 CFR parts 1500...

  16. Quality assurance and reference material requirements and considerations for environmental sample analysis in nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindle, D.W. Jr.; Perrin, R.E.; Goldberg, S.A.; Cappis, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: High-sensitivity nuclear environmental sampling and analysis techniques have been proven in their ability to verify declared nuclear activities, as well as to assist in the detection of undeclared nuclear activities and facilities. Following the Gulf War, the capability and revealing power of environmental sampling and analysis techniques to support international safeguards was demonstrated and subsequently adopted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as routine safeguards measures in safeguards inspections and verifications. In addition to having been proved useful in international safeguards, environmental sampling and analysis techniques have demonstrated their utility in identifying the origins of 'orphaned' nuclear material, as well as the origin of intercepted smuggled nuclear material. Today, environmental sampling and analysis techniques are now being applied in six broad areas to support nonproliferation, disarmament treaty verification, national and international nuclear security, and environmental stewardship of weapons production activities. Consequently, more and more laboratories around the world are establishing capabilities or expanding capabilities to meet these growing applications, and as such requirements for quality assurance and control are increasing. The six areas are: 1) Nuclear safeguards; 2) Nuclear forensics/illicit trafficking; 3) Ongoing monitoring and verification (OMV); 4) Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT); 5) Weapons dismantlement/materials disposition; and 6) Research and development (R and D)/environmental stewardship/safety. Application of environmental sampling and analysis techniques and resources to illicit nuclear material trafficking, while embodying the same basic techniques and resources, does have unique requirements for sample management, handling, protocols, chain of custody, archiving, and data interpretation. These requirements are derived from needs of how data from nuclear forensics

  17. Neutron environmental characterization requirements for reactor fuels and materials development and surveillance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, W.N.; Bennett, R.A.; Johnson, D.L.; Dudey, N.D.

    1975-01-01

    Neutron environmental characterization requirements for reactor fuels and materials development and surveillance programs for Light Water Reactors (LWRs), High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGRs), Fast Breeder Reactors (FBRs), and Controlled Thermonuclear Reactors (CTRs) are varied. Presently, the most demanding requirements are associated with the development of FBRs where goal accuracies in the range of 1 to 3 percent (1sigma) have been requested for the determination of fission rates, burnups, and neutron fluxes and fluences. Total fluence associated with a measured material property change in a fast test reactor can presently be determined in the 5 to 10 percent (1sigma) range, and application of improved dosimetry techniques is expected to reduce this to the 2 to 5 percent (1sigma) range. Without direct dosimetry measurements, however, uncertainties of 25 percent and more are not uncommon. International standardization, development, and application of improved dosimetry methods for reactor materials development and surveillance programs for LWRs, HTGRs, FBRs, and CTRs are essential. The discussion of requirements for neutron environmental characterization for these different reactor concepts is an important aspect of this conference. Here, these requirements are reviewed in light of currently known design, development, testing, and operation considerations for U.S. LMFBR and CTR programs. 97 references. (auth)

  18. 78 FR 67326 - Safety and Environmental Management System Requirements for Vessels on the U.S. Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... 1625-AC05 Safety and Environmental Management System Requirements for Vessels on the U.S. Outer... ``Safety and Environmental Management System Requirements for Vessels on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf... or before January 23, 2014 or reach the Docket Management Facility by that date. ADDRESSES: You may...

  19. Sensitivity Analysis of Hydraulic Methods Regarding Hydromorphologic Data Derivation Methods to Determine Environmental Water Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Shokoohi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the accuracy of hydraulic methods in determining environmental flow requirements. Despite the vital importance of deriving river cross sectional data for hydraulic methods, few studies have focused on the criteria for deriving this data. The present study shows that the depth of cross section has a meaningful effect on the results obtained from hydraulic methods and that, considering fish as the index species for river habitat analysis, an optimum depth of 1 m should be assumed for deriving information from cross sections. The second important parameter required for extracting the geometric and hydraulic properties of rivers is the selection of an appropriate depth increment; ∆y. In the present research, this parameter was found to be equal to 1 cm. The uncertainty of the environmental discharge evaluation, when allocating water in areas with water scarcity, should be kept as low as possible. The Manning friction coefficient (n is an important factor in river discharge calculation. Using a range of "n" equal to 3 times the standard deviation for the study area, it is shown that the influence of friction coefficient on the estimation of environmental flow is much less than that on the calculation of river discharge.

  20. Dual Regulation of Bacillus subtilis kinB Gene Encoding a Sporulation Trigger by SinR through Transcription Repression and Positive Stringent Transcription Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutaro Fujita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is known that transcription of kinB encoding a trigger for Bacillus subtilis sporulation is under repression by SinR, a master repressor of biofilm formation, and under positive stringent transcription control depending on the adenine species at the transcription initiation nucleotide (nt. Deletion and base substitution analyses of the kinB promoter (PkinB region using lacZ fusions indicated that either a 5-nt deletion (Δ5, nt -61/-57, +1 is the transcription initiation nt or the substitution of G at nt -45 with A (G-45A relieved kinB repression. Thus, we found a pair of SinR-binding consensus sequences (GTTCTYT; Y is T or C in an inverted orientation (SinR-1 between nt -57/-42, which is most likely a SinR-binding site for kinB repression. This relief from SinR repression likely requires SinI, an antagonist of SinR. Surprisingly, we found that SinR is essential for positive stringent transcription control of PkinB. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA analysis indicated that SinR bound not only to SinR-1 but also to SinR-2 (nt -29/-8 consisting of another pair of SinR consensus sequences in a tandem repeat arrangement; the two sequences partially overlap the ‘-35’ and ‘-10’ regions of PkinB. Introduction of base substitutions (T-27C C-26T in the upstream consensus sequence of SinR-2 affected positive stringent transcription control of PkinB, suggesting that SinR binding to SinR-2 likely causes this positive control. EMSA also implied that RNA polymerase and SinR are possibly bound together to SinR-2 to form a transcription initiation complex for kinB transcription. Thus, it was suggested in this work that derepression of kinB from SinR repression by SinI induced by Spo0A∼P and occurrence of SinR-dependent positive stringent transcription control of kinB might induce effective sporulation cooperatively, implying an intimate interplay by stringent response, sporulation, and biofilm formation.

  1. Assessing climate change impacts on river flows and environmental flow requirements at catchment scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gül, G.O.; Rosbjerg, Dan; Gül, A.

    2010-01-01

    The fourth assessment report of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) suggests studies that increase the spatial resolution to solve the scale mismatch between large-scale climatic models and the catchment scale while addressing climate change impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Impacts occur....... In this Study, the regional impacts of climate change on river flow and environmental flow requirement. which is a negotiated trade-off between water uses, are analysed for a lowland catchment in Denmark through MIKE SHE/MIKE 11 coupling. The Coupled model possesses an important capacity for simulating stream...... flows and groundwater head levels in a dynamic system. Although the simulation results from different global circulation models (GCMs) indicate different responses in flows to the climate change, there are obvious deviations of the river flows and environmental flow potentials computed for all...

  2. Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory Operations System: Version 4.0 - system requirements specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashporenko, D.

    1996-07-01

    This document is intended to provide an operations standard for the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory OPerations System (EMSL OPS). It is directed toward three primary audiences: (1) Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) facility and operations personnel; (2) laboratory line managers and staff; and (3) researchers, equipment operators, and laboratory users. It is also a statement of system requirements for software developers of EMSL OPS. The need for a finely tuned, superior research environment as provided by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory has never been greater. The abrupt end of the Cold War and the realignment of national priorities caused major US and competing overseas laboratories to reposition themselves in a highly competitive research marketplace. For a new laboratory such as the EMSL, this means coming into existence in a rapidly changing external environment. For any major laboratory, these changes create funding uncertainties and increasing global competition along with concomitant demands for higher standards of research product quality and innovation. While more laboratories are chasing fewer funding dollars, research ideas and proposals, especially for molecular-level research in the materials and biological sciences, are burgeoning. In such an economically constrained atmosphere, reduced costs, improved productivity, and strategic research project portfolio building become essential to establish and maintain any distinct competitive advantage. For EMSL, this environment and these demands require clear operational objectives, specific goals, and a well-crafted strategy. Specific goals will evolve and change with the evolution of the nature and definition of DOE`s environmental research needs. Hence, EMSL OPS is designed to facilitate migration of these changes with ease into every pertinent job function, creating a facile {open_quotes}learning organization.{close_quotes}

  3. Mine planning and scheduling at Ranger Uranium Mine - environmental requirements and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bath, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    Ranger Uranium Mines operates an open cut located in the Northern Territory. Strict environmental controls govern all operations and the water management requirements have the greatest impact on mine planning. The two main goals of planning are to provide mill feed and to mine sufficient suitable quality waste rock for ongoing construction of the tailings dam. Early planning concentrated on staged development of the pit to provide access to as much ore as possible for a given amount of development. All waste was considered to be suitable construction material. Grade control of crusher feed was the main problem in planning, as wide variations occur in ore grade over relatively short distances. Water management for the site operates a 'no release' system for contaminated waters. Design storage has proven inadequate, and the open cut has been used as the extra storage. As construction of future stages of the tailings dam requires non-mineralised rock materials which meet specific quality criteria, the mine has had to re-examine long term planning and pit development strategies. This has entailed the collection of much data not required under normal mining conditions, such as the assaying of waste drill core. The overall impact on mine planning of the environmental regulations has been to alter the philosophy of earlier planning, making it necessary to create a new strategy for pit development with the accent on exposing waste

  4. Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure development program: Cost analysis requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custer, W.R. Jr.; Messick, C.D.

    1996-01-01

    This report was prepared to support development of the Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure -- a new capability to independently estimate and analyze costs. Currently, the cost data are reported according to a structure that blends level of effort tasks with product and process oriented tasks. Also. the budgetary inputs are developed from prior year funding authorizations and from contractor-developed parametric estimates that have been adjusted to planned funding levels or appropriations. Consequently, it is difficult for headquarters and field-level activities to use actual cost data and technical requirements to independently assess the costs generated and identify trends, potential cost savings from process improvements, and cost reduction strategies

  5. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Biological and Environmental Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research Program Office (BER),

    2009-09-30

    In May 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for BER-funded research over the subsequent three to five years. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. Chief among them: scientific progress in BER-funded research is limited by current allocations of computational resources. Additionally, growth in mission-critical computing -- combined with new requirements for collaborative data manipulation and analysis -- will demand ever increasing computing, storage, network, visualization, reliability and service richness from NERSC. This report expands upon these key points and adds others. It also presents a number of"case studies" as significant representative samples of the needs of science teams within BER. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this"case study" format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and 3-5 year computing requirements, and special software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel,"multi-core" environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years.

  6. Competition policies and environmental quality: Empirical analysis of the electricity sector in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asane-Otoo, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decades, electricity markets across OECD countries have been subjected to profound structural changes with far-reaching implications on the economy and the environment. This paper investigates the effect of restructuring – changes in entry regulations, the degree of vertical integration and ownership structure – on GHG emissions. The findings show that competition policies – particularly reducing the degree of vertical integration and increasing privatization – correlate negatively with emission intensity. However, the environmental effect of reducing market entry barriers is generally insignificant. Integration of competition and stringent environmental policies are required to reduce GHG emissions and improve environmental quality. - Highlights: •Empirical study on competition policies and GHG emissions from the electricity sector. •Product market regulation scores for OECD countries are used to measure the extent of competition. •Evidence of a positive relationship between competition policies and environmental quality. •Integration of competition and stringent environmental policies is recommended.

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF SOME COPPER BASED FUNGICIDES ACCORDING TO THE REQUIREMENTS OF GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marga GRĂDILĂ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data demonstrating the functionality of biological systems reconstituted with aquatic organisms developed under Good Laboratory Practice testing facility within Research - Development Institute for Plant Protection Bucharest for environmental risk assessment of four fungicides based on copper, according to Good Laboratory Practice requirements. For risk assessment, according to GLP were made the following steps: Good Laboratory Practice test facility was established, we have ensured adequate space for growth, acclimatization and testing for each test species, it was installed a complex water production instalation needed to perform tests, it was achieved control system for checking environmental conditions and have developed specific operating procedures that have been accredited according to Good Laboratory Practice.The results showed that biological systems model of the Good Laboratory Practice test facility in Research - Development Institute for Plant Protection meet the requirements of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Guidelines regarding GLP, and after testing copper-based fungicides in terms of acute toxicity Cyprinus carpio and to Daphnia magna revealed that three of them (copper oxychloride, copper hydroxide and copper sulphate showed ecological efficiency, ie low toxicity. Metallic copper based fungicides showed a higher toxicity, resulting in fish toxicity symptoms: sleep, sudden immersion, faded, weakness, swimming in spiral, lack of balance, breathing slow and cumbersome, spasms and mortality.

  8. Incorporating land-use requirements and environmental constraints in low-carbon electricity planning for California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Grace C; Torn, Margaret S; Williams, James H

    2015-02-17

    The land-use implications of deep decarbonization of the electricity sector (e.g., 80% below 1990 emissions) have not been well-characterized quantitatively or spatially. We assessed the operational-phase land-use requirements of different low-carbon scenarios for California in 2050 and found that most scenarios have comparable direct land footprints. While the per MWh footprint of renewable energy (RE) generation is initially higher, that of fossil and nuclear generation increases over time with continued fuel use. We built a spatially explicit model to understand the interactions between resource quality and environmental constraints in a high RE scenario (>70% of total generation). We found that there is sufficient land within California to meet the solar and geothermal targets, but areas with the highest quality wind and solar resources also tend to be those with high conservation value. Development of some land with lower conservation value results in lower average capacity factors, but also provides opportunity for colocation of different generation technologies, which could significantly improve land-use efficiency and reduce permitting, leasing, and transmission infrastructure costs. Basing siting decisions on environmentally-constrained long-term RE build-out requirements produces significantly different results, including better conservation outcomes, than implied by the current piecemeal approach to planning.

  9. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, S.G.; Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    1989-08-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the life history, distribution and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates. Profiles are prepared to assist with environmental impact assessment. The Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) is an important commercial fish along the Atlantic coast. In the South Atlantic Region, Atlantic menhaden spawn during winter in continental shelf waters. Adults then move inshore and northward in spring; some move into estuaries as far as the brackish-freshwater boundary. Atlantic menhaden larvae in the South Atlantic Region enter estuaries after 1 to 3 months at sea. Young fish move into the shallow regions of estuaries and seem to prefer vegetated marsh habitats. Atlantic menhaden are size-selective plankton feeders as larvae, and filter feeders as juveniles and adults. Due to their large population size, individual growth rates, and seasonal movements, Atlantic menhaden annually consume and redistribute large amounts of energy and materials. They are also important prey for large game fishes such as bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix), striped bass (Morone saxatilis), and bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus). The Atlantic menhaden is associated with estuarine and nearshore systems during all phases of its life cycle. Young menhaden require these food-rich habitats to survive and grown. Destruction of estuarine wetlands has decreased nursery habitat available to Atlantic menhaden and other estuarine wetlands has decreased nursery habitat available to Atlantic menhaden and other estuarine-dependent species. 115 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Does dishonesty really invite third-party punishment? Results of a more stringent test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Naoki; Ohtsubo, Yohsuke

    2015-05-01

    Many experiments have demonstrated that people are willing to incur cost to punish norm violators even when they are not directly harmed by the violation. Such altruistic third-party punishment is often considered an evolutionary underpinning of large-scale human cooperation. However, some scholars argue that previously demonstrated altruistic third-party punishment against fairness-norm violations may be an experimental artefact. For example, envy-driven retaliatory behaviour (i.e. spite) towards better-off unfair game players may be misidentified as altruistic punishment. Indeed, a recent experiment demonstrated that participants ceased to inflict third-party punishment against an unfair player once a series of key methodological problems were systematically controlled for. Noticing that a previous finding regarding apparently altruistic third-party punishment against honesty-norm violations may have been subject to methodological issues, we used a different and what we consider to be a more sound design to evaluate these findings. Third-party punishment against dishonest players withstood this more stringent test. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Bulk development and stringent selection of microsatellite markers in the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li-Jun; Li, Ze-Min; Wang, Ze-Hua; Zhu, Liang; Gong, Ya-Jun; Chen, Min; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2016-05-20

    Recent improvements in next-generation sequencing technologies have enabled investigation of microsatellites on a genome-wide scale. Faced with a huge amount of candidates, the use of appropriate marker selection criteria is crucial. Here, we used the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis for an empirical microsatellite survey and validation; 132,251 candidate microsatellites were identified, 92,102 of which were perfect. Dinucleotides were the most abundant category, while (AG)n was the most abundant motif. Sixty primer pairs were designed and validated in two natural populations, of which 30 loci were polymorphic, stable, and repeatable, but not all in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) and linkage equilibrium. Four marker panels were constructed to understand effect of marker selection on population genetic analyses: (i) only accept loci with single nucleotide insertions (SNI); (ii) only accept the most polymorphic loci (MP); (iii) only accept loci that did not deviate from HWE, did not show SNIs, and had unambiguous peaks (SS) and (iv) all developed markers (ALL). Although the MP panel resulted in microsatellites of highest genetic diversity followed by the SNI, the SS performed best in individual assignment. Our study proposes stringent criteria for selection of microsatellites from a large-scale number of genomic candidates for population genetic studies.

  12. The Stringent Response Promotes Antibiotic Resistance Dissemination by Regulating Integron Integrase Expression in Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Strugeon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Class 1 integrons are genetic systems that enable bacteria to capture and express gene cassettes. These integrons, when isolated in clinical contexts, most often carry antibiotic resistance gene cassettes. They play a major role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacteria. The key element of integrons is the integrase, which allows gene cassettes to be acquired and shuffled. Planktonic culture experiments have shown that integrase expression is regulated by the bacterial SOS response. In natural settings, however, bacteria generally live in biofilms, which are characterized by strong antibiotic resilience and by increased expression of stress-related genes. Here, we report that under biofilm conditions, the stringent response, which is induced upon starvation, (i increases basal integrase and SOS regulon gene expression via induction of the SOS response and (ii exerts biofilm-specific regulation of the integrase via the Lon protease. This indicates that biofilm environments favor integron-mediated acquisition of antibiotic resistance and other adaptive functions encoded by gene cassettes.

  13. Examining the Extent of Environmental Compliance Requirements on Mechatronic Products and Their Implementation through Product Lifecycle Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Vukica

    2010-01-01

    The present mixed-methods study examined the opinions of industry practitioners related to the implementation of environmental compliance requirements into design and manufacturing processes of mechatronic and electromechanical products. It focused on the environmental standards for mechatronic and electromechanical products and how Product…

  14. Extensions to the Joshua GDMS to support environmental science and analysis data handling requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suich, J.E.; Honeck, H.C.

    1978-01-01

    For the past ten years, a generalized data management system (GDMS) called JOSHUA has been in use at the Savannah River Laboratory. Originally designed and implemented to support nuclear reactor physics and safety computational applications, the system is now also supporting environmental science modeling and impact assessment. Extensions to the original system are being developed to meet neet new data handling requirements, which include more general owner-member record relationships occurring in geographically encoded data sets, unstructured (relational) inquiry capability, cartographic analysis and display, and offsite data exchange. This paper discusses the need for these capabilities, places them in perspective as generic scientific data management activities, and presents the planned context-free extensions to the basic JOSHUA GDMS

  15. Extensions to the Joshua GDMS to support environmental science and analysis data handling requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suich, J.E.; Honeck, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    For the past ten years, a generalized data management system (GDMS) called JOSHUA has been in use at the Savannah River Laboratory. Originally designed and implemented to support nuclear reactor physics and safety computational applications, the system is now also supporting environmental science modeling and impact assessment. Extensions to the original system are being developed to meet new data handling requirements, which include more general owner-member record relationships occurring in geographically encoded data sets, unstructured (relational) inquiry capability, cartographic analysis and display, and offsite data exchange. This paper discusses the need for these capabilities, places them in perspective as generic scientific data management activities, and presents the planned context-free extensions to the basic JOSHUA GDMS

  16. Environmental Cost Analysis System (ECAS) Status and Compliance Requirements for EM Consolidated Business Center Contracts - 13204

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, P.C.; Moe, M.A.; Hombach, W.G.; Urdangaray, R.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) has developed a web-accessible database to collect actual cost data from completed EM projects to support cost estimating and analysis. This Environmental Cost Analysis System (ECAS) database was initially deployed in early 2009 containing the cost and parametric data from 77 decommissioning, restoration, and waste management projects completed under the Rocky Flats Closure Project. In subsequent years we have added many more projects to ECAS and now have a total of 280 projects from 8 major DOE sites. This data is now accessible to DOE users through a web-based reporting tool that allows users to tailor report outputs to meet their specific needs. We are using it as a principal resource supporting the EM Consolidated Business Center (EMCBC) and the EM Applied Cost Engineering (ACE) team cost estimating and analysis efforts across the country. The database has received Government Accountability Office review as supporting its recommended improvements in DOE's cost estimating process, as well as review from the DOE Office of Acquisition and Project Management (APM). Moving forward, the EMCBC has developed a Special Contract Requirement clause or 'H-Clause' to be included in all current and future EMCBC procurements identifying the process that contractors will follow to provide DOE their historical project data in a format compatible with ECAS. Changes to DOE O 413.3B implementation are also in progress to capture historical costs as part of the Critical Decision project closeout process. (authors)

  17. Strengthening the capacity of SMEs and local authorities in developing countries to tackle environmental requirements in the supply chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnemann, G. [Div. of Technology, Industry and Economics (DTIE), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Paris (France)

    2004-07-01

    UNEP DTIE, through its Life Cycle Initiative, proposes to join with industry to strengthen the capacity of the weakest economic actors in the global supply chains to tackle environmental requirements. Two particularly important target groups for this project are SMEs and local authorities. Although the SMEs are the immediate actors, they need appropriate political institutions to provide an enabling framework. Multinational companies are continuously increasing the environmental requirements that their suppliers have to meet in order to provide a green image for the final product reaching western markets. Some multinational companies have accompanied these requirements with information and training of suppliers. By joining with UNEP they will be able to expand the effectiveness of their outreach and also gain greater visibility for their environmental policies. For SMEs this project is an opportunity to develop environmental management expertise and thus position themselves as reliable suppliers to leading companies. (orig.)

  18. Electronic Nose Testing Procedure for the Definition of Minimum Performance Requirements for Environmental Odor Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebio, Lidia; Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena

    2016-09-21

    Despite initial enthusiasm towards electronic noses and their possible application in different fields, and quite a lot of promising results, several criticalities emerge from most published research studies, and, as a matter of fact, the diffusion of electronic noses in real-life applications is still very limited. In general, a first step towards large-scale-diffusion of an analysis method, is standardization. The aim of this paper is describing the experimental procedure adopted in order to evaluate electronic nose performances, with the final purpose of establishing minimum performance requirements, which is considered to be a first crucial step towards standardization of the specific case of electronic nose application for environmental odor monitoring at receptors. Based on the experimental results of the performance testing of a commercialized electronic nose type with respect to three criteria (i.e., response invariability to variable atmospheric conditions, instrumental detection limit, and odor classification accuracy), it was possible to hypothesize a logic that could be adopted for the definition of minimum performance requirements, according to the idea that these are technologically achievable.

  19. Electronic Nose Testing Procedure for the Definition of Minimum Performance Requirements for Environmental Odor Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Eusebio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite initial enthusiasm towards electronic noses and their possible application in different fields, and quite a lot of promising results, several criticalities emerge from most published research studies, and, as a matter of fact, the diffusion of electronic noses in real-life applications is still very limited. In general, a first step towards large-scale-diffusion of an analysis method, is standardization. The aim of this paper is describing the experimental procedure adopted in order to evaluate electronic nose performances, with the final purpose of establishing minimum performance requirements, which is considered to be a first crucial step towards standardization of the specific case of electronic nose application for environmental odor monitoring at receptors. Based on the experimental results of the performance testing of a commercialized electronic nose type with respect to three criteria (i.e., response invariability to variable atmospheric conditions, instrumental detection limit, and odor classification accuracy, it was possible to hypothesize a logic that could be adopted for the definition of minimum performance requirements, according to the idea that these are technologically achievable.

  20. 42 CFR 137.285 - Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept Federal environmental responsibilities to enter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.285 Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept Federal environmental responsibilities to enter into a construction...

  1. Understanding immune function as a pace of life trait requires environmental context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieleman, B Irene

    2018-01-01

    This article provides a brief historical perspective on the integration of physiology into the concept of the pace of life of birds, evaluates the fit of immune function into this framework, and asks what it will take to fruitfully understand immune functioning of birds in pace of life studies in the future. In the late 1970s, physiology started to seriously enter avian life history ecology, with energy as the main currency of interest, inspired by David Lack's work in the preceding decades emphasizing how food availability explained life history variation. In an effort to understand the trade-off between survival and reproduction, and specifically the mortality costs associated with hard work, in the 1980s and 1990s, other physiological phenomena entered the realm of animal ecologists, including endocrinology, oxidative stress, and immunology. Reviewing studies thus far to evaluate the role of immune function in a life history context and particularly to address the questions whether immune function (1) consistently varies with life history variation among free-living bird species and (2) mediates life history trade-offs in experiments with free-living bird species; I conclude that, unlike energy metabolism, the immune system does not closely covary with life history among species nor mediates the classical trade-offs within individuals. Instead, I propose that understanding the tremendous immunological variation uncovered among free-living birds over the past 25 years requires a paradigm shift. The paradigm should shift from viewing immune function as a costly trait involved in life history trade-offs to explicitly including the benefits of the immune system and placing it firmly in an environmental and ecological context. A first step forward will be to quantify the immunobiotic pressures presented by diverse environmental circumstances that both shape and challenge the immune system of free-living animals. Current developments in the fields of infectious

  2. Stringently Defined Otitis Prone Children Demonstrate Deficient Naturally Induced Mucosal Antibody Response to Moraxella catarrhalis Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabin Ren

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat is a prominent mucosal pathogen causing acute otitis media (AOM. We studied Mcat nasopharyngeal (NP colonization, AOM frequency and mucosal antibody responses to four vaccine candidate Mcat proteins: outer membrane protein (OMP CD, oligopeptide permease (Opp A, hemagglutinin (Hag, and Pilin A clade 2 (PilA2 from stringently defined otitis prone (sOP children, who experience the greatest burden of disease, compared to non-otitis prone (NOP children. sOP children had higher NP colonization of Mcat (30 vs. 22%, P = 0.0003 and Mcat-caused AOM rates (49 vs. 24%, P < 0.0001 than NOP children. Natural acquisition of mucosal antibodies to Mcat proteins OMP CD (IgG, P < 0.0001, OppA (IgG, P = 0.018, Hag (IgG and IgA, both P < 0.0001, and PilA2 (IgA, P < 0.0001 was lower in sOP than NOP children. Higher levels of mucosal IgG to Hag (P = 0.039 and PilA2 (P = 0.0076, and IgA to OMP CD (P = 0.010, OppA (P = 0.030, and PilA2 (P = 0.043 were associated with lower carriage of Mcat in NOP but not sOP children. Higher levels of mucosal IgG to OMP CD (P = 0.0070 and Hag (P = 0.0003, and IgA to Hag (P = 0.0067 at asymptomatic colonization than those at onset of AOM were associated with significantly lower rate of Mcat NP colonization progressing to AOM in NOP compared to sOP children (3 vs. 26%, P < 0.0001. In conclusion, sOP children had a diminished mucosal antibody response to Mcat proteins, which was associated with higher frequencies of asymptomatic NP colonization and NP colonization progressing to Mcat-caused AOM. Enhancing Mcat antigen-specific mucosal immune responses to levels higher than achieved by natural exposure will be necessary to prevent AOM in sOP children.

  3. Physical environment. [environmental impact statement required for general aviation airport construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Environmental legislation affecting airports and the more common environmental effects resulting from airport construction are discussed with special emphasis on general aviation airports. The discussion is focused on the regulation of noise, pollution, and water quality.

  4. 28 CFR 91.57 - Actions that normally require the preparation of an environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of an environmental impact statement. Significant impact. For the proposed construction of a new... determines that the project will have a significant impact on the environment, an environmental impact... preparation of an environmental impact statement. 91.57 Section 91.57 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. Achieving stringent climate targets. An analysis of the role of transport and variable renewable energies using energy-economy-climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietzcker, Robert Carl

    2014-07-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is threatening the welfare of mankind. Accordingly, policy makers have repeatedly stated the goal of slowing climate change and limiting the increase of global mean temperature to less than 2 C above pre-industrial times (the so-called ''two degree target''). Stabilizing the temperature requires drastic reductions of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to nearly zero. As the global system of energy supply currently relies on fossil fuels, reducing GHG emissions can only be achieved through a full-scale transformation of the energy system. This thesis investigates the economic requirements and implications of different scenarios that achieve stringent climate mitigation targets. It starts with the analysis of characteristic decarbonization patterns and identifies two particularly relevant aspects of mitigation scenarios: deployment of variable renewable energies (VRE) and decarbonization of the transport sector. After investigating these fields in detail, we turned towards one of the most relevant questions for policy makers and analyzed the trade-off between the stringency of a climate target and its economic requirements and implications. All analyses are based on the improvement, application, comparison, and discussion of large-scale IAMs. The novel ''mitigation share'' metric allowed us to identify the relevance of specific technology groups for mitigation and to improve our understanding of the decarbonization patterns of different energy subsectors. It turned out that the power sector is decarbonized first and reaches lowest emissions, while the transport sector is slowest to decarbonize. For the power sector, non-biomass renewable energies contribute most to emission reductions, while the transport sector strongly relies on liquid fuels and therefore requires biomass in combination with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) to reduce emissions. An in-depth investigation of the solar power

  6. Integrating NEPA [National Environmental Policy Act] and CERCLA [Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act] requirements during remedial responses at DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, M.B.; Smith, E.D.; Sharples, F.E.; Eddlemon, G.K.

    1990-07-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.4, issued October 6, 1989, calls for integrating the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) with those of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for DOE remedial actions under CERCLA. CERCLA requires that decisions on site remediation be made through a formal process called a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS). According to the DOE order, integration is to be accomplished by conducting the NEPA and CERCLA environmental planning and review procedures concurrently. The primary instrument for integrating the processes is to be the RI/FS process, which will be supplemented as needed to meet the procedural and documentational requirements of NEPA. The final product of the integrated process will be a single, integrated set of documents; namely, an RI report and an FS-EIS that satisfy the requirements of both NEPA and CERCLA. The contents of the report include (1) an overview and comparison of the requirements of the two processes; (2) descriptions of the major tasks included in the integrated RI/FS-EIS process; (3) recommended contents for integrated RI/FS-EIS documents; and (4)a discussion of some potential problems in integrating NEPA and CERCLA that fall outisde the scope of the RI/FS-EIS process, with suggestions for resolving some of these problems. 15 refs

  7. Integrating NEPA (National Environmental Policy Act) and CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) requirements during remedial responses at DOE facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.B.; Smith, E.D.; Sharples, F.E.; Eddlemon, G.K.

    1990-07-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.4, issued October 6, 1989, calls for integrating the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) with those of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for DOE remedial actions under CERCLA. CERCLA requires that decisions on site remediation be made through a formal process called a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS). According to the DOE order, integration is to be accomplished by conducting the NEPA and CERCLA environmental planning and review procedures concurrently. The primary instrument for integrating the processes is to be the RI/FS process, which will be supplemented as needed to meet the procedural and documentational requirements of NEPA. The final product of the integrated process will be a single, integrated set of documents; namely, an RI report and an FS-EIS that satisfy the requirements of both NEPA and CERCLA. The contents of the report include (1) an overview and comparison of the requirements of the two processes; (2) descriptions of the major tasks included in the integrated RI/FS-EIS process; (3) recommended contents for integrated RI/FS-EIS documents; and (4)a discussion of some potential problems in integrating NEPA and CERCLA that fall outisde the scope of the RI/FS-EIS process, with suggestions for resolving some of these problems. 15 refs.

  8. Direct-to-physician and direct-to-consumer advertising: Time to have stringent regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, S; Gowri, S; Tyagi, V; Kohli, S; Jain, R; Kapil, P; Bhardwaj, A

    2015-01-01

    the opinion regarding DTCA, 69.9% physicians had a patient discussing DTCA that was clinically inappropriate. One hundred (64.5%) out of 155 physicians opined that DTCA encourage patients to attend physicians regarding preventive healthcare. On the contrary, 82/155 (52.9%) physicians felt that DTCA would damage the same. Similarly, 69 out of the total 100 patients felt that drug advertisements aid them to have better discussions with their treating physicians. Surprisingly, a large majority (91/100) were of the opinion that only safe drugs are allowed to be advertised. To conclude, from the findings of this study both the physicians and patients should be cautious and not overzealous while dealing with drug advertisements or promotional literature. More stringent scrutiny and issue of WLs or blacklisting of indulging pharmaceutical companies are mandatory by the regulatory agency to contain the same.

  9. The Environmental Quality – Requirements for the Pro-active Approach of Production Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta Stehlíková

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The interrelationship and cooperation of the Quality Management System, the Environmental Management System QMS, and Environmental Management System EMS in production enterprises has a very important impact to their performance. The synergic effect of two systems {QMS + EMS} created the so called POEMS Product and the Process Oriented Environmental Management System functioning for the benefit of the Company Profit, Customer Satisfaction, Product Competition, Environment and the Social Responsibility.

  10. Product Related Environmental Work in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Thailand, Developing and Manufacturing Electrical and Electronic Products

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Fredrik

    2007-01-01

    Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand that develop and manufacture electrical and electronic products are among other SMEs in the world meeting increasingly stringent legal and customer requirements related to environmental issues. Obstacles for the SMEs around the world to meet these requirements are almost the same in form of lack of knowledge, budget and resources. The differences between SMEs in Thailand and SMEs in the EU, Japan or even Korea are that these countries have...

  11. Environmental and genetic preconditioning for long-term anoxia responses requires AMPK in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobby L LaRue

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Preconditioning environments or therapeutics, to suppress the cellular damage associated with severe oxygen deprivation, is of interest to our understanding of diseases associated with oxygen deprivation. Wildtype C. elegans exposed to anoxia enter into a state of suspended animation in which energy-requiring processes reversibly arrest. C. elegans at all developmental stages survive 24-hours of anoxia exposure however, the ability of adult hermaphrodites to survive three days of anoxia significantly decreases. Mutations in the insulin-like signaling receptor (daf-2 and LIN-12/Notch (glp-1 lead to an enhanced long-term anoxia survival phenotype.In this study we show that the combined growth environment of 25°C and a diet of HT115 E. coli will precondition adult hermaphrodites to survive long-term anoxia; many of these survivors have normal movement after anoxia treatment. Animals fed the drug metformin, which induces a dietary-restriction like state in animals and activates AMPK in mammalian cell culture, have a higher survival rate when exposed to long-term anoxia. Mutations in genes encoding components of AMPK (aak-2, aakb-1, aakb-2, aakg-2 suppress the environmentally and genetically induced long-term anoxia survival phenotype. We further determine that there is a correlation between the animals that survive long-term anoxia and increased levels of carminic acid staining, which is a fluorescent dye that incorporates in with carbohydrates such as glycogen.We conclude that small changes in growth conditions such as increased temperature and food source can influence the physiology of the animal thus affecting the responses to stress such as anoxia. Furthermore, this supports the idea that metformin should be further investigated as a therapeutic tool for treatment of oxygen-deprived tissues. Finally, the capacity for an animal to survive long bouts of severe oxygen deprivation is likely dependent on specific subunits of the heterotrimeric

  12. 43 CFR 46.415 - Environmental impact statement content, alternatives, circulation and filing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the human environment and the maintenance and enhancement of long-term productivity; (8) Any... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental impact statement content... Impact Statements § 46.415 Environmental impact statement content, alternatives, circulation and filing...

  13. 32 CFR Enclosure 1 - Requirements for Environmental Considerations-Global Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DoD component concerned shall consult with the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Manpower, Reserve... (Manpower, Reserve Affairs, and Logistics). 9. Environmental Assessments. The purpose of an environmental... effects on the environment of a foreign nation or on a resource designated as one of global importance...

  14. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN GUIDANCE MANUAL - ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS AND THE PRODUCT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory and the University of Michigan are cooperating in a project to reduce environmental impacts and health risks through product system design. The resulting framework for life cycle design is pr...

  15. Importance of considering riparian vegetation requirements for the long-term efficiency of environmental flows in aquatic microhabitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivaes, Rui; Boavida, Isabel; Santos, José M.; Pinheiro, António N.; Ferreira, Teresa

    2017-11-01

    Environmental flows remain biased toward the traditional biological group of fish species. Consequently, these flows ignore the inter-annual flow variability that rules species with longer lifecycles and therefore disregard the long-term perspective of the riverine ecosystem. We analyzed the importance of considering riparian requirements for the long-term efficiency of environmental flows. For that analysis, we modeled the riparian vegetation development for a decade facing different environmental flows in two case studies. Next, we assessed the corresponding fish habitat availability of three common fish species in each of the resulting riparian landscape scenarios. Modeling results demonstrated that the environmental flows disregarding riparian vegetation requirements promoted riparian degradation, particularly vegetation encroachment. Such circumstance altered the hydraulic characteristics of the river channel where flow depths and velocities underwent local changes of up to 10 cm and 40 cm s-1, respectively. Accordingly, after a decade of this flow regime, the available habitat area for the considered fish species experienced modifications of up to 110 % when compared to the natural habitat. In turn, environmental flows regarding riparian vegetation requirements were able to maintain riparian vegetation near natural standards, thereby preserving the hydraulic characteristics of the river channel and sustaining the fish habitat close to the natural condition. As a result, fish habitat availability never changed more than 17 % from the natural habitat.

  16. 36 CFR 1234.14 - What are the requirements for environmental controls for records storage facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... stored under environmental conditions that prevent the active growth of mold. Exposure to moisture through leaks or condensation, relative humidities in excess of 70%, extremes of heat combined with...

  17. High Environmental Temperature Increases Glucose Requirement in the Developing Chicken Embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, R.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Hazejager, E.; Kristensen, N.B.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Meijerhof, R.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental conditions during the perinatal period influence metabolic and developmental processes in mammals and avian species, which could impact pre- and postnatal survival and development. The current study investigated the effect of eggshell temperature (EST) on glucose metabolism in broiler

  18. Procedures, Requirements and Challenges Associated with Analysis of Environmental Samples for Chemical Warfare Material (CWM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    instrumentation and analytical equipment • Registered Quality System w/ CASARM ISO 9001 • ISO17025 in BWM; working toward in CWM Approved for... Center (ECBC),Environmental Monitoring Laboratory (EML),5183 Blackhawk RD,Aberdeen Proving Ground,MD,21010-5424 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT... DISTRIBUTION /AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Presented at the 9th Annual DoD Environmental

  19. Regulatory requirements and tools for environmental assessment of hazardous wastes: understanding tribal and stakeholder concerns using Department of Energy sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Powers, Charles; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Many US governmental and Tribal Nation agencies, as well as state and local entities, deal with hazardous wastes within regulatory frameworks that require specific environmental assessments. In this paper we use Department of Energy (DOE) sites as examples to examine the relationship between regulatory requirements and environmental assessments for hazardous waste sites and give special attention to how assessment tools differ. We consider federal laws associated with environmental protection include the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), as well as regulations promulgated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Tribal Nations and state agencies. These regulatory regimes require different types of environmental assessments and remedial investigations, dose assessments and contaminant pathways. The DOE case studies illustrate the following points: 1) there is often understandable confusion about what regulatory requirements apply to the site resources, and what environmental assessments are required by each, 2) the messages sent on site safety issued by different regulatory agencies are sometimes contradictory or confusing (e.g. Oak Ridge Reservation), 3) the regulatory frameworks being used to examine the same question can be different, leading to different conclusions (e.g. Brookhaven National Laboratory), 4) computer models used in support of groundwater models or risk assessments are not necessarily successful in convincing Native Americans and others that there is no possibility of risk from contaminants (e.g. Amchitka Island), 5) when given the opportunity to choose between relying on a screening risk assessments or waiting for a full site-specific analysis of contaminants in biota, the screening risk assessment option is rarely selected (e.g. Amchitka, Hanford Site), and finally, 6) there needs to be agreement on whether

  20. 78 FR 2868 - Draft Environmental Assessment for Rulemaking To Establish Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... require hybrid and electric passenger cars, light trucks, medium and heavy duty trucks and buses, low... Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... minimum sound requirements for hybrid and electric vehicles. DATES: Comments must be received on or before...

  1. DoD Environmental Technology Program Research and Development Requirements Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    for Printed Wiring Assemblies which Does Not Require Hazardous Solvents (Trichloroethane, Xylene , Methylene Chloride) to Remove Conformal Coatings...84 Alternative Repair Technology for Printed Wiring Assemblies which Does Not Require Hazardous Solvents (Trichloroethane, Xylene , Methylene...controls, from large area sensors such as FTIR , and how to maximize coverage to minimize costs. High APPENDIX E REQUIREMENTS CATEGORY

  2. Corporate environmentalism and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, A.I.

    2005-01-01

    For generations environmental degradation was considered as a normal course and by-product of business activity but this has gradually changed during the last thirty years as environment has gradually move up on the international agenda forcing corporations to take the environment seriously. The last thirty years witnessed environmental laws becoming stringent and enforcement more rigorous, transformation in business models and operating procedures for the protection of the environment, as well as a gradual increase in influence of environmentalists and environmental pressure groups in decision making processes. The paper describes how businesses during the last 30 years changed their operating strategies from emphasis on pure financials to triple bottom line for addressing sustainability issues and in doing so positioned their brands and products as environmentally friendly. The paper explores major drivers and factors like environmental protection mechanism and regimes, pressure from stake holders and corporate social responsibility behind this change. It then establishes a link between regulatory requirements and current practices on environmental disclosures especially in financial statements and environmental reports. The paper also highlights shortcomings in business models as well as accounting standards and explains how those shortcomings have contributed to environmental degradation. (author)

  3. The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geerlofs, Simon H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hanna, Luke A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Responsible deployment of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices in estuaries, coastal areas, and major rivers requires that biological resources and ecosystems be protected through siting and permitting (consenting) processes. Scoping appropriate deployment locations, collecting pre-installation (baseline) and post-installation data all add to the cost of developing MHK projects, and hence to the cost of energy. Under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists have developed logic models that describe studies and processes for environmental siting and permitting. Each study and environmental permitting process has been assigned a cost derived from existing and proposed tidal, wave, and riverine MHK projects, as well as expert opinion of marine environmental research professionals. Cost estimates have been developed at the pilot and commercial scale. The reference model described in this document is an oscillating water column device deployed in Northern California at approximately 50 meters water depth.

  4. 75 FR 80287 - Environmental Protection Agency Implementation of OMB Guidance on Drug-Free Workplace Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... of omnibus drug legislation on November 18, 1988. Federal agencies issued an interim final common...; FRL- 9242-2] Environmental Protection Agency Implementation of OMB Guidance on Drug-Free Workplace... Protection Agency is removing its regulation implementing the Governmentwide common rule on drug-free...

  5. 44 CFR 10.8 - Determination of requirement for environmental review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... aerial reconnaissance; (E) Information and data gathering and reporting efforts in support of emergency... integrated into the decision-making process. Environmental impact statements will be prepared for all major... emergency operational activities, and the temporary storage of goods other than hazardous materials, so long...

  6. A review of Environmental Impact Assessment parameters required for set up of a hydropower project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Pankaj Kumar; Mazumdar, Asis [Jadavpur Univ. (India). School of Water Resources Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment in general, hydro-meteorological conditions, topography, hydrology, water availability analysis of a river system, importance of hydropower and feasibility study of Environmental Impact assessment due to the construction of the hydropower plant have been discussed in this research work. The site selection is one of the major components so far the hydropower is concerned and also the minimum flow should have known to us so that the capacity of a hydropower plant can be predicted. The sustainable flow, which refers the flow is available throughout the year, has been calculated based on flow duration curve. This study highlights the environmental impact assessment particularly related to hydropower project. Here the study area a district town located in the eastern region of India on the banks of river Kosi has been considered. The historical rainfall and the river discharge data have been collected from various organizations. The stage-discharge correlation and hydrological parameters related to hydropower have been analyzed and also to discuss the review of environmental impact assessment in hydropower project. The EIA analysis can be also carried out by using fuzzy logic wherein the EIA parameters can be given different weight-age based on the various survey reports that have been carried out at different places at different time. Such analysis has also been provided below based on the various data obtained.

  7. 10 CFR 205.328 - Environmental requirements for Presidential Permits-Alternative 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Facilities for Transmission of Electric Energy at International Boundaries § 205.328 Environmental... responsibilities of each party and its relationship to the other two parties regarding the work to be done or... contact ERA and each affected State public utility regulatory agency to discuss the scope of the proposed...

  8. 32 CFR Enclosure 2 - Requirements for Environmental Considerations-Foreign Nations and Protected Global Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... environmental document already exists for a particular action, regardless of what Federal agency prepared it, no.... It does not include actions taken within the Department of Defense to implement or carry out these... (Manpower, Reserve Affairs, and Logistics). (5) The activities of the intelligence components utilized by...

  9. Skill Sets Required for Environmental Engineering and Where They Are Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kathaleen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge, skills, abilities and traits environmental engineers need. Two questions were asked: what skills are considered important, and where are they learned? Dreyfus and Dreyfus' novice-to-expert model, which describes a progressive, five-step process of skill development that occurs over time…

  10. A stringently controlled expression system for analysing lateral gene transfer between bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenecke, S; de Lorenzo, V; Timmis, K N; Díaz, E

    1996-07-01

    The lateral transfer of genetic information among microorganisms is a major force driving the outstanding adaptability of microbial communities to environmental changes. Until now little information has been obtained on gene transfer in natural ecosystems. We present here a genetic circuit for detecting and quantifying horizontal gene transfer from a defined donor microorganism to recipient organisms in the absence of selection for a recipient-specific phenotype. The system consists of an engineered lacZ (encoding beta-galactosidase) reporter gene whose expression is controlled by a synthetic regulatory element based on a fusion between the Pr promoter-operator from lambda bacteriophage and the 5' non-coding leader region of the inp gene encoding the IS 10 transposase function. Expression of this reporter cassette in the recombinant microorganism is completely shut down by two chromosomally encoded trans-acting repressors working at the level of transcription (the Cl-EK117 protein from the lambda phage), and at the level of translation (the antisense RNA-OUT of the IS 10 element). When the reporter element is transferred to a different host by any mechanism, it escapes repression and becomes expressed. The system was validated with Pseudo-monas putida, and conjugational transfer frequencies of the reporter element as low as 10(-6) were detected. The modular design and broad host range of the genetic circuit, in combination with biomarkers which permit real-time in situ detection, will facilitate the monitor-ing of gene flow in a non-disruptive manner within the environment.

  11. Stringent Expression Control of Pathogenic R-body Production in Legume Symbiont Azorhizobium caulinodans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichi Matsuoka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available R bodies are insoluble large polymers consisting of small proteins encoded by reb genes and are coiled into cylindrical structures in bacterial cells. They were first discovered in Caedibacter species, which are obligate endosymbionts of paramecia. Caedibacter confers a killer trait on the host paramecia. R-body-producing symbionts are released from their host paramecia and kill symbiont-free paramecia after ingestion. The roles of R bodies have not been explained in bacteria other than Caedibacter. Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571, a microsymbiont of the legume Sesbania rostrata, carries a reb operon containing four reb genes that are regulated by the repressor PraR. Herein, deletion of the praR gene resulted in R-body formation and death of host plant cells. The rebR gene in the reb operon encodes an activator. Three PraR binding sites and a RebR binding site are present in the promoter region of the reb operon. Expression analyses using strains with mutations within the PraR binding site and/or the RebR binding site revealed that PraR and RebR directly control the expression of the reb operon and that PraR dominantly represses reb expression. Furthermore, we found that the reb operon is highly expressed at low temperatures and that 2-oxoglutarate induces the expression of the reb operon by inhibiting PraR binding to the reb promoter. We conclude that R bodies are toxic not only in paramecium symbiosis but also in relationships between other bacteria and eukaryotic cells and that R-body formation is controlled by environmental factors.

  12. Power requirements and environmental impact of a pedelec. A case study based on real-life applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abagnale, Carmelina; Cardone, Massimo; Iodice, Paolo; Strano, Salvatore; Terzo, Mario; Vorraro, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the methodologies to appraise the power requests and environmental analysis of an electrically assisted bicycle under real driving conditions, also containing regulations and technical-science-related aspects. For this purpose, in this study, the on-road test program of an electrically assisted bicycle was executed in the urban area of Naples on different test tracks, so a general assessment about its driving behavior under several driving conditions was performed. The power requirements in different typical riding situations were estimated by a procedure based on the experimental kinematic parameters that characterize the driving dynamics collected during the real-life applications. An environmental analysis was also performed, with a methodology that takes into account the environmental assessment of a moped by measuring the experimental moped exhaust emissions of the regulated pollutants. Starting from the results acquired during the different test samples, besides, an assessment of the electric traction offered by this pedelec on the driving comfort was evaluated for different riding situations. - Highlights: • The power requirements of a pedelec in typical riding conditions were identified. • The estimated electricity consumption for battery recharging was defined. • An environmental valuation of the tested pedelec and of a moped was performed. • Emissions that could be saved utilizing a pedelec instead of a moped were derived

  13. Power requirements and environmental impact of a pedelec. A case study based on real-life applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abagnale, Carmelina, E-mail: c.abagnale@unina.it; Cardone, Massimo, E-mail: massimo.cardone@unina.it; Iodice, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.iodice@unina.it; Strano, Salvatore, E-mail: salvatore.strano@unina.it; Terzo, Mario, E-mail: m.terzo@unina.it; Vorraro, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.vorraro@unina.it

    2015-07-15

    This paper describes the methodologies to appraise the power requests and environmental analysis of an electrically assisted bicycle under real driving conditions, also containing regulations and technical-science-related aspects. For this purpose, in this study, the on-road test program of an electrically assisted bicycle was executed in the urban area of Naples on different test tracks, so a general assessment about its driving behavior under several driving conditions was performed. The power requirements in different typical riding situations were estimated by a procedure based on the experimental kinematic parameters that characterize the driving dynamics collected during the real-life applications. An environmental analysis was also performed, with a methodology that takes into account the environmental assessment of a moped by measuring the experimental moped exhaust emissions of the regulated pollutants. Starting from the results acquired during the different test samples, besides, an assessment of the electric traction offered by this pedelec on the driving comfort was evaluated for different riding situations. - Highlights: • The power requirements of a pedelec in typical riding conditions were identified. • The estimated electricity consumption for battery recharging was defined. • An environmental valuation of the tested pedelec and of a moped was performed. • Emissions that could be saved utilizing a pedelec instead of a moped were derived.

  14. EDF fossil-fired conventional thermal generation mix: Adaptation to environmental requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet, L.; Bouet, E. de; Thoraval, G.

    1990-01-01

    The considerable, uninterrupted reduction in demand for conventional thermal power plants between 1980 and 1989 noticeably affected not only the structure of EDF generation mix and its related means but also its image in the field of environment. From environmental viewpoint, there is less frequent utilization of coal-fired thermal power plants from 1985 to 1988, and the correspondingly low level of pollutant rejects. This situation could not last for long since EDF might take two actions during the next decade concerning generation means renovation and environmental protection as a result of the expected rise in the demand duration of the coal-fired units. This paper deals only with the subject of environment. The authors first quantify the pollutant rejects (SO 2 , NO x ) before suggesting possible technical solutions aiming at reducing the emissions and how they could be applied to EDF coal-fired power stations. The low NO x combustion tests performed in BLENOD power plant are also presented

  15. Seasonality and dietary requirements: will eating seasonal food contribute to health and environmental sustainability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdiarmid, Jennie I

    2014-08-01

    Eating more seasonal food is one proposal for moving towards more sustainable consumption patterns, based on the assumption that it could reduce the environmental impact of the diet. The aim of the present paper is to consider the implications of eating seasonal food on the different elements of sustainability (i.e. health, economics, society), not just the environment. Seasonality can be defined as either globally seasonal (i.e. produced in the natural production season but consumed anywhere in the world) or locally seasonal (i.e. produced in the natural production season and consumed within the same climatic zone). The environmental, health, economic and societal impact varies by the definition used. Global seasonality has the nutritional benefit of providing a more varied and consistent supply of fresh produce year round, but this increases demand for foods that in turn can have a high environmental cost in the country of production (e.g. water stress, land use change with loss of biodiversity). Greenhouse gas emissions of globally seasonal food are not necessarily higher than food produced locally as it depends more on the production system used than transportation. Eating more seasonal food, however, is only one element of a sustainable diet and should not overshadow some of the potentially more difficult dietary behaviours to change that could have greater environmental and health benefits (e.g. reducing overconsumption or meat consumption). For future guidelines for sustainable diets to be realistic they will need to take into account modern lifestyles, cultural and social expectations in the current food environment.

  16. Highly treated mine waters may require major ion addition before environmental release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harford, Andrew J; Jones, David R; van Dam, Rick A

    2013-01-15

    Mining operations often use passive and/or active water treatments to improve water quality prior to environmental release. Key considerations in choosing a treatment process include the extent to which the water quality is actually improved, and the potential residual environmental risks of the release of such water. However, there are few published studies concerning the environmental impacts of treated waste waters. This study used toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) methods to quantify and identify the "toxic" constituents of a highly-treated water (distillate) produced by brine concentration of a mining process water. Exposure of five freshwater species (Chlorella sp., Lemna aequinoctialis, Hydra viridissima, Moinodaphnia macleayi and Mogurnda mogurnda) to a concentration range of the distillate (0, 25, 50 and 100%) found that it was toxic to H. viridissima (50-100% effect when exposed to 100% distillate). TIE tests demonstrated that the effect wasn't due to residual ammonia (~1 mg L(-1)N) or trace organics, and unlikely to be due to manganese (Mn; 130-230 μg L(-1)). Conversely, addition of 0.2 and 0.5 mg L(-1) calcium improved the growth rate of H. viridissima by 61 and 66%, respectively, while addition of calcium, sodium and potassium (0.5, 1.0 and 0.4 mg L(-1), respectively) to levels comparable to that in the local aquatic environment resulted in 100% recovery. Further assessment on the likelihood of residual metal toxicity indicated that Mn concentrations in the distillate were at levels that could inhibit the growth of H. viridissima. Ultimately, the results demonstrated that ion deficiency should be considered as a potential stressor in risk/impact assessments of the discharge of treated wastewaters, and these may need to be supplemented with the deficient ions to reduce environmental impacts. The findings have highlighted the need for water managers to consider the possibility of unintended environmental risks from the discharge of highly

  17. Engineering report. Part 1: NASA wheel air seal development for space shuttle type environmental requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The sealing techniques are studied for existing aircraft wheel-tire designs to meet the hard vacuum .00001 torr and cold temperature -65 F requirements of space travel. The investigation covers the use of existing wheel seal designs.

  18. Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for remedial actions at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: A compendium of environmental laws and guidance. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etnier, E.L.; Eaton, L.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-03-01

    Section 121 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 specifies that remedial actions for cleanup of hazardous substances found at sites placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) or standards under federal and state environmental laws. To date, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) has not been on the NPL. Although DOE and EPA have entered into an Administrative Consent Order (ACO), the prime regulatory authority for cleanup at PGDP will be the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This report supplies a preliminary list of available federal and state ARARs that might be considered for remedial response at PGDP in the event that the plant becomes included on the NPL or the ACO is modified to include CERCLA cleanup. A description of the terms ``applicable`` and ``relevant and appropriate`` is provided, as well as definitions of chemical-, location-, and action-specific ARARS. ARARs promulgated by the federal government and by the state of Kentucky are listed in tables. In addition, the major provisions of RCRA, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, and other acts, as they apply to hazardous and radioactive waste cleanup, are discussed.

  19. Development of the environmental qualification safety requirement matrix for the containment system of in-service CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, R.M.; Low, J.; Sobolewski, J.

    1994-01-01

    Over the last several years, Ontario Hydro Nuclear (OHN) has placed increasing emphasis on environmental qualification (EQ) at its Pickering and Bruce NGS A and B nuclear generating stations (NGSs). The program currently underway (at the time of the conference) builds upon the experience gained from the extensive Darlington NGS EQ experience and from EQ programs conducted by other utilities. Some of the major steps of the OHN EQ program include: defining Safety Requirement Matrices (SRMs), establishing environmental conditions, developing an EQ List, conducting an EQ Assessment and maintaining Operational EQ Assurance during the plant life. The SRM identifies safety related components, their required safety functions and their mission times for each postulated design basis accident (DBA). This is a critical step, as the SRM defines the equipment that requires assurance of EQ and precise requirements must be provided to ensure a cost effective EQ program. This paper describes the development of the SRMs for the containment system of the Bruce stations. The introductory section briefly discusses how the industry has dealt with equipment qualification as it has evolved and the role of the SRMs in the OHN EQ Program. In Section 2, the preparation of the SRM is described along with the applicable ground rules used. The results of the application of the SRM preparation guidelines to the containment system are discussed in Section 3. A summary of the major findings and conclusions is presented. 3 refs., 3 figs

  20. In the shadow of the Cosmetic Directive--inconsistencies in EU environmental hazard classification requirements for UV-filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, A; Bejgarn, S; Rudén, C; Molander, L; Breitholtz, M

    2013-09-01

    UV-filters are chemicals with potentially environmental hazardous properties. In the European Union (EU), UV-filters contained in sunscreen products are currently regulated by the Cosmetic Directive (from July 2013 by the Cosmetic Products Regulation). Environmental hazard classifications according to the regulation on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP) must be determined for UV-filters contained in industrial chemical products, whereas UV-filters contained in sunscreens are exempted from CLP. In this study we determined the potential environmental hazard classifications of UV-filters and sunscreen products if the CLP regulation was to be required for cosmetic products. Two sunscreen products were evaluated in accordance with the aquatic environmental hazard criteria for mixtures. The results highlight that the inconsistencies in the current EU regulation of UV filters hamper the risk management of environmental hazards of UV filters used in cosmetic products. Almost 50% of the investigated UV-filters approved for use in cosmetic products on the European market according to the current Cosmetic Directive were identified to meet the CLP classification as being hazardous to the aquatic environment. Assuming a worst-case scenario, the two examined sunscreens could both be classified as hazardous to the aquatic environment with long-lasting effects according to CLP classification criteria. Hence, if the CLP regulation was applicable to sunscreen products, both brands could potentially be labelled with the environmental hazard pictogram and associated hazard and precautionary statements. Including cosmetic products, and thereby sunscreens, in the CLP regulation would contribute to a more harmonized and transparent regulation of potentially hazardous substances on the EU market. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) for Remedial Action at the Oak Ridge Reservation: A compendium of major environmental laws. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etnier, E.L.; McDonald, E.P.; Houlberg, L.M.

    1993-07-01

    Section 121 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 specifies that remedial actions for cleanup of hazardous substances must comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARS) or standards under federal and state environmental laws. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was placed on the National Priorities List by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on November 21, 1989, effective December 21, 1989. As a result of this listing, DOE, EPA, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation have signed a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the environmental restoration of the ORR. Section XXI(F) of the FFA calls for the preparation of a draft listing of all ARARs as mandated by CERCLA {section}121. This report supplies a preliminary list of available federal and state ARARs that might be considered for remedial response at the ORR. A description of the terms ``applicable`` and ``relevant and appropriate`` is provided, as well as definitions of chemical-, location-, and action-specific ARARS. ARARs promulgated by the federal government and by the state of Tennessee are listed in tables. In addition, the major provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air and other acts, as they apply to hazardous waste cleanup, are discussed. In the absence of ARARS, CERCLA {section}121 provides for the use of nonpromulgated federal criteria, guidelines, and advisories in evaluating the human risk associated with remedial action alternatives. Such nonpromulgated standards are classified as ``to-be-considered`` (TBC) guidance. A ion of available guidance is given; summary tables fist the available federal standards and guidance information. In addition, the substantive contents of the DOE orders as they apply to remediation of radioactively contaminated sites are discussed as TBC guidance.

  2. Economic and environmental impacts of proposed changes to Clean Water Act thermal discharge requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the economic and environmental impact to the power industry of limiting thermal mixing zones to 1000 feet and eliminating the Clean Water Act section 316(a) variance. Power companies were asked what they would do if these two conditions were imposed. Most affected plants would retrofit cooling towers and some would retrofit diffusers. Assuming that all affected plants would proportionally follow the same options as the surveyed plants, the estimated capital cost of retrofitting cooling towers or diffusers at all affected plants exceeds $20 billion. Since both cooling towers and diffusers exert an energy penalty on a plant's output, the power companies must generate additional power. The estimated cost of the additional power exceeds $10 billion over 20 years. Generation of the extra power would emit over 8 million tons per year of additional carbon dioxide. Operation of the new cooling towers would cause more than 1.5 million gallons per minute of additional evaporation

  3. Inducible Expression of Agrobacterium Virulence Gene VirE2 for Stringent Regulation of T-DNA Transfer in Plant Transient Expression Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkovskienė, Erna; Paškevičius, Šarūnas; Werner, Stefan; Gleba, Yuri; Ražanskienė, Aušra

    2015-11-01

    Agrotransfection with viral vectors is an effective solution for the transient production of valuable proteins in plants grown in contained facilities. Transfection methods suitable for field applications are desirable for the production of high-volume products and for the transient molecular reprogramming of plants. The use of genetically modified (GM) Agrobacterium strains for plant transfections faces substantial biosafety issues. The environmental biosafety of GM Agrobacterium strains could be improved by regulating their T-DNA transfer via chemically inducible expression of virE2, one of the essential Agrobacterium virulence genes. In order to identify strong and stringently regulated promoters in Agrobacterium strains, we evaluated isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactoside-inducible promoters Plac, Ptac, PT7/lacO, and PT5/lacOlacO and cumic acid-inducible promoters PlacUV5/CuO, Ptac/CuO, PT5/CuO, and PvirE/CuO. Nicotiana benthamiana plants were transfected with a virE2-deficient A. tumefaciens strain containing transient expression vectors harboring inducible virE2 expression cassettes and containing a marker green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene in their T-DNA region. Evaluation of T-DNA transfer was achieved by counting GFP expression foci on plant leaves. The virE2 expression from cumic acid-induced promoters resulted in 47 to 72% of wild-type T-DNA transfer. Here, we present efficient and tightly regulated promoters for gene expression in A. tumefaciens and a novel approach to address environmental biosafety concerns in agrobiotechnology.

  4. The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Wave Energy Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geerlofs, Simon H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hanna, Luke A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Responsible deployment of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices in estuaries, coastal areas, and major rivers requires that biological resources and ecosystems be protected through siting and permitting (consenting) processes. Scoping appropriate deployment locations, collecting pre-installation (baseline) and post-installation data all add to the cost of developing MHK projects, and hence to the cost of energy. Under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists have developed logic models that describe studies and processes for environmental siting and permitting. Each study and environmental permitting process has been assigned a cost derived from existing and proposed tidal, wave, and riverine MHK projects. Costs have been developed at the pilot scale and for commercial arrays for a surge wave energy converter

  5. The implementation of modern digital technology in x-ray medical diagnosis in Republic of Moldova - a stringent necessity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosca, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    The study includes analyses of current technical state of radiodiagnostic equipment from the Public Medico-Sanitary Institution of Ministry of Health of Republic of Moldova (IMSP MS RM). The traditional radiodiagnostic apparatuses were morally and physically outrun at 96,6% (in regional MSPI - 93,5%), inclusive the dental one - 92,0% (in raional MSPI - 97,2%), X-Ray exam -100%, mobile - 84,1% etc. The exploitation of the traditional radiodiagnostic apparatuses with high degree of physical and moral wear essentially diminished the quality of profile investigation, creates premises for diagnostic error perpetrating, increase the collective ionizing irradiation of population etc. In recent years the subvention of MSPI HM RM with digital radiodiagnostic equipment was started. This process is very hard unfold because of grave socio-economic crises in Republic of Moldova. Despite these obstacles the subvention of MSPI HM RM with digital equipment represents a stringent necessity and a time request.

  6. Information requirements of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's safety, environmental health, and occupational medicine programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, A. A.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of the internal and external reporting and recordkeeping procedures of these programs was conducted and the major problems associated with them are outlined. The impact of probable future requirements on existing information systems is evaluated. This report also presents the benefits of combining the safety and health information systems into one computerized system and recommendations for the development and scope of that system.

  7. Green Products and Services from the Defense Logistics Agency: Support for Environmental Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-07

    1.5B • Other: $1.3B • ~95% of Services’ repair parts • 100% of Services’ subsistence, fuels, medical, clothing & textile ...required in all of DAPS‟ acquisitions for copiers and printers available for lease or rent. – Vendors pick-up and recycle all copier and printer toner...CPG item (non-paper office product) • Used in laser printers , photocopiers, fax machines, and microphotographic printers • When the toner is replaced

  8. The mechanism of heterogeneous beta-lactam resistance in MRSA: key role of the stringent stress response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choonkeun Kim

    Full Text Available All methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA strains carry an acquired genetic determinant--mecA or mecC--which encode for a low affinity penicillin binding protein -PBP2A or PBP2A'--that can continue the catalysis of peptidoglycan transpeptidation in the presence of high concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics which would inhibit the native PBPs normally involved with the synthesis of staphylococcal cell wall peptidoglycan. In contrast to this common genetic and biochemical mechanism carried by all MRSA strains, the level of beta-lactam antibiotic resistance shows a very wide strain to strain variation, the mechanism of which has remained poorly understood. The overwhelming majority of MRSA strains produce a unique--heterogeneous--phenotype in which the great majority of the bacteria exhibit very poor resistance often close to the MIC value of susceptible S. aureus strains. However, cultures of such heterogeneously resistant MRSA strains also contain subpopulations of bacteria with extremely high beta-lactam MIC values and the resistance level and frequency of the highly resistant cells in such strain is a characteristic of the particular MRSA clone. In the study described in this communication, we used a variety of experimental models to understand the mechanism of heterogeneous beta-lactam resistance. Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA that received the mecA determinant in the laboratory either on a plasmid or in the form of a chromosomal SCCmec cassette, generated heterogeneously resistant cultures and the highly resistant subpopulations that emerged in these models had increased levels of PBP2A and were composed of bacteria in which the stringent stress response was induced. Each of the major heterogeneously resistant clones of MRSA clinical isolates could be converted to express high level and homogeneous resistance if the growth medium contained an inducer of the stringent stress response.

  9. Global energy scenarios meeting stringent CO2 constraints - cost-effective fuel choices in the transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azar, Christian; Lindgren, Kristian; Andersson, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess fuel choices in the transportation sector under stringent global carbon constraints. Three key questions are asked: (i) when is it cost-effective to carry out the transition away from gasoline/diesel; (ii) to which fuel is it cost-effective to shift; and (iii) in which sector is biomass most cost-effectively used? These questions are analyzed using a global energy systems model (GET 1.0), with a transportation module, where vehicle costs (fuel cell, reformer and storage tank), infrastructure and primary energy availability are treated explicitly. The model is run under the assumption that atmospheric concentrations of CO 2 should be stabilized at 400 ppm. Three main results emerge: (i) despite the stringent CO 2 constraints, oil-based fuels remain dominant in the transportation sector over the next 50 years; and (ii) once a transition towards alternative fuels takes place, the preferred choice of fuel is hydrogen, even if we assume that hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are substantially more costly than methanol fuel cell vehicles. There may, under some circumstances, be a transient period of several decades with a significant share of methanol in the transportation sector. (iii) Biomass is most cost-effectively used in the heat and process heat sectors. If carbon sequestration from biomass is allowed, biomass is primarily used for hydrogen generation since small-scale heat applications are not suitable for carbon sequestration. Detailed sensitivity analyses show that these results are robust with respect to several parameters. Some policy conclusions are drawn

  10. High environmental temperature increases glucose requirement in the developing chicken embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roos Molenaar

    Full Text Available Environmental conditions during the perinatal period influence metabolic and developmental processes in mammals and avian species, which could impact pre- and postnatal survival and development. The current study investigated the effect of eggshell temperature (EST on glucose metabolism in broiler chicken embryos. Broiler eggs were incubated at a high (38.9°C or normal (37.8°C EST from day 10.5 of incubation onward and were injected with a bolus of [U-(13C]glucose in the chorio-allantoic fluid at day 17.5 of incubation. After [U-(13C]glucose administration, (13C enrichment was determined in intermediate pools and end-products of glucose metabolism. Oxidation of labeled glucose occurred for approximately 3 days after injection. Glucose oxidation was higher in the high than in the normal EST treatment from day 17.6 until 17.8 of incubation. The overall recovery of (13CO2 tended to be 4.7% higher in the high than in the normal EST treatment. An increase in EST (38.9°C vs 37.8°C increased (13C enrichment in plasma lactate at day 17.8 of incubation and (13C in hepatic glycogen at day 18.8 of incubation. Furthermore, high compared to normal EST resulted in a lower yolk-free body mass at day 20.9 (-2.74 g and 21.7 (-3.81 g of incubation, a lower hepatic glycogen concentration at day 18.2 (-4.37 mg/g and 18.8 (-4.59 mg/g of incubation, and a higher plasma uric acid concentration (+2.8 mg/mL/+43% at day 21.6 of incubation. These results indicate that the glucose oxidation pattern is relatively slow, but the intensity increased consistently with an increase in developmental stage of the embryo. High environmental temperatures in the perinatal period of chicken embryos increased glucose oxidation and decreased hepatic glycogen prior to the hatching process. This may limit glucose availability for successful hatching and could impact body development, probably by increased gluconeogenesis from glucogenic amino acids to allow anaerobic glycolysis.

  11. Nuclear controls are stringent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnekus, D.

    1983-01-01

    The peace-time application of nuclear power in South Africa, the organisations concerned and certain provisions laid down by the Act on Nuclear Energy, aimed at safeguarding the general public, are discussed

  12. High Performance Computing and Storage Requirements for Biological and Environmental Research Target 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Wasserman, Harvey [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC)

    2013-05-01

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computing center for the DOE Office of Science, serving approximately 4,500 users working on some 650 projects that involve nearly 600 codes in a wide variety of scientific disciplines. In addition to large-­scale computing and storage resources NERSC provides support and expertise that help scientists make efficient use of its systems. The latest review revealed several key requirements, in addition to achieving its goal of characterizing BER computing and storage needs.

  13. Challenges of the growing African cement market – environmental issues, regulative framework, and quality infrastructure requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Wolfram

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The African cement, concrete and construction business is growing at rapid pace. The cement sales are expected to grow rapidly until 2050. The number of newly built cement plants increases dramatically and in addition more cements are being imported from outside the continent, e.g. from Turkey, Pakistan, Indonesia, and China, driven by overcapacities in the countries of origin. This causes a high number of potentials and challenges at the same time. Newly built cement plants can operate directly at best technological state of the art and thus incorporate more sustainable technologies as well as produce new and more sustainable products such as cements blended with sustainable supplementary cementitious materials such as calcined clays, and industrial or agricultural by products. At the same time the new variety of binding agent as well as the international imports, which are driven by price considerations, make the cement market prone to quality scatter. This puts pressure on the quality control regulations and institutions to ensure safety of construction, healthy application, and environmental safety for the population. The paper presents possible solutions to build up the rapidly increasing African cement production more sustainably than in the rest of the world as well as the related challenges and obstacles that need to be overcome. Based on experiences with a series of pan-African cement testing laboratory proficiency schemes conclusions are made on technical, regulative and political level.

  14. In the shadow of the Cosmetic Directive — Inconsistencies in EU environmental hazard classification requirements for UV-filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobek, A.; Bejgarn, S.; Rudén, C.; Molander, L.; Breitholtz, M.

    2013-01-01

    UV-filters are chemicals with potentially environmental hazardous properties. In the European Union (EU), UV-filters contained in sunscreen products are currently regulated by the Cosmetic Directive (from July 2013 by the Cosmetic Products Regulation). Environmental hazard classifications according to the regulation on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP) must be determined for UV-filters contained in industrial chemical products, whereas UV-filters contained in sunscreens are exempted from CLP. In this study we determined the potential environmental hazard classifications of UV-filters and sunscreen products if the CLP regulation was to be required for cosmetic products. Two sunscreen products were evaluated in accordance with the aquatic environmental hazard criteria for mixtures. The results highlight that the inconsistencies in the current EU regulation of UV filters hamper the risk management of environmental hazards of UV filters used in cosmetic products. Almost 50% of the investigated UV-filters approved for use in cosmetic products on the European market according to the current Cosmetic Directive were identified to meet the CLP classification as being hazardous to the aquatic environment. Assuming a worst-case scenario, the two examined sunscreens could both be classified as hazardous to the aquatic environment with long-lasting effects according to CLP classification criteria. Hence, if the CLP regulation was applicable to sunscreen products, both brands could potentially be labelled with the environmental hazard pictogram and associated hazard and precautionary statements. Including cosmetic products, and thereby sunscreens, in the CLP regulation would contribute to a more harmonized and transparent regulation of potentially hazardous substances on the EU market. - Highlights: • UV-filters are used in both cosmetic and industrial products/applications • UV-filters in cosmetic products are excluded from CLP • We

  15. Investment requirements in the oil industry of the independent oil exporting countries in the face of environmental challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmat, H.; Hamid, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    The oil industry has to operate under environmental constraints which involve commercial risks. Oil companies need to treat environmental management as an investment as well as an insurance problem, assessing risks and costs and deciding how to minimize them most cost effectively. Petroleum development in Malaysia is accelerating. In view of the high visibility of the industry and the wide publicity generated by a few incidents which have taken place outside Malaysia the national oil company, Petronas, is constantly vigilant in its efforts to preserve the environment. Oil producing countries like Malaysia will need to continue to set aside some of the revenue they obtain from the oil industry and use it for protecting the environment to ensure public acceptance and ultimately, orderly growth of their industry. Clearly they are less able to do so if their income is lessened through the interference with free trade among nations even if the purported reasons for the interference is the environment itself. Ultimately the environmental investment requirement in the oil industry of the independent and developing oil exporting countries is free trade without price distortions. The 1989 Langkawi Declaration on the Environment of the Commonwealth Heads of Government is appended to this article. (author)

  16. Final Environmental Impact Statement on 10 CFR Part 61 licensing requirements for land disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    The three-volume final environmental impact statement (FEIS) is prepared to guide and support publication of a final regulation, 10 CFR Part 61, for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The FEIS is prepared in response to public comments received on the draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) on the proposed Part 61 regulation. The DEIS was published in September 1981 as NUREG-0782. Public comments received on the proposed Part 61 regulation separate from the DEIS are also considered in the FEIS. The FEIS is not a rewritten version of the DEIS, which contains an exhaustive and detailed analysis of alternatives, but rather references the DEIS and presents the final decision bases and conclusions (costs and impacts) which are reflected in the Part 61 requirements. Four cases are specifically considered in the FEIS representing the following: past disposal practice, existing disposal practice, Part 61 requirements, and an upper bound example. The Summary and Main Report are contained in Volume 1. Volume 2 consists of Appendices A - Staff Analysis of Public Comments on the DEIS for 10 CFR Part 61, and Appendices B - Staff Analysis of Public Comments on Proposed 10 CFR Part 61 Rulemaking. Volume 3 contains Appendices C-F, entitled as follows: Appendix C - Revisions to Impact Analysis Methodology, Appendix D - Computer Codes Used for FEIS Calculations, Appendix E - Errata for the DEIS for 10 CFR Part 61 and last, Appendix F - Final Rule and Supplementary Information

  17. Environmental water requirements of groundwater dependent ecosystems: conflict between nature and man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witczak, S.; Kania, J.; Rozanski, K.; Wachniew, P.; Zurek, A.; Dulinski, M.

    2012-04-01

    new pumping wells has been set up close to the northern border of Niepolomice Forest. There is a growing concern that exploitation of those wells may lead to lowering of water table in the Niepolomice Forest area and, as a consequence, trigger drastic changes of this unique groundwater dependent ecosystem. In order to quantify dynamics of groundwater flow in the area of the Niepolomice Forest and Wielkie Bloto fen, physicochemical parameters and concentrations of environmental tracers (stable isotopes of water, tritium, radiocarbon) were measured in wells located in the recharge area of the Bogucice Sands aquifer and in the newly established wellfield. Also, surface water appearances in the area of Wielkie Bloto fen were investigated. To detect potential discharge of deeper groundwater in the area of Wielkie Bloto fen a dedicated Geoprobe sampling of water from different levels of shallow phreatic aquifer was performed for chemical and isotope analyses. Appropriate modeling runs of the existing 3D flow and transport model of the Bogucice Sands aquifer were also made to investigate possible impact of the newly establish wellfield on the groundwater flow in the Niepolomice Forest area. The chemical and isotope data available to date indicate that in the recharge area, upstream of Wielkie Bloto fen groundwater is relatively young. Presence of appreciable amounts of tritium points to recharge in the past several decades. Radiocarbon content fluctuates between 48 and 65 pmc. In contrast, in the newly established wellfield tritium is absent while radiocarbon content drops to a few pmc. Significant age of groundwater in this area is confirmed by stable isotopes of water revealing characteristic shift towards more negative delta values indicating glacial origin of water. The work was carried out as part of the GENESIS project on groundwater systems (http:/www.thegenesisproject.eu) financed by the European Commission 7FP contract 226536 and the statutory funds of the AGH

  18. Predicting the profile of nutrients available for absorption: from nutrient requirement to animal response and environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, J; Kebreab, E; Mills, J A N; Pellikaan, W F; López, S; Bannink, A; France, J

    2007-02-01

    Current feed evaluation systems for dairy cattle aim to match nutrient requirements with nutrient intake at pre-defined production levels. These systems were not developed to address, and are not suitable to predict, the responses to dietary changes in terms of production level and product composition, excretion of nutrients to the environment, and nutrition related disorders. The change from a requirement to a response system to meet the needs of various stakeholders requires prediction of the profile of absorbed nutrients and its subsequent utilisation for various purposes. This contribution examines the challenges to predicting the profile of nutrients available for absorption in dairy cattle and provides guidelines for further improved prediction with regard to animal production responses and environmental pollution.The profile of nutrients available for absorption comprises volatile fatty acids, long-chain fatty acids, amino acids and glucose. Thus the importance of processes in the reticulo-rumen is obvious. Much research into rumen fermentation is aimed at determination of substrate degradation rates. Quantitative knowledge on rates of passage of nutrients out of the rumen is rather limited compared with that on degradation rates, and thus should be an important theme in future research. Current systems largely ignore microbial metabolic variation, and extant mechanistic models of rumen fermentation give only limited attention to explicit representation of microbial metabolic activity. Recent molecular techniques indicate that knowledge on the presence and activity of various microbial species is far from complete. Such techniques may give a wealth of information, but to include such findings in systems predicting the nutrient profile requires close collaboration between molecular scientists and mathematical modellers on interpreting and evaluating quantitative data. Protozoal metabolism is of particular interest here given the paucity of quantitative data

  19. Applicability of federal and state environmental requirements to selected DOE field installations and recommendations for development of generic compliance guidance. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This final report identifies and describes federal and state environmental requirements applicable to selected Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear field installations, establishes priorities for the requirements, determines the need for development of additional compliance guidance, and recommends development of compliance guidance for specific priority requirements. Compliance guidance developed as part of the study is summarized. The applicability of environmental requirements to 12 DOE field installations was reviewed. Five installations were examined under Task 4. They are: Nevada Test Site; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant; Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant; and Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Seven other installations were reviewed under Task 2 and included: Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; Hanford; Savannah River Plant; Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant; Pantex Plant; Rocky Flats Plant; and Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. This report combines results of the two tasks. The objective of the study was to identify the set of environmental requirements which are applicable to DOE field installations, track changes in the requirements, and prepare compliance guidance for important requirements and important regulatory developments as necessary. A cumulative calendar update for July 1982 represents the current status of applicable requirements. Environmental profiles of each facility, along with ambient monitoring results, are presented. Applicable federal requirements are identified. The specific applicability of federal and state requirements is detailed for each installation. Compliance guidance available from various agencies is described. Each requirement described is ranked by priority, and recommendations are made for development of additional guidance

  20. WARM JUPITERS NEED CLOSE ''FRIENDS'' FOR HIGH-ECCENTRICITY MIGRATION—A STRINGENT UPPER LIMIT ON THE PERTURBER'S SEPARATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Subo [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Road 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Katz, Boaz; Socrates, Aristotle [Institute for Advanced Study, 1 Einstein Dr., Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2014-01-20

    We propose a stringent observational test on the formation of warm Jupiters (gas-giant planets with 10 days ≲ P ≲ 100 days) by high-eccentricity (high-e) migration mechanisms. Unlike hot Jupiters, the majority of observed warm Jupiters have pericenter distances too large to allow efficient tidal dissipation to induce migration. To access the close pericenter required for migration during a Kozai-Lidov cycle, they must be accompanied by a strong enough perturber to overcome the precession caused by general relativity, placing a strong upper limit on the perturber's separation. For a warm Jupiter at a ∼ 0.2 AU, a Jupiter-mass (solar-mass) perturber is required to be ≲ 3 AU (≲ 30 AU) and can be identified observationally. Among warm Jupiters detected by radial velocities (RVs), ≳ 50% (5 out of 9) with large eccentricities (e ≳ 0.4) have known Jovian companions satisfying this necessary condition for high-e migration. In contrast, ≲ 20% (3 out of 17) of the low-e (e ≲ 0.2) warm Jupiters have detected additional Jovian companions, suggesting that high-e migration with planetary perturbers may not be the dominant formation channel. Complete, long-term RV follow-ups of the warm-Jupiter population will allow a firm upper limit to be put on the fraction of these planets formed by high-e migration. Transiting warm Jupiters showing spin-orbit misalignments will be interesting to apply our test. If the misalignments are solely due to high-e migration as commonly suggested, we expect that the majority of warm Jupiters with low-e (e ≲ 0.2) are not misaligned, in contrast with low-e hot Jupiters.

  1. Army requirements for micro and nanotechnology-based sensors in weapons health and battlefield environmental monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Paul; Brantley, Christina; Edwards, Eugene; Hutcheson, Guilford

    2006-03-01

    The Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) and the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) have initiated a joint advanced technology demonstration program entitled "Prognostics/Diagnostics for the Future Force (PDFF)" with a key objective of developing low or no power embedded sensor suites for harsh environmental monitoring. The most critical challenge of the program is to specify requirements for the embedded sensor suites which will perform on-board diagnostics, maintain a history of sensor data, and forecast weapon health. The authors are currently collaborating with the PDFF program managers and potential customers to quantify the requirements for remotely operated, micro/nano-technology-based sensors for a host of candidate weapon systems. After requirements are finalized, current micro/nanotechnology-based temperature, humidity, g-shock, vibration and chemical sensors for monitoring the out-gassing of weapons propellant, as well as hazardous gaseous species on the battlefield and in urban environments will be improved to meet the full requirements of the PDFF program. In this paper, performance requirements such as power consumption, reliability, maintainability, survivability, size, and cost, along with the associated technical challenges for micro/nanotechnology-based sensor systems operating in military environments, are discussed. In addition, laboratory results from the design and testing of a wireless sensor array, which was developed using a thin film of functionalized carbon nanotube materials, are presented. Conclusions from the research indicate that the detection of bio-hazardous materials is possible using passive and active wireless sensors based on monitoring the reflected phase from the sensor.

  2. Modeling Multi-Reservoir Hydropower Systems in the Sierra Nevada with Environmental Requirements and Climate Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinheimer, David Emmanuel

    Hydropower systems and other river regulation often harm instream ecosystems, partly by altering the natural flow and temperature regimes that ecosystems have historically depended on. These effects are compounded at regional scales. As hydropower and ecosystems are increasingly valued globally due to growing values for clean energy and native species as well as and new threats from climate warming, it is important to understand how climate warming might affect these systems, to identify tradeoffs between different water uses for different climate conditions, and to identify promising water management solutions. This research uses traditional simulation and optimization to explore these issues in California's upper west slope Sierra Nevada mountains. The Sierra Nevada provides most of the water for California's vast water supply system, supporting high-elevation hydropower generation, ecosystems, recreation, and some local municipal and agricultural water supply along the way. However, regional climate warming is expected to reduce snowmelt and shift runoff to earlier in the year, affecting all water uses. This dissertation begins by reviewing important literature related to the broader motivations of this study, including river regulation, freshwater conservation, and climate change. It then describes three substantial studies. First, a weekly time step water resources management model spanning the Feather River watershed in the north to the Kern River watershed in the south is developed. The model, which uses the Water Evaluation And Planning System (WEAP), includes reservoirs, run-of-river hydropower, variable head hydropower, water supply demand, and instream flow requirements. The model is applied with a runoff dataset that considers regional air temperature increases of 0, 2, 4 and 6 °C to represent historical, near-term, mid-term and far-term (end-of-century) warming. Most major hydropower turbine flows are simulated well. Reservoir storage is also

  3. Towards tributyltin quantification in natural water at the Environmental Quality Standard level required by the Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasonati, Enrica; Fettig, Ina; Richter, Janine; Philipp, Rosemarie; Milačič, Radmila; Sčančar, Janez; Zuliani, Tea; Tunç, Murat; Bilsel, Mine; Gören, Ahmet Ceyhan; Fisicaro, Paola

    2016-11-01

    The European Union (EU) has included tributyltin (TBT) and its compounds in the list of priority water pollutants. Quality standards demanded by the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) require determination of TBT at so low concentration level that chemical analysis is still difficult and further research is needed to improve the sensitivity, the accuracy and the precision of existing methodologies. Within the frame of a joint research project "Traceable measurements for monitoring critical pollutants under the European Water Framework Directive" in the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP), four metrological and designated institutes have developed a primary method to quantify TBT in natural water using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and species-specific isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SSIDMS). The procedure has been validated at the Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) level (0.2ngL(-1) as cation) and at the WFD-required limit of quantification (LOQ) (0.06ngL(-1) as cation). The LOQ of the methodology was 0.06ngL(-1) and the average measurement uncertainty at the LOQ was 36%, which agreed with WFD requirements. The analytical difficulties of the method, namely the presence of TBT in blanks and the sources of measurement uncertainties, as well as the interlaboratory comparison results are discussed in detail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Organic market gardening around the Paris agglomeration: agro-environmental performance and capacity to meet urban requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglade, Juliette; Medina, Michael Ramos; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette

    2016-05-04

    Organic market gardening is often promoted by urban municipalities as a way to resource part of the food supply, creating new social links and protecting groundwater resources. The agronomical and environmental performance of six commercial organic market gardening farms supplying vegetables in Paris were evaluated and compared with other vegetable production systems. When expressed in terms of protein production, the yield of these systems appears rather low compared with the productive capacity of open-field organic cropping systems where vegetable production is inserted into rotation with other crops. Moreover, the requirement of producing infiltrated water meeting the drinking water standards seriously limits the allowable rate of fertilisation, thus limiting production. The data reported herein show that to supply the amount of vegetables required by the Paris agglomeration (12 million inhabitants) only by organic market gardening, 160,000-205,000 ha, i.e. 28-36 % of the agricultural area of the surrounding Ile-de-France region, would be required. We conclude that organic market gardening is only one of several other farming systems which can contribute to a re-localised supply of vegetables to large cities.

  5. Are Dutch residents ready for a more stringent policy to enhance the energy performance of their homes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middelkoop, Manon van; Vringer, Kees; Visser, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Investments in the energy performance of houses offer good prospects for reducing energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. However, people are not easily convinced of the need to take measures to improve the energy performance of their houses, even when financial benefits outweigh the costs. This article analyses the factors that influence the decision for improving the energy performance of existing homes, including policy instruments. Subsequently, the article provides policy suggestions on how to stimulate energy performance improvements. Both owners and tenants (50–70%) support government policy on energy performance improvements to existing homes. Nevertheless, people also have strong feelings of autonomy regarding their homes. Our results underline the importance of well-informed and competent decision-makers. Introducing the use of Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs) into the tax system for energy and residential buildings might therefore be an effective way to increase the interest of owners in the EPC, improve the use and effect of this informative instrument, and make the first step towards bridging the tension between autonomy and more stringent instruments.

  6. From the world and asian energy demand and environmental requirement to foresee the prospect of Guangdong nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Wenfeng

    1999-01-01

    The world economy development depends on the development of energy resource. The general energy resource which is mainly fossil fuel will bring damage to the global environment. To stop the global environment becoming worse, cleaner energy will be used in the twenty-first century. The situation which the Guangdong economic growth rate is higher than that of inland average will not change in short period. Economic development requires the suitable electric power supply. The foreground of Guangdong electric power development will be hopeful. To develop electric power is to develop coal, oil, gas, nuclear, hydroelectric and the other renewable power. As to Guangdong, because the environmental pollution is quite serious, it is impossible to develop much more coal-fired power plants. Our country is oil net importer, oil-fired power plants are also restricted. It is acceptable to import natural gas in appropriate degree to generate electricity in the near future to improve environment. To develop hydraulic power is more and more difficult in Guangdong. The hydraulic power from the southwest of China is only as the complement of the Guangdong energy resource, and it is impossible to primarily solve the energy shortage problem. Sunlight, wind, ocean power and terrestrial heat etc. are clean renewable energy, but they can't be used as the wholesale stable industry power. So to develop nuclear power is the certain selection to solve the energy shortage problem and reduce the environmental pollution in Guangdong. (author)

  7. California sea mussel and bay mussel: Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Southwest)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, W.N.; Hassler, T.J.; Moran, D.P.

    1988-09-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are prepared to assist in environmental impact assessment. The California sea mussel, Mytilus californianus, and the bay mussel, M. edulis, are commonly collected for bait. Some commercial landing and aquaculture occurs at a very low level of production. Both species are distributed along the California coast; the sea mussel is more commonly found on intertidal coastal rocks and the bay mussel on pilings and other hard substrates in bays and estuaries. The eggs of both species develop into a trochophore stage in 12--24 hours after fertilization, and the planktonic larval stage lasts 3--4 weeks. Sexual maturity can occur in one year. Spawning of the sea mussel occurs sporadically throughout the year; the bay mussel spawns in central California in late fall and winter. Maximum length is 120--150 mm for the bay mussel and 200--250 mm for the sea mussel. Both species are regarded as unsafe to eat from May 1 to October 31 due to the possible presence of paralytic shellfish poisoning. 55 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Stringency of environmental regulation and aquaculture growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gedefaw Abate, Tenaw; Nielsen, Rasmus; Tveterås, Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    remarkable growth in aquaculture while others have stagnated or even declined have not been determined. In this article, we investigate whether environmental regulations have an impact on aquaculture growth. Using a cross-country regression analysis, we show that stringent environmental regulations...... contributed to lower growth rates and that these countries are falling behind emerging and developing economies that have more lenient environmental regulations....

  9. Stringently Defined Otitis Prone Children Demonstrate Deficient Naturally Induced Mucosal Antibody Response toMoraxella catarrhalisProteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dabin; Murphy, Timothy F; Lafontaine, Eric R; Pichichero, Michael E

    2017-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis ( Mcat ) is a prominent mucosal pathogen causing acute otitis media (AOM). We studied Mcat nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization, AOM frequency and mucosal antibody responses to four vaccine candidate Mcat proteins: outer membrane protein (OMP) CD, oligopeptide permease (Opp) A, hemagglutinin (Hag), and Pilin A clade 2 (PilA2) from stringently defined otitis prone (sOP) children, who experience the greatest burden of disease, compared to non-otitis prone (NOP) children. sOP children had higher NP colonization of Mcat (30 vs. 22%, P  = 0.0003) and Mcat -caused AOM rates (49 vs. 24%, P  P  P  = 0.018), Hag (IgG and IgA, both P  P  P  = 0.039) and PilA2 ( P  = 0.0076), and IgA to OMP CD ( P  = 0.010), OppA ( P  = 0.030), and PilA2 ( P  = 0.043) were associated with lower carriage of Mcat in NOP but not sOP children. Higher levels of mucosal IgG to OMP CD ( P  = 0.0070) and Hag ( P  = 0.0003), and IgA to Hag ( P  = 0.0067) at asymptomatic colonization than those at onset of AOM were associated with significantly lower rate of Mcat NP colonization progressing to AOM in NOP compared to sOP children (3 vs. 26%, P  NP colonization and NP colonization progressing to Mcat -caused AOM. Enhancing Mcat antigen-specific mucosal immune responses to levels higher than achieved by natural exposure will be necessary to prevent AOM in sOP children.

  10. Stringent constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section from subhalo searches with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, Asher; Hooper, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The dark matter halo of the Milky Way is predicted to contain a very large number of smaller subhalos. As a result of the dark matter annihilations taking place within such objects, the most nearby and massive subhalos could appear as point-like or spatially extended gamma-ray sources, without observable counterparts at other wavelengths. In this paper, we use the results of the Aquarius simulation to predict the distribution of nearby subhalos, and compare this to the characteristics of the unidentified gamma-ray sources observed by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Focusing on the brightest high latitude sources, we use this comparison to derive limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section. For dark matter particles lighter than ~200 GeV, the resulting limits are the strongest obtained to date, being modestly more stringent than those derived from observations of dwarf galaxies or the Galactic Center. We also derive independent limits based on the lack of unidentified gamma-ray sources with discernible spatial extension, but these limits are a factor of ~2-10 weaker than those based on point-like subhalos. Lastly, we note that four of the ten brightest high-latitude sources exhibit a similar spectral shape, consistent with 30-60 GeV dark matter particles annihilating to b quarks with an annihilation cross section on the order of sigma v ~ (5-10) x 10^-27 cm^3/s, or 8-10 GeV dark matter particles annihilating to taus with sigma v ~ (2.0-2.5) x 10^-27 cm^3/s.

  11. Global gene expression during stringent response in Corynebacterium glutamicum in presence and absence of the rel gene encoding (pppGpp synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinowski Jörn

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The stringent response is the initial reaction of microorganisms to nutritional stress. During stringent response the small nucleotides (pppGpp act as global regulators and reprogram bacterial transcription. In this work, the genetic network controlled by the stringent response was characterized in the amino acid-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum. Results The transcriptome of a C. glutamicum rel gene deletion mutant, unable to synthesize (pppGpp and to induce the stringent response, was compared with that of its rel-proficient parent strain by microarray analysis. A total of 357 genes were found to be transcribed differentially in the rel-deficient mutant strain. In a second experiment, the stringent response was induced by addition of DL-serine hydroxamate (SHX in early exponential growth phase. The time point of the maximal effect on transcription was determined by real-time RT-PCR using the histidine and serine biosynthetic genes. Transcription of all of these genes reached a maximum at 10 minutes after SHX addition. Microarray experiments were performed comparing the transcriptomes of SHX-induced cultures of the rel-proficient strain and the rel mutant. The differentially expressed genes were grouped into three classes. Class A comprises genes which are differentially regulated only in the presence of an intact rel gene. This class includes the non-essential sigma factor gene sigB which was upregulated and a large number of genes involved in nitrogen metabolism which were downregulated. Class B comprises genes which were differentially regulated in response to SHX in both strains, independent of the rel gene. A large number of genes encoding ribosomal proteins fall into this class, all being downregulated. Class C comprises genes which were differentially regulated in response to SHX only in the rel mutant. This class includes genes encoding putative stress proteins and global transcriptional regulators that might be

  12. Current state of nuclear fuel cycles in nuclear engineering and trends in their development according to the environmental safety requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vislov, I. S.; Pischulin, V. P.; Kladiev, S. N.; Slobodyan, S. M.

    2016-08-01

    The state and trends in the development of nuclear fuel cycles in nuclear engineering, taking into account the ecological aspects of using nuclear power plants, are considered. An analysis of advantages and disadvantages of nuclear engineering, compared with thermal engineering based on organic fuel types, was carried out. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing is an important task in the nuclear industry, since fuel unloaded from modern reactors of any type contains a large amount of radioactive elements that are harmful to the environment. On the other hand, the newly generated isotopes of uranium and plutonium should be reused to fabricate new nuclear fuel. The spent nuclear fuel also includes other types of fission products. Conditions for SNF handling are determined by ecological and economic factors. When choosing a certain handling method, one should assess these factors at all stages of its implementation. There are two main methods of SNF handling: open nuclear fuel cycle, with spent nuclear fuel assemblies (NFAs) that are held in storage facilities with their consequent disposal, and closed nuclear fuel cycle, with separation of uranium and plutonium, their purification from fission products, and use for producing new fuel batches. The development of effective closed fuel cycles using mixed uranium-plutonium fuel can provide a successful development of the nuclear industry only under the conditions of implementation of novel effective technological treatment processes that meet strict requirements of environmental safety and reliability of process equipment being applied. The diversity of technological processes is determined by different types of NFA devices and construction materials being used, as well as by the composition that depends on nuclear fuel components and operational conditions for assemblies in the nuclear power reactor. This work provides an overview of technological processes of SNF treatment and methods of handling of nuclear fuel

  13. Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations: A review of requirements for biological information in federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.; O'Farrell, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    Biological information concerning Yucca Mountain collected since 1980 is evaluated to determine if it is sufficient to satisfy the requirements of the various federal, state, and local laws and regulations that pertain to environmental protection or to development of waste repositories. The pertinent requirements of each law are summarized, missing information is identified, and recommendations are made for studies to fill these gaps. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  14. Impact of a More Stringent Blood Lead Level Recommendation for Children (Ages 1-5): Vulnerabilities Related to Housing, Food Security, Vitamins, and Environmental Toxicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adverse health effects of lead (Pb) exposure in young children are well known. Non-Hispanic black children historically have higher blood Pb levels (BLL) compared to Mexican-Americans and non- Hispanic white children (CDC-MMWR). In the past, BLL tests below 10 µg/dL m...

  15. Accident analyses in fulfillment of the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act and their relationship to the packaging and testing requirements of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darrough, M. [US Dept. of Energy, Forrestal Building, Washington, DC (United States); McSweeney, T. [Battelle Columbus Div., OH (United States); Rothman, R. [US Dept. of Energy, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1990-10-01

    This paper presents a proposed approach to assess transportation accidents in OCRWM`s fulfillment of NEPA requirements. This proposed approach builds on the methodology used in the NRC assessments of transportation accidents, frequently called the Modal Study. The authors demonstrate compatibility between the two regulatory perspectives.

  16. Issues of environmental compliance in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Rajamani, S

    2003-01-01

    Environmental laws define the scarcity of environmental resources as they affect the factor endowment of a country and therefore its position in the international division of labour. There is now also a general agreement that applying the "polluter pays" principle should solve environmental problems. As the burden of abatement increases, as measured by the ratio of abatement expenditure to sales, there is definitely an incentive for firms to either invest in cleaner technology or more efficient abatement technology. There is also evidence that taxes and charges, designed to internalise externalities, can actually affect trade. It is interesting to know if the developing countries face particular market access problems in the face of stringent environmental standards and regulations. While it is true that stringent measures impose market access restrictions and cause limitations on competitiveness, this is much more widely felt by the developing countries because of lack of infrastructure and monitoring facilities, limited technology choices, inadequate access to environment-friendly raw materials, lack of complete information, presence of small-scale exporters and emergence of environmental standards in sectors of export interest to developing countries. The small and medium enterprises often divert sales either to the domestic market or to external markets where environmental requirements are less stringent, in order to save on their costs. In developing countries, 80% of the tanning industry is comprised of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) processing raw to semi-finished leather, usually less than 2 tons per day. In Europe and other developed countries the SMEs in the leather sector have vanished due to strict environmental legislation and this will likely occur in developing countries also. The environmental legislation has not always been practical, either because the laws are too ambitious or unrealistic in certain parameters, or because they have lacked

  17. Environmental strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabkar, Vesna; Cater, Tomaz; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    perspective, appropriate environmental strategies in compliance with environmental requirements aim at building competitive advantages through sustainable development. There is no universal “green” strategy that would be appropriate for each company, regardless of its market requirements and competitive......Environmental issues and the inclusion of environmental strategies in strategic thinking is an interesting subject of investigation. In general, managerial practices organized along ecologically sound principles contribute to a more environmentally sustainable global economy. From the managerial...

  18. Final environmental statement concerning rule making. Exemption from licensing requirements for spark-gap irradiators that contain cobalt-60. Docket No. PRM 30-54

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    The potential environmental impacts and adverse environmental effects from distribution, use only in commercial-sized oil burners, and disposal of 6000 spark-gap irradiators per year that contain 60 Co are summarized. On the basis of the analysis and evaluation set forth in this statement and after weighing the environmental, economic, technical, and other benefits against environmental costs and after considering available alternatives, it is concluded that the action called for under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and 10 CFR Part 51 is the issuance of an exemption from licensing requirements for spark-gap irradiators that contain 60 Co, subject to the following conditions for the protection of the environment: persons who apply 60 Co to, or persons who incorporate 60 Co into, spark-gap irradiators or persons who import for sale or distribution spark-gap irradiators containing 60 Co are not exempt from the requirements for a license; each spark-gap irradiator shall contain no more than 1 μCi of 60 Co; and the 60 Co shall be applied to the spark-gap irradiators for use in electrically ignited fuel-oil burners having a firing rate of at least 3 gal/h

  19. 75 FR 29404 - Contract Reporting Requirements of Intrastate Natural Gas Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... Analysis 109 X. Regulatory Flexibility Act 110 XI. Document Availability 112 XII. Effective Date and... less stringent transactional reporting requirements for NGPA section 311 intrastate pipelines and... transactional reporting requirements for intrastate and Hinshaw pipelines in order to increase market...

  20. 33 CFR 230.7 - Actions normally requiring an Environmental Assessment (EA) but not necessarily an EIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (d) Construction and Operations and Maintenance. Changes in environmental impacts which were not considered in the project EIS or EA. Examples are changes in pool level operations, use of new disposal areas, location of bank protection works, etc. (e) Real Estate Management and Disposal Actions. (1) Disposal of a...

  1. Legal status and source of offenders' firearms in states with the least stringent criteria for gun ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittes, Katherine A; Vernick, Jon S; Webster, Daniel W

    2013-02-01

    Gun possession by high-risk individuals presents a serious threat to public safety. U.S. federal law establishes minimum criteria for legal purchase and possession of firearms; many states have laws disqualifying additional categories for illegal possession. We used data from a national survey of state prison inmates to calculate: 1) the proportion of offenders, incarcerated for crimes committed with firearms in 13 states with the least restrictive firearm purchase and possession laws, who would have been prohibited if their states had stricter gun laws; and 2) the source of gun acquisition for offenders who were and were not legally permitted to purchase and possess firearms. Nearly three of ten gun offenders (73 of 253 or 28.9%) were legal gun possessors but would have been prohibited from purchasing or possessing firearms when committing their most recent offense if their states had stricter prohibitions. Offenders who were already prohibited under current law acquired their gun from a licensed dealer, where a background check is required, five times less often than offenders who were not prohibited (3.9% vs. 19.9%; χ(2)=13.31; p≤0.001). Nearly all (96.1%) offenders who were legally prohibited, acquired their gun from a supplier not required to conduct a background check. Stricter gun ownership laws would have made firearm possession illegal for many state prison inmates who used a gun to commit a crime. Requiring all gun sales to be subject to a background check would make it more difficult for these offenders to obtain guns.

  2. Challenges and difficulties in assessing the environmental status under the requirements of the Ecosystem Approach in North African countries, illustrated by eutrophication assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmendia, Maialen; Borja, Ángel; Breton, Françoise; Butenschön, Momme; Marín, Anna; Miller, Peter I; Morisseau, François; Xu, Weidong

    2015-05-01

    Marine ecosystems provide many ecosystem goods and services. However, these ecosystems and the benefits they create for humans are subject to competing uses and increasing pressures. As a consequence of the increasing threats to the marine environment, several regulations require applying an ecosystem-based approach for managing the marine environment. Within the Mediterranean Sea, in 2008, the Contracting Parties of the Mediterranean Action Plan decided to progressively apply the Ecosystem Approach (EcAp) with the objective of achieving Good Environmental Status (GES) for 2018. To assess the environmental status, the EcAp proposes 11 Ecological Objectives, each of which requires a set of relevant indicators to be integrated. Progress towards the EcAp entails a gradual and important challenge for North African countries, and efforts have to be initiated to propose and discuss methods. Accordingly, to enhance the capacity of North African countries to implement EcAp and particularly to propose and discuss indicators and methods to assess GES, the aim of this manuscript is to identify the practical problems and gaps found at each stage of the environmental status assessment process. For this purpose, a stepwise method has been proposed to assess the environmental status using Ecologic Objective 5-Eutrophication as example.

  3. Federal Environmental and Occupational Toxicology Regulations and Reporting Requirements: a Practical Approach to What the Medical Toxicologist Needs to Know, Part 2

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Michael D.; Dell’Aglio, Damon M.; Nickle, Richard; Hornsby-Myers, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Toxicologists are often called upon to assist in environmental, industrial, occupational and public health assessments. Accordingly, medical toxicologists may find it prudent to be aware of applicable federal toxicological regulations and reporting requirements and of the roles of relevant federal agencies. These regulations are numerous, complex, and have evolved and expanded over time, making it difficult for toxicologists to sustain a current knowledge base. This article reviews the pertin...

  4. Federal Environmental and Occupational Toxicology Regulations and Reporting Requirements: A Practical Approach to What the Medical Toxicologist Needs to Know, Part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Michael D.; Dell’Aglio, Damon M.; Nickle, Richard; Hornsby-Myers, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Toxicologists are often called upon to assist in environmental, industrial, occupational and public health assessments. Accordingly, medical toxicologists may find it prudent to be aware of applicable federal toxicological regulations and reporting requirements and of the roles of relevant federal agencies. These regulations are numerous, complex, and have evolved and expanded over time, making it difficult for toxicologists to sustain a current knowledge base. This article reviews the pertin...

  5. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Vertebrates and Invertebrates Pacific Ocean Region. Report 2. Humpback Whale, Megaptera novaeangliae

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    fathoms or less around the Ryukyu Humpback whales are medium-sized and Bonin Islands of Japan and rorquals , with adult females larger Taiwan in the...Pacific Ocean Region; Report 2, Humpback Whale , Megaptera novaeangliae 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Nitta, Eugene T.; Naughton, John J. 13a TYPE OF REPORT 13b...necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP j Environmental requirements Life cycles - , Hawaii Humpback whale - 19. ABSTRACT (Continue

  6. Mars Surface Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John

    2002-01-01

    Planetary exploration by astronauts will require extended periods of habitation on a planet's surface, under the influence of environmental factors that are different from those of Earth and the spacecraft that delivered the crew to the planet. Human exploration of Mars, a possible near-term planetary objective, can be considered a challenging scenario. Mission scenarios currently under consideration call for surface habitation periods of from 1 to 18 months on even the earliest expeditions. Methods: Environmental issues associated with Mars exploration have been investigated by NASA and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) as part of the Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap Project (see http ://criticalpath.jsc.nasa.gov). Results: Arrival on Mars will immediately expose the crew to gravity only 38% of that at Earth's surface in possibly the first prolonged exposure to gravity other than the 1G of Earth's surface and the zero G of weightless space flight, with yet unknown effects on crew physiology. The radiation at Mars' surface is not well documented, although the planet's bulk and even its thin atmosphere may moderate the influx of galactic cosmic radiation and energetic protons from solar flares. Secondary radiation from activated components of the soil must also be considered. Ultrafine and larger respirable and nonrespirable particles in Martian dust introduced into the habitat after surface excursions may induce pulmonary inflammation exacerbated by the additive reactive and oxidizing nature of the dust. Stringent decontamination cannot eliminate mechanical and corrosive effects of the dust on pressure suits and exposed machinery. The biohazard potential of putative indigenous Martian microorganisms may be assessed by comparison with analog environments on Earth. Even in their absence, human microorganisms, if not properly controlled, can be a threat to the crew's health. Conclusions: Mars' surface offers a substantial challenge to the

  7. Environmental Policy with Collective Waste Disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Sproul, Thomas W.; Sunding, David; Zilberman, David

    2013-01-01

    Centralized collection and disposal is an integral component of waste management strategies for many solid and liquid wastes, and carbon capture and storage is currently being considered for gaseous waste. In this paper we show how collective waste disposal systems introduce essential changes in the design of optimal environmental policy. Absent collective disposal, an optimal environmental policy imposes relatively stringent regulations on polluters in regions where local environmental damag...

  8. A Hybrid Inexact Optimization Method for Land-Use Allocation in Association with Environmental/Ecological Requirements at a Watershed Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingkui Qiu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an inexact stochastic fuzzy programming (ISFP model is proposed for land-use allocation (LUA and environmental/ecological planning at a watershed level, where uncertainties associated with land-use parameters, benefit functions, and environmental/ecological requirements are described as discrete intervals, probabilities and fuzzy sets. In this model, an interval stochastic fuzzy programming model is used to support quantitative optimization under uncertainty. Complexities in land-use planning systems can be systematically reflected, thus applicability of the modeling process can be highly enhanced. The proposed method is applied to planning land use/ecological balance in Poyang Lake watershed, China. The objective of the ISFP is maximizing net benefit from the LUA system and the constraints including economic constraints, social constraints, land suitability constraints, environmental constraints, ecological constraints and technical constraints. Modeling results indicate that the desired system benefit will be between [15.17, 18.29] × 1012 yuan under the minimum violating probabilities; the optimized areas of commercial land, industrial land, agricultural land, transportation land, residential land, water land, green land, landfill land and unused land will be optimized cultivated land, forest land, grass land, water land, urban land, unused land and landfill will be [228234, 237844] ha, [47228, 58451] ha, [20982, 23718] ha, [33897, 35280] ha, [15215, 15907] ha, [528, 879] ha and [1023, 1260] ha. These data can be used for generating decision alternatives under different scenarios and thus help decision makers identify desired policies under various system-reliability constraints of ecological requirement and environmental capacity. Tradeoffs between system benefits and constraint-violation risks can be tackled. They are helpful for supporting (a decision of land-use allocation and government investment; (b formulation of local

  9. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment and Cost Analysis of Bath, NY Wastewater Treatment Plant: Potential Upgrade Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many communities across the U.S. are required to upgrade wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) to meet increasingly stringent nutrient effluent standards. However, increased capital, energy and chemical requirements of upgrades create potential trade-offs between eutrophication pot...

  10. Environmental regulation of lateral root emergence in Medicago truncatula requires the HD-Zip I transcription factor HB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Federico; Diet, Anouck; Verdenaud, Marion; Gruber, Véronique; Frugier, Florian; Chan, Raquel; Crespi, Martin

    2010-07-01

    The adaptation of root architecture to environmental constraints is a major agricultural trait, notably in legumes, the third main crop worldwide. This root developmental plasticity depends on the formation of lateral roots (LRs) emerging from primary roots. In the model legume Medicago truncatula, the HD-Zip I transcription factor HB1 is expressed in primary and lateral root meristems and induced by salt stress. Constitutive expression of HB1 in M. truncatula roots alters their architecture, whereas hb1 TILLING mutants showed increased lateral root emergence. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay, promoter mutagenesis, and chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR assays revealed that HB1 directly recognizes a CAATAATTG cis-element present in the promoter of a LOB-like (for Lateral Organ Boundaries) gene, LBD1, transcriptionally regulated by auxin. Expression of these genes in response to abscisic acid and auxin and their behavior in hb1 mutants revealed an HB1-mediated repression of LBD1 acting during LR emergence. M. truncatula HB1 regulates an adaptive developmental response to minimize the root surface exposed to adverse environmental stresses.

  11. Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for remedial actions at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant: A compendium of environmental laws and guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Eaton, L.A.; Martin, J.A.; McDonald, E.P.; Etnier, E.L.

    1992-02-01

    Section 121 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1990 (CERCLA) specifies that remedial actions for cleanup of hazardous substances must comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) or standards under federal and state environmental laws. Although the US Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) has not at this time been proposed for inclusion on the US Environmental Protection Agency National Priorities List, under Sect. I of an administrative consent order signed by DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency on September 29, 1989, effective October 4, 1989, any necessary response actions at PORTS stipulated in the administrative consent order must be performed in a manner consistent with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and CERCLA. Section 121 of CERCLA calls for the preparation of a draft listing of all ARARs. This report supplies a preliminary list of available federal and state ARARs that might be considered for remedial response at PORTS. A description of the terms ''applicable'' and ''relevant and appropriate'' is provided, as well as definitions of chemical-, location-, and action-specific ARARs. ARARs promulgated by the federal government and by the state of Ohio are listed in tables. In addition, the major provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, Clean Water Act, and other acts, as they apply to hazardous waste cleanup, are discussed

  12. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart H of... - Requirements for Diagnostic-Feasibility Studies and Environmental Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...)(10) and the monitoring procedures stated in paragraph (b)(3) of this appendix may be modified to conform to specific project requirements to reduce project costs without jeopardizing adequacy of... of historical lake uses, including recreational uses up to the present time, and how these uses may...

  13. Predicting the profile of nutrients available for absorption: from nutrient requirement to animal response and environmental impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; Kebreab, E.; Mills, J.A.N.; Pellikaan, W.F.; López, S.; Bannink, A.; France, J.

    2007-01-01

    Current feed evaluation systems for dairy cattle aim to match nutrient requirements with nutrient intake at pre-defined production levels. These systems were not developed to address, and are not suitable to predict, the responses to dietary changes in terms of production level and product

  14. addressing environmental contamination through market regulations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    environmental releases from new and existing chemical substances, which amounts to, if not more stringent, than ... environment.1 Though the mere detection of a chemical does not amount to risk per se, its presence in ... wildlife, water, and sediment) for specific classes of chemicals, particularly those that are persistent in ...

  15. Stringent and reproducible tetracycline-regulated transgene expression by site-specific insertion at chromosomal loci with pre-characterised induction characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papanastasiou Antigoni M

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to regulate transgene expression has many applications, mostly concerning the analysis of gene function. Desirable induction characteristics, such as low un-induced expression, high induced expression and limited cellular heterogeneity, can be seriously impaired by chromosomal position effects at the site of transgene integration. Many clones may therefore need to be screened before one with optimal induction characteristics is identified. Furthermore, such screens must be repeated for each new transgene investigated, and comparisons between clones with different transgenes is complicated by their different integration sites. Results To circumvent these problems we have developed a "screen and insert" strategy in which clones carrying a transgene for a fluorescent reporter are first screened for those with optimal induction characteristics. Site-specific recombination (SSR is then be used repeatedly to insert any new transgene at the reporter transgene locus of such clones so that optimal induction characteristics are conferred upon it. Here we have tested in a human fibrosarcoma cell line (HT1080 two of many possible implementations of this approach. Clones (e.g. Rht14-10 in which a GFP reporter gene is very stringently regulated by the tetracycline (tet transactivator (tTA protein were first identified flow-cytometrically. Transgenes encoding luciferase, I-SceI endonuclease or Rad52 were then inserted by SSR at a LoxP site adjacent to the GFP gene resulting stringent tet-regulated transgene expression. In clone Rht14-10, increases in expression from essentially background levels (+tet to more than 104-fold above background (-tet were reproducibly detected after Cre-mediated insertion of either the luciferase or the I-SceI transgenes. Conclusion Although previous methods have made use of SSR to integrate transgenes at defined sites, none has effectively combined this with a pre-selection step to identify

  16. Historic and future trends of vehicle emissions in Beijing, 1998-2020: A policy assessment for the most stringent vehicle emission control program in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Wu, Xiaomeng; Li, Mengliang; Ge, Yunshan; Liang, Bin; Xu, Yueyun; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Huan; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2014-06-01

    As a pioneer in controlling vehicle emissions within China, Beijing released the Clean Air Action Plan 2013-2017 document in August 2013 to improve its urban air quality. It has put forward this plan containing the most stringent emission control policies and strategies to be adopted for on-road vehicles of Beijing. This paper estimates the historic and future trends and uncertainties in vehicle emissions of Beijing from 1998 to 2020 by applying a new emission factor model for the Beijing vehicle fleet (EMBEV). Our updated results show that total emissions of CO, THC, NOx and PM2.5 from the Beijing vehicle fleet are 507 (395-819) kt, 59.1 (41.2-90.5) kt, 74.7 (54.9-103.9) kt and 2.69 (1.91-4.17) kt, respectively, at a 95% confidence level. This represents significant reductions of 58%, 59%, 31% and 62%, respectively, relative to the total vehicle emissions in 1998. The past trends clearly posed a challenge to NOx emission mitigation for the Beijing vehicle fleet, especially in light of those increasing NOx emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) which have partly offset the reduction benefit from light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs). Because of recently announced vehicle emission controls to be adopted in Beijing, including tighter emissions standards, limitations on vehicle growth by more stringent license control, promotion of alternative fuel technologies (e.g., natural gas) and the scrappage of older vehicles, estimated vehicle emissions in Beijing will continue to be mitigated by 74% of CO, 68% of THC, 56% of NOx and 72% of PM2.5 in 2020 compared to 2010 levels. Considering that many of the megacities in China are facing tremendous pressures to mitigate emissions from on-road vehicles, our assessment will provide a timely case study of significance for policy-makers in China.

  17. Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for remedial actions at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: A compendium of environmental laws and guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etnier, E.L.; Eaton, L.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-03-01

    Section 121 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 specifies that remedial actions for cleanup of hazardous substances found at sites placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) or standards under federal and state environmental laws. To date, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) has not been on the NPL. Although DOE and EPA have entered into an Administrative Consent Order (ACO), the prime regulatory authority for cleanup at PGDP will be the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This report supplies a preliminary list of available federal and state ARARs that might be considered for remedial response at PGDP in the event that the plant becomes included on the NPL or the ACO is modified to include CERCLA cleanup. A description of the terms applicable'' and relevant and appropriate'' is provided, as well as definitions of chemical-, location-, and action-specific ARARS. ARARs promulgated by the federal government and by the state of Kentucky are listed in tables. In addition, the major provisions of RCRA, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, and other acts, as they apply to hazardous and radioactive waste cleanup, are discussed.

  18. Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for remedial actions at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: A compendium of environmental laws and guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etnier, E.L.; Eaton, L.A.

    1992-03-01

    Section 121 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 specifies that remedial actions for cleanup of hazardous substances found at sites placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) or standards under federal and state environmental laws. To date, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) has not been on the NPL. Although DOE and EPA have entered into an Administrative Consent Order (ACO), the prime regulatory authority for cleanup at PGDP will be the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This report supplies a preliminary list of available federal and state ARARs that might be considered for remedial response at PGDP in the event that the plant becomes included on the NPL or the ACO is modified to include CERCLA cleanup. A description of the terms ''applicable'' and ''relevant and appropriate'' is provided, as well as definitions of chemical-, location-, and action-specific ARARS. ARARs promulgated by the federal government and by the state of Kentucky are listed in tables. In addition, the major provisions of RCRA, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, and other acts, as they apply to hazardous and radioactive waste cleanup, are discussed

  19. Final Environmental Impact Statement on 10 CFR Part 61 licensing requirements for land disposal of radioactive waste. Summary and main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    The three-volume final environmental impact statement (FEIS) is prepared to guide and support publication of a final regulation, 10 CFR Part 61, for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The FEIS is prepared in response to public comments received on the draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) on the proposed Part 61 regulation. The DEIS was published in September 1981 as NUREG-0782. Public comments received on the proposed Part 61 regulation separate from the DEIS are also considered in the FEIS. The FEIS is not a rewritten version of the DEIS, which contains an exhaustive and detailed analysis of alternatives, but rather references the DEIS and presents the final decision bases and conclusions (costs and impacts) which are reflected in the Part 61 requirements. Four cases are specifically considered in the FEIS representing the following: past disposal practice, existing disposal practice, Part 61 requirements, and an upper bound example. The Summary and Main Report are contained in Volume 1. Volume 2 consists of Appendices A - Staff Analysis of Public Comments on the DEIS for 10 CFR Part 61, and Appendices B - Staff Analysis of Public Comments on Proposed 10 CFR Part 61 Rulemaking. Volume 3 contains Appendices C-F, entitled as follows: Appendix C - Revisions to Impact Analysis Methodology, Appendix D - Computer Codes Used for FEIS Calculations, Appendix E - Errata for the DEIS for 10 CFR Part 61 and last, Appendix F - Final Rule and Supplementary Information

  20. Quantifying water requirements of riparian river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia: Implications for the management of environmental flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, Tanya M.; Colloff, Matthew J.; Davies, Micah; Koul, Vijay; Benyon, Richard G.; Nagler, Pamela L.

    2015-01-01

    Water resource development and drought have altered river flow regimes, increasing average flood return intervals across floodplains in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia, causing health declines in riparian river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) forests and woodlands. Environmental flow allocations helped to alleviate water stress during the recent Millennium Drought (1997–2010), however, quantification of the flood frequency required to support healthy E. camaldulensis communities is still needed. We quantified water requirements of E. camaldulensis for two years across a flood gradient (trees inundated at frequencies of 1:2, 1:5 and 1:10 years) at Yanga National Park, New South Wales to help inform management decision-making and design of environmental flows. Sap flow, evaporative losses and soil moisture measurements were used to determine transpiration, evapotranspiration and plant-available soil water before and after flooding. A formula was developed using plant-available soil water post-flooding and average annual rainfall, to estimate maintenance time of soil water reserves in each flood frequency zone. Results indicated that soil water reserves could sustain 1:2 and 1:5 trees for 15 months and six years, respectively. Trees regulated their transpiration rates, allowing them to persist within their flood frequency zone, and showed reduction in active sapwood area and transpiration rates when flood frequencies exceeded 1:2 years. A leaf area index of 0.5 was identified as a potential threshold indicator of severe drought stress. Our results suggest environmental water managers may have greater flexibility to adaptively manage floodplains in order to sustain E. camaldulensis forests and woodlands than has been appreciated hitherto.

  1. Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) for Remedial Action at the Oak Ridge Reservation: A compendium of major environmental laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etnier, E.L.; McDonald, E.P.; Houlberg, L.M.

    1993-07-01

    Section 121 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 specifies that remedial actions for cleanup of hazardous substances must comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARS) or standards under federal and state environmental laws. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was placed on the National Priorities List by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on November 21, 1989, effective December 21, 1989. As a result of this listing, DOE, EPA, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation have signed a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the environmental restoration of the ORR. Section XXI(F) of the FFA calls for the preparation of a draft listing of all ARARs as mandated by CERCLA section 121. This report supplies a preliminary list of available federal and state ARARs that might be considered for remedial response at the ORR. A description of the terms ''applicable'' and ''relevant and appropriate'' is provided, as well as definitions of chemical-, location-, and action-specific ARARS. ARARs promulgated by the federal government and by the state of Tennessee are listed in tables. In addition, the major provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air and other acts, as they apply to hazardous waste cleanup, are discussed. In the absence of ARARS, CERCLA section 121 provides for the use of nonpromulgated federal criteria, guidelines, and advisories in evaluating the human risk associated with remedial action alternatives. Such nonpromulgated standards are classified as ''to-be-considered'' (TBC) guidance. A ion of available guidance is given; summary tables fist the available federal standards and guidance information. In addition, the substantive contents of the DOE orders as they apply to remediation of radioactively contaminated sites are discussed as TBC guidance

  2. Next Generation Microbiology Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. M.; Oubre, C. M.; Elliott, T. F.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    technology. During 2011, this study focused on evaluating potable water requirements by assembling a forum of internal and external experts from NASA, other federal agencies, and academia. Key findings from this forum included: (1) Preventive design and operational strategies should be stringent and the primary focus of NASA's mitigation efforts, as they are cost effective and can be attained with conventional technology. (2) Microbial monitoring hardware should be simple and must be able to measure the viability of microorganisms in a sample. Multiple monitoring technologies can be utilized as long as at the microorganisms being identified can also be confirmed as viable. (3) Evidence showing alterations in the crew immune function and microbial virulence complicates risk assessments and creates the need for very conservative requirements. (4) One key source of infectious agents will always be the crew, and appropriate preventative measures should be taken preflight. (5) Water systems should be thoroughly disinfected (sterilized if possible) preflight and retain a residual biocide throughout the mission. Future forums will cover requirements for other types of samples, specifically spaceflight food and environmental samples, such as vehicle air and vehicle and cargo surfaces. An interim report on the potable water forum has been delivered to the Human Research Program with a final report on the recommendations for all sample types being delivered in September 2013.

  3. Black, green, and red abalones. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Southwest. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ault, J.S.

    1985-03-01

    Black, green, and red abalones (Haliotis cracherodii, H. fulgens, and H. rufescens, respectivley) are of commercial and ecological importance and are distributed widely along the California coast. The abalones are morphologically similar; species are distinguished by particular shell sculpture, color, and body characteristics. Their latitudinal and bathymetric distribution is stratified and most closely related to temperature. Small juveniles eat mainly microflora; adults eat primarily drift macro-algae, preferring specific brown or red algae, when available. Spawning occurs during summer; gonad ripening depends on food quality and quantity and water temperature. Larvae are lecithotrophic and remain planktonic for periods of 5 to 14 days after hatching; settling is substrate specific. Postlarvae and adults require hard substrate for attachment. Juveniles are cryptic, adults usually more exposed. Growth rates are similar, although maximum size varies with species. Increases in shell length and body weight correlate positively with food abundance and temperature. Below depths of 6 m, sea urchins are major competitors for food and space. Predation by invertebrates is low. Decreased abalone production from central California is associated with range expansion and increased predation by sea otters, the major source of abalone mortality. General declines in California landings are due to mortality from improper picking and replacement, habitat degradation, and perhaps overfishing. Commercial and sport diving efforts have increased sharply, whereas annual landings of abalones declined from 1965 to 1982.

  4. Optimizing the NPP refurbishment environmental qualification design process for an in-service installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacBeth, M.J.; Hemmings, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the Environmental Qualification (EQ) modification design work required to upgrade the Reactor Building (RB) airlocks at the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station B Facility. The RB airlocks provide a containment boundary function and are designed to prevent a breach of containment from occurring for all analysed station conditions. Recent, more stringent, Canadian Nuclear Regulatory actions have imposed EQ requirements for the RB airlocks in Canadian Nuclear Generating Stations. The airlocks are required to function under the worst-case design basis accident (DBA) conditions for the assigned mission duration and the design must demonstrate that a spurious door opening cannot be initiated by any accident conditions. This paper reviews key project design activities while providing detailed insights to the potential solution or elimination of some problematic aspects of these types of design activities. General recommendations for optimal technical management of such project implementation issues are presented. (author)

  5. Environmental quality and economic growth: Searching for environmental Kuznets curves for air and water pollutants in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orubu, Christopher O.; Omotor, Douglason G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between per capita income and environmental degradation in Africa, using longitudinal data on suspended particulate matter and organic water pollutants. The specific objective was to estimate environmental Kuznets curves for two indicators of environmental quality and to establish whether the estimated relationships conform to the inverted U-shape hypothesis. The results of the empirical investigation generally suggest the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve for suspended particulate matter. In the case of organic water pollutants, the evidence weighs more in favor of rising pollution as per capita income increases. The turning point levels of income established for the two indicators of environmental quality were however generally low, when compared to evidence from existing studies. On the face value, this suggests that African countries may be turning the corner of the environmental Kuznets curve, much faster, and at lower levels of income, much in line with the emerging idea of a 'revised environmental Kuznets curve'. The results also suggest that economic growth and rising incomes may matter in African countries in order to curb pollution from these pollutants, but more stringent policy measures, particularly at the industrial level would be required to curb environmental degradation from organic water pollutants. - Highlights: → The specific objective was to establish whether the relationships conform to the inverted U-shape hypothesis. → Evidence suggests the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve for suspended particulate matter. → The turning point levels of income established for the two indicators were however generally low. → We conclude that African countries may be turning the corner of the environmental Kuznets curve, much faster, and at lower levels of income.

  6. Nutrient Removal and Resource Recovery: Effect on Life Cycle Cost and Environmental Impacts of Small Scale Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many communities across the U.S. are required to upgrade wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) to meet increasingly stringent nutrient effluent standards. However, increased capital, energy and chemical requirements of upgrades create potential trade-offs between eutrophication pote...

  7. Proposed rulemaking exemption from licensing requirements for smelted alloys containing residual technetium-99 and low-enriched uranium. Draft environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    This environmental statement is concerned with the costs and benefits to be incurred in the exemption from federal (NRC) licensing requirements for smelted alloys containing residual technetium-99 and low enriched uranium at concentrations of 5 ppM and 17.5 ppM, respectively. The contaminated metals considered explicitly in the statement for smelting are the scrap copper, nickel, and iron resulting from the improvement and upgrading of the Department of Energy's gaseous diffusion plants. The environmental impacts considered are primarily the radiological doses derived from the smelted metal by the general public including foundary and fabrication workers. Economic impacts associated with building and operating the facilities to smelt the scrap are also considered. In addition, the energy savings through recycling of these materials back into the commercial marketplace instead of burying them is estimated. The principal alternatives to this proposed action are the sale of surface decontaminated scrap, recycle of decontaminated equipment, burial of contaminated scrap, surface storage of contaminated scrap; and issuance of either a general or specific license for scrap disposal

  8. Exemption from licensing requirements for spark-gap irradiators that contain cobalt-60: (Docket No. PRM 30-54): Draft environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    This Draft Statement on environmental considerations associated with the proposed exemption of cobalt-60 in spark-gap irradiators was prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Standards Development (the staff), in accordance with the Commission's regulation 10 CFR Part 51, which implements the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). The NEPA states, among other things, that the federal government has the continuing responsibility to use all practicable means, consistent with other essential considerations of national policy, to improve and to coordinate federal plans, functions, programs, and resources to the end that the nation may: fulfill the responsibilities of each generation as trustee of the environment for succeeding generations; assure for all Americans safe, healthful, productive, and esthetically and culturally pleasing surroundings; attain the widest range of beneficial uses of the environment without degradation, risk to health or safety, or other undesirable and unintended consequences; preserve important historic, cultural, and natural aspects of our national heritage, and maintain, wherever possible, an environment which supports diversity and variety of individual choice; achieve a balance between population and resource use which will permit high standards of living and a wide sharing of life's amenities; and enhance the quality of renewable resources and approach the maximum attainable recycling of depletable resources. 42 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

  9. Cost-benefit analysis for design of environmentally conscious manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matysiak, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, much attention has been focused on reducing the environmental impacts of products and manufacturing processes. Concerned about rising compliance costs and stringent regulatory requirements, companies are carefully evaluating the environmental impacts of their products. In response, designers, engineers, and managers are beginning to use life-cycle analysis, design for environment techniques, and environmentally conscious manufacturing (ECM) as tools to help them to not only do what is best for the environment, but also to do what is best for their company. These tools are also a useful aid in evaluating the trade-offs that may exist between different product and process alternatives. However, how does one choose the optimal solution from these various product and process alternatives? Cost versus benefit analysis is an effective tool that can be used to evaluate various manufacturing alternatives and to choose a solution that is both cost effective and environmentally compatible. Many companies are beginning to use cost benefit analyses as a means to justify product or process modifications that result in a benefit to the environment

  10. Hazardous Substance Release Reporting Under CERCLA, EPCR {section}304 and DOE Emergency Management System (EMS) and DOE Occurrence Reporting Requirements. Environmental Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traceski, T.T.

    1994-06-01

    Releases of various substances from DOE facilities may be subject to reporting requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), as well as DOE`s internal ``Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information`` and the ``Emergency Management System`` (EMS). CERCLA and EPCPA are Federal laws that require immediate reporting of a release of a Hazardous Substance (HS) and an Extremely Hazardous Substance (EHS), respectively, in a Reportable Quantity (RQ) or more within a 24-hour period. This guidance uses a flowchart, supplemental information, and tables to provide an overview of the process to be followed, and more detailed explanations of the actions that must be performed, when chemical releases of HSs, EHSs, pollutants, or contaminants occur at DOE facilities. This guidance should be used in conjunction with, rather than in lieu of, applicable laws, regulations, and DOE Orders. Relevant laws, regulations, and DOE Orders are referenced throughout this guidance.

  11. Studies for the requirements of automatic and remotely controlled shutoff valves on hazardous liquids and natural gas pipelines with respect to public and environmental safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oland, C. Barry [XCEL Engineering, Inc. (United States); Rose, Simon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Engineering Science and Technology Div.; Grant, Herb L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fabrication, Hoisting and Rigging Div.; Lower, Mark D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fabrication, Hoisting and Rigging Div.; Spann, Mark A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Facility Management Div.; Kirkpatrick, John R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computational Sciences and Engineering Div.; Sulfredge, C. David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computational Sciences and Engineering Div.

    2012-12-01

    another and may not be consistent with those considered in this study. Consequently, the technical, operational, and economic feasibility and potential cost benefits of installing ASVs and RCVs in newly constructed or fully replaced pipelines need to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. In theory, installing ASVs and RCVs in pipelines can be an effective strategy for mitigating potential consequences of unintended releases because decreasing the total volume of the release reduces overall impacts on the public and to the environment. However, block valve closure has no effect on preventing pipeline failure or stopping the product that remains inside the isolated pipeline segments from escaping into the environment. The benefits in terms of cost avoidance attributed to block valve closure swiftness increase as the time required to isolate the damaged transmission pipeline segment decreases. Block valve closure swiftness is most effective in mitigating damage resulting from a pipeline release and subsequent fire when the damaged pipeline segment is isolated and the thermal radiation produced by the fire declines in time so that emergency responders can safely begin fire fighting activities immediately upon arrival at the scene. Similarly, the avoided cost of socioeconomic and environmental damage for hazardous liquid pipeline releases without ignition increase as time required to isolate the damaged pipeline segment decreases.

  12. Species profiles: Life history and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida): King mackerel and Spanish mackerel. [Scomberomorus cavalla; Scomberomorus maculatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godcharles, M.F.; Murphy, M.D.

    1986-06-01

    This Species Profile on king and Spanish mackerel summarizes the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, fishery descriptions, ecological role, and environmental requirements of these coastal pelagic fish to assist environmental impact assessment. King and Spanish mackerel support major commercial and sport fisheries in south Florida. In 1974 to 1983, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic commercial landings of king mackerel declined from 10.4 to 4.3 million lb.; Spanish mackerel have fluctuated between 4.9 to 17.4 million lb. Both inhabit coastal waters, but Spanish mackerel are generally found closer to beaches and in outer estuarine waters. Both species feed principally on estuarine-dependent species. They are highly migratory, exhibiting seasonal migrations to winter feeding grounds off south Florida and summer spawning/feeding grounds in the northern Gulf of Mexico and off the Atlantic coast of the Southeastern US. Spawning occurs from March/April through September/October between the middle and Outer Continental Shelf (35 to 183 mi) for king mackerel and the inner shelf (12 to 34 mi) for Spanish mackerel. King mackerel reach sexual maturity in their 3rd and 4th years and Spanish, between their 2nd and 3rd. Female king mackerel live longer and grow larger and faster than males. Spanish mackerel live to 8 years; females also grow faster than males. King and Spanish mackerel feed principally on schooling fishes. Larvae and juveniles of both species are prey to little tunny and dolphin; adults are prey for sharks and bottlenose dolphin. Temperature and salinity are important factors regulating mackerel distribution.

  13. Comparison and Analysis of Regulatory and Derived Requirements for Certain DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Shipments; Lessons Learned for Future Spent Fuel Transportation Campaigns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, George L.; Fawcett, Rick L.; Rieke, Philip C.

    2003-01-01

    Radioactive materials transportation is stringently regulated by the Department of Transportation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to protect the public and the environment. As a Federal agency, however, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) must seek State, Tribal and local input on safety issues for certain transportation activities. This interaction has invariably resulted in the imposition of extra-regulatory requirements, greatly increasing transportation costs and delaying schedules while not significantly enhancing the level of safety. This paper discusses the results an analysis of the regulatory and negotiated requirements established for a July 1998 shipment of spent nuclear fuel from foreign countries through the west coast to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Staff from the INEEL Nuclear Materials Engineering and Disposition Department undertook the analysis in partnership with HMTC, to discover if there were instances where requirements derived from stakeholder interactions duplicate, contradict, or otherwise overlap with regulatory requirements. The study exhaustively lists and classifies applicable Department of Transportation (DOT) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. These are then compared with a similarly classified list of requirements from the Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) and those developed during stakeholder negotiations. Comparison and analysis reveals numerous attempts to reduce transportation risk by imposing more stringent safety measures than those required by DOT and NRC. These usually took the form of additional inspection, notification and planning requirements. There are also many instances of overlap with, and duplication of regulations. Participants will gain a greater appreciation for the need to understand the risk-oriented basis of the radioactive materials regulations and their effectiveness in ensuring safety when negotiating extra-regulatory requirements

  14. Environmental compliance assessment review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliday, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    During the period 1972-1991, The United States Congress passed stringent environmental statues which the Environment Protection Agency implemented via regulations. The statues and regulations contain severe civil and criminal penalties. Civil violations resulted in fines, typically payable by the company. The act of willfully and knowingly violating the permit conditions or regulations can result in criminal charges being imposed upon the responsible part, i.e., either the company or individual. Criminal charges can include fines, lawyer fees, court costs and incarceration. This paper describes steps necessary to form an effective Environmental Compliance Assessment Review [CAR] program, train field and engineering personnel and perform a CAR audit. Additionally, the paper discusses the findings of a number of Exploration and Production [E and P] field audits

  15. Impact of sample size on principal component analysis ordination of an environmental data set: effects on eigenstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaukat S. Shahid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used bootstrap simulation of a real data set to investigate the impact of sample size (N = 20, 30, 40 and 50 on the eigenvalues and eigenvectors resulting from principal component analysis (PCA. For each sample size, 100 bootstrap samples were drawn from environmental data matrix pertaining to water quality variables (p = 22 of a small data set comprising of 55 samples (stations from where water samples were collected. Because in ecology and environmental sciences the data sets are invariably small owing to high cost of collection and analysis of samples, we restricted our study to relatively small sample sizes. We focused attention on comparison of first 6 eigenvectors and first 10 eigenvalues. Data sets were compared using agglomerative cluster analysis using Ward’s method that does not require any stringent distributional assumptions.

  16. Environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iannone, G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper focusses on one of the basic points of EU (European Union) regulation 1863/1993, namely the disclosure of information via an environmental statement. The author examines the uses to which the data may be put, emphasizes the importance of the environmental statement's contents and addressee, and describes the key function of external data control by an environmental verifier. Lastly, the author shows that the environmental statement could replace a number of documents that companies are now required to file with various agencies; this would reduce their administrative burden

  17. Applying environmental externalities to US Clean Coal Technologies for Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The United States is well positioned to play an expanding role in meeting the energy technology demands of the Asian Pacific Basin, including Indonesia, Thailand, and the Republic of China (ROC-Taiwan). The US Department of Energy Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program provides a proving ground for innovative coal-related technologies that can be applied domestically and abroad. These innovative US CCTs are expected to satisfy increasingly stringent environmental requirements while substantially improving power generation efficiencies. They should also provide distinct advantages over conventional pulverized coal-fired combustors. Finally, they are expected to be competitive with other energy options currently being considered in the region. This paper presents potential technology scenarios for Indonesia, Thailand, and the ROC-Taiwan and considers an environmental cost-benefit approach employing a newly developed method of applying environmental externalities. Results suggest that the economic benefits from increased emission control can indeed be quantified and used in cost-benefit comparisons, and that US CCTs can be very cost effective in reducing emissions

  18. Analysis of the environmental control technology for tar sand development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Nevers, N.; Glenne, B.; Bryner, C.

    1979-06-01

    The environmental technology for control of air pollution, water pollution, and for the disposal, stabilization, and vegetation of the waste tar sand were thoroughly investigated. Although some difficulties may be encountered in any of these undertakings, it seems clear that the air and water pollution problems can be solved to meet any applicable standard. Currently there are two large-scale plants producing liquid fuels from tar sands in Alberta, Canada which use similar technology involving surface mining, hot water extraction, and surface disposal of waste sand. These projects all meet the Canadian environmental control regulations in force at the time they began. The largest US deposits of tar sands are much smaller than the Canadian; 95 percent are located in the state of Utah. Their economics do not appear as attractive as the Canadian deposits. The environmental control costs are not large enough to make an otherwise economic project uneconomic. The most serious environmental conflict likely to occur over the recovery of liquid fuels from the US deposits of tar sands is that caused by the proximity of the deposits to national parks, national monuments, and a national recreation area in Utah. These areas have very stringent air pollution requirements; and even if the air pollution control requirements can be met, there may still be adequate opposition to large-scale mining ventures in these areas to prevent their commercial exploitation. Another environmental constraint may be water rights availability.Essentially all of the water running in the Colorado river basin is now legally allocated. Barring new interpretations of the legality of water rights purchase, Utah tar sands developments should be able to obtain water by purchasing existing irrigation water rights.

  19. Consideration of environmental externality costs in electric utility resource selections and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottinger, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    A surprising number of state electric utility regulatory commissions (half) have started to require consideration of environmental externality costs in utility planning and resource selection. The principal rationale for doing so is that electric utility operations impose very real and large damages to human health and the environment which are not taken into account by traditional utility least cost planning, resource selection procedures, or by government pollution regulation. These failures effectively value the residual environmental costs to society of utility operations at zero. The likely future prospect for more stringent governmental pollution regulation renders imprudent the selection of resources without taking environmental externality costs into consideration. Most regulatory commissions requiring environmental externality consideration have left it to the utilities to compute the societal costs, although a few have either set those costs themselves or used a proxy adder to polluting resource costs (or bonus for non-polluting resources). These commissions have used control or pollution mitigation costs, rather than societal damage costs, in their regulatory computations. This paper recommends that damage costs be used where adequate studies exist to permit quantification, discusses the methodologies for their measurement, and describes the means that have been and might be used for their incorporation

  20. A comparison of different regulatory approaches, analysis of the relative benefits of command and control, reflexive law and social licensing in ensuring oil industry compliance with environmentally sustainable practices and obligations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanaati, Sahar

    This paper explores the relative benefits of command and control, reflexive law and social licensing in ensuring oil industry compliance with environmentally sustainable practices and obligations. Recognizing why oil sands and their development are significant, the background and development are reviewed first, and then the focus is shifted to look at its economics including the benefits, uncertainties and environmental costs of development. This paper examines how lawmakers in Canada have failed to meet their respective obligation. Drawing on environmental provisions, case law and legal scholars’ articles, books and reports, this paper examines the very problematic issue of oil sands regulation. It proposes to provide an in depth analysis of each regulatory forms and their application to the oil sands. It concludes that in order to solve the oil sands regulation challenges, a collaborative stringent enforcement of regulation from both federal and provincial governments, oil industry and public Pressure is required.

  1. Safety and environmental aspects of zinc--chlorine hydrate batteries for electric-vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodali, S.; Henriksen, G.L.; Whittlesey, C.C.; Warde, C.J.; Carr, P.; Symons, P.C.

    1978-03-01

    Public acceptance of high-performance cost-effective zinc--chlorine hydrate batteries for the random-use electric-vehicle application will require meeting stringent safety and environmental requirements. These requirements revolve mainly around the question of accidental release and spread of toxic amounts of chlorine gas, the only potential hazard in this battery system. Available information in the areas of physiological effects, environmental impact, and governmental regulation of chlorine were reviewed. The design, operation, and safety features of a first commercial electric-vehicle battery were conceived and analyzed from the chlorine release aspect. Two types of accident scenarios were analyzed in terms of chlorine release rates, atmospheric dispersion, health hazard, and possible clean-up operations. The worst-case scenario, a quite improbable accident, involves the spillage of chlorine hydrate onto the ground, while the other scenario, a more probable accident, involves the release of chlorine gas from a ruptured battery case. Heat-transfer and chlorine-dispersion models, developed to analyze these scenarios, establish a firm basis for a comprehenive and factual position statement on this topic. The results of this preliminary study suggest that electric vehicles powered by appropriately designed zinc--chlorine hydrate batteries will pose negligible health or environmental hazards on the nation's streets and highways. 8 figures, 14 tables.

  2. Integrating environmental taxes on local air pollutants with fiscal reform in Hungary: simulations with a computable general equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Glenn E.; Revesz, Tamas; Zalai, Ernoe; Fucsko, Jozsef

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the Fiscal Environmental Integration Model (FEIM) and its use to examine the merits of introducing a set of air pollutant emission taxes and stringent abatement requirements based on best commonly available control technology. These environmental protection strategies are examined both independently and in combination. In addition, Hungary has very high VAT, employment, and income tax rates and therefore might receive more than the usual advantage from using environmental tax revenues to reduce other taxes. We therefore also examine the economic and environmental implications of different uses of the revenues generated by the air pollutant emissions taxes. FEIM is a CGE model of the Hungarian economy that includes sectoral air pollution control costs functions and execution options that allow examination of the key policy choices involved. We developed and ran a baseline and seven scenarios with FEIM. The scenarios centered on introduction of environmental load fees (ELF) on emissions of SO 2 , NO x , and particulates and emission abatement requirements (EAR) for these pollutants. (Author)

  3. Environmental compliance management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, A. [Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI (United States); Larrinaga, L.

    1995-12-01

    A cross-functional team of environmental regulatory experts, plant managers, and plant engineers have been working since 1991 on the development, implementation and maintenance of the Environmental Compliance Management System. The Environmental Compliance Management System is a practical and accurate method of determining the applicability of the state and federal environmental regulations and of establishing standard and straightforward procedures to meet these requirements. The Environmental Compliance Management System allows individual manufacturing facilities to avoid the additional manpower that would be required to read, digest and decide on the applicability and plan of action to meet the requirements of all the environmental regulations.

  4. Analysis of the environmental control technology for oil shale development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Nevers, N.; Eckhoff, D.; Swanson, S.; Glenne, B.; Wagner, F.

    1978-02-01

    The environmental control technology proposed in the various oil shale projects which are under development are examined. The technologies for control of air pollution, water pollution, and for the disposal, stabilization, and vegetation of the processed shale were thoroughly investigated. Although some difficulties may be encountered in any of these undertakings, it seems clear that the air and water pollution problems can be solved to meet any applicable standard. There are no published national standards against which to judge the stabilization and vegetation of the processed shale. However, based on the goal of producing an environmentally and aesthetically acceptable finished processed shale pile, it seems probable that this can be accomplished. It is concluded that the environmental control technology is available to meet all current legal requirements. This was not the case before Colorado changed their applicable Air Pollution regulations in August of 1977; the previous ones for the oil shale region were sufficiently stringent to have caused a problem for the current stage of oil shale development. Similarly, the federal air-quality, non-deterioration regulations could be interpreted in the future in ways which would be difficult for the oil shale industry to comply with. The Utah water-quality, non-deterioration regulations could also be a problem. Thus, the only specific regulations which may be a problem are the non-deterioration parts of air and water quality regulations. The unresolved areas of environmental concern with oil shale processing are mostly for the problems not covered by existing environmental law, e.g., trace metals, polynuclear organics, ground water-quality changes, etc. These may be problems, but no evidence is yet available that these problems will prevent the successful commercialization of oil shale production.

  5. Major weapon system environmental life-cycle cost estimating for Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C3P2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Wesley; Thurston, Marland; Hood, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    The Titan 4 Space Launch Vehicle Program is one of many major weapon system programs that have modified acquisition plans and operational procedures to meet new, stringent environmental rules and regulations. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Defense (DOD) mandate to reduce the use of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) is just one of the regulatory changes that has affected the program. In the last few years, public environmental awareness, coupled with stricter environmental regulations, has created the need for DOD to produce environmental life-cycle cost estimates (ELCCE) for every major weapon system acquisition program. The environmental impact of the weapon system must be assessed and budgeted, considering all costs, from cradle to grave. The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) has proposed that organizations consider Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C(sup 3)P(sup 2)) issues associated with each acquisition program to assess life-cycle impacts and costs. The Air Force selected the Titan 4 system as the pilot program for estimating life-cycle environmental costs. The estimating task required participants to develop an ELCCE methodology, collect data to test the methodology and produce a credible cost estimate within the DOD C(sup 3)P(sup 2) definition. The estimating methodology included using the Program Office weapon system description and work breakdown structure together with operational site and manufacturing plant visits to identify environmental cost drivers. The results of the Titan IV ELCCE process are discussed and expanded to demonstrate how they can be applied to satisfy any life-cycle environmental cost estimating requirement.

  6. International Symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Exploration, Mining, Production, Supply and Demand, Economics and Environmental Issues. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The long term sustainability of nuclear power will depend on, among several factors, an adequate supply of uranium resources that can be delivered to the marketplace at competitive prices. New exploration technologies and a better understanding of the genesis of uranium ores will be required to discover often deep-seated and increasingly hard to find uranium deposits. Exploration, mining and milling technologies should be environmentally benign, and site decommissioning plans should meet the requirements of increasingly stringent environmental regulations and societal expectations. The purpose of this symposium is to analyse uranium supply–demand scenarios and to present and discuss new developments in uranium geology, exploration, mining and processing, as well as in environmental requirements for uranium operations and site decommissioning. The presentations and discussions at URAM-2014 will: - Lead to a better understanding of the adequacy of uranium sources (both primary and secondary) to meet future demand; - Provide information on geological models, new exploration concepts, knowledge and technologies that will potentially lead to the discovery and development of new uranium resources; - Describe new production technologies that have the potential to more efficiently and sustainably develop new uranium resources; and - Document the environmental compatibility of uranium production and the overall effectiveness of progressive final decommissioning and, where required, remediation of production facilities.

  7. W. European refiners face tough environmental rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports that western Europe's refiners are beginning to grapple with the kind of fundamental changes and huge outlays related to stringent new environmental standards their U.S. counterparts are encountering. Just as the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAAA) is transforming the shape of U.S refining and imposing staggering costs on refiners there, new directives proposed by the European Community Commission threaten the same for western European refiners. Given the current state of the industry in Europe, industry officials warn, refiners there might not be able to fund those massive environmental outlays

  8. Requirements for, and benefits of, environmentally sound and economically viable management of battery recycling in the Philippines in the wake of Basel Convention trade restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, U.; Wilson, B.

    The ban on the export of used lead-acid batteries (ULAB) from Annex VII to non-Annex VII countries pursuant to decision III/1 of the Basel Convention reduced the availability of imported scrap feedstock for battery recycling in the Philippines. As ULAB supply from other developing countries becomes scarcer, the ban is likely to encourage and enhance collection and recuperation for domestically generated scrap. From a short-term perspective, this study explores the technological and managerial opportunities for improving the environmental and occupational health performance of the formal battery recycling sector and unregulated reconditioning. From a medium- and long-term point of view, the study investigates restructuring the informal ULAB's collection and recycling sector. The objective has been to make the smaller battery recyclers and reconditioners in the informal sector part of an effective and efficient collection infrastructure that supports an environmentally sound secondary lead sector. This approach gradually phases out uncontrolled, inefficient and environmentally unacceptable methods of secondary lead recovery. Due attention has also been paid to the logistical peculiarities of an archipelago, in particular the regional spread of collection infrastructure, collection and shipment costs as well as the assurance of environmentally safe transport.

  9. Integrated soil and water management in acid sulphate soils : balancing agricultural production and environmental requirements in the Mekong Delta, Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, Q.M.

    1996-01-01


    The objectives of this study in the Mekong delta, Vietnam, were: (1) to obtain a better understanding of the effects of soil physical properties and flow types on solute transport in ASS emphasing aluminum; (2) to quantify environmental hazards resulting from amelioration activities in

  10. Energy and environmental profile of the U.S. iron and steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolis, N.; Sousa, L.

    1997-01-01

    The iron and steel industry, which accounts for between two and three percent of all energy consumed in this country, is also striving to improve its energy efficiency. The amount of energy required to produce a ton of steel has decreased by more than 40% since 1975. This reduction has been accomplished in part through adoption of more energy-efficient and productive processing steps. However, the capital to invest in new technologies is increasingly limited, especially as the costs of environmental control continue to rise. Other than foreign competition, the biggest challenge facing the industry today is compliance with environmental regulations. The Clean Air Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act have had significant impacts on the industry. Since 1970, the industry has invested approximately $6 billion in pollution control systems. The industry spent approximately $230 million in both 1993 and 1994 on capital expenditures for pollution abatement. In a typical year, 15% of the industry's capital investments go to environmental projects. The industry faces even more challenges in the future as new, more stringent regulations are enacted. Topics covered here are: market trends and statistics; energy and materials consumption; and an environmental overview

  11. Policy and Strategies for Environmental Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    In the environmental remediation of a given site, concerned and interested parties have diverse and often conflicting interests with regard to remediation goals, the time frames involved, reuse of the site, the efforts necessary and cost allocation. An environmental remediation policy is essential for establishing the core values on which remediation is to be based. It incorporates a set of principles to ensure the safe and efficient management of remediation situations. Policy is mainly established by the national government and may become codified in the national legislative system. An environmental remediation strategy sets out the means for satisfying the principles and requirements of the national policy. It is normally established by the relevant remediation implementer or by the government in the case of legacy sites. Thus, the national policy may be elaborated in several different strategies. To ensure the safe, technically optimal and cost effective management of remediation situations, countries are advised to formulate an appropriate policy and strategies. Situations involving remediation include remediation of legacy sites (sites where past activities were not stringently regulated or adequately supervised), remediation after emergencies (nuclear and radiological) and remediation after planned ongoing operation and decommissioning. The environmental policy involves the principles of justification, optimization of protection, protection of future generations and the environment, efficiency in the use of resources, and transparent interaction with stakeholders. A typical policy will also take into account the national legal framework and institutional structure and applicable international conventions while providing for the allocation of responsibilities and resources, in addition to safety and security objectives and public information and participation in the decision making process. The strategy reflects and elaborates the goals and requirements set

  12. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter environmental protection in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed. The economics of environmental protection, state budget, Slovak state environmental fund, economic instruments, environmental laws, environmental impact assessment, environmental management systems, and environmental education are presented

  13. Indicators for environmental sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yan; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2017-01-01

    Decision making on sustainable consumption and production requires scientifically based information on sustainability. Different environmental sustainability targets exist for specific decision problems. To observe how well these targets are met, relevant environmental indicators are needed...

  14. Environmental Compliance Issue Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    An order to establish the Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for coordination of significant environmental compliance issues to ensure timely development and consistent application of Departmental environmental policy and guidance

  15. New insights into the regulatory pathways associated with the activation of the stringent response in bacterial resistance to the PBP2-targeted antibiotics, mecillinam and OP0595/RG6080.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumith, M; Mushtaq, S; Livermore, D M; Woodford, N

    2016-10-01

    The diazabicyclooctane β-lactamase inhibitor OP0595 (RG6080) also acts as an antibiotic, targeting PBP2 in Enterobacteriaceae, but this activity is vulnerable to mutational resistance. We used WGS to investigate the basis of this resistance. Twenty OP0595-selected mutants, comprising four derived from each of five different Escherichia coli strains, were sequenced on Illumina HiSeq. Reads from each mutant were mapped to the assembled genome of the corresponding parent. A variant-calling file generated with Samtools was parsed to determine genetic alterations. Besides OP0595, the mutants consistently showed decreased susceptibility to mecillinam, which likewise targets PBP2, and grew as stable round forms in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of OP0595. Among the 20 mutants, 18 had alterations in genes encoding tRNA synthase and modification functions liable to induce expression of the RpoS sigma factor through activation of the stringent response or had mutations suppressing inactivators of RpoS or the stringent response signal-degrading enzyme, SpoT. TolB was inactivated in one mutant: this activates RcsBC regulation and was previously associated with mecillinam resistance. The mechanism of resistance remained unidentified in one mutant. Both the RpoS and RcsBC systems regulate genes of cell division, including ftsAQZ that can compensate for loss or inhibition of PBP2, allowing survival of the challenged bacteria as stable round forms, as seen. WGS identified the global stringent response signal, entailing induction of RpoS, as the main mediator of mutational resistance to OP0595 in E. coli. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Closure requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Closure of a waste management unit can be either permanent or temporary. Permanent closure may be due to: economic factors which make it uneconomical to mine the remaining minerals; depletion of mineral resources; physical site constraints that preclude further mining and beneficiation; environmental, regulatory or other requirements that make it uneconomical to continue to develop the resources. Temporary closure can occur for a period of several months to several years, and may be caused by factors such as: periods of high rainfall or snowfall which prevent mining and waste disposal; economic circumstances which temporarily make it uneconomical to mine the target mineral; labor problems requiring a cessation of operations for a period of time; construction activities that are required to upgrade project components such as the process facilities and waste management units; and mine or process plant failures that require extensive repairs. Permanent closure of a mine waste management unit involves the provision of durable surface containment features to protect the waters of the State in the long-term. Temporary closure may involve activities that range from ongoing maintenance of the existing facilities to the installation of several permanent closure features in order to reduce ongoing maintenance. This paper deals with the permanent closure features

  17. The g-factor of the electron bound in {sup 28}Si{sup 13+}. The most stringent test of bound-state quantum electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, Sven

    2012-09-06

    This thesis describes the ultra-precise determination of the g-factor of the electron bound to hydrogenlike {sup 28}Si{sup 13+}. The experiment is based on the simultaneous determination of the cyclotron- and Larmor frequency of a single ion, which is stored in a triple Penning-trap setup. The continuous Stern-Gerlach effect is used to couple the spin of the bound electron to the motional frequencies of the ion via a magnetic bottle, which allows the non-destructive determination of the spin state. To this end, a highly sensitive, cryogenic detection system was developed, which allowed the direct, non-destructive detection of the eigenfrequencies with the required precision. The development of a novel, phase sensitive detection technique finally allowed the determination of the g-factor with a relative accuracy of 4 . 10{sup -11}, which was previously inconceivable. The comparison of the hereby determined value with the value predicted by quantumelectrodynamics (QED) allows the verification of the validity of this fundamental theory under the extreme conditions of the strong binding potential of a highly charged ion. The exact agreement of theory and experiment is an impressive demonstration of the exactness of QED. The experimental possibilities created in this work will allow in the near future not only further tests of theory, but also the determination of the mass of the electron with a precision that exceeds the current literature value by more than an order of magnitude.

  18. Biological and Environmental Research Exascale Requirements Review. An Office of Science review sponsored jointly by Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Biological and Environmental Research, March 28-31, 2016, Rockville, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkin, Adam [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bader, David C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Coffey, Richard [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Antypas, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bard, Deborah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Dart, Eli [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Esnet; Dosanjh, Sudip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gerber, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hack, James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Monga, Inder [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Esnet; Papka, Michael E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Riley, Katherine [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Esnet; Straatsma, Tjerk [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wells, Jack [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Aluru, Srinivas [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Andersen, Amity [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Aprá, Edoardo [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). EMSL; Azad, Ariful [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bates, Susan [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Blaby, Ian [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaby-Haas, Crysten [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bonneau, Rich [New York Univ. (NYU), NY (United States); Bowen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bradford, Mark A. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Brodie, Eoin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brown, James (Ben) [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Buluc, Aydin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bernholdt, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bylaska, Eric [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Calvin, Kate [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cannon, Bill [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chen, Xingyuan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cheng, Xiaolin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cheung, Margaret [Univ. of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Chowdhary, Kenny [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Colella, Phillip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Collins, Bill [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Compo, Gil [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); Crowley, Mike [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Debusschere, Bert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); D’Imperio, Nicholas [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Dror, Ron [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Egan, Rob [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Evans, Katherine [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Friedberg, Iddo [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Fyke, Jeremy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gao, Zheng [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Georganas, Evangelos [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Giraldo, Frank [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States); Gnanakaran, Gnana [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Govind, Niri [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). EMSL; Grandy, Stuart [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Gustafson, Bill [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hammond, Glenn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hargrove, William [USDA Forest Service, Washington, D.C. (United States); Heroux, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoffman, Forrest [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hofmeyr, Steven [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hunke, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jackson, Charles [Univ. of Texas-Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Jacob, Rob [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jacobson, Dan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jacobson, Matt [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Jain, Chirag [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Johansen, Hans [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Johnson, Jeff [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jones, Andy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jones, Phil [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kalyanaraman, Ananth [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Kang, Senghwa [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); King, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Koanantakool, Penporn [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Kollias, Pavlos [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Kopera, Michal [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Kotamarthi, Rao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kowalski, Karol [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). EMSL; Kumar, Jitendra [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kyrpides, Nikos [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leung, Ruby [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Xiaolin [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Lin, Wuyin [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Link, Robert [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Yangang [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Loew, Leslie [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Luke, Edward [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ma, Hsi -Yen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan [Univ. of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Maranas, Costas [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Martin, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Maslowski, Wieslaw [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States); McCue, Lee Ann [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McInnes, Lois Curfman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mills, Richard [Intel Corp., Santa Clara, CA (United States); Molins Rafa, Sergi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morozov, Dmitriy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mostafavi, Sara [Center for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Moulton, David J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mourao, Zenaida [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Najm, Habib [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Ng, Bernard [Center for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Ng, Esmond [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Norman, Matt [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Oh, Sang -Yun [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Oliker, Leonid [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pan, Chongle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pass, Rebecca [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pau, George S. H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Petridis, Loukas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Prakash, Giri [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Price, Stephen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Randall, David [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Renslow, Ryan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Riihimaki, Laura [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ringler, Todd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Roberts, Andrew [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States); Rokhsar, Dan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ruebel, Oliver [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Salinger, Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scheibe, Tim [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schulz, Roland [Intel, Mountain View, CA (United States); Sivaraman, Chitra [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Jeremy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sreepathi, Sarat [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Steefel, Carl [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Talbot, Jenifer [Boston Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Tantillo, D. J. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Tartakovsky, Alex [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Taylor, Ronald [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Trebotich, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Urban, Nathan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Valiev, Marat [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). EMSL; Wagner, Allon [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wainwright, Haruko [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wieder, Will [NCAR/Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Wiley, Steven [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Dean [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Worley, Pat [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Xie, Shaocheng [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Yelick, Kathy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yoo, Shinjae [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yosef, Niri [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhang, Minghua [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Understanding the fundamentals of genomic systems or the processes governing impactful weather patterns are examples of the types of simulation and modeling performed on the most advanced computing resources in America. High-performance computing and computational science together provide a necessary platform for the mission science conducted by the Biological and Environmental Research (BER) office at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This report reviews BER’s computing needs and their importance for solving some of the toughest problems in BER’s portfolio. BER’s impact on science has been transformative. Mapping the human genome, including the U.S.-supported international Human Genome Project that DOE began in 1987, initiated the era of modern biotechnology and genomics-based systems biology. And since the 1950s, BER has been a core contributor to atmospheric, environmental, and climate science research, beginning with atmospheric circulation studies that were the forerunners of modern Earth system models (ESMs) and by pioneering the implementation of climate codes onto high-performance computers. See http://exascaleage.org/ber/ for more information.

  19. Waste management system requirements document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This volume defines the top level requirements for the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS). It is designed to be used in conjunction with Volume 1 of the WMSR, General System Requirements. It provides a functional description expanding the requirements allocated to the MGDS in Volume 1 and elaborates on each requirement by providing associated performance criteria as appropriate. Volumes 1 and 4 of the WMSR provide a minimum set of requirements that must be satisfied by the final MGDS design. This document sets forth specific requirements that must be fulfilled. It is not the intent or purpose of this top level document to describe how each requirement is to be satisfied in the final MGDS design. Each subsequent level of the technical document hierarchy must provide further guidance and definition as to how each of these requirements is to be implemented in the design. It is expected that each subsequent level of requirements will be significantly more detailed. Section 2 of this volume provides a functional description of the MGDS. Each function is addressed in terms of requirements, and performance criteria. Section 3 provides a list of controlling documents. Each document cited in a requirement of Chapter 2 is included in this list and is incorporated into this document as a requirement on the final system. The WMSR addresses only federal requirements (i.e., laws, regulations and DOE orders). State and local requirements are not addressed. However, it will be specifically noted at the potentially affected WMSR requirements that there could be additional or more stringent regulations imposed by a state or local requirements or administering agency over the cited federal requirements

  20. The central dynamics of M3, M13, and M92: stringent limits on the masses of intermediate-mass black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamann, S.; Wisotzki, L.; Roth, M. M.; Gerssen, J.; Husser, T.-O.; Sandin, C.; Weilbacher, P.

    2014-06-01

    We used the PMAS integral field spectrograph to obtain large sets of radial velocities in the central regions of three northern Galactic globular clusters: M3, M13, and M92. By applying the novel technique of crowded field 3D spectroscopy, we measured radial velocities for about 80 stars within the central ~10″ of each cluster. These are by far the largest spectroscopic datasets obtained in the innermost parts of these clusters up to now. To obtain kinematical data across the whole extent of the clusters, we complement our data with measurements available in the literature. We combine our velocity measurements with surface brightness profiles to analyse the internal dynamics of each cluster using spherical Jeans models, and investigate whether our data provide evidence for an intermediate-mass black hole in any of the clusters. The surface brightness profiles reveal that all three clusters are consistent with a core profile, although shallow cusps cannot be excluded. We find that spherical Jeans models with a constant mass-to-light ratio provide a good overall representation of the kinematical data. A massive black hole is required in none of the three clusters to explain the observed kinematics. Our 1σ (3σ) upper limits are 5300 M⊙ (12 000 M⊙) for M3, 8600 M⊙ (13 000 M⊙) for M13, and 980 M⊙ (2700 M⊙) for M92. A puzzling circumstance is the existence of several potential high velocity stars in M3 and M13, as their presence can account for the majority of the discrepancies that we find in our mass limits compared to M92. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgTables D.1 to D.6 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  1. The impact of architectural design upon the environmental sound and light exposure of neonates who require intensive care: an evaluation of the Boekelheide Neonatal Intensive Care Nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, D C; Akram Khan, M; Munson, D P; Reid, E J; Helseth, C C; Buggy, J

    2007-12-01

    To evaluate the differences in environmental sound, illumination and physiological parameters in the Boekelheide Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (BNICU), which was designed to comply with current recommendations and standards, as compared with a conventional neonatal intensive care unit (CNICU). Prospectively designed observational study. Median sound levels in the unoccupied BNICU (37.6 dBA) were lower than the CNICU (42.1 dBA, P<0.001). Median levels of minimum (6.4 vs 48.4 lux, P<0.05) and maximum illumination (357 vs 402 lux, P<0.05) were lower in the BNICU. A group of six neonates delivered at 32 weeks gestation showed significantly less periodic breathing (14 vs 21%) and awake time (17.6 vs 29.3%) in the BNICU as compared to the CNICU. Light and sound were both significantly reduced in the BNICU. Care in the BNICU was associated with improved physiological parameters.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN AND ENVIRONMENTALLY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, environmental concern has been conceptualised as the manifestation of attitudes that are directed at behavioural intentions of active personal involvement in caring about environmental matters. Based on a critique of theoretical approaches towards understanding the formation of environmental attitudes, ...

  3. Master Plan for Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    This Task investigated the general question of environmental education from the standpoint of the shipyard industry. Personal interviews were...a listing of the environmental regulations and statutes that bear on environmental education . Analysis of the findings suggests that environmental ... education programs in most shipyards are limited to what is required by the regulations. Little or no additional environmental education is being

  4. Environmental priorities in Komi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, D.

    1994-01-01

    The big Russian republic Komi situated in the Ural Mountain region, suffers tremendous pollution problems despite its scarce population members. The Danish company N and R Consult has prepared an ''Ecological environment report'' commissioned by the Komi government. The N and R Consult tries to map the most important pollution areas: the Workuta coal mining region and coal-fueled power plants, petroleum refinery at Ukhta, oil wells at Usinsk, natural gas industry at Sosnogorsk. All these industrial enterprises have practically no filters for their noxious gas emissions, the Pechora river is massively polluted by industrial waste water and occasional oil spills from leaking pipelines. Mountains of industrial slags add to ground water pollution. Concentrations of petroleum products, phenols, heavy metals and pesticides in river water are periodically totally unacceptable. The government of the Komi republic needs assistance in its environmental endeavours, the present pollution limit norms being as stringent as in the West Europe. Waste processing plants are planned. Standard procedures for Arctic environment protection in oil- and mineral recovelry processes are being prepared in a coordinated master plan. Special companies are established by the N and R Consult and the Komi State Oil Company in order to solve the problems of the environmental policy. (EG)

  5. Work in support of biosphere assessments for solid radioactive waste disposal. 1. performance assessments, requirements and methodology; criteria for radiological environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, M.J.; Loose, M.; Smith, G.M.; Watkins, B.M.

    2001-10-01

    The first part of this report is intended to assess how the recent Swedish regulatory developments and resulting criteria impose requirements on what should be included in a performance assessment (PA) for the SFR low and medium level waste repository and for a potential deep repository for high level waste. The second part of the report has been prepared by QuantiSci as an input to the development of SSI's PA review methodology. The aim of the third part is to provide research input to the development of radiological protection framework for the environment, for use in Sweden. This is achieved through a review of various approaches used in other fields

  6. 1994 Site Environmental Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The 1994 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental activities at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) for the calendar year (CY) 1994. The report strives to present environmental data in a manner that characterizes the performance and compliance status of the Laboratory's environmental management programs when measured against regulatory standards and DOE requirements. The report also discusses significant highlight and planning efforts of these programs. The format and content of the report are consistent with the requirements of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program

  7. 1994 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The 1994 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental activities at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) for the calendar year (CY) 1994. The report strives to present environmental data in a manner that characterizes the performance and compliance status of the Laboratory`s environmental management programs when measured against regulatory standards and DOE requirements. The report also discusses significant highlight and planning efforts of these programs. The format and content of the report are consistent with the requirements of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program.

  8. Environmental Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP) is to show the current and future (five years) environmental plans from individual site organizations and divisions, as well as site environmental programs and initiatives which are designed to protect the environment and meet or exceed changing environmental/regulatory requirements. Communicating with site organizations, departments, and committees is essential in making the site's environmental-planning process work. The EIP gives the site the what, when, how, and why for environmental requirements. Through teamwork and proactive planning, a partnership for environmental excellence is formed to achieve the site vision for SRS to become the recognized model for Environmental Excellence in the Department of Energy's Nuclear Weapons Complex

  9. Environmental Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-15

    The purpose of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP) is to show the current and future (five years) environmental plans from individual site organizations and divisions, as well as site environmental programs and initiatives which are designed to protect the environment and meet or exceed changing environmental/regulatory requirements. Communicating with site organizations, departments, and committees is essential in making the site's environmental-planning process work. The EIP gives the site the what, when, how, and why for environmental requirements. Through teamwork and proactive planning, a partnership for environmental excellence is formed to achieve the site vision for SRS to become the recognized model for Environmental Excellence in the Department of Energy's Nuclear Weapons Complex.

  10. Environmental Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-15

    The purpose of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP) is to show the current and future (five years) environmental plans from individual site organizations and divisions, as well as site environmental programs and initiatives which are designed to protect the environment and meet or exceed changing environmental/regulatory requirements. Communicating with site organizations, departments, and committees is essential in making the site`s environmental-planning process work. The EIP gives the site the what, when, how, and why for environmental requirements. Through teamwork and proactive planning, a partnership for environmental excellence is formed to achieve the site vision for SRS to become the recognized model for Environmental Excellence in the Department of Energy`s Nuclear Weapons Complex.

  11. Work in support of biosphere assessments for solid radioactive waste disposal. 1. performance assessments, requirements and methodology; criteria for radiological environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egan, M.J.; Loose, M.; Smith, G.M.; Watkins, B.M. [QuantiSci Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2001-10-01

    The first part of this report is intended to assess how the recent Swedish regulatory developments and resulting criteria impose requirements on what should be included in a performance assessment (PA) for the SFR low and medium level waste repository and for a potential deep repository for high level waste. The second part of the report has been prepared by QuantiSci as an input to the development of SSI's PA review methodology. The aim of the third part is to provide research input to the development of radiological protection framework for the environment, for use in Sweden. This is achieved through a review of various approaches used in other fields.

  12. Site environmental report summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In this summary of the Fernald 1992 Site Environmental Report the authors will describe the impact of the Fernald site on man and the environment and provide results from the ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included is a summary of the data obtained from sampling conducted to determine if the site complies with DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA) requirements. These requirements are set to protect both man and the environment

  13. Environmental protection implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, R.C.

    1998-03-01

    This Environmental Protection Implementation Plan is intended to ensure that the environmental program objectives of Department of Energy Order 5400.1 are achieved at SNL/California. This document states SNL/California's commitment to conduct its operations in an environmentally safe and responsible manner. The Environmental Protection Implementation Plan helps management and staff comply with applicable environmental responsibilities. SNL is committed to operating in full compliance with the letter and spirit of applicable environmental laws, regulations, and standards. Furthermore, SNL/California strives to go beyond compliance with legal requirements by making every effort practical to reduce impacts to the environment to levels as low as reasonably achievable

  14. Intellectual and environmental capital

    OpenAIRE

    Claver Cortés, Enrique; López-Gamero, María D.; Molina-Azorín, José F.; Zaragoza Sáez, Patrocinio del Carmen

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – Faced with increasing environmental problems, traditional methods for transmitting information regarding corporate environmental actions are insufficient. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to suggest the environmental capital report, the knowledge map and the balanced scorecard as alternative instruments to provide the environmental information needed to develop internal corporate activity and meet the requirements of society. Design/methodology/approach – A practical approa...

  15. Physical exercise is required for environmental enrichment to offset the quantitative effects of dark-rearing on the S-100beta astrocytic density in the rat visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argandoña, Enrike G; Bengoetxea, Harkaitz; Lafuente, José V

    2009-08-01

    After birth, exposure to visual inputs modulates cortical development, inducing numerous changes in all of the components of the visual cortex. Most of the cortical changes thus induced occur during what is called the critical period. Astrocytes play an important role in the development, maintenance and plasticity of the cortex as well as in the structure and function of the vascular network. Visual deprivation induces a decrease in the astroglial population, whereas enhanced experience increases it. Exposure to an enriched environment has been shown to prevent the effects of dark-rearing in the visual cortex. Our purpose was to study the effects of an enriched environment on the density of astrocytes per reference surface at the visual cortex of dark-reared rats, in order to determine if enhanced experience is able to compensate the quantitative effects of visual deprivation and the role of physical exercise on the enrichment paradigm. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were raised in one of the following rearing conditions: control rats with standard housing (12-h light/dark cycle); in total darkness for the dark-rearing experiments; and dark-rearing in conditions of enriched environment without and with physical exercise. The astrocytic density was estimated by immunohistochemistry for S-100beta protein. Quantifications were performed in layer IV. The somatosensorial cortex barrel field was also studied as control. The volume of layer IV was stereologically calculated for each region, age and experimental condition. From the beginning of the critical period, astrocyte density was higher in control rats than in the enriched environment group without physical exercise, with densities of astrocytes around 20% higher at all of the different ages. In contrast, when the animals had access to voluntary exercise, densities were significantly higher than even the control rats. Our main result shows that strategies to apply environmental enrichment should always consider the

  16. Physical exercise is required for environmental enrichment to offset the quantitative effects of dark-rearing on the S-100β astrocytic density in the rat visual cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argandoña, Enrike G; Bengoetxea, Harkaitz; Lafuente, José V

    2009-01-01

    After birth, exposure to visual inputs modulates cortical development, inducing numerous changes in all of the components of the visual cortex. Most of the cortical changes thus induced occur during what is called the critical period. Astrocytes play an important role in the development, maintenance and plasticity of the cortex as well as in the structure and function of the vascular network. Visual deprivation induces a decrease in the astroglial population, whereas enhanced experience increases it. Exposure to an enriched environment has been shown to prevent the effects of dark-rearing in the visual cortex. Our purpose was to study the effects of an enriched environment on the density of astrocytes per reference surface at the visual cortex of dark-reared rats, in order to determine if enhanced experience is able to compensate the quantitative effects of visual deprivation and the role of physical exercise on the enrichment paradigm. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were raised in one of the following rearing conditions: control rats with standard housing (12-h light/dark cycle); in total darkness for the dark-rearing experiments; and dark-rearing in conditions of enriched environment without and with physical exercise. The astrocytic density was estimated by immunohistochemistry for S-100β protein. Quantifications were performed in layer IV. The somatosensorial cortex barrel field was also studied as control. The volume of layer IV was stereologically calculated for each region, age and experimental condition. From the beginning of the critical period, astrocyte density was higher in control rats than in the enriched environment group without physical exercise, with densities of astrocytes around 20% higher at all of the different ages. In contrast, when the animals had access to voluntary exercise, densities were significantly higher than even the control rats. Our main result shows that strategies to apply environmental enrichment should always consider the

  17. Quality Space and Launch Requirements Addendum to AS9100C

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-05

    inability to repair vehicles on orbit, stringent quality and reliability requirements are levied on contractors to ensure that products will meet their...standard either in full or as appropriately tailored shall be levied on prime contractors, subcontractors, and their sub-tier suppliers of space and...laurence.s.jpatzman@lmco.c om Bryant Allen HQ U.S. Army Material Command, Departmental Standardization Officer bryant.allen1@us.army.mil Aileen Sedmark ASD(R&E)/SE

  18. The Application of Biodiesel as an Environmental Friendly Drilling Fluid to Drill Oil and Gas Wells

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Abdul Razak

    2014-01-01

    The oil and gas industries need to use oil based drilling fluids to drill troublesome rock layers such as sensitive shale formation or to drill very deep oil and gas wells. However, using oil based drilling fluids will create pollution and therefore, environmental regulations on discharge of such drilling fluids have become more stringent because it will give tremendous impacts on the marine life and ecosystem. This research is conducted to formulate a new environmental friendly drilling flui...

  19. The designing of launch vehicles with liquid propulsion engines ensuring fire, explosion and environmental safety requirements of worked-off stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushlyakov, V.; Shatrov, Ya.; Sujmenbaev, B.; Baranov, D.

    2017-02-01

    The paper addresses the problem of the launch vehicles (LV) with main liquid propulsion engines launch technogenic impact in different environment areas. Therefore, as the study subjects were chosen the worked-off stages (WS) with unused propellant residues in tanks, the cosmodrome ecological monitoring system, the worked-off stage design and construction solutions development system and the unified system with the "WS+the cosmodrome ecological monitoring system+design and construction solutions development system" feedback allowing to form the optimal ways of the WS design and construction parameters variations for its fire and explosion hazard management in different areas of the environment. It is demonstrated that the fire hazard effects of propellant residues in WS tanks increase the ecosystem disorder level for the Vostochny cosmodrome impact area ecosystem. Applying the system analysis, the proposals on the selection of technologies, schematic and WS design and construction solutions aimed to the fire and explosion safety improvement during the LV worked-off stages with the main liquid propulsion engines operation were formulated. Among them are the following: firstly, the unused propellant residues in tanks convective gasification based on the hot gas (heat carrier) supply in WS tanks after main liquid propulsion engines cutoff is proposed as the basic technology; secondly, the obtained unused propellant residues in WS tanks gasification products (evaporated propellant residues + pressurizing agent + heat carrier) are used for WS stabilization and orientation while descending trajectory moving. The applying of the proposed technologies allows providing fire and explosion safety requirements of LV with main liquid propulsion engines practically.

  20. Going beyond the requirements : a case study in corporate responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawchuck, T.; Morgan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Noise Control Directive D-038 of Alberta's Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB) sets out stringent noise levels that cannot be exceeded at the nearest residences to an energy facility. This paper discussed the effort by Trident Exploration Corporation (TEC) to go beyond the minimum requirements set out in ERCB D-038 by committing to a receiver noise level that would not only assure its neighbours of a quiet environment but would also make the overall production site a quieter work place for their employees. TEC was among the first exploration and development companies to focus on coalbed methane (CBM) resource plays in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. As a result TEC has established significant positions in the Horseshoe Canyon and Mannville CBM plays. The company was focused on maintaining its reputation in the area of environmentalism. Knowing that prolonged exposure to noise from their proposed Sandhills site in northeast Alberta had the potential to cause resident discontent and potentially negative health effects to nearby neighbours, TEC commissioned an acoustic analysis and noise suppression consultant to provide a noise impact assessment and strategies on how to reduce noise levels. This paper covered the reasoning and rational used by TEC to set its noise reduction targets and the process that Noise Solutions Inc. followed to successfully achieve benefits that went beyond expectations. Although the Sandhills site proved to be a unique challenge because its size and contents supplied many noise sources and frequencies to be dealt with, TEC and Noise Solutions Inc. were able to bring the site well under regulatory requirements. At its current noise level, the site's overall facility noise production is about 44 dBA Leq at the fence-line and below ambient of 35 dBA at the nearest residence. The post project assessment showed that the noise reduction at Sandhills was so successful that TEC has used it as an example to demonstrate what is achievable

  1. Environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grove-White, Robin

    1985-01-01

    There is still very little official acceptance that environmental factors will impose major constraints on the development of energy supply options in the United Kingdom in the future. This paper argues that such an acceptance is needed urgently and should begin to affect governmental policies immediately. UK energy policy ought to be to intensify energy efficiency and conservation throughout the economy and hence reduce the need to expand new supply sources. The general energy requirements in the UK are first considered. Problems of energy supply expansion, particularly nuclear power and coal are considered. Resolution of the problems identified in the UK political and administrative context is discussed. Then the environmental aspects are considered. A comment on the paper follows and raises two questions about market-based energy policy; does it preclude intervention to promote economic efficiency in the use of energy and, does it lead to economic efficiency. (U.K.)

  2. Environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golchert, N.W.

    1989-01-01

    Environmental monitoring at a low-level radioactive waste burial site encompass those activities required to validate that the disposal system is performing as expected. In general, the objectives of an environmental monitoring program are: The assessment of the actual or potential exposure of man to radioactive and chemically-toxic materials, or radiation present in the environment of the site; The general characterization of the radiation environment; and, Public relations. These general statements must be translated to specific operations such as the measurement of radioactive materials, chemically-toxic substances, and indicators of migration; the identification of the origin and source of these materials; and the assessment of the risk or hazard to man and to the environment from any increases in these concentrations. The emphasis in this chapter is on monitoring sites that use shallow land burial for disposal, since all low-level waste in the US is currently disposed of in this way

  3. Environmental security in North-West Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerke, S.

    1999-01-01

    The arms race and military security during the Cold War cost trillions of dollars. It has been claimed that the processes of disarmament, and the large-scale conversion from military to civilian production that is now under way, will be equally costly. This includes the cost of environmental clean up and other measures to deal with the environmental legacy of the Cold War. Norway strongly supports a holistic approach to environmental issues. The armed forces and military industry must also adapt to environmental demands and adopt the principles of modern environmental management. Our own defence forces have for some time been basing their choice of equipment partly on modern environmental criteria and are taking steps to remedy previous environmental damage. Field training and exercises are subject to stringent environmental restrictions. All along the former East-West divide the scope of military activity has been dramatically reduced. The time has come to focus more attention on military or arms-related environmental issues

  4. Environmental tipping points significantly affect the cost−benefit assessment of climate policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yongyang; Judd, Kenneth L.; Lenton, Timothy M.; Lontzek, Thomas S.; Narita, Daiju

    2015-01-01

    Most current cost−benefit analyses of climate change policies suggest an optimal global climate policy that is significantly less stringent than the level required to meet the internationally agreed 2 °C target. This is partly because the sum of estimated economic damage of climate change across various sectors, such as energy use and changes in agricultural production, results in only a small economic loss or even a small economic gain in the gross world product under predicted levels of climate change. However, those cost−benefit analyses rarely take account of environmental tipping points leading to abrupt and irreversible impacts on market and nonmarket goods and services, including those provided by the climate and by ecosystems. Here we show that including environmental tipping point impacts in a stochastic dynamic integrated assessment model profoundly alters cost−benefit assessment of global climate policy. The risk of a tipping point, even if it only has nonmarket impacts, could substantially increase the present optimal carbon tax. For example, a risk of only 5% loss in nonmarket goods that occurs with a 5% annual probability at 4 °C increase of the global surface temperature causes an immediate two-thirds increase in optimal carbon tax. If the tipping point also has a 5% impact on market goods, the optimal carbon tax increases by more than a factor of 3. Hence existing cost−benefit assessments of global climate policy may be significantly underestimating the needs for controlling climate change. PMID:25825719

  5. Environmental tipping points significantly affect the cost-benefit assessment of climate policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yongyang; Judd, Kenneth L; Lenton, Timothy M; Lontzek, Thomas S; Narita, Daiju

    2015-04-14

    Most current cost-benefit analyses of climate change policies suggest an optimal global climate policy that is significantly less stringent than the level required to meet the internationally agreed 2 °C target. This is partly because the sum of estimated economic damage of climate change across various sectors, such as energy use and changes in agricultural production, results in only a small economic loss or even a small economic gain in the gross world product under predicted levels of climate change. However, those cost-benefit analyses rarely take account of environmental tipping points leading to abrupt and irreversible impacts on market and nonmarket goods and services, including those provided by the climate and by ecosystems. Here we show that including environmental tipping point impacts in a stochastic dynamic integrated assessment model profoundly alters cost-benefit assessment of global climate policy. The risk of a tipping point, even if it only has nonmarket impacts, could substantially increase the present optimal carbon tax. For example, a risk of only 5% loss in nonmarket goods that occurs with a 5% annual probability at 4 °C increase of the global surface temperature causes an immediate two-thirds increase in optimal carbon tax. If the tipping point also has a 5% impact on market goods, the optimal carbon tax increases by more than a factor of 3. Hence existing cost-benefit assessments of global climate policy may be significantly underestimating the needs for controlling climate change.

  6. Environmental, Economic, and Scalability Considerations and Trends of Selected Fuel Economy-Enhancing Biomass-Derived Blendstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Systems; Biddy, Mary [National; Jones, Susanne [Energy; Cai, Hao [Systems; Benavides, Pahola Thathiana [Systems; Markham, Jennifer [National; Tao, Ling [National; Tan, Eric [National; Kinchin, Christopher [National; Davis, Ryan [National; Dutta, Abhijit [National; Bearden, Mark [Energy; Clayton, Christopher [Energy; Phillips, Steven [Energy; Rappé, Kenneth [Energy; Lamers, Patrick [Bioenergy

    2017-10-30

    24 biomass-derived compounds and mixtures, identified based on their physical properties, that could be blended into fuels to improve spark ignition engine fuel economy were assessed for their economic, technology readiness, and environmental viability. These bio-blendstocks were modeled to be produced biochemically, thermochemically, or through hybrid processes. To carry out the assessment, 17 metrics were developed for which each bio-blendstock was determined to be favorable, neutral, or unfavorable. Cellulosic ethanol was included as a reference case. Overall, bio-blendstock yields in biochemical processes were lower than in thermochemical processes, in which all biomass, including lignin, is converted to a product. Bio-blendstock yields were a key determinant in overall viability. Key knowledge gaps included the degree of purity needed for use as a bio-blendstock as compared to a chemical. Less stringent purification requirements for fuels could cut processing costs and environmental impacts. Additionally, more information is needed on the blendability of many of these bio-blendstocks with gasoline to support the technology readiness evaluation. Overall, the technology to produce many of these blendstocks from biomass is emerging and as it matures, these assessments must be revisited. Importantly, considering economic, environmental, and technology readiness factors in addition to physical properties of blendstocks that could be used to boost fuel economy can help spotlight those most likely to be viable in the near term.

  7. International trade agreements, environmental policy, and relocation of production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerola, Essi

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the influence of free trade agreements on national environmental policies and location strategies of polluting firms. It is shown that banning export subsidies makes relocation of production more attractive for firms. When export subsidies are banned relocation is profitable because: (1) the rival firm reduces output due to more stringent emission regulation in the host country of the investment and (2) relocation leads to lower emission tax rate in the original home country of the investing firm. When export subsidies are used, the first effect is absent because the host government is able to use the export subsidy to compensate the negative effect of more stringent emission taxation on domestic shareholders. (author)

  8. The impact of environmental regulations on drilling fluid technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    A multitude of new drilling fluid products, systems, and treatment processes have been developed in recent years in response to increasingly stringent environmental regulations. Many fluid additives and systems that once played a major role in the drilling industry are little used today or are no longer available. New water-base mud systems are approaching the performance levels typical of conventional oil-base muds, levels largely achieved by the new synthetic-base fluids. However, these new drilling fluids do not have the adverse environmental impact associated with oil-base systems when waste fluids and cuttings are discarded. 65 refs., 3 tabs

  9. Gestão de requisitos na construção civil: um estudo de caso focado nos requisitos ambientais de um projeto urbanístico Requirements management in construction industry: a case study of environmental requirements in a condominium project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Pegoraro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta diretrizes para realizar a gestão de requisitos durante o processo de projeto de ambientes construídos (PPAC. Uma versão preliminar das diretrizes foi desenvolvida a partir de uma revisão da literatura e um estudo exploratório. Tal versão foi parcialmente aplicada e refinada em um estudo de caso, no qual foram enfatizados os requisitos ambientais de um projeto urbanístico. A aplicação no estudo de caso exigiu o uso de múltiplas fontes de dados, tais como aproximadamente 12 horas de entrevistas, consulta a documentos (por exemplo, do licenciamento ambiental e observações de reuniões relacionadas ao PPAC. As diretrizes propostas têm uma visão holística da GR, contemplando todas as suas etapas ao longo do processo de projeto, e houve a disponibilização de mecanismos que permitem controlar inevitáveis mudanças nos requisitos. Os dados coletados também possibilitaram avaliar as diretrizes em termos de sua utilidade e facilidade de uso. Dentre os resultados do estudo de caso, ficou evidenciada contribuição das diretrizes na coleta, organização e visibilidade dos requisitos ambientais, o que beneficia a tomada de decisão.This article introduces guidelines for managing requirements during the building of the environment design process. A preliminary version of these guidelines was developed based on a literature review and an exploratory study. Such version was partially applied and enhanced in a case study of an urban project, where the environmental requirements were emphasized. Multiple sources of data were adopted in the case study, such as 12 hours of interviews, analysis of documents (e.g., environmental licenses and observation of meetings related to the design process. The proposed guidelines have a holistic view of requirements management and involve all its phases along the design process. In addition, techniques that allow the control of change were indicated. The data available were also useful

  10. Seamless Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Naumchev, Alexandr; Meyer, Bertrand

    2017-01-01

    Popular notations for functional requirements specifications frequently ignore developers' needs, target specific development models, or require translation of requirements into tests for verification; the results can give out-of-sync or downright incompatible artifacts. Seamless Requirements, a new approach to specifying functional requirements, contributes to developers' understanding of requirements and to software quality regardless of the process, while the process itself becomes lighter...

  11. Environmental requirements at hydroelectric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cada, G.F.

    1993-01-01

    Hydroelectric power is the most mature and widely implemented of the renewable energy technologies. The energy of flowing water has been used to perform work directly since ancient times, and the use of hydropower turbines to generate electricity traces back to the 19th century. Two commonly used turbine types, the Francis and Kaplan turbines, are essentially refinements of the simple reaction turbine of Hero of Alexandria, dating from about 100 B.C. (NAS 1976). Hydroelectric power production provides over 10% of the net electrical generation in the US, more than petroleum or natural gas and far more than the other renewable energy technologies combined. On a regional basis, hydroelectric power represents 14% of the net electrical power generation in the Rocky Mountain states and nearly 63% along the Pacific Coast. Those states that have the largest percentages of their electricity generated by hydropower (e.g., Idaho, Oregon, Montana, and Washington) also tend to have the lowest average cost of electricity per kilowatt-hour

  12. 15 CFR 971.601 - Environmental requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... those important for the food chain; (4) The importance of the receiving water area to the surrounding... will give consideration to the following Ocean Discharge Criteria of the Clean Water Act (40 CFR part... appropriate; (10) Marine water quality criteria developed pursuant to section 304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act...

  13. 7 CFR 774.9 - Environmental requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Policy Act (NEPA), 40 CFR parts 1500 through 1508, and determined not to have a significant impact on the quality of the human environment, either individually or cumulatively. These loan actions are...

  14. Environmental Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP) is a dynamic long-range environmental-protection plan for SRS. The EIP communicates the current and future (five year) environmental plans from individual organizations and divisions as well as site environmental initiatives which are designed to protect the environment and meet or exceed compliance with changing environmental/ regulatory requirements. Communication with all site organizations is essential for making the site environmental planning process work. Demonstrating environmental excellence is a high priority embodied in DOE and WSRC policy. Because of your support and participation in the three EIP initiatives; Reflections, Sectional Revision, and Integrated Planning, improvements are being made to the EIP and SRS environmental protection programs. I appreciate the ``Partnership in Environmental Excellence`` formed by the environmental coordinators and professionals who work daily toward our goal of compliance and environmental excellence. I look forward to seeing continued success and improvement in our environmental protection programs through combined efforts of all site organizations to protect our employees, the public health, and the environment. Together, we will achieve our site vision for SRS to be the recognized model for Environmental Excellence in the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex.

  15. Environmental Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP) is a dynamic long-range environmental-protection plan for SRS. The EIP communicates the current and future (five year) environmental plans from individual organizations and divisions as well as site environmental initiatives which are designed to protect the environment and meet or exceed compliance with changing environmental/ regulatory requirements. Communication with all site organizations is essential for making the site environmental planning process work. Demonstrating environmental excellence is a high priority embodied in DOE and WSRC policy. Because of your support and participation in the three EIP initiatives; Reflections, Sectional Revision, and Integrated Planning, improvements are being made to the EIP and SRS environmental protection programs. I appreciate the ''Partnership in Environmental Excellence'' formed by the environmental coordinators and professionals who work daily toward our goal of compliance and environmental excellence. I look forward to seeing continued success and improvement in our environmental protection programs through combined efforts of all site organizations to protect our employees, the public health, and the environment. Together, we will achieve our site vision for SRS to be the recognized model for Environmental Excellence in the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex

  16. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanf, Robert W.; Poston, Ted M.

    2000-01-01

    Shows and explains certain procedures needed for surface environmental surveillance. Hanford Site environmental surveillance is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). The basic requirements for site surveillance are set fourth in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program Requirements. Guidance for the SESP is provided in DOE Order 5484.1, Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Information Reporting Requirements and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment. Guidelines for environmental surveillance activities are provided in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance. An environmental monitoring plan for the Hanford Site is outlined in DOE/RL 91-50 Rev. 2, Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. Environmental surveillance data are used in assessing the impact of current and past site operations on human health and the environment, demonstrating compliance with applicable local, state, and federal environmental regulations, and verifying the adequacy of containment and effluent controls. SESP sampling schedules are reviewed, revised, and published each calendar year in the Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule. Environmental samples are collected by SESP staff in accordance with the approved sample collection procedures documented in this manual. Personnel training requirements are documented in SESP-TP-01 Rev.2, Surface Environmental Surveillance Project Training Program.

  17. Company environmental communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriola, L.; Luciani, R.; Borghini, S.

    2001-01-01

    Environmental communication is becoming a sine qua non for companies which are more and more pressed by the need to reinforce communication with interested parties: environmental groups, local communities, local and national authorities, employees, share-holders, banks, insurance companies, customers and consumers. Reliable environmental information, just like economical and property data, is now required during both company take-over and financing, and in some cases it can affect insurance premiums. In fact, environmental guarantees are more and more often required because breaching environmental regulations can entail legal sanctions going as far as suspension of business. There now also Green investment funds that engage their resources only against specific environmental guarantees on the part of the companies that, before being selected for the investment, are submitted to rather accurate questionnaires by the investment manager [it

  18. Planned Environmental Microbiology Aspects of Future Lunar and Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. Mark; Castro, Victoria A.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2006-01-01

    With the establishment of the Constellation Program, NASA has initiated efforts designed similar to the Apollo Program to return to the moon and subsequently travel to Mars. Early lunar sorties will take 4 crewmembers to the moon for 4 to 7 days. Later missions will increase in duration up to 6 months as a lunar habitat is constructed. These missions and vehicle designs are the forerunners of further missions destined for human exploration of Mars. Throughout the planning and design process, lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS) and past programs will be implemented toward future exploration goals. The standards and requirements for these missions will vary depending on life support systems, mission duration, crew activities, and payloads. From a microbiological perspective, preventative measures will remain the primary techniques to mitigate microbial risk. Thus, most of the effort will focus on stringent preflight monitoring requirements and engineering controls designed into the vehicle, such as HEPA air filters. Due to volume constraints in the CEV, in-flight monitoring will be limited for short-duration missions to the measurement of biocide concentration for water potability. Once long-duration habitation begins on the lunar surface, a more extensive environmental monitoring plan will be initiated. However, limited in-flight volume constraints and the inability to return samples to Earth will increase the need for crew capabilities in determining the nature of contamination problems and method of remediation. In addition, limited shelf life of current monitoring hardware consumables and limited capabilities to dispose of biohazardous trash will drive flight hardware toward non-culture based methodologies, such as hardware that rapidly distinguishes biotic versus abiotic surface contamination. As missions progress to Mars, environmental systems will depend heavily on regeneration of air and water and biological waste remediation and

  19. Environmental implementation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, G.L.

    1994-10-04

    In this document, the Savannah River site environmental programs and plans from DOE contractors and Westinghouse Savannah River Company divisions/departments are presented along with the environmental coordinator for each program. The objectives are to enhase communication of existing or planned programs to do the following: identify activities required for meeting environmental needs; identify needing resources and a schedule to accomplish those activities; promote share-savings and consistency in those activities.

  20. Environmental implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    In this document, the Savannah River site environmental programs and plans from DOE contractors and Westinghouse Savannah River Company divisions/departments are presented along with the environmental coordinator for each program. The objectives are to enhase communication of existing or planned programs to do the following: identify activities required for meeting environmental needs; identify needing resources and a schedule to accomplish those activities; promote share-savings and consistency in those activities

  1. Food and Environmental Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falvey, Lindsay

    1997-01-01

    Argues that intensive agriculture restricted to suitable lands will be required in the future due to global population growth, declining food prices, and extreme poverty. Discusses the challenge of balancing environmental care with food production. (DDR)

  2. Environmental Horticulture Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide contains the standard environmental horticulture curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum encompasses the minimum competencies required for entry-level workers in the environmental horticulture field. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description,…

  3. Operational Area Environmental Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey-White, Brenda Eileen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagy, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wagner, Katrina Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goodman, Thomas Richard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herring, Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Catechis, Christopher S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kinghorn, Aubrianna Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Ellie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barthel, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Casaus, Benito [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Operational Area Environmental Evaluation update provides a description of activities that have the potential to adversely affect natural and cultural resources, including soil, air, water, biological, ecological, and historical resources. The environmental sensitivity of an area is evaluated and summarized, which may facilitate informed management decisions as to where development may be prohibited, restricted, or subject to additional requirements.

  4. Environmental impact statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewing, C.

    1986-01-01

    The adoption of US-type environmental impact statements is considered to be approaching. Environmental impact statements are defined as comprehensive analyses of the future effects of measures on environmental conditions with the aim of avoiding ecological disadvantages. The recommendation ratified by the European Communities on June 27, 1985 requires the environmental impact statement to be implemented as a mandatory procedure. The implementation is difficult to realize. Particular problems consist in the alignment of the environmental impact statement with existing administrative procedures and in the operationable formulation of the aims and results of the statement. Paragraph 72 of the administrative procedures law (VwVfG) shows that planning procedures and environmental impact statement are to be treated as two parallel regulations. The structural order of environmental impact statements must therefore be integrated into the regulations of planning procedures. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Environmental Monitoring Plan for Mound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) is to define and document the requirements for environmental monitoring programs at Mound as required by DOE 5400 Series Orders and the Environmental Regulatory Guide of Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance. This plan sets forth the requirements for the routine environmental monitoring programs established by Mound to: (1)measure and monitor effluents from US Department of Energy (DOE) operations, (2) maintain surveillance through measurement and monitoring, and, (3) calculate the effects of those operations on the environment and public health

  6. Status of the U.S. nuclear option, conditions leading to its resurgence, and current licensing requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannidi, J.

    2007-01-01

    The projected increase in electricity demand, increased concern over emissions along with more stringent emission requirements, volatility of the gas and oil supplies and prices, and the convergence of favourable conditions and legislation make nuclear power a practical option for meeting future electricity base-load demands. (author)

  7. Environmental Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Ekelund, Kathrine

    2015-01-01

    The philosophical subfield environmental aesthetics can contribute to the design of sustainable futures. Environmental aesthetics provides a conceptual framework for understanding the relationship between nature and culture. Current positions in environmental aesthetics are lined out and used...

  8. Site Environmental Report, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The Site Environmental Report (SER) is prepared annually in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Program.'' This 1993 SER provides the general public as well as scientists and engineers with the results from the site's ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included in this report is information concerning the site's progress toward achieving full compliance with requirements set forth by DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA). For some readers, the highlights provided in the Executive Summary may provide sufficient information. Many readers, however, may wish to read more detailed descriptions of the information than those which are presented here

  9. Environmental monitoring plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, R.C.

    1997-02-01

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to fulfill the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 and DOE Environmental Regulatory Guide DOE/EH 0173T. This Plan documents the background, organizational structure, and methods used for effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance at Sandia National Laboratories/California. The design, rationale, and historical results of the environmental monitoring system are discussed in detail. Throughout the Plan, recommendations for improvements to the monitoring system are made. 52 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs

  10. Environmental pollution studies

    CERN Document Server

    Best, Gerry

    1999-01-01

    This book examines a number of important contemporary environmental issues in an informative and easy-to-read style. The topics covered include sewage treatment, eutrophication, air pollution, acid rain, global warming and pollution from farming. A particularly valuable section of the book describes a range of tests that can be carried out on various environmental parameters. The procedures require relatively simple equipment and they have been pre-tested in a school laboratory. "Environmental Pollution Studies" will be of value to senior school pupils and students at college or university embarking on courses in environmental science.

  11. Federal environmental inspections handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This Federal Environmental Inspection Handbook has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-231). It is designed to provide DOE personnel with an easily accessible compilation of the environmental inspection requirements under Federal environmental statutes which may impact DOE operations and activities. DOE personnel are reminded that this Handbook is intended to be used in concert with, and not as a substitute for, the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Federal Register (FR), and other applicable regulatory documents

  12. Environmental monitoring plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, R.C.

    1997-02-01

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to fulfill the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 and DOE Environmental Regulatory Guide DOE/EH 0173T. This Plan documents the background, organizational structure, and methods used for effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance at Sandia National Laboratories/California. The design, rationale, and historical results of the environmental monitoring system are discussed in detail. Throughout the Plan, recommendations for improvements to the monitoring system are made. 52 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs.

  13. Site Environmental Report, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Site Environmental Report (SER) is prepared annually in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, ``General Environmental Protection Program.`` This 1993 SER provides the general public as well as scientists and engineers with the results from the site`s ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included in this report is information concerning the site`s progress toward achieving full compliance with requirements set forth by DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA). For some readers, the highlights provided in the Executive Summary may provide sufficient information. Many readers, however, may wish to read more detailed descriptions of the information than those which are presented here.

  14. Electron accelerators for environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimek, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this publication is to provide information suitable for electron accelerators implementation in facilities applying radiation technology for environmental protection. It should be noticed that radiation processing has been successfully used in the fields of crosslinking polymer curing and medical products sterilization for more than 40 years. Practical application of radiation technology today extends on SO 2 and NO x removal from the flue gas (one of major power intensive radiation processing), destruction and removal of organic chemicals from water, decreasing bacteria content in the irradiated sludge and waste water. On the other hand the increased awareness of environmental pollution hazards and more stringent waste regulations in many countries may open stronger support for environmentally oriented technologies. This publication provides an evaluation of electron accelerators capabilities in respect of environmental applications where technological and economical criteria are now well defined. In order to determine the potential of electron accelerators, the literature data were examined as well visits and meetings with various accelerator manufacturers were performed by the author. Experience of the author in accelerator facilities construction and exploitation including those which were used for environmental protection are significant part of this publication. The principle of accelerator action was described in Chapter 1. Early development, accelerator classification and fields of accelerators application were included to this chapter as well. Details of accelerator construction was described in Chapter 2 to illustrate physical capability of accelerators to perform the function of ionizing radiation source. Electron beam extraction devices, under beam equipment, electron beam parameters and measuring methods were characterized in this chapter as well. Present studies of accelerator technology was described in Chapter 3, where

  15. Environmental Compliance Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    The Guide is intended to assist Department of Energy personnel by providing information on the NEPA process, the processes of other environmental statutes that bear on the NEPA process, the timing relationships between the NEPA process and these other processes, as well as timing relationships between the NEPA process and the development process for policies, programs, and projects. This information should be helpful not only in formulating environmental compliance plans but also in achieving compliance with NEPA and various other environmental statutes. The Guide is divided into three parts with related appendices: Part I provides guidance for developing environmental compliance plans for DOE actions; Part II is devoted to NEPA with detailed flowcharts depicting the compliance procedures required by CEQ regulations and Department of Energy NEPA Guidelines; and Part III contains a series of flowcharts for other Federal environmental requirements that may apply to DOE projects

  16. Environmental Compliance Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-01

    The Guide is intended to assist Department of Energy personnel by providing information on the NEPA process, the processes of other environmental statutes that bear on the NEPA process, the timing relationships between the NEPA process and these other processes, as well as timing relationships between the NEPA process and the development process for policies, programs, and projects. This information should be helpful not only in formulating environmental compliance plans but also in achieving compliance with NEPA and various other environmental statutes. The Guide is divided into three parts with related appendices: Part I provides guidance for developing environmental compliance plans for DOE actions; Part II is devoted to NEPA with detailed flowcharts depicting the compliance procedures required by CEQ regulations and Department of Energy NEPA Guidelines; and Part III contains a series of flowcharts for other Federal environmental requirements that may apply to DOE projects.

  17. Ecodesign requirements for televisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huulgaard, Rikke Dorothea; Dalgaard, Randi; Merciai, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    phase. This is not in line with the scientific understanding of ecodesign, where attention should be put on all life cycle phases and all relevant environmental impact categories. This study focuses on the requirements for televisions (TV). A life cycle assessment (LCA) is carried out on two TVs...... to analyse if other environmental hotspots and life cycle phases should be included in the requirements in the IM of the Ecodesign Directive besides energy consumption in the use phase analysis. Methods The consequential approach is used. The data for the LCA have been gathered from two manufacturers of TVs....... In one case, the data were delivered in Excel spreadsheets; in the other case, the authors of this paper together with the manufacturer disassembled a TV and collected the data manually. Results and discussion When applying the consequential approach, the production phase has the highest environmental...

  18. Detection limits of quantitative and digital PCR assays and their influence in presence-absence surveys of environmental DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Margaret; Dorazio, Robert M.; Butterfield, John S.; Meigs-Friend, Gaia; Nico, Leo; Ferrante, Jason A.

    2017-01-01

    A set of universal guidelines is needed to determine the limit of detection (LOD) in PCR-based analyses of low concentration DNA. In particular, environmental DNA (eDNA) studies require sensitive and reliable methods to detect rare and cryptic species through shed genetic material in environmental samples. Current strategies for assessing detection limits of eDNA are either too stringent or subjective, possibly resulting in biased estimates of species’ presence. Here, a conservative LOD analysis grounded in analytical chemistry is proposed to correct for overestimated DNA concentrations predominantly caused by the concentration plateau, a nonlinear relationship between expected and measured DNA concentrations. We have used statistical criteria to establish formal mathematical models for both quantitative and droplet digital PCR. To assess the method, a new Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) TaqMan assay was developed and tested on both PCR platforms using eDNA in water samples. The LOD adjustment reduced Grass Carp occupancy and detection estimates while increasing uncertainty – indicating that caution needs to be applied to eDNA data without LOD correction. Compared to quantitative PCR, digital PCR had higher occurrence estimates due to increased sensitivity and dilution of inhibitors at low concentrations. Without accurate LOD correction, species occurrence and detection probabilities based on eDNA estimates are prone to a source of bias that cannot be reduced by an increase in sample size or PCR replicates. Other applications also could benefit from a standardized LOD such as GMO food analysis, and forensic and clinical diagnostics.

  19. Environmental Performance Report 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Environmental Performance Report provides a description of the laboratory's environmental management activities for 2015, including information on environmental and sustainability performance, environmental compliance activities and status, and environmental protection programs, highlights, and successes. The purpose of this report is to ensure that U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the public receive timely, accurate information about events that have affected or could adversely affect the health, safety, and security of the public or workers; the environment; or the operations of DOE facilities. This report meets the requirements of the Annual Site Environmental Report and is prepared in accordance with the DOE Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.

  20. Environmental Performance Report 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braus, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-06

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Environmental Performance Report provides a description of the laboratory's environmental management activities for 2016, including information on environmental and sustainability performance, environmental compliance activities and status, and environmental protection programs, highlights, and successes. The purpose of this report is to ensure that U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the public receive timely, accurate information about events that have affected or could adversely affect the health, safety, and security of the public or workers; the environment; or the operations of DOE facilities. This report meets the requirements of the Annual Site Environmental Report and is prepared in accordance with the DOE Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.

  1. Rapamycin combined with anti-CD45RB mAb and IL-10 or with G-CSF induces tolerance in a stringent mouse model of islet transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Gagliani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A large pool of preexisting alloreactive effector T cells can cause allogeneic graft rejection following transplantation. However, it is possible to induce transplant tolerance by altering the balance between effector and regulatory T (Treg cells. Among the various Treg-cell types, Foxp3(+Treg and IL-10-producing T regulatory type 1 (Tr1 cells have frequently been associated with tolerance following transplantation in both mice and humans. Previously, we demonstrated that rapamycin+IL-10 promotes Tr1-cell-associated tolerance in Balb/c mice transplanted with C57BL/6 pancreatic islets. However, this same treatment was unsuccessful in C57BL/6 mice transplanted with Balb/c islets (classified as a stringent transplant model. We accordingly designed a protocol that would be effective in the latter transplant model by simultaneously depleting effector T cells and fostering production of Treg cells. We additionally developed and tested a clinically translatable protocol that used no depleting agent. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Diabetic C57BL/6 mice were transplanted with Balb/c pancreatic islets. Recipient mice transiently treated with anti-CD45RB mAb+rapamycin+IL-10 developed antigen-specific tolerance. During treatment, Foxp3(+Treg cells were momentarily enriched in the blood, followed by accumulation in the graft and draining lymph node, whereas CD4(+IL-10(+IL-4(- T (i.e., Tr1 cells localized in the spleen. In long-term tolerant mice, only CD4(+IL-10(+IL-4(- T cells remained enriched in the spleen and IL-10 was key in the maintenance of tolerance. Alternatively, recipient mice were treated with two compounds routinely used in the clinic (namely, rapamycin and G-CSF; this drug combination promoted tolerance associated with CD4(+IL-10(+IL-4(- T cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The anti-CD45RB mAb+rapamycin+IL-10 combined protocol promotes a state of tolerance that is IL-10 dependent. Moreover, the combination of rapamycin+G-CSF induces

  2. Environmental Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, G.; Bertoldo, N.A.; Campbell, C.G.; Cerruti, S.; Dibley, V.; Doman, J.L.; Grayson, A.R.; Jones, H.E.; Kumamoto, G.; MacQueen, D.H.; Nelson, J.C.; Paterson, L.; Revelli, M.A.; Wegrecki, A.M.; Wilson, K.; Woollett, J.

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Environmental Report 2008 are to record Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) compliance with environmental standards and requirements, describe LLNL's environmental protection and remediation programs, and present the results of environmental monitoring at the two LLNL sites - the Livermore site and Site 300. The report is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by LLNL's Environmental Protection Department. Submittal of the report satisfies requirements under DOE Order 231.1A, Environmental Safety and Health Reporting, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment. The report is distributed electronically and is available at https://saer.lln.gov/, the website for the LLNL annual environmental report. Previous LLNL annual environmental reports beginning in 1994 are also on the website. Some references in the electronic report text are underlined, which indicates that they are clickable links. Clicking on one of these links will open the related document, data workbook, or website that it refers to. The report begins with an executive summary, which provides the purpose of the report and an overview of LLNL's compliance and monitoring results. The first three chapters provide background information: Chapter 1 is an overview of the location, meteorology, and hydrogeology of the two LLNL sites; Chapter 2 is a summary of LLNL's compliance with environmental regulations; and Chapter 3 is a description of LLNL's environmental programs with an emphasis on the Environmental Management System including pollution prevention. The majority of the report covers LLNL's environmental monitoring programs and monitoring data for 2008: effluent and ambient air (Chapter 4); waters, including wastewater, storm water runoff, surface water, rain, and groundwater (Chapter 5); and terrestrial, including soil, sediment, vegetation, foodstuff, ambient radiation, and special status

  3. Environmental regulation incidences towards international oligopolies: pollution taxes vs emission permits

    OpenAIRE

    PRATLONG Florent

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether the choice between two instruments of environmental policy (pollution taxes vs emission permits) affects the market shares in the presence of imperfectly competitive product markets. We consider two countries, referred to as the Domestic country and the Foreign country, agreeing on an equally stringent exogenous ceiling on pollution. These countries are also suppliers on the international markets of two commodities produced by two separate secto...

  4. 36 CFR 907.7 - Determination of requirement for EIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... does not require either an environmental impact statement or an environmental assessment (categorical exclusion). (c) Normally requires an environmental assessment, but not necessarily an environmental impact... an environmental impact statement is the first step in applying the NEPA process. In deciding whether...

  5. Data package for the Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program environmental impact statement: Volume 1, Sections 1--7 and Appendices A--D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelle, R.H.

    1988-09-01

    This data package is required to support an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to be written to evaluate the effects of future disposal of low-level waste at four sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation. Current waste disposal facilities are exceeding their capacities and increasingly stringent disposal requirements dictate the need for the sites and new waste disposal technologies. The Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program has developed a strategy for low-level waste disposal built around a dose based approach. This approach emphasizes contamination pathways, including surface and groundwater and ALARA conditions for workers. This strategy dictates the types of data needed for this data package. The data package provides information on geology, soils, groundwater, surface water, and ecological characterization of the Oak Ridge Reservation in order to evaluate alternative technologies and alternative sites. The results of the investigations and data collections indicate that different technologies will probably have to be used at different sites. This conclusion, however, depends on the findings of the Environmental Impact Statement. 14 figs., 19 tabs.

  6. Site Environmental Report for 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauer, Ron O. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Baskin, David A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Borglin, Ned K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fox, Robert A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Harvey, Zachary R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jelinski, John A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kassis, Maram M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Muhlholland, Brendan J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Thorson, Patrick A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Xu, Suying Y. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sutherland, Nancy L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wehle, Petra C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The annual Site Environmental Report documents Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory’s performance in reducing its environmental impacts, progress toward cleaning up groundwater contamination, and compliance with applicable Department of Energy, federal, state, and local environmental regulations. The report is required by DOE Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting.

  7. Environmental Compliance Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownson, L.W.; Krsul, T.; Peralta, R.A.; Knudson, D.A.; Rosignolo, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing the Environmental Compliance Management System (ECMS) as a comprehensive, cost-effective tool to ensure (1) that the Laboratory complies with all applicable federal and state environmental laws and regulations, (2) that environmental issues and concerns are recognized and considered in the early phases of projects; and (3) that Laboratory personnel conduct Laboratory operations in the most environmentally acceptable manner. The ECMS is an expert computer system which is designed to allow project engineers to perform an environmental evaluation of their projects. The system includes a Master Program which collects basic project information, provide utility functions, and access the environmental expert modules, environmental expert system modules for each federal and state environmental law which allows the user to obtain specific information on how an individual law may affect his project; and site-specific databases which contain information necessary for effective management of the site under environmental regulations. The ECMS will have the capability to complete and print many of the necessary environmental forms required by federal and state agencies, including the Department of Energy

  8. 2011 ANNUAL SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, A.; Eddy, T.; Jannik, T.; Terry, B.; Cauthen, K.; Coward, L.; Dunaway-Ackerman, J.; Wilson, M.; Hutchison, J.; O' Quinn, S.

    2012-10-01

    The Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 2011 (SRNS-STI-2012-00200) is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) according to requirements of DOE Order 231.1 B, “Environment, Safety and Health Reporting." The annual SRS Environmental Report has been produced for more than 50 years. Several hundred copies are and interested individuals. The report’s purpose is to: present summary environmental data that characterize site environmental management performance; describe compliance status with respect to environmental standards and requirements; highlight significant programs and efforts.

  9. Construction and operation of an improved radiation calibration facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    Calibration of instruments used to detect and measure ionizing radiation has been conducted over the last 20 years at Brookhaven National Laboratory's (BNL) Radiation Calibration Facility, Building 348. Growth of research facilities, projects in progress, and more stringent Department of Energy (DOE) orders which involve exposure to nuclear radiation have placed substantial burdens on the existing radiation calibration facility. The facility currently does not meet the requirements of DOE Order 5480.4 or American National Standards Institute (ANSI) N323-1978, which establish calibration methods for portable radiation protection instruments used in the detection and measurement of levels of ionizing radiation fields or levels of radioactive surface contaminations. Failure to comply with this standard could mean instrumentation is not being calibrated to necessary levels of sensitivity. The Laboratory has also recently obtained a new neutron source and gamma beam irradiator which can not be made operational at existing facilities because of geometry and shielding inadequacies. These sources are needed to perform routine periodic calibrations of radiation detecting instruments used by scientific and technical personnel and to meet BNL's substantial increase in demand for radiation monitoring capabilities. To place these new sources into operation, it is proposed to construct an addition to the existing radiation calibration facility that would house all calibration sources and bring BNL calibration activities into compliance with DOE and ANSI standards. The purpose of this assessment is to identify potential significant environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of an improved radiation calibration facility at BNL

  10. A Blueprint for Florida's Clean Energy Future - Case Study of a Regional Government's Environmental Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Lowman

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available On 13 July 2007, Governor Charlie Crist of Florida signed executive orders to establish greenhouse gas emission targets that required an 80 percent reduction below 1990 levels by the year 2050. Florida is a very high-risk state with regard to climate change. Its 1,350-mile-long coastline, location in "Hurricane Alley," reliance on coral reefs and other vulnerable natural resources for its economy, and the predictions that state population could double in the next 30 years all contribute to this designation of "high-risk. As a consequence of the potential economic and ecological impacts of climate change to Florida, a series of Action Teams were created to plan for adaptation to impending environmental changes. As the 26th largest emitter of carbon dioxide on a global scale, Florida needs to act aggressively to create a clean energy footprint as part of its statewide initiatives but with global impacts. This case study examines the process and expected outcomes undertaken by a regional government that anticipates the need for stringent adaptation.

  11. AECL's new environmental initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonnell, F.N.

    1993-01-01

    AECL's research and development expenditures in environmental sciences and waste management technology are about $50 M per year. The main focus of these programs is the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. This research is supplemented by activities in support of laboratory, Environmental Authority and internal waste management requirements, as well as provision of non-nuclear services. AECL intends to become more involved in performing environmental research and development with broader application. The goal is to achieve a relationship with Canadian industry that would involve a substantial portion of AECL's environmental research capabilities. The research directions and priorities of the resulting partnership would be set by the private sector in accordance with their needs and requirements. It is expected that the activities associated with this new environmental initiative will start small and grow in response to perceived needs. AECL is now increasing its non-nuclear research efforts by targeting those markets that appear most attractive. The thrust can be divided into three broad categories: environmental research, environmental services, and environmental products. (Author)

  12. Evaluation of Heavy Metals Contamination at CFAD Dundurn Resulting from Small-Arms Ammunition Incineration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thiboutot, S

    2001-01-01

    .... The safety concerns associated with these pollutants are so serious that the United Kingdom requires stringent environmental licensing of ammunition incineration facilities, and several US states...

  13. Data Requirements for Pesticide Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    In evaluating a pesticide registration application, we assess a wide variety of potential human health and environmental effects associated with use of the product. Learn about these data requirements.

  14. Annual environmental monitoring report: calendar year 1975. [Mound Laboratory, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, B.M.; Robinson, B.; Carfagno, D.G.

    1976-04-26

    The local environment surrounding Mound Laboratory was monitored for tritium and plutonium-238 released by Mound Laboratory. The results are reported for calendar year 1975. The environmental parameters analyzed included air, water, foodstuffs, soil, and silt. For radioactive species, the average concentrations of plutonium-238 and tritium were within the stringent standards adopted by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration. Data concerning nonradioactive species in air and water are also presented and compared to federal, state, and local standards, where applicable. (auth)

  15. Mound Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, L.R.; Tullis, M.S.; Paulick, R.P.; Roush, L.L.

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) is to describe the environmental monitoring and surveillance programs in place at Mound. The Plan is required by DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE, 1990). The programs described in the EMP are required by the DOE 5400 Order series and by the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environment Surveillance (DOE 1991a), referred to as the Regulatory Guide throughout this Plan

  16. Screening of IAEA environmental samples for fissile material content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hembree, Doyle M. Jr.; Carter, Joel A.; Devault, Gerald L.; Whitaker, J. Michael; Glasgow, David

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Analysis of environmental samples for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Strengthened Safeguards Systems program requires that stringent measures be taken to control contamination. To facilitate contamination control, it is extremely useful to have some estimate of the fissile content of a given sample prior to beginning sample preparation and analysis. This is particularly true for laboratories that employ clean rooms during sample preparation. A review of the analytical results for samples submitted between January 1, 1999 and September 1, 2000 revealed that the total uranium content values ranged from 0.2 to greater than 500,000 ng/sample. Poor estimates of the uranium or plutonium content in the samples have caused some of the laboratories in the IAEA Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL) to experience clean laboratory contamination, sample cross contamination, and non-ideal uranium spike additions. This has led to significant increases in analysis costs (e.g., recertification of clean rooms after removing contamination, and rerunning samples) and degradation in data quality. A number of methods have been proposed for screening environmental samples for fissile material content, including gamma spectrometry, x-ray fluorescence, kinetic phosphorimetry (KPA), and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Gamma spectrometry and x-ray fluorescence are suitable for screening samples with microgram or greater quantities of uranium. ICP-MS and KPA are used successfully in some DOE NWAL laboratories to screen environmental samples. A neutron activation analysis (NAA) method that offers numerous advantages over other screening techniques for environmental samples has recently been proposed. Fissile materials such as 239 Pu and 235 U can be made to undergo fission in the intense neutron field to which they are exposed during neutron activation analysis (NAA). Some of the fission products emit neutrons referred to as 'delayed

  17. Requirements Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Hull, Elizabeth; Dick, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Written for those who want to develop their knowledge of requirements engineering process, whether practitioners or students.Using the latest research and driven by practical experience from industry, Requirements Engineering gives useful hints to practitioners on how to write and structure requirements. It explains the importance of Systems Engineering and the creation of effective solutions to problems. It describes the underlying representations used in system modeling and introduces the UML2, and considers the relationship between requirements and modeling. Covering a generic multi-layer r

  18. Software requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegers, Karl E

    2003-01-01

    Without formal, verifiable software requirements-and an effective system for managing them-the programs that developers think they've agreed to build often will not be the same products their customers are expecting. In SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS, Second Edition, requirements engineering authority Karl Wiegers amplifies the best practices presented in his original award-winning text?now a mainstay for anyone participating in the software development process. In this book, you'll discover effective techniques for managing the requirements engineering process all the way through the development cy

  19. Environmental Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental measurement is any data collection activity involving the assessment of chemical, physical, or biological factors in the environment which affect human health. Learn more about these programs and tools that aid in environmental decisions

  20. Environmental Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's modeling community is working to gain insights into certain parts of a physical, biological, economic, or social system by conducting environmental assessments for Agency decision making to complex environmental issues.

  1. Environmental management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guicherit, R.

    1996-01-01

    Elements of a national environmental management system include: • monitoring networks to establish the prevailing environmental quality; • emission inventories, and projected emission inventories based on population growth, increase of traffic density, and economie growth; taking into account

  2. Environmental Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Geophysics website features geophysical methods, terms and references; forward and inverse geophysical models for download; and a decision support tool to guide geophysical method selection for a variety of environmental applications.

  3. Environmental report 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilt, G.C. [ed.; Gallegos, G.M.; Tate, P.J.; Balke, B.K. [and others

    1994-09-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility operated by the University of California, serves as a national resource of scientific, technical, and engineering capability with a special focus on national security. Over the years, the Laboratory`s mission has been broadened to encompass such areas as strategic defense, energy, the environment, biomedicine, the economy, and education. The Laboratory carries out this mission in compliance with local, state, and federal environmental regulatory requirements and takes measures to ensure that its operations do not adversely affect the environment or public health. It does so with the support of the Environmental Protection Department, which is responsible for environmental monitoring, environmental restoration, hazardous waste management, and ensuring environmental compliance. During 1993, the Environmental Protection Department conducted sampling of air, sewage effluent, ground water, surface water, soil, vegetation and foodstuffs, and took measurements of environmental radiation. It performed more than 190,000 analyses of environmental samples. The analytical results are summarized along with evaluations of the impact of radioactive and nonradioactive materials, a discussion of the effects of LLNL operations on the environment, and a summary of the activities undertaken to comply with local, state, and federal environmental laws.

  4. Outlines of environmental Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzwedel, J.

    1982-01-01

    In this omnibus, ten members of the working group for environmental law attempt to present the respective fields of environmental law in a consistent context, and to show the autonomy of each subject-matter as well as their interdependence and interrelationships. In the long run, the complexity of basic facts of natural science, technology and that of practical execution will require subject-specific penetration and application. Relationships between systems have to be realized to an increasing extent. Structures of law and administration have to be harmonized, and statements on the environmental impact of projects have to be made possible on the whole. Fundamental issues of environmental law are dealt with in the chapters entitled 'Concept and levels of applications of environmental law' and 'Environmental law in general'. The international, supranational and constitutional conditions given in advance of any environmental legislation increasingly gaining in importance are presented in the chapter on 'International environmental law', 'Basics of European Law' and on 'Constitutional Fundamentals'. The necessity of interdisciplinary cooperation becomes evident in those contributions concerning individual fields of environmental law. (orig./HSCH) [de

  5. Environmental report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilt, G.C.; Gallegos, G.M.; Tate, P.J.; Balke, B.K.

    1994-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility operated by the University of California, serves as a national resource of scientific, technical, and engineering capability with a special focus on national security. Over the years, the Laboratory's mission has been broadened to encompass such areas as strategic defense, energy, the environment, biomedicine, the economy, and education. The Laboratory carries out this mission in compliance with local, state, and federal environmental regulatory requirements and takes measures to ensure that its operations do not adversely affect the environment or public health. It does so with the support of the Environmental Protection Department, which is responsible for environmental monitoring, environmental restoration, hazardous waste management, and ensuring environmental compliance. During 1993, the Environmental Protection Department conducted sampling of air, sewage effluent, ground water, surface water, soil, vegetation and foodstuffs, and took measurements of environmental radiation. It performed more than 190,000 analyses of environmental samples. The analytical results are summarized along with evaluations of the impact of radioactive and nonradioactive materials, a discussion of the effects of LLNL operations on the environment, and a summary of the activities undertaken to comply with local, state, and federal environmental laws

  6. Environmental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Burns & McDonnell Engineering's environmental control study is assisted by NASA's Computer Software Management and Information Center's programs in environmental analyses. Company is engaged primarily in design of such facilities as electrical utilities, industrial plants, wastewater treatment systems, dams and reservoirs and aviation installations. Company also conducts environmental engineering analyses and advises clients as to the environmental considerations of a particular construction project. Company makes use of many COSMIC computer programs which have allowed substantial savings.

  7. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 1993 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This annual Site Environmental Report summarizes Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory`s (LBL`s) environmental activities in calendar year (CY) 1993. The purpose of this report is to characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts. Its format and content are consistent with the requirements of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program.

  8. Environmental challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conable, B.; Warford, J.; Partow, Z.; Lutz, E.; Munasinghe, M.

    1991-09-01

    The contents include the following: Development and the Environment: A Global Balance; Evolution of the World Bank's Environmental Policy; Accounting for the Environment; Public Policy and the Environment; Managing Drylands; Environmental Action Plans in Africa; Agroforestry in Sub-Saharan Africa; Irrigation and the Environmental Challenge; Curbing Pollution in Developing Countries; Global Warming and the Developing World; and The Global Environment Facility

  9. Environmental procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The European Bank has pledged in its Agreement to place environmental management at the forefront of its operations to promote sustainable economic development in central and eastern Europe. The Bank's environmental policy is set out in the document titled, Environmental Management: The Bank's Policy Approach. This document, Environmental Procedures, presents the procedures which the European Bank has adopted to implement this policy approach with respect to its operations. The environmental procedures aim to: ensure that throughout the project approval process, those in positions of responsibility for approving projects are aware of the environmental implications of the project, and can take these into account when making decisions; avoid potential liabilities that could undermine the success of a project for its sponsors and the Bank; ensure that environmental costs are estimated along with other costs and liabilities; and identify opportunities for environmental enhancement associated with projects. The review of environmental aspects of projects is conducted by many Bank staff members throughout the project's life. This document defines the responsibilities of the people and groups involved in implementing the environmental procedures. Annexes contain Environmental Management: The Bank's Policy Approach, examples of environmental documentation for the project file and other ancillary information

  10. Environmental Economics

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Glover, Bhim Adhikari and Isabelle Proulx

    The Environmental Economics program aims to identify the underlying causes of environmental degradation and design responses that are effective, efficient, and equitable. Finding solutions to environmental problems is an interdisciplinary task, but economists can contribute to this work by estimating the monetary value of ...

  11. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, R.C.

    1993-07-01

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to fulfill the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 and DOE Environmental Regulatory Guide DOE/EH 0173T. This Plan documents the background, organizational structure, and methods used for effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance at Sandia National Laboratories/California. The design, rationale, and historical results of the environmental monitoring system are discussed in detail. Throughout the Plan, recommendations for improvements to the monitoring system are made. This revision to the Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to document the changes made to the Monitoring Program during 1992. Some of the data (most notably the statistical analyses of past monitoring data) has not been changed

  12. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, R.C. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to fulfill the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 and DOE Environmental Regulatory Guide DOE/EH 0173T. This Plan documents the background, organizational structure, and methods used for effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance at Sandia National Laboratories/California. The design, rationale, and historical results of the environmental monitoring system are discussed in detail. Throughout the Plan, recommendations for improvements to the monitoring system are made. This revision to the Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to document the changes made to the Monitoring Program during 1992. Some of the data (most notably the statistical analyses of past monitoring data) has not been changed.

  13. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketteler, G.; Kippels, K.

    1988-01-01

    In section I 'Basic principles' the following topics are considered: Constitutional-legal aspects of environmental protection, e.g. nuclear hazards and the remaining risk; European environmental law; international environmental law; administrative law, private law and criminal law relating to the environment; basic principles of environmental law, the instruments of public environmental law. Section II 'Special areas of law' is concerned with the law on water and waste, prevention of air pollution, nature conservation and care of the countryside. Legal decisions and literature up to June 1988 have been taken into consideration. (orig./RST) [de

  14. Guide for reviewing safety analysis reports for packaging: Review of quality assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, D.W.

    1988-10-01

    This review section describes quality assurance requirements applying to design, purchase, fabrication, handling, shipping, storing, cleaning, assembly, inspection, testing, operation, maintenance, repair, and modification of components of packaging which are important to safety. The design effort, operation's plans, and quality assurance requirements should be integrated to achieve a system in which the independent QA program is not overly stringent and the application of QA requirements is commensurate with safety significance. The reviewer must verify that the applicant's QA section in the SARP contains package-specific QA information required by DOE Orders and federal regulations that demonstrate compliance. 8 refs

  15. Environmental research and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    At the request of the Ministry for Research and Technology, the 'Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Grossforschungseinrichtungen' (AGF) presented in 1972 an information brochure called 'Activities in the field of environmental research and environmental protection', closely associated with the environmental programme of the Federal government (1971). The information brochure reports on those activities of the working group's members which are closely, or less closely, connected with questions concerning environmental research and protection, however, investments for the protection of the individual facilities in internal operation are excluded. The AGF programme 'Environmental research and environmental protection' comprises contributions, brought up to date, of member companies. From the 'AGF programme survey 1974' it contains 'Environmental research' as well as aspects of nuclear development with environmental relevance. Technologies not harmful to the environment developed by the research facilities are only mentioned very briefly. (orig.) [de

  16. (Environmental technology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boston, H.L.

    1990-10-12

    The traveler participated in a conference on environmental technology in Paris, sponsored by the US Embassy-Paris, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the French Environmental Ministry, and others. The traveler sat on a panel for environmental aspects of energy technology and made a presentation on the potential contributions of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to a planned French-American Environmental Technologies Institute in Chattanooga, Tennessee, and Evry, France. This institute would provide opportunities for international cooperation on environmental issues and technology transfer related to environmental protection, monitoring, and restoration at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The traveler also attended the Fourth International Conference on Environmental Contamination in Barcelona. Conference topics included environmental chemistry, land disposal of wastes, treatment of toxic wastes, micropollutants, trace organics, artificial radionuclides in the environment, and the use biomonitoring and biosystems for environmental assessment. The traveler presented a paper on The Fate of Radionuclides in Sewage Sludge Applied to Land.'' Those findings corresponded well with results from studies addressing the fate of fallout radionuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. There was an exchange of new information on a number of topics of interest to DOE waste management and environmental restoration needs.

  17. Environmental spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    Using the development of intergovernmental environmental cooperation in the Baltic Sea area as a concrete example, the aim of this study is to explore how the 'environment' in situations of environmental interdependence is identified and institutionalised as political-geographical objects....... 'Environmental interdependence' is to this end conceptualised as a tension between 'political spaces' of discrete state territories and 'environmental spaces' of spatially nested ecosystems. This tension between geographies of political separateness and environmental wholeness is the implicit or explicit basis...... for a large and varied literature. But in both its critical and problemsolving manifestations, this literature tends to naturalise the spatiality of environmental concerns: environmental spaces are generally taken for granted. On the suggestion that there is a subtle politics to the specification...

  18. Environmental history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2017-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers Geor...... for solutions and policies, is the agenda for an engaged environmental history from now on.......Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...

  19. The CAMU Rule: A tool for implementing a protective, cost-effective remedy at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis-Nouille, E.M.; Goidell, L.C.; Strimbu, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is a former uranium processing facility currently under remediation pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act as amended (CERCLA). Contamination at the FEMP consists of low-level radioactivity, hazardous substances, hazardous wastes and/or mixed wastes. Regulations promulgated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as amended (RCRA) are evaluated as applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for remediation of the FEMP. Historically, joint CERCLA-RCRA guidance dictated that hazardous waste could not be treated, or moved out of the designated area of contiguous contamination (AOC), without triggering land disposal restrictions (LDRs) or minimum technology requirements (MTRs). To avoid invoking these stringent requirements, in situ capping was chosen as the lower cost remedy at many sites, although on-site disposal and/or treatment of hazardous wastes would have been more protective. The Corrective Action Management Units (CAMUs) and Temporary Units (TUs) Final Rule [58 FR 8658, Vol. 58, No. 29, hereinafter the open-quotes CAMU Ruleclose quotes], promulgated on February 16, 1993, provides facilities regulated under RCRA corrective action authority with greater flexibility to move, treat, and dispose of wastes on site without triggering LDRs or MTRs, thereby encouraging application of innovative technologies and more protective remedies. The waste acceptance criteria for the on-site disposal facility is based on site-specific considerations including the mobility of the contaminants through the underlying site geology and the protectiveness of the engineered liners. Application of the open-quotes CAMU Ruleclose quotes allows for disposition in the on-site facility based on these technical considerations rather than on regulatory classifications

  20. Ownership and environmental regulation: Evidence from the European electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clò, Stefano; Ferraris, Matteo; Florio, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates how ownership affects the environmental performance in developed countries where environmental regulation is introduced in the form of market-based instrument. By looking at a cross-country panel dataset of 29 power markets around Europe over the period 1990–2012, we find empirical evidence that an increase of public ownership, as measured by the OECD ETCR index, is associated with a reduction of both greenhouse gas emissions and carbon intensity. We also find that the implementation of the European Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) had a limited impact on emissions' reduction due to lax allocation of allowances. The positive effect of public ownership on environmental performance has been significant even after the introduction of the ETS, giving additional incentives to mitigate emissions when the ETS cap was not stringent enough. This evidence suggests that government control over power companies in Europe can has created idiosyncratic incentives to improve environmental quality, complementing environmental regulation in the achievement of environmental goals when the latter was absent or sub-optimal. - Highlights: • We analyse the power industry's environmental performance in 29 European countries. • Public ownership is associated with lower emissions than private ownership. • Mixed oligopoly is superior to private oligopoly in environmental terms. • The ETS had a limited impact on emissions' reduction due to over-allocation. • Public ownership mitigates the effects of sub-optimal environmental regulation.

  1. Environmental regulation and the export dynamics of energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantini, Valeria; Crespi, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    The pollution haven hypothesis affirms that an open market regime will encourage the flow of low-technology polluting industries towards developing countries because of potential comparative advantages related to low environmental standards. In contrast, the hypothesis suggested by Porter and van der Linde claims that innovating firms operate in a dynamic competitive situation which allows global diffusion of environmental-friendly technologies. Environmental regulation may represent a relevant mechanism through which technological change is induced. In this way, countries that are subject to more stringent environmental regulations may become net exporters of environmental technologies. This paper provides new evidence on the evolution of export flows of environmental technologies across different countries for the energy sector. Advanced economies, particularly the European Union, have increasingly focused on the role of energy policies as tools for sustaining the development path. The Kyoto Protocol commitments, together with growing import dependence on energy products, have brought attention to the analysis of innovation processes in this specific sector. The analysis uses a gravity model in order to test the determinants and the transmission channels through which environmental technologies for renewable energies and energy efficiency are exported to advanced and developing countries. Our results are consistent with the Porter and van der Linde hypothesis where environmental regulation represents a significant source of comparative advantages. What strongly emerges is that the stringency of environmental regulation supplemented by the strength of the National Innovation System is a crucial driver of export performance in the field of energy technologies. (author)

  2. Environmental Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, S.; Gallegos, G.; Berg, L.L.; Bertoldo, N.A; Campbell, C.G.; Cerruti, S.; Doman, J.L; Ferry, L.S.; Grayson, A.R; Jones, H.E.; Kumamoto, G.; Larson, J.; MacQueen, D.H; Paterson, L.; Revelli, M.A.; Ridley, M.; Rueppel, D.; Wegrecki, A.M.; Wilson, K.; Woollett, J.

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of the 'Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Environmental Report 2007' are to record Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) compliance with environmental standards and requirements, describe LLNL's environmental protection and remediation programs, and present the results of environmental monitoring at the two LLNL sites--the Livermore site and Site 300. The report is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by LLNL's Environmental Protection Department. Submittal of the report satisfies requirements under DOE Order 231.1A, Environmental Safety and Health Reporting, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment. The report is distributed electronically and is available at https://saer.lln.gov/, the website for the LLNL annual environmental report. Previous LLNL annual environmental reports beginning in 1994 are also on the website. Some references in the electronic report text are underlined, which indicates that they are clickable links. Clicking on one of these links will open the related document, data workbook, or website that it refers to. The report begins with an executive summary, which provides the purpose of the report and an overview of LLNL's compliance and monitoring results. The first three chapters provide background information: Chapter 1 is an overview of the location, meteorology, and hydrogeology of the two LLNL sites; Chapter 2 is a summary of LLNL's compliance with environmental regulations; and Chapter 3 is a description of LLNL's environmental programs with an emphasis on the Environmental Management System including pollution prevention. The majority of the report covers LLNL's environmental monitoring programs and monitoring data for 2007: effluent and ambient air (Chapter 4); waters, including wastewater, storm water runoff, surface water, rain, and groundwater (Chapter 5); and terrestrial, including soil, sediment, vegetation, foodstuff, ambient radiation, and special status

  3. Environmental Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, S; Gallegos, G; Berg, L L; Bertoldo, N A; Campbell, C G; Cerruti, S; Doman, J L; Ferry, L S; Grayson, A R; Jones, H E; Kumamoto, G; Larson, J; MacQueen, D H; Paterson, L; Revelli, M A; Ridley, M; Rueppel, D; Wegrecki, A M; Wilson, K; Woollett, J

    2008-09-24

    The purposes of the 'Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Environmental Report 2007' are to record Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) compliance with environmental standards and requirements, describe LLNL's environmental protection and remediation programs, and present the results of environmental monitoring at the two LLNL sites--the Livermore site and Site 300. The report is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by LLNL's Environmental Protection Department. Submittal of the report satisfies requirements under DOE Order 231.1A, Environmental Safety and Health Reporting, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment. The report is distributed electronically and is available at https://saer.lln.gov/, the website for the LLNL annual environmental report. Previous LLNL annual environmental reports beginning in 1994 are also on the website. Some references in the electronic report text are underlined, which indicates that they are clickable links. Clicking on one of these links will open the related document, data workbook, or website that it refers to. The report begins with an executive summary, which provides the purpose of the report and an overview of LLNL's compliance and monitoring results. The first three chapters provide background information: Chapter 1 is an overview of the location, meteorology, and hydrogeology of the two LLNL sites; Chapter 2 is a summary of LLNL's compliance with environmental regulations; and Chapter 3 is a description of LLNL's environmental programs with an emphasis on the Environmental Management System including pollution prevention. The majority of the report covers LLNL's environmental monitoring programs and monitoring data for 2007: effluent and ambient air (Chapter 4); waters, including wastewater, storm water runoff, surface water, rain, and groundwater (Chapter 5); and terrestrial, including soil, sediment, vegetation

  4. Environmental performance reviews. Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The ECE Committee on Environmental Policy included the Environmental Performance Review of Latvia in its work programme in May 1997. The review team prepared a report on the environmental performance of Latvia before, during and after the review mission in Riga in April 1998. The report by the review team, including draft recommendations for the solution of existing problems in national environmental policy and management, was submitted for evaluation to the ECE Committee on Environmental Policy at its annual session in Geneva, on 1 October 1998. A high-level delegation from Latvia attended this session. It was headed by the State Minister for Environmental Protection and also included representatives of the Ministry of Transport and the Ministry of Welfare. The evaluation by the Committee was based on the in-depth preparation by two reviewing countries, Portugal and Ukraine. At the end of its evaluation, the Committee agreed on a final set of recommendations for inclusion in this publication. The consideration of the EPR report confirmed the strategy that has been applied to Latvian environmental policy and management during the transition period. The inherited acute environmental problems have been tackled essentially on a case by case basis. The long-term solution of the problems will have to be accompanied also by strategic orientations for environmental policy. The development of such orientations in co-operation with both governmental and non-governmental partners is a need also related to the efforts by Latvia to approach European practices of environmental management. The Latvian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Regional Development is fully aware of the considerable resources that are required at all levels for the full transformation to such practices

  5. Latency in Visionic Systems: Test Methods and Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, J. J., III; Williams, Steven P.; Kramer, Lynda J.

    2005-01-01

    A visionics device creates a pictorial representation of the external scene for the pilot. The ultimate objective of these systems may be to electronically generate a form of Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) to eliminate weather or time-of-day as an operational constraint and provide enhancement over actual visual conditions where eye-limiting resolution may be a limiting factor. Empirical evidence has shown that the total system delays or latencies including the imaging sensors and display systems, can critically degrade their utility, usability, and acceptability. Definitions and measurement techniques are offered herein as common test and evaluation methods for latency testing in visionics device applications. Based upon available data, very different latency requirements are indicated based upon the piloting task, the role in which the visionics device is used in this task, and the characteristics of the visionics cockpit display device including its resolution, field-of-regard, and field-of-view. The least stringent latency requirements will involve Head-Up Display (HUD) applications, where the visionics imagery provides situational information as a supplement to symbology guidance and command information. Conversely, the visionics system latency requirement for a large field-of-view Head-Worn Display application, providing a Virtual-VMC capability from which the pilot will derive visual guidance, will be the most stringent, having a value as low as 20 msec.

  6. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy A. Wills

    2006-10-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005 (NTSER) was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NTS Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts.

  7. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathy A. Wills

    2006-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005 (NTSER) was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NTS Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts

  8. Humidity requirements in WSCF Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop and document a position on Relative Humidity (RH) requirements in the WSCF Laboratories. A current survey of equipment vendors for Organic, Inorganic and Radiochemical laboratories indicate that 25% - 80% relative humidity may meet the environmental requirements for safe operation and protection of all the laboratory equipment

  9. Impact on the steam electric power industry of deleting Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act: Energy and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Folga, S.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Many power plants discharge large volumes of cooling water. In some cases, the temperature of the discharge exceeds state thermal requirements. Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) allows a thermal discharger to demonstrate that less stringent thermal effluent limitations would still protect aquatic life. About 32% of the total steam electric generating capacity in the United States operates under Section 316(a) variances. In 1991, the US Senate proposed legislation that would delete Section 316(a) from the CWA. This study, presented in two companion reports, examines how this legislation would affect the steam electric power industry. This report quantitatively and qualitatively evaluates the energy and environmental impacts of deleting the variance. No evidence exists that Section 316(a) variances have caused any widespread environmental problems. Conversion from once-through cooling to cooling towers would result in a loss of plant output of 14.7-23.7 billion kilowatt-hours. The cost to make up the lost energy is estimated at $12.8-$23.7 billion (in 1992 dollars). Conversion to cooling towers would increase emission of pollutants to the atmosphere and water loss through evaporation. The second report describes alternatives available to plants that currently operate under the variance and estimates the national cost of implementing such alternatives. Little justification has been found for removing the 316(a) variance from the CWA

  10. Environmental Development Plan for advanced isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    This EDP identifies the planning and management requirements and schedules needed to evaluate and assess the environmental, health, and safety aspects of the Advanced Isotope Separation (AIS) program. Current AIS processes include the molecular and atomic vapor laser processes and the plasma process. This document covers the technology program, environmental concerns and requirements, and environmental strategy

  11. Environmental Tritium.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Environmental tritium was first observed in a helium fraction at a liquid air production facility in Germany in 1949. During the 1950s and early 1960s, huge amounts of artificial tritium were released into the atmosphere by nuclear testing. The environmental tritium level increased to more than 200 times the natural tritium level. Since the signing of a test ban treaty in 1963, the environmental tritium level has decreased, and analysis of recent Japanese rain samples has shown that the envir...

  12. 32 CFR 700.832 - Environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental pollution. 700.832 Section 700.832... Commanding Officers in General § 700.832 Environmental pollution. The commanding officer shall cooperate with... environmental pollution. If the requirements of any environmental law cannot be achieved because of operational...

  13. Environmental Risk

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Identified Sites coverage, used to support the environmental quality program, references types and concentrations of contaminants, contaminated media and...

  14. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, A.P.

    1979-01-01

    Environmental Studies and Internal Dosimetry projects include: Environmental Protection; 1977 Environmental Monitoring Report; Sewage Sludge Disposal on the Sanitary Landfill; Radiological Analyses of Marshall Islands Environmental Samples, 1974 to 1976; External Radiation Survey and Dose Predictions for Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik, Ailuk, and Wotje Atolls; Marshall Islands - Diet and Life Style Study; Dose Reassessment for Populations on Rongelap and Utirik Following Exposure to Fallout from BRAVO Incident (March 1, 1954); Whole Body Counting Results from 1974 to 1979 for Bikini Island Residents; Dietary Radioactivity Intake from Bioassay Data, a Model Applied to 137 Cs Intake by Bikini Island Residents; and External Exposure Measurements at Bikini Atoll

  15. Hanford Site 1998 Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RL Dirkes; RW Hanf; TM Poston

    1999-09-21

    This Hanford Site environmental report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, to describe environmental management performance, to demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations, and to highlight major environmental programs and efforts. The report is written to meet requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and to meet the needs of the public. This summary has been written with a minimum of technical terminology. Individual sections of the report are designed to: describe the Hanford Site and its mission; summarize the status of compliance with environmental regulations; describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site; discuss the estimated radionuclide exposure to the public from 1998 Hanford Site activities; present the effluent monitoring, environmental surveillance, and groundwater protection and monitoring information; and discuss the activities to ensure quality.

  16. Hanford Site Environmental Report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Hanf, R.W.; Woodruff, R.K.

    1994-06-01

    The Hanford Site Environmental Report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, describe environmental management performance, and demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations. The report also highlights major environmental programs and efforts. The report is written to meet reporting requirements and Guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) an to meet the needs of the public. This summary has been written with a minimum of technical terminology. Individual sections of the report are designed to (a) describe the Hanford Site and its mission, (b) summarize the status in 1993 of compliance with environmental regulations, (c) describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site, (d) discuss estimated radionuclide exposure to the public from 1993 Hanford activities, (e) present information on effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance, including ground-water protection and monitoring, (f) discuss activities to ensure quality. More detailed information can be found in the body of the report, the appendixes, and the cited references

  17. Hanford Site Environmental Report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TM Poston; RW Hanf; RL Dirkes

    2000-09-28

    This Hanford Site environmental report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, to describe environmental management performance, to demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations, and to highlight major environmental programs and efforts. The report is written to meet requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and to meet the needs of the public. This summary has been written with a minimum of technical terminology. Individual sections of the report are designed to: (1) describe the Hanford Site and its mission; (2) summarize the status of compliance with environmental regulations; (3) describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site; (4) discuss the estimated radionuclide exposure to the public from 1999 Hanford Site activities; (5) present the effluent monitoring, environmental surveillance, groundwater protection and monitoring information; and (6) discuss the activities to ensure quality.

  18. Hanford Site Environmental Report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, TM; Hanf, RW; Dirkes, RL

    2000-01-01

    This Hanford Site environmental report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, to describe environmental management performance, to demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations, and to highlight major environmental programs and efforts. The report is written to meet requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and to meet the needs of the public. This summary has been written with a minimum of technical terminology. Individual sections of the report are designed to: (1) describe the Hanford Site and its mission; (2) summarize the status of compliance with environmental regulations; (3) describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site; (4) discuss the estimated radionuclide exposure to the public from 1999 Hanford Site activities; (5) present the effluent monitoring, environmental surveillance, groundwater protection and monitoring information; and (6) discuss the activities to ensure quality

  19. Hanford Site Environmental Report 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Hanf, R.W.; Woodruff, R.K. [eds.

    1994-06-01

    The Hanford Site Environmental Report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, describe environmental management performance, and demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations. The report also highlights major environmental programs and efforts. The report is written to meet reporting requirements and Guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) an to meet the needs of the public. This summary has been written with a minimum of technical terminology. Individual sections of the report are designed to (a) describe the Hanford Site and its mission, (b) summarize the status in 1993 of compliance with environmental regulations, (c) describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site, (d) discuss estimated radionuclide exposure to the public from 1993 Hanford activities, (e) present information on effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance, including ground-water protection and monitoring, (f) discuss activities to ensure quality. More detailed information can be found in the body of the report, the appendixes, and the cited references.

  20. Environmental Report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, Gretchen M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bertoldo, Nicholas A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Campbell, Christopher G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cerruti, Steven [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Coty, Jessie [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dibley, Valerie [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Domain, Jennifer L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Grayson, Allen R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jones, Henry E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kumamoto, Gene [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); MacQueen, Donald H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nelson, Jennifer C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Paterson, Lisa [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Revelli, Michael A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wegrecki, Anthony M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wilson, Kent [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Woollett, Jim [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-09-22

    The purposes of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Environmental Report 2009 are to record Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL’s) compliance with environmental standards and requirements, describe LLNL’s environmental protection and remediation programs, and present the results of environmental monitoring at the two LLNL sites—the Livermore site and Site 300. The report is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by LLNL’s Environmental Protection Department. Submittal of the report satisfies requirements under DOE Order 231.1A, Environmental Safety and Health Reporting, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment. The report is distributed electronically and is available at https://saer.lln.gov/, the website for the LLNL annual environmental report. Previous LLNL annual environmental reports beginning in 1994 are also on the website. Some references in the electronic report text are underlined, which indicates that they are clickable links. Clicking on one of these links will open the related document, data workbook, or website that it refers to. The report begins with an executive summary, which provides the purpose of the report and an overview of LLNL’s compliance and monitoring results. The first three chapters provide background information: Chapter 1 is an overview of the location, meteorology, and hydrogeology of the two LLNL sites; Chapter 2 is a summary of LLNL’s compliance with environmental regulations; and Chapter 3 is a description of LLNL’s environmental programs with an emphasis on the Environmental Management System including pollution prevention. The majority of the report covers LLNL’s environmental monitoring programs and monitoring data for 2009: effluent and ambient air (Chapter 4); waters, including wastewater, storm water runoff, surface water, rain, and groundwater (Chapter 5); and terrestrial, including soil, sediment, vegetation, foodstuff, ambient radiation, and

  1. Framework for Systematic Evaluation of Environmental Ship Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trost, Christopher

    1997-01-01

    Increasing awareness of environmental issues related to product design, development, use and disposal is requiring that designers account for environmental issues that had previously been neglected...

  2. Environmental impact assessment required in case of a modification of nuclear power plant operation. BVerwG, decision of 23 April 1996 - Az. 11 B 96/95 (Munich)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The article discusses a ruling of the Federal Administrative Court, relating to a complaint by an individual person against an essential modification of the operation of a nuclear reactor station, raising the question of whether a citizen affected by this essential modification can claim on the basis of the EC Council Directive on environmental impact statements to be filed for defined private or public projects, that prior to this essential modification, an environmental impact assessment be carried out, the results to be taken into account by the licensing authority. The complaint was dismissed. (orig./CB) [de

  3. Environmental Audit of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This document contains the findings identified during the Environmental Audit of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), conducted from December 2 to 13, 1991. The Audit included the EML facility located in a fifth-floor General Services Administration (GSA) office building located in New York City, and a remote environmental monitoring station located in Chester, New Jersey. The scope of this Environmental Audit was comprehensive, covering all areas of environmental activities and waste management operations, with the exception of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which is the responsibility of the DOE Headquarters Office of NEPA Oversight. Compliance with applicable Federal, state, and local requirements; applicable DOE Orders; and internal facility requirements was addressed

  4. International environmental agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, Aart

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of environmental externalities at the global level requires international agreements between sovereign states. Game theory provides an appropriate theoretical tool for analysis. However, game theory can result in a wide range of outcomes, and therefore it is important to discuss the

  5. The environmental survey manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance to the Survey and Sampling and Analysis teams that conduct the one-time Environmental Survey of the major US Department of Energy (DOE) operating facilities. This manual includes a discussion of DOE's policy on environmental issues, a review of statutory guidance as it applies to the Survey, the procedures and protocols to be used by the Survey teams, criteria for the use of the Survey teams in evaluating existing environmental data for the Survey effort, generic technical checklists used in every Survey, health and safety guidelines for the personnel conducting the Survey, including the identification of potential hazards, prescribed protective equipment, and emergency procedures, the required formats for the Survey reports, guidance on identifying environmental problems that need immediate attention by the Operations Office responsible for the particular facility, and procedures and protocols for the conduct of sampling and analysis

  6. Environmental status report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The new expert opinion on the environment does not claim to be as complete as the previous two, but places accents in certain areas. The environmental policy of the beginning of the 1990ies requires a general, interdisciplinary and internally sound conception. Therefore the Council has presented outlines of such a general environmental policy with special care and minuteness of detail. The second part treats the individual sectors of environmental protection such as pollution and protection of soils or air pollution and air pollution control. The third part presents environmental protection in selected fields of politics: environment and health - energy - traffic - regional planning - leisure time and tourism. An abridged version gives a survey of the contents of the expert opinion so as to introduce into the intricacy and richness of details thereof. (orig./HSCH) [de

  7. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, B.; Sparwasser, R.

    1988-01-01

    Environmental law is discussed exhaustively in this book. Legal and scientific fundamentals are taken into account, a systematic orientation is given, and hints for further information are presented. The book covers general environmental law, plan approval procedures, protection against nuisances, atomic law and radiation protection law, water protection law, waste management law, laws on chemical substances, conservation law. (HSCH) [de

  8. Environmental Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaert, T.; Vanmarcke, H

    1998-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's programme on environmental restoration are (1) to optimize and validate models for the impact assessment from environmental, radioactive contaminations, including waste disposal or discharge; (2) to support the policy of national authorities for public health and radioactive waste management. Progress and achievements in 1997 are reported.

  9. Environmental Cartoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Elizabeth H.; Goodkind, Thomas B.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes editorial cartoons from 1972-87 to determine extent and type of attention to environmental issues. Explores cartoons' direct and indirect messages regarding outdoors. Describes cartoons about energy, environment, pollution, space. Discusses artists' use of animals, vegetation, and outdoor activities. Identifies environmental issues as…

  10. Environmental occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the onsite and offsite releases of radioactive and regulated materials. The specific agencies notified of the releases depended on the type, amount, and location of the individual occurrences. The more significant of these off-normal environmental occurrences are summarized in this section

  11. Environmental Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and their impacts on the environment and the biota. Parts 4 and 5 explain the system dynamics. Parts 6 and 7 deal with the different habitats, the communities they support and the environmental- setting. Parts 8 and 9 highlight the environmental problems and strategies to deal with them. A glossary enhances its value.

  12. Fernald Environmental Management Project 1995 site environmental report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The Fernald site continues to examine the air and liquid pathways as possible routes through which pollutants from past operations and current remedial activities may leave the site. This 1995 Site Environmental Report provides the general public as well as scientists and engineers with the results from the site's ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included in this report is information concerning the site's progress toward achieving full compliance with requirements set forth by DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA

  13. Environmental medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steneberg, A.

    1996-01-01

    'Environmental medicine' deals with the manifold health problems from environmental factors of chemical, physical and psychosocial origin that are possible or have been observed. The book gives insight into the current state of knowledge of environmental medicine institutions, possibilities of diagnosis and therapeutic methods. It offers a systematic overview of pollutant sources and pollutant effects and points out, inter alia, syndromes that are discussed in connection with environmental factors: not only allergies and carcinogenous diseases but also symptom complexes that are hard to diagnose by ordinary methods such as the sick-building syndrome, multiple sensitivity to chemicals, electrosensitivity, amalgam intoxications, disorders due to wood preservatives and fungal diseases. The lingering course of a disease and a set of symptoms varying from one patient to another are the rule, not the exception, because environmental diseases are due above all to the chronic uptake of low pollutant doses (orig./MG) [de

  14. Waste Management System Requirement document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    This volume defines the top level technical requirements for the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. It is designed to be used in conjunction with Volume 1, General System Requirements. Volume 3 provides a functional description expanding the requirements allocated to the MRS facility in Volume 1 and, when appropriate, elaborates on requirements by providing associated performance criteria. Volumes 1 and 3 together convey a minimum set of requirements that must be satisfied by the final MRS facility design without unduly constraining individual design efforts. The requirements are derived from the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 (NWPAA), the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (40 CFR 191), NRC Licensing Requirements for the Independent Storage of Spent Nuclear and High-Level Radioactive Waste (10 CFR 72), and other federal statutory and regulatory requirements, and major program policy decisions. This document sets forth specific requirements that will be fulfilled. Each subsequent level of the technical document hierarchy will be significantly more detailed and provide further guidance and definition as to how each of these requirements will be implemented in the design. Requirements appearing in Volume 3 are traceable into the MRS Design Requirements Document. Section 2 of this volume provides a functional breakdown for the MRS facility. 1 tab

  15. Low-level (submicromole) environmental 14C metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, L.A.; Kessler, J.D.; Marolf, J.V.; McNichol, A.P.; Stuart, D.R.; Donoghue, J.C.; Donahue, D.J.; Burr, G.S.; Biddulph, D.

    2000-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements of environmental 14 C have been employed during the past decade at the several micromole level (tens of μg carbon), but advanced research in the atmospheric and marine sciences demands still higher (μg) sensitivity, an extreme example being the determination of 14 C in elemental or 'black' carbon (BC) at levels of 2-10 μg per kg of Greenland snow and ice (Currie et al., 1998). A fundamental limitation for 14 C AMS is Poisson counting statistics, which sets in at about 1 μg modern-C. Using the small sample (25 μg) AMS target preparation facility at NOSAMS (Pearson et al., 1998), and the microsample combustion-dilution facility at NIST, we have demonstrated an intrinsic modern-C quantification limit (m Q ) of ca. 0.9 μg, based on a 1-parameter fit to the empirical AMS variance function. (For environmental 14 C, the modern carbon quantification limit is defined as that mass (m Q ) corresponding to 10% relative standard deviation (rsd) for the fraction of modern carbon, σ(f M )/f M .) Stringent control, required for quantitative dilution factors (DL), is achieved with the NIST on-line manometric/mass spectrometry facility that compensates also for unsuspected trace impurities from vigorous chemical processing (e.g., acid digestion). Our current combustion blank is trivial (mean: 0.16 ± 0.02 μg C, n=13) but lognormally distributed (dispersion [σ]: 0.07 ± 0.01 μg). An iterative numerical expression is introduced to assess the quantitative impacts of fossil and modern carbon blank components on m Q ; and a new 'clean chemistry' BC processing system is described for the minimization of such blanks. For the assay of soot carbon in Greenland snow/ice, the overall processing blank has been reduced from nearly 7 μg total carbon to less than 1 μg, and is undetectable for BC

  16. Hanford Environmental Information System Configuration Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) Configuration Management Plan establishes the software and data configuration control requirements for the HEIS and project-related databases maintained within the Environmental Restoration Contractor's data management department

  17. Environmental policy in the European Union. Fostering the development of pollution havens?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cave, Lisa A.; Blomquist, Glenn C.

    2008-01-01

    A pollution haven occurs when dirty industries from developed nations relocate to developing nations in order to avoid strict environmental standards or developed nations imports of dirty industries expand replacing domestic production. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the European Union (EU) has increased its imports of 'dirty' goods from poorer, less democratic countries during a period of more stringent environmental standards. Previous empirical studies find evidence that United States imports are responsive to changes in environmental stringency, but the effects of EU policy have not been examined as thoroughly. Our study follows Kahn [Kahn, M.E., 2003. The Geography of USA Pollution Intensive Trade: Evidence from 1958 to 1994. Regional Science and Urban Economics., 33: 383-400.] and examines the impact of industry energy intensity and toxicity, measured by an energy index and a Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) index, on imports into the EU, at the 2-digit industry level from 1970 to 1999. We use the signing of the Maastricht Treaty to signify a period of more uniform and stringent community wide environmental standards (1993-1999), and identify the level of per capita GDP within an EU trading partner. We find an increased amount of EU energy intensive trade with poorer countries during the period with more stringent EU environmental standards. This result is not robust, however, when poorer countries are defined by OECD membership and geographic region. We do not find an increased amount of EU toxic intensive trade with poorer countries although there is some evidence of increased EU imports of toxic goods from poorer OECD and non-EU European countries. For our full sample of trading partners in all regions, the evidence supports the PHH for EU energy intensive trade, but not for toxic intensive trade. Results for regional trade analysis are less clear. (author)

  18. Environmental sampling technician training program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreland, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is currently involved in extensive environmental monitoring activities to characterize various active/inactive waste sites that exist at the facility. There are also considerable reporting requirements that ORNL must meet on a continuing basis in order to remain in compliance with existing permit requirements under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Clean Air Act (CAA), and the Clean Water Act (CWA). Much of the environmental monitoring data that is used to characterize waste sites or is required in reports is obtained by environmental sampling technicians who must take samples at various locations throughout ORNL as well as other DOE installations. Because of the quality control and assurance measures included under NQA-1, ORNL has developed an Environmental Sampling Technician Training program. This presentation will describe how the Environmental Sampling Technician Training Program was developed and review the specific materials used in conducting the training

  19. Environmental Perception as a Diagnostic Probe of Environmental Complexity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Mirlaine R.; Macedo, Renato L. G.; Freitas, Matheus P.; Nunes, Cleiton A.; Venturin, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Educational methods to diagnose and improve the level of environmental conception are required. The present work reports a methodology based on studies about the environmental perception of a university public, divided into general students and those related to the forest sciences, who are involved with disciplines and researches related…

  20. The Decoupling of Resource Consumption and Environmental Impact from Economic Growth in China: Spatial Pattern and Temporal Trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilong Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Unprecedented economic achievement in China has occurred along with rising resource consumption and waste productions levels. The goal of sustainability requires the decoupling of economic growth from resource consumption (resource decoupling and environmental degradation (impact decoupling. For this paper, the performances of resource decoupling (energy and water and impact decoupling (wastewater, SO2 and CO2 in China were evaluated, and the spatial pattern and temporal trend of decoupling performance were investigated by using the rescaled range analysis (R/S. The results indicate the following. (1 The performance of resource decoupling during the investigated period is worse than that of traditional impact (SO2 and wastewater decoupling, but better than that of the CO2 emission. Additionally, the decoupling performances of energy consumption and related pollutant emission (except CO2 are better than that of water usage and wastewater discharge; (2 The decoupling performance of energy consumption, SO2 and CO2, has substantially improved from the 10th Five-Year Planning Period (FYP (2001–2005 to the 11th FYP (2006–2010, which indicates that the decoupling performance is highly related the environmental policy; (3 The spatial disparities of the performance of resource and impact decoupling are declining, which indicates the existence of cross-province convergence in decoupling performance; (4 The decoupling performance of SO2 and water usage in most of regions shows an improving trend. Inversely, the decoupling performance of energy consumption, CO2 emission, and wastewater discharge in most regions show a decreasing trend; (5 China needs more stringent water-saving targets and wastewater discharge standards; better policy efforts to improve the water recycling level both in agricultural, industrial and municipal level are required to prevent the decreasing trend of the decoupling performance.

  1. Environmental Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, G; Bertoldo, N A; Campbell, C G; Cerruti, S; Dibley, V; Doman, J L; Grayson, A R; Jones, H E; Kumamoto, G; MacQueen, D H; Nelson, J C; Paterson, L; Revelli, M A; Wegrecki, A M; Wilson, K; Woollett, J

    2009-09-16

    The purposes of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Environmental Report 2008 are to record Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) compliance with environmental standards and requirements, describe LLNL's environmental protection and remediation programs, and present the results of environmental monitoring at the two LLNL sites - the Livermore site and Site 300. The report is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by LLNL's Environmental Protection Department. Submittal of the report satisfies requirements under DOE Order 231.1A, Environmental Safety and Health Reporting, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment. The report is distributed electronically and is available at https://saer.lln.gov/, the website for the LLNL annual environmental report. Previous LLNL annual environmental reports beginning in 1994 are also on the website. Some references in the electronic report text are underlined, which indicates that they are clickable links. Clicking on one of these links will open the related document, data workbook, or website that it refers to. The report begins with an executive summary, which provides the purpose of the report and an overview of LLNL's compliance and monitoring results. The first three chapters provide background information: Chapter 1 is an overview of the location, meteorology, and hydrogeology of the two LLNL sites; Chapter 2 is a summary of LLNL's compliance with environmental regulations; and Chapter 3 is a description of LLNL's environmental programs with an emphasis on the Environmental Management System including pollution prevention. The majority of the report covers LLNL's environmental monitoring programs and monitoring data for 2008: effluent and ambient air (Chapter 4); waters, including wastewater, storm water runoff, surface water, rain, and groundwater (Chapter 5); and terrestrial, including soil, sediment, vegetation, foodstuff

  2. Peat in environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinttilae, R.

    1998-01-01

    Peat is the largest natural resource of Finland. The DS-reserves of peat are more than seven times larger than those of wood. Peat is known as a domestic source of energy. Peat is, however, more than an energy source. The most significant problem of water protection in Finland is the eutrophication of the water courses. The reduction of concentrated loads and large emissions sources has up to now been the target for the water protection. The control of diffuse loads has been more difficult. The environmental use of peat can reduce the loads on watercourses, and especially the diffuse emissions. The natural and unique properties of peat can be utilized in several targets: agriculture, pisciculture, fur farming, in small and medium sized industry, and in processing of waste waters of both municipalities and rural areas, as well as in different environmental hazards. The present use of environmental peat is just a small fragment of the annual growth of peat reserves in Finland. The amount of protected mires is about ten times larger than the amount of peatlands taken into peat production. The use of environmental peat makes it possible to reduce the diffuse loads significantly in the future. This, however, requires willingness of cooperation and development by the entrepreneurs, authorities, and peat producers. The present use of agricultural peat binds about three times more phosphor and nearly one and a half fold nitrogen fertilizers compare to the emissions caused by peat production. It has to be noticed that the utilization of peat in reduction of environmental loads does not cause any secondary waste problem. The final product formed can usually be composted and used e.g. in soil remediation or in construction of green areas. The tightening environmental regulations and international agreements increase the utilization of peat. As the demand of peat increased the quality requirements for peat will be increased. Certain grain size and the restoration of the

  3. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloepfer, M.

    1989-01-01

    This comprehensive reference book on environmental law and practice also is a valuable textbook for students specializing in the field. The entire law on pollution control and environmental protection is presented in an intelligent system, covering the latest developments in the Federal and Land legislation, public environmental law, and the related provisions in the fields of civil law and criminal law. The national survey is rounded up by information concerning the international environmental law, environmental law of the European Communities, and of other foreign countries as e.g. Austria and Switzerland. The author also reviews conditions in neighbouring fields such as technology and labour law, environmental economy, environmental policy. Special attention is given to current topics, as e.g. relating to genetic engineering, disused landfills or industrial sites, soil protection, transport of hazardous goods, liability for damage to forests, atomic energy law, and radiation protection law. The latest publishing dates of literature and court decisions considered in the book are in the first months of 1989. (RST) [de

  4. Program of environmental radiological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    This Regulation refers to the requirement of the Regulation CNEN-NN.3.01, 'Basic Act of Radiological Protection', as expressed in the section 5.14, related to the Program of Environmental Radiological Monitoring (PMRA)

  5. Austria's environmental law in comparison with the environmental law of the EC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantscher, S.H.

    1991-11-01

    The thesis describes and compares the environmental legislation in Austria and the EC. A short introduction into structure and organization of EC-institutions and EC-legislation in followed by an examination of the constitutional foundations of environmental policy in Austria and the EC respectively. After the adoption for the Single European Act, the EEC-Treaty provides for objectives, orientation criteria and instruments regarding environmental protection. These provisions constitute a valid basis for environmental action. The adoption of a constitutional law does equally declare environmental protection as an objective of the state in Austria, however, its significance is regarded as rather controversial. Some provinces ('Laender') have shown a higher degree of sensitivity in their constitutions . The distribution of powers between the EC and its member stated in the field of environmental protection is of particular interests. It is shown, that the principle of subsidiarity and the safeguard-clauses leave discretion to the member states. Much will be determined by the European Court of Justice (ECJ) . Main emphasis has been placed on the description and comparison of Austria's and the EEC-environmental legislation. Environmental legislation of Austria as well as the EC is outlined sector by sector (i.e. water, air, chemicals, waste, soil, fauna and flora) and subsequently the object of a detailed comparison. Criteria, such as - preventiveness -stringency - focus, depth and comprehensiveness - clearness and legal force of the regulations have been applied. For most of the mentioned sectors it is correct to state, that Austria's legislation is more preventive, advanced, comprehensive and stringent (especially regulations related to water, waste, chemicals, also air) . However, there are particular areas (e.g. air quality objectives, noise limits for construction plants) where Austria' s legislation may well get a fresh impetus

  6. Environmental Development Plan: uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    This Environmental Development Plan identifies and examines the environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns and corresponding requirements associated with the DOE research, development, demonstration, and operation of the Uranium Enrichment program, including the gaseous diffusion process, the centrifuge process, centrifuge rotor fabrication, and related research and development activities

  7. Uncertainty arguments in environmental issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, P.B.

    A large part of environmental policy is based upon scientific studies of the likely health, safety, and ecological consequences of human actions and practices. These studies, however, are frequently vulnerable to epistemological and methodological criticisms which challenge their validity. Epistemological criticisms can be used in ethical and political philosophy arguments to challenge the applicability of scientific knowledge to environmental policy, and, in turn, to challenge the democratic basis of specific environmental policies themselves. Uncertainty arguments thus draw upon philosophy of science, epistemology, ethics, and political philosophy to establish conclusions of practical relevance to environmental quality. A theory of how and when uncertainty arguments ought to be given credence in environmental decision making requires an account of how scientific research ought to integrated into environmental policy generally, plus an account of how public environmental policy is to be set in a democracy.

  8. 1984 environmental monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, L.E.; Miltenberger, R.P.; Naidu, J.R.

    1985-04-01

    The environmental monitoring program has been designed to ensure that BNL facilities operate such that the applicable environmental standards and effluent control requirements have been met. A listing, as required by DOE Order 5484.1 of BNL facilities, of environmental agencies and permits is provided in the Environmental Program Information Section 3.0, Table B. Since the aquifer underlying Long Island has been designated a ''sole source'' aquifer, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Drinking Water Standards have been used in the assessment of ground water data. However, the limits prescribed in the regulations are not directly applicable to the monitoring well data since (1) the standards apply to a community water supply system, i.e., one serving more than 25 individuals, and (2) the standards represent an annual average concentration. Since the monitoring wells are not components of the Laboratory's water supply system, the EPA drinking water standards are employed as reference criteria to which the surveillance well data is compared. The standards also serve as guidance levels for any appropriate remedial action. 36 refs., 9 figs., 40 tabs

  9. Environmental sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwa, C.; Wright, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    The environmental sciences are engaged in a remarkable effort of interdisciplinary cooperation and integration. Some long-running international scientific programs, notably the World Climate Research Programme and the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, play an important role therein. The

  10. Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our environment affects our health. If parts of the environment, like the air, water, or soil become polluted, it ... in the home can trigger asthma attacks. Some environmental risks are a part of the natural world, ...

  11. Environmental history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2017-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... Perkins Marsh, Carl Sauer, and Clarence Glacken, to more recent global-scale assessments of the impact of the “great acceleration” since 1950. Today’s “runaway world” paradoxically embraces risk management in an attempt to determine its own future whilst generating a whole new category of “manufactured...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...

  12. Environmental decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, G.A.; Jernigan, H.C. (eds.)

    1981-02-01

    The record of the proceedings of the workshop on environmental decontamination contains twenty-seven presentations. Emphasis is placed upon soil and surface decontamination, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and assessments of instrumentation and equipment used in decontamination. (DLS)

  13. Environmental Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin

    The doctoral research project is co-financed by DUCED-I&UA and is part of a joint effort of Thai, Malay, South African and Danish universities to conduct collaborative research on the overarching theme "Environmental Management: Globalisation and Industrial Governance in Developing Countries......". The PhD project is expected to conclude ultimo 2005. Environmental management and cleaner production (CP) are both internationally recognised as tools for minimising environmental impacts of production or services. However, several studies have shown that especially SMEs, which probably amount to more....... The largest barrier to overcome seems to be the lack of human resources and capacities, but an apparent absence of financial means seems also to play an important role. In recent studies and evaluations of for example Danish measures to introduce environmental considerations in SMEs, it have been suggested...

  14. Environmental decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, G.A.; Jernigan, H.C.

    1981-02-01

    The record of the proceedings of the workshop on environmental decontamination contains twenty-seven presentations. Emphasis is placed upon soil and surface decontamination, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and assessments of instrumentation and equipment used in decontamination

  15. Environmental enrichment improves learning and memory and long-term potentiation in young adult rats through a mechanism requiring mGluR5 signaling and sustained activation of p70s6k

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullinger, Rikki; O’Riordan, Kenneth; Burger, Corinna

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies from our lab have demonstrated that mild cognitive impairments identified early in life are predictive of cognitive deficits that develop with age, suggesting that enhancements in cognition at an early age can provide a buffer against age-related cognitive decline. Environmental enrichment has been shown to improve learning and memory in the rodent, but the impact of enrichment on synaptic plasticity and the molecular mechanisms behind enrichment are not completely understood. To address these unresolved issues, we have housed 2-month old rats in environmentally enriched (EE), socially enriched (SE), or standard housing (SC) and conducted tests of learning and memory formation at various time intervals. Here we demonstrate that animals that have been exposed to one month of social or environmental enrichment demonstrate enhanced learning and memory relative to standard housed controls. However, we have found that after 4 months EE animals perform better than both SE and SC groups and demonstrate an enhanced hippocampal LTP. Our results demonstrate that this LTP is dependent on mGluR5 signaling, activation of ERK and mTOR signaling cascades, and sustained phosphorylation of p70s6 kinase, thus providing a potential target mechanism for future studies of cognitive enhancement in the rodent. PMID:26341144

  16. Environmental ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, J J

    2000-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) held the first meeting on environmental ethics sponsored by the Scientific Advisory Panel and Board on 10-11 December 1998 in Arlington, Virginia (1). The report from the meeting will more completely inform scientists and the community of current issues. This editorial should serve as an initial brief of this meeting [which was held on the fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of Human Rights (adopted by the United Nations on 10 December 1948)].

  17. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    The question of environment protection related to the use of nuclear energy aiming to power generation, based on the harmonic concept of economic and industrial development, preserving the environment, is discussed. A brief study of environmental impacts for some energy sources, including nuclear energy, to present the systems of a nuclear power plant which aim at environmental protection, is done. (M.C.K.) [pt

  18. Economic and environmental performance of future fusion plants in comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamacher, T.; Saez, R.M.; Lako, P.

    2001-01-01

    If the good performance of fusion as technology with no CO 2 emission during normal operation and rather low external costs, reflecting the advantageous environmental and safety characteristics, are considered in future energy regulations, fusion can win considerable market shares in future electricity markets. The economic performance was elaborated for Western Europe for the time period till 2100. The software tool MARKAL widely used in energy research was used to simulate and optimise the development of the Western European energy system. Two different scenarios were considered, the main difference was the interest rate for investments. Stringent CO 2 -emission strategies lead to considerable market shares for fusion. As a comprehensive indicator of the environmental and safety performance of fusion plants the external costs following the ExternE method was used. External costs of fusion are rather low, much below the cost of electricity, and are in the same range as photovoltaics and wind energy. (author)

  19. Environmental information in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velez S, Andres

    2005-01-01

    This article is a chapter from the paper, Elements for the description of an environmental information system, which was written by the author as a requirement for the degree of specialist on environment and Geoinformatics at the school of engineering. Universidad de Antioquia. The original paper attempted a description of the context and development of a particular environmental information system, built at the eastern region of Antioquia by CORNARE (a regional autonomous corporation for the environment and the natural resources). This article refers to the Colombian institutional context for environmental information. With particular emphasis laid on the strategic character that must be conceded to the administration of information. Towards the construction of equitable and sustainable development models under autonomous orientation an efficient and transparent environmental administration as is needed by such models is only attainable through the design and application of environmental information systems committed to the pursuit of collective interests. Here a balance is sought between accomplishments and failures reached during the long standing discussion held in Colombia around the formulation of public policies that acknowledge and strengthen the role of information as a cornerstone of environmental administration, and a contribution towards the goal of human sustainable development

  20. Environmental performance reviews. Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The ECE Committee on Environmental Policy included the Environmental Performance Review of Lithuania in its work programme in January 1997. The review team prepared a report on the environmental performance of Lithuania before, during and after the review mission in Vilnius in October 1997. The report by the review team, including draft recommendations for the solution of existing problems in national environmental policy and management, was updated in a further discussion in Vilnius in May, 1998, before it was submitted for evaluation to the ECE Committee on Environmental Policy at its annual session in Geneva, on 29 September 1998. The evaluation by the Committee was based on the in-depth preparation by two reviewing countries, Bulgaria and Finland. At the end of its evaluation, the Committee agreed on a final set of recommendations for inclusion in this Publication. The Peer Review of the EPR report by the ECE Committee on Environmental Policy permitted to address both strengths and weaknesses of environmental management in Lithuania during the transition process. Despite the considerable socio-economic difficulties that are being experienced, the Lithuanian Ministry of Environment has patiently succeeded in becoming an important actor in decisions affecting the development of the country's environment. The time-consuming process towards forthcoming and open partnership with all governmental and non-governmental forces involved or interested in such management has started. It can be hoped that the further evolution of the skills and means required for both the adaptation of environmental management to pan-European practices and the handling of existing management problems will enable the Ministry of Environment to develop successfully its routines for problem solution

  1. Environmental dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.

    1977-01-01

    For more than 60 years, natural radiation has offered broad opportunities for basic research as evidenced by many fundamental discoveries. Within the last decade, however, dramatic changes have occurred in the motivation and direction of this research. The urgent need for economical energy sources entailing acceptably low levels of environmental impact has compelled the applied aspects of our radiation environment to become overriding considerations. It is within this general framework that state-of-the-art environmental dosimetry techniques are reviewed. Although applied motivation and relevance underscores the current milieu for both reactor and environmental dosimetry, a perhaps even more unifying force is the broad similarity of reactor and environmental radiation fields. In this review, a comparison of these two mixed radiation fields is presented stressing the underlying similarities that exist. On this basis, the evolution of a strong inner bond between dosimetry methods for both reactor and environmental radiation fields is described. The existence of this bond will be illustrated using representative examples of observed spectra. Dosimetry methods of particularly high applicability for both of these fields are described. Special emphasis is placed on techniques of high sensitivity and absolute accuracy which are capable of resolving the components of these mixed radiation fields

  2. Research notes : GIS mapping of environmental justice populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    As part of the requirements for receiving federal funds, ODOT is responsible for successfully integrating environmental justice (EJ) into its program and planning activities. Environmental justice requires ODOT to avoid, minimize, or mitigate disprop...

  3. 2002 WIPP Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-09-30

    DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE | facility to prepare an environmental management plan (EMP). This document is | prepared for WIPP in accordance with the guidance contained in DOE Order 5400.1; DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment; applicable sections of Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T; DOE, 1991); and the Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 834, ''Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment'' (draft). Many sections of DOE Order 5400.1 have been replaced by DOE Order 231.1, which is the driver for the annual Site Environmental Report (SER) and the guidance source for preparing many environmental program documents. The WIPP Project is operated by Westinghouse TRU Solutions (WTS) for the DOE. This plan defines the extent and scope of WIPP's effluent and environmental | monitoring programs during the facility's operational life and also discusses WIPP's quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) program as it relates to environmental monitoring. In addition, this plan provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at WIPP including: A summary of environmental programs, including the status of environmental monitoring activities A description of the WIPP Project and its mission A description of the local environment, including demographics An overview of the methodology used to assess radiological consequences to the public, including brief discussions of potential exposure pathways, routine and accidental releases, and their consequences Responses to the requirements described in the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance.

  4. Environmental Monitoring Plan, Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, G M; Bertoldo, N A; Blake, R G; Campbell, C G; Grayson, A R; Nelson, J C; Revelli, M A; Rosene, C A; Wegrecki, T; Williams, R A; Wilson, K R; Jones, H E

    2012-03-02

    The purpose of environmental monitoring is to promote the early identification of, and response to, potential adverse environmental impacts associated with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operations. Environmental monitoring supports the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 Environmental Management Systems standard, and U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. Specifically, environmental monitoring enables LLNL to detect, characterize, and respond to releases from LLNL activities; assess impacts; estimate dispersal patterns in the environment; characterize the pathways of exposure to members of the public; characterize the exposures and doses to individuals and to the population; and to evaluate the potential impacts to the biota in the vicinity of LLNL. Environmental monitoring is also a major component of compliance demonstration for permits and other regulatory requirements. The Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) addresses the sample collection and analytical work supporting environmental monitoring to ensure the following: (1) A consistent system for collecting, assessing, and documenting environmental data of known and documented quality; (2) A validated and consistent approach for sampling and analysis of samples to ensure laboratory data meets program-specific needs and requirements within the framework of a performance-based approach for analytical laboratory work; and (3) An integrated sampling approach to avoid duplicative data collection. LLNL prepares the EMP because it provides an organizational framework for ensuring that environmental monitoring work, which is integral to the implementation of LLNL's Environmental Management System, is conducted appropriately. Furthermore, the Environmental Monitoring Plan helps LLNL ensure compliance with DOE Order 231.1 Change 2, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting

  5. Environmental microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briški, Felicita; Vuković Domanovac, Marija

    2017-10-01

    For most people, microorganisms are out of sight and therefore out of mind but they are large, extremely diverse group of organisms, they are everywhere and are the dominant form of life on planet Earth. Almost every surface is colonized by microorganisms, including our skin; however most of them are harmless to humans. Some microorganisms can live in boiling hot springs, whereas others form microbial communities in frozen sea ice. Among their many roles, microorganisms are necessary for biogeochemical cycling, soil fertility, decomposition of dead plants and animals and biodegradation of many complex organic compounds present in the environment. Environmental microbiology is concerned with the study of microorganisms in the soil, water and air and their application in bioremediation to reduce environmental pollution through the biological degradation of pollutants into non-toxic or less toxic substances. Field of environmental microbiology also covers the topics such as microbially induced biocorrosion, biodeterioration of constructing materials and microbiological quality of outdoor and indoor air.

  6. Environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, M.; Mondino, M.

    2000-01-01

    Nowadays, unlike in the past, companies have to operate in a context of sustainable development, in which the economic and social development, production and consumption have to take into account the medium and long term impact on environment. The article sets forth some considerations about these subjects, which are assuming a growing importance in the management of companies: the variable environment may for instance be a factor of discrimination between being competitive or not. In order to characterise the context within which the environmental management has to be applied, some basic concepts about environmental management systems, Life Cycle Assessment, and Eco labeling are illustrated. As an example of application of the methodology described, a brief reference to the Italgas Group Environmental Report is given [it

  7. Environmental Tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre

    2016-01-01

    This chapter intends to clarify and argue for the approach to re- search taken within the PhD thesis ‘Environmental Tectonics’ by elaborating on an architectural research methodology that is based on the objective of the thesis as described in the associated abstra- ct. Environmental sustainable...... architecture, with its broad scope, can be understood differently from the perspective of natural and engineering sciences’ intense delimiting into quantitative isolated research inquiries and from the humanistic perspective of inclusi- ve qualitative inquiries. The research design approach is therefore broad...

  8. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This pocketbook contains major federal regulations on environmental protection. They serve to protect and cultivate mankind's natural foundations of life, to preserve the environment. The environmental law is devided as follows: Constitutional law on the environment, common administrative law on the environment, special administrative law on the environment including conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, protection of waters, waste management, protection against nuisances, nuclear energy and radiation protection, energy conservation, protection against dangerous substances, private law relating to the environment, criminal law relating to the environment. (HSCH) [de

  9. Festive environmentalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog; Christiansen, Lene Bull

    2016-01-01

    Mikhail Bakhtin’s idea of the carnivalesque is applied here to a case study of eco-voluntourism at the Roskilde Festival, an international culture and music event held in Denmark. In the literature on popular forms of environmentalism a dichotomy between engaging and educating about the political...... ecology of environmental issues through empathy and affect versus fun and entertainment, is often drawn. We argue that the carnivalesque enables festivals to move beyond this dichotomy by implicitly acknowledging a mind-body tension (against a fixed binary), as embedded in Western culture, and by offering...

  10. Environmental concerns and regulatory initiatives related to hydraulic fracturing in shale gas formations: potential implications for North American gas supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumi, Lisa [Earthworks (Canada)

    2010-09-15

    Shale gas resources have been referred to as a game changer for North America and it is expected that shale gas will account for over 30% of the natural gas production in North America by 2020. However, the development of this resource has raised several concerns, notably in terms of water use and contamination; more stringent regulations could be implemented in the coming years. The aim of this paper is to present the effect that more stringent regulations would have on gas development in the Marcellus shale, which accounts for 20% of North American shale gas production. Information on hydraulic fracturing and its environmental impacts is provided herein, along with information on the regulatory initiatives underway in the Marcellus shale region. This paper pointed out that novel regulations relating to shale gas development could significantly reduce the growth in shale gas production.

  11. Data Crosscutting Requirements Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shoshani, Arie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Plata, Charity [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    In April 2013, a diverse group of researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) scientific community assembled to assess data requirements associated with DOE-sponsored scientific facilities and large-scale experiments. Participants in the review included facilities staff, program managers, and scientific experts from the offices of Basic Energy Sciences, Biological and Environmental Research, High Energy Physics, and Advanced Scientific Computing Research. As part of the meeting, review participants discussed key issues associated with three distinct aspects of the data challenge: 1) processing, 2) management, and 3) analysis. These discussions identified commonalities and differences among the needs of varied scientific communities. They also helped to articulate gaps between current approaches and future needs, as well as the research advances that will be required to close these gaps. Moreover, the review provided a rare opportunity for experts from across the Office of Science to learn about their collective expertise, challenges, and opportunities. The "Data Crosscutting Requirements Review" generated specific findings and recommendations for addressing large-scale data crosscutting requirements.

  12. Determination of environmental factors affecting dengue incidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Prevention movement is considered ineffective; therefore, a more efficient early warning system is required. It is required strongly correlated variables to as predictor in early warning system. This study aims to identify the environmental ...

  13. Environmental Management Assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Management Assessment performed at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in Fernald, Ohio. During this assessment, the activities conducted by the assessment team included review of internal documents and reports from previous audits and assessments; interviews with US Department of Energy (DOE) and FEMP contractor personnel; and inspection and observation of selected facilities and operations. The onsite portion of the assessment was conducted from March 15 through April 1, 1993, by DOE`s Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24) located within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health (EH-1). EH-24 carries out independent assessments of DOE facilities and activities as part of the EH-1 Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight Audit Program. The EH-24 program is designed to evaluate the status of DOE facilities and activities with respect to compliance with Federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations; compliance with DOE Orders, Guidance and Directives; conformance with accepted industry practices and standards of performance; and the status and adequacy of management systems developed to address environmental requirements. The Environmental Management Assessment of FEMP focused on the adequacy of environmental management systems. Further, in response to requests by the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and Fernald Field Office (FN), Quality Assurance and Environmental Radiation activities at FEMP were evaluated from a programmatic standpoint. The results of the evaluation of these areas are contained in the Environmental Protection Programs section in this report.

  14. Environmental Management Assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Management Assessment performed at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in Fernald, Ohio. During this assessment, the activities conducted by the assessment team included review of internal documents and reports from previous audits and assessments; interviews with US Department of Energy (DOE) and FEMP contractor personnel; and inspection and observation of selected facilities and operations. The onsite portion of the assessment was conducted from March 15 through April 1, 1993, by DOE's Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24) located within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health (EH-1). EH-24 carries out independent assessments of DOE facilities and activities as part of the EH-1 Environment, Safety, and Health (ES ampersand H) Oversight Audit Program. The EH-24 program is designed to evaluate the status of DOE facilities and activities with respect to compliance with Federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations; compliance with DOE Orders, Guidance and Directives; conformance with accepted industry practices and standards of performance; and the status and adequacy of management systems developed to address environmental requirements. The Environmental Management Assessment of FEMP focused on the adequacy of environmental management systems. Further, in response to requests by the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and Fernald Field Office (FN), Quality Assurance and Environmental Radiation activities at FEMP were evaluated from a programmatic standpoint. The results of the evaluation of these areas are contained in the Environmental Protection Programs section in this report

  15. Environmental Monitoring Plan - February 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, G. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bertoldo, N. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Blake, R. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fish, C. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Grayson, A. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Griffin, D. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jones, H. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Patterson, L. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Revelli, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rosene, C. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wegrecki, T M; Williams, R A; Wilson, K R

    2016-02-08

    The purpose of environmental monitoring is to promote the early identification of, and response to, potential adverse environmental impacts associated with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operations. Environmental monitoring supports the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 Environmental Management Systems standard, and U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 458.1, Radiation Protection oft/ic Pubile and the Environment. Specifically, environmental monitoring enables LLNL to detect, characterize, and respond to releases from LLNL activities; assess impacts; estimate dispersal patterns in the environment; characterize the pathways of exposure to members of the public; characterize the exposures and doses to individuals and to the population; and to evaluate the potential impacts to the hiota in the vicinity of LLNL. Environmental monitoring is also a major component of compliance demonstration for permits and other regulatory requirements.

  16. 12 CFR 1815.106 - Supplemental environmental review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TREASURY ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.106 Supplemental environmental review. (a) The designated Fund... preliminary approval stage, the Fund shall require a supplemental environmental review prior to the taking of... environmental review or for which an environmental assessment or EIS has not been approved by the Fund. The...

  17. Fatores de incorporação de requisitos ambientais no processo de desenvolvimento de produtos em indústrias de móveis sob encomenda Incorporation of environmental requirements in the process of developing products in industries from custom furniture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Silva de Azevedo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo identificar os requisitos ambientais incorporados em arranjos produtivos locais de móveis e os fatores internos e externos para a aplicação desses requisitos no processo de desenvolvimento de produtos. Foram analisadas 18 micro e pequenas empresas do Pólo Moveleiro de Itatiba, São Paulo (SP, quanto à adoção de requisitos ambientais no ciclo de vida do produto, assim como no PDP (Processo de Desenvolvimento de Produtos sob encomenda. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas e visitas in loco, analisando cada atividade do PDP e os requisitos ambientais associados a elas e identificando os responsáveis por cada atividade e, ao final, os fatores que motivaram a incorporação desses requisitos. Os resultados indicam que os fatores econômicos ainda ditam a forma das empresas responderem às questões ambientais, seja a adequação às leis e aos regulamentos ou a redução dos custos de produção. Além disso, a ausência de profissionais capacitados na área de desenvolvimento de produtos sustentáveis propicia o aumento das dificuldades em estruturar o setor.This research had the goal of identifying the environmental requirements incorporated in furniture clusters and the internal and external factors for the use of those requirements in the product development process. Eighteen micro and small companies from the furniture hub of Itatiba (a city in the Brazilian state of São Paulo were analyzed according to their adopting environmental requirements in the products life cycle as well as in the PDP (product development process of custom orders. The data were collected through partly open interviews and on site visitations, by analyzing each activity in the PDP and the environmental requirements linked to them, identifying the people responsible for each activity and, in the end, identifying the factors that motivated the adoption of those requirements. The results show that economic

  18. Why small and medium chemical companies continue to pose severe environmental risks in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guizhen; Zhang, Lei; Mol, Arthur P J; Wang, Tieyu; Lu, Yonglong

    2014-02-01

    In China, rural chemical SMEs are often believed to still largely operate below the sustainability radar. This paper investigates to what extent and how chemical SMEs are already experiencing pressure to improve their environmental performance, using an in-depth case study in Jasmine County, Hebei province. The results show that local residents had rather low trust in the environmental improvement promises made by the enterprises and the local government, and disagreed with the proposed improvement plans. Although the power of local residents to influence decision making remained limited, the chemical SMEs started to feel increasing pressures to clean up their business, from governments, local communities and civil society, and international value chain stakeholders. Notwithstanding these mounting pressures chemical SME's environmental behavior and performance has not changed radically for the better. The strong economic ties between local county governments and chemical SMEs continue to be a major barrier for stringent environmental regulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Requirements for effective modelling strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaunt, J.L.; Riley, J.; Stein, A.; Penning de Vries, F.W.T.

    1997-01-01

    As the result of a recent BBSRC-funded workshop between soil scientists, modellers, statisticians and others to discuss issues relating to the derivation of complex environmental models, a set of modelling guidelines is presented and the required associated research areas are discussed.

  20. Environmental change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard Krarup, Jonna

    environmental conditions both in a practical, functional way but also in an aesthetical, spatial way. As professionals we should contribute to the creation of new images, ideas, strategies and solutions able to handle the challenges, to investigate the potentials and interpret these architecturally...

  1. Environmental Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Philip H.

    1972-01-01

    Data from the Third Annual Report of the United States Council of Environmental Quality are used in an editorial advocating the use of some of the money committed to cleaning air and water to create a more adequate knowledge base for action. (AL)

  2. Environmental Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

    This document consists of data which highlight trends in all sectors relevant to environmental policy. These data are presented in the form of charts and maps contained in 13 sections under the following headings: people and the land; critical areas (wetlands, wild areas, parks, historic places, and risk zones); human settlements; transportation;…

  3. Environmental Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the chapters on fresh water and marine en vironmen ts which are spread over 100 pages. The author seems to be treading on unfamiliar grounds while dealing with ... about pollution although it needs to be enriched with data from the 1990's. The last part of the book on environmental awareness and management deal with ...

  4. Environmental Economics

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Glover, Bhim Adhikari, Isabelle Proulx

    Binswanger, H.P. (1991). “Brazilian Policies that Encourage Deforestation in the. Amazon”, World Development, 19 (7): 821-829. Panayotou, T. (1993). Green Markets: The Economics of Sustainable Development,. ICS Press, Ithaca, NY, États-Unis. Teitenberg, T et L. Lewis (2009). Environmental and Natural Resource ...

  5. Environmental Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumberg, Martin

    Environmental noise may be defined as unwanted sound that is caused by emissions from traffic (roads, air traffic corridors, and railways), industrial sites and recreational infrastructures, which may cause both annoyance and damage to health. Noise in the environment or community seriously affects people, interfering with daily activities at school, work and home and during leisure time.

  6. Environmental education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulhaye, F.

    2005-01-01

    The environment is an intricate mixture of natural, built and social components. The natural environment includes air, water, land, climate, flora and fauna, while the built environment consists of the fabric of building infrastructure and open space. The social component of the environment embraces the aesthetics, amenity quality, architectural style, heritages, law behavior, values and traditions of the society. In ecological terms the environment is a distortion of natural ecosystems or an ecosystem in its own right. A characteristic of the urban area is their fast changing nature with respect to their size, form, density and activity. This dynamism stems out of the basic functions of economic, social and cultural developments. The complexity and multiplicity of urban activities gives rise to a variety of environmental problems. Given their different level of economic and social development and the geography, not all the cities have identical problems, yet they have much in common. While the large cities of developed countries have long suffered the problem of pollution, inner city decay and neighborhood collapse, those in the less developed countries face more varied complex problems due to their overpopulation, poverty, inadequacy and poor quality of urban services, infrastructure, transportation, and changing life style. However the increasing pollution is common to the most of the cities and is the major cause of environmental degradation. Given the very serious nature of this problem it is essential to tackle this issue by incorporating the environmental concerns in the education system of Pakistan. This paper would give a brief overview of the environmental problems, and a detailed analysis of the status environmental issues in Pakistan. (author)

  7. 24 CFR 1006.350 - Environmental review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental review. 1006.350... DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Program Requirements § 1006.350 Environmental review. (a) In order to ensure that the policies of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C...

  8. 24 CFR 92.352 - Environmental review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental review. 92.352... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Other Federal Requirements § 92.352 Environmental review. (a) General. The environmental effects of each activity carried out with HOME funds must be assessed in...

  9. 7 CFR 1709.17 - Environmental review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental review. 1709.17 Section 1709.17... AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.17 Environmental review. (a.... (b) Applicants must address environmental aspects of their projects in the grant application in...

  10. 10 CFR 72.34 - Environmental report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental report. 72.34 Section 72.34 Energy NUCLEAR..., and Contents § 72.34 Environmental report. Each application for an ISFSI or MRS license under this part must be accompanied by an Environmental Report which meets the requirements of subpart A of part...

  11. 24 CFR 598.405 - Environmental review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental review. 598.405...-Designation Requirements § 598.405 Environmental review. Where any EZ's strategic plan or any revision thereof proposes the use of HUD EZ Grant Funds for activities that are not excluded from environmental review under...

  12. Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present summary environmental data that characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, highlight significant programs and efforts, and assess the impact of SRS operations on the public and the environment

  13. Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, M.

    2000-06-30

    The purpose of this report is to present summary environmental data that characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, highlight significant programs and efforts, and assess the impact of SRS operations on the public and the environment.

  14. 40 CFR 35.2113 - Environmental review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2113 Environmental review. (a..., or whether a finding of no significant impact or an environmental impact statement is required. (b... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental review. 35.2113 Section...

  15. Auditing of environmental management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čuchranová Katarína

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental auditing has estabilished itself as a valueable instrument to verify and help to improve the environmental performance.Organizations of all kinds may have a need to demonstrate the environmental responsibility. The concept of environmental management systems and the associated practice of environmental auditing have been advanced as one way to satisfy this need.These system are intended to help an organization to establish and continue to meet its environmental policies, objectives, standards and other requirements.Environmental auditing is a systematic and documented verification process of objectively obtaining and evaluating audit evidence to determine whether an organizations environmental management system conforms to the environmental management system audit criteria set by the organization and for the communication of the results of this process to the management.The following article intercepts all parts of preparation environmental auditing.The audit programme and procedures should cover the activities and areas to be considered in audits, the frequency of audits, the responsibilities associated with managing and conducting audits, the communication of audit results, auditor competence, and how audits will be conducted.The International Standard ISO 140011 estabilishes the audit procedures that determine conformance with EMS audit criteria.

  16. 76 FR 67533 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cities of South Lake Tahoe, CA and Stateline, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ..., Nevada Department of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and Lahontan Regional Water Quality Control Board (LRWQCB) regulations and requirements, while enhancing the community and tourism experience; and (3... California Environmental Quality Act (Environmental Impact Report) and TRPA's own EIS requirements. The work...

  17. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 1994 site environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The 1994 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental activities at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) for the calendar year (CY) 1994. The report strives to present environmental data in a manner that characterizes the performance and compliance status of the Laboratory`s environmental management programs when measured against regulatory standards and DOE requirements. The report also discusses significant highlight and planning efforts of these programs. The format and content of the report are consistent with the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program.

  18. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 1994 site environmental report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The 1994 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental activities at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) for the calendar year (CY) 1994. The report strives to present environmental data in a manner that characterizes the performance and compliance status of the Laboratory's environmental management programs when measured against regulatory standards and DOE requirements. The report also discusses significant highlight and planning efforts of these programs. The format and content of the report are consistent with the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program

  19. Development of the environmental data management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatebe, Kazuaki; Suzuki, Yurina; Shirato, Seiichi; Sato, Yoshinori

    2012-02-01

    The recent society requires business activities with environmental consideration to every enterprise. Also, Japanese laws require those activities. For example, 'Law Concerning the Promotion of Business Activities with Environmental Consideration by Specified Corporations, etc, by Facilitating Access to Environmental Information, and Other Measures' (Environmental Consideration Law) mandates publication of a report relating to the activities of environmental consideration to each enterprise above designated size. 'Act on the Rational Use of Energy' mandates the report of the results of energy consumption and the long-term plan of the rational use of energy. Moreover, 'Act on Promotion of Global Warming Countermeasures' mandates the report of the greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to those, 'Water Pollution Control Law', 'Waste Management and Public Cleaning Law' and other environmental laws as well as environmental ordinances require business activities with environmental consideration to all companies. So, it is very important for Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to report business activities with environmental consideration in order to build up trustful relations with the nation and communities. The Environmental Data Management System has been developed as the data base of business activities with environmental consideration in JAEA and as the means to promote the activities at every site and office of JAEA. This report summarizes the structure of the Environmental Data Management System, kinds of environmental performance data treated by the system, and gathering methods of the data. (author)

  20. Life-Cycle Cost and Environmental Assessment of Decentralized Nitrogen Recovery Using Ion Exchange from Source-Separated Urine through Spatial Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvada, Olga; Tarpeh, William A; Horvath, Arpad; Nelson, Kara L

    2017-11-07

    Nitrogen standards for discharge of wastewater effluent into aquatic bodies are becoming more stringent, requiring some treatment plants to reduce effluent nitrogen concentrations. This study aimed to assess, from a life-cycle perspective, an innovative decentralized approach to nitrogen recovery: ion exchange of source-separated urine. We modeled an approach in which nitrogen from urine at individual buildings is sorbed onto resins, then transported by truck to regeneration and fertilizer production facilities. To provide insight into impacts from transportation, we enhanced the traditional economic and environmental assessment approach by combining spatial analysis, system-scale evaluation, and detailed last-mile logistics modeling using the city of San Francisco as an illustrative case study. The major contributor to energy intensity and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions was the production of sulfuric acid to regenerate resins, rather than transportation. Energy and GHG emissions were not significantly sensitive to the number of regeneration facilities. Cost, however, increased with decentralization as rental costs per unit area are higher for smaller areas. The metrics assessed (unit energy, GHG emissions, and cost) were not significantly influenced by facility location in this high-density urban area. We determined that this decentralized approach has lower cost, unit energy, and GHG emissions than centralized nitrogen management via nitrification-denitrification if fertilizer production offsets are taken into account.

  1. Environmental Fundamentals. Environmental Education Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    This unit presents materials to develop some of the basic knowledge necessary for grasping the complex processes associated with environmental relationships. It is divided into five topics: (1) Basic Needs for Life--the biological necessities of plants and animals; (2) Food Web--the interactions between organisms; (3) Observational Skills--ways…

  2. Environmental Adult Education. Trends and Issues Alerts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Susan

    Environmentalism has become a part of the culture, and environmentalists now constitute a major social movement. The solutions to many current environmental problems require a local or national response, but solutions to other problems will require a global response. Major United Nations reports have recognized that solving global environmental…

  3. 10 CFR 61.53 - Environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental monitoring. 61.53 Section 61.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.53 Environmental monitoring. (a) At the time a...

  4. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2012 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: Characterize site environmental management performance; Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE Environmental Sustainability Goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS).

  5. Environmental instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritschen, L.J.; Gay, L.W.

    1979-01-01

    This book is designed to be used as a text for advanced students and a guide or manual for researchers in the field. The purpose is to present the basic theory of environmental variables and transducers, to report experiences with methodology and use, and to provide certain essential tables. Attention is given to measurements of temperature, soil heat flux, radiation, humidity and moisture, wind speed and direction, and pressure. Data acquisition concepts are summarized

  6. Environmental physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Summaries of research projects conducted during 1978 and 1979 are presented. Subject areas include: the effects of environmental pollutants on homeostasis of the hematopoietic system; pollutant effects on steroid metabolism; pollutant effects on pulmonary macrophages; effects of toxic gases on lung cells; the development of immunological methods for assessing lung damage at the cellular level; the response of erythropoietin concentration to various physiological changes; and the study of actinide metabolism in monkey skeletons

  7. Environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odzuck, W.

    1982-01-01

    The volume of the anthropogenic pollution of the environment (incl. radioactivity) is of great economical importance and has also a meaning to the health and happiness of people. The pocket book introduces into the whole problem by giving exact information and data. After a general survey, the pollutions of urban-industrial, and aquatic ecosystems are dealt with. The book closes with indications as to general principles, specific dangers, and the fature development of the environmental pollution. (orig.) [de

  8. Environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, J.; Hanif, M.I.

    1997-01-01

    The third proceedings of National Symposium on Modern Trends in Contemporary Chemistry was held in Islamabad, Pakistan from February 24-26, 1997. In this symposium more than 220 scientists, engineers and technologist were registered from 11 universities, 17 research organisations and 8 non-governmental organisation including some commercial establishments. The symposium was divided into five technical sessions on hydro spheric pollution, atmospheric pollution, bio spheric pollution, lithospheric pollution and impact assessment and environmental education. Environmental and ecology are so interdependent that any change in the balance due to natural and man made cause may result in a disaster, flood, fire, earthquake, epidemic, population explosion etc. are the natural ways of unbalancing our ecosystem. The scope of this symposium includes: 1) Review the chemistry and the chemical techniques like polarography, coulometry, HPLC, GC-MS, NAA, XRF, AAS, AES etc. involved in the assessment monitoring and control of various pollutions. 2) Propose sampling, transportation, measurement and standardization procedures. 3) Collaboration in scientific data collection. 4) Mutual consultation for management of the pollution problem in a cost effective manner. 5) sharing knowledge and experience with various environmental protection groups both in public and private sector. (A.B.)

  9. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-03-12

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problems; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) explains the rationale and design criteria for the environmental monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of EMPs is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance.

  10. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problems; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) explains the rationale and design criteria for the environmental monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of EMPs is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance.

  11. BER Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alapaty, Kiran; Allen, Ben; Bell, Greg; Benton, David; Brettin, Tom; Canon, Shane; Dart, Eli; Cotter, Steve; Crivelli, Silvia; Carlson, Rich; Dattoria, Vince; Desai, Narayan; Egan, Richard; Tierney, Brian; Goodwin, Ken; Gregurick, Susan; Hicks, Susan; Johnston, Bill; de Jong, Bert; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Livny, Miron; Markowitz, Victor; McGraw, Jim; McCord, Raymond; Oehmen, Chris; Regimbal, Kevin; Shipman, Galen; Strand, Gary; Flick, Jeff; Turnbull, Susan; Williams, Dean; Zurawski, Jason

    2010-11-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2010 ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research, of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by BER. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized and described in more detail in the case studies and the Findings section. A number of common themes emerged from the case studies and workshop discussions. One is that BER science, like many other disciplines, is becoming more and more distributed and collaborative in nature. Another common theme is that data set sizes are exploding. Climate Science in particular is on the verge of needing to manage exabytes of data, and Genomics is on the verge of a huge paradigm shift in the number of sites with sequencers and the amount of sequencer data being generated.

  12. LEGACY MANAGEMENT REQUIRES INFORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CONNELL, C.W.; HILDEBRAND, R.D.

    2006-01-01

    ''Legacy Management Requires Information'' describes the goal(s) of the US Department of Energy's Office of Legacy Management (LM) relative to maintaining critical records and the way those goals are being addressed at Hanford. The paper discusses the current practices for document control, as well as the use of modern databases for both storing and accessing the data to support cleanup decisions. In addition to the information goals of LM, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA) is one of the main drivers in documentation and data management. The TPA, which specifies discrete milestones for cleaning up the Hanford Site, is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The TPA requires that DOE provide the lead regulatory agency with the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to help guide them in making decisions. The Agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in its or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The tools used at Hanford to meet TPA requirements are also the tools that can satisfy the needs of LM

  13. LEGACY MANAGEMENT REQUIRES INFORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CONNELL, C.W.; HILDEBRAND, R.D.

    2006-12-14

    ''Legacy Management Requires Information'' describes the goal(s) of the US Department of Energy's Office of Legacy Management (LM) relative to maintaining critical records and the way those goals are being addressed at Hanford. The paper discusses the current practices for document control, as well as the use of modern databases for both storing and accessing the data to support cleanup decisions. In addition to the information goals of LM, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA) is one of the main drivers in documentation and data management. The TPA, which specifies discrete milestones for cleaning up the Hanford Site, is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The TPA requires that DOE provide the lead regulatory agency with the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to help guide them in making decisions. The Agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in its or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The tools used at Hanford to meet TPA requirements are also the tools that can satisfy the needs of LM.

  14. Environmental Regulatory Compliance Plan for Site Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    The DOE is committed to conduct its operations in an environmentally safe and sound manner, and will comply with applicable environmental statutes and regulations. These objectives are described in DOE Order 5400.1 (Environmental Protection Program Requirements). This document -- the Environmental Regulatory Compliance Plan (ERCP) -- is one method of implementing the policy set forth in DOE Order 5400.1 and the NWPA. The ERCP describes the plan by which the DOE will comply with applicable Federal environmental statutes and regulations. The ERCP also discusses how DOE will address State and local environmental statutes and regulations. 180 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab

  15. Site Environmental Report for 2007 Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackner, Regina E.; Baskin, David; Fox, Robert; Jelinski, John; Pauer, Ron; Thorson, Patrick; Wahl, Linnea

    2008-01-01

    The Site Environmental Report is an integrated report on Berkeley Lab's environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. It summarizes Berkeley Lab's environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2007. Volume I is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters that contain an overview of the Laboratory, a discussion of the Laboratory's environmental management system, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities

  16. Site Environmental Report for 2007 Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, Regina E.; Baskin, David; Fox, Robert; Jelinski, John; Pauer, Ron; Thorson, Patrick; Wahl, Linnea

    2008-09-15

    The Site Environmental Report is an integrated report on Berkeley Lab's environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. It summarizes Berkeley Lab's environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2007. Volume I is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters that contain an overview of the Laboratory, a discussion of the Laboratory's environmental management system, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities.

  17. Environmental impact assessment screening tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    An environmental assessment and impact planning software, SCREENER, was tested at a pilot project at the Cameco site (Port Hope). SCREENER was used to screen the impacts of a new construction project in accordance with the process and reporting requirements laid out in the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. The software test concentrated on the activities that are directly involved with the structure construction and site preparation activities. In addition, a two and one half day training course was given to three AECB staff using the test case as a hands on example. The conclusion of this project is that an automated tool such as SCREENER (or Calyx, the new generation of environmental assessment tools from ESSA Software Ltd.), will help the AECB to standardize the approach to environmental assessment, assist in project planning, and save resources in the screening process. The new approach could allow to allocate AECB limited resources to the detailed assessments required for maximum impact activities

  18. 7 CFR 1468.21 - Contract requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... net environmental and societal benefits; (ii) Refund with interest any program payments received and... under the CFO contract; (v) Supply information as required by CCC to determine compliance with the...

  19. Fernald Environmental Management Project 1995 site environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The Fernald site continues to examine the air and liquid pathways as possible routes through which pollutants from past operations and current remedial activities may leave the site. This 1995 Site Environmental Report provides the general public as well as scientists and engineers with the results from the site`s ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included in this report is information concerning the site`s progress toward achieving full compliance with requirements set forth by DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA.

  20. 40 CFR 51.165 - Permit requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... generated from municipal solid waste; (5) Use of an alternative fuel or raw material by a stationary source... account energy, environmental, and economic impacts and other costs, determines is achievable for such....165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS...

  1. Environmental ethics and environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehn, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    In a difficult economic situation where the problems of many companies to adapt to changed economic conditions threaten to supersede ecological interests the Council of Experts appointed by the Federal Environment Minister submitted its 1994 environmental expertise. This scientific political counseling document would deserve little attention if it was limited to the appeal of considering pollution control as an integrated part of all political activities or if it only contained a catalog of measures for the ecological repair of technico-industrial faults and failures. The structural change of economy and the necessity of ecological modernization, however, are taken into account by representing an ecological-economic model which contributes to a long-term conceptional orientation of environmental policy and which is elaborate enough to be suited for the development of solutions to concrete problems. The main points of the expertise are discussed. (orig./UA) [de

  2. Design requirement on HYPER blanket fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Woan; Lee, B. O.; Nam, C.; Ryu, W. S.; Lee, B. S.; Park, W. S.

    2000-07-01

    This document describes design requirements which are needed for designing the blanket assembly of the HYPER as design guidance. The blanket assembly of the HYPER consists of blanket fuel rods, mounting rail, spacer, upper nozzle with handling socket, bottom nozzle with mounting rail and skeleton structure. The blanket fuel rod consists of top end plug, bottom end plug with key way, blanket fuel slug, and cladding. In the assembly, the rods are in a triangular pitch array. This report contains functional requirements, performance and operational requirements, interfacing systems requirements, core restraint and interface requirements, design limits and strength requirements, system configuration and essential feature requirements, seismic requirements, structural requirements, environmental requirements, reliability and safety requirements, standard and codes, QA programs, and other requirements for the blanket fuel assembly of the HYPER

  3. Environmental monitoring programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    During 1989 there were about 1000 premises in England and Wales authorised to discharge radioactive wastes. The majority of these premises consisted of hospitals, universities and industrial, research or manufacturing centres. Discharges from these premises when made in accordance with the strict conditions specified in their authorisations will have been of little radiological significance. In the case of nuclear sites authorisations or approvals are issued jointly by the DoE and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) known collectively as the Authorising Departments. In Wales these functions are undertaken by the Welsh Office with the support of HMIP and MAFF. The Authorising Departments specify numerical limits on the amounts of radioactivity which operators may discharge to the environment. In addition operators are required to demonstrate that the best practicable means (BPM) to minimise discharges is undertaken. Operators are also required to carry out appropriate environmental monitoring to demonstrate the effectiveness of BPM. As part of their regulatory functions the Authorising Departments undertake their own environmental monitoring programmes to act as both a check on site operator's returns and to provide independent data on the exposure of the public. HM Inspectorate of Pollution has monitored levels of radioactivity in drinking water sources for many years and published results annually. MAFF undertakes two programmes to monitor radioactivity in the aquatic environment and in terrestrial foodstuffs and publishes annual reports. Environmental monitoring programmes undertaken by both nuclear site operators and government departments are summarised. (author)

  4. Savannah River Site Environmental Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Formal sitewide environmental planning at the . Savannah River Site (SRS) began in 1986 with the development and adoption of the Strategic Environmental Plan. The Strategic Environmental Plan describes the philosophy, policy, and overall program direction of environmental programs for the operation of the SRS. The Strategic Environmental Plan (Volume 2) provided the basis for development of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP). The EIP is the detailed, comprehensive environmental master plan for operating contractor organizations at the SRS. The EIP provides a process to ensure that all environmental requirements and obligations are being met by setting specific measurable goals and objectives and strategies for implementation. The plan is the basis for justification of site manpower and funding requests for environmental projects and programs over a five-year planning period

  5. Savannah River Site Environmental Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-01

    Formal sitewide environmental planning at the . Savannah River Site (SRS) began in 1986 with the development and adoption of the Strategic Environmental Plan. The Strategic Environmental Plan describes the philosophy, policy, and overall program direction of environmental programs for the operation of the SRS. The Strategic Environmental Plan (Volume 2) provided the basis for development of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP). The EIP is the detailed, comprehensive environmental master plan for operating contractor organizations at the SRS. The EIP provides a process to ensure that all environmental requirements and obligations are being met by setting specific measurable goals and objectives and strategies for implementation. The plan is the basis for justification of site manpower and funding requests for environmental projects and programs over a five-year planning period.

  6. Savannah River Site environmental implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Formal sitewide environmental planning at the Savannah River Site (SRS) began in 1986 with the development and adoption of the Strategic Environmental Plan. The Strategic Environmental Plan describes the philosophy, policy, and overall program direction of environmental programs for the operation of the SRS. The Strategic Environmental Plan provided the basis for development of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP). The EIP is the detailed, comprehensive environmental master plan for operating contractor organizations at the SRS. The EIP provides a process to ensure that all environmental requirements and obligations are being met by setting specific measurable goals and objectives and strategies for implementation. The plan is the basis for justification of site manpower and funding requests for environmental projects and programs over a five-year planning period

  7. 1994 Site environmental report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The Fernald site is a Department of Energy (DOE)-owned facility that produced high-quality uranium metals for military defense for nearly 40 years. DOE suspended production at the site in 1989 and formally ended production in 1991. Although production activities have ceased, the site continues to examine the air and liquid pathways as possible routes through which pollutants from past operations and current remedial activities may leave the site. The Site Environmental Report (SER) is prepared annually in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program. This 1994 SER provides the general public as well as scientists and engineers with the results from the site's ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included in this report is information concerning the site's progress toward achieving full compliance with requirements set forth by DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA). For some readers, the highlights provided in this Executive Summary may provide sufficient information. Many readers, however, may wish to read more detailed descriptions of the information than those which are presented here. All information presented in this summary is discussed more fully in the main body of this report

  8. Urban Environmental Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Situma, F.D.P.

    1999-01-01

    The rapid urbanization and resultant heavy concentration of population in urban centres have led to many urban areas failing to provide the necessary infrastructure and amenities as the demands placed on them have overwhelmed their financial and institutional capacities. In many urban areas, the capacity for resource mobilization and delivery of social services has either broken down completely or tethers on breaking point. Although in 1986 the GoK launched a new strategy for the balanced development of rural and urban areas aimed at avoiding excessive concentration of population in urban areas, the fruits of this strategy are yet to be realized. As a result, developments in urban areas have been unsustainable and environmentally unsound. The general quality of the environment has deteriorated so much so that urgent policy intervention is required. Appropriate environmental management measures and practices are needed to address the current trend of spiralling environmental problems in the context of the existing legal and institutional frameworks and makes some proposals for reform to address these problems in order to make urban areas environmentally

  9. Environmental analysis support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Activities in environmental analysis support included assistance to the Morgantown and Pittsburgh Energy Technology Centers (METC and PETC) in reviewing and preparing documents required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for several projects selected for the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program. A key milestone was the completion for PETC of the final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP) in Healy, Alaska. This work is notable because it is the first site-specific EIS completed for the CCT Program. Another important activity was the preparation for METC of a draft Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Externally Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) Project in Warren, Pennsylvania. Also, the final EA was completed for the Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF), a proposed project near Morgantown, West Virginia, which is part of METC's R ampersand D Program. In addition, ORNL staff members published a Technical Memorandum entitled open-quotes Potential Effects of Clean Coal Technologies on Acid Precipitation, Greenhouse Gases, and Solid Waste Disposalclose quotes which documents the findings of three open-quotes white papersclose quotes prepared for DOE/FE

  10. 1996 Site environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The FEMP is a Department of Energy (DOE)-owned facility that produced high-quality uranium metals for military defense for nearly 40 years. DOE suspended production at the FEMP in 1989 and formally ended production in 1991. Although production activities have ceased, the site continues to examine the air and liquid pathways as possible routes through which pollutants from past operations and current remedial activities may leave the FEMP. The Site Environmental Report (SER) is prepared annually in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program. This 1996 SER provides the general public as well as scientists and engineers with the results from the ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included in this report is information concerning the FEMP progress toward achieving full compliance with requirements set forth by DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA). For some readers, the highlights provided in this Executive Summary may provide sufficient information. Many readers, however, may wish are presented here. All information presented in this summary is discussed more fully in the main body of this report.

  11. 1994 Site environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Fernald site is a Department of Energy (DOE)-owned facility that produced high-quality uranium metals for military defense for nearly 40 years. DOE suspended production at the site in 1989 and formally ended production in 1991. Although production activities have ceased, the site continues to examine the air and liquid pathways as possible routes through which pollutants from past operations and current remedial activities may leave the site. The Site Environmental Report (SER) is prepared annually in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program. This 1994 SER provides the general public as well as scientists and engineers with the results from the site`s ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included in this report is information concerning the site`s progress toward achieving full compliance with requirements set forth by DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA). For some readers, the highlights provided in this Executive Summary may provide sufficient information. Many readers, however, may wish to read more detailed descriptions of the information than those which are presented here. All information presented in this summary is discussed more fully in the main body of this report.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna Ramos, julio

    2014-01-01

    The article shows the complexity of the problem of environmental pollution and what can be the possible solutions to the problem. Also, how the Industrial Engineering can contribute to the prevention and control of pollution. El artículo muestra la complejidad del problema de la contaminación ambiental y cuáles pueden ser las propuestas de solución al problema. Así mismo, cómo la Ingeniería Industrial puede contribuir a la prevención y control de la contaminación.

  13. Crosscut report: Exascale Requirements Reviews, March 9–10, 2017 – Tysons Corner, Virginia. An Office of Science review sponsored by: Advanced Scientific Computing Research, Basic Energy Sciences, Biological and Environmental Research, Fusion Energy Sciences, High Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Hack, James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF); Riley, Katherine [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF); Antypas, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Coffey, Richard [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF); Dart, Eli [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). ESnet; Straatsma, Tjerk [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF); Wells, Jack [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF); Bard, Deborah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Dosanjh, Sudip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Monga, Inder [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). ESnet; Papka, Michael E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Argonne Leadership Computing Facility; Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). ESnet

    2018-01-22

    The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE SC) is the delivery of scientific discoveries and major scientific tools to transform our understanding of nature and to advance the energy, economic, and national security missions of the United States. To achieve these goals in today’s world requires investments in not only the traditional scientific endeavors of theory and experiment, but also in computational science and the facilities that support large-scale simulation and data analysis. The Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) program addresses these challenges in the Office of Science. ASCR’s mission is to discover, develop, and deploy computational and networking capabilities to analyze, model, simulate, and predict complex phenomena important to DOE. ASCR supports research in computational science, three high-performance computing (HPC) facilities — the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Leadership Computing Facilities at Argonne (ALCF) and Oak Ridge (OLCF) National Laboratories — and the Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) at Berkeley Lab. ASCR is guided by science needs as it develops research programs, computers, and networks at the leading edge of technologies. As we approach the era of exascale computing, technology changes are creating challenges for science programs in SC for those who need to use high performance computing and data systems effectively. Numerous significant modifications to today’s tools and techniques will be needed to realize the full potential of emerging computing systems and other novel computing architectures. To assess these needs and challenges, ASCR held a series of Exascale Requirements Reviews in 2015–2017, one with each of the six SC program offices,1 and a subsequent Crosscut Review that sought to integrate the findings from each. Participants at the reviews were drawn from the communities of leading domain

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY IN OIL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBU MĂDĂLINA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Like any other industrial activity, the production of hydrocarbons affects the environment both through the performance of actual technological process and through undesired accidents, which may occur. This paper presents environmental protection as an integral part of the sustainable development concept and it outlines the matter of environmental protection in connection with oil rigs and the assessment of ecologic impact. Environmental impact is direct or indirect effect of human activity that produces a change in the direction of development of the quality status of ecosystems. Control the impact requires detailed knowledge of the phenomenon, which involves the stages of identification, estimation, evaluation, etc. This is what is intended by the general concept of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA. The orientation of the economy towards sustainable development requires achieving a growth process conducted in terms of ensuring a social welfare of the population as high ensuring time and preserving the Earth and its natural resources. The purpose of all economic activity, as well as the activities in the oil industry, is getting competitive and efficient economic outcomes in the context of environmental-economic requirements imposed by the accession of Romania to the European Union . It is located at the interface eco-efficiency economic and social efficiency, which takes into account the ecological component in economic decision making because environmental issues are inseparable from the welfare and economic processes in general.

  15. Environmental management audit, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) has established, as part of the internal oversight responsibilities within Department of Energy (DOE), a program within the Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24), to conduct environmental audits at DOE's operating facilities. This document contains the results of the Environmental Management Audit of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. This Environmental Management Audit was conducted by the DOE's Office of Environmental Audit from October 26 through November 6, 1992. The audit's objective is to advise the Secretary as to the adequacy of UMTRA's environmental programs, and management organization in ensuring environmental protection and compliance with Federal, state, and DOE environmental requirements. This Environmental Management Audit's scope was comprehensive and covered all areas of environmental management with the exception of environmental programs pertaining to the implementation of the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which is the responsibility of the DOE Headquarters Office of NEPA Oversight

  16. Environmental Monitoring Plan, Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, G M; Blake, R G; Bertoldo, N A; Campbell, C G; Coty, J; Folks, K; Grayson, A R; Jones, H E; Nelson, J C; Revelli, M A; Wegrecki, T; Williams, R A; Wilson, K

    2010-01-27

    The purpose of environmental monitoring is to promote the early identification of, and response to, potential adverse environmental impacts associated with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operations. Environmental monitoring supports the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 Environmental Management Systems standard, and U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program. Specifically, in conformance with DOE Order 450.1A, Attachment 1, paragraph 1(b)(5), environmental monitoring enables LLNL to detect, characterize, and respond to releases from LLNL activities; assess impacts; estimate dispersal patterns in the environment; characterize the pathways of exposure to members of the public; characterize the exposures and doses to individuals and to the population; and to evaluate the potential impacts to the biota in the vicinity of LLNL. Environmental monitoring also serves to demonstrate compliance with permits and other regulatory requirements. The Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) addresses the sample collection and analytical work supporting environmental monitoring to ensure the following: (1) A consistent system for collecting, assessing, and documenting environmental data of known and documented quality. (2) A validated and consistent approach for sampling and analysis of samples to ensure laboratory data meets program-specific needs and requirements within the framework of a performance-based approach for analytical laboratory work. (3) An integrated sampling approach to avoid duplicative data collection. Until its cancellation in January 2003, DOE Order 5400.1 required the preparation of an environmental monitoring plan. Neither DOE Order 450.1A nor the ISO 14001 standard are as prescriptive as DOE Order 5400.1, in that neither expressly requires an EMP. However, LLNL continues to prepare the EMP because it provides an organizational framework for

  17. Environmental Policy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Don

    1985-03-01

    This book tell US environmental problems and environmental conservation, theory with present situation of the problems, influence of environmental aggravation, and cause of environmental problems, environmental policy influencing environment such as the national environmental policy act in America, and the role of court and environmental policy act, jurisdiction investigation about administrative action which influence on environment, and standard of jurisdiction investigation in environmental problems and legislation of environmental rights.

  18. Crystallization of a stringent response factor from Aquifex aeolicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ole; Laurberg, Martin; Gajhede, Michael

    2002-01-01

    a = 50.8, b = 70.3, c = 90.9 A. Methionine residues were introduced by mutation and deliberate oxidation of the protein allowed us to produce additional crystal forms with reproducible diffraction ability and increased phasing potential. This is the first report on the crystallization of a member...

  19. Stringent cost management and preservation of safety culture, a contradiction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Klaus; Pamme, H.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Competition in the deregulated electricity market does not leave nuclear power plants unaffected. Hence the question is to answer, whether the safety is going to suffer under the cost pressure on the market. Therefore the target of NPP operator's cost management is to run plants at maximum availability and with optimized cost structures that lead to minimized specific generating costs. The c osts of safety , with their fixed-cost character, are elements of this cost structure. The process of economic optimization of the cost structure does not permit cost minimization on its own sake in the area of operation cost and fuel cost (front and back end). The basis of economical assessment rather must be the minimization of potential risks which could entail losses of availability. However, many investments like plant modifications or preventive maintenance efforts made in order to avoid losses of availability to a large extent also imply at least a preservation or even higher levels of safety. Thus, economic efficiency and safety are closely correlated. Public opinion is very sensible as soon as the high level of plant safety seems to be touched by economic pressure. But realizing that German NPP are endowed with mature design and safety features, improvements of safety standards can only marginally be increased by further technical optimizations. Therefore plant management, man-machine-interface and the individual behaviour of the employees are targets for improvement of nuclear safety and economic efficiency by increasing the efficiency of processes. An even more efficient use of scarce funds and a tolerable political environment should allow the safety level of NPP to be upheld, and safety culture could be maintained and even be improved. (author)

  20. Crystallization of a stringent response factor from Aquifex aeolicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ole; Laurberg, Martin; Gajhede, Michael

    2002-01-01

    a = 50.8, b = 70.3, c = 90.9 A. Methionine residues were introduced by mutation and deliberate oxidation of the protein allowed us to produce additional crystal forms with reproducible diffraction ability and increased phasing potential. This is the first report on the crystallization of a member...... of the Ppx/GppA phosphatase family....