WorldWideScience

Sample records for stringent environmental control

  1. Electricity versus hydrogen for passenger cars under stringent climate change control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rösler, H.; van der Zwaan, B.; Keppo, I.; Bruggink, J.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we analyze how passenger car transportation in Europe may change this century under permanent high oil prices and stringent climate control policy. We focus on electricity and hydrogen as principal candidate energy carriers, because these two options are increasingly believed to

  2. Air Quality and Health Benefits of China's Recent Stringent Environmental Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Xue, T.; Zhang, Q.; Geng, G.; He, K.

    2016-12-01

    Aggressive emission control measures were taken by China's central and local governments after the promulgation of the "Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan" in 2013. We evaluated the air quality and health benefits of this ever most stringent air pollution control policy during 2013-2015 by utilizing a two-stage data fusion model and newly-developed cause-specific integrated exposure-response functions (IER) developed for the Global Burden of Disease (GBD). The two-stage data fusion model predicts spatiotemporal continuous PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm) concentrations by integrating satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements, PM2.5 concentrations from measurement and air quality model, and other ancillary information. During the years of analysis, PM2.5 concentration dropped significantly on national average and over heavily polluted regions as identified by Mann-Kendall analysis. The national PM2.5-attributable mortality decreased by 72.8 (95% CI: 59.4, 85.2) thousand (6%) from 1.23 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.39) million in 2013 to 1.15 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.31) million in 2015 due to considerable reduction (i.e. 18%) of population-weighted PM2.5 from 61.4 to 50.5 µg/m3. Meteorological variations between 2013 and 2015 were estimated to raise the PM2.5 levels by 0.24 µg/m3 and national mortality by 2.1 (95% CI: 1.6, 2.6) thousand through sensitivity tests, which implies the dominant role of anthropogenic impacts on PM2.5 abatement and attributable mortality reduction. Our study affirms the effectiveness of China's recent air quality policy, however, due to the possible supralinear shape of C-R functions, health benefits induced by air quality improvement in these years are limited. We therefore appeal for continuous implementation of current policies and further stringent measures from both air quality improvement and public health protection perspectives.

  3. Synthetic Peptides to Target Stringent Response-Controlled Virulence in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Murine Cutaneous Infection Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pletzer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms continuously monitor their surroundings and adaptively respond to environmental cues. One way to cope with various stress-related situations is through the activation of the stringent stress response pathway. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa this pathway is controlled and coordinated by the activity of the RelA and SpoT enzymes that metabolize the small nucleotide secondary messenger molecule (pppGpp. Intracellular ppGpp concentrations are crucial in mediating adaptive responses and virulence. Targeting this cellular stress response has recently been the focus of an alternative approach to fight antibiotic resistant bacteria. Here, we examined the role of the stringent response in the virulence of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and the Liverpool epidemic strain LESB58. A ΔrelA/ΔspoT double mutant showed decreased cytotoxicity toward human epithelial cells, exhibited reduced hemolytic activity, and caused down-regulation of the expression of the alkaline protease aprA gene in stringent response mutants grown on blood agar plates. Promoter fusions of relA or spoT to a bioluminescence reporter gene revealed that both genes were expressed during the formation of cutaneous abscesses in mice. Intriguingly, virulence was attenuated in vivo by the ΔrelA/ΔspoT double mutant, but not the relA mutant nor the ΔrelA/ΔspoT complemented with either gene. Treatment of a cutaneous P. aeruginosa PAO1 infection with anti-biofilm peptides increased animal welfare, decreased dermonecrotic lesion sizes, and reduced bacterial numbers recovered from abscesses, resembling the phenotype of the ΔrelA/ΔspoT infection. It was previously demonstrated by our lab that ppGpp could be targeted by synthetic peptides; here we demonstrated that spoT promoter activity was suppressed during cutaneous abscess formation by treatment with peptides DJK-5 and 1018, and that a peptide-treated relA complemented stringent response double mutant strain exhibited reduced peptide

  4. Stringent Expression Control of Pathogenic R-body Production in Legume Symbiont Azorhizobium caulinodans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichi Matsuoka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available R bodies are insoluble large polymers consisting of small proteins encoded by reb genes and are coiled into cylindrical structures in bacterial cells. They were first discovered in Caedibacter species, which are obligate endosymbionts of paramecia. Caedibacter confers a killer trait on the host paramecia. R-body-producing symbionts are released from their host paramecia and kill symbiont-free paramecia after ingestion. The roles of R bodies have not been explained in bacteria other than Caedibacter. Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571, a microsymbiont of the legume Sesbania rostrata, carries a reb operon containing four reb genes that are regulated by the repressor PraR. Herein, deletion of the praR gene resulted in R-body formation and death of host plant cells. The rebR gene in the reb operon encodes an activator. Three PraR binding sites and a RebR binding site are present in the promoter region of the reb operon. Expression analyses using strains with mutations within the PraR binding site and/or the RebR binding site revealed that PraR and RebR directly control the expression of the reb operon and that PraR dominantly represses reb expression. Furthermore, we found that the reb operon is highly expressed at low temperatures and that 2-oxoglutarate induces the expression of the reb operon by inhibiting PraR binding to the reb promoter. We conclude that R bodies are toxic not only in paramecium symbiosis but also in relationships between other bacteria and eukaryotic cells and that R-body formation is controlled by environmental factors.

  5. City-specific vehicle emission control strategies to achieve stringent emission reduction targets in China's Yangtze River Delta region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhao, Bin; Wu, Xiaomeng; Shu, Jiawei; Hao, Jiming

    2017-01-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region is one of the most prosperous and densely populated regions in China and is facing tremendous pressure to mitigate vehicle emissions and improve air quality. Our assessment has revealed that mitigating vehicle emissions of NOx would be more difficult than reducing the emissions of other major vehicular pollutants (e.g., CO, HC and PM 2.5 ) in the YRD region. Even in Shanghai, where the emission control implemented are more stringent than in Jiangsu and Zhejiang, we observed little to no reduction in NOx emissions from 2000 to 2010. Emission-reduction targets for HC, NOx and PM 2.5 are determined using a response surface modeling tool for better air quality. We design city-specific emission control strategies for three vehicle-populated cities in the YRD region: Shanghai and Nanjing and Wuxi in Jiangsu. Our results indicate that even if stringent emission control consisting of the Euro 6/VI standards, the limitation of vehicle population and usage, and the scrappage of older vehicles is applied, Nanjing and Wuxi will not be able to meet the NOx emissions target by 2020. Therefore, additional control measures are proposed for Nanjing and Wuxi to further mitigate NOx emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Nuclear controls are stringent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnekus, D.

    1983-01-01

    The peace-time application of nuclear power in South Africa, the organisations concerned and certain provisions laid down by the Act on Nuclear Energy, aimed at safeguarding the general public, are discussed

  7. Dual Regulation of Bacillus subtilis kinB Gene Encoding a Sporulation Trigger by SinR through Transcription Repression and Positive Stringent Transcription Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yasutaro; Ogura, Mitsuo; Nii, Satomi; Hirooka, Kazutake

    2017-01-01

    It is known that transcription of kinB encoding a trigger for Bacillus subtilis sporulation is under repression by SinR, a master repressor of biofilm formation, and under positive stringent transcription control depending on the adenine species at the transcription initiation nucleotide (nt). Deletion and base substitution analyses of the kinB promoter (P kinB ) region using lacZ fusions indicated that either a 5-nt deletion (Δ5, nt -61/-57, +1 is the transcription initiation nt) or the substitution of G at nt -45 with A (G-45A) relieved kinB repression. Thus, we found a pair of SinR-binding consensus sequences (GTTCTYT; Y is T or C) in an inverted orientation (SinR-1) between nt -57/-42, which is most likely a SinR-binding site for kinB repression. This relief from SinR repression likely requires SinI, an antagonist of SinR. Surprisingly, we found that SinR is essential for positive stringent transcription control of P kinB . Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) analysis indicated that SinR bound not only to SinR-1 but also to SinR-2 (nt -29/-8) consisting of another pair of SinR consensus sequences in a tandem repeat arrangement; the two sequences partially overlap the '-35' and '-10' regions of P kinB . Introduction of base substitutions (T-27C C-26T) in the upstream consensus sequence of SinR-2 affected positive stringent transcription control of P kinB , suggesting that SinR binding to SinR-2 likely causes this positive control. EMSA also implied that RNA polymerase and SinR are possibly bound together to SinR-2 to form a transcription initiation complex for kinB transcription. Thus, it was suggested in this work that derepression of kinB from SinR repression by SinI induced by Spo0A∼P and occurrence of SinR-dependent positive stringent transcription control of kinB might induce effective sporulation cooperatively, implying an intimate interplay by stringent response, sporulation, and biofilm formation.

  8. Environmental controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S.

    1996-01-01

    Members of the public are exposed to environmental radiations from a variety of sources. In terms of average dose received the major component is from natural sources of radiation for which there is little or no scope to reduce exposure. Where such opportunities do exist, in those homes with high radon concentrations, the householders tend to ignore the risks despite the availability of comparatively straightforward and inexpensive remediation measures. By comparison there is significant public concern about radioactive waste management and the disposal and discharge of radioactivity to the environment despite strict environmental controls. This paper describes the controls and the wider policy context for radioactive waste management following a major review of policy last year. (author)

  9. Integrating environmental control for coal plant efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, M

    1986-01-01

    As emission control requirements for power plants have grown more stringent, utilities have added new environmental protection technology. As environmental controls have been added one after another, plant designers have rarely had the opportunity to integrate these components with each other and the balance of the plant. Consequently they often cost more to build and operate and can reduce power plant efficiency and availability. With the aim of lowering the cost of environmental systems, a design approach known as integrated environmental control (IEC) has emerged. This is based on the premise that environmental controls can function most economically if they are designed integrally with other power generation equipment. EPRI has established an IEC progam to develop integrated design strategies and evaluate their net worth to utilities. Various aspects of this program are described. (3 refs.)

  10. Environmental control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    During this report period, Chem Tech identified environmental control technology (ECT) as an area of emphasis for future planning and resource allocation. The Division plans to continue to perform R and D activities in ECT for external sponsors such as the DOE Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) while striving for recognition as an R and D center for ECT within the Martin Marietta Energy Systems' Complex. Chem Tech has already played supporting roles in this area for the Y-12 Plant and the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) and is currently expanding its support to organizations within ORNL responsible for environmental matters. Over the long term, the Division hopes to achieve recognition as a center for R and D in ECT within the wider DOE system. Recent initiatives supporting these plans are discussed below

  11. [Environmental microbiological control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Salas, Carmen; Tordoya Titichoca, Igberto J; Ezpeleta Baquedano, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    The environmental microbiological control is necessary to prevent infections associated with certain procedures that are performed at the hospital. In this review the procedures for control of water and dialysis fluids, and air in operating rooms and immunocompromised units are addressed. The dialysis quality management guidelines define the highest levels of chemical, microbiological and endotoxin in purified water and dialysis fluids based on the recommendations of scientific societies. The microbiological control of water and dialysis fluids should include detection of microorganisms and endotoxin levels. Regarding the microbiological air sampling of operating rooms and immunocompromised units the types of clean rooms in which is recommended to perform microbiological air monitoring; the sample collection methods; culture media; incubation conditions; the most common microorganisms, and permissible levels depending on the type of surgery are described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental Control Subsystem Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Jacob; Zelik, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center's Launch Pad 39B, part of Launch Complex 39, is currently undergoing construction to prepare it for NASA's Space Launch System missions. The Environmental Control Subsystem, which provides the vehicle with an air or nitrogen gas environment, required development of its local and remote display screens. The remote displays, developed by NASA contractors and previous interns, were developed without complete functionality; the remote displays were revised, adding functionality to over 90 displays. For the local displays, multiple test procedures were developed to assess the functionality of the screens, as well as verify requirements. One local display screen was also developed.

  13. Environmental Control Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Research carried out in the Environmental Control Project of the 'Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura' (CENA), Piracicaba , Sao Paulo State, Brazil, is described. Such research comprises: determination of ions and metals in waters from different sources; survey of the mineralogical composition of Amazon Basin rivers; development of specific methodologies for the determination of minerals in studies of mineral nutrition of plants and animal nutrition; development of methodologies for the determination of wood sample density, a nuclear method being developed to be applied to field conditions; study of the water flux mouvement within wood. (M.A.) [pt

  14. Mechanisms in environmental control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeneg, K.

    1994-01-01

    The theory of implementation provides methods for decentralization of decisions in societies. By using mechanisms (game forms) it is possible (in theory) to implement attractive states in different economic environments. As an example the market mechanisms can implement Pareto-efficient and individual rational allocations in an Arrow-Debreu economic environment without market failures. And even when there exists externalities the market mechanism sometime can be used if it is possible to make a market for the goods not allocated on a market already - examples are marketable emission permits, and deposit refund systems. But environmental problems can often be explained by the existence of other market failures (e.g. asymmetric information), and then the market mechanism do not work properly. And instead of using regulation or traditional economic instruments (subsidies, charges, fees, liability insurance, marketable emission permits, or deposit refund systems) to correct the problems caused by market failures, some other methods can be used to deal with these problems. This paper contains a survey of mechanisms that can be used in environmental control when the problems are caused by the existence of public goods, externalities, asymmetric information, and indivisible goods in the economy. By examples it will be demonstrated how the Clarke-Groves mechanism, the Cournot-Lindahl mechanism, and other mechanisms can be used to solve specific environmental problems. This is only theory and examples, but a recent field study have used the Cournot-Lindahl mechanism to solve the problem of lake liming in Sweden. So this subject may be of some interests for environmental policy in the future. (au) 23 refs

  15. Is ionizing radiation regulated more stringently than chemical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.; Pack, S.R.; Hattemer-Frey, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    It is widely believed that United States government agencies regulate exposure to ionizing radiation more stringently than exposure to chemical carcinogens. It is difficult to verify this perception, however, because chemical carcinogens and ionizing radiation are regulated using vastly different strategies. Chemical carcinogens are generally regulated individually. Regulators consider the risk of exposure to one chemical rather than the cumulative radiation exposure from all sources. Moreover, standards for chemical carcinogens are generally set in terms of quantities released or resultant environmental concentrations, while standards for ionizing radiation are set in terms of dose to the human body. Since chemicals and ionizing radiation cannot be compared on the basis of equal dose to the exposed individual, standards regulating chemicals and ionizing radiation cannot be compared directly. It is feasible, however, to compare the two sets of standards on the basis of equal risk to the exposed individual, assuming that standards for chemicals and ionizing radiation are equivalent if estimated risk levels are equitable. This paper compares risk levels associated with current standards for ionizing radiation and chemical carcinogens. The authors do not attempt to determine whether either type of risk is regulated too stringently or not stringently enough but endeavor only to ascertain if ionizing radiation is actually regulated more strictly than chemical carcinogens

  16. Environmental Control System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Arroyo, Elvin A.

    2018-01-01

    Since before the first men landed on the moon, human beings have aspired to reach farther into space, to discover and answer the great mysteries that exist beyond imagination. To reach where no one has gone before. To able to see all the wonderful things that can be found in space and that only satellites have revealed to us during all this time. Considering the last trip to the moon, mankind has been evolving and improving their technology to reach destinations whose distances had been impossible to transit. To reach that goal, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has designed and developed the largest and most powerful rocket ever created by the human race, the Space Launch System - better known as the SLS. To be able to send this large rocket to space, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is doing upgrades to their existing facilities and equipment. At Launch Pad 39B, they are setting up a new Environmental Control System (ECS) developed to supply the rocket with the correct gases and mixtures that will be needed for the rocket to launch. The ECS is similar to an air conditioning unit. The main functionality of it is to supply the SLS with the correct gas mixture for it to launch. Also the ECS has been required to reduce or eliminate the possibility of a complete system failure. The system is part of the Ground Support Equipment (GSE) for the SLS that will be going to the Moon and Mars.

  17. Environmental Control Unit Harness Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    Testing four new Environmental Control Unit Harnesses for improved user comfort during SCAPE operations. Phase I, testing in a lab environment, Phase II will continue testing the best candidates in a field environment.

  18. Technology of environmental pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, E.I.

    1992-01-01

    This book aims to be a comprehensive reference for technological advances in pollution control and abatement and pollution regulations. The first chapter, 'The dilemma of environmental pollution' summarises pollution legislation in the United States and discusses worldwide interest in pollution abatement. Chapter 2 describes some recent environmental disasters and discusses the major air pollutants and their harmful effects. Chapters 3 and 4 assess the various techniques for air pollution control and water pollution control. Chapter 5 is devoted to oil pollution impact and abatement. Solid waste management and methods of solid waste disposal are discussed in chapter 6, and noise pollution, its harmful effects and its control are dealt within chapter 7. Appendices contain a glossary, a summary of the US Clean Air Act and the US drinking water regulations and reference figures and tables relating to energy and the environment. Individual chapters contain many references

  19. Fuzzy control in environmental engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Chmielowski, Wojciech Z

    2016-01-01

    This book is intended for engineers, technicians and people who plan to use fuzzy control in more or less developed and advanced control systems for manufacturing processes, or directly for executive equipment. Assuming that the reader possesses elementary knowledge regarding fuzzy sets and fuzzy control, by way of a reminder, the first parts of the book contain a reminder of the theoretical foundations as well as a description of the tools to be found in the Matlab/Simulink environment in the form of a toolbox. The major part of the book presents applications for fuzzy controllers in control systems for various manufacturing and engineering processes. It presents seven processes and problems which have been programmed using fuzzy controllers. The issues discussed concern the field of Environmental Engineering. Examples are the control of a flood wave passing through a hypothetical, and then the real Dobczyce reservoir in the Raba River, which is located in the upper Vistula River basin in Southern Poland, th...

  20. Environmental restoration project configuration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutterman, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the approach that Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) is using for the implementation of the configuration control requirements for a major system acquisition under the guidance of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4700.1, open-quotes Project Management System,close quotes for environmental restoration. The two major features of the WINCO environmental restoration approach relate to (1) the product and (2) the maintenance of the baseline for many sites in different phases at the same time. Historically, a project has typically produced a product. Environmental restoration in some ways produces no typical project product. Essentially, what is produced and what configuration control management is exercised on is one of the following: (1) the development of clean dirt, (2) the documentation to support clean dirt, or (3) the track record of each of the sites. It is the latter approach that this paper deals with. This approach is unique in that there are four baselines [cost, schedule, scope, and technical (the track record product)] rather than the typical three. This is essential in configuration management due to the lack of a uniquely identifiable product for each site. Essentially, the philosophy behind the four-part configuration controls allows the technical baseline to fulfill the function typically met by the identifiable product

  1. Flight Hardware Packaging Design for Stringent EMC Radiated Emission Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortz, Charlene L.; Huang, Chi-Chien N.; Ravich, Joshua A.; Steiner, Carl N.

    2013-01-01

    This packaging design approach can help heritage hardware meet a flight project's stringent EMC radiated emissions requirement. The approach requires only minor modifications to a hardware's chassis and mainly concentrates on its connector interfaces. The solution is to raise the surface area where the connector is mounted by a few millimeters using a pedestal, and then wrapping with conductive tape from the cable backshell down to the surface-mounted connector. This design approach has been applied to JPL flight project subsystems. The EMC radiated emissions requirements for flight projects can vary from benign to mission critical. If the project's EMC requirements are stringent, the best approach to meet EMC requirements would be to design an EMC control program for the project early on and implement EMC design techniques starting with the circuit board layout. This is the ideal scenario for hardware that is built from scratch. Implementation of EMC radiated emissions mitigation techniques can mature as the design progresses, with minimal impact to the design cycle. The real challenge exists for hardware that is planned to be flown following a built-to-print approach, in which heritage hardware from a past project with a different set of requirements is expected to perform satisfactorily for a new project. With acceptance of heritage, the design would already be established (circuit board layout and components have already been pre-determined), and hence any radiated emissions mitigation techniques would only be applicable at the packaging level. The key is to take a heritage design with its known radiated emissions spectrum and repackage, or modify its chassis design so that it would have a better chance of meeting the new project s radiated emissions requirements.

  2. Environmental contaminants: assessment and control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vallero, Daniel A

    2004-01-01

    ... Understanding Policy by Understanding Science Connections and Interrelationships of Environmental Science Environmental Assessment and Intervention Engineering Technical Note: Cleaning up a Hazardous Waste Site Social Aspects of Environmental Science Introduction to Environmental Policy The National Environmental Policy Act Issues in Environmental Science: Co...

  3. Analysis of the environmental control technology for tar sand development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Nevers, N.; Glenne, B.; Bryner, C.

    1979-06-01

    The environmental technology for control of air pollution, water pollution, and for the disposal, stabilization, and vegetation of the waste tar sand were thoroughly investigated. Although some difficulties may be encountered in any of these undertakings, it seems clear that the air and water pollution problems can be solved to meet any applicable standard. Currently there are two large-scale plants producing liquid fuels from tar sands in Alberta, Canada which use similar technology involving surface mining, hot water extraction, and surface disposal of waste sand. These projects all meet the Canadian environmental control regulations in force at the time they began. The largest US deposits of tar sands are much smaller than the Canadian; 95 percent are located in the state of Utah. Their economics do not appear as attractive as the Canadian deposits. The environmental control costs are not large enough to make an otherwise economic project uneconomic. The most serious environmental conflict likely to occur over the recovery of liquid fuels from the US deposits of tar sands is that caused by the proximity of the deposits to national parks, national monuments, and a national recreation area in Utah. These areas have very stringent air pollution requirements; and even if the air pollution control requirements can be met, there may still be adequate opposition to large-scale mining ventures in these areas to prevent their commercial exploitation. Another environmental constraint may be water rights availability.Essentially all of the water running in the Colorado river basin is now legally allocated. Barring new interpretations of the legality of water rights purchase, Utah tar sands developments should be able to obtain water by purchasing existing irrigation water rights.

  4. Analysis of the environmental control technology for oil shale development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Nevers, N.; Eckhoff, D.; Swanson, S.; Glenne, B.; Wagner, F.

    1978-02-01

    The environmental control technology proposed in the various oil shale projects which are under development are examined. The technologies for control of air pollution, water pollution, and for the disposal, stabilization, and vegetation of the processed shale were thoroughly investigated. Although some difficulties may be encountered in any of these undertakings, it seems clear that the air and water pollution problems can be solved to meet any applicable standard. There are no published national standards against which to judge the stabilization and vegetation of the processed shale. However, based on the goal of producing an environmentally and aesthetically acceptable finished processed shale pile, it seems probable that this can be accomplished. It is concluded that the environmental control technology is available to meet all current legal requirements. This was not the case before Colorado changed their applicable Air Pollution regulations in August of 1977; the previous ones for the oil shale region were sufficiently stringent to have caused a problem for the current stage of oil shale development. Similarly, the federal air-quality, non-deterioration regulations could be interpreted in the future in ways which would be difficult for the oil shale industry to comply with. The Utah water-quality, non-deterioration regulations could also be a problem. Thus, the only specific regulations which may be a problem are the non-deterioration parts of air and water quality regulations. The unresolved areas of environmental concern with oil shale processing are mostly for the problems not covered by existing environmental law, e.g., trace metals, polynuclear organics, ground water-quality changes, etc. These may be problems, but no evidence is yet available that these problems will prevent the successful commercialization of oil shale production.

  5. 233S Decommissioning Project Environmental Control Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoric, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    This Environmental Control Plan is for the 233S Decommissioning activities conducted under the removal action report for the 233S Decontamination and Demolition Project. The purpose of this ECP is to identify environmental requirements for the 233S project. The ECP is a compilation of existing environmental permit conditions, regulatory requirements, and environmental requirements applicable to the specific project or functional activity

  6. The Environmental Action Internal Control Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Sebasto, N. J.; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    1994-01-01

    Reports research designed to develop a reliable and valid instrument to assess the relationship between locus of control of reinforcement and environmentally responsible behavior in (n=853) undergraduate students. Results suggest that the Environmental Action Internal Control Index can accurately predict environmentally responsible behavior.…

  7. Environmental control for nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, A W; Wells, W H [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Peaceful applications introduce some new environmental considerations into the design of nuclear explosives. Much of the experience gained in weapon work can be applied, but the requirement of survival in a very deep hole is not found in any military system. We will briefly mention the overall environment and make a few comparisons with some general characteristics of the weapon environment. The major portion of this paper is devoted to the special problems of pressure and temperature found in the emplacement environment. Potential users should know where we stand with regard to survival in hostile environments in terms of feasibility and possible effects on field operations. In all applications there are several things competing for the available diameter. Given that explosives can be made to work over a range of diameters and that necessary environmental control is feasible, all further discussions can be related to the cost of providing a hole big enough to accomplish the task. The items competing for diameter are: 1) bare nuclear assembly 2) insulation and cooling system if needed 3) pressure canister 4) shielding material 5) emplacement clearance All of these must be considered with the cost of the hole in optimizing an overall design. Conditions in a particular location will affect the shielding requirements and the emplacement clearance. The nuclear assembly can vary in size, but the long development time requires that decisions be made quite early, perhaps in ignorance of the economic details of a particular application. The pressure canister is a relatively straightforward design problem that can be resolved by giving appropriate consideration to all of the design requirements. In particular for 20,000 psi pressure in the emplacement hole, a canister of heat-treated alloy steel having a yield strength of 200,000 psi and a wall thickness which is about .07 times the outside diameter is adequate and straight- forward to fabricate. The insulation and cooling

  8. Environmental Pollution Prevention, Control and Abatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-30

    AD-A271 117 fDATE August 30. 1977 ASD (ORA&L) Department of Defense Instruction SUBJECT: Environmental Pollution Prevention, Control and Abatement...Ensure that any funds appropriated and apportioned for the prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution are not used for any other...77 References (a) Executive Order 11752, "Prevention, Control, and Abatement of Environmental Pollution at Federal Facilities," December 19, 1973 (b

  9. Environmental control medical support team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, William J.; Kilgore, Melvin V., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The activities conducted in support of the Environmental Control and Life Support Team during December 7, 1987 through September 30, 1988 are summarized. The majority of the ongoing support has focused on the ECLSS area. Through a series of initial meetings with the ECLSS team and technical literature review, an initial list of critical topics was developed. Subtasks were then identified or additional related tasks received as action items from the ECLSS group meetings. Although most of the efforts focused on providing MSFC personnel with information regarding specific questions and problems related to ECLSS issues, other efforts regarding identifying an ECLSS Medical Support Team and constructing data bases of technical information were also initiated and completed. The specific tasks are as follows: (1) Provide support to the mechanical design and integration of test systems as related to microbiological concerns; (2) Assist with design of Human Subjects Test Protocols; (3) Interpretation and recommendations pertaining to air/water quality requirements; (4) Assist in determining the design specifications required as related to the Technical Demonstration Program; (5) Develop a data base of all microorganisms recovered from previous subsystem testing; (6) Estimates of health risk of individual microbes to test subjects; (7) Assist with setting limits for safety of test subjects; (8) Health monitoring of test subjects; (9) Assist in the preparation of test plans; (10) Assist in the development of a QA/QC program to assure the validity, accuracy and precision of the analyses; and (11) Assist in developing test plans required for future man in the loop testing.

  10. Circuitry linking the Csr and stringent response global regulatory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Adrianne N; Patterson-Fortin, Laura M; Vakulskas, Christopher A; Mercante, Jeffrey W; Potrykus, Katarzyna; Vinella, Daniel; Camacho, Martha I; Fields, Joshua A; Thompson, Stuart A; Georgellis, Dimitris; Cashel, Michael; Babitzke, Paul; Romeo, Tony

    2011-06-01

    CsrA protein regulates important cellular processes by binding to target mRNAs and altering their translation and/or stability. In Escherichia coli, CsrA binds to sRNAs, CsrB and CsrC, which sequester CsrA and antagonize its activity. Here, mRNAs for relA, spoT and dksA of the stringent response system were found among 721 different transcripts that copurified with CsrA. Many of the transcripts that copurified with CsrA were previously determined to respond to ppGpp and/or DksA. We examined multiple regulatory interactions between the Csr and stringent response systems. Most importantly, DksA and ppGpp robustly activated csrB/C transcription (10-fold), while they modestly activated csrA expression. We propose that CsrA-mediated regulation is relieved during the stringent response. Gel shift assays confirmed high affinity binding of CsrA to relA mRNA leader and weaker interactions with dksA and spoT. Reporter fusions, qRT-PCR and immunoblotting showed that CsrA repressed relA expression, and (p)ppGpp accumulation during stringent response was enhanced in a csrA mutant. CsrA had modest to negligible effects on dksA and spoT expression. Transcription of dksA was negatively autoregulated via a feedback loop that tended to mask CsrA effects. We propose that the Csr system fine-tunes the stringent response and discuss biological implications of the composite circuitry. © Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Inspection control and the environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milkov Dragan L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is the task of many administrative bodies, but the activity of the environmental inspection is of special importance. According to the Law on Environmental Protection, inspection's tasks in this area belong to the competence of republican bodies, ie. Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection. Autonomous province and local self-government have only delegated competence in this field, under condition that this is explicitly regulated in special laws. Environmental inspection's activity consists in preventive actions, certain prior - preparatory activities and the audit itself. In addition, following the intervention of the Inspector issue of the control may be corrective or repressive. According to the Law on Inspection Control and the Law on Environmental Protection, the inspectors have a number of powers and responsibilities, which enable them to ensure the lawful and proper conduct of individuals and legal entities.

  12. Divison of Environmental Control Technology program, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    This report covers Division of Environmental Control Technology projects in progress during FY 1978, within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Department of Energy. It is the second in a planned series of annual reports. The Division of Environmental Control Technology (ECT) continues to support the Assistant Secretary for Environment (EV) in discharging two primary responsibilities: (1) under the Environmental Engineering (EE) Program, the independent overview and assessment of environmental control aspects of both the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) programs and the Nation's energy policies, and (2) under the Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, the reduction of potential environmental hazards at the radioactively contaminated sites that are presently owned or were formerly used by the Government. This report presents a short summary of objectives, approach, progress and results, future plans, and a reference bibliography for each research, development, or assessment project within the program areas described above

  13. Environmental Restoration Program Control Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental Restoration managers need to demonstrate that their programs are under control. Unlike most industrial programs, the public is heavily involved in Environmental Restoration activities. The public is demanding that the country prove that real progress is being made towards cleaning up the environment. A Program Control Management System can fill this need. It provides a structure for planning, work authorization, data accumulation, data analysis and change control. But it takes time to implement a control system and the public is losing its patience. This paper describes critical items essential to the quick development and implementation of a successful control system

  14. Environmental situation in Austria. Sixth environmental control report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deweis, M.; Kaitna, M.

    2001-01-01

    This sixth environmental control report gives an overall picture of the situation of the environment in Austria for the period from 1997 to 2000. It emphasizes the areas of the Austrian environmental policy where significant improvements were achieved, such as the reduction of air pollutant emissions and the improvement of the quality of running waters. It also deals with problem areas such as transport, climate protection and renewable energy, where new solutions will have to be found within the framework of the Austrian and European environmental policies and already agreed upon strategies will have to be translated into daily practice. This environmental control report was written by experts of the Federal Environment Agency, which is an agency subordinate to the Federal Ministry for Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management, and which acquired independent status in the form of a limited company. The report gives comprehensive information on all aspects of environmental monitoring in Austria, with a huge amount of numerical, geographical and evaluated data. The report is structured by the following chapters: population and land use; air; global climate change; stratospheric ozone degradation; water; soil; forests; environmental protection; agriculture; traffic; industry; economic audit; waste; contaminated sites; energy; noise; secure handling of chemicals; plant-protective agents; gene technology; radioecology. Those chapters which are in the INIS subject scope, dealing with radioecology and ecological aspects of nuclear and non-nuclear energy are treated individually on analytical level for the INIS database. (a.n.)

  15. Environmental Restoration Program Management Control Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This Management Control Plan has been prepared to define the Energy Systems approach to managing its participation in the US DOE's Environmental Restoration (ER) Program in a manner consistent with DOE/ORO 931: Management Plan for the DOE Field Office, Oak Ridge, Decontamination and Decommissioning Program; and the Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Contract Management Plan (CMP). This plan discusses the systems, procedures, methodology, and controls to be used by the program management team to attain these objectives

  16. Assessment of the environmental impacts and health benefits of a nitrogen emission control area in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammingh, P.; Geilenkirchen, G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Maas, R. [National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Holland, M.R. [Ecometrics Research and Consulting EMRC, Reading (United Kingdom); Jonson, J.E. [The Meteorological Synthesizing Centre - West MSC-W, Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo (Norway)

    2012-06-15

    In the last five to ten years, concerns about the health and ecosystem effects of air polluting emissions from ships have grown in international policy debate regarding further air pollutant emissions control. As an outcome of the debate, the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) adopted more stringent emission standards in 2008 to further control air pollution from sea shipping. For example, their most stringent nitrogen oxide emission standards are about 75 per cent lower than the standards for current ships. However, these most stringent standards are only mandatory in specific emission control areas designated by the IMO. Such specific areas aim to protect densely populated areas and sensitive ecosystems from air pollution from nearby international shipping. Prior to a possible application for designation of a nitrogen oxide emission control area, the eight North Sea countries commissioned an assessment of the environmental impacts and health benefits (this report) and the economic impacts and costs (Danish EPA, 2012). The main conclusions of this assessment are presented and concisely explained below. A detailed elaboration of the work carried out, the results and the uncertainties can be found in 'Full results'.

  17. Angra nuclear plant - environmental control program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircher, E.; Cruz, E.S. da

    1989-01-01

    The pre-operational studies, that were elaborated before the beginning of Angra I Power Plant operation, are described in particular the environmental radiological safety area till the fuel loading in the core reactor. Several aspects are included, as socio-economic survey, seismological analysis, Meteorological Program, marine biology, water cooling system, exposure measures of natural radiation, marine sediments characterization in the effluent dispersion area and Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program. The main environmental programs developed for the operational phase of the Angra I Plant are also presented, citing some considerations about the Meteorological Program, Marine Biology Control Program, Temperature and Chlorine Control in Piraquara de Fora Bay, Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program, Sanitary Effluent Control Program and Radiological Emergency Program. (C.G.C.). 2 refs

  18. The integrated environmental control model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Berkenpas, M.B.; Kalagnanam, J.R. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The capability to estimate the performance and cost of emission control systems is critical to a variety of planning and analysis requirements faced by utilities, regulators, researchers and analysts in the public and private sectors. The computer model described in this paper has been developed for DOe to provide an up-to-date capability for analyzing a variety of pre-combustion, combustion, and post-combustion options in an integrated framework. A unique capability allows performance and costs to be modeled probabilistically, which allows explicit characterization of uncertainties and risks.

  19. Comparison of urine iodine/creatinine ratio between patients following stringent and less stringent low iodine diet for radioiodine remnant ablation of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Jee Ho; Kim, Byung Il; Ha, Ji Su; Chang, Sei Joong; Shin, Hye Young; Choi, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Do Min; Kim, Chong Soon

    2006-01-01

    A low iodine diet (LID) for 1 ∼ 2 weeks is recommended for patients who undergoing radioiodine remnant ablation. However, the LID educations for patients are different among centers because there is no concrete recommendation for protocol of LID. In this investigation, we compared two representative types of LID protocols performed in several centers in Korea using urine iodine to creatinine tatio (urine I/Cr). From 2006, April to June, patients referred to our center for radioiodine remnant ablation of thyroid cancer from several local hospitals which had different LID protocols were included. We divided into two groups, stringent LID for 1 week and less stringent LID for 2 weeks, then measured their urine I/Cr ratio with spot urine when patients were admitted to the hospital. Total 27 patients were included in this investigation (M:F = 1:26; 13 in one-week stringent LID; 14 in two-week less stringent LID). Average of urine I/Cr ratio was 127.87 ± 78.52 μ g/g in stringent LID for 1 week, and 289.75 ± 188.24 μ g/g in less stringent LID for 2 weeks. It was significantly lower in stringent LID for 1 week group (ρ = 0.008). The number of patients whose urine I/Cr ratios were below 100 μ g/g was 6 of 13 in stringent LID for 1 week group, and 3 of 14 in less stringent LID for 2 weeks group. Stringent LID for 1 week resulted in better urinary I/Cr ratio in our investigation compared with the other protocol. However it still resulted in plenty of inadequate range of I/Cr ratio, so more stringent protocol such as stringent LID for 2 weeks is expected more desirable

  20. Divison of Environmental Control Technology program, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mott, William E.

    1979-06-01

    This report covers Division of Environmental Control Technology projects in progress during FY 1978, within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Department of Energy. It is the second in a planned series of annual reports. The Division of Environmental Control Technology (ECT) continues to support the Assistant Secretary for Environment (EV) in discharging two primary responsibilities: (1) under the Environmental Engineering (EE) Program, the independent overview and assessment of environmental control aspects of both the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) programs and the Nation's energy policies, and (2) under the Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, the reduction of potential environmental hazards at the radioactively contaminated sites that are presently owned or were formerly used by the Government. This report presents a short summary of objectives, approach, progress and results, future plans, and a reference bibliography for each research, development, or assessment project within the program areas described above.

  1. Environmental pollution and control, second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesilind, P.A.; Peirce, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    Most of the problems, principles, and solutions are presented here in a non-biased, easy-to-read format. The language used is non-technical for the most part, and the inclusion of a complete glossary aids when some technical terms must be used. The text itself is supported by photographs, drawings, tables, and examples. Major Sections: Environmental Pollution, Water Pollution; Measurement of Water Quality; Water Supply; Water Treatment; Collection of Wastewater; Wastewater Treatment; Sludge Treatment and Disposal; Nonpoint Source Water Pollution; Water Pollution Law; Solid Waste; Solid Waste Disposal; Resource Recovery; Hazardous Waste; Radioactive Waste; Solid and Hazardous Waste Law; Air Pollution; Meteorology and Air Quality; Measurement of Air Quality; Air Pollution Control; Air Pollution Law; Noise Pollution; Noise Measurement and Control; Environmental Impact; The Environmental Ethic; Appendix: Conversion Factors; Glossary and Abbreviations; Index

  2. The Control of Behavior: Human and Environmental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhoe, Ralph Wendell

    1972-01-01

    Theological perspective on human and environmental behavior, with a view toward man's ultimate concerns or longest range values and the ultimate controls of behavior. Maintains that all human behavior and destiny is ultimately in the hand of a transcendent power which prevails over any human errors.'' (LK)

  3. Autonomous Control, Climate and Environmental Changes Effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autonomous Control, Climate and Environmental Changes Effects on Trypanosomiasis in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review. ... African trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease that causes serious economic losses in livestock due to anemia, loss of condition and emaciation. The disease when neglected is lethal and untreated ...

  4. The Stringent Response Induced by Phosphate Limitation Promotes Purine Salvage in Agrobacterium fabrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapragasam, Smitha; Deochand, Dinesh K; Meariman, Jacob K; Grove, Anne

    2017-10-31

    Agrobacterium fabrum induces tumor growth in susceptible plant species. The upregulation of virulence genes that occurs when the bacterium senses plant-derived compounds is enhanced by acidic pH and limiting inorganic phosphate. Nutrient starvation may also trigger the stringent response, and purine salvage is among the pathways expected to be favored under such conditions. We show here that phosphate limitation induces the stringent response, as evidenced by production of (p)ppGpp, and that the xdhCSML operon encoding the purine salvage enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase is upregulated ∼15-fold. The xdhCSML operon is under control of the TetR family transcription factor XdhR; direct binding of ppGpp to XdhR attenuates DNA binding, and the enhanced xdhCSML expression correlates with increased cellular levels of (p)ppGpp. Xanthine dehydrogenase may also divert purines away from salvage pathways to form urate, the ligand for the transcription factor PecS, which in the plant pathogen Dickeya dadantii is a key regulator of virulence gene expression. However, urate levels remain low under conditions that produce increased levels of xdhCSML expression, and neither acidic pH nor limiting phosphate results in induction of genes under control of PecS. Instead, expression of such genes is induced only by externally supplemented urate. Taken together, our data indicate that purine salvage is favored during the stringent response induced by phosphate starvation, suggesting that control of this pathway may constitute a novel approach to modulating virulence. Because bacterial purine catabolism appears to be unaffected, as evidenced by the absence of urate accumulation, we further propose that the PecS regulon is induced by only host-derived urate.

  5. 21 CFR 890.3725 - Powered environmental control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... environmental control system. (a) Identification. A powered environmental control system is an AC- or battery-powered device intended for medical purposes that is used by a patient to operate an environmental control... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered environmental control system. 890.3725...

  6. Environmental control costs for oil shale processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    The studies reported herein are intended to provide more certainty regarding estimates of the costs of controlling environmental residuals from oil shale technologies being readied for commercial application. The need for this study was evident from earlier work conducted by the Office of Environment for the Department of Energy Oil Shale Commercialization Planning, Environmental Readiness Assessment in mid-1978. At that time there was little reliable information on the costs for controlling residuals and for safe handling of wastes from oil shale processes. The uncertainties in estimating costs of complying with yet-to-be-defined environmental standards and regulations for oil shale facilities are a critical element that will affect the decision on proceeding with shale oil production. Until the regulatory requirements are fully clarified and processes and controls are investigated and tested in units of larger size, it will not be possible to provide definitive answers to the cost question. Thus, the objective of this work was to establish ranges of possible control costs per barrel of shale oil produced, reflecting various regulatory, technical, and financing assumptions. Two separate reports make up the bulk of this document. One report, prepared by the Denver Research Institute, is a relatively rigorous engineering treatment of the subject, based on regulatory assumptions and technical judgements as to best available control technologies and practices. The other report examines the incremental cost effect of more conservative technical and financing alternatives. An overview section is included that synthesizes the products of the separate studies and addresses two variations to the assumptions.

  7. Design of a Clean Room for Quality Control of an Environmental Sampling in KINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jongho; Ahn, Gil Hoon; Seo, Hana; Han, Kitek; Park, Il Jin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of environmental sampling and analysis for safeguards is to characterize the nuclear materials handled and the activities conducted at the specific locations. The KINAC is responsible for the conclusions drawn from the analytical results provided by the analytical laboratories. To assure the KINAC of the continuity of the quality of the analytical results provided by the laboratories, the KINAC will implement a quality control(QC) programme. One of the QC programme is to prepare QC samples. The establishment of a clean room is needed to handle QC samples due to stringent control of contamination. The KINAC designed a clean facility with cleanliness of ISO Class 6, the Clean Room for Estimation and Assay of trace Nuclear materials(CREAN) to meet conflicting requirements of a clean room and for handling of nuclear materials according to Korean laws. The clean room will be expected to acquire of a radiation safety license under these conditions in this year and continue to improve it. The construction of the CREAN facility will be completed by the middle of 2015. In terms of QC programme, the establishment of a clean room is essential and will be not only very helpful for setting of quality control system for the national environmental sampling programme but also be applied for the environmental sample analysis techniques to the nuclear forensics

  8. Environmental management control. An empirical study on the use of environmental performance measures in management control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perego, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    Companies increasingly adapt their accounting systems to accommodate the internal demand of environmental-related information for making decisions and control their activities in compliance with extant environmental regulation. Prior research in environmental accounting has predominantly focused on

  9. Biotechnology for uranium extraction and environmental control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    India is looking forward to augmenting mining and extraction of uranium mineral for its nuclear energy needs. Being a radio-active mineral, mining and processing of uranium ore deposits need be carried out in an environmentally acceptable fashion. In this respect, a biotechnological approach holds great promise since it is environment-friendly, cost-effective and energy-efficient. There are several types of microorganisms which inhabit uranium ore bodies and biogenesis plays an important role in the mineralisation and transport of uranium-bearing minerals under the earth's crust. Uranium occurrences in India are only meagre and it becomes essential to tap effectively all the available resources. Uraninite and pitchblende occurring along with sulfide mineralisation such as pyrite are ideal candidates for bioleaching. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans present ubiquitously in the ore deposits can be isolated, cultured and utilised to bring about efficient acidic dissolution of uranium. Many such commercial attempts to extract uranium from even lean ores using acidophilic autotrophic bacteria have been made in different parts of the world. Anaerobes such a Geobacter and Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) can be effectively used in uranium mining for environmental control. Radioactive uranium mined wastes and tailing dumps can be cleaned and protected using microorganisms. In this lecture use of biotechnology in uranium extraction and bioremediation is illustrated with practical examples. Applicability of environment-friendly biotechnology for mining and extraction of uranium from Indian deposits is outlined. Commercial potentials for bioremediation in uranium-containing wastes are emphasised. (author)

  10. The Revised Perceived Environmental Control Measure: A Review and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Sebasto, N. J.

    1992-01-01

    A study reveals the need for extensive refinement of the Revised Perceived Environmental Control Measure purported in the past to be a reliable and valid instrument to measure the relationship between the psychological construct, "locus of control," and environmental action or environmentally responsible behavior. (MCO)

  11. Potential environmental effects of controlled thermonuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.R.; Gore, B.F.

    1976-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: (1) the fusion reaction, (2) approach to the environmental analysis, (3) the reference CTR, (4) CTR environmental effects, (5) CTR accident potential, and (6) the advanced CTR

  12. Environmental management control systems for carbon emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Di Giacomo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This paper aims to focus on a global consulting company and examine how it struggled to establish an effective environmental management control system for carbon emissions for its employees’ air travel. The organisation was motivated to reduce its carbon emissions both to comply with regulation and to enhance or maintain corporate reputation. Design/methodology/approach – The paper takes a case study approach, examining internal and external documents as well as conducting interviews with senior staff. Findings – The case study investigates how Beta’s management implemented a system to reduce carbon emissions. The organisation focused on air travel, but the study finds that employee travel preferences did not radically change. Rather than reduction in carbon emissions, as planned by head office, air travel carbon emissions actually increased during the period, and, as a consequence, the reported reduction targets were significantly adjusted downwards to meet the new realities. Practical implications – The study has implications for both policy and practice for organisations seeking to improve their sustainability performance. Originality/value – The study responds to calls in the literature to undertake research to identify how management practices might reduce negative sustainability impacts, as there is little evidence of what management practices and accounting tools are being adopted, particularly in relation to carbon emissions from air travel. The paper adds to the creation of new accounting, giving visibility to carbon emission management through case study analysis.

  13. Environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, B.W.; Wakamiya, W.; Bell, N.E.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; English, C.J.; Riley, R.G.

    1982-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of studies conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory from 1976 to 1982 on environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters. Experimental studies conducted during the course of the program were focused largely on the treatment and disposal of retort water, particularly water produced by in situ retorting of oil shale. Alternative methods were evaluated for the treatment and disposal of retort water and minewater. Treatment and disposal processes evaluated for retort water include evaporation for separation of water from both inorganic and organic pollutants; steam stripping for ammonia and volatile organics removal; activated sludge and anaerobic digestion for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; chemical coagulation for removal of suspended matter and heavy metals; wet air oxidation and solvent extraction for removal of organics; and land disposal and underground injection for disposal of retort water. Methods for the treatment of minewater include chemical processing and ion exchange for fluoride and boron removal. Preliminary cost estimates are given for several retort water treatment processes.

  14. Development of environmental radiation control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ingyu; Kim, Enhan; Keum, Dongkwon

    2012-04-01

    To develop the comprehensive environmental radiation management technology, - An urban atmospheric dispersion model and decision-aiding model have been developed. - The technologies for assessing the radiation impact to non-human biota and the environmental medium contamination have developed. - The analytical techniques of the indicator radionuclides related to decommissioning of nuclear facilities and nuclear waste repository have been developed. - The national environmental radiation impact has been assessed, and the optimum management system of natural radiation has been established

  15. Examination of new environmental control applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Claude; Drouin, Gilbert; Routhier, François

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the application of new Environmental Control Systems (ECSs) in the homes of users and caregivers. The research questions were: (1) Can new ECS applications improve the activities of daily living (ADL) of people with significant functional limitations who require personal assistance? (2) Can new ECS applications replace home services and lessen caregiver burden? To answer these questions, user satisfaction regarding ECS applications, impact on ADL, technical performance, and caregiver burden were examined. This collaborative investigation involving a local community health care center, a telephone monitoring service, an industrial partner, and a university research team used a case study approach. Five users with moderate cognitive problems or significant functional limitations who required personal assistance were chosen, along with their caregivers, for a 3-month in-home trial to test new ECS alternatives. The ECS in the study featured remote control functions (e.g., door lock release, outside intercom), specific verbal reminders (e.g., reminders to turn off stove elements), and automatic functions (e.g., night-lights in the bathroom and hallway). Information was collected in the users' homes with three standardized questionnaires and a company-designed questionnaire. The overall technical performance of the ECS was found to be in most cases moderately efficient. Participant satisfaction revealed that ECS alternatives needed improvement with respect to the service aspects such as follow-up services and repair/servicing. Caregiver burden was lessened for psychological aspects but not for physical tasks. Users seemed to have a positive perception of the impact of the ECS on many of their ADL. We learned six lessons from this 15-month case study, namely: (1) the use of remote control by people with moderate cognitive impairments was difficult; (2) verbal reminders were greatly appreciated; (3) the automatic ECS applications needed

  16. Environmental advertisement: An alternative policy to control consumption pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Sartzetakis, Eftichios Sophocles; Xepapadeas, Anastasios P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the efficiency enhancing potential of supplementing existing policies of controlling consumption pollution with environmental advertisement. Our definition of environmental advertisement includes both information dissemination and persuasion. While incentive-based regulations that are based on coercion are effective immediately, environmental advertisement that is based on inducing voluntary action requires time. We formalise this argument by assuming that the shift of con...

  17. Energy Efficiency of Distributed Environmental Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalifa, H. Ezzat; Isik, Can; Dannenhoffer, John F. III

    2011-02-23

    In this report, we present an analytical evaluation of the potential of occupant-regulated distributed environmental control systems (DECS) to enhance individual occupant thermal comfort in an office building with no increase, and possibly even a decrease in annual energy consumption. To this end we developed and applied several analytical models that allowed us to optimize comfort and energy consumption in partitioned office buildings equipped with either conventional central HVAC systems or occupant-regulated DECS. Our approach involved the following interrelated components: 1. Development of a simplified lumped-parameter thermal circuit model to compute the annual energy consumption. This was necessitated by the need to perform tens of thousands of optimization calculations involving different US climatic regions, and different occupant thermal preferences of a population of ~50 office occupants. Yearly transient simulations using TRNSYS, a time-dependent building energy modeling program, were run to determine the robustness of the simplified approach against time-dependent simulations. The simplified model predicts yearly energy consumption within approximately 0.6% of an equivalent transient simulation. Simulations of building energy usage were run for a wide variety of climatic regions and control scenarios, including traditional “one-size-fits-all” (OSFA) control; providing a uniform temperature to the entire building, and occupant-selected “have-it-your-way” (HIYW) control with a thermostat at each workstation. The thermal model shows that, un-optimized, DECS would lead to an increase in building energy consumption between 3-16% compared to the conventional approach depending on the climate regional and personal preferences of building occupants. Variations in building shape had little impact in the relative energy usage. 2. Development of a gradient-based optimization method to minimize energy consumption of DECS while keeping each occupant

  18. OPTIMAL CONTROL THEORY FOR SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    With growing world population, diminishing resources, and realization of the harmful effects of various pollutants, research focus in environmental management has shifted towards sustainability. The goal of a sustainable management strategy is to promote the structure and operati...

  19. Division of Environmental Control Technology program, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    Environmental engineering programs are reviewed for the following technologies; coal; petroleum and gas; oil shale; solar; geothermal and energy conservation; nuclear energy; and decontamination and decommissioning. Separate abstracts were prepared for each technology. (MHR)

  20. A concept of environmental controlling for industrial enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poelzl, U.

    1992-01-01

    The protection of nature is seen as a global challenge to mankind. Industrial enterprises are confronted with the question of how to contribute to the solution of environmental problems. In this study possibilities and concepts are printed out that would enable industrial enterprises to recognize and as a consequence reduce environmental pollution and risks caused by their products and production processes by means of organization. After a description of recent developments in the entrepreneur's surroundings brought about by environmental problems, and a characterization of environmental management, which can be seen as a reaction to the above mentioned developments, a concept of environmental controlling for industrial enterprises is developed deductively. Environmental controlling is here regarded as a sub-system of environmental management that supports the determination of environmental aims, the analysis, the planning and the control of environmental pollution, as well as the use of material and energy by installing and coordinating a specific environment information system. The main functions of environmental controlling are planning, controlling, informing, advising and some special functions. The specific functional instruments for carrying out these tasks are described in a special chapter. (author)

  1. Does dishonesty really invite third-party punishment? Results of a more stringent test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Naoki; Ohtsubo, Yohsuke

    2015-05-01

    Many experiments have demonstrated that people are willing to incur cost to punish norm violators even when they are not directly harmed by the violation. Such altruistic third-party punishment is often considered an evolutionary underpinning of large-scale human cooperation. However, some scholars argue that previously demonstrated altruistic third-party punishment against fairness-norm violations may be an experimental artefact. For example, envy-driven retaliatory behaviour (i.e. spite) towards better-off unfair game players may be misidentified as altruistic punishment. Indeed, a recent experiment demonstrated that participants ceased to inflict third-party punishment against an unfair player once a series of key methodological problems were systematically controlled for. Noticing that a previous finding regarding apparently altruistic third-party punishment against honesty-norm violations may have been subject to methodological issues, we used a different and what we consider to be a more sound design to evaluate these findings. Third-party punishment against dishonest players withstood this more stringent test. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Bioresources for control of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, Barindra

    2015-01-01

    Environmental pollution is one of the biggest threats to human beings. For practical reasons it is not possible to stop most of the activities responsible for environmental pollution; rather we need to eliminate the pollutants. In addition to other existing means, biological processes can be utilized to get rid of toxic pollutants. Degradation, removal, or deactivation of pollutants by biological means is known as bioremediation. Nature itself has several weapons to deal with natural wastage and some of them are equally active for eliminating nonnatural pollutants. Several plants, microorganisms, and some lower eukaryotes utilize environmental pollutants as nutrients and some of them are very efficient for decontaminating specific types of pollutants. If exploited properly, these natural resources have enough potential to deal with most elements of environmental pollution. In addition, several artificial microbial consortia and genetically modified organisms with high bioremediation potential were developed by application of advanced scientific tools. On the other hand, natural equilibria of ecosystems are being affected by human intervention. Rapid population growth, urbanization, and industrialization are destroying ecological balances and the natural remediation ability of the Earth is being compromised. Several potential bioremediation tools are also being destroyed by biodiversity destruction of unexplored ecosystems. Pollution management by bioremediation is highly dependent on abundance, exploration, and exploitation of bioresources, and biodiversity is the key to success. Better pollution management needs the combined actions of biodiversity conservation, systematic exploration of natural resources, and their exploitation with sophisticated modern technologies.

  3. Electron Beam Technology for Environmental Pollution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G; Han, Bumsoo

    2016-10-01

    Worldwide, there are over 1700 electron beam (EB) units in commercial use, providing an estimated added value to numerous products, amounting to 100 billion USD or more. High-current electron accelerators are used in diverse industries to enhance the physical and chemical properties of materials and to reduce undesirable contaminants such as pathogens, toxic byproducts, or emissions. Over the past few decades, EB technologies have been developed aimed at ensuring the safety of gaseous and liquid effluents discharged to the environment. It has been demonstrated that EB technologies for flue gas treatment (SO x and NO x removal), wastewater purification, and sludge hygienization can be effectively deployed to mitigate environmental degradation. Recently, extensive work has been carried out on the use of EB for environmental remediation, which also includes the removal of emerging contaminants such as VOCs, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and potential EDCs.

  4. Development of environmental radiation control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, M. H.; Kim, E. H.; Keum, D. K.; Kang, M. J.; Jang, B. W.

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of the study are to development of an urban atmospheric dispersion model and data assimilation technique for improving the reliability, to develop the technology for assessing the radiation impact to biota and the surface water transport model, to develop the analytical techniques for the indicator radionuclides on decommissioning of nuclear facilities and nuclear waste disposal sites and to assess of the national environmental radiation impact and establish the optimum management bases of natural radiation. The obtained results might be used; for assessing the radiological effects due to and radiological incident in an urban area, for assessing radiation doses on biota for the environmental protection from ionizing radiation with the application of new concept of the ICP new recommendation, for analyzing the indicator radionuclides on decommissioning of nuclear facilities and nuclear waste disposal sites, and for providing the natural radionuclide database of Korea to international organizations such as UNSCEAR. It can be used for emphasizing relative nuclear safety

  5. Technology of environmental pollution control, 2nd edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, E.I.

    1991-01-01

    The final decade of the 20th century is truly the environmental decade of the century because of the gravity of environmental challenges we are facing. This book covers the environmental spectrum in an attempt to update the reader on new technologies and topics regarding pollution control. Engineers, scientists, plant operators, and students studying the subject of pollution control will use the comprehensive text as a reference for technological advances, regulations, and pollution control. The major disasters witnessed in the last few years, such as the Bhopal gas tragedy, the Chernobyl nuclear disaster, the Exxon Valdez oil spill and the Ashland of tank collapse are described in detail

  6. Sixth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    A conference was held on coal preparation, utilization and environmental control. Topics included: combustion of fuel slurries; combustor performance; desulfurization chemically and by biodegradation; coal cleaning; pollution control of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides; particulate control; and flue gas desulfurization. Individual projects are processed separately for the databases. (CBS).

  7. Environmental control of branching in petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Revel S M; Janssen, Bart J; Luo, Zhiwei; Oplaat, Carla; Ledger, Susan E; Wohlers, Mark W; Snowden, Kimberley C

    2015-06-01

    Plants alter their development in response to changes in their environment. This responsiveness has proven to be a successful evolutionary trait. Here, we tested the hypothesis that two key environmental factors, light and nutrition, are integrated within the axillary bud to promote or suppress the growth of the bud into a branch. Using petunia (Petunia hybrida) as a model for vegetative branching, we manipulated both light quality (as crowding and the red-to-far-red light ratio) and phosphate availability, such that the axillary bud at node 7 varied from deeply dormant to rapidly growing. In conjunction with the phenotypic characterization, we also monitored the state of the strigolactone (SL) pathway by quantifying SL-related gene transcripts. Mutants in the SL pathway inhibit but do not abolish the branching response to these environmental signals, and neither signal is dominant over the other, suggesting that the regulation of branching in response to the environment is complex. We have isolated three new putatively SL-related TCP (for Teosinte branched1, Cycloidia, and Proliferating cell factor) genes from petunia, and have identified that these TCP-type transcription factors may have roles in the SL signaling pathway both before and after the reception of the SL signal at the bud. We show that the abundance of the receptor transcript is regulated by light quality, such that axillary buds growing in added far-red light have greatly increased receptor transcript abundance. This suggests a mechanism whereby the impact of any SL signal reaching an axillary bud is modulated by the responsiveness of these cells to the signal. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Environmental Licensing: an Instrument of Command and Control by Exception?

    OpenAIRE

    Sleman Chams, Juliette; Gestión Ambiental de la Corporación Autónoma Regional del Atlántico-CRA, autoridad ambiental del Departamento del Atlántico,; Velásquez Muñoz, Carlos Javier; Universidad del Norte (Barranquilla)

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the situation of the most important instrument of command and control existing in the Colombian environmental legislation: the environmental license. Since its first formal regulation, on behalf of Decree 1753 of August 3, 1994, has received several modifications which, apparently, have made, in spite of its importance, in an instrument of command and control by exception. The article revises on the scope of each of the modifications and the justifications put forward by...

  9. Environmental Control System Software & Hardware Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Daniel Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    ECS hardware: (1) Provides controlled purge to SLS Rocket and Orion spacecraft. (2) Provide mission-focused engineering products and services. ECS software: (1) NASA requires Compact Unique Identifiers (CUIs); fixed-length identifier used to identify information items. (2) CUI structure; composed of nine semantic fields that aid the user in recognizing its purpose.

  10. Environmental radioactive contamination and its control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhongqi; Qu Jingyuan; Cui Yongli

    1998-01-01

    The environmental radioactive releases and exposure to human being due to operation of nuclear power plants in the world and in China, environmental contamination and consequences caused by severe nuclear power plant accidents in the history, control of the radioactive contamination in China, and some nuclear laws on the radioactive contamination control established by international organizations and USA etc. are described according to literature investigation and research. Some problems and comments in radioactive contamination control for nuclear power plants in China are presented. Therefore, perfecting laws and regulations and enhancing surveillances on the contamination control are recommended

  11. The rapidly evolving centromere-specific histone has stringent functional requirements in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Maruthachalam; Kwong, Pak N; Menorca, Ron M G; Valencia, Joel T; Ramahi, Joseph S; Stewart, Jodi L; Tran, Robert K; Sundaresan, Venkatesan; Comai, Luca; Chan, Simon W-L

    2010-10-01

    Centromeres control chromosome inheritance in eukaryotes, yet their DNA structure and primary sequence are hypervariable. Most animals and plants have megabases of tandem repeats at their centromeres, unlike yeast with unique centromere sequences. Centromere function requires the centromere-specific histone CENH3 (CENP-A in human), which replaces histone H3 in centromeric nucleosomes. CENH3 evolves rapidly, particularly in its N-terminal tail domain. A portion of the CENH3 histone-fold domain, the CENP-A targeting domain (CATD), has been previously shown to confer kinetochore localization and centromere function when swapped into human H3. Furthermore, CENP-A in human cells can be functionally replaced by CENH3 from distantly related organisms including Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have used cenh3-1 (a null mutant in Arabidopsis thaliana) to replace endogenous CENH3 with GFP-tagged variants. A H3.3 tail domain-CENH3 histone-fold domain chimera rescued viability of cenh3-1, but CENH3's lacking a tail domain were nonfunctional. In contrast to human results, H3 containing the A. thaliana CATD cannot complement cenh3-1. GFP-CENH3 from the sister species A. arenosa functionally replaces A. thaliana CENH3. GFP-CENH3 from the close relative Brassica rapa was targeted to centromeres, but did not complement cenh3-1, indicating that kinetochore localization and centromere function can be uncoupled. We conclude that CENH3 function in A. thaliana, an organism with large tandem repeat centromeres, has stringent requirements for functional complementation in mitosis.

  12. Structural characterization of the stringent response related exopolyphosphatase/guanosine pentaphosphate phosphohydrolase protein family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ole; Laurberg, Martin; Liljas, Anders

    2004-01-01

    Exopolyphosphatase/guanosine pentaphosphate phosphohydrolase (PPX/GPPA) enzymes play central roles in the bacterial stringent response induced by starvation. The high-resolution crystal structure of the putative Aquifex aeolicus PPX/GPPA phosphatase from the actin-like ATPase domain superfamily has...

  13. Environmental control technology in petroleum drilling and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojtanowicz, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental control technology (ECT) is process integrated and relates mainly to pollution prevention and risk assessment. Mechanisms of environmental impact in petroleum drilling, well completion and production, include the generation of waste, induction of toxicity or the creation of pathways for pollutant migration. The identification and evaluation of these mechanisms constitute two parts of the scope of ECT. A third part is the development of new techniques to comply with environmental requirements without prejudicing productivity. The basic concepts of the ECT approach are presented in this chapter. The approach is then used to analyse oilfield drilling and production processes. Environmental control components developed in these technologies are described. These include: the control of the volume and toxicity of drilling fluids; source separation technology in produced water cleaning; subsurface injection of oilfield waste slurries; containment technology in the integrity of petroleum wells; subsurface reduction of produced water; oilfield pit closure technology. (37 figures; 26 tables; 227 references) (UK)

  14. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control. E-mail newsletter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion the following: Air Pollution and Control; Noise Pollution and Control; Solid Wastes Pollution and Control; Water Pollution and Control; Pesticides Pollution and Control; Radiation Pollution and Control; Environmental Health and Safety; Environmental Impact Statements.

  15. Environmentally Safe Control of Zebra Mussel Fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Molloy

    2008-02-29

    The two primary objectives of this USDOE-NETL contract were successfully achieved during the project: (1) to accelerate research on the development of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A (Pf-CL145A) as a biocontrol agent for zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis)--two invasive freshwater bivalve species that are infesting water pipes in power plants; and (2) to identify a private-sector company that would move forward to commercialize Pf-CL145A as a substitute for the current polluting use of biocide chemicals for control of these dreissenid mussels in power plant pipes.

  16. Controlled Environmental Agriculture and Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Chris [Morrisville State College, NY (United States)

    2012-07-27

    Task A: Heating Plant - To design/build a Heating Plant Building with associated heating components for heating the greenhouse and to house the biomass gasification system. The subtasks for this task was and Engineering Design, Procurement and Construction activities. Overall milestones for this task were one construction permit, a code review and stamped drawings, engineered building vendor supplied sealed drawings, and the actual erection of a 1250 sq.ft. building. Task B: Heating System - The activities for this task included the procurement of the heating boilers and all ancillary components. This also included the installation of all heating system components in the new building plus the existing greenhouse structure. The milestone for this task was for the ability to heat 2500 gallons of water to 80 degrees F. Task C: Organic Matter Automated Hopper - The activities involved in this task involved design/fabrication of an automated hopper to feed the biomass gasification system. We need to procure materials and the automated motion components, have the system installed and factory acceptance test of the system. The milestone is to be able to feed wood chips at a rate of 20 Kg/Hr. Task D: Imbert Gasification System - The activities involved in this include the design/build of the gasifier with all accompany ductwork, cyclones and feeding system. Also there is a modification to the scrubber assembly with an automated ash removal system. Lastly a modification to the exhaust/flair system is made to capture heat from this component. Milestone for this task was to be able to produce 15 CFM of SynGas. Task E: Generator Powered by SynGas - Procure two 20kW 4 pole generator heads for installation on the gasifier system. Modification of the fuel plenum manifold with adjustment to the fuel curves for maximum power and load points. Milestone for this task is the ability to run two fuels, either SynGas or propane. This continues with the following tasks: Controls Heating

  17. A study on environmental pollution control in energy field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B.M.; Son, J.E.; Lee, H.K.; Choi, W.K.; Baek, I.H.; Lee, J.S. [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    This report is contained such as following contents; Preparation of the stepwise pollution control strategies to reduce pollutants in energy field, which will be satisfy to tightened emission standard in the future. Analysis of the environmental pollution control technologies level, which related to energy field in domestic and other countries. Visualization of the reduction strategies of domestic carbon dioxide emission in energy field. And, discussion and proposal of the R and D program to improve the domestic environmental pollution control technologies in energy field. (author). 99 refs., 67 figs., 73 tabs.

  18. Environmental control procedures at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, E.B.

    1975-01-01

    New environmental control activities in the past year at SRP have included improved control and reporting procedures for chemical spills, reclamation of high-value scrap from wastes, new disposal methods for solid wastes not suitable for the sanitary landfill, improved oil containment, and reduction of sediment discharges to on-plant streams. Interdepartmental committees provide the primary routes for planning and coordinating environmental protection throughout SRP. An improved site-use coordination procedure, developed and implemented by ERDA-SR, has provided more effective control and communication pertaining to activities of the several organizations actively using the 300-square-mile SRP site. (auth)

  19. Controlled Vocabulary Service Application for Environmental Data Store

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, P.; Piasecki, M.; Lovell, R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present a controlled vocabulary service application for Environmental Data Store (EDS). The purpose for such application is to help researchers and investigators to archive, manage, share, search, and retrieve data efficiently in EDS. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is used in the application for the representation of the controlled vocabularies coming from EDS. The controlled vocabularies of EDS are created by collecting, comparing, choosing and merging controlled vocabularies, taxonomies and ontologies widely used and recognized in geoscience/environmental informatics community, such as Environment ontology (EnvO), Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontology, CUAHSI Hydrologic Ontology and ODM Controlled Vocabulary, National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI), National Water Information System (NWIS) codes, EPSG Geodetic Parameter Data Set, WQX domain value etc. TemaTres, an open-source, web -based thesaurus management package is employed and extended to create and manage controlled vocabularies of EDS in the application. TemaTresView and VisualVocabulary that work well with TemaTres, are also integrated in the application to provide tree view and graphical view of the structure of vocabularies. The Open Source Edition of Virtuoso Universal Server is set up to provide a Web interface to make SPARQL queries against controlled vocabularies hosted on the Environmental Data Store. The replicas of some of the key vocabularies commonly used in the community, are also maintained as part of the application, such as General Multilingual Environmental Thesaurus (GEMET), NetCDF Climate and Forecast (CF) Standard Names, etc.. The application has now been deployed as an elementary and experimental prototype that provides management, search and download controlled vocabularies of EDS under SKOS framework.

  20. Potassium permanganate for mercury vapor environmental control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuivinen, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) was evaluated for application in removing mercury vapor from exhaust air systems. The KMnO4 may be used in water solution with a liquid spray scrubber system or as a solid adsorber bed material when impregnated onto a zeolite. Air samples contaminated with as much as 112 mg/cu m of mercury were scrubbed to 0.06mg/cum with the KMnO4-impregnated zeolite (molecular sieve material). The water spray solution of permanganate was also found to be as effective as the impregnated zeolite. The KMnO4-impregnated zeolite was applied as a solid adsorber material to (1) a hardware decontamination system, (2) a model incinerator, and (3) a high vacuum chamber for ion engine testing with mercury as the propellant. A liquid scrubber system was also applied in an incinerator system. Based on the results of these experiments, it is concluded that the use of KMnO4 can be an effective method for controlling noxious mercury vapor.

  1. Greenhouse Environmental Control Using Optimized MIMO PID Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateh BOUNAAMA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate control for protected crops brings the added dimension of a biological system into a physical system control situation. The thermally dynamic nature of a greenhouse suggests that disturbance attenuation (load control of external temperature, humidity, and sunlight is far more important than is the case for controlling other types of buildings. This paper investigates the application of multi-inputs multi-outputs (MIMO PID controller to a MIMO greenhouse environmental model with actuation constraints. This method is based on decoupling the system at low frequency point. The optimal tuning values are determined using genetic algorithms optimization (GA. The inside outsides climate model of the environmental greenhouse, and the automatically collected data sets of Avignon, France are used to simulate and test this technique. The control objective is to maintain a highly coupled inside air temperature and relative humidity of strongly perturbed greenhouse, at specified set-points, by the ventilation/cooling and moisturizing operations.

  2. Recent developments in environmental protection in India: Pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govind, H [NOIDA, Disst, Ghaziabad, Pin (IN)

    1989-01-01

    In India, pollution and environmental degradation have reached alarming dimensions due to poverty, deforestation, industrial development without adequate environmental safeguards, and sheer greed. Fortunately, public concern, rooted in the country's past, has revived. Major pollutants and critically affected areas have been identified. Pollution control of water, air and land has been established by both official and private organizations and the work on environmental protection is steadily growing. The Ganga purification plan is a representative case study. Poverty alleviation is a long-term process. It is India's major problem and is being tackled with help from private enterprise and by international assistance. Simultaneously environmental protection through pollution control is also receiving administrative and legislative support and fiscal assistance through direct and indirect tax incentives. The country's courts are rendering valuable help to environmentalists by pronouncing far-reaching decisions in public-interest litigation. To boost the existing environment-protection movement, greater emphasis is urgently needed for environmental education, peoples' participation, population control, and cost-effective pollution control measures.

  3. Insulated hsp70B' promoter: stringent heat-inducible activity in replication-deficient, but not replication-competent adenoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohmer, Stanimira; Mainka, Astrid; Knippertz, Ilka; Hesse, Andrea; Nettelbeck, Dirk M

    2008-04-01

    Key to the realization of gene therapy is the development of efficient and targeted gene transfer vectors. Therapeutic gene transfer by replication-deficient or more recently by conditionally replication-competent/oncolytic adenoviruses has shown much promise. For specific applications, however, it will be advantageous to provide vectors that allow for external control of gene expression. The efficient cellular heat shock system in combination with available technology for focused and controlled hyperthermia suggests heat-regulated transcription control as a promising tool for this purpose. We investigated the feasibility of a short fragment of the human hsp70B' promoter, with and without upstream insulator elements, for the regulation of transgene expression by replication-deficient or oncolytic adenoviruses. Two novel adenoviral vectors with an insulated hsp70B' promoter were developed and showed stringent heat-inducible gene expression with induction ratios up to 8000-fold. In contrast, regulation of gene expression from the hsp70B' promoter without insulation was suboptimal. In replication-competent/oncolytic adenoviruses regulation of the hsp70B' promoter was lost specifically during late replication in permissive cells and could not be restored by the insulators. We developed novel adenovirus gene transfer vectors that feature improved and stringent regulation of transgene expression from the hsp70B' promoter using promoter insulation. These vectors have potential for gene therapy applications that benefit from external modulation of therapeutic gene expression or for combination therapy with hyperthermia. Furthermore, our study reveals that vector replication can deregulate inserted cellular promoters, an observation which is of relevance for the development of replication-competent/oncolytic gene transfer vectors. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Environmental Control for Regional Library Facilities. RR-80-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Richard G., Jr.

    This report presents an overview of the damage to library materials caused by uncontrollable environmental variables. The control of atmospheric pollutants, temperature, and humidity are discussed with regard to damage, standards, and the costs of deterioration due to these factors. Twelve references are listed. (FM)

  5. Environmental Control Plan for the Industrial Hygiene Field Services Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    This environmental control plan is for the Hanford Site's Industrial Hygiene Field Services Facility, located in the 100-N Area. This facility is used for the maintenance and storage of respirators, respiratory equipment and testing, calibration and testing of industrial hygiene equipment, and asbestos fiber counting

  6. Tire Production and Pollution Control. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    This unit was developed to introduce secondary students to the many facets of a typical, large manufacturing plant - the Topeka Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company - in an effort to increase awareness of sound environmental practices in industry. Its five major foci include the production of tires and quality control procedures; applications of…

  7. Environmental impacts of mining: monitoring, restoration and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, M.

    1993-01-01

    Contains 12 chapters with the following titles: mining and the environment; surface coal mining with reclamation; reclamation and revegetation of mined land; the acid mine drainage problem from coal mines; acid rock drainage and metal migration; hydrologic impact; erosion and sediment control; wetlands; blasting; mining subsidence; postmining land use; environmental effects of gold heap-leaching operations.

  8. Environmental control technology for mining, milling, and refining thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weakley, S.A.; Blahnik, D.E.; Young, J.K.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate, in terms of cost and effectiveness, the various environmental control technologies that would be used to control the radioactive wastes generated in the mining, milling, and refining of thorium from domestic resources. The technologies, in order to be considered for study, had to reduce the radioactivity in the waste streams to meet Atomic Energy Commission (10 CFR 20) standards for natural thorium's maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in air and water. Further regulatory standards or licensing requirements, either federal, state, or local, were not examined. The availability and cost of producing thorium from domestic resources is addressed in a companion volume. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the major waste streams generated during the mining, milling, and refining of reactor-grade thorium oxide from domestic resources; and (2) to determine the cost and levels of control of existing and advanced environmental control technologies for these waste streams. Six potential domestic deposits of thorium oxide, in addition to stockpiled thorium sludges, are discussed in this report. A summary of the location and characteristics of the potential domestic thorium resources and the mining, milling, and refining processes that will be needed to produce reactor-grade thorium oxide is presented in Section 2. The wastes from existing and potential domestic thorium oxide mines, mills, and refineries are identified in Section 3. Section 3 also presents the state-of-the-art technology and the costs associated with controlling the wastes from the mines, mills, and refineries. In Section 4, the available environmental control technologies for mines, mills, and refineries are assessed. Section 5 presents the cost and effectiveness estimates for the various environmental control technologies applicable to the mine, mill, and refinery for each domestic resource

  9. Orphan Toxin OrtT (YdcX) of Escherichia coli Reduces Growth during the Stringent Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-29

    antimicrobials trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole; these antimicrobials induce the stringent response by inhibiting tetrahydrofolate synthesis...in the presence of both antimicrobials trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole; these antimicrobials induce the stringent response by inhibiting...level [20]. Toxins 2015, 7 301 Despite these difficulties in determining physiological roles, TA systems are clearly phage inhibition systems

  10. Google Home: smart speaker as environmental control unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Kenichiro

    2017-08-23

    Environmental Control Units (ECU) are devices or a system that allows a person to control appliances in their home or work environment. Such system can be utilized by clients with physical and/or functional disability to enhance their ability to control their environment, to promote independence and improve their quality of life. Over the last several years, there have been an emergence of several inexpensive, commercially-available, voice activated smart speakers into the market such as Google Home and Amazon Echo. These smart speakers are equipped with far field microphone that supports voice recognition, and allows for complete hand-free operation for various purposes, including for playing music, for information retrieval, and most importantly, for environmental control. Clients with disability could utilize these features to turn the unit into a simple ECU that is completely voice activated and wirelessly connected to appliances. Smart speakers, with their ease of setup, low cost and versatility, may be a more affordable and accessible alternative to the traditional ECU. Implications for Rehabilitation Environmental Control Units (ECU) enable independence for physically and functionally disabled clients, and reduce burden and frequency of demands on carers. Traditional ECU can be costly and may require clients to learn specialized skills to use. Smart speakers have the potential to be used as a new-age ECU by overcoming these barriers, and can be used by a wider range of clients.

  11. Integrated environmental control concepts for advanced power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, E.S.; Kalagnanam, J.R.; Berkenpas, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    For both conventional and advanced power systems, the capability to estimate the performance and cost of environmental control systems is critical to a variety of planning and analysis requirements faced by utilities, regulators, researchers and analysts in the public and private sectors. This paper describes a computer model developed for the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) to provide an up-to-date capability for analyzing a variety of pre-combustion, combustion, and post-combustion options in an integrated framework. A unique feature of the model allows performance and costs of integrated environmental control concepts to be modeled probabilistically as a means of characterizing uncertainties and risks. Examples are presented of model applications comparing conventional and advanced emission control designs. 13 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  12. ON THE OPTIMAL CONTROL OF A PROBLEM OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Dávalos Chuquipoma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is studied the optimal control of distributed parameter systems applied to an environmental pollution problem. The model consists of a differential equation partial parabolic modeling of a pollutant transport in a fluid. The model is considered the speed with which the pollutant spreads in the environment and degradation that suffers the contaminant by the presence of a factor biological inhibitor, which breaks the contaminant at a rate that is not dependent on space and time. Using the method of Lagrange multipliers is possible to prove the existence solving the problem of control and obtaining optimality conditions for optimal control.

  13. Stringent or nonstringent complete remission and prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øvlisen, Andreas K; Oest, Anders; Bendtsen, Mette D

    2018-01-01

    Stringent complete remission (sCR) of acute myeloid leukemia is defined as normal hematopoiesis after therapy. Less sCR, including non-sCR, was introduced as insufficient blood platelet, neutrophil, or erythrocyte recovery. These latter characteristics were defined retrospectively as postremission...... transfusion dependency and were suggested to be of prognostic value. In the present report, we evaluated the prognostic impact of achieving sCR and non-sCR in the Danish National Acute Leukaemia Registry, including 769 patients registered with classical CR (ie,

  14. Climate chamber for environmentally controlled laboratory airflow experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even-Tzur, Nurit; Zaretsky, Uri; Grinberg, Orly; Davidovich, Tomer; Kloog, Yoel; Wolf, Michael; Elad, David

    2010-01-01

    Climate chambers have been widely used in in vitro and in vivo studies which require controlled environmental temperature and humidity conditions. This article describes a new desktop climate chamber that was developed for application of respiratory airflows on cultured nasal epithelial cells (NEC) under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. Flow experiments were performed by connecting the climate chamber to an airflow generator via a flow chamber with cultured NEC. Experiments at two controlled climate conditions, 25 degrees C and 40% relative humidity (RH) and 37 degrees C and 80%RH, were conducted to study mucin secretion from the cultures inresponse to the flow. The new climate chamber is a relatively simple and inexpensive apparatus which can easily be connected to any flow system for climate controlled flow experiments. This chamber can be easily adjusted to various in vitro experiments, as well as to clinical studies with animals or human subjects which require controlled climate conditions.

  15. Environmental management: a re-emerging vector control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, S K

    1994-01-01

    Vector control may be accomplished by environmental management (EM), which consists of permanent or long-term modification of the environment, temporary or seasonal manipulation of the environment, and modifying or changing our life styles and practices to reduce human contact with infective vectors. The primary focus of this paper is EM in the control of human malaria, filariasis, arboviruses, Chagas' disease, and schistosomiasis. Modern EM developed as a discipline based primarily in ecologic principles and lessons learned from the adverse environmental impacts of rural development projects. Strategies such as the suppression of vector populations through the provision of safe water supplies, proper sanitation, solid waste management facilities, sewerage and excreta disposal systems, water manipulation in dams and irrigation systems, vector diversion by zooprophylaxis, and vector exclusion by improved housing, are discussed with appropriate examples. Vectors of malaria, filariasis, Chagas' disease, and schistosomiasis have been controlled by drainage or filling aquatic breeding sites, improved housing and sanitation, the use of expanded polystyrene beads, zooprophylaxis, or the provision of household water supplies. Community participation has been effective in the suppression of dengue vectors in Mexico and the Dominican Republic. Alone or combined with other vector control methods, EM has been proven to be a successful approach to vector control in a number of places. The future of EM in vector control looks promising.

  16. Anions environmental monitoring control at CNEN-IPEN/SP-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, Sabrina M.; Marques, Joyce R.; Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F., E-mail: lrmonteiro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Nuclear and Energy Research Institute IPEN-CNEN/SP, to comply with guidelines and basic procedures to be observed by its installation regarding environmental control actions, related with conventional effluent release started in 2007 the Environmental Monitoring Program for stable chemical compounds (PMA-Q). This program includes, besides others parameters, ionic species such as Fluoride, Chloride, Nitrite-N, Nitrate-N and Sulfate, measured by Ion Chromatography. Among these compounds, Fluoride and Chloride are regulated in effluent discharges by CONAMA's Resolution 430/2011 and the Sao Paulo State Decree 8468/76. Fluoride, Chloride, Nitrite-N, Nitrate-N in groundwater are regulated by CONAMA's Resolution 396/2008. Considering the legal requirements, every year this program is revised and improvement actions are planned and implemented. The present paper will discuss these improvements to determine the individual performance of the laboratory related to those tests performed by ion chromatography. The adequacy actions performed were the construction of control charts (internal quality control) and the interlaboratory proficiency tests regular participation (external quality control). With these quality control actions it was possible to monitor continuously the laboratory performance, to identify and resolve analytical problems and also interlaboratory differences, to add value to the essay quality control and to provide additional confidence to the institutional program PMA-Q. The recent change in legislation by CONAMA Resolution 430/2011 and the requirements of Resolution CONAMA 396/2008 improvement requirements are also discussed in this work. (author)

  17. Anions environmental monitoring control at CNEN-IPEN/SP-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, Sabrina M.; Marques, Joyce R.; Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F.

    2013-01-01

    The Nuclear and Energy Research Institute IPEN-CNEN/SP, to comply with guidelines and basic procedures to be observed by its installation regarding environmental control actions, related with conventional effluent release started in 2007 the Environmental Monitoring Program for stable chemical compounds (PMA-Q). This program includes, besides others parameters, ionic species such as Fluoride, Chloride, Nitrite-N, Nitrate-N and Sulfate, measured by Ion Chromatography. Among these compounds, Fluoride and Chloride are regulated in effluent discharges by CONAMA's Resolution 430/2011 and the Sao Paulo State Decree 8468/76. Fluoride, Chloride, Nitrite-N, Nitrate-N in groundwater are regulated by CONAMA's Resolution 396/2008. Considering the legal requirements, every year this program is revised and improvement actions are planned and implemented. The present paper will discuss these improvements to determine the individual performance of the laboratory related to those tests performed by ion chromatography. The adequacy actions performed were the construction of control charts (internal quality control) and the interlaboratory proficiency tests regular participation (external quality control). With these quality control actions it was possible to monitor continuously the laboratory performance, to identify and resolve analytical problems and also interlaboratory differences, to add value to the essay quality control and to provide additional confidence to the institutional program PMA-Q. The recent change in legislation by CONAMA Resolution 430/2011 and the requirements of Resolution CONAMA 396/2008 improvement requirements are also discussed in this work. (author)

  18. Tularemia Outbreak Investigation in Kosovo: Case Control and Environmental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedushaj, Isuf; Gjini, Ardiana; Jorgensen, Tine Rikke; Cotter, Benvon; Lieftucht, Alfons; D’Ancona, Fortunato; Dennis, David T.; Kosoy, Michael A.; Mulliqi-Osmani, Gjyle; Grunow, Roland; Kalaveshi, Ariana; Gashi, Luljeta; Humolli, Isme

    2002-01-01

    A large outbreak of tularemia occurred in Kosovo in the early postwar period, 1999-2000. Epidemiologic and environmental investigations were conducted to identify sources of infection, modes of transmission, and household risk factors. Case and control status was verified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, and microagglutination assay. A total of 327 serologically confirmed cases of tularemia pharyngitis and cervical lymphadenitis were identified in 21 of 29 Kosovo municipalities. Matched analysis of 46 case households and 76 control households suggested that infection was transmitted through contaminated food or water and that the source of infection was rodents. Environmental circumstances in war-torn Kosovo led to epizootic rodent tularemia and its spread to resettled rural populations living under circumstances of substandard housing, hygiene, and sanitation. PMID:11749751

  19. Soil bioengineering applied to the environmental rehabilitation of controlled landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luria, P.

    2005-01-01

    Soil bioengineering is a discipline characterised by the capability of associating geo-technical approaches (e.g. soil stabilisation) with naturalistic rehabilitation and creation of biotopes. It is extremely suitable for the environmental rehabilitation of controlled landfills, especially of area and depression landfills, mainly through soil protection and stabilisation measures. Its increasing notoriety is mainly due to the great variety and specificity of its techniques, to the capability of joining technical matters with naturalistic aspects, and to the reduced cost of some interventions. Nevertheless, its application to environmental rehabilitation of controlled landfills is still scarce in Italy. Only 3% of 87 closed landfills analysed, whose rehabilitation projects adopt natural techniques for soil stabilisation and protection, explicitly refers to Soil Bioengineering [it

  20. Augmenting the Genetic Toolbox for Sulfolobus islandicus with a Stringent Positive Selectable Marker for Agmatine Prototrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Tara E.; Krause, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfolobus species have become the model organisms for studying the unique biology of the crenarchaeal division of the archaeal domain. In particular, Sulfolobus islandicus provides a powerful opportunity to explore natural variation via experimental functional genomics. To support these efforts, we further expanded genetic tools for S. islandicus by developing a stringent positive selection for agmatine prototrophs in strains in which the argD gene, encoding arginine decarboxylase, has been deleted. Strains with deletions in argD were shown to be auxotrophic for agmatine even in nutrient-rich medium, but growth could be restored by either supplementation of exogenous agmatine or reintroduction of a functional copy of the argD gene from S. solfataricus P2 into the ΔargD host. Using this stringent selection, a robust targeted gene knockout system was established via an improved next generation of the MID (marker insertion and unmarked target gene deletion) method. Application of this novel system was validated by targeted knockout of the upsEF genes involved in UV-inducible cell aggregation formation. PMID:23835176

  1. Ten Year Study of the Stringently Defined Otitis Prone Child in Rochester, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichichero, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes a prospective, longitudinal 10-year study in Rochester NY with virtually every clinically diagnosed acute otitis media (AOM) confirmed by bacterial culture of middle ear fluid. Children experiencing 3 episodes within 6 months or 4 episodes in 12 months were considered stringently-defined otitis prone (sOP). We found stringent diagnosis compared with clinical diagnosis reduced the frequency of children meeting the OP definition from 27% to 6% resulting in 14.8% and 2.4% receiving tympanostomy tubes, respectively. Significantly more often RSV infection led to AOM in sOP than non-otitis prone (NOP) children that correlated with diminished total RSV-specific serum IgG. sOP children produced low levels of antibody to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae candidate vaccine protein antigens and to routine pediatric vaccines. sOP children generated significantly fewer memory B cells, functional and memory T cells to otopathogens following NP colonization and AOM than NOP children and they had defects in antigen presenting cells. PMID:27273691

  2. Significance of technical rules for environmental pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grefen, K.

    1989-01-01

    Technical rules for environmental pollution control are very important in times of intensified technical progress and especially in view of the alterations of the legislative basis of the European Market in 1992. In the fields of jurisprudence, science and technology they serve as a decision-making aid for authorities, specialists in plant development and operation and the preparatory stages of international legislation. The topic is explained by the development of guidelines with the VDI-Commission on Air Pollution Prevention. (orig.) [de

  3. Project Orion, Environmental Control and Life Support System Integrated Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James F.; Lewis, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Orion is the next vehicle for human space travel. Humans will be sustained in space by the Orion subystem, environmental control and life support (ECLS). The ECLS concept at the subsystem level is outlined by function and technology. In the past two years, the interface definition with other subsystems has increased through different integrated studies. The paper presents the key requirements and discusses three recent studies (e.g., unpressurized cargo) along with the respective impacts on the ECLS design moving forward.

  4. Electric and hybrid vehicles environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in the passenger compartment of electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. Various methods of obtaining the desired temperature control for the battery pack is also studied. The functional requirements of ECS equipment is defined. Following categorization by methodology, technology availability and risk, all viable ECS concepts are evaluated. Each is assessed independently for benefits versus risk, as well as for its feasibility to short, intermediate and long term product development. Selection of the preferred concept is made against these requirements, as well as the study's major goal of providing safe, highly efficient and thermally confortable ECS equipment.

  5. Quality-control activities of the Hanford Environmental Surveillance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.R.; Jaquish, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive approach to quality control (QC) has been developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Hanford Environmental Surveillance Program. The framework of quality control for the surveillance program has been documented in a QC implementation guide wherein QC requirements are specified and specific responsibilities and authorities are described. Subjects in the guide include the collection, analysis, and reporting of samples as well as equipment calibration and maintenance, training, audits, and record keeping. A QC file and library have been established to store pertinent documentation, records, and references for ready access

  6. Angra nuclear plant - environmental control program; Usina Nuclear de Angra: programa de controle ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kircher, E; Cruz, E.S. da [FURNAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1990-12-31

    The pre-operational studies, that were elaborated before the beginning of Angra I Power Plant operation, are described in particular the environmental radiological safety area till the fuel loading in the core reactor. Several aspects are included, as socio-economic survey, seismological analysis, Meteorological Program, marine biology, water cooling system, exposure measures of natural radiation, marine sediments characterization in the effluent dispersion area and Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program. The main environmental programs developed for the operational phase of the Angra I Plant are also presented, citing some considerations about the Meteorological Program, Marine Biology Control Program, Temperature and Chlorine Control in Piraquara de Fora Bay, Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program, Sanitary Effluent Control Program and Radiological Emergency Program. (C.G.C.). 2 refs.

  7. System Identification, Environmental Modelling, and Control System Design

    CERN Document Server

    Garnier, Hugues

    2012-01-01

    System Identification, Environmetric Modelling, and Control Systems Design is dedicated to Professor Peter Young on the occasion of his seventieth birthday. Professor Young has been a pioneer in systems and control, and over the past 45 years he has influenced many developments in this field. This volume is comprised of a collection of contributions by leading experts in system identification, time-series analysis, environmetric modelling and control system design – modern research in topics that reflect important areas of interest in Professor Young’s research career. Recent theoretical developments in and relevant applications of these areas are explored treating the various subjects broadly and in depth. The authoritative and up-to-date research presented here will be of interest to academic researcher in control and disciplines related to environmental research, particularly those to with water systems. The tutorial style in which many of the contributions are composed also makes the book suitable as ...

  8. Bidding for blocks and environmental control; Licitacao de blocos e o controle ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostinho, Magila Maria [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito; Silveira Neto, Otacilio dos Santos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP em Direito do Petroleo e Gas Natural, PRH-36

    2004-07-01

    With the coming of the Constitutional Emend n. 9/95, the Brazilian market of oil and natural gas stopped being monopolized by PETROBRAS. Since then, the concession of blocks began to be preceded by the public tender procedure realized by ANP- National Agency of Oil. The activities of oil exploration and production are potentially damaging to environment, what brings necessary the environmental licence and the previous study of the environmental impacts caused in this activity. Considering that the environmental licence must be done after the tender process, the enterprises that bought the blocks would assume the risk of not being allowed to practice their activities because of the absence of the environmental licence. To avoid that the It's offered blocks in not viable areas for oil exploration, the ANP, responsible for the public tender must accomplish a previous environmental control, to assure to the enterprises involved the environmental viability of the blocks offered. This project will touch the question of how has been realized the previous environmental control of the blocks offered by ANP into the public tender process, detaching, the control done at the 6. Round. (author)

  9. Whole-Genome Microarray and Gene Deletion Studies Reveal Regulation of the Polyhydroxyalkanoate Production Cycle by the Stringent Response in Ralstonia eutropha H16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigham, CJ; Speth, DR; Rha, C; Sinskey, AJ

    2012-10-22

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) production and mobilization in Ralstonia eutropha are well studied, but in only a few instances has PHB production been explored in relation to other cellular processes. We examined the global gene expression of wild-type R. eutropha throughout the PHB cycle: growth on fructose, PHB production using fructose following ammonium depletion, and PHB utilization in the absence of exogenous carbon after ammonium was resupplied. Our results confirm or lend support to previously reported results regarding the expression of PHB-related genes and enzymes. Additionally, genes for many different cellular processes, such as DNA replication, cell division, and translation, are selectively repressed during PHB production. In contrast, the expression levels of genes under the control of the alternative sigma factor sigma(54) increase sharply during PHB production and are repressed again during PHB utilization. Global gene regulation during PHB production is strongly reminiscent of the gene expression pattern observed during the stringent response in other species. Furthermore, a ppGpp synthase deletion mutant did not show an accumulation of PHB, and the chemical induction of the stringent response with DL-norvaline caused an increased accumulation of PHB in the presence of ammonium. These results indicate that the stringent response is required for PHB accumulation in R. eutropha, helping to elucidate a thus-far-unknown physiological basis for this process.

  10. Environmental controls on micro fracture processes in shelf ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammonds, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The recent retreat and collapse of the ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula has been associated with regional atmospheric warming, oceanic warming, increased summer melt and shelf flexure. Although the cause of collapse is a matter of active discussion, the process is that of fracture of a creep-brittle material, close to its melting point. The environmental controls on how fracturing initiates, at a micro-scale, strongly determine the macroscopic disintegration of ice shelves. In particular the shelf temperature profile controls the plasticity of the ice shelf; the densification of shelf ice due to melting and re-freezing affects the crack tip stress intensity; the accretion of marine ice at the bottom of the shelf imposes a thermal/mechanical discontinuity; saline environments control crack tip stress corrosion; cyclic loading promotes sub-critical crack propagation. These strong environmental controls on shelf ice fracture means that assessing shelf stability is a non-deterministic problem. How these factors may be parameterized in ice shelf models, through the use of fracture mechanisms maps, is discussed. The findings are discussed in relation to the stability of Larsen C.

  11. Human strongyloidiasis: identifying knowledge gaps, with emphasis on environmental control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor MJ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Taylor, Tara A Garrard, Francis J O'Donahoo, Kirstin E Ross Health and Environment, School of the Environment, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: Strongyloides is a human parasitic nematode that is poorly understood outside a clinical context. This article identifies gaps within the literature, with particular emphasis on gaps that are hindering environmental control of Strongyloides. The prevalence and distribution of Strongyloides is unclear. An estimate of 100–370 million people infected worldwide has been proposed; however, inaccuracy of diagnosis, unreliability of prevalence mapping, and the fact that strongyloidiasis remains a neglected disease suggest that the higher figure of more than 300 million cases is likely to be a more accurate estimate. The complexity of Strongyloides life cycle means that laboratory cultures cannot be maintained outside of a host. This currently limits the range of laboratory-based research, which is vital to controlling Strongyloides through environmental alteration or treatment. Successful clinical treatment with antihelminthic drugs has meant that controlling Strongyloides through environmental control, rather than clinical intervention, has been largely overlooked. These control measures may encompass alteration of the soil environment through physical means, such as desiccation or removal of nutrients, or through chemical or biological agents. Repeated antihelminthic treatment of individuals with recurrent strongyloidiasis has not been observed to result in the selection of resistant strains; however, this has not been explicitly demonstrated, and relying on such assumptions in the long-term may prove to be shortsighted. It is ultimately naive to assume that continued administration of antihelminthics will be without any negative long-term effects. In Australia, strongyloidiasis primarily affects Indigenous communities, including communities from arid central Australia. This

  12. Tuberculosis Infection Control in Health-Care Facilities: Environmental Control and Personal Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Yeon

    2016-10-01

    Transmission of tuberculosis (TB) is a recognized risk to patients and healthcare workers in healthcare settings. The literature review suggests that implementation of combination control measures reduces the risk of TB transmission. Guidelines suggest a three-level hierarchy of controls including administrative, environmental, and respiratory protection. Among environmental controls, installation of ventilation systems is a priority because ventilation reduces the number of infectious particles in the air. Natural ventilation is cost-effective but depends on climatic conditions. Supplemented intervention such as air-cleaning methods including high efficiency particulate air filtration and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation should be considered in areas where adequate ventilation is difficult to achieve. Personal protective equipment including particulate respirators provides additional benefit when administrative and environmental controls cannot assure protection.

  13. Stringent limits on the ionized mass loss from A and F dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.; Veale, A.; Judge, P.; Bookbinder, J.A.; Hubeny, I.

    1990-01-01

    Following the suggestion of Willson et al. (1987) that A- and F-type main-sequence stars might undergo significant mass loss due to pulsationally driven winds, upper limits to the ionized mass loss from A and F dwarfs have been obtained using VLA observations. These stringent upper limits show that the level of ionized mass loss would have at most only a small effect on stellar evolution. Radiative-equilibrium atmospheric and wind models for early A dwarfs indicate that it is highly likely that a wind flowing from such stars would be significantly ionized. In addition, late A and early F dwarfs exhibit chromospheric emission indicative of significant nonradiative heating. The present mass-loss limits are thus representative of the total mass-loss rates for these stars. It is concluded that A and F dwarfs are not losing sufficient mass to cause A dwarfs to evolve into G dwarfs. 24 refs

  14. Energy technology characterizations handbook: environmental pollution and control factors. Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    This Handbook deals with environmental characterization information for a range of energy-supply systems and provides supplementary information on environmental controls applicable to a select group of environmentally characterized energy systems. Environmental residuals, physical-resource requirements, and discussion of applicable standards are the principal information provided. The quantitative and qualitative data provided are useful for evaluating alternative policy and technical strategies and for assessing the environmental impact of facility siting, energy production, and environmental controls.

  15. Energy technology characterizations handbook: environmental pollution and control factors. Third edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    This Handbook deals with environmental characterization information for a range of energy-supply systems and provides supplementary information on environmental controls applicable to a select group of environmentally characterized energy systems. Environmental residuals, physical-resource requirements, and discussion of applicable standards are the principal information provided. The quantitative and qualitative data provided are useful for evaluating alternative policy and technical strategies and for assessing the environmental impact of facility siting, energy production, and environmental controls

  16. Quality control activities in the environmental radiology laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llaurado, M.; Quesada, D.; Rauret, G.; Tent, J.; Zapata, D.

    2006-01-01

    During the last twenty years many analytical laboratories have implemented quality assurance systems. A quality system implementation requires documentation of all activities (technical and management), evaluation of these activities and its continual improvement. Implementation and adequate management of all the elements a quality system includes are not enough to guarantee quality of the analytical results generated at a time. That is the aim of a group of specific activities labelled as quality control activities. The Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (Environmental Radiology Laboratory; LRA) at the University of Barcelona was created in 1984 to carry out part of the quality control assays of the Environmental Radiology Monitoring Programs around some of the Spanish nuclear power plants, which are developed by the Servei Catala d'Activitats Energetiques (SCAR) and the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN), organisations responsible for nuclear security and radiological protection. In these kind of laboratories, given the importance of the results they give, quality control activities become an essential aspect. In order to guarantee the quality of its analytical results, the LRA Direction decided to adopt the international standard UNE-EN ISO/IEC 17025 for its internal quality system and to accreditate some of the assays it carries out. In such as system, it is established, the laboratory shall monitor the validity of tests undertaken and data shall be recorded in such a way that trends are detectable. The present work shows the activities carried out in this way by the LRA, which are: Equipment control activities which in the special case of radiochemical techniques include measurement of backgrounds and blanks as well as periodical control of efficiency and resolution. Activities to assure the specifications settled by method validation, which are testing of reference materials and periodical analysis of control samples. Evaluation of the laboratory work quality

  17. Environmental insecticide residues from tsetse fly control measures in Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sserunjoji-Sebalija, J.

    1976-01-01

    Up to June 1974 areas in Uganda totalling 8600km 2 have been successfully reclaimed from tsetse fly infestation by ground spray of 3% dieldrin water emulsions. A search for equally effective but less persistent and toxic compounds against tsetse flies has been unsuccessful. Fourteen insecticide formulations have been tested for their persistence on tree bark surfaces and, therefore, their availability and toxicity to the target tsetse flies. Only those compounds with a high immediate insecticidal activity (some higher than dieldrin) like endosulfan, Chlorfenvinphos and propoxur could merit further consideration in tsetse control. While some were toxic to tsetse as fresh deposits, they lacked sufficient persistence. A study of the environmental implication from the continued use of the highly persistent and toxic dieldrin has provided useful data on residues likely to be found both in terrestrial and aquatic fauna and flora. These are generally low. Moreover, there is evidence of degradation in some fish species (Protopterus aethiopicus and Clarias). Also, dilution factors and adsorption involving the muddy nature of water run-off, etc., and controlled burning of grasses after tsetse eradication would tend to inactivate the residual insecticide and protect aquatic systems. The general findings have indicated less risk than anticipated of the environmental contamination from tsetse control by application of persistent and toxic insecticides. (author)

  18. Electric and hybrid vehicle environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. A combination of a combustion heater and gasoline engine (Otto cycle) driven vapor compression air conditioner is selected. The combustion heater, the small gasoline engine, and the vapor compression air conditioner are commercially available. These technologies have good cost and performance characteristics. The cost for this ECS is relatively close to the cost of current ECS's. Its effect on the vehicle's propulsion battery is minimal and the ECS size and weight do not have significant impact on the vehicle's range.

  19. Space Station Environmental Control/Life Support System engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. W.; Heppner, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with a systems engineering study which has provided an understanding of the overall Space Station ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System). ECLSS/functional partitioning is considered along with function criticality, technology alternatives, a technology description, single thread systems, Space Station architectures, ECLSS distribution, mechanical schematics per space station, and Space Station ECLSS characteristics. Attention is given to trade studies and system synergism. The Space Station functional description had been defined by NASA. The ECLSS will utilize technologies which embody regenerative concepts to minimize the use of expendables.

  20. Ribosome•RelA structures reveal the mechanism of stringent response activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, Anna B; Bah, Eugene; Madireddy, Rohini; Zhang, Ying; Brilot, Axel F; Grigorieff, Nikolaus; Korostelev, Andrei A

    2016-01-01

    Stringent response is a conserved bacterial stress response underlying virulence and antibiotic resistance. RelA/SpoT-homolog proteins synthesize transcriptional modulators (p)ppGpp, allowing bacteria to adapt to stress. RelA is activated during amino-acid starvation, when cognate deacyl-tRNA binds to the ribosomal A (aminoacyl-tRNA) site. We report four cryo-EM structures of E. coli RelA bound to the 70S ribosome, in the absence and presence of deacyl-tRNA accommodating in the 30S A site. The boomerang-shaped RelA with a wingspan of more than 100 Å wraps around the A/R (30S A-site/RelA-bound) tRNA. The CCA end of the A/R tRNA pins the central TGS domain against the 30S subunit, presenting the (p)ppGpp-synthetase domain near the 30S spur. The ribosome and A/R tRNA are captured in three conformations, revealing hitherto elusive states of tRNA engagement with the ribosomal decoding center. Decoding-center rearrangements are coupled with the step-wise 30S-subunit 'closure', providing insights into the dynamics of high-fidelity tRNA decoding. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17029.001 PMID:27434674

  1. Application Of Nuclear Techniques In Environmental Studies And Pollution Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EI-Motaium, R A [Plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Ceter, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas P.O. Box 13759, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-07-01

    Environmental pollution has become a world wide concern. One of the main sources of such pollution is sewage wastewater and sludge. Their utilization without proper treatment can pollute the ecosystem (plant, soil, surface and ground water). Sewage wastewater and sludge contains several pollutants such as: pathogens, toxic organic compounds, heavy metals, high level of BOD and COD, seed weed. The reuse of sewage water and sludge in agriculture can lead to the transfer of some of these pollutants into the food chain causing health hazard. In addition, most of these contaminants are not biodegradable, becoming dangerous to plant and human health. Nuclear techniques has recently been used to control environmental pollution. Ionizing radiation provide a fast and reliable means of sewage water and sludge treatment than the conventional methods. Gamma radiation ( {sup 60}Co) and electron beam (accelerator) has been successfully used for alleviation of environmental pollution. Such alleviation includes: disinfection of harmful pathogens, degradation of toxic organic pollutants, destruction of seed weed and reduction of soluble heavy metals, odor and BOD and COD. The use of radioactive and stable isotopes are a useful tools to investigate the contribution of sludge nutrients to plant nutrition. Nitrogen, using {sup 15}N-ammonium sulfate, uptake and translocation by plant from soil amended with sewage sludge was studied under field condition. The contribution of sludge to phosphorus nutrition of plants was quantified using {sup 32}p as tracer. In both cases the principal of isotopic dilution technique was applied. The information generated from these experiments could help preserve the environment. It could help optimize the application rate of sludge to meet plant requirements while avoiding the accumulation of N and P in the soil or leaching to the aquifer. Isotope exchange kinetic technique is used to evaluate nutrients availability from sludge. Neutron moisture meter is

  2. Application Of Nuclear Techniques In Environmental Studies And Pollution Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Motaium, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental pollution has become a world wide concern. One of the main sources of such pollution is sewage wastewater and sludge. Their utilization without proper treatment can pollute the ecosystem (plant, soil, surface and ground water). Sewage wastewater and sludge contains several pollutants such as: pathogens, toxic organic compounds, heavy metals, high level of BOD and COD, seed weed. The reuse of sewage water and sludge in agriculture can lead to the transfer of some of these pollutants into the food chain causing health hazard. In addition, most of these contaminants are not biodegradable, becoming dangerous to plant and human health. Nuclear techniques has recently been used to control environmental pollution. Ionizing radiation provide a fast and reliable means of sewage water and sludge treatment than the conventional methods. Gamma radiation ( 60 Co) and electron beam (accelerator) has been successfully used for alleviation of environmental pollution. Such alleviation includes: disinfection of harmful pathogens, degradation of toxic organic pollutants, destruction of seed weed and reduction of soluble heavy metals, odor and BOD and COD. The use of radioactive and stable isotopes are a useful tools to investigate the contribution of sludge nutrients to plant nutrition. Nitrogen, using 15 N-ammonium sulfate, uptake and translocation by plant from soil amended with sewage sludge was studied under field condition. The contribution of sludge to phosphorus nutrition of plants was quantified using 32 p as tracer. In both cases the principal of isotopic dilution technique was applied. The information generated from these experiments could help preserve the environment. It could help optimize the application rate of sludge to meet plant requirements while avoiding the accumulation of N and P in the soil or leaching to the aquifer. Isotope exchange kinetic technique is used to evaluate nutrients availability from sludge. Neutron moisture meter is used to

  3. Migratory decisions in birds: Extent of genetic versus environmental control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogonowski, M.S.; Conway, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    Migration is one of the most spectacular of animal behaviors and is prevalent across a broad array of taxa. In birds, we know much about the physiological basis of how birds migrate, but less about the relative contribution of genetic versus environmental factors in controlling migratory tendency. To evaluate the extent to which migratory decisions are genetically determined, we examined whether individual western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) change their migratory tendency from one year to the next at two sites in southern Arizona. We also evaluated the heritability of migratory decisions by using logistic regression to examine the association between the migratory tendency of burrowing owl parents and their offspring. The probability of migrating decreased with age in both sexes and adult males were less migratory than females. Individual owls sometimes changed their migratory tendency from one year to the next, but changes were one-directional: adults that were residents during winter 2004-2005 remained residents the following winter, but 47% of adults that were migrants in winter 2004-2005 became residents the following winter. We found no evidence for an association between the migratory tendency of hatch-year owls and their male or female parents. Migratory tendency of hatch-year owls did not differ between years, study sites or sexes or vary by hatching date. Experimental provision of supplemental food did not affect these relationships. All of our results suggest that heritability of migratory tendency in burrowing owls is low, and that intraspecific variation in migratory tendency is likely due to: (1) environmental factors, or (2) a combination of environmental factors and non-additive genetic variation. The fact that an individual's migratory tendency can change across years implies that widespread anthropogenic changes (i.e., climate change or changes in land use) could potentially cause widespread changes in the migratory tendency of

  4. The control of environmental tobacco smoke: a policy review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNabola, Aonghus

    2009-02-01

    According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area.

  5. Feed an food from desert environments. [Controlled environmental agricultural technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassham, J.A.

    1977-09-01

    Research programs on controlled environmental agricultural technology to allow a broad range of conventional and unconventional crops to be grown with very limited supplies of fresh or brackish water are reviewed. The use of water derived from the sea, from saline lakes, or from waste water treatment for crops in arid lands is discussed. Plant breeding programs to improve the nutritional value of food crops and irrigation systems to improve plant productivity are discussed. The production of liquid hydrocarbons and lubricating oils from plant species such as Euphorbic and Jojoba, and the use of leguminous plants such as mesquite (Prosopis juliflora), and other native plants, which thrive in arid regions, as important sources of proteins and carbohydrates are cited as examples of the productive potential of arid lands. 41 references.

  6. A rapid response air quality analysis system for use in projects having stringent quality assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to solve air quality problems which frequently occur during iterations of the baseline change process. From a schedule standpoint, it is desirable to perform this evaluation in as short a time as possible while budgetary pressures limit the size of the staff available to do the work. Without a method in place to deal with baseline change proposal requests the environment analysts may not be able to produce the analysis results in the time frame expected. Using a concept called the Rapid Response Air Quality Analysis System (RAAS), the problems of timing and cost become tractable. The system could be adapted to assess other atmospheric pathway impacts, e.g., acoustics or visibility. The air quality analysis system used to perform the EA analysis (EA) for the Salt Repository Project (part of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program), and later to evaluate the consequences of proposed baseline changes, consists of three components: Emission source data files; Emission rates contained in spreadsheets; Impact assessment model codes. The spreadsheets contain user-written codes (macros) that calculate emission rates from (1) emission source data (e.g., numbers and locations of sources, detailed operating schedules, and source specifications including horsepower, load factor, and duty cycle); (2) emission factors such as those published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and (3) control efficiencies

  7. Stringent DDI-based prediction of H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hufeng; Rezaei, Javad; Hugo, Willy; Gao, Shangzhi; Jin, Jingjing; Fan, Mengyuan; Yong, Chern-Han; Wozniak, Michal; Wong, Limsoon

    2013-01-01

    H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv protein-protein interaction (PPI) data are very important information to illuminate the infection mechanism of M. tuberculosis H37Rv. But current H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPI data are very scarce. This seriously limits the study of the interaction between this important pathogen and its host H. sapiens. Computational prediction of H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPIs is an important strategy to fill in the gap. Domain-domain interaction (DDI) based prediction is one of the frequently used computational approaches in predicting both intra-species and inter-species PPIs. However, the performance of DDI-based host-pathogen PPI prediction has been rather limited. We develop a stringent DDI-based prediction approach with emphasis on (i) differences between the specific domain sequences on annotated regions of proteins under the same domain ID and (ii) calculation of the interaction strength of predicted PPIs based on the interacting residues in their interaction interfaces. We compare our stringent DDI-based approach to a conventional DDI-based approach for predicting PPIs based on gold standard intra-species PPIs and coherent informative Gene Ontology terms assessment. The assessment results show that our stringent DDI-based approach achieves much better performance in predicting PPIs than the conventional approach. Using our stringent DDI-based approach, we have predicted a small set of reliable H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPIs which could be very useful for a variety of related studies. We also analyze the H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPIs predicted by our stringent DDI-based approach using cellular compartment distribution analysis, functional category enrichment analysis and pathway enrichment analysis. The analyses support the validity of our prediction result. Also, based on an analysis of the H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPI network predicted by our stringent DDI-based approach, we have discovered some

  8. Environmentally Friendly Coating Technology for Autonomous Corrosion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Johnsey, Marissa N.; Jolley, Scott T.; Pearman, Benjamin P.; Zhang, Xuejun; Fitzpatrick, Lilliana; Gillis, Mathew; Blanton, Michael; hide

    2016-01-01

    This work concerns the development of environmentally friendly encapsulation technology, specifically designed to incorporate corrosion indicators, inhibitors, and self-healing agents into a coating, in such a way that the delivery of the indicators and inhibitors is triggered by the corrosion process, and the delivery of self-healing agents is triggered by mechanical damage to the coating. Encapsulation of the active corrosion control ingredients allows the incorporation of desired autonomous corrosion control functions such as: early corrosion detection, hidden corrosion detection, corrosion inhibition, and self-healing of mechanical damage into a coating. The technology offers the versatility needed to include one or several corrosion control functions into the same coating.The development of the encapsulation technology has progressed from the initial proof-of-concept work, in which a corrosion indicator was encapsulated into an oil-core (hydrophobic) microcapsule and shown to be delivered autonomously, under simulated corrosion conditions, to a sophisticated portfolio of micro carriers (organic, inorganic, and hybrid) that can be used to deliver a wide range of active corrosion ingredients at a rate that can be adjusted to offer immediate as well as long-term corrosion control. The micro carriers have been incorporated into different coating formulas to test and optimize the autonomous corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing functions of the coatings. This paper provides an overview of progress made to date and highlights recent technical developments, such as improved corrosion detection sensitivity, inhibitor test results in various types of coatings, and highly effective self-healing coatings based on green chemistry.

  9. Dynamic environmental control mechanisms for pneumatic foil constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flor, Jan-Frederik; Wu, Yupeng; Beccarelli, Paolo; Chilton, John

    2017-11-01

    Membrane and foil structures have become over the last decades an attractive alternative to conventional materials and building systems with increasing implementation in different typologies and scale. The development of transparent, light, flexible and resistant materials like Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) has triggered a rethinking of the building envelope in the building industry towards lightweight systems. ETFE foil cushions have proven to fulfil the design requirements in terms of structural efficiency and aesthetic values. But the strategies to satisfy increasing demands of energy efficiency and comfort conditions are still under development. The prediction and manipulation of the thermo-optical behaviour of ETFE foil cushion structures currently remain as one of the main challenges for designers and manufacturers. This paper reviews ongoing research regarding the control of the thermo-optical performance of ETFE cushion structures and highlights challenges and possible improvements. An overview of different dynamic and responsive environmental control mechanisms for multilayer foil constructions is provided and the state of the art in building application outlined by the discussion of case studies.

  10. Genetic and Environmental Control of Neurodevelopmental Robustness in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Mellert

    Full Text Available Interindividual differences in neuronal wiring may contribute to behavioral individuality and affect susceptibility to neurological disorders. To investigate the causes and potential consequences of wiring variation in Drosophila melanogaster, we focused on a hemilineage of ventral nerve cord interneurons that exhibits morphological variability. We find that late-born subclasses of the 12A hemilineage are highly sensitive to genetic and environmental variation. Neurons in the second thoracic segment are particularly variable with regard to two developmental decisions, whereas its segmental homologs are more robust. This variability "hotspot" depends on Ultrabithorax expression in the 12A neurons, indicating variability is cell-intrinsic and under genetic control. 12A development is more variable and sensitive to temperature in long-established laboratory strains than in strains recently derived from the wild. Strains with a high frequency of one of the 12A variants also showed a high frequency of animals with delayed spontaneous flight initiation, whereas other wing-related behaviors did not show such a correlation and were thus not overtly affected by 12A variation. These results show that neurodevelopmental robustness is variable and under genetic control in Drosophila and suggest that the fly may serve as a model for identifying conserved gene pathways that stabilize wiring in stressful developmental environments. Moreover, some neuronal lineages are variation hotspots and thus may be more amenable to evolutionary change.

  11. Environmental Radiological Impact of Nuclear Power. Monitoring and Control Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, L. M.

    2000-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of the environment and public exposure to ionizing radiation may result from releases from programmed or accidental operations in regulated activities, or they may be due to preexisting situations such as contamination caused by past accidents, radioactive rain caused by nuclear tests, or increased natural radioactivity resulting from human activities. In many cases, both the emission sources and the environment should be monitored to determine the risk to the population and verify to what extent the limits and conditions established by competent authorities are being observed. Monitoring can be divided into three categories: monitoring of the emission source, of the receiving medium and of members of the public; individual monitoring of the population is extremely rare and would only be considered when estimated doses substantially exceed the annual public dose limit. In practices likely to produce significant radioactive releases, as is the case of nuclear fuel cycle facilities, the limits and conditions for monitoring and controlling them and the requirements for environmental radiological monitoring are established in the licensing process. Programs implemented during normal operation of the facilities form the basis for monitoring in the event of accidents. in addition to environmental radiological monitoring associated with facilities, different countries have monitoring programs outside the facilities zones of influence, in order to ascertain the nationwide radiological fund and determine possible increases in this fund. In Spain, the facilities that generate radioactive waste have effluent storage, treatment and removal systems and radiological monitoring programs based on site and discharge characteristics. The environmental radiological monitoring system is composed of the network implemented by the owners in the nuclear fuel cycle facilities zones of influence, and by nationwide monitoring networks managed by the Consejo de

  12. Environmental Control Plan for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit Remedial Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This environmental control plan is for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit Remedial Action Project. The purpose of this plan is to identify environmental requirements for the 300-FF-1 operable unit Remedial Action/Waste Disposal Project

  13. Implications for the inter-organizational design of environmental care when changing environmental control points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagelaar, J.L.F.; Seuring, S.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we try to bridge the gap between two lines of thought within the environmental care literature. We differentiate between two major clusters in this literature; (1) environmental management and (2) strategic approach to environmental care. Although both approaches focus on the same

  14. Environmental Regulation and International Trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulatu, A. [London School of Economics, London (United Kingdom); Florax, R.J.G.M.; Withagen, C.A. [Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    We empirically investigate the responsiveness of international trade to the stringency of environmental regulation. Stringent environmental regulation may impair the export competitiveness of 'dirty' domestic industries, and as a result, 'pollution havens' emerge in countries where environmental regulation is 'over-lax.' We examine the impact of pollution abatement and control costs on net exports in order to grasp this phenomenon. Theoretically, our analysis is related to a general equilibrium model of trade and pollution nesting the pollution haven motive for trade with the factor endowment motive. We analyze data on two-digit ISIC manufacturing industries during the period 1977-1992 in Germany, the Netherlands and the US, and show that trade patterns in 'dirty' commodities are jointly determined by relative factor endowments and environmental stringency differentials.

  15. Environmental degradation of materials and corrosion control in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, J.; Elboujdaini, M.; Shoesmith, D.; Patnaik, P.C.

    2003-01-01

    The first International Symposium on Environmental Degradation of Materials and Corrosion Control In Metals (EDMCCM), held in Quebec City in 1999, was very successful. Encouraged by this success. the Metallurgical Society of CIM organized the Second International Conference in what is hoped will be an on-going series. This meeting was held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, in August 2003. The objective of this conference was to provide a wide-ranging forum for the discussion of recent developments in the study and understanding of corrosion degradation of metals and alloys and the variety of processes by which corrosion damage accumulates. The scope of the meeting ranged from the fundamental to the very applied with a primary emphasis on the inter-relationships between chemical, electrochemical, mechanical and metallurgical features of corrosion. This symposium was an excellent forum for the exchange of ideas and approaches between generally disparate fields of endeavour. The success of the symposium can be gauged from the large number of papers presented and the outstanding level of international participation, with authors from China, Iran, Japan, North America, Russia, United Kingdom and Venezuela. In addition authors from six Canadian provinces (Alberta, British Columbia, New Brunswick, Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan) participated. Six keynote presentations covered a wide range of topics and industries in corrosion and corrosion control, and a total 45 papers were presented, spread over three days in six individual sessions; Electrochemistry and Corrosion of Metals, Corrosion and Cracking Behaviour. Hydrogen in Steel and Pipeline Corrosion, Corrosion Case Studies and Applications, Characterization of Corrosion Behaviour, and Corrosion Protection Coatings. (author)

  16. Simple Instrumental and Visual Tests for Nonlaboratory Environmental Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Eksperiandova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proposed are simple and available techniques that can be used for rapid and reliable environmental control specifically of natural water by means of instrumental and visual tests in outdoor conditions. Developed are the chemical colorimetric modes for fast detection of socially dangerous trace impurities in water such as Co(II, Pd(II, and Rh(III as well as NO2--ions and Fe(III serving as model impurities. Application of portable digital devices and scanner allows estimating the color coordinates and increasing the accuracy and sensitivity of the tests. The combination of complex formation with preconcentration of colored complexes replaces the sensitive but time-consuming and capricious kinetic method that is usually used for this purpose at the more convenient and reliable colorimetric method. As the test tools, the following ones are worked out: polyurethane foam tablets with sorbed colored complexes, the two-layer paper sandwich packaged in slide adapter and saturated by reagents, and polyethylene terephthalate blister with dried reagents. Fast analysis of polyurethane foam tablets is realized using a pocket digital RGB-colorimeter or portable photometer. Express analysis of two-layer paper sandwich or polyethylene terephthalate blister is realized by visual and instrumental tests. The metrological characteristics of the developed visual and instrumental express analysis techniques are estimated.

  17. Minimum power requirement for environmental control of aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez, Juan Carlos; Bejan, Adrian

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses two basic issues in the thermodynamic optimization of environmental control systems (ECS) for aircraft: realistic limits for the minimal power requirement, and design features that facilitate operation at minimal power consumption. Four models are proposed and optimized. In the first, the ECS operates reversibly, the air stream in the cabin is mixed to one temperature, and the cabin experiences heat transfer with the ambient, across its insulation. The cabin temperature is fixed. In the second model, the fixed cabin temperature is assigned to the internal solid surfaces of the cabin, and a thermal resistance separates these surfaces from the air mixed in the cabin. In the third model, the ECS operates irreversibly, based on the bootstrap air cycle. The fourth model combines the ECS features of the third model with the cabin-environment interaction features of the second model. It is shown that in all models the temperature of the air stream that the ECS delivers to the cabin can be optimized for operation at minimal power. The effect of other design parameters and flying conditions is documented. The optimized air delivery temperature is relatively insensitive to the complexity of the model; for example, it is insensitive to the size of the heat exchanger used in the bootstrap air cycle. This study adds to the view that robustness is a characteristic of optimized complex flow systems, and that thermodynamic optimization results can be used for orientation in the pursuit of more complex and realistic designs

  18. 76 FR 3076 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Air Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ...] Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Air Potato AGENCY: Animal and... environmental assessment (EA) relative to the control of air potato (Dioscorea bulbifera). The EA considers the... States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of air potato infestations. We are...

  19. A speech-controlled environmental control system for people with severe dysarthria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Mark S; Enderby, Pam; Green, Phil; Cunningham, Stuart; Brownsell, Simon; Carmichael, James; Parker, Mark; Hatzis, Athanassios; O'Neill, Peter; Palmer, Rebecca

    2007-06-01

    Automatic speech recognition (ASR) can provide a rapid means of controlling electronic assistive technology. Off-the-shelf ASR systems function poorly for users with severe dysarthria because of the increased variability of their articulations. We have developed a limited vocabulary speaker dependent speech recognition application which has greater tolerance to variability of speech, coupled with a computerised training package which assists dysarthric speakers to improve the consistency of their vocalisations and provides more data for recogniser training. These applications, and their implementation as the interface for a speech-controlled environmental control system (ECS), are described. The results of field trials to evaluate the training program and the speech-controlled ECS are presented. The user-training phase increased the recognition rate from 88.5% to 95.4% (p<0.001). Recognition rates were good for people with even the most severe dysarthria in everyday usage in the home (mean word recognition rate 86.9%). Speech-controlled ECS were less accurate (mean task completion accuracy 78.6% versus 94.8%) but were faster to use than switch-scanning systems, even taking into account the need to repeat unsuccessful operations (mean task completion time 7.7s versus 16.9s, p<0.001). It is concluded that a speech-controlled ECS is a viable alternative to switch-scanning systems for some people with severe dysarthria and would lead, in many cases, to more efficient control of the home.

  20. Direct-to-physician and direct-to-consumer advertising: Time to have stringent regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, S; Gowri, S; Tyagi, V; Kohli, S; Jain, R; Kapil, P; Bhardwaj, A

    2015-01-01

    the opinion regarding DTCA, 69.9% physicians had a patient discussing DTCA that was clinically inappropriate. One hundred (64.5%) out of 155 physicians opined that DTCA encourage patients to attend physicians regarding preventive healthcare. On the contrary, 82/155 (52.9%) physicians felt that DTCA would damage the same. Similarly, 69 out of the total 100 patients felt that drug advertisements aid them to have better discussions with their treating physicians. Surprisingly, a large majority (91/100) were of the opinion that only safe drugs are allowed to be advertised. To conclude, from the findings of this study both the physicians and patients should be cautious and not overzealous while dealing with drug advertisements or promotional literature. More stringent scrutiny and issue of WLs or blacklisting of indulging pharmaceutical companies are mandatory by the regulatory agency to contain the same.

  1. Water logging and salinity control for environmentally sustainable crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, M.R.; Bhutta, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    Irrigation supplies at proper time and adequate quantities are imperative for potential agricultural production under arid and semi-arid climatic conditions. To achieve this goal one of the largest integrated irrigation network was established. Without adequate drainage it resulted in the problems of water logging and salinity. To control these problems a big programme of Salinity Control and Reclamation projects (SCARPs) was initiated during 1960 and 82 such SCARPs have been completed and 9 were in progress up to June, 2002 covering an area of 18.6 ma (7.5 mh) at a cost of Rs.93 billions. Under these projects 12746 tube wells in fresh, 3572 in saline groundwater and 13726 km surface and 12612 km tile pipes covering 6391.7 ha, 160 km interceptor drains have been constructed an area of 0.998 ma (GCA). In addition to this some other measures like on farm water management, canal command project, canal lining, construction of evaporation ponds, establishment of research Inst./Organizations were also taken. Many drainage plans like Master Plan (1963), Northern Regional Plan (1967), Water Sector Investment Plan Study (1990), Right Bank Master Plan (1992), Drainage Sector Environmental Assessment (1993) and National Drainage Programme (1995) were prepared and implemented. The cost of the, phase-I of the National Drainage Programme was 785 million US$. The main activities undertaken were remodeling/extension of existing surface and new drains; rehabilitation/replacement of saline ground water (SGW) tube wells; construction of interceptor drains, reclamation of waterlogged areas through biological drainage and transfer of fresh ground water tube wells to the farmers. The data indicate that all the measures taken have played a significant role in reducing the water logging, salinity/sodicity and have increased the crop production and consequently improved the socio-economic conditions of the peoples especially the farming community. The environment in these areas was also

  2. Controls on the Environmental Fate of Compounds Controlled by Coupled Hydrologic and Reactive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, J.; Ward, A. S.; McConville, M.; Remucal, C.

    2017-12-01

    Current understanding of how compounds interact with hydrologic processes or reactive processes have been well established. However, the environmental fate for compounds that interact with hydrologic AND reactive processes is not well known, yet critical in evaluating environmental risk. Evaluations of risk are often simplified to homogenize processes in space and time and to assess processes independently of one another. However, we know spatial heterogeneity and time-variable reactivities complicate predictions of environmental transport and fate, and is further complicated by the interaction of these processes, limiting our ability to accurately predict risk. Compounds that interact with both systems, such as photolytic compounds, require that both components are fully understood in order to predict transport and fate. Release of photolytic compounds occurs through both unintentional releases and intentional loadings. Evaluating risks associated with unintentional releases and implementing best management practices for intentional releases requires an in-depth understanding of the sensitivity of photolytic compounds to external controls. Lampricides, such as 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), are broadly applied in the Great Lakes system to control the population of invasive sea lamprey. Over-dosing can yield fish kills and other detrimental impacts. Still, planning accounts for time of passage and dilution, but not the interaction of the physical and chemical systems (i.e., storage in the hyporheic zone and time-variable decay rates). In this study, we model a series of TFM applications to test the efficacy of dosing as a function of system characteristics. Overall, our results demonstrate the complexity associated with photo-sensitive compounds through stream-hyporheic systems, and highlight the need to better understand how physical and chemical systems interact to control transport and fate in the environment.

  3. Pollution control and environmental management measures in NTPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, T.K.

    1997-01-01

    Modern industrial activities have severely interfered with the natural environment either through deforestation or through discharge of solid and liquid effluents and gaseous emissions. Power generation, though important in achievement economic self-reliance, has interface with the natural surroundings with serious impacts the world over. National Thermal Power Corporation shares the concern for environmental issues for sustainable growth of power sectors and has been incorporating various environmental protection measures in all its business decisions and activities

  4. Government’s Responsibility for Control of Agricultural Environmental Pollution in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongfang; CHEN

    2016-01-01

    In this paper,the current situation of agricultural environmental pollution caused by the increase of chemicals input in agriculture in China was analyzed,and it is found that agricultural pollution is related to agricultural industrial policies,urban-rural economic structure,funds input in pollution control,comprehensive environmental management,laws of pollution control,and so forth. To control agricultural pollution effectively,it is needed to implement integration of agricultural and environmental policies,establish environmentally friendly agricultural technology popularizing system,implement integrated planning and management of a basin,and set up and improve legislation to protect agricultural environment.

  5. Induction of a stringent metabolic response in intracellular stages of Leishmania mexicana leads to increased dependence on mitochondrial metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor C Saunders

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania parasites alternate between extracellular promastigote stages in the insect vector and an obligate intracellular amastigote stage that proliferates within the phagolysosomal compartment of macrophages in the mammalian host. Most enzymes involved in Leishmania central carbon metabolism are constitutively expressed and stage-specific changes in energy metabolism remain poorly defined. Using (13C-stable isotope resolved metabolomics and (2H2O labelling, we show that amastigote differentiation is associated with reduction in growth rate and induction of a distinct stringent metabolic state. This state is characterized by a global decrease in the uptake and utilization of glucose and amino acids, a reduced secretion of organic acids and increased fatty acid β-oxidation. Isotopomer analysis showed that catabolism of hexose and fatty acids provide C4 dicarboxylic acids (succinate/malate and acetyl-CoA for the synthesis of glutamate via a compartmentalized mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle. In vitro cultivated and intracellular amastigotes are acutely sensitive to inhibitors of mitochondrial aconitase and glutamine synthetase, indicating that these anabolic pathways are essential for intracellular growth and virulence. Lesion-derived amastigotes exhibit a similar metabolism to in vitro differentiated amastigotes, indicating that this stringent response is coupled to differentiation signals rather than exogenous nutrient levels. Induction of a stringent metabolic response may facilitate amastigote survival in a nutrient-poor intracellular niche and underlie the increased dependence of this stage on hexose and mitochondrial metabolism.

  6. Environmental control integrated system for abnormal conditions of CNAAA-Angra-1 operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircher, E.; Silva, R.A. da.

    1986-01-01

    A system of computer codes named NUCSICA (Calculation Nucleus of Environmental Control Integrated System) to be used in the Environmental Control Integrated System (SICA) and integrated to the supervision system of Safety Parameters (SSPS), is described. The system is based on a model compatible with local characteristics of Angra-I reactor, relating to micrometeorology, topography, population distribution and socio-economic activities. The model was constructed to foresee the environmental impact. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. Environmental controls on barium incorporation into planktic foraminifer, Globorotalia truncatulinoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, J. N.; Reynolds, C. E.; Fehrenbacher, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Ba/Ca of planktic foraminifera in marine sediment cores has been used primarily to track changes in riverine input over time, and thus may be a potentially powerful proxy for reconstructing past changes in the terrestrial hydrologic cycle. Using Ba/Ca as a proxy for riverine freshwater input requires the assumption that Ba/Ca in foraminiferal calcite reflects the Ba/Ca of seawater, and that the partition coefficient for barium between seawater and foraminiferal calcite is independent of the influence of temperature, salinity, pH, alkalinity and light availability. Although it has been shown that this partition coefficient is nearly identical for common species of spinose planktic foraminifera (e.g., Globigerinoides ruber, Orbulina universa, Globigerinoides sacculifer), some non-spinose species have been demonstrated to have Ba/Ca ratios that are much higher than that of co-occurring spinose specimens. We investigate environmental controls on Ba/Ca in the tests of Globorotalia truncatulinoides, a planktic species of foraminifera with a unique life history in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). G. truncatulinoides experiences 92% of its annual flux to the sediment trap during winter (JFM) in the GoM. The Mg/Ca and ∂18O of the ontogenetic calcite suggests that primary calcification occurs within the surface mixed layer (0-150 meters), and a thick secondary crust is added at depths below the thermocline. We use LA-ICP-MS to analyze the Ba/Ca of both encrusted and non-encrusted G. truncatulinoides from a sediment trap time series in the GoM and find that the Ba/Ca in ontogenetic calcite of non-encrusted specimens varies between 10 and 200 mmol/mol, while the Ba/Ca of the secondary crust varies between 0 and 3 mmol/mol. The Ba/Ca of the non-encrusted G. truncatulinoides specimens is two to three orders of magnitude higher than that of co-occurring spinose planktic foraminifera (O. universa and G. ruber) in the GoM sediment trap, while the secondary crust has Ba/Ca similar to

  8. Assessment of research and development (R and D) needs in ammonia safety and environmental control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenchley, D.L.; Athey, G.F.; Bomelburg, H.J.

    1981-09-01

    This report characterizes the ammonia industry operations, reviews current knowledge of ammonia release and subsequent impacts, summarizes the status of release prevention and control methods and identify research and development needs for safety and environmental control. Appendices include: accidental spills and human exposure; adiabatic mixing of liquid nitrogen and air; fire and explosion hazards; and environmental impact rating tables. (PSB)

  9. Stringent homology-based prediction of H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hufeng; Gao, Shangzhi; Nguyen, Nam Ninh; Fan, Mengyuan; Jin, Jingjing; Liu, Bing; Zhao, Liang; Xiong, Geng; Tan, Min; Li, Shijun; Wong, Limsoon

    2014-04-08

    H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv protein-protein interaction (PPI) data are essential for understanding the infection mechanism of the formidable pathogen M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Computational prediction is an important strategy to fill the gap in experimental H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPI data. Homology-based prediction is frequently used in predicting both intra-species and inter-species PPIs. However, some limitations are not properly resolved in several published works that predict eukaryote-prokaryote inter-species PPIs using intra-species template PPIs. We develop a stringent homology-based prediction approach by taking into account (i) differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic proteins and (ii) differences between inter-species and intra-species PPI interfaces. We compare our stringent homology-based approach to a conventional homology-based approach for predicting host-pathogen PPIs, based on cellular compartment distribution analysis, disease gene list enrichment analysis, pathway enrichment analysis and functional category enrichment analysis. These analyses support the validity of our prediction result, and clearly show that our approach has better performance in predicting H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPIs. Using our stringent homology-based approach, we have predicted a set of highly plausible H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPIs which might be useful for many of related studies. Based on our analysis of the H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPI network predicted by our stringent homology-based approach, we have discovered several interesting properties which are reported here for the first time. We find that both host proteins and pathogen proteins involved in the host-pathogen PPIs tend to be hubs in their own intra-species PPI network. Also, both host and pathogen proteins involved in host-pathogen PPIs tend to have longer primary sequence, tend to have more domains, tend to be more hydrophilic, etc. And the protein domains from both

  10. Regional Persistent Organic Pollutants' Environmental Impact Assessment and Control Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgis Staniskis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The sources of formation, environmental distribution and fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs are increasingly seen as topics to be addressed and solved at the global scale. Therefore, there are already two international agreements concerning persistent organic pollutants: the Protocol of 1998 to the 1979 Convention on the Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Persistent Organic Pollutants (Aarhus Protocol; and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. For the assessment of environmental pollution of POPs, for the risk assessment, for the evaluation of new pollutants as potential candidates to be included in the POPs list of the Stokholmo or/and Aarhus Protocol, a set of different models are developed or under development. Multimedia models help describe and understand environmental processes leading to global contamination through POPs and actual risk to the environment and human health. However, there is a lack of the tools based on a systematic and integrated approach to POPs management difficulties in the region.

  11. Cutting edge SRU control : improved environmental compliance with Jacobs advanced burner control+ (ABC+)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molenaar, G. [Jacobs Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Henning, A.; Kobussen, S. [Jacobs Nederland BV, Hoogvliet (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    Oil sands bitumen contains approximately 4 to 5 per cent sulphur by weight and the bitumen is upgraded to produce lighter fractions. During coking the bitumen is heated and cracked into lighter molecules and a mixture of kerosene, naphtha and gas oil is recovered via fractionation. Then, the vapors leaving the fractionator are processed through hydrodesulphurization, followed by removal by amine based sweetening units. The acid gas from the ASUs is sent to the sulphur recovery units (SRUs) where most of the sulphur is recovered as elemental sulphur. The oil sands industry faces many challenges with respect to environmental impact, energy use and greenhouse gas emissions including the recovery of sulphur and minimizing hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions from the oil sands production facilities. In order to improve the SRU control response to acid gas feed variations, Jacobs Comprimo Sulphur Solutions implemented advanced burner control+ (ABC+) at Suncor's Simonette Gas Plant's SRU in northern Alberta. This control system used an acid gas feed analyzer and dynamic algorithms to control the combustion air to the reaction furnace. The analyzer measures H{sub 2}S, total hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and water (H{sub 2}O) accurately and quickly, which is important for having effective and fast air-to-acid gas ratio control. The paper provided background information on the Suncor Simonette Gas Plant and discussed ABC+ versus conventional control. An overview of the simplified ABC and ABC+ systems was then illustrated and presented. The ABB multiwave process photometer was also explained. Last, a dynamic simulation of the potential benefits of ABC+ was discussed and the ABC+ benefits for oil sands were presented. It was concluded that ABC+ provides improved SRU performance, reduced SO{sub 2} emissions and violations, and reduced flaring. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  12. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Water Pollution Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Water Pollution Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Pollution...

  13. Effluent controls and environmental monitoring programs for uranium milling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maixner, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Controls will reduce gaseous, particulate, and liquid discharges. Monitoring programs are used to determine effectiveness. The controls and programs discussed are used at Cotter Corporation's Canon City Mill in Colorado. 3 refs

  14. Overview: Applicability of U.S. environmental control technologies for Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, S.W. [DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A review of the applicability of US environmental control technologies for Korea is presented in outline form. The following topics are discussed: PETC coal research activities, environmental costs, environmental challenges, Clean Air Act requirements, additional regulations for air toxics, clean coal technologies (CCT) approach, CCT help meet environmental challenges, utility options, research goals for advanced power systems, PETC Programs, the NO{sub x} SO process, flue gas cleanup program, air toxics emissions, and retrofit NO{sub x} control for coal-burning boilers.

  15. Integrated environmental control and monitoring in the intelligent workplace. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This project involved the design and engineering of the control and monitoring of environmental quality - visual, thermal, air - in the Intelligent Workplace. The research objectives were to study the performance of the individual systems, to study the integration issues related to each system, to develop a control plan, and to implement and test the integrated systems in a real setting. In this project, a control strategy with related algorithms for distributed sensors, actuators, and controllers for negotiating central and individual control of HVAC, lighting, and enclosure was developed in order to maximize user comfort, and energy and environmental effectiveness. The goal of the control system design in the Intelligent Workplace is the integration of building systems for optimization of occupant satisfaction, organizational flexibility, energy efficiency and environmental effectiveness. The task of designing this control system involves not only the research, development and demonstration of state-of-the-art mechanical and electrical systems, but also their integration. The ABSIC research team developed functional requirements for the environmental systems considering the needs of both facility manager and the user. There are three levels of control for the environmental systems: scheduled control, sensor control, and user control. The challenges are to achieve the highest possible levels of energy effectiveness simultaneously with the highest levels of user satisfaction. The report describes the components of each system, their implementation in the Intelligent Workplace and related control and monitoring issues.

  16. Mandatory Disclosure of Blockholders and Related Party Transactions : Stringent Versus Flexible Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCahery, J.A.; Vermeulen, E.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Investor confidence in financial markets depends in large part on the existence of an accurate disclosure and reporting regime that provides transparency in the beneficial ownership and control structures of publicly listed companies. Today, a common post-financial crisis regulatory reform theme is

  17. Environmental control of Tinto and Odiel river basins by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Respaldiza, M.A.; Gomez-Camacho, J.; Lopez-Tarrida, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    A study of the elemental concentrations of sediments of the rivers Tinto and Odiel, in Huelva, Spain, has been performed using PIXE. Thirteen samples have been collected, seven in the Tinto and six in the Odiel. Concentrations of 19 elements have been determined in each of them. The analysis of the data illustrates the environmental impact of the mining and fertilizer plants in the area. (orig.)

  18. Intelligent automated control of robotic systems for environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development (OTD) has sponsored the development of the Generic Intelligent System Controller (GISC) for application to remote system control. Of primary interest to the OTD is the development of technologies which result in faster, safer, and cheaper cleanup of hazardous waste sites than possible using conventional approaches. The objective of the GISC development project is to support these goals by developing a modular robotics control approach which reduces the time and cost of development by allowing reuse of control system software and uses computer models to improve the safety of remote site cleanup while reducing the time and life cycle costs

  19. A predictive analysis of CO2 emissions, environmental policy stringency, and economic growth in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Khalid; Ahmed, Sidrah

    2018-03-28

    This study takes environmental policy stringency and economic activity as the controlling variables and forecasts the CO 2 emissions in China up to 2022. In doing so, an application of corrected grey model with convolution is used over the annual time series data between 1990 and 2012. The simulation results show that (1) between 2012 and 2022, CO 2 emissions in China is expected to increase at an average rate of 17.46% annually, raising the emissions intensity from 7.04 in 2012 to 25.461 metric tons per capita by 2022; (2) stringent environmental policies reduce CO 2 emissions-whereas, GDP tends to increase the emissions intensity in China; (3) stringent environmental policies are found to have a negative impact on GDP in China. Based on the empirical findings, the study also provides some policy suggestions to reduce emissions intensity in China.

  20. Zeolites as catalyzer to environmental control. Nitric oxide removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, C.; Zapata N, M; Villa H, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    Zeolites and the microporous materials related to them are a class of environmental catalysts, it which are used to remove the produced gases in combustion process (as mobile sources). In this work the importance that has catalysis for environment improvement is emphasized. A review of recent progress in the use of certain zeolitic material as catalysts for nitric oxide elimination of combustion systems is presented. More used nitric oxide removal methods are presented, as well as its advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, it is emphasized on the need of accomplishing more investigation projects on the development of an active catalyst for the decomposition of the nitric oxide in its elements (N and O)

  1. Eye-based Direct Interaction for Environmental Control in Heterogeneous Smart Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corno, Fulvio; Gale, Alastair; Majaranta, Päivi; Räihä, Kari-Jouko

    environmental control is the control, operation, and monitoring of an environment via intermediary technology such as a computer. Typically this means control of a domestic home.Within the scope of COGAIN, this environmental control concerns the control of the personal environment of a person (with or without a disability). This defines environmental control as the control of a home or domestic setting and those objects that are within that setting. Thus, we may say that environmental control systems enable anyone to operate a wide range of domestic appliances and other vital functions in the home by remote control. In recent years the problem of self-sufficiency for older people and people with a disability has attracted increasing attention and resources. The search for new solutions that can guarantee greater autonomy and a better quality of life has begun to exploit easily available state-of-the-art technology. Personal environmental control can be considered to be a comprehensive and effective aid, adaptable to the functional possibilities of the user and to their desired actions.

  2. Digital Environmental Governance in China: Information Disclosure, Pollution Control, and Environmental Activism in the Yellow River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxin Tan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese water bureaucracy increasingly utilises information and communications technology (ICT in order to strengthen interaction with the population, which is severely affected by industrial pollution. Government webpages, mailboxes, and online interviews with officers have become prevalent tools for environmental governance, including information disclosure, and a virtual communication forum between the state and its citizens. The present study employs a mixed methods approach with a qualitative emphasis to explore the process of communication and interaction between government agencies and local residents in Dongying, Shandong Province. The results show that information disclosure of pollution data remains far from being transparent, despite the fact that the local government has implemented digital environmental governance, as encouraged by the central Chinese state. Internet technologies empower resource-poor environmental activists in Dongying to strengthen their social network and build communication with the authorities. The application of bureaucratic techniques, however, is key for them to enter the communication interface with government agencies in order to influence political decisions. Results suggest that local cadres tend to send mixed signals to activists and display wariness towards them. They also tend to take preventive measures to keep the situation under control when environmental disputes arise. The proposed communication interface approach sheds a clearer light on the complexity among the emergent ICTs, environmental activism, and digital governance.

  3. Case Studies in Crewed Spacecraft Environmental Control and Life Support System Process Compatibility and Cabin Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Contamination of a crewed spacecraft's cabin environment leading to environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) functional capability and operational margin degradation or loss can have an adverse effect on NASA's space exploration mission figures of merit-safety, mission success, effectiveness, and affordability. The role of evaluating the ECLSS's compatibility and cabin environmental impact as a key component of pass trace contaminant control is presented and the technical approach is described in the context of implementing NASA's safety and mission success objectives. Assessment examples are presented for a variety of chemicals used in vehicle systems and experiment hardware for the International Space Station program. The ECLSS compatibility and cabin environmental impact assessment approach, which can be applied to any crewed spacecraft development and operational effort, can provide guidance to crewed spacecraft system and payload developers relative to design criteria assigned ECLSS compatibility and cabin environmental impact ratings can be used by payload and system developers as criteria for ensuring adequate physical and operational containment. In additional to serving as an aid for guiding containment design, the assessments can guide flight rule and procedure development toward protecting the ECLSS as well as approaches for contamination event remediation.

  4. Environmental controls on multiscale spatial patterns of salt marsh vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Daehyun; Cairns, David; Bartholdy, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    In coastal environments, biogeographic patterns are generally influenced by surface elevation and horizontal distance from sea water. However, it is still unclear whether these major topographic factors are significant controls of vegetation patterns across spatial scales at which different physi...

  5. Analytical quality control in studies of environmental exposure to mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.R.; Prosenc, N.; Smerke, J.; Horvat, M.

    1995-01-01

    The work of the laboratory for quality control in this co-ordinated project for the period from November 1993 to June 1994 is presented. The major effort was devoted to assisting in establishing the homogeneity and total methylmercury levels in two new hair reference materials prepared as control materials for the project, numbered 085 (spiked) and 086 (natural level). Results for some hair materials from participants are also given. (author)

  6. 77 FR 46373 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ...] Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid AGENCY... States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of hemlock woolly adelgid... beetle from the western United States, into the eastern United States for use as a biological control...

  7. 75 FR 28232 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ...] Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid AGENCY..., into the continental United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of... biological control agent to reduce the severity of hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) infestations. HWA, an...

  8. Environmental regulation and international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulatu, A.; Florax, R.J.G.M.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    We empirically investigate the responsiveness of international trade to the stringency of environmental regulation. Stringent environmental regulation may impair the export competitiveness of ´dirty´ domestic industries, and as a result, ´pollution havens´ emerge in countries where environmental

  9. Smart City Environmental Pollution Prevention and Control Design Based on Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, He; Bohong, Zheng; Qinpei, Kuang

    2017-11-01

    Due to increasingly serious urban pollution, this paper proposes an environmental pollution prevention and control system in combination with Internet of things. The system transfers data through the Internet, which also utilizes sensor, pH sensor and smoke sensor to obtain environmental data. Besides, combined with the video data acquired through monitoring, the data are transferred to data center to analyze the haze pollution, water pollution and fire disaster in environment. According to the results, multi-purpose vehicles are mobilized to complete the tasks such as spraying water to relieve haze, water source purification and fire fighting in city environment. Experiments show that the environmental pollution prevention and control system designed in this paper can automatically complete the urban environmental pollution detection, prevention and control, which thus reduces human and material resources and improves the efficiency of pollution prevention and control. Therefore, it possesses greatly practical significance to the construction of smart city.

  10. Environmental Control of Branching in Petunia1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oplaat, Carla; Wohlers, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Plants alter their development in response to changes in their environment. This responsiveness has proven to be a successful evolutionary trait. Here, we tested the hypothesis that two key environmental factors, light and nutrition, are integrated within the axillary bud to promote or suppress the growth of the bud into a branch. Using petunia (Petunia hybrida) as a model for vegetative branching, we manipulated both light quality (as crowding and the red-to-far-red light ratio) and phosphate availability, such that the axillary bud at node 7 varied from deeply dormant to rapidly growing. In conjunction with the phenotypic characterization, we also monitored the state of the strigolactone (SL) pathway by quantifying SL-related gene transcripts. Mutants in the SL pathway inhibit but do not abolish the branching response to these environmental signals, and neither signal is dominant over the other, suggesting that the regulation of branching in response to the environment is complex. We have isolated three new putatively SL-related TCP (for Teosinte branched1, Cycloidia, and Proliferating cell factor) genes from petunia, and have identified that these TCP-type transcription factors may have roles in the SL signaling pathway both before and after the reception of the SL signal at the bud. We show that the abundance of the receptor transcript is regulated by light quality, such that axillary buds growing in added far-red light have greatly increased receptor transcript abundance. This suggests a mechanism whereby the impact of any SL signal reaching an axillary bud is modulated by the responsiveness of these cells to the signal. PMID:25911529

  11. Predictive control techniques for energy and indoor environmental quality management in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolokotsa, D. [Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Department of Natural Resources and Environment, 3, Romanou str., 73133, Hania, Crete (Greece); Pouliezos, A. [Technical University of Crete, Department of Production Engineering and Management, University Campus, Kounoupidiana, 73100 Hania (Greece); Stavrakakis, G.; Lazos, C. [Technical University of Crete, Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, University Campus, Kounoupidiana, 73100 Hania (Greece)

    2009-09-15

    The aim of the present paper is to present a model-based predictive controller, combined with a Building Energy Management System (BEMS). The overall system predicts the indoor environmental conditions of a specific building and selects the most appropriate actions so as to reach the set points and contribute to the indoor environmental quality by minimizing energy costs. The controller is tested using a BEMS installation in Hania, Crete, Greece. (author)

  12. Proceedings of the second US Department of Energy environmental control symposium. Volume 1. Fossil energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Second Environmental Control Symposium. Symposium presentations highlighted environmental control activities which span the entire DOE. Volume I contains papers relating to coal preparation, oil shales, coal combustion, advanced coal utilization (fluidized bed combustion, MHD generators, OCGT, fuel cells), coal gasification, coal liquefaction, and fossil resource extraction (enhanced recovery). Separate abstracts for individual papers are prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  13. Moderate forest disturbance as a stringent test for gap and big-leaf models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond-Lamberty, B.; Fisk, J. P.; Holm, J. A.; Bailey, V.; Bohrer, G.; Gough, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Disturbance-induced tree mortality is a key factor regulating the carbon balance of a forest, but tree mortality and its subsequent effects are poorly represented processes in terrestrial ecosystem models. It is thus unclear whether models can robustly simulate moderate (non-catastrophic) disturbances, which tend to increase biological and structural complexity and are increasingly common in aging US forests. We tested whether three forest ecosystem models - Biome-BGC (BioGeochemical Cycles), a classic big-leaf model, and the ZELIG and ED (Ecosystem Demography) gap-oriented models - could reproduce the resilience to moderate disturbance observed in an experimentally manipulated forest (the Forest Accelerated Succession Experiment in northern Michigan, USA, in which 38% of canopy dominants were stem girdled and compared to control plots). Each model was parameterized, spun up, and disturbed following similar protocols and run for 5 years post-disturbance. The models replicated observed declines in aboveground biomass well. Biome-BGC captured the timing and rebound of observed leaf area index (LAI), while ZELIG and ED correctly estimated the magnitude of LAI decline. None of the models fully captured the observed post-disturbance C fluxes, in particular gross primary production or net primary production (NPP). Biome-BGC NPP was correctly resilient but for the wrong reasons, and could not match the absolute observational values. ZELIG and ED, in contrast, exhibited large, unobserved drops in NPP and net ecosystem production. The biological mechanisms proposed to explain the observed rapid resilience of the C cycle are typically not incorporated by these or other models. It is thus an open question whether most ecosystem models will simulate correctly the gradual and less extensive tree mortality characteristic of moderate disturbances.

  14. Survey of LWR environmental control technology performance and cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeb, C.M.; Aaberg, R.L.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Lewallen, M.A.

    1980-03-01

    This study attempts to establish a ranking for species that are routinely released to the environment for a projected nuclear power growth scenario. Unlike comparisons made to existing standards, which are subject to frequent revision, the ranking of releases can be used to form a more logical basis for identifying the areas where further development of control technology could be required. This report describes projections of releases for several fuel cycle scenarios, identifies areas where alternative control technologies may be implemented, and discusses the available alternative control technologies. The release factors were used in a computer code system called ENFORM, which calculates the annual release of any species from any part of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle given a projection of installed nuclear generation capacity. This survey of fuel cycle releases was performed for three reprocessing scenarios (stowaway, reprocessing without recycle of Pu and reprocessing with full recycle of U and Pu) for a 100-year period beginning in 1977. The radioactivity releases were ranked on the basis of a relative ranking factor. The relative ranking factor is based on the 100-year summation of the 50-year population dose commitment from an annual release of radioactive effluents. The nonradioactive releases were ranked on the basis of dilution factor. The twenty highest ranking radioactive releases were identified and each of these was analyzed in terms of the basis for calculating the release and a description of the currently employed control method. Alternative control technology is then discussed, along with the available capital and operating cost figures for alternative control methods

  15. Environmental control and waste management system design concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, A. R.

    1974-01-01

    Passive device contains both solid and liquid animal waste matter for extended period without being cleaned and without contaminating animal. Constant airflow dries solid waste and evaporates liquid matter. Technique will maintain controlled atmospheric conditions and cage cleanliness during periods of 6 months to 1 year.

  16. Air contamination control as an element of state environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.

    1993-01-01

    The results of air contamination control on the base of gamma and beta radioactivity of aerosols collected on filters and in precipitation samples have been shown. The data have been gathered from 12 monitoring stations in Poland during 1993. No significant differences between actual results and those obtained in previous years have been noticed. 4 figs, 1 tab

  17. Phase Change Permeation Technology For Environmental Control Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Use of a phase change permeation membrane (Dutyion [Trademark]) to passively and selectively mobilize water in microgravity to enable improved water recovery from urine/brine for Environment Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and water delivery to plans for potential use in microgravity.

  18. A-State-of-the-Art Report on Application of Radiation Technology to Environmental Pollution Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Kwang; Lee, Myun Joo

    2004-06-15

    Radiation technology has been rapidly developed for decades and its applicability also enlarged to many fields such as environmental protection, medical care, manufacturing industry, agriculture, and bio technology. In this report, we focused on the present situation of the development of radiation facilities and state-of-the-art on application of radiation to environmental pollution control including purification of flue gas, waste water treatment, and recycling of biological waste. We especially discussed the radiation technology for environmental pollution control and described the capability of its application to the industrial plants in Korea.

  19. Pollution control through innovation and technological development. Environmental policy concepts of the BDI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meller, E

    1987-02-01

    Increasing acceptance of pollution control tasks call for enhanced innovative power both of industry and politics. One pre-requisite of boosting innovation is an environmental policy concept fit into the framework of the economic policy: A clear environmental strategy stating priorities and foreseeable, fixed data for the required adjustment of industry, selection of pollution control measures by means of verifiable cost-benefit analyses in cooperation with industry, embedding environmental policy in the context of the free market system and harmonization of means and methods on an international level. (orig./HSCH).

  20. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Acceptance Testing for Node 1 Temperature and Humidity Control Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Storage (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper will provide a summary of the Node 1 ECLS THC subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for this subsystem.The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Storage (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper will provide a summary of the Node 1 ECLS THC subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for this subsystem.

  1. Proceedings of the second US Department of Energy environmental control symposium. Volume 2. Nuclear energy, conservation, and solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Second Environmental Control Symposium. Symposium presentations highlighted environmental control activities which span the entire DOE. Volume II contains papers relating to: environmental control aspects of nuclear energy use and development; nuclear waste management; renewable energy sources; transportation and building conservation (fuel economy, gasohol, building standards, and industry); and geothermal energy, power transmission, and energy storage

  2. Proceedings of the second US Department of Energy environmental control symposium. Volume 2. Nuclear energy, conservation, and solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Second Environmental Control Symposium. Symposium presentations highlighted environmental control activities which span the entire DOE. Volume II contains papers relating to: environmental control aspects of nuclear energy use and development; nuclear waste management; renewable energy sources; transportation and building conservation (fuel economy, gasohol, building standards, and industry); and geothermal energy, power transmission, and energy storage. (DMC)

  3. Environmental controls on pyrocumulus and pyrocumulonimbus initiation and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Lareau

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the first direct observational evidence that the condensation level in pyrocumulus and pyrocumulonimbus clouds can be significantly higher than the ambient lifted condensation level. In addition, we show that the environmental thermodynamic profile, day-to-day variations in humidity, and ambient wind shear all exert significant influence over the onset and development of pyroconvective clouds. These findings are established using a scanning Doppler lidar and mobile radiosonde system during two large wildfires in northern California, the Bald Fire and the Rocky Fire. The lidar is used to distinguish liquid water from smoke backscatter during the plume rise, and thus provides a direct detection of plume condensations levels. Plume tops are subsequently determined from both the lidar and nearby radar observations. The radiosonde data, obtained adjacent to the fires, contextualize the lidar and radar observations, and enable estimates of the plume ascent, convective available potential energy, and equilibrium level. A noteworthy finding is that in these cases, the convective condensation level, not the lifted condensation level, provides the best estimate of the pyrocumulus initiation height.

  4. Mosquito Traps: An Innovative, Environmentally Friendly Technique to Control Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Poulin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We tested the use of mosquito traps as an alternative to spraying insecticide in Camargue (France following the significant impacts observed on the non-target fauna through Bti persistence and trophic perturbations. In a village of 600 inhabitants, 16 Techno Bam traps emitting CO2 and using octenol lures were set from April to November 2016. Trap performance was estimated at 70% overall based on mosquitoes landing on human bait in areas with and without traps. The reduction of Ochlerotatus caspius and Oc. detritus, the two species targeted by Bti spraying, was, respectively, 74% and 98%. Traps were less efficient against Anopheles hyrcanus (46%, which was more attracted by lactic acid than octenol lures based on previous tests. Nearly 300,000 mosquitoes from nine species were captured, with large variations among traps, emphasizing that trap performance is also influenced by surrounding factors. Environmental impact, based on the proportion of non-target insects captured, was mostly limited to small chironomids attracted by street lights. The breeding success of a house martin colony was not significantly affected by trap use, in contrast to Bti spraying. Our experiment confirms that the deployment of mosquito traps can offer a cost-effective alternative to Bti spraying for protecting local populations from mosquito nuisance in sensitive natural areas.

  5. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Acceptance Testing for Node 1 Atmosphere Control and Supply Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper provides a summary of the Node 1 ECLS ACS subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for that subsystem.

  6. Fiscal federalism approach for controlling global environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murty, M.N.

    1996-01-01

    It is found that optimal international carbon taxes are country specific and we can decompose a tax on a domestically produced carbon-intensive commodity into a revenue tax, a tax to control local atmospheric pollution and an international carbon tax. It shows that an institutional arrangement for the world economy similar to the fiscal federalism in the federal countries can be useful to internalize the global externalities of atmospheric pollution. 18 refs

  7. An optical brain computer interface for environmental control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Hasan; Shewokis, Patricia A; Bunce, Scott; Onaral, Banu

    2011-01-01

    A brain computer interface (BCI) is a system that translates neurophysiological signals detected from the brain to supply input to a computer or to control a device. Volitional control of neural activity and its real-time detection through neuroimaging modalities are key constituents of BCI systems. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a new BCI design that utilizes intention-related cognitive activity within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex using functional near infrared (fNIR) spectroscopy. fNIR is a noninvasive, safe, portable and affordable optical technique with which to monitor hemodynamic changes, in the brain's cerebral cortex. Because of its portability and ease of use, fNIR is amenable to deployment in ecologically valid natural working environments. We integrated a control paradigm in a computerized 3D virtual environment to augment interactivity. Ten healthy participants volunteered for a two day study in which they navigated a virtual environment with keyboard inputs, but were required to use the fNIR-BCI for interaction with virtual objects. Results showed that participants consistently utilized the fNIR-BCI with an overall success rate of 84% and volitionally increased their cerebral oxygenation level to trigger actions within the virtual environment.

  8. Intelligent automated control of robotic systems for environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Remote systems are needed to accomplish many tasks, such as the cleanup of waste sites in which the exposure of personnel to radiation, chemical, explosive, and other hazardous constituents is unacceptable. In addition, hazardous operations, which in the past have been completed by technicians, are under scrutiny because of the high costs and low productivity associated with providing protective clothing and environments. Traditional remote operations have, unfortunately, proven to also have very low productivity when compared with unencumbered human operators. However, recent advances in the integration of sensors and computing into the control of remotely operated equipment has shown great promise for reducing the cost of remote systems by providing faster and safer remote systems. The US Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development (OTD) has sponsored the development of the generic intelligent system controller (GISC) for application to remote system control. The GISC employs a highly modular architecture employing distributed real-time computing resources for speed and efficiency of computation. Currently, the graphics interface of GISC has been implemented on a Unix-based Silicon Graphics computer using commercial animation graphics software modified for real-time updating from sensory systems. A first implementation of GISC has been completed and is currently in use at Hanford, Washington, as part of the underground storage tank robotics technology development program

  9. Environmental emissions control programs at Lambton TGS [Thermal Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalvins, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    Ontario Hydro's air emissions control programs at Lambton thermal generating station, both committed and planned, are reviewed, and their potential impacts on emissions, effluents and wastes are discussed. Control technologies examined include flue gas conditioning, wet limestone scrubbing, combustion process modifications, urea injection, and selective catalytic reduction. The implementation of these technologies has the potential to create new solid and liquid waste disposal problems, the full extent of which is often not realized at the process selection stage. For example, selective noncatalytic reduction using urea injection can lead to increased CO emissions, escape of unreacted ammonia from the stack at levels of 5-50 ppM, increase in N 2 O emissions, contamination of fly ash, gypsum and waste water with ammonia, and an increase in CO 2 emissions of less than 0.4% due to increased power consumption. Optimum performance of the air emissions control systems, with minimum negative impact on the environment, requires consideration of the impact of these systems on all waste streams. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  10. Weed control technology for environmentally, economically and socially sustainable agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Srivastava, R.C.; Ghorai, A.K.; Singh, S.R.

    2001-04-01

    Studies were conducted through a series of experiments for five consecutive wet seasons with a variety of alternative biological weed control techniques by means of soil solarization. This is a method of heating soil surface by using transparent polyethylene sheets placed on soil surface to trap solar radiation. This raises soil temperature to a level lethal for many soil borne pathogens and weed seeds, thus killing weeds before crop emergence. The use of black low density polyethylene sheets reduces weed growth and increases rice yield

  11. Weed control technology for environmentally, economically and socially sustainable agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, Phulwari Sharif, Patna, Bihar (India); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Srivastava, R C [Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region (ICAR), Bhubaneswar (India); Ghorai, A K [CRIJAF (ICAR), Barrackpore, West Bengal (India); Singh, S R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, Phulwari Sharif, Patna, Bihar (India)

    2001-04-01

    Studies were conducted through a series of experiments for five consecutive wet seasons with a variety of alternative biological weed control techniques by means of soil solarization. This is a method of heating soil surface by using transparent polyethylene sheets placed on soil surface to trap solar radiation. This raises soil temperature to a level lethal for many soil borne pathogens and weed seeds, thus killing weeds before crop emergence. The use of black low density polyethylene sheets reduces weed growth and increases rice yield.

  12. Design and quality control of an environmental data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FANJIRINDRATOVO, T.

    2009-01-01

    The present work is focused on the design of a microcontroller based measurement system and the control quality to validate it. So, a mobile instrument called DALENPA was designed to measure and log the following data: atmospheric pressure, ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, air dose rate, geographical coordinates by an embedded GPS receiver. The instrument is autonomous in energy by solar panel and can be connected to a PC directly or by modem. After, the quality control is based on the calibartion in a secondary laboratory. The target is to get its calibration curve and the estimation of global uncertainties. This estimation wants to include all sources of uncertainty belonging to the instrument and the secondary laboratory, and follows the method estabilished by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). The calibration curve is fitted by the least squares method with uncertainties in the two variables. We got an efficient instrument with uncertainties under the limits estabilished by the regulating standards [fr

  13. Cooperative Control of Mobile Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring: An Event-Triggered Finite-Time Control Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiang; Han, Qing-Long; Zhang, Botao; Liu, Dongliang; Liu, Shirong

    2017-12-01

    This paper deals with the problem of environmental monitoring by developing an event-triggered finite-time control scheme for mobile sensor networks. The proposed control scheme can be executed by each sensor node independently and consists of two parts: one part is a finite-time consensus algorithm while the other part is an event-triggered rule. The consensus algorithm is employed to enable the positions and velocities of sensor nodes to quickly track the position and velocity of a virtual leader in finite time. The event-triggered rule is used to reduce the updating frequency of controllers in order to save the computational resources of sensor nodes. Some stability conditions are derived for mobile sensor networks with the proposed control scheme under both a fixed communication topology and a switching communication topology. Finally, simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme for the problem of environmental monitoring.

  14. The implementation of modern digital technology in x-ray medical diagnosis in Republic of Moldova - a stringent necessity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosca, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    The study includes analyses of current technical state of radiodiagnostic equipment from the Public Medico-Sanitary Institution of Ministry of Health of Republic of Moldova (IMSP MS RM). The traditional radiodiagnostic apparatuses were morally and physically outrun at 96,6% (in regional MSPI - 93,5%), inclusive the dental one - 92,0% (in raional MSPI - 97,2%), X-Ray exam -100%, mobile - 84,1% etc. The exploitation of the traditional radiodiagnostic apparatuses with high degree of physical and moral wear essentially diminished the quality of profile investigation, creates premises for diagnostic error perpetrating, increase the collective ionizing irradiation of population etc. In recent years the subvention of MSPI HM RM with digital radiodiagnostic equipment was started. This process is very hard unfold because of grave socio-economic crises in Republic of Moldova. Despite these obstacles the subvention of MSPI HM RM with digital equipment represents a stringent necessity and a time request.

  15. Assessing environmental DNA detection in controlled lentic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Gregory R; Díaz-Ferguson, Edgardo; Hill, Jeffrey E; Shea, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Little consideration has been given to environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling strategies for rare species. The certainty of species detection relies on understanding false positive and false negative error rates. We used artificial ponds together with logistic regression models to assess the detection of African jewelfish eDNA at varying fish densities (0, 0.32, 1.75, and 5.25 fish/m3). Our objectives were to determine the most effective water stratum for eDNA detection, estimate true and false positive eDNA detection rates, and assess the number of water samples necessary to minimize the risk of false negatives. There were 28 eDNA detections in 324, 1-L, water samples collected from four experimental ponds. The best-approximating model indicated that the per-L-sample probability of eDNA detection was 4.86 times more likely for every 2.53 fish/m3 (1 SD) increase in fish density and 1.67 times less likely for every 1.02 C (1 SD) increase in water temperature. The best section of the water column to detect eDNA was the surface and to a lesser extent the bottom. Although no false positives were detected, the estimated likely number of false positives in samples from ponds that contained fish averaged 3.62. At high densities of African jewelfish, 3-5 L of water provided a >95% probability for the presence/absence of its eDNA. Conversely, at moderate and low densities, the number of water samples necessary to achieve a >95% probability of eDNA detection approximated 42-73 and >100 L, respectively. Potential biases associated with incomplete detection of eDNA could be alleviated via formal estimation of eDNA detection probabilities under an occupancy modeling framework; alternatively, the filtration of hundreds of liters of water may be required to achieve a high (e.g., 95%) level of certainty that African jewelfish eDNA will be detected at low densities (i.e., <0.32 fish/m3 or 1.75 g/m3).

  16. Water Pollution Control Training: The Educational Role of the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Frederick D.

    Presented are the results of a study to determine the perceived needs of environmental control education programs as seen by students, instructors, deans or program directors, and field-related employers in the field of water pollution control. Data were collected utilizing three approaches: survey instruments, information from Water Quality…

  17. Trade off between costs and environmental effects of weed control on pavements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempenaar, C.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Horst, van der C.L.M.; Beltman, W.H.J.; Leemans, K.J.M.; Bannink, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    An actor-participative project on sustainable weed control on pavements was started in 2000 in the Netherlands. The aim of the project was to develop a new concept of weed management that provides cost-effective and environmentally sound weed control. Early in 2002, practical guidelines were drawn

  18. The control and prevention of seizures in children, a developmental and environmental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinn, E. B.

    1978-01-01

    The clinical effectiveness of neurophysiological and developmental factors in controlling and preventing seizure mechanisms is detailed. It is shown that as cortical control advances with maturation, it requires increasingly severe environmental adversity to release this residual defensive reflex mechanism. Administration of anticonvulsant drugs is discouraged because of possible undesirable neuronal effects on the very young brain.

  19. Eleventh annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The 75 papers contained in this volume are divided into the following sections: compliance technology; technology base activities; high efficiency preparation; air toxics (especially mercury); air toxics and CO 2 control; superclean emissions; Combustion 2000; advanced research; commercial and industrial combustion systems; alternative fuels; environmental control; and coal utilization. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  20. Environmental control technology activities of the Department of Energy in FY 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    The Department of Energy is responsible for the research, development, and demonstration of emerging energy technologies and the promotion of energy conservation. An integral and significant part of that responsibility includes the balancing of energy goals with environmental requirements to protect and enhance the general health, safety, and welfare of the nation. This requires that environmental effects be considered and mitigating measures be taken in all energy processes through incorporation of environmental and safety controls which are developed as an integral part of energy system design. This inventory of environmental control technology activities was initiated by the Administrator, ERDA, prior to the incorporation of that administration within the Department of Energy. This compilation of total Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) environmental control technology activities, and associated funding, related to environmental control technology identifies the resources committed by ERDA to demonstrate its objective to protect and enhance the general health, safety, and welfare of the nation in the research, development, and demonstration of energy systems. Only ERDA research, development, and demonstration activities are covered in this report. The compilation for FY 1978 will encompass all of the DOE activities

  1. A case study of the Australian Plague Locust Commission and environmental due diligence: why mere legislative compliance is no longer sufficient for environmentally responsible locust control in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Paul G; Walker, Paul W; McRae, Heath; Hamilton, John G

    2005-07-01

    The Australian Plague Locust Commission (APLC) manages locust populations across 2 million square kilometers of eastern Australia using the aerial application of chemical and biological control agents to protect agricultural production. This occurs via a preventative control strategy involving ultralow-volume spray equipment to distribute small droplets of control agent over a target area. The economic costs of, and potential gains stemming from, locust control are well documented. The application of insecticides, however, to fragile arid and semiarid ecosystems is a task that brings with it both real and perceived environmental issues. The APLC is proactive in addressing these issues through a combination of targeted environmental operational research, an ISO-14001-aligned Environmental Management System (EMS), and links with environmental regulatory and research institutions. Increasing due diligence components within Australian environmental legislation dictate that mere legislative compliance is no longer sufficient for industries to ensure that they meet their environmental obligations. The development of external research links and the formulation of an EMS for locust control have enabled the APLC to identify environmental issues and trends, quantify objective environmental targets and strategies, and facilitate continuous improvement in its environmental performance, while maintaining stakeholder support. This article outlines the environmental issues faced by the APLC, the research programs in place to address these issues, and the procedures in place to incorporate research findings into the organization's operational structure.

  2. Environmental forcing, invasion and control of ecological and epidemiological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, J V; Norman, R A

    2007-08-07

    Destabilising a biological system through periodic or stochastic forcing can lead to significant changes in system behaviour. Forcing can bring about coexistence when previously there was exclusion; it can excite massive system response through resonance, it can offset the negative effect of apparent competition and it can change the conditions under which the system can be invaded. Our main focus is on the invasion properties of continuous time models under periodic forcing. We show that invasion is highly sensitive to the strength, period, phase, shape and configuration of the forcing components. This complexity can be of great advantage if some of the forcing components are anthropogenic in origin. They can be turned into instruments of control to achieve specific objectives in ecology and disease management, for example. Culling, vaccination and resource regulation are considered. A general analysis is presented, based on the leading Lyapunov exponent criterion for invasion. For unstructured invaders, a formula for this exponent can typically be written down from the model equations. Whether forcing hinders or encourages invasion depends on two factors: the covariances between invader parameters and resident populations and the shifts in average resident population levels brought about by the forcing. The invasion dynamics of a structured invader are much more complicated but an analytic solution can be obtained in quadratic approximation for moderate forcing strength. The general theory is illustrated by a range of models drawn from ecology and epidemiology. The relationship between periodic and stochastic forcing is also considered.

  3. The Connection between Environmental Attitude-Behavior Gap and Other Individual Inconsistencies: A Call for Strengthening Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, Ignacio; Puelles, María

    2017-01-01

    What is going on with environmental education, which is currently unable to promote pro-environmental behaviors as effectively as it promotes pro-environmental attitudes? A tentative answer is that the environmental attitude-behavior gap observed in some individuals is just one manifestation of their lack of self-control for maintaining…

  4. Cost-effectiveness of environmental management for vector control in resource development projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, R

    1991-01-01

    Vector control methods are traditionally divided in chemical, biological and environmental management approaches, and this distinction also reflected in certain financial and economic aspects. This is particularly true for environmental modification, usually engineering or other structural works. It is highly capital intensive, as opposed to chemical and biological control which require recurrent expenditures, and discount rates are therefore a prominent consideration in deciding for one or the other approach. Environmental manipulation requires recurrent action, but can often be carried out with the community participation, which raises the issue of opportunity costs. The incorporation of environmental management in resource projects is generally impeded by economic considerations. The Internal Rate of Return continues to be a crucial criterion for funding agencies and development banks to support new projects; at the same time Governments of debt-riden countries in the Third World will do their best to avoid additional loans on such frills as environmental and health safeguards. Two approaches can be recommended to nevertheless ensure the incorporation of environmental management measures in resource projects in an affordable way. First, there are several examples of cases where environmental management measures either have a dual benefit (increasing both agricultural production and reducing vector-borne disease transmission) or can be implemented at zero costs. Second, the additional costs involved in structural modifications can be separated from the project development costs considered in the calculations of the Internal Rate of Return, and financial support can be sought from bilateral technical cooperation agencies particularly interested in environmental and health issues. There is a dearth of information in the cost-effectiveness of alternative vector control strategies in the developing country context. The process of integrating vector control in the

  5. Vehicle navigation in populated areas using predictive control with environmental uncertainty handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypczyk Krzysztof

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of navigating an autonomous vehicle using environmental dynamics prediction. The usefulness of the Game Against Nature formalism adapted to modelling environmental prediction uncertainty is discussed. The possibility of the control law synthesis on the basis of strategies against Nature is presented. The properties and effectiveness of the approach presented are verified by simulations carried out in MATLAB.

  6. Precision gimballed mirror control in remote sensing LIDAR for environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravindra; Mudgil, Ashwani; Prakash, Chandra; Pal, Suranjan

    2006-12-01

    Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) Systems are advantageously used to detect and measure very small concentrations of trace gases in the atmosphere. There is a requirement to interrogate and search for the presence of one or more of toxic agents out of a large number (about 20 or so) of possible agents at distances up to several kilometers with the help of a ground-based multi-wavelength DIAL system employing pulsed, tunable laser sources in the wavelength bands of 2-5 micron and 9.2-10.8 micron. The Laser beams from the two sources are directed in the atmosphere with a predefined divergence to scan the atmosphere. Two methodologies can be implemented to provide the beam steering, one is to mount the entire telescope of transmitting and receiving channel on to a motorized gimbal platform and second is to keep the optical telescope stationary and use a slewing mirror to steer the beam in required direction. The first scheme is named as mass control and second scheme is called mirror control. Both the schemes have relative advantages and disadvantages and in the present DIAL application second scheme is being adopted. The present opto-mechanical configuration of DIAL system employs a 700 x 500 mm 2 (Elliptical) steering mirror for transmitting the collimated beams in a required direction and receiving the reflected beam as well. In the receiving channel a Telescope is used which collects the return beam and focuses the same on to a detector. The slewing mirror is housed in a gimbal mount having a sufficient FOR (Field of Regard) in Azimuth and elevation plane. The paper describes the modeling and simulation of Opto-mechanical and servo-mechanical subsystems of precision gimbaled mirror and also discusses the issues related to design of control system. The requirement specifications in regard to field of regard, slew rates 5°/s, scanning rates 1°/s are to be met with stringent beam pointing and scanning accuracies. The design of this system is categorized as

  7. Advance Planning, Programming and Production Control as key Activities Now the Environmental Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Cardoso de Oliveira Neto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the evolution of Planning, Programming and Control of Production (PPCP as essential activities of the company towards the insertion of environmental education. The approach is based on an exploratory research and a critical bibliographic revision. Two main objectives were established: i a new way of production organization, by considering cleaner production from company utilities to production capacity, technology and outsourcing and ii infrastructure changes related to market attendance and environmental education dissemination. Needs that arise can be grouped as follows: utilities adequacy, cleaner technologies and ecochains implementation; instruction and dissemination of environmental education; and necessity of the adoption of new paradigms.

  8. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements C Appendix C to Part 273 Navigation and... Environmental Impact Statements 1. Description of the problem. a. Pests. Identify the pest to be controlled by.... Relationship to environmental situation. Non-target organisms and integrated pest management programs. 2...

  9. Waste management and environmental controls in the Australian uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.G.; Morison, I.W.

    1982-01-01

    The development of the waste management and related environmental controls applied to uranium mining and processing in Australia is described. Major uranium deposits occur in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory, a world heritage tropical wetland area with deep significance to Aboriginal people. The formulation of environmental controls took into consideration the unique features of the region in addition to experiences from earlier uranium mining operations. A description is given of the operations at Rum Jungle, the pollutants released and their effects on the environment. Commonwealth and State responsibilities for waste management and environmental control and the establishment of Codes of Practice are noted and proposed water management and tailings management programs at the four Alligator Rivers sites are described

  10. Computer-controlled environmental test systems - Criteria for selection, installation, and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C. P.

    1972-01-01

    Applications for presently marketed, new computer-controlled environmental test systems are suggested. It is shown that capital costs of these systems follow an exponential cost function curve that levels out as additional applications are implemented. Some test laboratory organization changes are recommended in terms of new personnel requirements, and facility modification are considered in support of a computer-controlled test system. Software for computer-controlled test systems are discussed, and control loop speed constraints are defined for real-time control functions. Suitable input and output devices and memory storage device tradeoffs are also considered.

  11. Effects of environmental factors on child survival in Bangladesh: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, B A; Chakraborty, J; Chowdhury, J T; Chowdhury, U K; Ali, M; el Arifeen, S; Sack, R B

    1999-03-01

    The need for further studies on relationships between deaths and environmental variables has been reported in the literature. This case-control study was, therefore, carried out to find out the associations between several social and environmental variables and deaths of children due to infectious diseases such as those leading to diarrhoea, acute respiratory infection, measles and other diseases. Six hundred and twenty-five deaths (cases) and an equal number of matched living children (controls) aged 1-59 months, were studied in rural Matlab. An analysis of crude and adjusted odds ratio showed differential associations. Sources of drinking water, amount of stored water, conditions of latrines, number of persons sleeping with the child and the type of cooking site were statistically significantly associated with deaths due to infectious diseases after controlling for breast feeding, immunization, and the family size. Significant associations were also observed between: (i) the sources of drinking water and deaths due to ARI, and (ii) conditions of latrines and deaths due to diarrhoeal diseases, after controlling for the confounding variables. Several other environmental factors also showed associations with these various death groups, but they were not statistically significant. The size of the samples in death groups (small) and the prevalence of more or less homogeneous environmental health conditions probably diminished the magnitude of the effects. The results of the study reconfirm the importance of environmental health intervention in child survival, irrespective of breast-feeding, immunization, and selected social variables.

  12. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to ``conventional`` technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  13. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to conventional'' technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  14. Development of environmentally friendly universal controller. Data and materials; 1998 nendo kankyo taio universal controller no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shiryohen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Research and development was carried out for an 'environmentally friendly universal controller (UC)' which would be 'user-friendly and energy-saving' when used with electrical home appliances, and data and materials on them were compiled into this volume. It covers the specifications (Versions 0.6 and 0.51) of a newly developed two-way controller protocol, the specification (Version 0.1) of two-way remote control IrDA-C communication unit hardware, an infrared communication protocol IrDa Control, and the like. It also accommodates information collected through surveys of technological trends as reflected in technical literature, Internet home pages, catalogs, and the like, concerning the user-friendliness of electrical home appliances, remote control, domestic consumption of electric power, and the like. Also covered is the result of surveys of patents involving environmentally friendly UC related technologies, namely, Japanese patents (from applications made in 1979 through disclosures made in 1998) and U.S. patents (registrations made in 1982 and thereafter). Furthermore, it contains the result of surveys of actualities of domestic use conducted for the purpose of clarifying the effect of environmentally friendly UC introduction, how such UCs are being accepted by the public, and the conditions that should be satisfied for their popularization. (NEDO)

  15. Development of environmentally friendly universal controller. Data and materials; 1998 nendo kankyo taio universal controller no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shiryohen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Research and development was carried out for an 'environmentally friendly universal controller (UC)' which would be 'user-friendly and energy-saving' when used with electrical home appliances, and data and materials on them were compiled into this volume. It covers the specifications (Versions 0.6 and 0.51) of a newly developed two-way controller protocol, the specification (Version 0.1) of two-way remote control IrDA-C communication unit hardware, an infrared communication protocol IrDa Control, and the like. It also accommodates information collected through surveys of technological trends as reflected in technical literature, Internet home pages, catalogs, and the like, concerning the user-friendliness of electrical home appliances, remote control, domestic consumption of electric power, and the like. Also covered is the result of surveys of patents involving environmentally friendly UC related technologies, namely, Japanese patents (from applications made in 1979 through disclosures made in 1998) and U.S. patents (registrations made in 1982 and thereafter). Furthermore, it contains the result of surveys of actualities of domestic use conducted for the purpose of clarifying the effect of environmentally friendly UC introduction, how such UCs are being accepted by the public, and the conditions that should be satisfied for their popularization. (NEDO)

  16. Development of a Framework for the Evaluation of the Environmental Benefits of Controlled Traffic Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Mounem Mouazen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Although controlled traffic farming (CTF is an environmentally friendly soil management system, no quantitative evaluation of environmental benefits is available. This paper aims at establishing a framework for quantitative evaluation of the environmental benefits of CTF, considering a list of environmental benefits, namely, reducing soil compaction, runoff/erosion, energy requirement and greenhouse gas emission (GHG, conserving organic matter, enhancing soil biodiversity and fertiliser use efficiency. Based on a comprehensive literature review and the European Commission Soil Framework Directive, the choice of and the weighting of the impact of each of the environmental benefits were made. The framework was validated using data from three selected farms. For Colworth farm (Unilever, UK, the framework predicted the largest overall environmental benefit of 59.3% of the theoretically maximum achievable benefits (100%, as compared to the other two farms in Scotland (52% and Australia (47.3%. This overall benefit could be broken down into: reducing soil compaction (24%, tillage energy requirement (10% and GHG emissions (3%, enhancing soil biodiversity (7% and erosion control (6%, conserving organic matter (6%, and improving fertiliser use efficiency (3%. Similar evaluation can be performed for any farm worldwide, providing that data on soil properties, topography, machinery, and weather are available.

  17. Environmental analytical laboratory setup operation and QA/QC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, J.P.; Boyd, J.A.; DeViney, S.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental analysis requires precise and timely measurements. The required precise measurement is ensured with quality control and timeliness through an efficient operation. The efficiency of the operation also ensures cost-competitiveness. Environmental analysis plays a very important role in the environmental protection program. Due to the possible litigation involvement, most environmental analyses follow stringent criteria, such as the U.S. EPA Contract Laboratory Program procedures with analytical results documented in an orderly manner. The documentation demonstrates that all quality control steps are followed and facilitates data evaluation to determine the quality and usefulness of the data. Furthermore, the tedious documents concerning sample checking, chain-of-custody, standard or surrogate preparation, daily refrigerator and oven temperature monitoring, analytical and extraction logbooks, standard operation procedures, etc., also are an important part of the laboratory documentation. Quality control for environmental analysis is becoming more stringent, required documentation is becoming more detailed and turnaround time is shorter. However, the business is becoming more cost-competitive and it appears that this trend will continue. In this paper, we discuss what should be done to deal this high quality, fast-paced and tedious environmental analysis process at a competitive cost. The success of environmental analysis is people. The knowledge and experience of the staff are the key to a successful environmental analysis program. In order to be successful in this new area, the ability to develop new methods is crucial. In addition, the laboratory information system, laboratory automation and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) are major factors for laboratory success. This paper concentrates on these areas

  18. Environmental control and control of the environment: the basis of longevity in bivalves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abele, Doris; Philipp, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Longevity and ageing are two sides of a coin, leaving the question open as to which one is the cause and which one the effect. At the individual level, the physiological rate of ageing determines the length of life (= individual longevity, as long as death results from old age and not from disease or other impacts). Individual longevity depends on the direct influence of environmental conditions with respect to nutrition, and the possibility for and timing of reproduction, as well as on the energetic costs animals invest in behavioural and physiological stress defence. All these environmental effectors influence hormonal and cellular signalling pathways that modify the individual physiological condition, the reproductive strategy, and the rate of ageing. At the species level, longevity (= maximum lifespan) is the result of an evolutionary process and, thus, largely determined by the species' behavioural and physiological adaptations to its ecological niche. Specifically, reproductive and breeding strategies have to be optimized in relation to local environmental conditions in different habitats. As a result of adaptive and evolutionary processes, species longevity is genetically underpinned, not necessarily by a few ageing genes, but by an evolutionary process that has hierarchically shaped and optimized species genomes to function in a specific niche or environmental system. Importantly, investigations and reviews attempting to unravel the mechanistic basis of the ageing process need to differentiate clearly between the evolutionary process shaping longevity at the species level and the regulatory mechanisms that alter the individual rate of ageing. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Critical analysis of the stringent complete response in multiple myeloma: contribution of sFLC and bone marrow clonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, Joaquín; Paiva, Bruno; López-Anglada, Lucía; Mateos, María-Victoria; Cedena, Teresa; Vidríales, María-Belén; Sáez-Gómez, María Auxiliadora; Contreras, Teresa; Oriol, Albert; Rapado, Inmaculada; Teruel, Ana-Isabel; Cordón, Lourdes; Blanchard, María Jesús; Bengoechea, Enrique; Palomera, Luis; de Arriba, Felipe; Cueto-Felgueroso, Cecilia; Orfao, Alberto; Bladé, Joan; San Miguel, Jesús F; Lahuerta, Juan José

    2015-08-13

    Stringent complete response (sCR) criteria are used in multiple myeloma as a deeper response category compared with CR, but prospective validation is lacking, it is not always clear how evaluation of clonality is performed, and is it not known what the relative clinical influence is of the serum free light chain ratio (sFLCr) and bone marrow (BM) clonality to define more sCR. To clarify this controversy, we focused on 94 patients that reached CR, of which 69 (73%) also fulfilled the sCR criteria. Patients with sCR displayed slightly longer time to progression (median, 62 vs 53 months, respectively; P = .31). On analyzing this contribution to the prognosis of sFLCr or clonality, it was found that the sFLCr does not identify patients in CR at distinct risk; by contrast, low-sensitive multiparametric flow cytometry (MFC) immunophenotyping (2 colors), which is equivalent to immunohistochemistry, identifies a small number of patients (5 cases) with high residual tumor burden and dismal outcome; nevertheless, using traditional 4-color MFC, persistent clonal BM disease was detectable in 36% of patients, who, compared with minimal residual disease-negative cases, had a significantly inferior outcome. These results show that the current definition of sCR should be revised. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  20. Are Dutch residents ready for a more stringent policy to enhance the energy performance of their homes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middelkoop, Manon van; Vringer, Kees; Visser, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Investments in the energy performance of houses offer good prospects for reducing energy consumption and CO_2 emissions. However, people are not easily convinced of the need to take measures to improve the energy performance of their houses, even when financial benefits outweigh the costs. This article analyses the factors that influence the decision for improving the energy performance of existing homes, including policy instruments. Subsequently, the article provides policy suggestions on how to stimulate energy performance improvements. Both owners and tenants (50–70%) support government policy on energy performance improvements to existing homes. Nevertheless, people also have strong feelings of autonomy regarding their homes. Our results underline the importance of well-informed and competent decision-makers. Introducing the use of Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs) into the tax system for energy and residential buildings might therefore be an effective way to increase the interest of owners in the EPC, improve the use and effect of this informative instrument, and make the first step towards bridging the tension between autonomy and more stringent instruments.

  1. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The Assistant Secretary for Environment has responsibility for identifying, characterizing, and ameliorating the environmental, health, and safety issues and public concerns associated with commercial operation of specific energy systems. The need for developing a safety and environmental control assessment for liquefied gaseous fuels was identified by the Environmental and Safety Engineering Division as a result of discussions with various governmental, industry, and academic persons having expertise with respect to the particular materials involved: liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, and anhydrous ammonia. This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in Fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 1 (Executive Summary) describes the background, purpose and organization of the LGF Program and contains summaries of the 25 reports presented in Volumes 2 and 3. Annotated bibliographies on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Safety and Environmental Control Research and on Fire Safety and Hazards of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) are included in Volume 1.

  2. Overview of environmental control aspects for the gas-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, A.M.

    1981-05-01

    Environmental control aspects relating to release of radionuclides have been analyzed for the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR). Information on environmental control systems was obtained for the most recent GCFR designs, and was used to evaluate the adequacy of these systems. The GCFR has been designed by the General Atomic Company as an alternative to other fast breeder reactor designs, such as the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR). The GCFR design includes mixed oxide fuel and helium coolant. The environmental impact of expected radionuclide releases from normal operation of the GCFR was evaluated using estimated collective dose equivalent commitments resulting from 1 year of plant operation. The results were compared to equivalent estimates for the Light Water Reactor (LWR) and High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). A discussion of uncertainties in system performances, tritium production rates, and radiation quality factors for tritium is included

  3. Eleventh annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The 75 papers contained in this volume are divided into the following sections: compliance technology; technology base activities; high efficiency preparation; air toxics (especially mercury); air toxics and CO{sub 2} control; superclean emissions; Combustion 2000; advanced research; commercial and industrial combustion systems; alternative fuels; environmental control; and coal utilization. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. Tenth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference: Proceedings. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions: combustion 2000 session; advanced research and technology development session; commercial/industrial combustion systems session; alternative fuels utilization session; environmental control poster session; and advanced combustion technology poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. Assessment of research and development (R and D) needs in LPG safety and environmental control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSteese, J.G.

    1982-05-01

    The report characterizes the LPG industry covering all operations from production to end use, reviews current knowledge of LPG release phenomenology, summarizes the status of current LPG release prevention and control methodology, and identifies any remaining safety and environmental problems and recommends R and D strategies that may mitigate these problems. (ACR)

  6. Impact of cruise control on traffic safety, energy consumption and environmental pollution : final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaeker, D.M.; Brouwer, R.F.T.; Malone, K.; Klunder, G.; et al

    2006-01-01

    In this subproject, the impact of Cruise Control (CC) was analysed with respect to traffic safety, energy consumption, and environmental pollution. In order to work on this topic from a European perspective, a team of European experts in the fields of driver assistance systems, human factors,

  7. Environmental Control Plan for the Industrial Hygiene Field Services Facility; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. W. Donnelly

    2001-01-01

    This environmental control plan is for the Hanford Site's industrial hygiene field services facility, located in the 100-N Area. The facility is used for the maintenance and storage of respirators, respiratory equipment and testing, calibration and testing of industrial hygiene equipment, and asbestos fiber counting

  8. Using a Novel Wireless-Networked Decentralized Control Scheme under Unpredictable Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chung-Liang; Huang, Yi-Ming; Hong, Guo-Fong

    2015-11-12

    The direction of sunshine or the installation sites of environmental control facilities in the greenhouse result in different temperature and humidity levels in the various zones of the greenhouse, and thus, the production quality of crop is inconsistent. This study proposed a wireless-networked decentralized fuzzy control scheme to regulate the environmental parameters of various culture zones within a greenhouse. The proposed scheme can create different environmental conditions for cultivating different crops in various zones and achieve diversification or standardization of crop production. A star-type wireless sensor network is utilized to communicate with each sensing node, actuator node, and control node in various zones within the greenhouse. The fuzzy rule-based inference system is used to regulate the environmental parameters for temperature and humidity based on real-time data of plant growth response provided by a growth stage selector. The growth stage selector defines the control ranges of temperature and humidity of the various culture zones according to the leaf area of the plant, the number of leaves, and the cumulative amount of light. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme is stable and robust and provides basis for future greenhouse applications.

  9. Using a Novel Wireless-Networked Decentralized Control Scheme under Unpredictable Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Liang Chang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The direction of sunshine or the installation sites of environmental control facilities in the greenhouse result in different temperature and humidity levels in the various zones of the greenhouse, and thus, the production quality of crop is inconsistent. This study proposed a wireless-networked decentralized fuzzy control scheme to regulate the environmental parameters of various culture zones within a greenhouse. The proposed scheme can create different environmental conditions for cultivating different crops in various zones and achieve diversification or standardization of crop production. A star-type wireless sensor network is utilized to communicate with each sensing node, actuator node, and control node in various zones within the greenhouse. The fuzzy rule-based inference system is used to regulate the environmental parameters for temperature and humidity based on real-time data of plant growth response provided by a growth stage selector. The growth stage selector defines the control ranges of temperature and humidity of the various culture zones according to the leaf area of the plant, the number of leaves, and the cumulative amount of light. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme is stable and robust and provides basis for future greenhouse applications.

  10. A tuneable switch for controlling environmental degradation of bioplastics: addition of isothiazolinone to polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolnough, Catherine Anne; Yee, Lachlan Hartley; Charlton, Timothy Stuart; Foster, Leslie John Ray

    2013-01-01

    Controlling the environmental degradation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and polyhydroxyvalerate (P(HB-co-HV)) bioplastics would expand the range of their potential applications. Combining PHB and P(HB-co-HV) films with the anti-fouling agent 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOI, bioplastics increases their potential use in biodegradable applications.

  11. TEST DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) OF ADD-ON NOX CONTROL UTILIZING OZONE INJECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the test design for environmental technology verification (ETV) of add-0n nitrogen oxides (NOx) control utilizing ozone injection. (NOTE: ETV is an EPA-established program to enhance domestic and international market acceptance of new or improved commercially...

  12. Environmental control and life support testing at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, Richard G.; Humphries, William R.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) test program at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is addressed. The immediate goals and current activities of the test program are discussed. Also described are the Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF) and the initial ECLSS test configuration. Future plans for the ECLSS test program and the CMIF are summarized.

  13. Environmental Pollution Control Policy-Making: An Analysis of Elite Perceptions and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Phillip; Greig, William H.

    1974-01-01

    This article is based on an analysis of the perceptions and preferences of elite groups concerning environmental pollution control policy making. Results showed that although the groups agreed that present methods were inadequate, they were, nevertheless, unable to agree upon the nature of a future policy-making system. (MA)

  14. Electrical Procedures and Environmental Control Systems. Building Maintenance. Module IV. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Garry

    This curriculum guide, one of six modules keyed to the building maintenance competency profile developed by industry and education professionals, provides materials for two units on electrical procedures and environmental control systems. Unit 1, on electrical procedures, includes the following lessons: electrical safety; troubleshooting and…

  15. Possibility of environmentally-safe casing soil disinfection for control of cobweb disease of button mushroom

    OpenAIRE

    Potočnik Ivana; Rekanović Emil; Stepnović Miloš; Milijašević-Marčić Svetlana; Todorović Biljana; Nikolić-Bujanović Ljiljana; Čekerevac Milan

    2014-01-01

    The soil-borne pathogen Cladobotryum dendroides causes cobweb disease of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and its significant yield losses. Casing soil disinfection by toxic formaldehyde is a widespread practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of two environmentally friendly substances, colloidal silver and peracetic acid, against C. dendroides. Their biological efficacy (impact on mushroom yield), effectiveness (disease control) ...

  16. Scaling impacts on environmental controls and spatial heterogeneity of soil organic carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, U.; Riley, W. J.

    2015-07-01

    The spatial heterogeneity of land surfaces affects energy, moisture, and greenhouse gas exchanges with the atmosphere. However, representing the heterogeneity of terrestrial hydrological and biogeochemical processes in Earth system models (ESMs) remains a critical scientific challenge. We report the impact of spatial scaling on environmental controls, spatial structure, and statistical properties of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks across the US state of Alaska. We used soil profile observations and environmental factors such as topography, climate, land cover types, and surficial geology to predict the SOC stocks at a 50 m spatial scale. These spatially heterogeneous estimates provide a data set with reasonable fidelity to the observations at a sufficiently high resolution to examine the environmental controls on the spatial structure of SOC stocks. We upscaled both the predicted SOC stocks and environmental variables from finer to coarser spatial scales (s = 100, 200, and 500 m and 1, 2, 5, and 10 km) and generated various statistical properties of SOC stock estimates. We found different environmental factors to be statistically significant predictors at different spatial scales. Only elevation, temperature, potential evapotranspiration, and scrub land cover types were significant predictors at all scales. The strengths of control (the median value of geographically weighted regression coefficients) of these four environmental variables on SOC stocks decreased with increasing scale and were accurately represented using mathematical functions (R2 = 0.83-0.97). The spatial structure of SOC stocks across Alaska changed with spatial scale. Although the variance (sill) and unstructured variability (nugget) of the calculated variograms of SOC stocks decreased exponentially with scale, the correlation length (range) remained relatively constant across scale. The variance of predicted SOC stocks decreased with spatial scale over the range of 50 m to ~ 500 m, and remained

  17. Environmental effects of energy production and utilization in the U.S. Volume 3. Techniques for controlling emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newkirk, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    Technological, social, economic and political techniques for controlling emission are summarized for environmental pollutants introduced into air, water and land resources. Chemical, radiological and physical factors are discussed

  18. Stringent constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section from subhalo searches with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, Asher; Hooper, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The dark matter halo of the Milky Way is predicted to contain a very large number of smaller subhalos. As a result of the dark matter annihilations taking place within such objects, the most nearby and massive subhalos could appear as point-like or spatially extended gamma-ray sources, without observable counterparts at other wavelengths. In this paper, we use the results of the Aquarius simulation to predict the distribution of nearby subhalos, and compare this to the characteristics of the unidentified gamma-ray sources observed by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Focusing on the brightest high latitude sources, we use this comparison to derive limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section. For dark matter particles lighter than ~200 GeV, the resulting limits are the strongest obtained to date, being modestly more stringent than those derived from observations of dwarf galaxies or the Galactic Center. We also derive independent limits based on the lack of unidentified gamma-ray sources with discernible spatial extension, but these limits are a factor of ~2-10 weaker than those based on point-like subhalos. Lastly, we note that four of the ten brightest high-latitude sources exhibit a similar spectral shape, consistent with 30-60 GeV dark matter particles annihilating to b quarks with an annihilation cross section on the order of sigma v ~ (5-10) x 10^-27 cm^3/s, or 8-10 GeV dark matter particles annihilating to taus with sigma v ~ (2.0-2.5) x 10^-27 cm^3/s.

  19. Financial and environmental costs of manual versus automated control of end-tidal gas concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, S; Weinberg, L; Peyton, P; Story, D; Briedis, J

    2013-01-01

    Emerging technologies that reduce the economic and environmental costs of anaesthesia have had limited assessment. We hypothesised that automated control of end-tidal gases, a new feature in anaesthesia machines, will consistently reduce volatile agent consumption cost and greenhouse gas emissions. As part of the planned replacement of anaesthesia machines in a tertiary hospital, we performed a prospective before and after study comparing the cost and greenhouse gas emissions of isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane when using manual versus automated control of end-tidal gases. We analysed 3675 general anaesthesia cases with inhalational agents: 1865 using manual control and 1810 using automated control. Volatile agent cost was $18.87/hour using manual control and $13.82/hour using automated control: mean decrease $5.05/hour (95% confidence interval: $0.88-9.22/hour, P=0.0243). The 100-year global warming potential decreased from 23.2 kg/hour of carbon dioxide equivalents to 13.0 kg/hour: mean decrease 10.2 kg/hour (95% confidence interval: 2.7-17.7 kg/hour, P=0.0179). Automated control reduced costs by 27%. Greenhouse gas emissions decreased by 44%, a greater than expected decrease facilitated by a proportional reduction in desflurane use. Automated control of end-tidal gases increases participation in low flow anaesthesia with economic and environmental benefits.

  20. Requirements for quality control of analytical data for the Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, J.

    1992-12-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Program was established for the investigation and remediation of inactive US Department of Energy (DOE) sites and facilities that have been declared surplus in terms of their previous uses. The purpose of this document is to Specify ER requirements for quality control (QC) of analytical data. Activities throughout all phases of the investigation may affect the quality of the final data product, thus are subject to control specifications. Laboratory control is emphasized in this document, and field concerns will be addressed in a companion document Energy Systems, in its role of technical coordinator and at the request of DOE-OR, extends the application of these requirements to all participants in ER activities. Because every instance and concern may not be addressed in this document, participants are encouraged to discuss any questions with the ER Quality Assurance (QA) Office, the Analytical Environmental Support Group (AESG), or the Analytical Project Office (APO)

  1. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of multiple environmental factors for swine building assessment and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiuju; Ni, Ji-Qin; Su, Zhongbin

    2017-10-15

    In confined swine buildings, temperature, humidity, and air quality are all important for animal health and productivity. However, the current swine building environmental control is only based on temperature; and evaluation and control methods based on multiple environmental factors are needed. In this paper, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) theory was adopted for multi-factor assessment of environmental quality in two commercial swine buildings using real measurement data. An assessment index system and membership functions were established; and predetermined weights were given using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) combined with knowledge of experts. The results show that multi-factors such as temperature, humidity, and concentrations of ammonia (NH 3 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) can be successfully integrated in FCE for swine building environment assessment. The FCE method has a high correlation coefficient of 0.737 compared with the method of single-factor evaluation (SFE). The FCE method can significantly increase the sensitivity and perform an effective and integrative assessment. It can be used as part of environmental controlling and warning systems for swine building environment management to improve swine production and welfare. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Formulation of advanced consumables management models: Environmental control and electrical power system performance models requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, J. K.; Torian, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    Software design specifications for developing environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) and electrical power system (EPS) programs into interactive computer programs are presented. Specifications for the ECLSS program are at the detail design level with respect to modification of an existing batch mode program. The FORTRAN environmental analysis routines (FEAR) are the subject batch mode program. The characteristics of the FEAR program are included for use in modifying batch mode programs to form interactive programs. The EPS program specifications are at the preliminary design level. Emphasis is on top-down structuring in the development of an interactive program.

  3. National Spill Control School. A pilot program in environmental training. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberholtzer, G.R.; Acuff, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Increased environmental awareness and the amended Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 required an increased level of expertise by the American Public in the field of oil spill prevention and control. The National Spill Control School was created at Corpus Christi State University to help meet this need. Drawing on the talents of a nationwide sample of experts in this field, the project team created a unique management oriented course. A review of the origination and experiences of two years of classes of this pilot program is provided in this report.

  4. Smoking behaviours and attitudes toward tobacco control among assistant environmental health officer trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, G H; Gurpreet, K; Hairi, N N; Zarihah, Z; Fadzilah, K

    2013-12-01

    Assistant environmental health officers (AEHO) are health care providers (HCPs) who act as enforcers, educators and trusted role models for the public. This is the first study to explore smoking behaviour and attitudes toward tobacco control among future HCPs. Almost 30% of AEHO trainees did not know the role of AEHOs in counselling smokers to stop smoking, but 91% agreed they should not smoke before advising others not to do so. The majority agreed that tobacco control regulations may be used as a means of reducing the prevalence of smoking. Future AEHOs had positive attitudes toward tobacco regulations but lacked understanding of their responsibility in tobacco control measures.

  5. Dust control products at Hagerman National Wildlife Refuge, Texas: environmental safety and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Bethany K.; Little, Edward E.

    2015-01-01

    Controlling fugitive dust while protecting natural resources is a challenge faced by all managers of unpaved roads. Unfortunately, road managers choosing between dust control products often have little objective environmental information to aid their decisions. To address this information gap, the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service collaborated on a field test of three dust control products with the objectives of (a) evaluating product performance under real-world conditions, (b) verifying the environmental safety of products identified as practically nontoxic in laboratory tests, and (c) testing the feasibility of several environmental monitoring techniques for use in dust control tests. In cooperation with refuge staff and product vendors, three products (one magnesium chloride plus binder, one cellulose, and one synthetic fluid plus binder) were applied in July 2012 to replicated road sections at the Hagerman National Wildlife Refuge in Texas. These sections were monitored periodically for 12 months after application. Product performance was assessed by mobile-mounted particulate-matter meters measuring production of fugitive dust and by observations of road conditions. Environmental safety was evaluated through on-site biological observations and leaching tests with samples of treated aggregate. All products reduced dust and improved surface condition during those 12 months. Planned environmental measurements were not always compatible with day-to-day refuge management actions; this incompatibility highlighted the need for flexible biological monitoring plans. As one of the first field tests of dust suppressants that explicitly incorporated biological endpoints, this effort provides valuable information for improving field tests and for developing laboratory or semifield alternatives.

  6. Temporal Variability of Canopy Light Use Efficiency and its Environmental Controls in a Subtropical Mangrove Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X.

    2016-12-01

    Mangrove wetlands play an important role in global carbon cycle due to their strong carbon sequestration resulting from high plant carbon assimilation and low soil respiration. However, temporal variability of carbon sequestration in mangrove wetlands is less understood since carbon processes of mangrove wetlands are influenced by many complicated and concurrent environmental controls including tidal activities, site climate and soil conditions. Canopy light use efficiency (LUE), is the most important plant physiological parameter that can be used to describe the temporal dynamics of canopy photosynthesis, and therefore a better characterization of temporal variability of canopy LUE will improve our understanding in mangrove photosynthesis and carbon balance. One of our aims is to study the temporal variability of canopy LUE and its environmental controls in a subtropical mangrove wetland. Half-hourly canopy LUE is derived from eddy covariance (EC) carbon flux and photosynthesis active radiation observations, and half-hourly environmental controls we measure include temperature, humidity, precipitation, radiation, tidal height, salinity, etc. Another aim is to explore the links between canopy LUE and spectral indices derived from near-surface tower-based remote sensing (normalized difference vegetation index, enhanced vegetation index, photochemical reflectance index, solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence, etc.), and then identify potential quantitative relationships for developing remote sensing-based estimation methods of canopy LUE. At present, some instruments in our in-situ observation system have not yet been installed (planned in next months) and therefore we don't have enough measurements to support our analysis. However, a preliminary analysis of our historical EC and climate observations in past several years indicates that canopy LUE shows strong temporal variability and is greatly affected by environmental factors such as tidal activity. Detailed and

  7. Weed Control in Maize-Cowpea Intercropping System Related to Environmental Resources Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah ESKANDARI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out in Ramhormoz, Iran during the 2008-2009 growing season to investigate the effects of different planting pattern of intercropping on environmental resource consumption and weed biomass. A randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications was employed to compare the treatments. Treatments included maize sole crop (M, cow pea sole crop (C, within row intercropping (I1, row intercropping (I2 and mix cropping (I3. The density of intercropping was according to replacement design (one maize replaced by three cow pea plants. The results showed that environmental resource consumption was significantly (P?0.05 affected by cropping system, where PAR interception, moisture and nutrients uptake were higher in intercropping systems compared to sole crop systems. Regarding to weed control, intercrops were more effective than sole crops and it was related to lower availability of environmental resources for weeds in intercropping systems.

  8. Worksite Environmental Interventions for Obesity Prevention and Control: Evidence from Group Randomized Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Isabel Diana; Becerra, Adan; Chin, Nancy P

    2014-06-01

    Worksites provide multiple advantages to prevent and treat obesity and to test environmental interventions to tackle its multiple causal factors. We present a literature review of group-randomized and non-randomized trials that tested worksite environmental, multiple component interventions for obesity prevention and control paying particular attention to the conduct of formative research prior to intervention development. The evidence on environmental interventions on measures of obesity appears to be strong since most of the studies have a low (4/8) and unclear (2/8) risk of bias. Among the studies reviewed whose potential risk of bias was low, the magnitude of the effect was modest and sometimes in the unexpected direction. None of the four studies describing an explicit formative research stage with clear integration of findings into the intervention was able to demonstrate an effect on the main outcome of interest. We present alternative explanation for the findings and recommendations for future research.

  9. Offspring ADHD as a risk factor for parental marital problems: controls for genetic and environmental confounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermerhorn, Alice C; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Slutske, Wendy S; Emery, Robert E; Turkheimer, Eric; Harden, K Paige; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have found that child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with more parental marital problems. However, the reasons for this association are unclear. The association might be due to genetic or environmental confounds that contribute to both marital problems and ADHD. Data were drawn from the Australian Twin Registry, including 1,296 individual twins, their spouses, and offspring. We studied adult twins who were discordant for offspring ADHD.Using a discordant twin pairs design, we examined the extent to which genetic and environmental confounds,as well as measured parental and offspring characteristics, explain the ADHD-marital problems association. Offspring ADHD predicted parental divorce and marital conflict. The associations were also robust when comparing differentially exposed identical twins to control for unmeasured genetic and environmental factors, when controlling for measured maternal and paternal psychopathology,when restricting the sample based on timing of parental divorce and ADHD onset, and when controlling for other forms of offspring psychopathology. Each of these controls rules out alternative explanations for the association. The results of the current study converge with those of prior research in suggesting that factors directly associated with offspring ADHD increase parental marital problems.

  10. Scope of application of bio-technology for fire control and ameliorating environmental pollution of coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    A few technology knowledge gaps in the control of mine fires and environmental pollution control and abatement programmes have been identified and examined the scope of application of bio-technological approach in resolving them. (author). 16 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Nuclear techniques for the study of environmental pollution and control: experience and facilities at PINSTECH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, M.U.; Butt, N.M.

    2001-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a worldwide problem. Developed countries have already gone in the clutches of pollution. Now the rapid industrialization and modernization process has also started in the developing countries. This is posing a serious threat to their own environment. One of the important factors in the pollution control measures is to investigate the levels of environmental pollution, from time to time, by effective and reliable methods. Nuclear techniques due to their high sensitivities play an important role in this regard. These techniques have the potential to determine the concentration of pollutants in trace level quantities (ppm and ppb) and for locating the possible pollution sources such as power plants, refineries, municipal waste, industries etc. Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) has qualified and experienced scientists and has nearly all the major nuclear facilities that are needed for environmental research such as mass spectrometry, tracer techniques, neutron activation analysis (NAA), X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), atomic emission spectrometry (AES), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) etc. This paper discusses the importance of environmental pollution with a particular reference to the pollution aspects in Pakistan and the associated environmental research experience based on nuclear methods available at PINSTECH. 308 refs. (author)

  12. Evaluation of the environmental impact of apple pest control strategies using pesticide risk indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioriatti, Claudio; Agnello, Arthur M; Martini, Fabrizio; Kovach, Joseph

    2011-10-01

    Various pesticide risk indicators have been developed for estimating pesticide impact on human health and the environment. The present work applied a pesticide risk indicator to estimate change in pesticide risk in apple production between 2001 and 2009. The "Environmental Impact Quotient" was used, which evaluates potential impacts of pesticide active ingredients on farm workers, consumers, and nontarget organisms. A modified Environmental Impact Quotient was also tested, which accounts for all ingredients in the formulation presenting a health or environmental hazard, as identified in the Security Data Sheet. Irrespective of the rating system applied, an overall average improvement in environmental impact of apple protection strategies was indicated ranging from 23 to 24%. Hazard reduction was more significant when estimated per treatment, and was higher for acaricides and insecticides than for fungicides. Improvement appeared to be a consequence of using more selective and more effective active ingredients, applying alternative pest control techniques, compulsory periodic sprayer calibration, and wider use of dwarfing orchards. The modified Environmental Impact Quotient does not overcome all limitations regarding accuracy of pesticide risk indicators, but its ease of use in relying on official, easily accessible data, and the consistency of its results, makes it a good candidate for monitoring the success of reduced risk policies. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  13. Water chemistry controlled aggregation and photo-transformation of silver nanoparticles in environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yongguang; Yang, Xiaoya; Zhou, Xiaoxia; Wang, Weidong; Yu, Sujuan; Liu, Jingfu; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-08-01

    The inevitable release of engineered silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) into aquatic environments has drawn great concerns about its environmental toxicity and safety. Although aggregation and transformation play crucial roles in the transport and toxicity of AgNPs, how the water chemistry of environmental waters influences the aggregation and transformation of engineered AgNPs is still not well understood. In this study, the aggregation of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated AgNPs was investigated in eight typical environmental water samples (with different ionic strengths, hardness, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentrations) by using UV-visible spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. Raman spectroscopy was applied to probe the interaction of DOM with the surface of AgNPs. Further, the photo-transformation and morphology changes of AgNPs in environmental waters were studied by UV-visible spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy. The results suggested that both electrolytes (especially Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) and DOM in the surface waters are key parameters for AgNP aggregation, and sunlight could accelerate the morphology change, aggregation, and further sedimentation of AgNPs. This water chemistry controlled aggregation and photo-transformation should have significant environmental impacts on the transport and toxicity of AgNPs in the aquatic environments. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Environmental control policy change in the EU between ideas and reality; Umweltpolitischer Steuerungswechsel in der EU zwischen Ideen und Realitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heumader, Katja

    2014-07-01

    The study on the environmental policy change in the EU covers the following issues: theoretical frame work: the scientific policy debate on political control and governance; boom of ideas: development in the discussion on European environmental policy; discrepancies: the change of political control between intention and realization; case studies: EU policy concerning the enhancement of energy efficiency, the groundwater guideline, waste policy and waste stream priorities, the European emission trading system, access to jurisdiction for environmental issues, the soil protection guideline.

  15. Environmental viral contamination in a pediatric hospital outpatient waiting area: implications for infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, Nikki; Cloutman-Green, Elaine; Klein, Nigel; Spratt, David A

    2014-08-01

    Nosocomial outbreaks of viral etiology are costly and can have a major impact on patient care. Many viruses are known to persist in the inanimate environment and may pose a risk to patients and health care workers. We investigate the frequency of environmental contamination with common health care-associated viruses and explore the use of torque-teno virus as a marker of environmental contamination. Environmental screening for a variety of clinically relevant viruses was carried out over 3 months in a UK pediatric hospital using air sampling and surface swabbing. Swabs were tested for the presence of virus nucleic acid by quantitative polymerase chain reactions. Viral nucleic acid was found on surfaces and in the air throughout the screening period, with adenovirus DNA being the most frequent. Door handles were frequently contaminated. Torque-teno virus was also found at numerous sites. Evidence of environmental contamination with viral pathogens is present in health care environments and may be indicative of an infectious virus being present. Screening for viruses should be included in infection control strategies. Torque-teno virus may provide a better marker of contamination and reduce time and cost of screening for individual viruses. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Waste management and environmental controls in the Australian uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.G.; Morison, I.W.

    1983-01-01

    An outline is given of the development of the waste management and related environmental controls currently applied to uranium mining and processing in Australia, reflecting three decades of experience. The Ranger Uranium Environmental Inquiry of the mid-1970s was, inter alia, a focus for the expression of public concerns over the environmental effects of uranium mining. The report of the Inquiry established a framework for controls over uranium mining in the Northern Territory and, by association, in other States of the Commonwealth. The interaction between Federal and State jurisdictions, and the establishment of Codes of Practice and their implications are briefly described. Current procedures are based on the experience of other countries but are much influenced by studies of the environmental impact of uranium production in Australia during the 1950s and 1960s. In addition, laboratory investigations have been made of specific processes, such as the impact of heavy metal contaminants on biota and the uptake of radium in the human food cycle. Such studies are continuing and research is being expanded, particularly in relation to Northern Territory developments. Australia is contributing the results of this work to appropriate international forums. (author)

  17. Environmental sustainability control by water resources carrying capacity concept: application significance in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuwansyah, M. R.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reviews the use of Water Resources carrying capacity concept to control environmental sustainability with the particular note for the case in Indonesia. Carrying capacity is a capability measure of an environment or an area to support human and the other lives as well as their activities in a sustainable manner. Recurrently water-related hazards and environmental problems indicate that the environments are exploited over its carrying capacity. Environmental carrying capacity (ECC) assessment includes Land and Water Carrying Capacity analysis of an area, suggested to always refer to the dimension of the related watershed as an incorporated hydrologic unit on the basis of resources availability estimation. Many countries use this measure to forecast the future sustainability of regional development based on water availability. Direct water Resource Carrying Capacity (WRCC) assessment involves population number determination together with their activities could be supported by available water, whereas indirect WRCC assessment comprises the analysis of supply-demand balance status of water. Water resource limits primarily environmental carrying capacity rather than the land resource since land capability constraints are easier. WRCC is a crucial factor known to control land and water resource utilization, particularly in a growing densely populated area. Even though capability of water resources is relatively perpetual, the utilization pattern of these resources may change by socio-economic and cultural technology level of the users, because of which WRCC should be evaluated periodically to maintain usage sustainability of water resource and environment.

  18. Quality control in the application of flow cytometric assays of genetic damage due to environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCreedy, C.D.; Jagoe, C.H.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr.; Wentworth, R.W.; Dallas, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    Clinical technologies, such as flow cytometry, are increasingly adopted by environmental toxicologists to identify resource damage associated with exposure to xenobiotics. One application of flow cytometry allows the rapid determination of the DNA content of large numbers of individual cells, and can be used to detect aneuploidy or other genetic abnormalities. The laboratory has used this methodology in studies of genetic toxicology of fish, birds, arid mammals exposed to organic pollutants, metals and radionuclides, However, without appropriate quality controls, false positive results and other artifacts can arise from sample handling and preparations, inter and intra-individual variations, instrument noise and other sources. The authors describe the routine measures this laboratory employs to maintain quality control of genomic DNA analysis, including the control of staining conditions, machine standardization, pulse-width doublet discrimination, and, in particular, the use of internal controls and the use of time as a cytometric parameter. Neglect of these controls can produce erroneous results, leading to conclusions of genetic abnormalities when none are present. Conversely, attention to these controls, routinely used in clinical settings, facilitates the interpretation of flow cytometric data and allows the application of this sensitive indicator of genotoxic effects to a variety of environmental problems

  19. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. Technology status report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-12-01

    This is the first in a series of reports evaluating environmental control technologies applicable to the coal-to-electricity process. The technologies are described and evaluated from an engineering and cost perspective based upon the best available information obtained from utility experience and development work in progress. Environmental control regulations and the health effects of pollutants are also reviewed. Emphasis is placed primarily upon technologies that are now in use. For SO/sub 2/ control, these include the use of low sulfur coal, cleaned coal, or flue-gas desulfurization systems. Electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters used for the control of particulate matter are analyzed, and combustion modifications for NO/sub x/ control are described. In each area, advanced technologies still in the development stage are described briefly and evaluated on the basis of current knowledge. Fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is a near-term technology that is discussed extensively in the report. The potential for control of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions by use of FBC is analyzed, as are the resulting solid waste disposal problems, cost estimates, and its potential applicability to electric utility systems. Volume II presents the detailed technology analyses complete with reference citations. This same material is given in condensed form in Volume I without references. A brief executive summary is also given in Volume I.

  20. Software and Human-Machine Interface Development for Environmental Controls Subsystem Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is the next premier launch vehicle for NASA. It is the next stage of manned space exploration from American soil, and will be the platform in which we push further beyond Earth orbit. In preparation of the SLS maiden voyage on Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1), the existing ground support architecture at Kennedy Space Center required significant overhaul and updating. A comprehensive upgrade of controls systems was necessary, including programmable logic controller software, as well as Launch Control Center (LCC) firing room and local launch pad displays for technician use. Environmental control acts as an integral component in these systems, being the foremost system for conditioning the pad and extremely sensitive launch vehicle until T-0. The Environmental Controls Subsystem (ECS) required testing and modification to meet the requirements of the designed system, as well as the human factors requirements of NASA software for Validation and Verification (V&V). This term saw significant strides in the progress and functionality of the human-machine interfaces used at the launch pad, and improved integration with the controller code.

  1. District heating systems' control for cost effective and environmentally compatible operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balati, J.

    1999-01-01

    District heating systems are being developed in accordance with the growing of large European cities. These systems are formed by enlarging networks of heat distribution from heat sources to heat consumers and, simultaneously, by gradually connecting newly built heat sources. District heating control consists in optimum control of the output of heat sources and in control of heat distribution and consumption. The aim of the paper is to inform about the works in the field of creating a mathematical-physical model of extensive hot water and steam supply circle network and heat sources for the purpose of creating unconventional control algorithms for the complex control of the technological sequence ''heat production distribution- consumption''. For the optimum control algorithms the artificial intelligence methods are also utilised. The aim of the complex access to the solution of new control algorithms will be to decrease the cost of the consumed heat unit and increase environmental protection. The function of the Extensive Heating System District Heating System (DHS) is to ensure permanently the economically justified requirements of heat supply for all consumers with minimum cost per heat supply unit and with enhanced level of environmental protection. The requirements of heat consumers have to be in harmony with the requirements of the maximum possible economy of the whole DHS when adhering to the required qualitative parameters of supplied energy. Therefore, it offers the application of optimised control methods as artificial intelligence methods for the control of the operational circle of DHS heat networks. It is obvious that a higher level of DHS control is required from the technological, economic and ecological point of view. (author)

  2. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (water pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Pollution by municipal wastes, agricultural wastes, industrial wastes, mine wastes, radioactive contaminants; Chemistry and analysis of pollutants; Thermal pollution; Oil pollution; Control techniques and equipment; Sewage treatment; Industrial waste water pretreatment; Hydrology and limnology; Biological and ecological effects; Waste water reuse; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use

  3. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (air pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Air pollution from flue gases, exhaust gases, odors, dust, smog, microorganisms, etc.; Control techniques and equipment; Sampling and analytical techniques, and equipment; Waste gas recovery; Biological and ecological effects; Air pollution chemistry; Acid precipitation; Atmospheric motion; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use.

  4. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (water pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Pollution by municipal wastes, agricultural wastes, industrial wastes, mine wastes, radioactive contaminants; Chemistry and analysis of pollutants; Thermal pollution; Oil pollution; Control techniques and equipment; Sewage treatment; Industrial waste water pretreatment; Hydrology and limnology; Biological and ecological effects; Waste water reuse; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use.

  5. Liquefied gaseous fuels safety and environmental control assessment program: third status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    This Status Report contains contributions from all contractors currently participating in the DOE Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LG) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program and is presented in two principal sections. Section I is an Executive Summary of work done by all program participants. Section II is a presentation of fourteen individual reports (A through N) on specific LGF Program activities. The emphasis of Section II is on research conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Reports A through M). Report N, an annotated bibliography of literature related to LNG safety and environmental control, was prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of its LGF Safety Studies Project. Other organizations who contributed to this Status Report are Aerojet Energy Conversion Company; Applied Technology Corporation; Arthur D. Little, Incorporated; C/sub v/ International, Incorporated; Institute of Gas Technology; and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Separate abstracts have been prepared for Reports A through N for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  6. Lunar Module ECS (Environmental Control System) - Design Considerations and Failure Modes. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Design considerations and failure modes for the Lunar Module (LM) Environmental Control System (ECS) are described. An overview of the the oxygen supply and cabin pressurization, atmosphere revitalization, water management and heat transport systems are provided. Design considerations including reliability, flight instrumentation, modularization and the change to the use of batteries instead of fuel cells are discussed. A summary is provided for the LM ECS general testing regime.

  7. Evaluation of environmentally friendly products for control of fungal diseases of grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Schilder, A.M.C.; Gillett, J.M.; Sysak, R.W.; Wise, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Various environmentally friendly products were tested for efficacy in controlling powdery mildew, downy mildew, black rot, Phomopsis, and Botrytis bunch rot in grapes over several years. The products tested were: JMS stylet oil (paraffinic oil), Serenade (Bacillus subtilis), Croplife (citrus and coconut extract) + Plant food (foliar fertilizer), Armicarb (potassium bicarbonate), Elexa (chitosan), Milsana (giant knotweed extract), and AQ10 (Ampelomyces quisqua/is). JMS Stylet Oil, Armicarb, Se...

  8. Dataset on usnic acid from Cladonia substellata Vainio (Lichen) schistosomiasis mansoni's vector control and environmental toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade de Araújo, Hallysson Douglas; Dos Santos Silva, Luanna Ribeiro; de Siqueira, Williams Nascimento; Martins da Fonseca, Caíque Silveira; da Silva, Nicácio Henrique; de Albuquerque Melo, Ana Maria Mendonça; Barroso Martins, Mônica Cristina; de Menezes Lima, Vera Lúcia

    2018-04-01

    This text presents complementary data corresponding to schistosomiasis mansoni's vector control and enviromental toxicity using usnic acid. These informations support our research article "Toxicity of Usnic Acid from Cladonia substellata (Lichen) to embryos and adults of Biomphalaria glabrata " by Araújo et al. [1], and focuses on the analysis of the detailed data regarding the different concentrations of Usnic Acid and their efficiency to B. glabrata mortality and non-viability, as also to environmental toxicity, evaluated by A. salina mortality.

  9. Speech-driven environmental control systems--a qualitative analysis of users' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Simon; Robertson, Zoë; Hawley, Mark; Enderby, Pam

    2009-05-01

    To explore users' experiences and perceptions of speech-driven environmental control systems (SPECS) as part of a larger project aiming to develop a new SPECS. The motivation for this part of the project was to add to the evidence base for the use of SPECS and to determine the key design specifications for a new speech-driven system from a user's perspective. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 users of SPECS from around the United Kingdom. These interviews were transcribed and analysed using a qualitative method based on framework analysis. Reliability is the main influence on the use of SPECS. All the participants gave examples of occasions when their speech-driven system was unreliable; in some instances, this unreliability was reported as not being a problem (e.g., for changing television channels); however, it was perceived as a problem for more safety critical functions (e.g., opening a door). Reliability was cited by participants as the reason for using a switch-operated system as back up. Benefits of speech-driven systems focused on speech operation enabling access when other methods were not possible; quicker operation and better aesthetic considerations. Overall, there was a perception of increased independence from the use of speech-driven environmental control. In general, speech was considered a useful method of operating environmental controls by the participants interviewed; however, their perceptions regarding reliability often influenced their decision to have backup or alternative systems for certain functions.

  10. The use of institutional controls at Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office environmental restoration sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.K.; Swindle, D.W.; Redfearn, A.; King, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes some of the major issues related to the use of institutional controls at hazardous waste sites under the auspices of the Department of Energy Field Office, Oak Ridge/Environmental Restoration (DOE-OR/ER) Division. In particular, the report addresses the impacts that assumptions regarding institutional controls have on the results and interpretation of the risk assessment, both in the Remedial Investigation (RI) and the Feasibility Study (FS). Environmental restoration activities at DOE-OR/ER sites are primarily driven by CERCLA. Therefore, the report focuses on the approaches and assumptions relating to institutional controls under CERCLA. Also the report briefly outlines approaches adopted under other authorities such as RCRA and radiation regulatory authorities (such as NRC regulations/guidance, DOE orders, and EPA standards) in order to contrast these approaches to those adopted under CERCLA. In order to demonstrate the implications of the use of institutional controls at DOE facilities, this report summarizes the approaches and results of the recent baseline risk assessment for Solid Waste Storage Area 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The report concludes with possible options on the use of institutional controls at DOE-OR/ER sites

  11. Different Phylogenetic and Environmental Controls of First-order Root Morphological and Chemical Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Wang, Q.; Zhao, N.; Yu, G.; He, N.

    2017-12-01

    Fine roots are the most distal roots that act as the primary belowground organs in acquiring limiting nutrients and water from the soil. However, limited by the inconsistency in definitions of fine roots and the different protocols among studies, knowledge of root system traits has, to date, still lagged far behind our understanding of above-ground traits. In particular, whether variation in fine root traits among the plant species along a single root economics spectrum and this underlying mechanism are still hotly debated. In this study, we sampled the first-order root using the standardized protocols, and measured six important root traits related to resource use strategies, from 181 plant species from subtropical to boreal forests. Base on this large dataset, we concluded that different phylogenetic and environmental factors affected on root thickness and nutrient, resulting in the decoupled pattern between them. Specifically, variation in species-level traits related to root thickness (including root diameter, RD and specific root length, SRL) was restricted by common ancestry and little plastic to the changing environments, whereas the large-scale variation in woody root nutrient was mainly controlled by environmental differences, especially soil variables. For community-level traits, mean annual temperature (MAT) mainly influenced the community-level root thickness through the direct effect of changes in plant species composition, while soil P had a positive influence effect on community-level root nitrogen concentration (CWM_RN), reflecting the strong influence of soil fertility on belowground root nutrient. The different environmental constraints and selective pressures acting between root thickness and nutrient traits allows for multiple ecological strategies to adapt to complex environmental conditions. In addition, strong relationships between community-level root traits and environmental variables, due to environmental filters, indicate that in contrast

  12. Final environmental assessment for vegetation control at VHF stations, microwave stations, electrical substations, and pole yards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-13

    Southwestern Power Adm. operates very high frequency (VHF) and microwave radio stations, electrical substations, and pole yards for electric power transmission throughout AR, MO, and OK. Vegetation growth at the stations must be suppressed for safety of operation and personnel. Southwestern has been using a combination of mechanical/manual and herbicide control for this purpose; Federally- mandated reductions in staff and budgetary resources require Southwestern to evaluate all potentially efficient methods for vegetation control. Three alternatives were examined: no action, mechanical/manual control, and (proposed) a combination of mechanical/manual and herbicide control. Environmental impacts on air and water quality, wetlands, wildlife, endangered species, archaeological and other resources, farmland, human health, transportation, etc. were evaluated.

  13. Analytical quality control in environmental analysis - Recent results and future trends of the IAEA's analytical quality control programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suschny, O; Heinonen, J

    1973-12-01

    The significance of analytical results depends critically on the degree of their reliability, an assessment of this reliability is indispensable if the results are to have any meaning at all. Environmental radionuclide analysis is a relatively new analytical field in which new methods are continuously being developed and into which many new laboratories have entered during the last ten to fifteen years. The scarcity of routine methods and the lack of experience of the new laboratories have made the need for the assessment of the reliability of results particularly urgent in this field. The IAEA, since 1962, has provided assistance to its member states by making available to their laboratories analytical quality control services in the form of standard samples, reference materials and the organization of analytical intercomparisons. The scope of this programme has increased over the years and now includes, in addition to environmental radionuclides, non-radioactive environmental contaminants which may be analysed by nuclear methods, materials for forensic neutron activation analysis, bioassay materials and nuclear fuel. The results obtained in recent intercomparisons demonstrate the continued need for these services. (author)

  14. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of environmental management for malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzinger, J; Tozan, Y; Singer, B H

    2001-09-01

    Roll back malaria (RBM) aims at halving the current burden of the disease by the year 2010. The focus is on sub-Saharan Africa, and it is proposed to implement efficacious and cost-effective control strategies. But the evidence base of such information is scarce, and a notable missing element is the discussion of the potential of environmental management. We reviewed the literature and identified multiple malaria control programmes that incorporated environmental management as the central feature. Prominent among them are programmes launched in 1929 and implemented for two decades at copper mining communities in Zambia. The full package of control measures consisted of vegetation clearance, modification of river boundaries, draining swamps, oil application to open water bodies and house screening. Part of the population also was given quinine and was sleeping under mosquito nets. Monthly malaria incidence rates and vector densities were used for surveillance and adaptive tuning of the environmental management strategies to achieve a high level of performance. Within 3-5 years, malaria-related mortality, morbidity and incidence rates were reduced by 70-95%. Over the entire 20 years of implementation, the programme had averted an estimated 4173 deaths and 161,205 malaria attacks. The estimated costs per death and malaria attack averted were US$ 858 and US$ 22.20, respectively. Over the initial 3-5 years start-up period, analogous to the short-duration of cost-effectiveness analyses of current studies, we estimated that the costs per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted were US$ 524-591. However, the strategy has a track record of becoming cost-effective in the longer term, as maintenance costs were much lower: US$ 22-92 per DALY averted. In view of fewer adverse ecological effects, increased sustainability and better uses of local resources and knowledge, environmental management--integrated with pharmacological, insecticidal and bednet interventions

  15. Environmental controls on the elemental composition of a Southern Hemisphere strain of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuanyuan; Roleda, Michael Y.; Armstrong, Evelyn; Law, Cliff S.; Boyd, Philip W.; Hurd, Catriona L.

    2018-01-01

    A series of semi-continuous incubation experiments were conducted with the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi strain NIWA1108 (Southern Ocean isolate) to examine the effects of five environmental drivers (nitrate and phosphate concentrations, irradiance, temperature, and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2)) on both the physiological rates and elemental composition of the coccolithophore. Here, we report the alteration of the elemental composition of E. huxleyi in response to the changes in these environmental drivers. A series of dose-response curves for the cellular elemental composition of E. huxleyi were fitted for each of the five drivers across an environmentally representative gradient. The importance of each driver in regulating the elemental composition of E. huxleyi was ranked using a semi-quantitative approach. The percentage variations in elemental composition arising from the change in each driver between present-day and model-projected conditions for the year 2100 were calculated. Temperature was the most important driver controlling both cellular particulate organic and inorganic carbon content, whereas nutrient concentrations were the most important regulator of cellular particulate nitrogen and phosphorus of E. huxleyi. In contrast, elevated pCO2 had the greatest influence on cellular particulate inorganic carbon to organic carbon ratio, resulting in a decrease in the ratio. Our results indicate that the different environmental drivers play specific roles in regulating the elemental composition of E. huxleyi with wide-reaching implications for coccolithophore-related marine biogeochemical cycles, as a consequence of the regulation of E. huxleyi physiological processes.

  16. Environmental radiation control and quality management system in design and operation of sealed radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.

    2007-01-01

    New environmental regulations and radiation safety standards are being implemented almost daily to ensure radiation safety, in particular for practices causing exposures to undue radiation doses. A particular emphasis of real challenge for organizations and users of radiation sources has to be for proper radiological safety assessment and is becoming cost effectively to be prepared for auditing. Special concern for the environment is of global . nature, and hence environmental auditing has been and will continue to be an essential practice for improving the environment and for meeting the relevant regulations and standards. In general, most facilities that deal with radioactive sources undertake strict safety measures in terms of personnel radiation protection, handling procedures and security. Hence, those measures should comply with the requirements of the environmental protection standards. Accordingly, a successful quality management system must balance realities of organization and personnel in achieving quality objectives. Organizational principles are found in the technical aspects of' quality management, such as, charting, requirements, measurements, procedures, ... , etc. Human principles are found in the communication side of quality management (e.g. meetings, ,decision making, ,teams, ... , etc). The quality management must understand and balance skills needed to blend them together. Large gamma irradiators present a high potential radiation hazard to the surrounding environment, since the amount of radioactivity is of the order of (P Bq) and a very high dose rates are produced during irradiation. Application of environmental radiation control deemed by regulatory authority and a proper quality management system by the utility would serve public health and safety

  17. A cost/schedule and control system for the environmental restoration program Albuquerque Field Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiske, Wanda S.; Bischoff, Edward L.; Rea, Kenneth H.; Dwain Farley, P.; Biedermann, Charles A.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Field Office Albuquerque (AL), Environmental Restoration Project Office (ERPO), has developed a project management system used to plan, document, and control Environmental Restoration (ER) work at eight installations and one superfund site managed by AL. This system emphasizes control of the cost, schedule, and technical elements of the Program. It supports programmatic documentation such as the Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Five-Year Plan, Site Specific Plan, and budget requests. The System provides information used to manage the ER Program at all levels of management (i.e., from low-level day-to-day activities to high-level upper management). The System requires substantial effort to ensure reliability; however, the benefit to ERPO is an effective, proactive project management tool. This paper provides an overview of the ERPO System, an explanation of how it is implemented, and lessons learned from this process. Application of the System to cost estimating, annual and five-year budget preparation, resource projections, scheduling, and cost/schedule performance measurement is discussed. Also discussed are cost/schedule review procedures, along with variance identification and resolution. Examples are taken from the Pinellas ER Program. (author)

  18. Microfluidic study of environmental control of genetic competence in Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Minjun; Ghoreishilangroudi, Seyedehdelaram; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Burne, Robert; Hagen, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    The bacterial pathogen Streptococcus mutans has the ability to enter a transient state of genetic competence in which it can integrate exogenous DNA. It regulates the competent state in response to several environmental inputs that include two quorum sensing peptides (CSP and XIP) as well as pH and other variables. However the interplay of these variables in regulating the competent state is poorly understood. We are using microfluidics to isolate and control environmental inputs and examine how the competence regulatory circuit responds at the single cell level. Our studies reveal that the pH of the growth environment plays a critical role in determining how cells respond to the quorum sensing signals: The response to both peptides is sharply tuned to a narrow window of near-neutral pH. Within this optimal pH range, a population responds unimodally to a XIP stimulus, and bimodally to CSP; outside this range the response to both signals is suppressed. Because a growing S. mutans culture acidifies its medium, our findings suggest that the passage of the pH through the sensitivity window transiently activates the competence circuit. In this way a sharply tuned environmental response gives S. mutans fine control over the duration of its competent state. This work is supported by the NIH under NIDCR awards R01 DE023339.

  19. Computerized effluent control and evaluation of environmental impact for an industrial plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez de Angulo, L.F.; Garcia Gutierrez, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    Growing public interest and concern for the environment is translated at official level into regulatory standards to limit, control and evaluate the environmental impact produced by polluting facilities. This paper seeks to demonstrate the convenience of automatizing all these computerized systems. This philosophy has been put into practice to computerize processes in the industry with the most complex standards: the nuclear industry. The application used has the capacity to store and manage data on all the discharges, evaluate the effect produced by them and generate information to be sent periodically to the competent authority. The conceptual definition of the application can be adapted to any industrial or public utility facility releasing polluting effluents which must undergo control, monitoring and analysis of the environmental impact by the relevant regulatory body, bearing in mind the environmental standard applicable to the category of the facility and the type of polluting substance released. The application can be run interactively in a personal computer on the basis of menus and screens, under a relational Data Base Management System (DBMS). Its implementation is independent of the DBMS used and the hardware with supports it. (author)

  20. Adding sub-hourly occupancy prediction, occupancy-sensing control and manual environmental control to ESP-r

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, D. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). School of Architecture; Hand, J.; Macdonald, I. [Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow (United Kingdom). Energy Systems Research Unit; Reinhart, C. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Institute for Research in Construction

    2004-07-01

    There are several whole building energy simulation programs that require input of casual gain loads such as heat discharged from occupants or lighting and equipment loads. Variations in casual gains in offices are attributed to absenteeism, occupant environmental preference and energy management features. This paper discussed energy simulation programs which offer sub-hourly simulation time-steps, diversity profiles of occupancy and associated gains such as lighting and equipment. In particular, it focused on the different events that occur in buildings at sub-hourly frequencies, such as manually adjusting blinds and lights in response to illuminance variations. These short-term changes affect electrical energy demand because they generate evident shifts in instantaneous solar and equipment loads. However, it is a challenge to model these complex sub-hourly changes. This paper reviews various models predicting occupancy, occupancy-sensing control and manual environmental controls. Their addition to whole building energy simulations were then outlined with particular reference to the ESP-r. 34 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Environmental radioactivity: the importance of controlling exposure of the public: some experiences in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear power is offering considerable advantages, it is considering the option to produce energy and the economy has moved in favour of the nuclear power. Therefore, the security is important within of the industry because ensures the control of public exposure and the environment and it plays a crucial role. Public exposure refers to exposure that is not of the direct work with ionizing radiation or the application of nuclear techniques in medical treatment and diagnosis. There are potential sources of discharges into the environment as the spent fuel and the waste disposal. Some of the routes of exposure are atmospheric discharge, liquid discharge, irrigation, environment, decomposition of the rain, food chains, etc. International regulations on subject of radiological safety are set by the IAEA and have a hierarchical order: fundamentals, requirements and guidelines. The International Commission of Radiological Protection and the Committee of the General Assembly of the United Nations are described in the research. The action is exposed in Cuba with regard to nuclear programs that have been realized or that are executed in relation to the control of the exposure of the public in existing applications. It mentions the centralized management of radioactive rights generated, the control of other sources of exposure, and the Red Nacional de Vigilancia Radiologica Ambiental. It also includes numerical data of studies realized on the extent of the sources of public exposure, the external doses received by the Cuban population product of environmental sources of radiation, the estimating of the doses received by the Cuban population by the incorporation of radionuclides present in the water and food. Likewise, the radioactive environmental funds; the phosphate mining; the protection and extraction of oil and the presence of radon inside the house are shown. The exposure to gamma radiation in thermal spas; the exposure to environmental sources of radiation

  2. The Pied Piper of the ghetto: Lyndon Johnson, environmental justice, and the politics of rat control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    When Congress rejected President Lyndon Johnson’s Rat Extermination and Control Bill in the summer of 1967, in a mood of growing conservatism, it inadvertently sparked a heated political controversy that brought the desperate conditions of life in inner-city America into sharp focus. This article focuses on the issue of rat infestation to explore the conditions of “urban blight” that disproportionately afflicted ghetto communities in the United States during the 1960s and that represented a form of environmental inequality linked to racial marginalization and poverty. It is suggested that a growing awareness of environmental aspects of inequality increasingly fueled ghetto discontent, feeding the outbreak of riots during the “long, hot summers,” and spurring liberals to think of new ways to understand the problems of inner-city poverty.

  3. Cost effective malaria risk control using remote sensing and environmental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Z.; Roytman, Leonid; Kadik, Abdel Hamid

    2012-06-01

    Malaria transmission in many part of the world specifically in Bangladesh and southern African countries is unstable and epidemic. An estimate of over a million cases is reported annually. Malaria is heterogeneous, potentially due to variations in ecological settings, socio-economic status, land cover, and agricultural practices. Malaria control only relies on treatment and supply of bed networks. Drug resistance to these diseases is widespread. Vector control is minimal. Malaria control in those countries faces many formidable challenges such as inadequate accessibility to effective treatment, lack of trained manpower, inaccessibility of endemic areas, poverty, lack of education, poor health infrastructure and low health budgets. Health facilities for malaria management are limited, surveillance is inadequate, and vector control is insufficient. Control can only be successful if the right methods are used at the right time in the right place. This paper aims to improve malaria control by developing malaria risk maps and risk models using satellite remote sensing data by identifying, assessing, and mapping determinants of malaria associated with environmental, socio-economic, malaria control, and agricultural factors.

  4. Partitioning controls on Amazon forest photosynthesis between environmental and biotic factors at hourly to interannual timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin; Guan, Kaiyu; Hayek, Matthew; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Wiedemann, Kenia T; Xu, Xiangtao; Wehr, Richard; Christoffersen, Bradley O; Miao, Guofang; da Silva, Rodrigo; de Araujo, Alessandro C; Oliviera, Raimundo C; Camargo, Plinio B; Monson, Russell K; Huete, Alfredo R; Saleska, Scott R

    2017-03-01

    Gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) in tropical forests varies both with the environment and with biotic changes in photosynthetic infrastructure, but our understanding of the relative effects of these factors across timescales is limited. Here, we used a statistical model to partition the variability of seven years of eddy covariance-derived GEP in a central Amazon evergreen forest into two main causes: variation in environmental drivers (solar radiation, diffuse light fraction, and vapor pressure deficit) that interact with model parameters that govern photosynthesis and biotic variation in canopy photosynthetic light-use efficiency associated with changes in the parameters themselves. Our fitted model was able to explain most of the variability in GEP at hourly (R 2  = 0.77) to interannual (R 2  = 0.80) timescales. At hourly timescales, we found that 75% of observed GEP variability could be attributed to environmental variability. When aggregating GEP to the longer timescales (daily, monthly, and yearly), however, environmental variation explained progressively less GEP variability: At monthly timescales, it explained only 3%, much less than biotic variation in canopy photosynthetic light-use efficiency, which accounted for 63%. These results challenge modeling approaches that assume GEP is primarily controlled by the environment at both short and long timescales. Our approach distinguishing biotic from environmental variability can help to resolve debates about environmental limitations to tropical forest photosynthesis. For example, we found that biotically regulated canopy photosynthetic light-use efficiency (associated with leaf phenology) increased with sunlight during dry seasons (consistent with light but not water limitation of canopy development) but that realized GEP was nonetheless lower relative to its potential efficiency during dry than wet seasons (consistent with water limitation of photosynthesis in given assemblages of leaves). This work

  5. Advances in Targeted Pesticides with Environmentally Responsive Controlled Release by Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingna Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are the basis for defending against major biological disasters and important for ensuring national food security. Biocompatible, biodegradable, intelligent, and responsive materials are currently an emerging area of interest in the field of efficient, safe, and green pesticide formulation. Using nanotechnology to design and prepare targeted pesticides with environmentally responsive controlled release via compound and chemical modifications has also shown great potential in creating novel formulations. In this review, special attention has been paid to intelligent pesticides with precise controlled release modes that can respond to micro-ecological environment changes such as light-sensitivity, thermo-sensitivity, humidity sensitivity, soil pH, and enzyme activity. Moreover, establishing intelligent and controlled pesticide release technologies using nanomaterials are reported. These technologies could increase pesticide-loading, improve the dispersibility and stability of active ingredients, and promote target ability.

  6. Pollution control and environmental monitoring efforts at DOE's Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attig, R.C.; Crawford, L.W.; Lynch, T.P.; Sheth, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Proof-of-Concept (POC) scale demonstration of such technology is currently being carried out at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), located at The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) in Tullahoma, Tennessee and at the Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The CFFF is dedicated to the evaluation of downstream (steam cycle) components and technology that may be considered for a full-scale MHD system. The objectives of the CFFF testing include the demonstration of various pollution control devices and techniques at a scale sufficient for future scale-up. The CFFF offers a unique test environment in which emissions control techniques can be developed and evaluated through emissions and environmental monitoring. Results thus far have demonstrated the ability of sulfur oxide (SO x ), nitrogen oxide (NO x ) and particulate emissions well below the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). Regeneration of the potassium sulfate to produce sulfur-free compounds also has been demonstrated. The experimental program at the CFFF is now aimed at determining the optimum conditions for future commercial scale designs. Because of increased interests in Air Toxics, measurements of nitrous oxide (N 2 O), a potential greenhouse gas, priority pollutants (inorganic as well as organics), and chlorine-containing species (Cl 2 and HCl) are also included in our ongoing efforts. Environmental monitoring activities are being pursued to develop an environmental impact assessment data base. These include the use of three ambient air sites to determine the impacts of gaseous and particulate emissions, five lake water sites to determine impacts due to process water discharges and seven sites to collect terrestrial data on possible soil contamination and tree growth. In this paper, we will summarize the status of our ongoing environmental program. 16 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Review of the environmental impact of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Hinnawi, E E

    1978-04-01

    The radioactivity released from the products of nuclear fission is the main focus of public concern about the expansion in the use of nuclear power despite stringent control measures and precautions taken. Environmental impacts associated with all the steps in the nuclear fuel cycle are examined. Discussed are: uranium mining and milling, manufacture of fuel elements for the reactor, transport and reprocessing of irradiated fuel, reactor operation, and management of wastes produced in the cycle. Environmental impacts of a coal-fired power plant are compared with impacts of three nuclear plants with the same generating capacities. Impacts compared are thermal heat waste, effluent radioactivity, air pollution, radioactive and ash waste products, and land used for the plant. The environmental advantages of the nuclear reactors occur in the categories of air pollutant effluents and land used for plants. (45 references, 3 tables)

  8. Environmental risk factors contributing to traffic accidents in children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Moradi, Ali; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to identify environmental risk factors related to road accidents in children of Tehran. This case-control study was performed in 2013. The cases were injured pedestrians aged 5-15 who were admitted to major hospitals supervised by Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The sample size for the cases was 273 and for the control group was 546. For the completeness of the clusters, 7 extra persons in case (total = 280) and 14 persons (total = 560) in control group were included. The interference of confounding variables assessed through forward conditional logistic regression. Result shows occurrence of traffic accidents was significantly associate with the width of the alleys or (traffic congestion (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 2.6-6.4), traffic speed (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.2) and existence of pedestrian bridges(OR = 4.2, 95% CI: 2.6-6.8). In the light of the important role of environmental factors in the occurrence of child traffic accidents, alleviating structural risk factors in addition to education and enforcement need more systematic efforts and planning by policymakers and urban planners to attain pedestrian safety goals.

  9. Combined Contamination and Space Environmental Effects on Solar Cells and Thermal Control Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Bruckner, Eric J.; Scheiman, David A.; Stidham, Curtis R.

    1994-01-01

    For spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO), contamination can occur from thruster fuel, sputter contamination products and from products of silicone degradation. This paper describes laboratory testing in which solar cell materials and thermal control surfaces were exposed to simulated spacecraft environmental effects including contamination, atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation and thermal cycling. The objective of these experiments was to determine how the interaction of the natural LEO environmental effects with contaminated spacecraft surfaces impacts the performance of these materials. Optical properties of samples were measured and solar cell performance data was obtained. In general, exposure to contamination by thruster fuel resulted in degradation of solar absorptance for fused silica and various thermal control surfaces and degradation of solar cell performance. Fused silica samples which were subsequently exposed to an atomic oxygen/vacuum ultraviolet radiation environment showed reversal of this degradation. These results imply that solar cells and thermal control surfaces which are susceptible to thruster fuel contamination and which also receive atomic oxygen exposure may not undergo significant performance degradation. Materials which were exposed to only vacuum ultraviolet radiation subsequent to contamination showed slight additional degradation in solar absorptance.

  10. Environmental control of phase transition and polyp survival of a massive-outbreaker jellyfish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Prieto

    Full Text Available A number of causes have been proposed to account for the occurrence of gelatinous zooplankton (both jellyfish and ctenophore blooms. Jellyfish species have a complex life history involving a benthic asexual phase (polyp and a pelagic sexual phase (medusa. Strong environmental control of jellyfish life cycles is suspected, but not fully understood. This study presents a comprehensive analysis on the physicochemical conditions that control the survival and phase transition of Cotylorhiza tuberculata; a scyphozoan that generates large outbreaks in the Mediterranean Sea. Laboratory experiments indicated that the influence of temperature on strobilation and polyp survival was the critical factor controlling the capacity of this species to proliferate. Early life stages were less sensitive to other factors such as salinity variations or the competitive advantage provided by zooxanthellae in a context of coastal eutrophication. Coherently with laboratory results, the presence/absence of outbreaks of this jellyfish in a particular year seems to be driven by temperature. This is the first time the environmental forcing of the mechanism driving the life cycle of a jellyfish has been disentangled via laboratory experimentation. Projecting this understanding to a field population under climatological variability results in a pattern coherent with in situ records.

  11. A tuneable switch for controlling environmental degradation of bioplastics: addition of isothiazolinone to polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Anne Woolnough

    Full Text Available Controlling the environmental degradation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB and polyhydroxyvalerate (P(HB-co-HV bioplastics would expand the range of their potential applications. Combining PHB and P(HB-co-HV films with the anti-fouling agent 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOI, <10% w/w restricted microbial colonisation in soil, but did not significantly affect melting temperature or the tensile strength of films. DCOI films showed reduced biofouling and postponed the onset of weight loss by up to 100 days, a 10-fold increase compared to unmodified films where the microbial coverage was significant. In addition, the rate of PHA-DCOI weight loss, post-onset, reduced by about 150%; in contrast a recorded weight loss of only 0.05% per day for P(HB-co-HV with a 10% DCOI loading was observed. This is in stark contrast to the unmodified PHB film, where a recorded weight loss of only 0.75% per day was made. The 'switch' that initiates film weight loss, and its subsequent reduced rate, depended on the DCOI loading to control biofouling. The control of biofouling and environmental degradation for these DCOI modified bioplastics increases their potential use in biodegradable applications.

  12. Using Markov Models of Fault Growth Physics and Environmental Stresses to Optimize Control Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bole, Brian; Goebel, Kai; Vachtsevanos, George

    2012-01-01

    A generalized Markov chain representation of fault dynamics is presented for the case that available modeling of fault growth physics and future environmental stresses can be represented by two independent stochastic process models. A contrived but representatively challenging example will be presented and analyzed, in which uncertainty in the modeling of fault growth physics is represented by a uniformly distributed dice throwing process, and a discrete random walk is used to represent uncertain modeling of future exogenous loading demands to be placed on the system. A finite horizon dynamic programming algorithm is used to solve for an optimal control policy over a finite time window for the case that stochastic models representing physics of failure and future environmental stresses are known, and the states of both stochastic processes are observable by implemented control routines. The fundamental limitations of optimization performed in the presence of uncertain modeling information are examined by comparing the outcomes obtained from simulations of an optimizing control policy with the outcomes that would be achievable if all modeling uncertainties were removed from the system.

  13. Adenylate Cyclases of Trypanosoma brucei, Environmental Sensors and Controllers of Host Innate Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Didier

    2018-04-25

    Trypanosoma brucei , etiological agent of Sleeping Sickness in Africa, is the prototype of African trypanosomes, protozoan extracellular flagellate parasites transmitted by saliva ( Salivaria ). In these parasites the molecular controls of the cell cycle and environmental sensing are elaborate and concentrated at the flagellum. Genomic analyses suggest that these parasites appear to differ considerably from the host in signaling mechanisms, with the exception of receptor-type adenylate cyclases (AC) that are topologically similar to receptor-type guanylate cyclase (GC) of higher eukaryotes but control a new class of cAMP targets of unknown function, the cAMP response proteins (CARPs), rather than the classical protein kinase A cAMP effector (PKA). T. brucei possesses a large polymorphic family of ACs, mainly associated with the flagellar membrane, and these are involved in inhibition of the innate immune response of the host prior to the massive release of immunomodulatory factors at the first peak of parasitemia. Recent evidence suggests that in T. brucei several insect-specific AC isoforms are involved in social motility, whereas only a few AC isoforms are involved in cytokinesis control of bloodstream forms, attesting that a complex signaling pathway is required for environmental sensing. In this review, after a general update on cAMP signaling pathway and the multiple roles of cAMP, I summarize the existing knowledge of the mechanisms by which pathogenic microorganisms modulate cAMP levels to escape immune defense.

  14. Adenylate Cyclases of Trypanosoma brucei, Environmental Sensors and Controllers of Host Innate Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Salmon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma brucei, etiological agent of Sleeping Sickness in Africa, is the prototype of African trypanosomes, protozoan extracellular flagellate parasites transmitted by saliva (Salivaria. In these parasites the molecular controls of the cell cycle and environmental sensing are elaborate and concentrated at the flagellum. Genomic analyses suggest that these parasites appear to differ considerably from the host in signaling mechanisms, with the exception of receptor-type adenylate cyclases (AC that are topologically similar to receptor-type guanylate cyclase (GC of higher eukaryotes but control a new class of cAMP targets of unknown function, the cAMP response proteins (CARPs, rather than the classical protein kinase A cAMP effector (PKA. T. brucei possesses a large polymorphic family of ACs, mainly associated with the flagellar membrane, and these are involved in inhibition of the innate immune response of the host prior to the massive release of immunomodulatory factors at the first peak of parasitemia. Recent evidence suggests that in T. brucei several insect-specific AC isoforms are involved in social motility, whereas only a few AC isoforms are involved in cytokinesis control of bloodstream forms, attesting that a complex signaling pathway is required for environmental sensing. In this review, after a general update on cAMP signaling pathway and the multiple roles of cAMP, I summarize the existing knowledge of the mechanisms by which pathogenic microorganisms modulate cAMP levels to escape immune defense.

  15. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Self-Control : Assessing Self-Control with the ASEBA Self-Control Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Yayouk E; Dolan, Conor V.; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; de Zeeuw, Eveline L; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bartels, Meike; Finkenauer, Catrin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/182572382

    This study used a theoretically-derived set of items of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment to develop the Achenbach Self-Control Scale (ASCS) for 7-16 year olds. Using a large dataset of over 20,000 children, who are enrolled in the Netherlands Twin Register, we demonstrated the

  16. Environmental control and radioprotection in Itataia and Lagoa Real uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cenachi, N.C.

    1988-01-01

    Monitoring Programs in Itataia and Lagoa Real uranium mines were initiated in 1982. In the actual pre-operational phase of this Programs, are being collected samples of air, surface and underground waters, stream sediments, soil, field products, and milk. Environmental contamination of air is controlled by thermoluminescent dosimeters, distributed around the mines. Instantaneous radiation measures in this stations are made with scintillometer calibrated in Radioprotection Laboratory Department-CDTN. Photographic dosimeters are used for monitoring external radiation exposures in workers. Radiation levels evaluation, air and surface contamination measures, were effectuated in installations, trenches, and research galleries. Another factors which are now being studied: climate, meteorology, and hidrology. (author) [pt

  17. A definition of normovolaemia and consequences for cardiovascular control during orthostatic and environmental stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truijen, Jasper; Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2010-01-01

    The Frank-Starling mechanism describes the relationship between stroke volume and preload to the heart, or the volume of blood that is available to the heart--the central blood volume. Understanding the role of the central blood volume for cardiovascular control has been complicated by the fact...... stress including bed rest/microgravity, exercise and training, thermal loading, illness, and trauma/haemorrhage is likely to restrict venous return and Q. Consequently the cardiovascular responses are determined primarily by their effect on the central blood volume. Thus during environmental stress, flow...

  18. Application of tracer techniques to industrial troubleshooting and environmental pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easey, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    The field applications of tracer technology are reviewed and three specific examples each are given for use of the technology for industrial troubleshooting and for environmental pollution control. Each example examines the background, the experimental details and the result, particularly with regard to the cost benefits. Specific areas covered are: leak studies in a chemical reactor; wear studies in jet aircraft fuel pump, mass balance studies in gold refining; ocean dispersion of iron rich wastes; pollution discharges of mine waste water; and flow patterns and retention times in waste waster treatment lagoons. (author). 18 refs

  19. Environmental control and life support system requirements and technology needs for advanced manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Ferolyn T.; Sedej, Melaine; Lin, Chin

    1987-01-01

    NASA has completed an environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) technology R&D plan for advanced missions which gave attention to the drivers (crew size, mission duration, etc.) of a range of manned missions under consideration. Key planning guidelines encompassed a time horizon greater than 50 years, funding resource requirements, an evolutionary approach to goal definition, and the funding of more than one approach to satisfy a given perceived requirement. Attention was given to the ECLSS requirements of transportation and service vehicles, platforms, bases and settlements, ECLSS functions and average load requirements, unique drivers for various missions, and potentially exploitable commonalities among vehicles and habitats.

  20. Electric Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center Report to the Steering Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-01-12

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month involved the Dry Sorbent Injection (DSI) test block with the Carbon Injection System. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot Wet Scrubber, and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. These units remain available for testing as future project work is identified.

  1. Dissertation Defense Computational Fluid Dynamics Uncertainty Analysis for Payload Fairing Spacecraft Environmental Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Curtis Edward

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft thermal protection systems are at risk of being damaged due to airflow produced from Environmental Control Systems. There are inherent uncertainties and errors associated with using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict the airflow field around a spacecraft from the Environmental Control System. This paper describes an approach to quantify the uncertainty in using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict airflow speeds around an encapsulated spacecraft without the use of test data. Quantifying the uncertainty in analytical predictions is imperative to the success of any simulation-based product. The method could provide an alternative to traditional "validation by test only" mentality. This method could be extended to other disciplines and has potential to provide uncertainty for any numerical simulation, thus lowering the cost of performing these verifications while increasing the confidence in those predictions. Spacecraft requirements can include a maximum airflow speed to protect delicate instruments during ground processing. Computational Fluid Dynamics can be used to verify these requirements; however, the model must be validated by test data. This research includes the following three objectives and methods. Objective one is develop, model, and perform a Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis of three (3) generic, non-proprietary, environmental control systems and spacecraft configurations. Several commercially available and open source solvers have the capability to model the turbulent, highly three-dimensional, incompressible flow regime. The proposed method uses FLUENT, STARCCM+, and OPENFOAM. Objective two is to perform an uncertainty analysis of the Computational Fluid Dynamics model using the methodology found in "Comprehensive Approach to Verification and Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations". This method requires three separate grids and solutions, which quantify the error bars around Computational Fluid Dynamics

  2. Dissertation Defense: Computational Fluid Dynamics Uncertainty Analysis for Payload Fairing Spacecraft Environmental Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Curtis Edward

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft thermal protection systems are at risk of being damaged due to airflow produced from Environmental Control Systems. There are inherent uncertainties and errors associated with using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict the airflow field around a spacecraft from the Environmental Control System. This paper describes an approach to quantify the uncertainty in using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict airflow speeds around an encapsulated spacecraft without the use of test data. Quantifying the uncertainty in analytical predictions is imperative to the success of any simulation-based product. The method could provide an alternative to traditional validation by test only mentality. This method could be extended to other disciplines and has potential to provide uncertainty for any numerical simulation, thus lowering the cost of performing these verifications while increasing the confidence in those predictions.Spacecraft requirements can include a maximum airflow speed to protect delicate instruments during ground processing. Computational Fluid Dynamics can be used to verify these requirements; however, the model must be validated by test data. This research includes the following three objectives and methods. Objective one is develop, model, and perform a Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis of three (3) generic, non-proprietary, environmental control systems and spacecraft configurations. Several commercially available and open source solvers have the capability to model the turbulent, highly three-dimensional, incompressible flow regime. The proposed method uses FLUENT, STARCCM+, and OPENFOAM. Objective two is to perform an uncertainty analysis of the Computational Fluid Dynamics model using the methodology found in Comprehensive Approach to Verification and Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations. This method requires three separate grids and solutions, which quantify the error bars around Computational Fluid Dynamics predictions

  3. Space Station Freedom environmental control and life support system phase 3 simplified integrated test detailed report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, B. C.; Carrasquillo, R. L.; Dubiel, M. Y.; Ogle, K. Y.; Perry, J. L.; Whitley, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    A description of the phase 3 simplified integrated test (SIT) conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF) in 1989 is presented. This was the first test in the phase 3 series integrated environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) tests. The basic goal of the SIT was to achieve full integration of the baseline air revitalization (AR) subsystems for Space Station Freedom. Included is a description of the SIT configuration, a performance analysis of each subsystem, results from air and water sampling, and a discussion of lessons learned from the test. Also included is a full description of the preprototype ECLSS hardware used in the test.

  4. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2008 - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2008 and February 2009. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the continuation of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.

  5. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2010 - 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2010 and February 2011 and the continued permanent presence of six crew members on ISS. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements, commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and extension of the ISS service life from 2015 to 2020 or beyond.

  6. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status for the Prior Year: 2011 - 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the prior year, covering the period of time between March 2011 and February 2012. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements, the commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life from 2015 to at least 2028.

  7. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2009 - 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non -regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2009 and February 2010. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence and an increase of the ISS crew size from three to six. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements.

  8. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Previous Year Status for 2013 - 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year and the impacts of the international partners' activities on them, covering the period of time between March 2013 and February 2014. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the commercial crew vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life.

  9. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2014-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year and the impacts of the international partners' activities on them, covering the period of time between March 2014 and February 2015. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the commercial crew vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life.

  10. Assisting Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Actively Reduces Limb Hyperactive Behavior with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller through Controlling Environmental Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Yeh, Jui-Chi; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chang, Man-Ling

    2011-01-01

    The latest studies have adopted software technology which turns the Wii Remote Controller into a high-performance limb action detector, we assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control an environmental stimulus through limb action. This study extends the functionality of the Wii Remote Controller to the…

  11. A Limb Action Detector Enabling People with Multiple Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation through Limb Action with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Tien

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using limb action with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller and a newly developed limb action detection program (LADP, i.e., a new software program that turns a Wii Remote Controller into a precise limb action detector). This study was…

  12. RENDAC: Integrated System Data for the Information Control the Environmental Radiological Surveillance the National Network in Cuban Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes Ramos, M.; Prendes Alonso, M.

    1998-01-01

    With the objective to evaluate, process, control and to store the information that is generated in the National Environmental Radiological Surveillance Network, it is designed and I program the on-line RENDAC system that allows to capture and evaluate the parameters that characterize the environmental radiological situation

  13. Impact of a More Stringent Blood Lead Level Recommendation for Children (Ages 1-5): Vulnerabilities Related to Housing, Food Security, Vitamins, and Environmental Toxicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adverse health effects of lead (Pb) exposure in young children are well known. Non-Hispanic black children historically have higher blood Pb levels (BLL) compared to Mexican-Americans and non- Hispanic white children (CDC-MMWR). In the past, BLL tests below 10 µg/dL m...

  14. Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Yan Cao; John Smith

    2008-05-31

    On February 14, 2002, President Bush announced the Clear Skies Initiative, a legislative proposal to control the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and mercury from power plants. In response to this initiative, the National Energy Technology Laboratory organized a Combustion Technology University Alliance and hosted a Solid Fuel Combustion Technology Alliance Workshop. The workshop identified multi-pollutant control; improved sorbents and catalysts; mercury monitoring and capture; and improved understanding of the underlying reaction chemistry occurring during combustion as the most pressing research needs related to controlling environmental emissions from fossil-fueled power plants. The Environmental Control Technology Laboratory will help meet these challenges and offer solutions for problems associated with emissions from fossil-fueled power plants. The goal of this project was to develop the capability and technology database needed to support municipal, regional, and national electric power generating facilities to improve the efficiency of operation and solve operational and environmental problems. In order to effectively provide the scientific data and the methodologies required to address these issues, the project included the following aspects: (1) Establishing an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory using a laboratory-scale, simulated fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) system; (2) Designing, constructing, and operating a bench-scale (0.6 MW{sub th}), circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC) system as the main component of the Environmental Control Technology Laboratory; (3) Developing a combustion technology for co-firing municipal solid waste (MSW), agricultural waste, and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with high sulfur coals; (4) Developing a control strategy for gaseous emissions, including NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, organic compounds, and heavy metals; and (5) Developing new mercury capturing sorbents and new

  15. Economic–environmental hierarchical frequency management of a droop-controlled islanded microgrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaei, Navid; Kalantar, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Modeling the steady-state frequency of the droop-controlled microgrids. • Precise formulation the hierarchical control levels of islanded microgrids. • Economic–environmental frequency management using mixed-integer linear programming. • Proposing a novel objective function based on the microgrid daily frequency profile. • Scheduling primary and secondary control reserves using a stochastic optimization. - Abstract: This paper presents a novel energy management system (EMS) for a microgrid to enhance the power system security in a cost-effective manner. Small size of the islanded microgrids, high levels of intermittency and energy fluctuations, lower inertia potential of inverter-interfaced distributed energy resources (DERs) makes the frequency a vital factor in the microgrid energy management system that should be managed subject to the economic–environmental policies of the microgrid EMS. The proposed model is based on precise energy and reserve scheduling of the DERs in a droop-controlled islanded microgrid to manage the possible microgrid frequency excursions. The expected value of the microgrid frequency excursions stem from system power deviations is employed as a new objective function in this study, which is aimed to be minimized using a two stage stochastic mixed-integer linear programming method. In order to model the hierarchical control structure of the islanded microgrid, the frequency dependent behavior of the droop-controlled inverter-interfaced DERs is formulated thoroughly. The proposed model is applied to a typical microgrid test system. The primary and secondary frequency control reserves are appropriately scheduled over a 24 h period. A methodology based on the Monte-Carlo simulation strategy is adapted to generate some random scenarios corresponding to renewable generation variations, load consumption deviations and contingencies of line/unit outages. The generated scenarios are reduced and applied to the

  16. 75 FR 28233 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Asian Citrus Psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ...] Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Asian Citrus Psyllid AGENCY... radiata, into the continental United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity... of an alternative biological control agent, an encyrtid wasp, (Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis). However...

  17. Hybrid neuro-fuzzy system for power generation control with environmental constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, Krishna Teerth; Pandit, Manjaree; Srivastava, Laxmi

    2008-01-01

    The real time controls at the central energy management centre in a power system, continuously track the load changes and endeavor to match the total power demand with total generation in such a manner that the operating cost is least. However due to the strict government regulations on environmental protection, operation at minimum cost is no longer the only criterion for dispatching electrical power. The idea behind the environmentally constrained combined economic dispatch formulation is to estimate the optimal generation allocation to generating units in such a manner that fuel cost and harmful emission levels are both simultaneously minimized for a given load demand. Conventional optimization techniques are cumbersome for such complex optimization tasks and are not suitable for on-line use due to increased computational burden. This paper proposes a neuro-fuzzy power dispatch method where the uncertainty involved with power demand is modeled as a fuzzy variable. Then Levenberg-Marquardt neural network (LMNN) is used to evaluate the optimal generation schedules. This model trains almost hundred times faster that the popular BP neural network. The proposed method has been tested on two test systems and found to be suitable for on-line combined environmental economic dispatch

  18. Evaluation of tecniques for controlling UF6 release clouds in the GAT environmental chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lux, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    Studies designed to characterize the reaction between UF 6 and atmospheric moisture, evaluate environmental variables of UF 6 cloud formation and ultimate cloud fate, and UF 6 release cloud control procedure have been conducted in the 1200 cu. ft. GAT environmental chamber. In earlier chamber experiments, 30 separate UF 6 release tests indicated that variations of atmospheric conditions and sample sizes had no significant effect on UO 2 F 2 particle size distribution, release cloud formation, or cloud settling rates. During the past year, numerous procedures have been evaluated for accelerating UF 6 cloud knockdown in a series of 37 environmental chamber releases. Knockdown procedures included: coarse water spray; air jet; steam spray (electrostatically charged and uncharged); carbon dioxide; Freon-12; fine water mist (uncharged); boric acid mist (charged and uncharged); and an ionized dry air stream. UF 6 hydrolysis cloud settling rates monitored by a laser/powermeter densitometer, indicated the relative effectiveness of various cloud knockdown techniques. Electrostatically charged boric acid/water mist, and electrostatically ionized dry air were both found to be very effective, knocking down the UO 2 F 2 release cloud particles in two to five minutes. Work to adapt these knockdown techniques for use under field conditions is continuing, taking into account recovery of the released uranium as well as nuclear criticality constraints

  19. Environmental effects of energy production and utilization in the U. S. Volume 3. Techniques for controlling emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newkirk, H.W. (comp.)

    1976-06-14

    Technological, social, economic and political techniques for controlling emission are summarized for environmental pollutants introduced into air, water and land resources. Chemical, radiological and physical factors are discussed. (PCS)

  20. Environmental controls on the elemental composition of a Southern Hemisphere strain of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Feng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of semi-continuous incubation experiments were conducted with the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi strain NIWA1108 (Southern Ocean isolate to examine the effects of five environmental drivers (nitrate and phosphate concentrations, irradiance, temperature, and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 on both the physiological rates and elemental composition of the coccolithophore. Here, we report the alteration of the elemental composition of E. huxleyi in response to the changes in these environmental drivers. A series of dose–response curves for the cellular elemental composition of E. huxleyi were fitted for each of the five drivers across an environmentally representative gradient. The importance of each driver in regulating the elemental composition of E. huxleyi was ranked using a semi-quantitative approach. The percentage variations in elemental composition arising from the change in each driver between present-day and model-projected conditions for the year 2100 were calculated. Temperature was the most important driver controlling both cellular particulate organic and inorganic carbon content, whereas nutrient concentrations were the most important regulator of cellular particulate nitrogen and phosphorus of E. huxleyi. In contrast, elevated pCO2 had the greatest influence on cellular particulate inorganic carbon to organic carbon ratio, resulting in a decrease in the ratio. Our results indicate that the different environmental drivers play specific roles in regulating the elemental composition of E. huxleyi with wide-reaching implications for coccolithophore-related marine biogeochemical cycles, as a consequence of the regulation of E. huxleyi physiological processes.

  1. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    Volume 2 consists of 19 reports describing technical effort performed by Government Contractors in the area of LNG Safety and Environmental Control. Report topics are: simulation of LNG vapor spread and dispersion by finite element methods; modeling of negatively buoyant vapor cloud dispersion; effect of humidity on the energy budget of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vapor cloud; LNG fire and explosion phenomena research evaluation; modeling of laminar flames in mixtures of vaporized liquefied natural gas (LNG) and air; chemical kinetics in LNG detonations; effects of cellular structure on the behavior of gaseous detonation waves under transient conditions; computer simulation of combustion and fluid dynamics in two and three dimensions; LNG release prevention and control; the feasibility of methods and systems for reducing LNG tanker fire hazards; safety assessment of gelled LNG; and a four band differential radiometer for monitoring LNG vapors.

  2. Visual Attention Allocation Between Robotic Arm and Environmental Process Control: Validating the STOM Task Switching Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Christopher; Vieanne, Alex; Clegg, Benjamin; Sebok, Angelia; Janes, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Fifty six participants time shared a spacecraft environmental control system task with a realistic space robotic arm control task in either a manual or highly automated version. The former could suffer minor failures, whose diagnosis and repair were supported by a decision aid. At the end of the experiment this decision aid unexpectedly failed. We measured visual attention allocation and switching between the two tasks, in each of the eight conditions formed by manual-automated arm X expected-unexpected failure X monitoring- failure management. We also used our multi-attribute task switching model, based on task attributes of priority interest, difficulty and salience that were self-rated by participants, to predict allocation. An un-weighted model based on attributes of difficulty, interest and salience accounted for 96 percent of the task allocation variance across the 8 different conditions. Task difficulty served as an attractor, with more difficult tasks increasing the tendency to stay on task.

  3. Environmental control and life support - Partially closed system will save big money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, W. W.

    1983-01-01

    Although the NASA space station has not yet been completely defined, realistic estimates may be made of the environmental control and life support system requirements entailed by a crew of eight, a resupply interval of 90 days, an initial launch which includes expendables for the first resupply interval, 7.86 lb/day of water per person, etc. An appraisal of these requirements is presented which strongly suggests the utility of a partially closed life support system. Such a scheme would give the crew high quality water to drink, and recycle nonpotable water from hand washing, bathing, clothes and dish washing, and urinal flushing. The excess recovery process water is electrolyzed to provide metabolic and leakage oxygen. The crew would drink electrolysis water and atmospheric humidity control moisture-derived water.

  4. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix E: Flood control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The Corps of Engineers, Bonneville Power Administration, and Bureau of Reclamation conducted a scoping process consisting of a series of regionwide public meetings and solicitation of written comments in the summer of 1990. Comments on flood control issues were received from all parts of the Columbia river basin. This appendix includes issues raised in the public scoping process, as well as those brought for consideration by members of the Flood Control Work Group

  5. Emergency strategy optimization for the environmental control system in manned spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoxiang; Pang, Liping; Liu, Meng; Fang, Yufeng; Zhang, Helin

    2018-02-01

    It is very important for a manned environmental control system (ECS) to be able to reconfigure its operation strategy in emergency conditions. In this article, a multi-objective optimization is established to design the optimal emergency strategy for an ECS in an insufficient power supply condition. The maximum ECS lifetime and the minimum power consumption are chosen as the optimization objectives. Some adjustable key variables are chosen as the optimization variables, which finally represent the reconfigured emergency strategy. The non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II is adopted to solve this multi-objective optimization problem. Optimization processes are conducted at four different carbon dioxide partial pressure control levels. The study results show that the Pareto-optimal frontiers obtained from this multi-objective optimization can represent the relationship between the lifetime and the power consumption of the ECS. Hence, the preferred emergency operation strategy can be recommended for situations when there is suddenly insufficient power.

  6. Environmental and occupational risk factors for progressive supranuclear palsy: Case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvan, Irene; Lees, Peter S J; Cunningham, Christopher R; Rai, Shesh N; Cambon, Alexander C; Standaert, David G; Marras, Connie; Juncos, Jorge; Riley, David; Reich, Stephen; Hall, Deborah; Kluger, Benzi; Bordelon, Yvette; Shprecher, David R

    2016-05-01

    The cause of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is largely unknown. Based on evidence for impaired mitochondrial activity in PSP, we hypothesized that the disease may be related to exposure to environmental toxins, some of which are mitochondrial inhibitors. This multicenter case-control study included 284 incident PSP cases of 350 cases and 284 age-, sex-, and race-matched controls primarily from the same geographical areas. All subjects were administered standardized interviews to obtain data on demographics, residential history, and lifetime occupational history. An industrial hygienist and a toxicologist unaware of case status assessed occupational histories to estimate past exposure to metals, pesticides, organic solvents, and other chemicals. Cases and controls were similar on demographic factors. In unadjusted analyses, PSP was associated with lower education, lower income, more smoking pack-years, more years of drinking well water, more years living on a farm, more years living 1 mile from an agricultural region, more transportation jobs, and more jobs with exposure to metals in general. However, in adjusted models, only more years of drinking well water was significantly associated with PSP. There was an inverse association with having a college degree. We did not find evidence for a specific causative chemical exposure; higher number of years of drinking well water is a risk factor for PSP. This result remained significant after adjusting for income, smoking, education and occupational exposures. This is the first case-control study to demonstrate PSP is associated with environmental factors. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  7. Environmental controls on stable isotopes of precipitation in Lanzhou, China: An enhanced network at city scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fenli; Zhang, Mingjun; Wang, Shengjie; Qiu, Xue; Du, Mingxia

    2017-12-31

    Stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in precipitation are very sensitive to environmental changes, and can record evolution of water cycle. The Lanzhou city in northwestern China is jointly influenced by the monsoon and westerlies, which is considered as a vital platform to investigate the moisture regime for this region. Since 2011, an observation network of stable isotopes in precipitation was established across the city, and four stations were included in the network. In 2013, six more sampling stations were added, and the enhanced network might provide more meaningful information on spatial incoherence and synoptic process. This study focused on the variations of stable isotopes (δ 18 O and δD) in precipitation and the environmental controls based on the 1432 samples in this enhanced network from April 2011 to October 2014. The results showed that the precipitation isotopes had great spatial diversity, and the neighboring stations may present large difference in δD and δ 18 O. Based on the observation at ten sampling sites, an isoscape in precipitation was calculated, and the method is useful to produce isoscape for small domains. The temperature effect and amount effect was reconsidered based on the dataset. Taking meteorological parameters (temperature, precipitation amount, relative humidity, water vapor pressure and dew point temperature) as variables in a multi-linear regression, the result of coefficients for these meteorological parameters were calculated. Some cases were also involved in this study, and the isotopic characteristics during one event or continuous days were used to understand the environmental controls on precipitation isotopes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental control aspects for fabrication, reprocessing and waste disposal of alternative LWR and LMFBR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, A.M.; Lewallen, M.A.; McNair, G.W.

    1979-11-01

    Environmental control aspects of alternative fuel cycles have been analyzed by evaluating fabrication, reprocessing, and waste disposal operations. Various indices have been used to assess potential environmental control requirements. For the fabrication and reprocessing operations, 50-year dose commitments were used. Waste disposal was evaluated by comparing projected nuclide concentrations in ground water at various time periods with maximum permissible concentrations (MPCs). Three different fabrication plants were analyzed: a fuel fabrication plant (FFP) to produce low-activity uranium and uranium-thorium fuel rods; a plutonium fuel refabrication plant (PFRFP) to produce plutonium-uranium and plutonium-thorium fuel rods; and a uranium fuel refabrication plant (UFRFP) to produce fuel rods containing the high-activity isotopes 232 U and 233 U. Each plant's dose commitments are discussed separately. Source terms for the analysis of effluents from the fuel reprocessing plant (FRP) were calculated using the fuel burnup codes LEOPARD, CINDER and ORIGEN. Effluent quantities are estimated for each fuel type. Bedded salt was chosen for the waste repository analysis. The repository site is modeled on the Waste Isolation Pilot Program site in New Mexico. Wastes assumed to be stored in the repository include high-level vitrified waste from the FRP, packaged fuel residue from the FRP, and transuranic (TRU) contaminated wastes from the FFP, PFRFP, and UFRFP. The potential environmental significance was determined by estimating the ground-water concentrations of the various nuclides over a time span of a million years. The MPC for each nuclide was used along with the estimated ground-water concentration to generate a biohazard index for the comparison among fuel compositions

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN MICROBIAL INHIBITOR TO CONTROL INTERNAL PIPELINE CORROSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill W. Bogan; Brigid M. Lamb; Gemma Husmillo; Kristine Lowe; J. Robert Paterek; John J. Kilbane II

    2004-12-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmentally benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is to develop one or more environmentally benign (a.k.a. ''green'') products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. Various chemicals that inhibit the growth and/or the metabolism of corrosion-associated microbes such as sulfate reducing bacteria, denitrifying bacteria, and methanogenic bacteria were evaluated to determine their ability to inhibit corrosion in experiments utilizing pure and mixed bacterial cultures, and planktonic cultures as well as mature biofilms. Planktonic cultures are easier to inhibit than mature biofilms but several compounds were shown to be effective in decreasing the amount of metal corrosion. Of the compounds tested hexane extracts of Capsicum pepper plants and molybdate were the most effective inhibitors of sulfate reducing bacteria, bismuth nitrate was the most effective inhibitor of nitrate reducing bacteria, and 4-((pyridine-2-yl)methylamino)benzoic acid (PMBA) was the most effective inhibitor of methanogenic bacteria. All of these compounds were demonstrated to minimize corrosion due to MIC, at least in some circumstances. The results obtained in this project are consistent with the hypothesis that any compound that disrupts the metabolism of any of the major microbial groups present in corrosion-associated biofilms shows promise in limiting the amount/rate of corrosion. This approach of controlling MIC by controlling the metabolism of biofilms is more environmentally benign than the current approach involving the use of potent biocides, and warrants further investigation.

  10. Possibility of environmentally-safe casing soil disinfection for control of cobwebdisease of button mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The soil-borne pathogen Cladobotryum dendroides causes cobweb disease of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus and its significant yield losses. Casing soil disinfection by toxic formaldehyde is a widespread practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of two environmentally friendly substances, colloidal silver and peracetic acid, against C. dendroides. Their biological efficacy (impact on mushroom yield, effectiveness (disease control and type of interactions between them and the fungicide prochloraz-manganese were evaluated. Black peat/lime casing soil was applied to a colonized substrate with the white button mushroom strain 737, then inoculated with C. dendroides and treated with the fungicide prochloraz-manganse and two environmentally friendly disinfectants based on peracetic acid and colloidal silver. The effects of fungicides on mushroom productivity were evaluated as biological efficacy and calculated as a ratio of fresh weight of total mushroom yield to the weight of dry substrate. Fungicide effectiveness and synergy factor were calculated by Abbott’s (1925 formula. Tests for synergism between prochloraz-manganese and both other substances were performed using Limpel’s formula. The highest biolgical efficacy, exceeding 92.00, was achieved in treatments with prochlorazmanganese, applied alone or in combination with both other disinfectants. The highest effectiveness of 93.33% was attained in treatments with peracetic acid combined with prochloraz-manganese. Trials against cobweb disease revealed a synergistic reaction between the fungicide and peracetic acid and antagonistic between the fungicide and colloidal silver. Peracetic acid provided better disease control, compared to colloidal silver applied alone or in combination with the fungicide. Based on these findings, peracetic acid should be recomended as an environmentally friendly casing soil disinfectant against cobweb disease of A. bisporus.

  11. Association between Prenatal Environmental Factors and Child Autism: A Case Control Study in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Xi, Qian Qian; Wu, Jun; Han, Yu; Dai, Wei; Su, Yuan Yuan; Zhang, Xin

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the association between autism and prenatal environmental risk factors. A case-control study was conducted among 193 children with autism from the special educational schools and 733 typical development controls matched by age and gender by using questionnaire in Tianjin from 2007 to 2012. Statistical analysis included quick unbiased efficient statistical tree (QUEST) and logistic regression in SPSS 20.0. There were four predictors by QUEST and the logistic regression analysis, maternal air conditioner use during pregnancy (OR=0.316, 95% CI: 0.215-0.463) was the single first-level node (χ²=50.994, P=0.000); newborn complications (OR=4.277, 95% CI: 2.314-7.908) and paternal consumption of freshwater fish (OR=0.383, 95% CI: 0.256-0.573) were second-layer predictors (χ²=45.248, P=0.000; χ²=24.212, P=0.000); and maternal depression (OR=4.822, 95% CI: 3.047-7.631) was the single third-level predictor (χ²=23.835, P=0.000). The prediction accuracy of the tree was 89.2%. The air conditioner use during pregnancy and paternal freshwater fish diet might be beneficial for the prevention of autism, while newborn complications and maternal depression might be the risk factors. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  12. Organizing pneumonia and occupational and environmental risk factors: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobard, Stéphanie; Chaigne, Benjamin; Marchand-Adam, Sylvain; Lasfargues, Gérard; Diot, Elisabeth

    2017-11-01

    A single-center case-control study was carried out to investigate the relationship between occupational and environmental exposure and organizing pneumonia (OP). Thirty-seven cases of OP, including 25 cases of cryptogenic OP, and 111 controls were included. Occupational exposure was assessed retrospectively by an industrial hygienist and an occupational physician, through semi-quantitative estimates of exposure. An exposure score was calculated for each subject, based on probability, intensity, daily frequency, and duration of exposure for each period of employment. The final cumulative exposure score was obtained by summing exposure scores for all periods of employment. Significant associations with all-cause OP were observed for exposure to tetrachloroethylene (OR 13.33, CI 95% 1.44-123.5) and silica (OR 6.61, CI 95% 1.16-37.71). A significant association with cryptogenic OP was observed only for tetrachloroethylene (OR 31.6, CI 95% 1.64-610.8). No associations were found for environmental exposure. Despite its low statistical power, this work suggests that occupational risk factors could be involved in OP.

  13. The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) advanced automation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewberry, Brandon S.; Carnes, Ray

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) Advanced Automation Project is to influence the design of the initial and evolutionary Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) ECLSS toward a man-made closed environment in which minimal flight and ground manpower is needed. Another objective includes capturing ECLSS design and development knowledge future missions. Our approach has been to (1) analyze the SSFP ECLSS, (2) envision as our goal a fully automated evolutionary environmental control system - an augmentation of the baseline, and (3) document the advanced software systems, hooks, and scars which will be necessary to achieve this goal. From this analysis, prototype software is being developed, and will be tested using air and water recovery simulations and hardware subsystems. In addition, the advanced software is being designed, developed, and tested using automation software management plan and lifecycle tools. Automated knowledge acquisition, engineering, verification and testing tools are being used to develop the software. In this way, we can capture ECLSS development knowledge for future use develop more robust and complex software, provide feedback to the knowledge based system tool community, and ensure proper visibility of our efforts.

  14. Ownership and environmental regulation: Evidence from the European electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clò, Stefano; Ferraris, Matteo; Florio, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates how ownership affects the environmental performance in developed countries where environmental regulation is introduced in the form of market-based instrument. By looking at a cross-country panel dataset of 29 power markets around Europe over the period 1990–2012, we find empirical evidence that an increase of public ownership, as measured by the OECD ETCR index, is associated with a reduction of both greenhouse gas emissions and carbon intensity. We also find that the implementation of the European Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) had a limited impact on emissions' reduction due to lax allocation of allowances. The positive effect of public ownership on environmental performance has been significant even after the introduction of the ETS, giving additional incentives to mitigate emissions when the ETS cap was not stringent enough. This evidence suggests that government control over power companies in Europe can has created idiosyncratic incentives to improve environmental quality, complementing environmental regulation in the achievement of environmental goals when the latter was absent or sub-optimal. - Highlights: • We analyse the power industry's environmental performance in 29 European countries. • Public ownership is associated with lower emissions than private ownership. • Mixed oligopoly is superior to private oligopoly in environmental terms. • The ETS had a limited impact on emissions' reduction due to over-allocation. • Public ownership mitigates the effects of sub-optimal environmental regulation.

  15. Improvement of environmental aspects of thermal power plant operation by advanced control concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulandrić Robert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, as formulated in the Kyoto Protocol, imposes the need for improving environmental aspects of existing thermal power plants operation. Improvements can be reached either by efficiency increment or by implementation of emission reduction measures. Investments in refurbishment of existing plant components or in plant upgrading by flue gas desulphurization, by primary and secondary measures of nitrogen oxides reduction, or by biomass co-firing, are usually accompanied by modernisation of thermal power plant instrumentation and control system including sensors, equipment diagnostics and advanced controls. Impact of advanced control solutions implementation depends on technical characteristics and status of existing instrumentation and control systems as well as on design characteristics and actual conditions of installed plant components. Evaluation of adequacy of implementation of advanced control concepts is especially important in Western Balkan region where thermal power plants portfolio is rather diversified in terms of size, type and commissioning year and where generally poor maintenance and lack of investments in power generation sector resulted in high greenhouse gases emissions and low efficiency of plants in operation. This paper is intended to present possibilities of implementation of advanced control concepts, and particularly those based on artificial intelligence, in selected thermal power plants in order to increase plant efficiency and to lower pollutants emissions and to comply with environmental quality standards prescribed in large combustion plant directive. [Acknowledgements. This paper has been created within WBalkICT - Supporting Common RTD actions in WBCs for developing Low Cost and Low Risk ICT based solutions for TPPs Energy Efficiency increasing, SEE-ERA.NET plus project in cooperation among partners from IPA SA - Romania, University of Zagreb - Croatia and Vinca

  16. Genetic and environmental influences on the relationship between flow proneness, locus of control and behavioral inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam A Mosing

    Full Text Available Flow is a psychological state of high but subjectively effortless attention that typically occurs during active performance of challenging tasks and is accompanied by a sense of automaticity, high control, low self-awareness, and enjoyment. Flow proneness is associated with traits and behaviors related to low neuroticism such as emotional stability, conscientiousness, active coping, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Little is known about the genetic architecture of flow proneness, behavioral inhibition and locus of control--traits also associated with neuroticism--and their interrelation. Here, we hypothesized that individuals low in behavioral inhibition and with an internal locus of control would be more likely to experience flow and explored the genetic and environmental architecture of the relationship between the three variables. Behavioral inhibition and locus of control was measured in a large population sample of 3,375 full twin pairs and 4,527 single twins, about 26% of whom also scored the flow proneness questionnaire. Findings revealed significant but relatively low correlations between the three traits and moderate heritability estimates of .41, .45, and .30 for flow proneness, behavioral inhibition, and locus of control, respectively, with some indication of non-additive genetic influences. For behavioral inhibition we found significant sex differences in heritability, with females showing a higher estimate including significant non-additive genetic influences, while in males the entire heritability was due to additive genetic variance. We also found a mainly genetically mediated relationship between the three traits, suggesting that individuals who are genetically predisposed to experience flow, show less behavioral inhibition (less anxious and feel that they are in control of their own destiny (internal locus of control. We discuss that some of the genes underlying this relationship may include those influencing the function of

  17. Genetic and environmental influences on the relationship between flow proneness, locus of control and behavioral inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosing, Miriam A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Cesarini, David; Johannesson, Magnus; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Nakamura, Jeanne; Madison, Guy; Ullén, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    Flow is a psychological state of high but subjectively effortless attention that typically occurs during active performance of challenging tasks and is accompanied by a sense of automaticity, high control, low self-awareness, and enjoyment. Flow proneness is associated with traits and behaviors related to low neuroticism such as emotional stability, conscientiousness, active coping, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Little is known about the genetic architecture of flow proneness, behavioral inhibition and locus of control--traits also associated with neuroticism--and their interrelation. Here, we hypothesized that individuals low in behavioral inhibition and with an internal locus of control would be more likely to experience flow and explored the genetic and environmental architecture of the relationship between the three variables. Behavioral inhibition and locus of control was measured in a large population sample of 3,375 full twin pairs and 4,527 single twins, about 26% of whom also scored the flow proneness questionnaire. Findings revealed significant but relatively low correlations between the three traits and moderate heritability estimates of .41, .45, and .30 for flow proneness, behavioral inhibition, and locus of control, respectively, with some indication of non-additive genetic influences. For behavioral inhibition we found significant sex differences in heritability, with females showing a higher estimate including significant non-additive genetic influences, while in males the entire heritability was due to additive genetic variance. We also found a mainly genetically mediated relationship between the three traits, suggesting that individuals who are genetically predisposed to experience flow, show less behavioral inhibition (less anxious) and feel that they are in control of their own destiny (internal locus of control). We discuss that some of the genes underlying this relationship may include those influencing the function of dopaminergic neural

  18. Study on the relationship between the opening of environmental tax and the prevention and control of air pollution in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guilin; Wang, Tianyi

    2018-03-01

    This article systematically expounds the status quo and sources of air pollution, the experience of foreign environmental tax policy, the advantages and disadvantages of environmental taxes levied in our country through literature research, historical analysis and comparative analysis and put forward recommendations on tax policy of prevention and control of air pollution by combining with the specific national conditions in our country. As one of the basic means of national macro-control, the tax policy is the major countermeasure that cannot be ignored in the prevention and control of air pollution. Studying the tax policy of prevention and control of air pollution will help to effectively control air pollution, develop a green economy and recycle economy and achieve the goal of improving environmental quality.

  19. Environmental control of U concentration and 234U/238U in speleothems at subannual resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, C.; Henderson, G. M.

    2003-12-01

    Trace element and isotope variability in speleothems encodes a range of information about the past environment, although its interpretation is often problematic. U concentration and isotopes have frequently been analysed in speleothems in order to provide chronology, but their use as environmental proxies in their own right has not been comprehensively investigated. In this study, we have investigated the environmental controls of U in a stalagmite from the Central Yangtze Valley in China. This stalagmite grew rapidly throughout the Holocone and contains visible annual layers about 300microns thick. Analysis of a portion of the stalagmite corresponding to the 1970s by electron probe, LA-ICP-MS, and by physical subsampling indicate clear annual cycles in Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, and Ba/Ca. The reasonably open cave structure and the correlation of Sr/Ca with Mg/Ca suggest that temperature exerts considerable control over these trace element variations. U/Ca also varies seasonally by up to 42 % and shows a clear anti-correlation with Mg/Ca (correlation coefficient -0.64). Based on the inverse relationship between U/Ca and temperature exhibited in other carbonates (e.g. corals) the speleothem U/Ca is suggested to be controlled primarily by temperature and may provide a paleo cave thermometer with less rainfall influence than Mg/Ca. Ongoing monitoring of the cave temperature and humidity will assess the robustness of this conclusion and the sensitivity of speleothem U/Ca to temperature. (234U/238U) in this stalagmite range from 1.733 to 1.872 during the Holocene. The U concentration is high enough (typically 0.48 ppm) and growth rate fast enough, that (234U/238U) can also be measured at a subannual resolution. The expected alpha-recoil control of excess 234U supply suggests that these measurements may provide a measure of the transit time of recharge waters to the stalagmite during the seasonal cycle. Such a proxy would enable deconvolution of temperature and recharge-rate control

  20. A Three-Dimensional Object Orientation Detector Assisting People with Developmental Disabilities to Control Their Environmental Stimulation through Simple Occupational Activities with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling; Mohua, Zhang

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two people with developmental disabilities would be able to actively perform simple occupational activities to control their preferred environmental stimulation using a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller with a newly developed three-dimensional object orientation detection program (TDOODP, i.e. a new software program,…

  1. Expression of squid iridescence depends on environmental luminance and peripheral ganglion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Bellido, P T; Wardill, T J; Buresch, K C; Ulmer, K M; Hanlon, R T

    2014-03-15

    Squid display impressive changes in body coloration that are afforded by two types of dynamic skin elements: structural iridophores (which produce iridescence) and pigmented chromatophores. Both color elements are neurally controlled, but nothing is known about the iridescence circuit, or the environmental cues, that elicit iridescence expression. To tackle this knowledge gap, we performed denervation, electrical stimulation and behavioral experiments using the long-fin squid, Doryteuthis pealeii. We show that while the pigmentary and iridescence circuits originate in the brain, they are wired differently in the periphery: (1) the iridescence signals are routed through a peripheral center called the stellate ganglion and (2) the iridescence motor neurons likely originate within this ganglion (as revealed by nerve fluorescence dye fills). Cutting the inputs to the stellate ganglion that descend from the brain shifts highly reflective iridophores into a transparent state. Taken together, these findings suggest that although brain commands are necessary for expression of iridescence, integration with peripheral information in the stellate ganglion could modulate the final output. We also demonstrate that squid change their iridescence brightness in response to environmental luminance; such changes are robust but slow (minutes to hours). The squid's ability to alter its iridescence levels may improve camouflage under different lighting intensities.

  2. Temperature effect on rose downy mildew development under environmental controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Filgueira D.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The rose downy mildew disease, caused by Peronospora sparsa Berkeley, is one of the most important that affect rose crops in Colombia. To manage this disease, flower growers must deal with high-costs due to the excessive application of fungicides, but without good results. Studies on P. sparsa behavior have shown its narrow relationship with environmental conditions. In this study, the temperature effect was evaluated during the infection and sporulation of P. sparsa in Charlotte leaflets, a susceptible commercial variety, through an environmental controlled conditions system. Infection and sporulation were observed at different temperatures in a range of from 4 to 40°C. Infection with the absence of or very low sporulation was observed at 4°C. The most favorable pathogen responses were between 15 and 18°C in terms of inoculum concentration and sporulation percentage. There was no infection or leaflet change above 35°C. According to the results, sporulation can occur from 4 to 33°C, confirming the fact that P. sparsa is able to reproduce throughout a wide temperature range.

  3. A definition of normovolaemia and consequences for cardiovascular control during orthostatic and environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truijen, Jasper; Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2010-05-01

    The Frank-Starling mechanism describes the relationship between stroke volume and preload to the heart, or the volume of blood that is available to the heart--the central blood volume. Understanding the role of the central blood volume for cardiovascular control has been complicated by the fact that a given central blood volume may be associated with markedly different central vascular pressures. The central blood volume varies with posture and, consequently, stroke volume and cardiac output (Q) are affected, but with the increased central blood volume during head-down tilt, stroke volume and Q do not increase further indicating that in the supine resting position the heart operates on the plateau of the Frank-Starling curve which, therefore, may be taken as a functional definition of normovolaemia. Since the capacity of the vascular system surpasses the blood volume, orthostatic and environmental stress including bed rest/microgravity, exercise and training, thermal loading, illness, and trauma/haemorrhage is likely to restrict venous return and Q. Consequently the cardiovascular responses are determined primarily by their effect on the central blood volume. Thus during environmental stress, flow redistribution becomes dependent on sympathetic activation affecting not only skin and splanchnic blood flow, but also flow to skeletal muscles and the brain. This review addresses the hypothesis that deviations from normovolaemia significantly influence these cardiovascular responses.

  4. Indoor environmental risk factors in young asthmatics: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, A; Wickman, M; Hedlin, G; Pershagen, G; Rietz, H; Nordvall, S L

    1995-11-01

    One hundred and ninety three children with asthma and 318 controls aged 1-4 years were evaluated for atopic heredity and exposure to possible indoor risk factors for asthma-for example exposure to furred pets, tobacco smoke, and home dampness. A subgroup of cases were classified as cat and/or dog allergic on the basis of skin prick tests. Heredity for asthma was a significant risk factor (odds ratio (OR) 3.0, confidence interval (CI) 2.1 to 4.6). Environmental tobacco smoke was associated with an excess risk for asthma (OR 1.7, CI 1.1 to 2.3) and signs of home dampness tended to increase this risk (OR 1.3, CI 0.9 to 2.0). High dose exposure to cat and/or dog resulted in an increased risk only in asthma cases sensitised to cat and/or dog (OR 2.7, CI 1.0 to 7.3). A combination of high dose exposure to cat and/or dog, environmental tobacco smoke and damp housing was associated with an OR of 8.0 (CI 1.9 to 34.1). Raised indoor humidity has been shown to reflect low air exchange, which may also lead to increased doses of inhaled aeroallergens and tobacco smoke, and contribute to the interaction between the three risk factors.

  5. EVELOPMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN MICROBIAL INHIBITOR TO CONTROL INTERNAL PIPELINE CORROSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill W. Bogan; Wendy R. Sullivan; Kristine M. H. Cruz; Kristine L. Lowe; John J. Kilbane II

    2004-04-30

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmentally benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is to develop one or more environmentally benign (a.k.a. ''green'') products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. Previous testing of pepper extracts resulted in preliminary data indicating that some pepper extracts inhibit the growth of some corrosion-associated microorganisms. This quarter additional tests were performed to more specifically investigate the ability of three pepper extracts to inhibit the growth, and to influence the metal corrosion caused by two microbial species: Desulfovibrio vulgaris, and Comomonas denitrificans. All three pepper extracts rapidly killed Desulfovibrio vulgaris, but did not appear to inhibit Comomonas denitrificans. While corrosion rates were at control levels in experiments with Desulfovibrio vulgaris that received pepper extract, corrosion rates were increased in the presence of Comomonas denitrificans plus pepper extract. Further testing with a wider range of pure bacterial cultures, and more importantly, with mixed bacterial cultures should be performed to determine the potential effectiveness of pepper extracts to inhibit MIC.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN MICROBIAL INHIBITOR TO CONTROL INTERNAL PIPELINE CORROSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill W. Bogan; Brigid M. Lamb; John J. Kilbane II

    2004-10-30

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmentally benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is to develop one or more environmentally benign (a.k.a. ''green'') products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. Previous testing indicated that the growth, and the metal corrosion caused by pure cultures of sulfate reducing bacteria were inhibited by hexane extracts of some pepper plants. This quarter tests were performed to determine if chemical compounds other than pepper extracts could inhibit the growth of corrosion-associated microbes and to determine if pepper extracts and other compounds can inhibit corrosion when mature biofilms are present. Several chemical compounds were shown to be capable of inhibiting the growth of corrosion-associated microorganisms, and all of these compounds limited the amount of corrosion caused by mature biofilms to a similar extent. It is difficult to control corrosion caused by mature biofilms, but any compound that disrupts the metabolism of any of the major microbial groups present in corrosion-associated biofilms shows promise in limiting the amount/rate of corrosion.

  7. Environmental Release Prevention and Control Plan (ERP and CP) annual review and update for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannik, G.T.; Mamatey, A.; Arnett, M.

    1993-01-01

    In the Environmental Release Prevention and Control Plan (ERP and CP), WSRC made a commitment to conduct the following follow-up activities and actions: (1) Complete the action items developed in response to the findings and recommendation of the Environmental Release Prevention Taskteam (WSRC-RP-92-356). (2) Complete all batch and continuous release procedure revisions to incorporate the attributes that WSRC senior management required of each procedure. (3) DOE-SR Assistance Managers and WSRC counterparts to reach consensus and closure on the identified engineered solutions documented in the ERP and CP, develop and drive implementation of facility changes per the agreements. (4) Continue to analyze releases and monitor performance in accordance with the ERP and CP, and utilize the ALARA Release Guides Committee to drive improvements. (5) Conduct annual re-evaluations of the cost benefit analyses of the identified engineered solutions, and identify new options and alternatives for each outfall in response to site mission and facility changes. This report documents the efforts that have been completed over the past year in response to these commitments

  8. Review on water leakage control in distribution networks and the associated environmental benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Liu, Ruiping; Chen, Qiuwen; Li, Ruonan

    2014-05-01

    Water supply is the primary element of an urban system. Due to rapid urbanization and water scarcity, maintaining a stable and safe water supply has become a challenge to many cities, whereas a large amount of water is lost from the pipes of distribution systems. Water leakage is not only a waste of water resources, but also incurs great socio-economic costs. This article presents a comprehensive review on the potential water leakage control approaches and specifically discusses the benefits of each to environmental conservation. It is concluded that water leakage could be further reduced by improving leakage detection capability through a combination of predictive modeling and monitoring instruments, optimizing pipe maintenance strategy, and developing an instant pressure regulation system. The environment could benefit from these actions because of water savings and the reduction of energy consumption as well as greenhouse gas emissions. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental and hormonal factors controlling reversible colour change in crab spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llandres, Ana L; Figon, Florent; Christidès, Jean-Philippe; Mandon, Nicole; Casas, Jérôme

    2013-10-15

    Habitat heterogeneity that occurs within an individual's lifetime may favour the evolution of reversible plasticity. Colour reversibility has many different functions in animals, such as thermoregulation, crypsis through background matching and social interactions. However, the mechanisms underlying reversible colour changes are yet to be thoroughly investigated. This study aims to determine the environmental and hormonal factors underlying morphological colour changes in Thomisus onustus crab spiders and the biochemical metabolites produced during these changes. We quantified the dynamics of colour changes over time: spiders were kept in yellow and white containers under natural light conditions and their colour was measured over 15 days using a spectrophotometer. We also characterised the chemical metabolites of spiders changing to a yellow colour using HPLC. Hormonal control of colour change was investigated by injecting 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) into spiders. We found that background colouration was a major environmental factor responsible for colour change in crab spiders: individuals presented with white and yellow backgrounds changed to white and yellow colours, respectively. An ommochrome precursor, 3-OH-kynurenine, was the main pigment responsible for yellow colour. Spiders injected with 20E displayed a similar rate of change towards yellow colouration as spiders kept in yellow containers and exposed to natural sunlight. This study demonstrates novel hormonal manipulations that are capable of inducing reversible colour change.

  10. Petroleum environmental research forum field study on biofilters for control of volatile hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leson, G.; Smith, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    A field study on the treatment of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) by biofiltration was conducted by the Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (PERF) between 1992 and 1994. Its objective was to assess the technical, regulatory, and economic feasibility of biofiltration for off-gases from petroleum processing and soil remediation equipment. It involved three small-scale biofilters provided by US vendors, treating off-gas from two soil vapor extraction sites and a source of refinery wastewater. Comprehensive monitoring of biofilter operating parameters and performance was conducted. Typically more than 95% of aromatic compounds such as benzene, and odorous reduced sulfur compounds can be removed at residence times of one minute or less, while removal of more than 70% of light aliphatics will require residence times of several minutes, and will thus require correspondingly large filter volumes and higher capital expenditure. The high percentage removal of aromatic hazardous air pollutants (HAP) and odors can generally be accomplished at comparatively short residence times while the need for high-percentage removal, particular of light aliphatics ( 5 ) will generally render biofiltration noncompetitive. Finally, a preliminary economic comparison of biofilters and established control technologies suggested that biofiltration may, for a representative design case involving off-gas from a refinery wastewater treatment operation, offer considerable savings in total cost of air pollution control for petroleum hydrocarbon streams if regulations require the control of aromatic HAP or odors

  11. Realization of the Energy Saving of the Environmental Examination Device Temperature Control System in Consideration of Temperature Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onogaki, Hitoshi; Yokoyama, Shuichi

    The temperature control of the environmental examination device has loss of the energy consumption to cool it while warming it. This paper proposed a tempareture control system method with energy saving for the enviromental examination device without using cooling in consideration of temperature characteristics.

  12. Exergy Based Analysis for the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Kirk A.; Nelson, George J.; Mesmer, Bryan L.; Watson, Michael D.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    When optimizing the performance of complex systems, a logical area for concern is improving the efficiency of useful energy. The energy available for a system to perform work is defined as a system's energy content. Interactions between a system's subsystems and the surrounding environment can be accounted for by understanding various subsystem energy efficiencies. Energy balance of reactants and products, and enthalpies and entropies, can be used to represent a chemical process. Heat transfer energy represents heat loads, and flow energy represents system flows and filters. These elements allow for a system level energy balance. The energy balance equations are developed for the subsystems of the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The use of these equations with system information would allow for the calculation of the energy efficiency of the system, enabling comparisons of the ISS ECLS system to other systems as well as allows for an integrated systems analysis for system optimization.

  13. Hazardous materials management and control program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory - environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhower, B.M.; Oakes, T.W.

    1982-01-01

    In the Federal Register of May 19, 1980, the US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated final hazardous waste regulations according to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976. The major substantive portions of these regulations went into effect on November 19, 1980, and established a federal program to provide comprehensive regulation of hazardous waste from its generation to its disposal. In an effort to comply with these regulations, a Hazardous Materials Management and Control Program was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The program is administered by two Hazardous Materials Coordinators, who together with various support groups, ensure that all hazardous materials and wastes are handled in such a manner that all personnel, the general public, and the environment are adequately protected

  14. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Andy Wu; John T. Riley

    2004-10-30

    This report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period July 1, 2004 through September 30, 2004. The following tasks have been completed. First, renovation of the new Combustion Laboratory and the construction of the Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Combustor Building have started. Second, the design if the component parts of the CFBC system have been reviewed and finalized so that the drawings may be released to the manufacturers during the next quarter. Third, the experiments for solid waste (chicken litter) incineration have been conducted using a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). This is in preparation for testing in the simulated fluidized-bed combustor. The experimental results from this study are presented in this report. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter has been outlined in this report.

  15. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems technology options for Space Station application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Ferebee, M. J., Jr.; Sage, K. H.

    1985-01-01

    Continuous assessments regarding the suitability of candidate technologies for manned Space Stations will be needed over the next several years to obtain a basis for recommending the optimum system for an Initial Operating Capability (IOC) Space Station which is to be launched in the early 1990's. This paper has the objective to present analysis programs, the candidate recommendations, and the recommended approach for integration these candidates into the NASA Space Station reference configuration. Attention is given to ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System) technology assessment program, an analysis approach for candidate technology recommendations, mission model variables, a candidate integration program, metabolic oxygen recovery, urine/flush water and all waste water recovery, wash water and condensate water recovery, and an integration analysis.

  16. Environmental control and life support technologies for advanced manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, F. T.; Wynveen, R. A.; Lin, C.

    1986-01-01

    Regenerative environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) technologies are found by the present evaluation to have reached a degree of maturity that recommends their application to long duration manned missions. The missions for which regenerative ECLSSs are attractive in virtue of the need to avoid expendables and resupply requirements have been identified as that of the long duration LEO Space Station, long duration stays at GEO, a permanently manned lunar base (or colony), manned platforms located at the earth-moon libration points L4 or L5, a Mars mission, deep space exploration, and asteroid exploration. A comparison is made between nonregenerative and regenerative ECLSSs in the cases of 10 essential functions.

  17. NASA Environmental Control and Life Support Technology Development and Maturation for Exploration: 2015 to 2016 Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Walter F.; Gatens, Robyn L.; Anderson, Molly S.; Broyan, James L.; MaCatangay, Ariel V.; Shull, Sarah A.; Perry, Jay L.; Toomarian, Nikzad

    2016-01-01

    Over the last year, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has continued to refine the understanding and prioritization of technology gaps that must be closed in order to achieve Evolvable Mars Campaign objectives and near term objectives in the cislunar proving ground. These efforts are reflected in updates to the technical area roadmaps released by NASA in 2015 and have guided technology development and maturation tasks that have been sponsored by various programs. This paper provides an overview of the refined Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) strategic planning, as well as a synopsis of key technology and maturation project tasks that occurred in 2014 and early 2015 to support the strategic needs. Plans for the remainder of 2015 and subsequent years are also described.

  18. Standard Test Method for Gravimetric Determination of Nonvolatile Residue (NVR) in Environmentally Controlled Areas for Spacecraft

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of nonvolatile residue (NVR) fallout in environmentally controlled areas used for the assembly, testing, and processing of spacecraft. 1.2 The NVR of interest is that which is deposited on sampling plate surfaces at room temperature: it is left to the user to infer the relationship between the NVR found on the sampling plate surface and that found on any other surfaces. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

  19. Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Test Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Darlene

    1989-01-01

    Different aspects of Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) testing are currently taking place at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Unique to this testing is the variety of test areas and the fact that all are located in one building. The north high bay of building 4755, the Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF), contains the following test areas: the Subsystem Test Area, the Comparative Test Area, the Process Material Management System (PMMS), the Core Module Simulator (CMS), the End-use Equipment Facility (EEF), and the Pre-development Operational System Test (POST) Area. This paper addresses the facility that supports these test areas and briefly describes the testing in each area. Future plans for the building and Space Station module configurations will also be discussed.

  20. Full scale impact testing for environmental and safety control of energy material shipping container systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seagren, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Heavily-shielded energy material shipping systems, similar in size and weight to those presently employed to transport irradiated reactor fuel elements, are being destructively tested under dynamic conditions. In these tests, the outer and inner steel shells interact in a complex manner with the massive biological shielding in the system. Results obtained from these tests provide needed information for new design concepts. Containment failure (and the resulting release of radioactive material to the environment which might occur in an extremely severe accident) is most likely through the seals and other ancillary features of the shipping systems. Analyses and experiments provide engineering data on the behavior of these shipping systems under severe accident conditions and information for predicting potential survivability and environmental control with a rational margin of safety

  1. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year and the impacts of the international partners activities on them, covering the period of time between March 2011 and February 2012. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life from 2015 to no later than 2028. 1

  2. Environmental control on anaerobic oxidation of methane in the gassy sediments of Eckernforde Bay (German Baltic)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treude, T.; Kruger, M.; Boetius, A.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the effect of seasonal environmental changes on the rate and distribution of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in Eckernforde Bay sediments (German Baltic Sea) and identified organisms that are likely to be involved in the process. Surface sediments were sampled during September...... of methane were measured in vitro. AOM changed seasonally within the upper 20 cm of the sediment, with rates being between 1 and 14 nmol cm(-3) d(-1). Its distribution is suggested to be controlled by oxygen and sulfate penetration, temperature, as well as methane supply, leading to a shallow AOM zone during...... AOM in Eckerntorde Bay. These archaea are known also from other marine methane-rich locations. However, they were not directly associated with sulfate-reducing bacteria. AOM is possibly mediated solely by these archaea that show a mesophilic physiology according to the seasonal temperature changes...

  3. Environmental risk assessment for Neodryinus typhlocybae, biological control agent against Metcalfa pruinosa, for Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Strauss

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The potential environmental risks of Neodryinus typhlocybae, a parasitic wasp from North America, were evaluated with regard to its safe use as an exotic biocontrol agent for the planthopper Metcalfa pruinosa in Austria. Following an earlier host range study of N. typhlocybae conducted in the laboratory, the present study assessed the potential for establishment and spread as well as negative indirect effects on non-target organisms. The potential release sites in Austria were analysed for matching of the climatic requirements for establishment of N. typhlocybae. The two proposed release locations, Vienna and Graz, have a predominantly similar climate to the parasitoid’s region of origin, though the comparably cooler mean summer temperatures might result in a low emergence rate of the partial second generation. The natural spread potential of N. typhlocybae was reviewed and is considered to be sufficiently good for released individuals to reach nearby sites infested with M. pruinosa. However, a perceptible spreading of N. typhlocybae females only occurs a few years after release and seems to be strongly dependent on the host density. Gelis areator, a hyperparasitoid of N. typhlocybae known to occur in Austria, might have negative effects on the population of the beneficial organism. Advantages and disadvantages of chemical and biological control methods against M. pruinosa were evaluated. It is concluded that N. typhlocybae is very well suited as a biological control agent for M. pruinosa in Austria, as no adverse effects on non-target species are expected but its release offers advantages with regard to sustainable and environmentally friendly pest management.

  4. Family environmental factors influencing the developing behavioral controls of food intake and childhood overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, L L; Davison, K K

    2001-08-01

    Although a large body of research has assessed direct genetic links between parent and child weight status, relatively little research has assessed the extent to which parents (particularly parents who are overweight) select environments that promote overweight among their children. Parents provide food environments for their children's early experiences with food and eating. These family eating environments include parents' own eating behaviors and child-feeding practices. Results of the limited research on behavioral mediators of familial patterns of overweight indicate that parents' own eating behaviors and their parenting practices influence the development of children's eating behaviors, mediating familial patterns of overweight. In particular, parents who are overweight, who have problems controlling their own food intake, or who are concerned about their children's risk for overweight may adopt controlling child-feeding practices in an attempt to prevent overweight in their children. Unfortunately, research reveals that these parental control attempts may interact with genetic predispositions to promote the development of problematic eating styles and childhood overweight. Although the authors have argued that behavioral mediators of family resemblances in weight status, such as parents' disinhibited or binge eating and parenting practices are shaped largely by environmental factors, individual differences in these behaviors also have genetic bases. A primary public health goal should be the development of family-based prevention programs for childhood overweight. The findings reviewed here suggest that effective prevention programs must focus on providing anticipatory guidance on parenting to foster patterns of preference and food selection in children more consistent with healthy diets and promote children's ability to self-regulate intake. Guidance for parents should include information on how children develop patterns of food intake in the family context

  5. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Lake Darling Flood Control Project, Souris River, North Dakota and Final Feature Environmental Impact Statement, Velva Flood Control, Velva, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    1500-1508) identify a process called "tiering" and define it as "...the coverage of general matters in broader environmental impact statements (such as...Mr. John Clouse Mr. C. R. Danks Sherwood, ND 58782 Rural Route Route 2 Foxholm, ND 58738 King’s Court Minot, ND 58701 Dr. A. B. Brudirk Mrs. Veronica

  6. Effects of control technology on the projected krypton-85 environmental inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oscarson, E.E.

    1973-01-01

    Growth projections for the USA nuclear power industry may be used to make projections of future radioactive material inventories available for potential release to the environment. Since krypton-85 is produced in reactors, the potential routes of release to the environment are at the reactors or the fuel reprocessing plants. The present generation of reactors and fuel reprocessing plants do not use any systems to limit the release of krypton-85 into the biosphere. Clean-up systems are currently being designed and could be introduced when necessary. The cumulative inventory of krypton-85 in the environment is dependent upon the time of introduction of these clean-up systems and their efficiencies, in addition to the total quantity produced. Annual and cumulative inventories of krypton-85 are projected to increase dramatically over the next 50 years. If controls are assumed to be initiated at various years, a series of graphs of different cumulative environmental inventories and the associated doses and health effects are drawn. Varying the year of introduction and the efficiency of these systems allows one to speculate as to the optimum time for control implementation

  7. Electric Power Research Institute, Environmental Control Technology Center report to the steering committee. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued with the Pilot High Velocity FGD (PHV) and the Trace Element Removal (TER) test blocks. In the High Velocity test block, SO{sub 2} removal and mist eliminator carryover rates were investigated while operating the absorber unit with various spray nozzle types and vertical mist eliminator sections. During the Trace Element Removal test block, the mercury measurements and control studies involving the EPA Method 29 continued with testing of several impinger capture solutions, and the use of activated carbon injection across the Pulse-Jet Fabric Filter (PJFF) unit. The 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber System was utilized this month in the TER test configuration to inject and transfer activated carbon to the PJFF bags for downstream mercury capture. Work also began in December to prepare the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot Absorber system for receipt of the B and W Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHX) unit to be used in the 1996 DOE/PRDA testing. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit remained in cold-standby this month.

  8. Environmental and Human Controls of Ecosystem Functional Diversity in Temperate South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Alcaraz-Segura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The regional controls of biodiversity patterns have been traditionally evaluated using structural and compositional components at the species level, but evaluation of the functional component at the ecosystem level is still scarce. During the last decades, the role of ecosystem functioning in management and conservation has increased. Our aim was to use satellite-derived Ecosystem Functional Types (EFTs, patches of the land-surface with similar carbon gain dynamics to characterize the regional patterns of ecosystem functional diversity and to evaluate the environmental and human controls that determine EFT richness across natural and human-modified systems in temperate South America. The EFT identification was based on three descriptors of carbon gain dynamics derived from seasonal curves of the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI: annual mean (surrogate of primary production, seasonal coefficient of variation (indicator of seasonality and date of maximum EVI (descriptor of phenology. As observed for species richness in the southern hemisphere, water availability, not energy, emerged as the main climatic driver of EFT richness in natural areas of temperate South America. In anthropogenic areas, the role of both water and energy decreased and increasing human intervention increased richness at low levels of human influence, but decreased richness at high levels of human influence.

  9. Environmental controls on sap flow in black locust forest in Loess Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Changkun; Luo, Yi; Shao, Mingan; Li, Xiangdong; Sun, Lin; Jia, Xiaoxu

    2017-10-13

    Black locust accounts for over 90% of artificial forests in China's Loess Plateau region. However, water use of black locust is an uphill challenge for this semi-arid region. To accurately quantify tree water use and to explain the related hydrological processes, it is important to collect reliable data for application in the estimation of sap flow and its response to environmental factors. This study measured sap flow in black locust in the 2015 and 2016 growth seasons using the thermal dissipation probes technique and laboratory-calibrated Granier's equation. The study showed that the laboratory calibrated coefficient α was much larger than the original value presented by Granier, while the coefficient β was similar to the original one. The average daily transpiration was 2.1 mm day -1 for 2015 and 1.6 mm day -1 for 2016. Net solar radiation (Rn) was the key meteorological factor controlling sap flow, followed by vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and then temperature (T). VPD had a threshold control on sap flow at threshold values of 1.9 kPa for 2015 and 1.6 kPa for 2016. The effects of diurnal hysteresis of Rn, VPD and T on sap flow were evident, indicating that black locust water use was conservative.

  10. Control of Greenhouse Environmental Conditions with IOT Based Monitoring and Analysis System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Çaylı

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks applications and inter-machine communication (M2M, called the Internet of Things, help decision-makers to control complex systems thanks to the low data-rate and cost-effective data collection and analysis. These technologies offer new possibilities to monitor environmental management and agricultural policies, and to improve agricultural production, especially in low-income rural areas. In this study, IoT is proposed with a low cost, flexible and scalable data collection and analysis system. For this purpose, open source hardware microprocessor cards and sensors are stored in the greenhouse computer database using the IEEE 802.15.4 Zigbee wireless communication protocol. The data can be analyzed by greenhouse computer analysis software, which is developed with the PHP programming language. It is possible to monitor the real time data from the greenhouse computer. Also alert rules definitions can be made and the system was tested in greenhouse conditions. It has been observed that it performs operations steadily such as data transfer, sensor measurements and data processing. The proposed system may be useful for monitoring indoor climate and controlling ventilation, irrigation and heating systems, especially for small enterprises due to the modular structure.

  11. Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) Hardware Commonality for Exploration Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquillo, Robyn; Anderson, Molly

    2012-01-01

    In August 2011, the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) technical community, along with associated stakeholders, held a workshop to review NASA s plans for Exploration missions and vehicles with two objectives: revisit the Exploration Atmospheres Working Group (EAWG) findings from 2006, and discuss preliminary ECLSS architecture concepts and technology choices for Exploration vehicles, identifying areas for potential common hardware or technologies to be utilized. Key considerations for selection of vehicle design total pressure and percent oxygen include operational concepts for extravehicular activity (EVA) and prebreathe protocols, materials flammability, and controllability within pressure and oxygen ranges. New data for these areas since the 2006 study were presented and discussed, and the community reached consensus on conclusions and recommendations for target design pressures for each Exploration vehicle concept. For the commonality study, the workshop identified many areas of potential commonality across the Exploration vehicles as well as with heritage International Space Station (ISS) and Shuttle hardware. Of the 36 ECLSS functions reviewed, 16 were considered to have strong potential for commonality, 13 were considered to have some potential commonality, and 7 were considered to have limited potential for commonality due to unique requirements or lack of sufficient heritage hardware. These findings, which will be utilized in architecture studies and budget exercises going forward, are presented in detail.

  12. International approaches to the hydraulic control of surface water runoff in mitigating flood and environmental risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballard Bridget Woods

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares and contrasts a number of international approaches to the hydraulic control of surface water runoff from new development and redevelopment, known as sustainable drainage systems (SuDS or low impact development (LID. The paper provides a commentary on the progress and current status of national standards for SuDS in the UK to control the frequency, flow rate and volume of runoff from both frequent and extreme rainfall events, and the best practice design criteria presented in the revised UK CIRIA SuDS Manual, published in November 2015. The paper then compares these design criteria and standards with those developed and applied in China, USA, France and Germany and also looks at the drivers behind their development. The benefits of these different approaches are assessed in the context of flood risk mitigation, climate resilience and wider environmental protection objectives, including water quality, morphology and ecology. The paper also reviews the design approaches promoted by the new SuDS Manual and internationally for delivering additional benefits for urban spaces (such as recreation, visual character, education and economic growth through multi-functional urban design.

  13. Environmental and economic benefits of natural gas use for pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, P.R.; Berkau, E.E.; Schnelle, K.B.

    1993-01-01

    One of the primary goals of this research effort was to document and compare the economic and environment benefits of using natural gas for pollution control in boilers, furnaces and internal combustion engines, with conventional control technologies. The study indicated that replacement of 15% of the coal used in coal-fired boilers employed in the generation of electric power in the US, with natural gas, would considerably reduce the emissions of acid rain precursors such as sulfur and nitrogen oxides, and do so in a cost-effect manner. The reductions achieved were also in concordance with the reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions mandated by the new Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990. The combustion of natural gas would also produce less carbon dioxide as compared to the combustion of coal with an equivalent amount of heat content. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas, i.e., it is believed to play a major role in global warming. Natural gas technology therefore presents a cost-effective step in the eventual mitigation of two of the main environmental problems presently facing us, acid rain, and global warming

  14. Home Environmental Interventions for the Prevention or Control of Allergic and Respiratory Diseases: What Really Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cann, Pierre; Paulus, Hélène; Glorennec, Philippe; Le Bot, Barbara; Frain, Sophie; Gangneux, Jean Pierre

    Home health care workers interventions have been implemented in western countries to improve health status of patients with respiratory diseases especially asthma and allergic illnesses. Twenty-six controlled studies dealing with prevention and control of these diseases through home environmental interventions were reviewed. After a comprehensive description of the characteristics of these studies, the effectiveness of each intervention was then evaluated in terms of participants' compliance with the intervention program, improvement of quality of the indoor environment, and finally improvement of health outcomes, in detailed tables. Limitations and biases of the studies are also discussed. Overall, this review aims at giving a toolbox for home health care workers to target the most appropriate measures to improve health status of the patient depending on his and/or her environment and disease. Only a case-by-case approach with achievable measures will warrant the efficacy of home interventions. This review will also provide to the research community a tool to better identify targets to focus in future evaluation studies of home health care workers action. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevention, Minimization and Control of Environmental Pollution at Mexico Sugar Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominguez-Manjarrez Candi Ashanti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research paper aims to recommend control measures directed towards preventing and minimizing pollution, looking forward to the improvement of the environmental management on the sugar industry in Mexico. This issue has been put on hold due to the necessity to address the economic, social and technological issues affecting it over time. In order to better understand the productive process and the actual problem that the industry is facing, while proposing effective and possible actions for improvement, a sugar mill type was selected as a case of study. A comprehensive assessment of the production process for the standard sugar was made, considering the activities in the field and at the mill. The proposed measures in the sugar mill allowed savings in consumption of ground water average 3,620 cubic meters per day, during the period of study, reduction in solid waste generated average 325 kilograms per day by implementing a waste separation program, and reducing atmospheric emissions of particles acting as fuel for a boiler operated with bagasse. The prevention, minimization and pollution control measures proposed can be applied to other mills in the country with the appropriate adaptations.

  16. Development of virtual bait stations to control Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in environmentally sensitive habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Vetter, Richard S; Rust, Michael K

    2010-10-01

    A novel bait station referred to as a virtual bait station was developed and tested against field populations of the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), at White Beach, Camp Pendleton, in Oceanside, CA. White Beach is a nesting habitat for an endangered seabird, the California least tern (Sterna antillarum browni Mearns). The beach is heavily infested with Argentine ants, one of the threats for the California least tern chicks. Conventional pest control strategies are prohibited because of the existence of the protected bird species and the site's proximity to the ocean. The bait station consisted of a polyvinyl chloride pipe that was treated on the inside with fipronil insecticide at low concentrations to obtain delayed toxicity against ants. The pipe was provisioned with an inverted bottle of 25% sucrose solution, then capped, and buried in the sand. Foraging ants crossed the treated surface to consume the sucrose solution. The delayed toxicity of fipronil deposits allowed the ants to continue foraging on the sucrose solution and to interact with their nestmates, killing them within 3-5 d after exposure. Further modification of the bait station design minimized the accumulation of dead ants in the sucrose solution, significantly improving the longevity and efficacy of the bait station. The virtual bait station exploits the foraging behavior of the ants and provides a low impact approach to control ants in environmentally sensitive habitats. It excluded all insects except ants, required only milligram quantities of toxicant, and eliminated the problem of formulating toxicants into aqueous sugar baits.

  17. Impact of environmental manipulation for Anopheles pseudopunctipennis Theobald control on aquatic insect communities in southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, J G; Quiroz-Martínez, H; Rojas, J C; Valle, J; Ulloa, A; Williams, T

    2007-06-01

    . We conclude that habitat manipulation represents an effective and environmentally benign strategy for control of An. pseduopunctipennis. Variation in precipitation and river discharge between years was much more important in determining aquatic insect community composition than variation generated by the filamentous algal extraction treatment.

  18. Study of polypropylene irradiation to ensure the control of its environmental degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Rebeca da Silva Grecco

    2017-01-01

    UV light, heat, and pollutants can interact with Polypropylene (PP) molecules, mainly with the tertiary carbon producing free radicals which can react with oxygen producing changes in its properties. PP has outstanding chemical and physical properties and a good processability at very low market price. In addition, PP is extensively used for manufacturing various kinds of products, however due to its large-scale consumption a lot of waste is generated at the end of their life cycle to the environment with low rate degradation. Controlled degradation of PP can be achieved by exposing the polymers to well defined parameters, such as absorbed dose, intemperies, oxygen, etc. In this study, structural changes in PP macro-molecule are created upon exposure to ionizing radiation such as: main chain scission, crosslinking and peroxidation (in presence of air). This study has the objective of comparing the environmental and accelerated exposures of PP neat, PP irradiated with 12,5 kGy and 20 kGy and the incorporation of the commercial pro-degradant d2w®. Dumbbell samples were manufactured by injection molding and exposed to the environment during 180 days and to accelerated aging to 192 days. The samples were characterized by Mechanical Testing, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (DRX) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The samples previously irradiated, PP 20 kGy, after environmental aging showed higher oxidation and presence of surface cracks than the PP d2w® and PP neat. They also showed presence of carbonyl groups, decreases in elongation at break, increase in Strength Modulus and decrease of melting temperature corroborating with degradation. (author)

  19. Ground Control Point - Wireless System Network for UAV-based environmental monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Aguilar, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have seen widespread civil applications including usage for survey and monitoring services in areas such as agriculture, construction and civil engineering, private surveillance and reconnaissance services and cultural heritage management. Most aerial monitoring services require the integration of information acquired during the flight (such as imagery) with ground-based information (such as GPS information or others) for improved ground truth validation. For example, to obtain an accurate 3D and Digital Elevation Model based on aerial imagery, it is necessary to include ground-based information of coordinate points, which are normally acquired with surveying methods based on Global Position Systems (GPS). However, GPS surveys are very time consuming and especially for longer time series of monitoring data repeated GPS surveys are necessary. In order to improve speed of data collection and integration, this work presents an autonomous system based on Waspmote technologies build on single nodes interlinked in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) star-topology for ground based information collection and later integration with surveying data obtained by UAV. Nodes are designed to be visible from the air, to resist extreme weather conditions with low-power consumption. Besides, nodes are equipped with GPS as well as Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), accelerometer, temperature and soil moisture sensors and thus provide significant advantages in a broad range of applications for environmental monitoring. For our purpose, the WSN transmits the environmental data with 3G/GPRS to a database on a regular time basis. This project provides a detailed case study and implementation of a Ground Control Point System Network for UAV-based vegetation monitoring of dry mountain grassland in the Matsch valley, Italy.

  20. Geology environmental problems caused by municipal waste in China and the control measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Changli; Wang Xiuyan; Zhang Yun; Hou Hongbing; Song Chao; Jiang Jianmei; Fei Lixin; Yang Liu

    2010-01-01

    Improper disposal of municipal waste can cause many environmental problems. Lateral migration distance in sandy soil of waste pollutants such as COD, Cl - , NH 4 + , NO 3 - , NO 2 , is about 15 m, while it is 120 m/a in groundwater. High single pollution index of these pollutants to groundwater may reach more than 340 times which 100 times higher than three standard of groundwater and less comprehensive pollution index is 60, high index reaches 170. These pollutions' influence distance in surface water can reach more than 200 m, vertical migration distance in clay soil is less than 3 m generally. Their high single pollution index to surface water reaches more than 100 times which shows exponential function decaying in static surface water. Comprehensive index of Cd, Hg, As, F, Pb etc in sorghum of nearby landfill can reach 192 to 238 which is 650 times more than National food hygiene standards, in watermelon and muskmelon, these ions exceed standards less several times and high 100 or more than 300 times. The annual emission of methane in landfill in our Country is 14 million tons which accounts for 4.49% of the total global methane emissions. The survey of 1105 landfills of 132 prefecture level cities and above in our Country showed that almost all dumps contaminated or damaged environment and the total economic loss caused by it is more than 900 billion, the potential economic loss is more than 780 billion. Method of risk zoning of groundwater pollution combined with urban land use planning can be used to control groundwater contamination caused by refuse. In accordance with difference of geological environment and climate condition, we can research landfill closing cover material which is inexpensive, easy to get, easy to use, effective and environmentally friendly to enhance methane oxidation and reduce methane emission of landfill. (authors)

  1. Environmental controls for the precipitation of different fibrous calcite cement fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Ann-Christine; Wiethoff, Felix; Neuser, Rolf D.; Richter, Detlev K.; Immenhauser, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    Abiogenic calcite cements are widely used as climate archives. They can yield information on environmental change and climate dynamics at the time when the sediment was lithified in a (marine) diagenetic environment. Radiaxial-fibrous (RFC) and fascicular-optic fibrous (FOFC) calcite cements are two very common and similar pore-filling cement fabrics in Palaeozoic and Mesozoic carbonate rocks (Richter et al., 2011) and in Holocene Mg-calcitic speleothems (Richter et al., 2015). Both fabrics are characterised by distinct crystallographic properties. Current research has shown that these fabrics are often underexplored and that a careful combination of conservative and innovative proxies allows for a better applicability of these carbonate archives to paleoenvironmental reconstructions (Ritter et al., 2015). A main uncertainty in this context is that it is still poorly understood which parameters lead to the formation of either RFC or FOFC and if differential crystallographic parameters affect proxy data from these fabrics. This study aims at a better understanding of the environmental factors that may control either RFC or FOFC precipitation. Therefore, suitable samples (a stalagmite and a Triassic marine cement succession), each with clearly differentiable layers of RFC and FOFC, were identified and analysed in high detail using a multi-proxy approach. Detailed thin section and cathodoluminescence analysis of the samples allowed for a precise identification of layers consisting solely of either RFC or FOFC. Isotopic (δ13C, δ18O) as well as trace elemental compositions have been determined and the comparison of data obtained from these different carbonate archives sheds light on changes in environmental parameters during RFC or FOFC precipitation. References: Richter, D.K., et al., 2011. Radiaxial-fibrous calcites: A new look at an old problem. Sedimentary Geology, 239, 26-36 Richter, D.K., et al., 2015. Radiaxial-fibrous and fascicular-optic Mg-calcitic cave

  2. Environmental engineering interventions to control the expansion of salty lakes and marshes in siwa oasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Hesham M

    2010-01-01

    The main activity in Siwa Oasis society is the agriculture, it depends on the groundwater. The agricultural drainage water and the unused saline water of naturally flowing springs are poured into four main salty lakes. This leads to an increase in the surface area of the saltwater lakes, marshes and rise in water table levels. to investigate some environmental engineering interventions to control the expansion of saltwater surface area in Siwa Oasis. Field visits, observation sheets and questionnaire survey with farmers were carried out to find out the main environmental problems in the Oasis. Environmental survey was carried out to collect different rocks and stones samples as natural construction materials from the desert that surrounds Siwa Oasis. Physical analyses, chemical composition and principal mechanical parameters were conducted on the collected samples. After the analysis, the safa rocks were the best natural construction materials in the Siwa Oasis. So, it could be used to build a construction wall around the salty lakes and marshes. Walls could convert the lakes into basins. The water will be evaporated at high rate during summer season by solar energy. After evaporation, the remaining salty rock named "karshef" can be easily collected from the lakes to be used as a low cost construction material for traditional building houses in Siwa Oasis. Therefore, the water level of lakes will be reduced to dryness and land could be reused as agricultural land. Among different rocks, safa rocks proved to be the best natural construction materials to construct a defense wall around the lakes and marshes. They will save about 80% of the concrete cost. The formed karshef rocks from the lakes will be used in the construction of the traditional building houses which will save about 90% of the concrete buildings. This intervention will save energy as it exchanges fuel consuming man-made material such as cement with naturally made material. This can reduce the green

  3. A Low-cost Environmental Control System for Precise Radial Velocity Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliski, David H.; Blake, Cullen H.; Halverson, Samuel

    2017-12-01

    We present an environmental control system (ECS) designed to achieve milliKelvin (mK) level temperature stability for small-scale astronomical instruments. This ECS is inexpensive and is primarily built from commercially available components. The primary application for our ECS is the high-precision Doppler spectrometer MINERVA-Red, where the thermal variations of the optical components within the instrument represent a major source of systematic error. We demonstrate ±2 mK temperature stability within a 0.5 m3 thermal enclosure using resistive heaters in conjunction with a commercially available PID controller and off-the-shelf thermal sensors. The enclosure is maintained above ambient temperature, enabling rapid cooling through heat dissipation into the surrounding environment. We demonstrate peak-to-valley (PV) temperature stability of better than 5 mK within the MINERVA-Red vacuum chamber, which is located inside the thermal enclosure, despite large temperature swings in the ambient laboratory environment. During periods of stable laboratory conditions, the PV variations within the vacuum chamber are less than 3 mK. This temperature stability is comparable to the best stability demonstrated for Doppler spectrometers currently achieving m s-1 radial velocity precision. We discuss the challenges of using commercially available thermoelectrically cooled CCD cameras in a temperature-stabilized environment, and demonstrate that the effects of variable heat output from the CCD camera body can be mitigated using PID-controlled chilled water systems. The ECS presented here could potentially provide the stable operating environment required for future compact “astrophotonic” precise radial velocity (PRV) spectrometers to achieve high Doppler measurement precision with a modest budget.

  4. Environmental effects of storage preservation practices: controlled flushing of fine sediment from a small hydropower reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espa, Paolo; Castelli, Elena; Crosa, Giuseppe; Gentili, Gaetano

    2013-07-01

    Sediment flushing may be effective in mitigating loss of reservoir storage due to siltation, but flushing must be controlled to limit the impact on the downstream environment. A reliable prediction of the environmental effects of sediment flushing is hindered by the limited scientific information currently available. Consequently, there may be some controversy as regards to management decisions, planning the work, and monitoring strategies. This paper summarizes the main results of a monitoring campaign on the stream below a small alpine hydropower reservoir subjected to annual flushing between 2006 and 2009. The removed sediment was essentially silt, and the suspended solid concentration (SSC) of the discharged water was controlled to alleviate downstream impact. Control was achieved through hydraulic regulation and mechanical digging, alternating daytime sediment evacuation, and nocturnal clear water release. The four operations lasted about two weeks each and had an average SSC of about 4 g L(-1). Maximum values of SSC were generally kept below 10 g L(-1). Downstream impact was quantified through sampling of fish fauna (brown trout) and macroinvertebrate in the final reach of the effluent stream. The benthic community was severely impaired by the flushing operations, but recovered to pre-flushing values in a few months. As expected, the impact on brown trout was heavier on juveniles. While data biasing due to fish removal and re-stocking cannot be ruled out, the fish community seems to have reached a state of equilibrium characterized by a lower density than was measured before the flushing operations.

  5. Case-control study of genetic and environmental influences on premature death of adult adoptees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Liselotte; Nielsen, Gert G; Andersen, Per Kragh; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2002-08-01

    Genetic and environmental influence on risk of premature death in adulthood was investigated by estimating the associations in total and cause-specific mortality of adult Danish adoptees and their biological and adoptive parents. Among all 14,427 nonfamilial adoptions formally granted in Denmark during the period 1923 through 1947, we identified 976 case families in which the adoptee died before a fixed date. As control families, we selected 976 families where the adoptees were alive on that date, and matched to the case adoptees with regard to gender and year and month of birth. The data were viewed as a cohort of case parents and a cohort of control parents, and lifetime distributions in the two cohorts were compared using a Cox regression, stratified with regard to the matching variables: gender and year of birth. In the main analyses, the sample was restricted with regard to birth year of the adoptees, and age of transfer to the adoptive parents, and age at death was restricted to the same range for parents and offspring (25-64 years) in order to consider a symmetric lifetime distribution. This reduces the sample to 459 case families and 738 control families. Various truncations, restrictions, and stratifications were used in order to examine the robustness of the results. The results showed a higher mortality among biological parents who had children dying in the age range 25 through 64 years, and this was significant for death from natural causes, infectious causes, vascular causes, and from all causes combined. There were no significant effects for the adoptive parents. This study supports that there are moderate genetic influences on the risk of dying prematurely in adulthood, and only a small, if any, effect of the family environment. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Space station environmental control and life support systems test bed program - an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrend, Albert F.

    As the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) begins to intensify activities for development of the Space Station, decisions must be made concerning the technical state of the art that will be baselined for the initial Space Station system. These decisions are important because significant potential exists for enhancing system performance and for reducing life-cycle costs. However, intelligent decisions cannot be made without an adequate assessment of new and ready technologies, i.e., technologies which are sufficiently mature to allow predevelopment demonstrations to prove their application feasibility and to quantify the risk associated with their development. Therefore, the NASA has implemented a technology development program which includes the establishment of generic test bed capabilities in which these new technologies and approaches can be tested at the prototype level. One major Space Station subsystem discipline in which this program has been implemented is the environmental control and life support system (ECLSS). Previous manned space programs such as Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle have relied heavily on consumables to provide environmental control and life support services. However, with the advent of a long-duration Space Station, consumables must be reduced within technological limits to minimize Space Station resupply penalties and operational costs. The use of advanced environmental control and life support approaches involving regenerative processes offers the best solution for significant consumables reduction while also providing system evolutionary growth capability. Consequently, the demonstration of these "new technologies" as viable options for inclusion in the baseline that will be available to support a Space Station initial operational capability in the early 1990's becomes of paramount importance. The mechanism by which the maturity of these new regenerative life support technologies will be demonstrated is the Space

  7. Environmental and biogeochemical controls on N2 fixation in ombrotrophic peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivkovic, T.; Moore, T. R.

    2017-12-01

    Northern peatlands have low atmospheric nitrogen (N) inputs and acquire N mostly via biological, microbially-driven N2-fixation. Little is known about rates and controls on N2-fixation in ombrotrophic bogs. We conducted two studies to test environmental and biogeochemical controls on N2-fixation. First, we used acetylene reduction assay (ARA) calibrated with 15N2 tracer to measure N2-fixation rates in three species of Sphagnum mosses along a hydrological gradient (beaver pond, hollow and hummock in bog margin and in bog) at Mer Bleue bog from June-October 2013 and May - November 2014. We tested the following controls: moisture availability, temperature, and PAR. The largest ARA rates throughout both seasons occurred in the pond in floating Sphagnum cuspidatum mats (50.3 ± 12.9 μmol m-2 d-1 Mean ± SE), which were up to 2.5 times larger than the rates found in the driest hummock site. There was a significant seasonal peak in both years in July and early August that coincided with the peak of the air temperature. In fact, 45% of the variance of N2 fixation rates over the two field seasons was explained by rain events, water table fluctuations and the surface peat temperature (multiple regression analysis, n = 539). Our results highlight the potential impact of climate change, namely negative effects due to potential droughts and positive effect of warming, on N2 fixation patterns in ombrotrophic peatlands. Secondly, we tested stoichiometric controls (Sphagnum tissue N and phosphorous (P) ratio) of N2-fixation. In a controlled environment, we selected eight study sites along a latitudinal gradient from temperate, boreal to subarctic zone in eastern Canada. We found that decreasing N:P ratio corresponded to increasing N2-fixation. N:P explained 65% of the variance in N2-fixation in hollows but only 20% in hummocks. Changes in neither N or P concentration alone explained the increase in N2-fixation better than N:P ratio. We interpret that the difference between

  8. Achieving stringent climate targets. An analysis of the role of transport and variable renewable energies using energy-economy-climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietzcker, Robert Carl

    2014-07-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is threatening the welfare of mankind. Accordingly, policy makers have repeatedly stated the goal of slowing climate change and limiting the increase of global mean temperature to less than 2 C above pre-industrial times (the so-called ''two degree target''). Stabilizing the temperature requires drastic reductions of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to nearly zero. As the global system of energy supply currently relies on fossil fuels, reducing GHG emissions can only be achieved through a full-scale transformation of the energy system. This thesis investigates the economic requirements and implications of different scenarios that achieve stringent climate mitigation targets. It starts with the analysis of characteristic decarbonization patterns and identifies two particularly relevant aspects of mitigation scenarios: deployment of variable renewable energies (VRE) and decarbonization of the transport sector. After investigating these fields in detail, we turned towards one of the most relevant questions for policy makers and analyzed the trade-off between the stringency of a climate target and its economic requirements and implications. All analyses are based on the improvement, application, comparison, and discussion of large-scale IAMs. The novel ''mitigation share'' metric allowed us to identify the relevance of specific technology groups for mitigation and to improve our understanding of the decarbonization patterns of different energy subsectors. It turned out that the power sector is decarbonized first and reaches lowest emissions, while the transport sector is slowest to decarbonize. For the power sector, non-biomass renewable energies contribute most to emission reductions, while the transport sector strongly relies on liquid fuels and therefore requires biomass in combination with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) to reduce emissions. An in-depth investigation of the solar power

  9. Mars Surface Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John

    2002-01-01

    Planetary exploration by astronauts will require extended periods of habitation on a planet's surface, under the influence of environmental factors that are different from those of Earth and the spacecraft that delivered the crew to the planet. Human exploration of Mars, a possible near-term planetary objective, can be considered a challenging scenario. Mission scenarios currently under consideration call for surface habitation periods of from 1 to 18 months on even the earliest expeditions. Methods: Environmental issues associated with Mars exploration have been investigated by NASA and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) as part of the Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap Project (see http ://criticalpath.jsc.nasa.gov). Results: Arrival on Mars will immediately expose the crew to gravity only 38% of that at Earth's surface in possibly the first prolonged exposure to gravity other than the 1G of Earth's surface and the zero G of weightless space flight, with yet unknown effects on crew physiology. The radiation at Mars' surface is not well documented, although the planet's bulk and even its thin atmosphere may moderate the influx of galactic cosmic radiation and energetic protons from solar flares. Secondary radiation from activated components of the soil must also be considered. Ultrafine and larger respirable and nonrespirable particles in Martian dust introduced into the habitat after surface excursions may induce pulmonary inflammation exacerbated by the additive reactive and oxidizing nature of the dust. Stringent decontamination cannot eliminate mechanical and corrosive effects of the dust on pressure suits and exposed machinery. The biohazard potential of putative indigenous Martian microorganisms may be assessed by comparison with analog environments on Earth. Even in their absence, human microorganisms, if not properly controlled, can be a threat to the crew's health. Conclusions: Mars' surface offers a substantial challenge to the

  10. Environmental policies and prospects for the 1980s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    Following the economic events of 1974-1975 and the subsequent economic stagnation, economic growth has come into focus again. The discussions have raised the question of reconciliation between economic-growth objectives and other social, industrial and environmental aims. While the need for the continuation and even strengthening of environmental measures has been clearly recognized measures have been taken in some OECD (Organization Economic Cooperation and Development) countries to ensure that the implementation of environmental policies is adjusted to harmonized more closely, than in the past, with economic policy objectives. In other cases environmental goals proposed for the early 1980s are now being re-examined in the light of the changed economic climate. In view of these changing circumstances this article examines if and to what extent economic and environmental goals conflict during the period up to 1985. Various scenarios are offered to attempt to clarify the issues and provide a baseline against which the need for more stringent controls can be evaluated. Some of the wideranging environmental impacts and effects discussed are: agriculture expansion, transport increases (principally automotive), urban decline in older industrial regions and urban growth in attractive areas, energy pollution (in production, transport and consumption), and environmental consequences of tourism.

  11. Environmental and biological controls of urban tree transpiration in the Upper Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, E. B.; McFadden, J.; Montgomery, R.

    2009-12-01

    Urban trees provide a variety of ecosystem services to urban and suburban areas, including carbon uptake, climate amelioration, energy reduction, and stormwater management. Tree transpiration, in particular, modifies urban water budgets by providing an alternative pathway for water after rain events. The relative importance of environmental and biological controls on transpiration are poorly understood in urban areas, yet these controls are important for quantifying and scaling up the ecosystem services that urban trees provide at landscape and regional scales and predicting how urban ecosystems will respond to climate changes. The objectives of our study were to quantify the annual cycle of tree transpiration in an urban ecosystem and to determine how different urban tree species and plant functional types respond to environmental drivers. We continuously measured whole-tree transpiration using thermal dissipation sap flow at four urban forest stands that were broadly representative of the species composition and tree sizes found in a suburban residential neighborhood of Minneapolis-Saint Paul, Minnesota. A total of 40 trees, representing different species, plant functional types, successional stages, and xylem anatomy, were sampled throughout the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons (April-November). At each site we monitored soil moisture, air temperature, and relative humidity continuously, and we measured leaf area index weekly. Urban tree transpiration was strongly correlated with diurnal changes in vapor pressure deficit and photosynthetically active radiation and with seasonal changes in leaf area index. We found that plant functional type better explained species differences in transpiration per canopy area than either successional stage or xylem anatomy, largely due to differences in canopy structure between conifer and broad-leaf deciduous trees. We also observed inter-annual differences in transpiration rates due to a mid-season drought and longer growing

  12. Environment polluting conventional chemical control compared to an environmentally friendly IPM approach for control of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Farooq, Muhammad; Nasim, Wajid; Akram, Waseem; Khan, Fawad Zafar Ahmad; Jaleel, Waqar; Zhu, Xun; Yin, Haichen; Li, Shuzhong; Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh; Jin, Fengliang

    2017-06-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is recognized as a widely distributed destructive insect pest of Brassica worldwide. The management of this pest is a serious issue, and an estimated annual cost of its management has reached approximately US$4 billion. Despite the fact that chemicals are a serious threat to the environment, lots of chemicals are applied for controlling various insect pests especially P. xylostella. An overreliance on chemical control has not only led to the evolution of resistance to insecticides and to a reduction of natural enemies but also has polluted various components of water, air, and soil ecosystem. In the present scenario, there is a need to implement an environmentally friendly integrated pest management (IPM) approach with new management tactics (microbial control, biological control, cultural control, mating disruption, insecticide rotation strategies, and plant resistance) for an alternative to chemical control. The IPM approach is not only economically beneficial but also reduces the environmental and health risks. The present review synthesizes published information on the insecticide resistance against P. xylostella and emphasizes on adopting an alternative environmentally friendly IPM approach for controlling P. xylostella in China.

  13. Analysis of the environmental behavior of farmers for non-point source pollution control and management in a water source protection area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yandong; Yang, Jun; Liang, Jiping; Qiang, Yanfang; Fang, Shanqi; Gao, Minxue; Fan, Xiaoyu; Yang, Gaihe; Zhang, Baowen; Feng, Yongzhong

    2018-08-15

    The environmental behavior of farmers plays an important role in exploring the causes of non-point source pollution and taking scientific control and management measures. Based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the present study investigated the environmental behavior of farmers in the Water Source Area of the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China. Results showed that TPB could explain farmers' environmental behavior (SMC=0.26) and intention (SMC=0.36) well. Furthermore, the farmers' attitude towards behavior (AB), subjective norm (SN), and perceived behavioral control (PBC) positively and significantly influenced their environmental intention; their environmental intention further impacted their behavior. SN was proved to be the main key factor indirectly influencing the farmers' environmental behavior, while PBC had no significant and direct effect. Moreover, environmental knowledge following as a moderator, gender and age was used as control variables to conduct the environmental knowledge on TPB construct moderated mediation analysis. It demonstrated that gender had a significant controlling effect on environmental behavior; that is, males engage in more environmentally friendly behaviors. However, age showed a significant negative controlling effect on pro-environmental intention and an opposite effect on pro-environmental behavior. In addition, environmental knowledge could negatively moderate the relationship between PBC and environmental intention. PBC had a greater impact on the environmental intention of farmers with poor environmental knowledge, compared to those with plenty environmental knowledge. Altogether, the present study could provide a theoretical basis for non-point source pollution control and management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Electric Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center: Report to the Steering Committee, June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) test block was conducted using the 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber System (SDA) and Pulse Jet Fabric Filter (PJFF) - Carbon Injection System. Investigations also continued across the B&W/CHX Heat Exchanger unit, while the 1.0 MW Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode as monthly inspections were conducted. Pilot Testing Highlights Testing efforts in June were focused on the HAP test block and the Trace Elements Removal (TER) test block. Both programs were conducted on the 4.0 MW wet FGD pilot unit and PJFF unit. The HAP test block was temporarily concluded in June to further review the test data. This program began in March as part of the DOE Advanced Power Systems Program; the mission of this program is to accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low-emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. The 1996 HAP test block focuses on three research areas, including: Catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury; Enhanced particulate-phase HAPs removal by electrostatic charging of liquid droplets; and Enhanced mercury removal by addition of additives to FGD process liquor. The TER test block is part of EPRI`s overall program to develop control technology options for reduction of trace element emissions. This experimental program investigates mercury removal and mercury speciation under different operating conditions.

  15. Nitrogen Losses in Sediments of the East China Sea: Spatiotemporal Variations, Controlling Factors, and Environmental Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xianbiao; Liu, Min; Hou, Lijun; Gao, Dengzhou; Li, Xiaofei; Lu, Kaijun; Gao, Juan

    2017-10-01

    Global reactive nitrogen (N) has increased dramatically in coastal marine ecosystems over the past decades and caused numerous eco-environmental problems. Coastal marine sediment plays a critical role in N losses via denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) and release of nitrous oxide (N2O). However, both the magnitude and contributions of denitrification, anammox, and N2O production in sediments still remain unclear, causing uncertainty in defining the N budget for coastal marine ecosystems. Here potential rates of N losses, and their contributions and controlling factors, were investigated in surface sediments during six cruises from 429 sites of the East China Sea. The potential rates of denitrification, anammox, and N2O production varied both spatially and seasonally, but the contribution of anammmox to total N2 production (%anammox) and N2O:N2 ratio only varied spatially. Both organic carbon and nitrate (NO3-) were important factors controlling N losses, N2O:N2 ratio, and %anammox. Our results also showed that marine organic carbon induced by eutrophication plays an important role in stimulating reactive N removal and increasing N2O production in warm seasons. The sediment N loss caused by denitrification, anammox, and N2O production in the study area were estimated at 2.2 × 106 t N yr-1, 4.6 × 105 t N yr-1, and 8 × 103 t N yr-1, respectively. Although sediments remove large quantities of reactive N, they act as an important source of N2O in this region influenced by NO3--laden rivers.

  16. Environmental risk factors in the aetiology of multiple sclerosis in Kayseri: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servin Yeşil Günal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: our purpose is to evaluate the possible relationship between multiple sclerosis (MS and environmental factors in Kayseri.Methods: this case control study was conducted on 100 patients with MS and 100 sex-aged and residential area matched control. Data was collected by using face to face interviews. Questionnaire consisted of two parts. The first part was comprised of items related with the participants’ sociodemographic features. The second part was related with factors thought to be involved in the occurrence or aggravation of the disease. The Chi-square test and logistic regression were used for analysis.Results: logistic regression analysis revealed the following as possible risk factors in MS cases: economic status (Odds Ratio (OR: 0.14 adjusted 7.19; Confidence Interval 95% (CI: 0.05-0.43, having a sensitive personality (OR:4.51; 95% CI: 1.10-18.45, familial history of MS (OR:3.28; 95% CI: 1.3-8.27, history of cranial and spinal injury (OR: 2.99; 95% CI: 1.11-8.08, cooking oil consumption (OR:0.07 adjusted 13.5; 95% CI: 0.03-0.20, consumption of legumes and grains (OR: 0.11 adjusted 8.9; 95% CI: 0.03-0.41, and living in dwellings within a distance of 500 meters from transformer basestations (OR: 6.5; 95% CI: 1.54-28.21.Conclusions: we believe that it is necessary to inform the individuals about the risk of MS and their relatives of the results of large-scale joint studies and to offer suggestions based on the data obtained.

  17. Study of environmental and genetic factors in children with craniosynostosis: A case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Mayadhar; Bajpai, Minu; Das, Rashmi Ranjan; Panda, Shasanka Shekhar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Craniosynostosis is a congenital defect that causes one or more sutures on an infant's skull to close earlier than normal. Though both genetic and environmental factors play a role in its pathogenesis, there is no published Indian data to verify this. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, we investigated the association of craniosynostosis with parental age in 50 children with craniosynostosis attending the surgical outpatient department of a tertiary care institution in North India. Results: There was a significant association of craniosynostosis with advanced parental [OR 2.17 (95% CI 1.08 to 4.36)] but not maternal age. Education status of parents also revealed that those having a higher education had an increased risk of having a child with craniosynostosis [maternal education, OR 2.32 (95% CI 1.2 to 4.76); paternal education, OR 2.51 (95% CI 1.21 to 5.0)]. Molecular analysis by sequencing confirmed following amino-acid substitution in different Exons of the FGFR2 gene. Besides these, we found other novel identical mutations in FGFR2 gene in both syndromic and non-syndromic craniosynostoses. Conclusion: This is the first epidemiological study in India that provides evidence that, advanced paternal age and higher parental education level might be associated with an increased risk of craniosynostosis. New mutations were identified in cases of both syndromic and non-syndromic craniosynostosis. PMID:24082921

  18. Surveillance of Environmental and Procedural Measures of Infection Control in the Operating Theatre Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Dallolio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological contamination of operating theatres and the lack of adherence to best practices by surgical staff represent some of the factors affecting Surgical Site Infections (SSIs. The aim of the present study was to assess the microbiological quality of operating settings and the staff compliance to the SSI evidence-based control measures. Ten operating rooms were examined for microbiological contamination of air and surfaces, after cleaning procedures, in “at rest” conditions. Furthermore, 10 surgical operations were monitored to assess staff compliance to the recommended practices. None of the air samples exceeded microbiological reference standards and only six of the 200 surface samples (3.0% were slightly above recommended levels. Potentially pathogenic bacteria and moulds were never detected. Staff compliance to best practices varied depending on the type of behaviour investigated and the role of the operator. The major not compliant behaviours were: pre-operative skin antisepsis, crowding of the operating room and hand hygiene of the anaesthetist. The good environmental microbiological quality observed is indicative of the efficacy of the cleaning-sanitization procedures adopted. The major critical point was staff compliance to recommended practices. Awareness campaigns are therefore necessary, aimed at improving the organisation of work so as to facilitate compliance to operative protocols.

  19. From the Cover: Environmental and biotic controls on the evolutionary history of insect body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Matthew E.; Karr, Jered A.

    2012-07-01

    Giant insects, with wingspans as large as 70 cm, ruled the Carboniferous and Permian skies. Gigantism has been linked to hyperoxic conditions because oxygen concentration is a key physiological control on body size, particularly in groups like flying insects that have high metabolic oxygen demands. Here we show, using a dataset of more than 10,500 fossil insect wing lengths, that size tracked atmospheric oxygen concentrations only for the first 150 Myr of insect evolution. The data are best explained by a model relating maximum size to atmospheric environmental oxygen concentration (pO2) until the end of the Jurassic, and then at constant sizes, independent of oxygen fluctuations, during the Cretaceous and, at a smaller size, the Cenozoic. Maximum insect size decreased even as atmospheric pO2 rose in the Early Cretaceous following the evolution and radiation of early birds, particularly as birds acquired adaptations that allowed more agile flight. A further decrease in maximum size during the Cenozoic may relate to the evolution of bats, the Cretaceous mass extinction, or further specialization of flying birds. The decoupling of insect size and atmospheric pO2 coincident with the radiation of birds suggests that biotic interactions, such as predation and competition, superseded oxygen as the most important constraint on maximum body size of the largest insects.

  20. Environmental controls of C, N and P biogeochemistry in peatland pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Julien; Talbot, Julie; Moore, Tim R

    2018-08-01

    Pools are common in northern peatlands but studies have seldom focused on their nutrient biogeochemistry, especially in relation to their morphological characteristics and through seasons. We determined the environmental characteristics controlling carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) biogeochemistry in pools and assessed their evolution over the course of the 2016 growing season in a subboreal ombrotrophic peatland of eastern Canada. We showed that water chemistry variations in 62 pools were significantly explained by depth (81.9%) and the surrounding vegetation type (14.8%), but not by pool area or shape. Shallow pools had larger dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations and lower pH than deep pools, while pools surrounded by coniferous trees had more recalcitrant DOC than pools where vegetation was dominated by mosses. The influence of depth on pool biogeochemistry was confirmed by the seasonal survey of pools of different sizes with 47.1% of the variation in pool water chemistry over time significantly explained. Of this, 67.3% was explained by the interaction between time and pool size and 32.7% by pool size alone. P concentrations were small in all pools all summer long and combined with high N:P ratios, are indicative of P-limitation. Our results show that pool biogeochemistry is influenced by internal processes and highlight the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of nutrient biogeochemistry in ombrotrophic peatlands. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Andy Wu; John T. Riley

    2005-04-30

    This report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period January 1, 2005 through March 31, 2005. The following tasks have been completed. First, the renovation of the new Combustion Laboratory is nearly complete, and the construction of the Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Combustor Building is in the final stages. Second, the fabrication and manufacture of the CFBC Facility is being discussed with a potential contractor. Discussions with potential contactor regarding the availability of materials and current machining capabilities have resulted in the modification of the original designs. The selection of the fabrication contractor for the CFBC Facility is expected during the next quarter. Third, co-firing experiments conducted with coal and chicken waste have been initiated in the laboratory-scale simulated fluidized-bed facility. The experimental results from this study are presented in this report. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter is described in this report.

  2. Environmental and endogenous control of sexuality in a rotifer life cycle: developmental and population biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, John J

    2003-01-01

    Induction of mictic females, and hence initiation of sexuality, in the life cycle of some Brachionus requires an environmental stimulus associated with crowding. The inducing stimulus appears to be a taxonomically specific chemical released into the environment by the rotifers. Oocytes are induced to develop into mictic females before they are oviposited by their amictic mothers and begin cleavage divisions. Thus, the inducer affects the oocyte in the maternal body cavity either directly or indirectly by altering the physiology of its mother. The level of sexual reproduction expressed in populations of a Florida strain of B. calyciflorus is controlled by two types of endogenous factors and by the degree of crowding. First, some fraction of genetically identical oocytes in a clonal population fails to respond to even extreme crowding conditions, thus ensuring some potential for continued population growth by female parthenogenesis. Second, the propensity of amictic females to produce mictic daughters is extremely low when they hatch from fertilized resting eggs and then gradually increases to an asymptote after about 12 parthenogenetic generations. This multigenerational parental effect likely is due to a cytoplasmic factor in fertilized eggs that inhibits expression of the mictic-female phenotype and that is gradually diluted in successive parthenogenetic generations. The effect may increase a clone's genetic contribution to the resting-egg bank by increasing its population size through parthenogenetic generations before mictic females are induced.

  3. Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support Systems: An Update on Waste Water Reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferner, Kathleen M.

    1994-01-01

    Since the mid-1980's, work has been ongoing In the development of the various environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for the space station. Part of this effort has been focused on the development of a new subsystem to reclaim waste water that had not been previously required for shuttle missions. Because of the extended manned missions proposed, reclamation of waste water becomes imperative to avoid the weight penalties associated with resupplying a crew's entire water needs for consumption and daily hygiene. Hamilton Standard, under contract to Boeing Aerospace and Electronics, has been designing the water reclamation system for space station use. Since June of 1991, Hamilton Standard has developed a combined water processor capable of reclaiming potable quality water from waste hygiene water, used laundry water, processed urine, Shuttle fuel cell water, humidity condensate and other minor waste water sources. The system was assembled and then tested with over 27,700 pounds of 'real' waste water. During the 1700 hours of system operation required to process this waste water, potable quality water meeting NASA and Boeing specifications was produced. This paper gives a schematic overview of the system, describes the test conditions and test results and outlines the next steps for system development.

  4. Toxicity of pentachlorophenol to aquatic organisms under naturally varying and controlled environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedtke, S.F.; West, C.W.; Allen, K.N.; Norberg-King, T.J.; Mount, D.I.

    1986-06-01

    The toxicity of pentachlorophenol (PCP) was determined in the laboratory for 11 aquatic species. Tests were conducted seasonally in ambient Mississippi River water and under controlled conditions in Lake Superior water. Fifty-one acute toxicity tests were conducted, with LC50 values ranging from 85 micrograms/L for the white sucker Catastomus commersoni during the summer to greater than 7770 micrograms/L for the isopod Asellus racovitzai during the winter. The effect of PCP on growth and/or reproduction was determined for seven species. The most sensitive chronically exposed organisms were the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia reticulata and the snail Physa gyrina. The greatest variation in toxicity was due to species sensitivity. Within a given, season there was as much as a 40-fold difference in LC50 values between species. For any one species, the maximum variation in LC50 between seasons was approximately 14-fold. There were also substantial differences in acute-chronic relationships, with acute/chronic ratios ranging from greater than 37 for C. reticulata to 1 for Simocephalus vetulus. It is suggested that the composition of the aquatic community should be the most important consideration in estimating the potential environmental effects of PCP.

  5. The Use of Input-Output Control System Analysis for Sustainable Development of Multivariable Environmental Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliopoulos, T. C.; Koliopoulou, G.

    2007-10-01

    We present an input-output solution for simulating the associated behavior and optimized physical needs of an environmental system. The simulations and numerical analysis determined the accurate boundary loads and areas that were required to interact for the proper physical operation of a complicated environmental system. A case study was conducted to simulate the optimum balance of an environmental system based on an artificial intelligent multi-interacting input-output numerical scheme. The numerical results were focused on probable further environmental management techniques, with the objective of minimizing any risks and associated environmental impact to protect the quality of public health and the environment. Our conclusions allowed us to minimize the associated risks, focusing on probable cases in an emergency to protect the surrounded anthropogenic or natural environment. Therefore, the lining magnitude could be determined for any useful associated technical works to support the environmental system under examination, taking into account its particular boundary necessities and constraints.

  6. Genetic control of environmental variation of two quantitative traits of Drosophila melanogaster revealed by whole-genome sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter; de los Campos, Gustavo; Morgante, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    and others more volatile performance. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for environmental variability not only informs medical questions but is relevant in evolution and in agricultural science. In this work fully sequenced inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster were analyzed to study the nature...... of genetic control of environmental variance for two quantitative traits: starvation resistance (SR) and startle response (SL). The evidence for genetic control of environmental variance is compelling for both traits. Sequence information is incorporated in random regression models to study the underlying...... genetic signals, which are shown to be different in the two traits. Genomic variance in sexual dimorphism was found for SR but not for SL. Indeed, the proportion of variance captured by sequence information and the contribution to this variance from four chromosome segments differ between sexes in SR...

  7. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1988, Part -2, Annex 2c, Environmental radioactivity control, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Zaric, M.; Adamovic, M.; Stevanovic, M.

    1988-01-01

    During 1988, meteorology measurements were continued as a part of the environmental control of the Vinca Institute. This report covers the period from November 1984 - November 1985. Part of the meteorology measurements and data analysis is adapted to the needs of the Institute, i.e. RA reactor and some Laboratories. The objective of these activities is forming the data base for solving everyday and special problems related to control, protection and safety of Institute environment [sr

  8. An Analysis of Terrestrial and Aquatic Environmental Controls of Riverine Dissolved Organic Carbon in the Conterminous United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qichun Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of environmental controls on riverine carbon fluxes are critical for improved understanding of the mechanisms regulating carbon cycling along the terrestrial-aquatic continuum. Here, we compile and analyze riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentration data from 1402 United States Geological Survey (USGS gauge stations to examine the spatial variability and environmental controls of DOC concentrations in the United States (U.S. surface waters. DOC concentrations exhibit high spatial variability in the U.S., with an average of 6.42 ± 6.47 mg C/L (Mean ± Standard Deviation. High DOC concentrations occur in the Upper Mississippi River basin and the southeastern U.S., while low concentrations are mainly distributed in the western U.S. Soil properties such as soil organic matter, soil water content, and soil sand content mainly show positive correlations with DOC concentrations; forest and shrub land have positive correlations with DOC concentrations, but urban area and cropland demonstrate negative impacts; and total instream phosphorus and dam density correlate positively with DOC concentrations. Notably, the relative importance of these environmental controls varies substantially across major U.S. water resource regions. In addition, DOC concentrations and environmental controls also show significant variability from small streams to large rivers. In sum, our results reveal that general multi-linear regression of twenty environmental factors can partially explain (56% the DOC concentration variability. This study also highlights the complexity of the interactions among these environmental factors in determining DOC concentrations, thus calls for processes-based, non-linear methodologies to constrain uncertainties in riverine DOC cycling.

  9. Lessons Learned from the Crew Health Care System (CHeCS) Rack 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) design of the Crew Health Care System (CHeCS) Rack 1 and it will document some of the lessons that have been learned to date for the ECLS equipment in this rack.

  10. NASA Engineering Design Challenges: Environmental Control and Life Support Systems. Water Filtration Challenge. EG-2008-09-134-MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Twila, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This educator guide is organized into seven chapters: (1) Overview; (2) The Design Challenge; (3) Connections to National Curriculum Standards; (4) Preparing to Teach; (5) Classroom Sessions; (6) Opportunities for Extension; and (7) Teacher Resources. Chapter 1 provides information about Environmental Control and Life Support Systems used on NASA…

  11. Multi-scale evaluation of the environmental controls on burn probability in a southern Sierra Nevada landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean A. Parks; Marc-Andre Parisien; Carol Miller

    2011-01-01

    We examined the scale-dependent relationship between spatial fire likelihood or burn probability (BP) and some key environmental controls in the southern Sierra Nevada, California, USA. Continuous BP estimates were generated using a fire simulation model. The correspondence between BP (dependent variable) and elevation, ignition density, fuels and aspect was evaluated...

  12. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities Actively Correct Abnormal Standing Posture with a Nintendo Wii Balance Board through Controlling Environmental Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chu, Chiung-Ling

    2010-01-01

    The latest researches adopted software technology turning the Nintendo Wii Balance Board into a high performance change of standing posture (CSP) detector, and assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using body swing (changing standing posture). This study extends Wii Balance Board…

  13. Hurricane exposure and county fetal death rates, utilization of a county environmental quality index for confounding control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of natural disasters on public health are a rising concern, with increasing severity of disaster events. Many disaster studies utilize county-level analysis, however most do not control for county level environmental factors. Hurricane exposure during pregnancy could ...

  14. Net ecosystem productivity and its environmental controls in a mature Scots pine stand in north-western Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ziemblinska, K.; Urbaniak, M.; Chojnicki, B. H.; Black, T. A.; Niu, S.; Olejnik, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 228, nov (2016), s. 60-72 ISSN 0168-1923 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Scots pine * eddy covariance * environmental controls * net ecosystem productivity * southern Finland Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.887, year: 2016

  15. Environmental Health Impacts of Nuclear Fuel Cycle With Emphasis to Monitoring and Radiological Safety Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gad Allah, A.A.; El- Shanshory, A.I.

    2010-01-01

    Security of energy supply and global climatic changes due to carbon dioxide gas emission of fissile fuels encouraged many developed countries for planning to introduce nuclear power for energy generation. Recently, nuclear power provides approximately 20 % of the world's electricity, which is equivalent to a reduction in carbon emissions of 0.5 Gt of C/year. This is a modest contribution to the reduction of global carbon emissions, 6.5 Gt C/year. There are three types of nuclear fuel cycles that might be utilized for the increased production of energy: open, closed, or a symbiotic combination of different reactor types (such as thermal and fast neutron reactors). Within each cycle, the volume and composition of the nuclear waste and fissile material depend on the type of nuclear fuel, the amount of burn-up, the extent of radionuclide separation during reprocessing, and the types of material used to immobilize different radionuclides. Most analyses suggest that in order to have a significant impact on carbon emissions. By the year 2050, carbon free sources, such as nuclear power, would have to expand total energy production by a factor of three to ten. A three-fold increase in nuclear power capacity would result in a projected reduction in carbon emissions of 1 to 2 Gt C/year, depending on the type of the carbon-based energy source. This paper reviews, discusses and evaluates the relation between the different types of fuel cycles and their environmental impacts. The paper investigates the environmental impacts of the nuclear fuel cycle compared to fossil fuel energy system.. It also reviews the impact of an expansion of this scale on the generation of nuclear waste and fissile material that might be diverted to the production of nuclear weapons. Investigations of different wastes fissile and fertile mater in the fuel cycle have been estimated. The paper provides an overview of the main contaminates in the waste streams and effluents from nuclear fuel cycle

  16. Surveillance and Control of Malaria Transmission in Thailand using Remotely Sensed Meteorological and Environmental Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Richard K.; Adimi, Farida; Soika, Valerii; Nigro, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    These slides address the use of remote sensing in a public health application. Specifically, this discussion focuses on the of remote sensing to detect larval habitats to predict current and future endemicity and identify key factors that sustain or promote transmission of malaria in a targeted geographic area (Thailand). In the Malaria Modeling and Surveillance Project, which is part of the NASA Applied Sciences Public Health Applications Program, we have been developing techniques to enhance public health's decision capability for malaria risk assessments and controls. The main objectives are: 1) identification of the potential breeding sites for major vector species; 2) implementation of a risk algorithm to predict the occurrence of malaria and its transmission intensity; 3) implementation of a dynamic transmission model to identify the key factors that sustain or intensify malaria transmission. The potential benefits are: 1) increased warning time for public health organizations to respond to malaria outbreaks; 2) optimized utilization of pesticide and chemoprophylaxis; 3) reduced likelihood of pesticide and drug resistance; and 4) reduced damage to environment. !> Environmental parameters important to malaria transmission include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and vegetation conditions. The NASA Earth science data sets that have been used for malaria surveillance and risk assessment include AVHRR Pathfinder, TRMM, MODIS, NSIPP, and SIESIP. Textural-contextual classifications are used to identify small larval habitats. Neural network methods are used to model malaria cases as a function of the remotely sensed parameters. Hindcastings based on these environmental parameters have shown good agreement to epidemiological records. Discrete event simulations are used for modeling the detailed interactions among the vector life cycle, sporogonic cycle and human infection cycle, under the explicit influences of selected extrinsic and intrinsic factors

  17. Soil pH controls the environmental availability of phosphorus: Experimental and mechanistic modelling approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devau, Nicolas; Cadre, Edith Le; Hinsinger, Philippe; Jaillard, Benoit; Gerard, Frederic

    2009-01-01

    Inorganic P is the least mobile major nutrient in most soils and is frequently the prime limiting factor for plant growth in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, the extraction of soil inorganic P with CaCl 2 (P-CaCl 2 ) and geochemical modelling were combined in order to unravel the processes controlling the environmentally available P (EAP) of a soil over a range of pH values (pH ∼ 4-10). Mechanistic descriptions of the adsorption of cations and anions by the soil constituents were used (1-pK Triple Plane, ion-exchange and NICA-Donnan models). These models are implemented into the geochemical code Visual MINTEQ. An additive approach was used for their application to the surface horizon of a Cambisol. The geochemical code accurately reproduced the concentration of extracted P at the different soil pH values (R 2 = 0.9, RMSE = 0.03 mg kg -1 ). Model parameters were either directly found in the literature or estimated by fitting published experimental results in single mineral systems. The strong agreement between measurements and modelling results demonstrated that adsorption processes exerted a major control on the EAP of the soil over a large range of pH values. An influence of the precipitation of P-containing mineral is discounted based on thermodynamic calculations. Modelling results indicated that the variations in P-CaCl 2 with soil pH were controlled by the deprotonation/protonation of the surface hydroxyl groups, the distribution of P surface complexes, and the adsorption of Ca and Cl from the electrolyte background. Iron-oxides and gibbsite were found to be the major P-adsorbing soil constituents at acidic and alkaline pHs, whereas P was mainly adsorbed by clay minerals at intermediate pH values. This study demonstrates the efficacy of geochemical modelling to understand soil processes, and the applicability of mechanistic adsorption models to a 'real' soil, with its mineralogical complexity and the additional contribution of soil organic matter.

  18. Soil pH controls the environmental availability of phosphorus: Experimental and mechanistic modelling approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devau, Nicolas [INRA, UMR 1222 Eco and Sols - Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Biogeochimie des Sols (INRA-IRD-SupAgro), Place Viala, F-34060 Montpellier (France); Cadre, Edith Le [Supagro, UMR 1222 Eco and Sols - Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Biogeochimie des Sols (INRA-IRD-SupAgro), Place Viala, F-34060 Montpellier (France); Hinsinger, Philippe; Jaillard, Benoit [INRA, UMR 1222 Eco and Sols - Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Biogeochimie des Sols (INRA-IRD-SupAgro), Place Viala, F-34060 Montpellier (France); Gerard, Frederic, E-mail: gerard@supagro.inra.fr [INRA, UMR 1222 Eco and Sols - Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Biogeochimie des Sols (INRA-IRD-SupAgro), Place Viala, F-34060 Montpellier (France)

    2009-11-15

    Inorganic P is the least mobile major nutrient in most soils and is frequently the prime limiting factor for plant growth in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, the extraction of soil inorganic P with CaCl{sub 2} (P-CaCl{sub 2}) and geochemical modelling were combined in order to unravel the processes controlling the environmentally available P (EAP) of a soil over a range of pH values (pH {approx} 4-10). Mechanistic descriptions of the adsorption of cations and anions by the soil constituents were used (1-pK Triple Plane, ion-exchange and NICA-Donnan models). These models are implemented into the geochemical code Visual MINTEQ. An additive approach was used for their application to the surface horizon of a Cambisol. The geochemical code accurately reproduced the concentration of extracted P at the different soil pH values (R{sup 2} = 0.9, RMSE = 0.03 mg kg{sup -1}). Model parameters were either directly found in the literature or estimated by fitting published experimental results in single mineral systems. The strong agreement between measurements and modelling results demonstrated that adsorption processes exerted a major control on the EAP of the soil over a large range of pH values. An influence of the precipitation of P-containing mineral is discounted based on thermodynamic calculations. Modelling results indicated that the variations in P-CaCl{sub 2} with soil pH were controlled by the deprotonation/protonation of the surface hydroxyl groups, the distribution of P surface complexes, and the adsorption of Ca and Cl from the electrolyte background. Iron-oxides and gibbsite were found to be the major P-adsorbing soil constituents at acidic and alkaline pHs, whereas P was mainly adsorbed by clay minerals at intermediate pH values. This study demonstrates the efficacy of geochemical modelling to understand soil processes, and the applicability of mechanistic adsorption models to a 'real' soil, with its mineralogical complexity and the additional

  19. Environmental impact of the Ranger uranium mine, Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, A.; Needham, S.

    2002-01-01

    Stringent environmental controls have been applied to the Ranger mine, in the Northern Territory of Australia, because of its location in an area of outstanding natural and cultural values. The adjacent Kakadu National Park contains a wild and extensive biodiversity, striking landscapes, ancient Aboriginal rock art and a living Aboriginal culture. A special regime of biological, radiological and chemical monitoring has been applied to protect the environment and detect even very low intensity impacts. The results from this regime demonstrate to the government and general public that the high conservation values of the national park around the mine are being properly protected. This paper describes the techniques used to measure environmental impact at Ranger, and summarizes the results of over 20 years of monitoring. The overwhelming conclusion is that a very high standard of environmental protection has been achieved. (author)

  20. The Control of Hazardous Wastes and the Role of Environmental Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfortner, Ray

    1984-01-01

    Discusses legislation aimed at hazardous waste issues which are implemented by the Environmental Protection Agency and state governments. Particular attention is given to Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). A case study of an abandoned acres superfund site is included with two related student…

  1. Issues in environmental control data used in DD ampersand ER worker dose exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    Sites for decontamination and decommissioning (DD) or environmental remediation (ER) are often from US DOE operations that began during and shortly after World War II. This paper discusses selected problems in the use of environmental data for DD and ER worker dose exposure calculations

  2. Environmental impacts of flood control measures in climate change adaptation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudler, Sarah; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    it on the surface without harming assets. When evaluating different adaptation approaches, a cost assessment is typically carried out, while environmental impacts usually are not considered. To close this gap, a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) based method is developed, which allows to quantify environmental impacts...... only contribute up to 4% of the environmental impacts for the CMP and less than 1% for the SSA. Our method helps explain how the handling of everyday events and extreme rain events affect the environmental sustainability of climate change adaptation and it enables cities to consider the environmental......Because of climatic changes, large investments are needed to keep flood risk at an acceptable level in urban areas. Increasing dimensions of underground sewer systems and retention basins are increasingly supplemented with multi-functional approaches, aimed at managing water locally and/or route...

  3. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Development of environmentally friendly universal controller; 1998 nendo kankyo taio universal controller no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Research and development was carried out for an 'environmentally friendly universal controller (UC)' which would be 'user-friendly and energy-saving' when used with electrical home appliances. An environmentally friendly UC is a remote controller which utilizes an infrared two-way communication function and becomes capable of dealing with any appliance upon downloading remote control information from the appliance involved. Studies were conducted for the development of controller hardware and software therefor and for the development of electrical home appliances to correspond to their specifications. In relation with energy conservation, studies centered about reduction in power consumption while on standby and unnecessary power consumption. As the result, an environmentally friendly UC protocol was newly developed and, based on the protocol, plural numbers of controllers, appliances, and network gateways were tentatively fabricated, and were examined for their function, behavior, and operational interchangeability. Systems aiming at reducing power consumption while on standby and unnecessary power consumption were built by way of experiment, and were checked for performance. It was then concluded that a reduction of several billion kWh might be achieved. (NEDO)

  4. Large-scale environmental controls on microbial biofilms in high-alpine streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Battin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaciers are highly responsive to global warming and important agents of landscape heterogeneity. While it is well established that glacial ablation and snowmelt regulate stream discharge, linkage among streams and streamwater geochemistry, the controls of these factors on stream microbial biofilms remain insufficiently understood. We investigated glacial (metakryal, hypokryal, groundwater-fed (krenal and snow-fed (rhithral streams - all of them representative for alpine stream networks - and present evidence that these hydrologic and hydrogeochemical factors differentially affect sediment microbial biofilms. Average microbial biomass and bacterial carbon production were low in the glacial streams, whereas bacterial cell size, biomass, and carbon production were higher in the tributaries, most notably in the krenal stream. Whole-cell in situ fluorescence hybridization revealed reduced detection rates of the Eubacteria and higher abundance of α-Proteobacteria in the glacial stream, a pattern that most probably reflects the trophic status of this ecosystem. Our data suggest low flow during the onset of snowmelt and autumn as a short period (hot moment of favorable environmental conditions with pulsed inputs of allochthonous nitrate and dissolved organic carbon, and with disproportionately high microbial growth. Tributaries are relatively more constant and favorable environments than kryal streams, and serve as possible sources of microbes and organic matter to the main glacial channel during periods (e.g., snowmelt of elevated hydrologic linkage among streams. Ice and snow dynamics - and their impact on the amount and composition of dissolved organic matter - have a crucial impact on stream biofilms, and we thus need to consider microbes and critical hydrological episodes in future models of alpine stream communities.

  5. Environmental controls on phytoplankton community composition in the Thames plume, U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Keith; Greenwood, Naomi; Fernand, Liam; Pearce, David J.; Sivyer, David B.

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate controls on the phytoplankton community composition and biogeochemistry of the estuarine plume zone of the River Thames, U.K. using an instrumented moored buoy for in situ measurements and preserved sample collection, and laboratory-based measurements from samples collected at the same site. Instrumentation on the moored buoy enabled high frequency measurements of a suite of environmental variables including in situ chlorophyll, water-column integrated irradiance, macronutrients throughout an annual cycle for 2001 e.g. nitrate and silicate, and phytoplankton biomass and species composition. The Thames plume region acts as a conduit for fluvial nutrients into the wider southern North Sea with typical winter concentrations of 45 μM nitrate, 17 μM silicate and 2 μM phosphate measured. The spring bloom resulted from water-column integrated irradiance increasing above 60 W h m - 2 d - 1 and was initially dominated by a diatom bloom mainly composed of Nitzschia sp. and Odontella sinesis. The spring bloom then switched after ˜ 30 days to become dominated by the flagellate Phaeocystis reaching a maximum chlorophyll concentration of 37.8 μg L - 1 . During the spring bloom there were high numbers of the heterotrophic dinoflagellates Gyrodinium spirale and Katodinium glaucum that potentially grazed the phytoplankton bloom. This diatom-flagellate switch was predicted to be due to a combination of further increasing water-column integrated irradiance > 100 W h m - 2 d - 1 and/or silicate reaching potentially limiting concentrations (nutrient and phytoplankton processing and transport to the southern North Sea. The use of a combination of moorings and ship-based sampling was essential in understanding the factors influencing nutrient transport, phytoplankton biomass and species composition in this shelf sea plume region.

  6. Environmental controls on daytime net community calcification on a Red Sea reef flat

    KAUST Repository

    Bernstein, W. N.

    2016-01-23

    Coral growth and carbonate accumulation form the foundation of the coral reef ecosystem. Changes in environmental conditions due to coastal development, climate change, and ocean acidification may pose a threat to net carbonate production in the near future. Controlled laboratory studies demonstrate that calcification by corals and coralline algae is sensitive to changes in aragonite saturation state (Ωa), as well as temperature, light, and nutrition. Studies also show that the dissolution rate of carbonate substrates is impacted by changes in carbonate chemistry. The sensitivity of coral reefs to these parameters must be confirmed and quantified in the natural environment in order to predict how coral reefs will respond to local and global changes, particularly ocean acidification. We estimated the daytime hourly net community metabolic rates, both net community calcification (NCC) and net community productivity (NCP), at Sheltered Reef, an offshore platform reef in the central Red Sea. Average NCC was 8 ± 3 mmol m−2 h−1 in December 2010 and 11 ± 1 mmol m−2 h−1 in May 2011, and NCP was 21 ± 7 mmol m−2 h−1 in December 2010 and 44 ± 4 mmol m−2 h−1 in May 2011. We also monitored a suite of physical and chemical properties to help relate the rates at Sheltered Reef to published rates from other sites. While previous research shows that short-term field studies investigating the NCC–Ωa relationship have differing results due to confounding factors, it is important to continue estimating NCC in different places, seasons, and years, in order to monitor changes in NCC versus Ω in space and time, and to ultimately resolve a broader understanding of this relationship.

  7. Advanced Manufacturing for Thermal and Environmental Control Systems: Achieving National Energy Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogucz, Edward A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    2017-02-20

    This project was part of a regional initiative in the five counties of Central New York (CNY) that received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and four other federal agencies through the 2012 Advanced Manufacturing Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge (AMJIAC). The CNY initiative was focused on cultivating the emergent regional cluster in “Advanced Manufacturing for Thermal and Environmental Control (AM-TEC).” As one component of the CNY AM-TEC initiative, the DOE-funded project supported five research & development seed projects that strategically targeted: 1) needs and opportunities of CNY AM-TEC companies, and 2) the goal of DOE’s Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) to reduce energy consumption by 50% across product life-cycles over 10 years. The project also sought to fulfill the AMO mission of developing and demonstrating new, energy-efficient processing and materials technologies at a scale adequate to prove their value to manufacturers and spur investment. The five seed projects demonstrated technologies and processes that can reduce energy intensity and improve production as well as use less energy throughout their lifecycles. The project was conducted over three years in two 18-month budget periods. During the first budget period, two projects proposed in the original AMJAIC application were successfully completed: Seed Project 1 focused on saving energy in heat transfer processes via development of nano structured surfaces to significantly increase heat flux; Seed Project 2 addressed saving energy in data centers via subzero cooling of the computing processors. Also during the first budget period, a process was developed and executed to select a second round of seed projects via a competitive request for proposals from regional companies and university collaborators. Applicants were encouraged to form industry-academic partnerships to leverage experience and resources of public and private sectors in the CNY region. Proposals were

  8. Economic Savings from Using Economic Incentives for Environmental Pollution Control (1999)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economic incentives, such as emission taxes, effluent trading, deposit refund systems, information reporting requirements, liability for harm caused by pollution, and voluntary programs have the potential to achieve environmental objectives at lower cost.

  9. The United States Experience with Economic Incentives in Environmental Pollution Control Policy (1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past 20 years, federal, state, and local authorities as well as many foreign nations have enacted a diverse array of environmental incentive mechanisms. This report presents one of the most comprehensive surveys available of these mechanisms.

  10. The United States Experience with Economic Incentives to Control Environmental Pollution (1992)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past 20 years, federal, state, and local authorities as well as many foreign nations have enacted a diverse array of environmental incentive mechanisms. This report presents one of the most comprehensive surveys available of these mechanisms.

  11. 36 CFR 1234.14 - What are the requirements for environmental controls for records storage facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... stored under environmental conditions that prevent the active growth of mold. Exposure to moisture through leaks or condensation, relative humidities in excess of 70%, extremes of heat combined with...

  12. Water Quality Pollution, Treatment and Control in Contemporary and Future Environmental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoller, Uri

    1988-01-01

    Deals with the issue of water education, including problems, what should be done, what can be done, and what to do. Presents two curricular units on water and two interdisciplinary, environmentally oriented courses for use in Israel. (YP)

  13. Streamlining Local Behaviour Through Communication, Incentives and Control: A Case Study of Local Environmental Policies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Heberer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how China uses evaluation ratings and monitoring as incentives in order to foster the implementation of environmental policies at the local level. It is argued that decentralisation in China leaves room for actors at the local levels to manoeuver and bargain with those on higher levels for flexible adjustment of implementation policies according to local conditions. However, decentralisation is accompanied by significant institutional changes in the structure of intergovernmental communication, incentives and control. Accordingly, decentralisation in China exhibits a specific design which leaves space for divergent local environmental policies while also engendering “grass-roots mechanisms”. On the whole, this new institutional setting benefits the implementation of environmental policies.

  14. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1979 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 5. Environmental assessment, control, health, and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baalman, R.W.; Dotson, C.W.

    1980-02-01

    Part 5 of the 1979 Annual Report to the Department of Energy Assistant Secretary for the Environment presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Technology Impacts, the Office of Environmental Compliance and Overview, and the Office of Health and Environmental Research. The report is in four sections, corresponding to the program elements: technology impacts, environmental control engineering, operational and environmental compliance, and human health studies. In each section, articles describe progress made during FY 1979 on individual projects

  15. Exploratory benefit-cost analysis of environmental controls on hydrothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Wells, K.D.; Currie, J.W.; King, M.J.

    1981-02-01

    A study of the value of environmental benefits generated by environmental regulation of hydrothermal sites was initiated to compare these benefits with the estimated costs of regulation. Primary objectives were to 1) evaluate the environmental damages caused by unregulated hydrothermal resource development, 2) use existing environmental and economic data to estimate the dollar value of preventing expected environmental damages at two sites, and 3) compare the benefits and costs of preventing the damages. The sites chosen for analyses were in the Imperial Valley at Heber and Niland, California. Reasons for this choice were 1) there is a high level of commercial interest in developing the Heber known geothermal resource area (KGRA) and the Salton Sea KGRA; 2) the potential for environmental damage is high; 3) existing data bases for these two sites are more comprehensive than at other sites. The primary impacts analyzed were those related to hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) emissions and those related to disposal of spent hydrothermal brine. (MHR)

  16. Genetic susceptibility loci, environmental exposures, and Parkinson's disease: a case-control study of gene-environment interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sun Ju; Armasu, Sebastian M; Anderson, Kari J; Biernacka, Joanna M; Lesnick, Timothy G; Rider, David N; Cunningham, Julie M; Ahlskog, J Eric; Frigerio, Roberta; Maraganore, Demetrius M

    2013-06-01

    Prior studies causally linked mutations in SNCA, MAPT, and LRRK2 genes with familial Parkinsonism. Genome-wide association studies have demonstrated association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in those three genes with sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) susceptibility worldwide. Here we investigated the interactions between SNPs in those three susceptibility genes and environmental exposures (pesticides application, tobacco smoking, coffee drinking, and alcohol drinking) also associated with PD susceptibility. Pairwise interactions between environmental exposures and 18 variants (16 SNPs and two variable number tandem repeats, or "VNTRs") in SNCA, MAPT and LRRK2, were investigated using data from 1098 PD cases from the upper Midwest, USA and 1098 matched controls. Environmental exposures were assessed using a validated telephone interview script. Five pairwise interactions had uncorrected P-values coffee drinking × MAPT H1/H2 haplotype or MAPT rs16940806, and alcohol drinking × MAPT rs2435211. None of these interactions remained significant after Bonferroni correction. Secondary analyses in strata defined by type of control (sibling or unrelated), sex, or age at onset of the case also did not identify significant interactions after Bonferroni correction. This study documented limited pairwise interactions between established genetic and environmental risk factors for PD; however, the associations were not significant after correction for multiple testing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) Integrated Roadmap Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Jordan; Peterson, Laurie; Carrasquillo, Robyn; Bagdigian, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Although NASA is currently considering a number of future human space exploration mission concepts, detailed mission requirements and vehicle architectures remain mostly undefined, making technology investment strategies difficult to develop and sustain without a top-level roadmap to serve as a guide. This paper documents the process and results of an effort to define a roadmap for Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) capabilities required to enhance the long-term operation of the International Space Station (ISS) as well as enable beyond-Low Earth Orbit (LEO) human exploration missions. Three generic mission types were defined to serve as a basis for developing a prioritized list of needed capabilities and technologies. Those are 1) a short duration micro-gravity mission; 2) a long duration microgravity mission; and 3) a long duration partial gravity (surface) exploration mission. To organize the effort, a functional decomposition of ECLSS was completed starting with the three primary functions: atmosphere, water, and solid waste management. Each was further decomposed into sub-functions to the point that current state-of-the-art (SOA) technologies could be tied to the sub-function. Each technology was then assessed by NASA subject matter experts as to its ability to meet the functional needs of each of the three mission types. When SOA capabilities were deemed to fall short of meeting the needs of one or more mission types, those gaps were prioritized in terms of whether or not the corresponding capabilities enable or enhance each of the mission types. The result was a list of enabling and enhancing capability needs that can be used to guide future ECLSS development, as well as a list of existing hardware that is ready to go for exploration-class missions. A strategy to fulfill those needs over time was then developed in the form of a roadmap. Through execution of this roadmap, the hardware and technologies intended to meet exploration needs

  18. Decomposition of soil organic matter from boreal black spruce forest: Environmental and chemical controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickland, K.P.; Neff, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Black spruce forests are a dominant covertype in the boreal forest region, and they inhabit landscapes that span a wide range of hydrologic and thermal conditions. These forests often have large stores of soil organic carbon. Recent increases in temperature at northern latitudes may be stimulating decomposition rates of this soil carbon. It is unclear, however, how changes in environmental conditions influence decomposition in these systems, and if substrate controls of decomposition vary with hydrologic and thermal regime. We addressed these issues by investigating the effects of temperature, moisture, and organic matter chemical characteristics on decomposition of fibric soil horizons from three black spruce forest sites. The sites varied in drainage and permafrost, and included a "Well Drained" site where permafrost was absent, and "Moderately well Drained" and "Poorly Drained" sites where permafrost was present at about 0.5 m depth. Samples collected from each site were incubated at five different moisture contents (2, 25, 50, 75, and 100% saturation) and two different temperatures (10??C and 20??C) in a full factorial design for two months. Organic matter chemistry was analyzed using pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry prior to incubation, and after incubation on soils held at 20??C, 50% saturation. Mean cumulative mineralization, normalized to initial carbon content, ranged from 0.2% to 4.7%, and was dependent on temperature, moisture, and site. The effect of temperature on mineralization was significantly influenced by moisture content, as mineralization was greatest at 20??C and 50-75% saturation. While the relative effects of temperature and moisture were similar for all soils, mineralization rates were significantly greater for samples from the "Well Drained" site compared to the other sites. Variations in the relative abundances of polysaccharide-derivatives and compounds of undetermined source (such as toluene, phenol, 4-methyl phenol, and

  19. Udder diseases in dairy cows — field observations on incidence, somatic and environmental factors, and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Saloniemi

    1980-03-01

    cases reliable proof could be obtained as to whether the constructional details of the cowshed or stall or the milking hygiene had any effect on udder health. The observations made, however, were not in disagreement with those findings published in other Nordic countries. The significance of the cattle tender as an environmental factor is great. When a mastitis control programme is worked out, therefore, the mastitis situation in a herd, and the predisposing factors detected on the farm must be reliably demonstrated to the owner and the measures required for improvement must be clearly proposed.

  20. Effectiveness of environmental control measures to decrease the risk of invasive aspergillosis in acute leukaemia patients during hospital building work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combariza, J F; Toro, L F; Orozco, J J

    2017-08-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a significant problem in acute leukaemia patients. Construction work near hospital wards caring for immunocompromised patients is one of the main risk factors for developing invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). To assess the impact of environmental control measures used during hospital construction for the prevention of IA in acute leukaemia patients. A retrospective cohort study was developed to evaluate the IA incidence in acute leukaemia patients with different environmental control measures employed during hospital construction. We used European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) criterial diagnosis parameters for definition of IA. A total of 175 episodes of inpatient care were evaluated, 62 of which did not have any environmental control measures (when an outbreak occurred), and 113 that were subject to environmental control measures directed to preventing IA. The study showed an IA incidence of 25.8% for the group without environmental control measures vs 12.4% for those who did receive environmental control measures (P=0.024). The relative risk for IA was 0.595 (95% confidence interval: 0.394-0.897) for the group with environmental control measures. The current study suggests that the implementation of environmental control measures during a hospital construction has a positive impact for prevention of IA in patients hospitalized with acute leukaemia. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Regulations and control of fuel reprocessing plants in the Federal Republic of Germany with regard to environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    The principles of radiation protection in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) are reviewed. These principles are based on ICRP recommendations and are laid down in the Atomgesetz (Atomic Energy Act, 1959) and in the Strahlenschutzverordnung (Radiological Protection Ordinance, 1976). The licencing procedure in the FRG is outlined together with the extent of the information on environmental protection to be submitted by the applicant for a licence. Information is required about the site, safety against external and internal hazards, control of occupational radiation exposure, control of gaseous and liquid effluents, environmental dose limits and accident situations. The methods used to monitor releases to the environment are briefly discussed. Finally, figures for occupational and general public exposure in respect of the operation of the WAK reprocessing facility at Karlsruhe are given

  2. The role of the geophysical template and environmental regimes in controlling stream-living trout populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaluna, Brooke E.; Railsback, Steve F.; Dunham, Jason B.; Johnson, S.; Bilby, Richard E.; Skaugset, Arne E.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of multiple processes and instream factors to aquatic biota has been explored extensively, but questions remain about how local spatiotemporal variability of aquatic biota is tied to environmental regimes and the geophysical template of streams. We used an individual-based trout model to explore the relative role of the geophysical template versus environmental regimes on biomass of trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii). We parameterized the model with observed data from each of the four headwater streams (their local geophysical template and environmental regime) and then ran 12 simulations where we replaced environmental regimes (stream temperature, flow, turbidity) of a given stream with values from each neighboring stream while keeping the geophysical template fixed. We also performed single-parameter sensitivity analyses on the model results from each of the four streams. Although our modeled findings show that trout biomass is most responsive to changes in the geophysical template of streams, they also reveal that biomass is restricted by available habitat during seasonal low flow, which is a product of both the stream’s geophysical template and flow regime. Our modeled results suggest that differences in the geophysical template among streams render trout more or less sensitive to environmental change, emphasizing the importance of local fish–habitat relationships in streams.

  3. Community-based environmental management for malaria control: evidence from a small-scale intervention in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Marcia C; Tsuruta, Atsuko; Kanamori, Shogo; Kannady, Khadija; Mkude, Sixbert

    2009-04-08

    Historically, environmental management has brought important achievements in malaria control and overall improvements of health conditions. Currently, however, implementation is often considered not to be cost-effective. A community-based environmental management for malaria control was conducted in Dar es Salaam between 2005 and 2007. After community sensitization, two drains were cleaned followed by maintenance. This paper assessed the impact of the intervention on community awareness, prevalence of malaria infection, and Anopheles larval presence in drains. A survey was conducted in neighbourhoods adjacent to cleaned drains; for comparison, neighbourhoods adjacent to two drains treated with larvicides and two drains under no intervention were also surveyed. Data routinely collected by the Urban Malaria Control Programme were also used. Diverse impacts were evaluated through comparison of means, odds ratios (OR), logistic regression, and time trends calculated by moving averages. Individual awareness of health risks and intervention goals were significantly higher among sensitized neighbourhoods. A reduction in the odds of malaria infection during the post-cleaning period in intervention neighbourhoods was observed when compared to the pre-cleaning period (OR = 0.12, 95% CI 0.05-0.3, p water was flowing at normal velocity). A three-month moving average of the percentage of water habitats in that drain containing pupae and/or Anopheles larvae indicated a decline in larval density. In the other drain, lack of proper resources and local commitment limited success. Although environmental management was historically coordinated by authoritarian/colonial regimes or by industries/corporations, its successful implementation as part of an integrated vector management framework for malaria control under democratic governments can be possible if four conditions are observed: political will and commitment, community sensitization and participation, provision of financial

  4. 75 FR 64984 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hawkweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... hawkweed gall wasp, Aulacidea subterminalis, into the continental United States as a biological control... United States for the biological control of hawkweeds (Hieracium pilosella, H. aurantiacum, H... control, and the use of biological control organisms. The use of herbicides, while effective, is limited...

  5. Improvements to enforcement of multilateral environmental agreements to control international shipments of chemicals and wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Somboon, Vira; Wun'gaeo, Surichai; Middleton, Carl; Tingsabadh, Charit; Limjirakan, Sangchan

    2016-06-01

    Illegal trade in hazardous waste and harmful chemicals has caused severe damage on human health and the environment, and brought big challenges to countries to meet their commitments to related multilateral environmental agreements. Synergy-building, like organising law enforcement operations, is critical to address illegal trade in waste and chemicals, and further improve the effectiveness of environmental enforcement. This article discusses how and why law enforcement operations can help countries to implement chemical and waste-related multilateral environmental agreements in a more efficient and effective way. The research explores key barriers and factors for organising law enforcement operations, and recommends methods to improve law enforcement operations to address illegal trade in hazardous waste and harmful chemicals. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Photonics (the control of light) at the core of the environmental transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GeddaMudrov, Karl

    2017-01-01

    At the core of the environmental transition, photonics is reinventing our lives: smart, sustainable cities (the production of renewable energy and optimization of energy consumption, above all by the telecommunications infrastructure), factories of the future (precise and cleaner processes that consume fewer raw materials), etc. Photonic inventions (enhanced virtual reality and optical sensors) push in the same direction - toward the production of eco-friendly products in environmentally friendly factories. However they might go farther and be disruptive as they replace methods of mass production with individualized methods of production

  7. Programme for the Environmental Control at the Swedish Nuclear Facilities, Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, Ann-Marie

    2004-12-01

    This report contains a revised version of the Environmental Monitoring Programme for the Swedish Nuclear Facilities. The revision is based on earlier experiences and evaluations. Some samples have been excluded. Some have been added, for example spruce cone and the food products apple and currant. The sediment samples of 2 cm length have been completed with samples of 10 cm length every fourth year to follow the migration of radio nuclides down the sediment layers over time. The revised Environmental Monitoring Programme is valid from the 1st of January 2005

  8. Environmental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Burns & McDonnell Engineering's environmental control study is assisted by NASA's Computer Software Management and Information Center's programs in environmental analyses. Company is engaged primarily in design of such facilities as electrical utilities, industrial plants, wastewater treatment systems, dams and reservoirs and aviation installations. Company also conducts environmental engineering analyses and advises clients as to the environmental considerations of a particular construction project. Company makes use of many COSMIC computer programs which have allowed substantial savings.

  9. Proceedings of the US Department of Energy environmental control symposium. Volume 1. Plenary session and fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    Volume one of the proceedings (Plenary Session and Fossil Fuels) contains papers on environmental pollution control which resulted mainly from US DOE's research programs in coal (preparation, desulfurization, gasification, liquefaction, combustion, fluidized-bed combustion, and pollution control methods with respect to SO/sub 2/, NO/sub x/, and CO/sub 2/ (global effects and feasibility studies); a few papers deal with oil shale operations and the enhanced recovery of petroleum. Papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA, with 3 also into EAPA; six papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  10. Effect of lead pollution control on environmental and childhood blood lead level in Nantong, China: an interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Huang, Lei; Yan, Beizhan; Li, Hongbo; Sun, Hong; Bi, Jun

    2014-11-04

    Children's blood lead levels and prevalence of lead poisoning in China are significantly higher than in developed countries, though a substantial decrease has been observed. Since 2011, strict lead control policies in lead-related industries have been implemented in China, but the success of these policies is unknown. In this study, we collected environmental samples, questionnaire data, and blood samples from 106 children from 1 to 14 years old, before and after implementation of lead-usage control policy in wire rope factories by local government in Zhuhang, Nantong in 2012. Results showed that, one year after the lead control, lead concentrations sharply decreased in both environmental and biological samples with a decrease of 0.43 μg/m3 (-84.3%) in ambient air samples, 0.22 mg/kg (-36.1%) in vegetable samples, 441.1 mg/kg (-43.7%) in dust samples, and 6.24 μg/dL (-51.5%) in childhood blood lead levels (BLL). This study demonstrates the success of lead control policies in promoting the prevention and control of childhood lead poisoning in Nantong, China.

  11. Modeling the environmental suitability of anthrax in Ghana and estimating populations at risk: Implications for vaccination and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracalik, Ian T; Kenu, Ernest; Ayamdooh, Evans Nsoh; Allegye-Cudjoe, Emmanuel; Polkuu, Paul Nokuma; Frimpong, Joseph Asamoah; Nyarko, Kofi Mensah; Bower, William A; Traxler, Rita; Blackburn, Jason K

    2017-10-01

    Anthrax is hyper-endemic in West Africa. Despite the effectiveness of livestock vaccines in controlling anthrax, underreporting, logistics, and limited resources makes implementing vaccination campaigns difficult. To better understand the geographic limits of anthrax, elucidate environmental factors related to its occurrence, and identify human and livestock populations at risk, we developed predictive models of the environmental suitability of anthrax in Ghana. We obtained data on the location and date of livestock anthrax from veterinary and outbreak response records in Ghana during 2005-2016, as well as livestock vaccination registers and population estimates of characteristically high-risk groups. To predict the environmental suitability of anthrax, we used an ensemble of random forest (RF) models built using a combination of climatic and environmental factors. From 2005 through the first six months of 2016, there were 67 anthrax outbreaks (851 cases) in livestock; outbreaks showed a seasonal peak during February through April and primarily involved cattle. There was a median of 19,709 vaccine doses [range: 0-175 thousand] administered annually. Results from the RF model suggest a marked ecological divide separating the broad areas of environmental suitability in northern Ghana from the southern part of the country. Increasing alkaline soil pH was associated with a higher probability of anthrax occurrence. We estimated 2.2 (95% CI: 2.0, 2.5) million livestock and 805 (95% CI: 519, 890) thousand low income rural livestock keepers were located in anthrax risk areas. Based on our estimates, the current anthrax vaccination efforts in Ghana cover a fraction of the livestock potentially at risk, thus control efforts should be focused on improving vaccine coverage among high risk groups.

  12. Modeling the environmental suitability of anthrax in Ghana and estimating populations at risk: Implications for vaccination and control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian T Kracalik

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax is hyper-endemic in West Africa. Despite the effectiveness of livestock vaccines in controlling anthrax, underreporting, logistics, and limited resources makes implementing vaccination campaigns difficult. To better understand the geographic limits of anthrax, elucidate environmental factors related to its occurrence, and identify human and livestock populations at risk, we developed predictive models of the environmental suitability of anthrax in Ghana. We obtained data on the location and date of livestock anthrax from veterinary and outbreak response records in Ghana during 2005-2016, as well as livestock vaccination registers and population estimates of characteristically high-risk groups. To predict the environmental suitability of anthrax, we used an ensemble of random forest (RF models built using a combination of climatic and environmental factors. From 2005 through the first six months of 2016, there were 67 anthrax outbreaks (851 cases in livestock; outbreaks showed a seasonal peak during February through April and primarily involved cattle. There was a median of 19,709 vaccine doses [range: 0-175 thousand] administered annually. Results from the RF model suggest a marked ecological divide separating the broad areas of environmental suitability in northern Ghana from the southern part of the country. Increasing alkaline soil pH was associated with a higher probability of anthrax occurrence. We estimated 2.2 (95% CI: 2.0, 2.5 million livestock and 805 (95% CI: 519, 890 thousand low income rural livestock keepers were located in anthrax risk areas. Based on our estimates, the current anthrax vaccination efforts in Ghana cover a fraction of the livestock potentially at risk, thus control efforts should be focused on improving vaccine coverage among high risk groups.

  13. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1985, Part -2, Annex 2b, Environmental Radioactivity control, Control of air contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patic, D.; Smiljanic, R.; Zaric, M.; Savic, Z.; Ristic, D.

    1985-01-01

    During the period from November 1984 - November 1985, within the radioactivity control on the Vinca Institute site air contamination radioactive aerosol contents was measured. Control was done on 4 measuring stations, two in the Institute and two locations in the direction of wind i.e. Belgrade, 2 km and 7 km away from the Institute respectively. This position of the measuring locations enables control of radiation safety of the Institute, as well as environment of Belgrade taking into account the existence of the reactor and other possible contaminants in the Institute [sr

  14. Environmental and biotic controls over aboveground biomass throughout a tropical rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.P. Asner; R.F. Hughes; T.A. Varga; D.E. Knapp; T. Kennedy-Bowdoin

    2009-01-01

    The environmental and biotic factors affecting spatial variation in canopy three-dimensional (3-D) structure and aboveground tree biomass (AGB) are poorly understood in tropical rain forests. We combined field measurements and airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) to quantify 3-D structure and AGB across a 5,016 ha rain forest reserve on the...

  15. Measurement of semiochemical release rates with a dedicated environmental control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heping Zhu; Harold W. Thistle; Christopher M. Ranger; Hongping Zhou; Brian L. Strom

    2015-01-01

    Insect semiochemical dispensers are commonly deployed under variable environmental conditions over a specified period. Predictions of their longevity are hampered by a lack of methods to accurately monitor and predict how primary variables affect semiochemical release rate. A system was constructed to precisely determine semiochemical release rates under...

  16. Controlled dehydration of a biological sample using an alternative form of environmental SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neděla, Vilém

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 237, č. 1 (2010), s. 7-11 ISSN 0022-2720 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : biological sample * dehydration * environmental SEM * AQUASEM II * hydration system Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.872, year: 2010

  17. The method of multispectral image processing of phytoplankton processing for environmental control of water pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruk, Vasil; Kvaternyuk, Sergii; Yasynska, Victoria; Kozachuk, Anastasia; Kotyra, Andrzej; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Askarova, Nursanat

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents improvement of the method of environmental monitoring of water bodies based on bioindication by phytoplankton, which identify phytoplankton particles carried out on the basis of comparison array multispectral images using Bayesian classifier of solving function based on Mahalanobis distance. It allows to evaluate objectively complex anthropogenic and technological impacts on aquatic ecosystems.

  18. Determination of Technetium-99 in Environmental Samples by Solvent Extraction at Controlled Valence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Q.J.; Aarkrog, A.; Dahlgaard, H.

    1989-01-01

    Distribution coefficients of technetium and ruthenium are determined under different conditions with CCl4, cyclohexanone, and 5% tri-isooctylamine (TIOA)/xylene. A method for analyzing 99Tc in environmental samples has been developed by solvent extraction in which the valences of technetium...

  19. Liquefied gaseous fuels safety and environmental control assessment program: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    Progress is reported in research on the safety and environmental aspects of four principal liquefied gaseous material systems: liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), hydrogen, and ammonia. Each section of the report has been abstracted and indexed individually. (JGB)

  20. Quality control and the substantive influence of environmental impact assessment in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeloenen, Ismo

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the challenges concerning the quality assurance of environmental impact statements (EIS) in Finland and the European Union. Moreover, the linkage between environmental impact assessment and decision-making is examined from a legal point of view. In addition, the paper includes some comparative remarks concerning the content requirements of examination of alternatives. The study reveals that a significant problem of the Finnish EIA system is the lack of efficient access to a judicial procedure to challenge the quality and completeness of an EIS. Another pitfall is the fact that in certain permit procedures, environmental consideration is so limited that only a minor part of the EIA can be taken into account. In its current state, EIA legislation in the EU and in Finland does not guarantee that the assessment results filter into decision-making. From the national point of view, the shortcomings can be addressed by amending current legislation concerning licensing procedures so that authorities have the competence and the duty to take environmental matters widely into account in the permit consideration. At the European level, a legislative alternative could be to strengthen the substantive element of the EIA Directive (85/337/EEC). This would increase the weight of EIA related arguments in the national appellate procedures and contribute, in some cases significantly, to the substantive influence of EIA in decision-making

  1. Environmental and community controls on plant canopy chemistry in a Mediterranean-type ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Kyla M; Asner, Gregory P; Field, Christopher B

    2013-04-23

    Understanding how and why plant communities vary across space has long been a goal of ecology, yet parsing the relative importance of different influences has remained a challenge. Species-specific models are not generalizable, whereas broad plant functional type models lack important detail. Here we consider plant trait patterns at the local scale and ask whether plant chemical traits are more closely linked to environmental gradients or to changes in species composition. We used the visible-to-shortwave infrared (VSWIR) spectrometer of the Carnegie Airborne Observatory to develop maps of four plant chemical traits--leaf nitrogen per mass, leaf carbon per mass, leaf water concentration, and canopy water content--across a diverse Mediterranean-type ecosystem (Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, CA). For all four traits, plant community alone was the strongest predictor of trait variation (explaining 46-61% of the heterogeneity), whereas environmental gradients accounted for just one fourth of the variation in the traits. This result emphasizes the critical role that species composition plays in mediating nutrient and carbon cycling within and among different communities. Environmental filtering and limits to similarity can act strongly, simultaneously, in a spatially heterogeneous environment, but the local-scale environmental gradients alone cannot account for the variation across this landscape.

  2. Environmental isotopes as early warning tools to control the abstraction of deep ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, K.P.; Maloszewski, P.; Weise, S.M.; Loosli, H.H.

    1999-01-01

    Early warning system for the exploitation of ground water from the passive zone can not be based on the measurement of pollutant concentrations itself. The environmental tracer data are suggested to be used as indicators for changes in conservative mass transport processes from shallow to deep or very deep to deep ground waters

  3. Environmental controls over carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange of terrestrial vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Law, B.E.; Falge, E.; Gu, L.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare seasonal and annual estimates of CO2 and water vapor exchange across sites in forests, grasslands, crops, and tundra that are part of an international network called FLUXNET, and to investigating the responses of vegetation to environmental variables....

  4. Zinc or albendazole attenuates the progression of environmental enteropathy a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental enteropathy (EE) is a subclinical condition among children in the developing world, characterized by T-cell infiltration of the small-bowel mucosa and diffuse villous atrophy. EE leads to macronutrient and micronutrient malabsorption and stunting, with a resultant increased risk for in...

  5. Mineralogy of Air-Pollution-Control Residues from a Secondary Lead Smellter: Environmental Implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ettler, V.; Johan, Z.; Baronnet, A.; Jankovský, F.; Gilles, C.; Mihaljevič, M.; Šebek, O.; Strnad, L.; Bezdička, Petr

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 23 (2005), s. 9309-9316 ISSN 0013-936X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP205/01/D132 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : mineralogy * environmental aplications Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.054, year: 2005

  6. Progressing quality control in environmental impact assessment beyond legislative compliance: An evaluation of the IEMA EIA Quality Mark certification scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Alan, E-mail: alan.bond@uea.ac.uk [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia (United Kingdom); Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa); Fischer, Thomas B, E-mail: fischer@liverpool.ac.uk [School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Fothergill, Josh, E-mail: j.fothergill@iema.net [Institute of Environmental Management and Assessment, Lincoln (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-15

    The effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) systems is contingent on a number of control mechanisms: procedural; judicial; evaluative; public and government agency; professional; and development aid agency. If we assume that procedural and judicial controls are guaranteed in developed EIA systems, then progressing effectiveness towards an acceptable level depends on improving the performance of other control mechanisms over time. These other control mechanisms are either absent, or are typically centrally controlled, requiring public finances; this we argue is an unpopular model in times of greater Government austerity. Here we evaluate a market-based mechanism for improving the performance of evaluative and professional control mechanisms, the UK Institute of Environmental Management and Assessments' EIA Quality Mark. We do this by defining dimensions of effectiveness for the purposes of our evaluation, and by identifying international examples of the approaches taken to delivering the other control measures to validate the approach taken in the EIA Quality Mark. We then evaluate the EIA Quality Mark, when used in combination with legal procedures and an active judiciary, against the effectiveness dimensions and use time-series analysis of registrant data to examine its ability to progress practice. We conclude that the EIA Quality Mark has merit as a model for a market-based mechanism, and may prove a more financially palatable approach for delivering effective EIA in mature systems in countries that lack centralised agency oversight. It may, therefore, be of particular interest to some Member States of the European Union for ensuring forthcoming certification requirements stemming from recent amendments to the EIA Directive. - Highlights: • Quality control mechanisms in EIA are identified. • Effectiveness of EIA is conceptualised for evaluation purposes. • The UK IEMA EIA Quality Mark is introduced as a market-based mechanism. • The

  7. Progressing quality control in environmental impact assessment beyond legislative compliance: An evaluation of the IEMA EIA Quality Mark certification scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, Alan; Fischer, Thomas B; Fothergill, Josh

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) systems is contingent on a number of control mechanisms: procedural; judicial; evaluative; public and government agency; professional; and development aid agency. If we assume that procedural and judicial controls are guaranteed in developed EIA systems, then progressing effectiveness towards an acceptable level depends on improving the performance of other control mechanisms over time. These other control mechanisms are either absent, or are typically centrally controlled, requiring public finances; this we argue is an unpopular model in times of greater Government austerity. Here we evaluate a market-based mechanism for improving the performance of evaluative and professional control mechanisms, the UK Institute of Environmental Management and Assessments' EIA Quality Mark. We do this by defining dimensions of effectiveness for the purposes of our evaluation, and by identifying international examples of the approaches taken to delivering the other control measures to validate the approach taken in the EIA Quality Mark. We then evaluate the EIA Quality Mark, when used in combination with legal procedures and an active judiciary, against the effectiveness dimensions and use time-series analysis of registrant data to examine its ability to progress practice. We conclude that the EIA Quality Mark has merit as a model for a market-based mechanism, and may prove a more financially palatable approach for delivering effective EIA in mature systems in countries that lack centralised agency oversight. It may, therefore, be of particular interest to some Member States of the European Union for ensuring forthcoming certification requirements stemming from recent amendments to the EIA Directive. - Highlights: • Quality control mechanisms in EIA are identified. • Effectiveness of EIA is conceptualised for evaluation purposes. • The UK IEMA EIA Quality Mark is introduced as a market-based mechanism. • The

  8. Occupational and Environmental Risk Factors for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis in Egypt: A Multicenter Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NJ Awadalla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the advances in medical therapy and technology, the prognosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF remains poor and the need for disease prevention based on identifying the risk factors becomes mandatory. Occupational and environmental exposures were studied in several countries and found to play important role in the disease development. However, in Egypt, a little attention has been paid to study the effect of these factors in the disease development. Objective: To identify the occupational and environmental risk factors associated with the development of IPF in Egypt. Methods: A multicenter hospital-based case-control study was carried out in chest hospitals affiliated to three Egyptian cities—Cairo, Tanta and Mansoura. Subjects were 201 patients with confirmed IPF (cases and 205 age-, sex- and residence-matched controls. Data on occupational and environmental factors were obtained from a questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the independent risk factors of IPF in both sexes for single factors with adjustment for age, residence and smoking status. Results: Compared with the controls, the risk of IPF in male workers was observed to increase significantly in chemical and petrochemical industries and carpentry and wood working (OR=2.56, 95% CI: 1.02–7.01, and with occupational exposures to wood dust and wood preservatives. Among female workers, a significant increase was observed in farming (OR=3.34, 95% CI: 1.17–10.12, raising birds and occupational exposures to animal feeds, products and dusts and pesticides. Risk of IPF decreased significantly in male workers and insignificantly among female workers in sales and clerical related activities. The environmental exposures to birds and cats were significantly associated with elevated risk of IPF development in both sexes. Conclusion: In Egypt, farming, raising birds and wood working are important risk factors for the development of

  9. Research on Environmental Adjustment of Cloud Ranch Based on BP Neural Network PID Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jinzhi; Xiang, Wei; Zhao, Lin; Wu, Jianbo; Huang, Lianzhen; Tu, Qinggang; Zhao, Heming

    2018-01-01

    In order to make the intelligent ranch management mode replace the traditional artificial one gradually, this paper proposes a pasture environment control system based on cloud server, and puts forward the PID control algorithm based on BP neural network to control temperature and humidity better in the pasture environment. First, to model the temperature and humidity (controlled object) of the pasture, we can get the transfer function. Then the traditional PID control algorithm and the PID one based on BP neural network are applied to the transfer function. The obtained step tracking curves can be seen that the PID controller based on BP neural network has obvious superiority in adjusting time and error, etc. This algorithm, calculating reasonable control parameters of the temperature and humidity to control environment, can be better used in the cloud service platform.

  10. Urban resident attitudes toward rodents, rodent control products, and environmental effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodent control in urban areas can result in the inadvertent mortality of non-target species (e.g., bobcats). However, there is little detailed information about rodent control practices of urban residents. Our objective was to evaluate urban rodent control behaviors in two area...

  11. 75 FR 69396 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Arundo donax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... Biological Control Agent for Arundo donax AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... alternatives to, the release of Arundo scale into the continental United States for use as a biological control... a biological control agent to reduce the severity of Arundo donax infestations. A. donax is a highly...

  12. Approaches for controlling air pollutants and their environmental impacts generated from coal-based electricity generation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Changqing; Hong, Jinglan; Ren, Yixin; Wang, Qingsong; Yuan, Xueliang

    2015-08-01

    This study aims at qualifying air pollutants and environmental impacts generated from coal-based power plants and providing useful information for decision makers on the management of coal-based power plants in China. Results showed that approximately 9.03, 54.95, 62.08, and 12.12% of the national carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter emissions, respectively, in 2011were generated from coal-based electricity generation. The air pollutants were mainly generated from east China because of the well-developed economy and energy-intensive industries in the region. Coal-washing technology can simply and significantly reduce the environmental burden because of the relativity low content of coal gangue and sulfur in washed coal. Optimizing the efficiency of raw materials and energy consumption is additional key factor to reduce the potential environmental impacts. In addition, improving the efficiency of air pollutants (e.g., dust, mercury, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) control system and implementing the strict requirements on air pollutants for power plants are important ways for reducing the potential environmental impacts of coal-based electricity generation in China.

  13. Impact of applying the more stringent validation criteria of the revised European Society of Hypertension International Protocol 2010 on earlier validation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou, George S; Karpettas, Nikos; Atkins, Neil; O'Brien, Eoin

    2011-04-01

    Since 2002 when the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol (ESH-IP) was published it has become the preferred protocol for validating blood pressure monitors worldwide. In 2010, a revised version of the ESH-IP with more stringent criteria was published. This study assesses the impact of applying the revised ESH-IP criteria. A systematic literature review of ESH-IP studies reported between 2002 and 2010 was conducted. The impact of applying the ESH-IP 2010 criteria retrospectively on the data reported in these studies was investigated. The performance of the oscillometric devices in the last decade was also investigated on the basis of the ESH-IP criteria. Among 119 published studies, 112 with sufficient data were analyzed. According to ESH-IP 2002, the test device failed in 19 studies, whereas by applying the ESH-IP 2010 criteria in 28 additional studies increased the failure rate from 17 to 42%. Of these 28 studies, in 20 (71%) the test device failed at part 1 (accuracy per measurement) and in 22 (79%) at part 2 (accuracy per subject). Most of the failures involved the '5 mmHg or less' criterion. In the last decade there has been a consistent trend toward improved performance of oscillometric devices assessed on the basis of the ESH-IP criteria. This retrospective analysis shows that the stricter revised ESH-IP 2010 criteria will noticeably increase the failure rate of devices being validated. Oscillometric devices are becoming more accurate, and the revised ESH-IP by acknowledging this trend will allow more accurate devices to enter the market.

  14. Study of the Ubiquitous Hog Farm System Using Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring and Facilities Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghwan Hwang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Many hog farmers are now suffering from high pig mortality rates due to various wasting diseases and increased breeding costs, etc. It is therefore necessary for hog farms to implement systematic and scientific pig production technology to increase productivity and produce high quality pork in order to solve these problems. In this study, we describe such a technology by suggesting a ubiquitous hog farm system which applies WSN (Wireless Sensor Network technology to the pig industry. We suggest that a WSN and CCTV (Closed-circuit television should be installed on hog farms to collect environmental and image information which shall then help producers not only in monitoring the hog farm via the Web from outside the farm, but also facilitate the control of hog farm facilities in remote locations. In addition, facilities can be automatically controlled based on breeding environment parameters which are already set up and a SMS notice service to notify of deviations shall provide users with convenience. Hog farmers may increase production and improve pork quality through this ubiquitous hog farm system and prepare a database with information collected from environmental factors and the hog farm control devices, which is expected to provide information needed to design and implement suitable control strategies for hog farm operation.

  15. Environmental factors in infancy and ulcerative colitis in the Central South of Chile: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneberger, Anja; Weiss, Eduardo Hebel; Calvo, Mario; Torres, Lilibeth; Wagner, Johanna; Kabesch, Michael; Radon, Katja

    2011-10-01

    Evidence for the role of the hygiene hypothesis and the development of Ulcerative Colitis (UC) is unclear. We aimed to explore the association between environmental factors in infancy and UC. A hospital-based case-control study (52 UC cases, response: 77%, 174 age- , sex and place of living matched controls, response: 62%) was carried out in the Central South of Chile in 2009/2010. Patients or parents underwent a personal interview about early life experiences. High paternal education (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR): 2.1; 95% CI: 1.0-4.5) as proxy for socioeconomic status was positively associated with case status in the final multivariate logistic regression model. Likewise, having older siblings was a risk factor for UC (aOR: 2.2; 95%CI: 1.1.-4.4). The importance for some early life environmental factors in the development of UC was established. However, the role of the hygiene hypothesis could not be confirmed for all environmental factors. Copyright © 2011 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A definition of normovolaemia and consequences for cardiovascular control during orthostatic and environmental stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truijen, Jasper; Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2010-01-01

    that a given central blood volume may be associated with markedly different central vascular pressures. The central blood volume varies with posture and, consequently, stroke volume and cardiac output (Q) are affected, but with the increased central blood volume during head-down tilt, stroke volume and Q do...... not increase further indicating that in the supine resting position the heart operates on the plateau of the Frank-Starling curve which, therefore, may be taken as a functional definition of normovolaemia. Since the capacity of the vascular system surpasses the blood volume, orthostatic and environmental...... stress including bed rest/microgravity, exercise and training, thermal loading, illness, and trauma/haemorrhage is likely to restrict venous return and Q. Consequently the cardiovascular responses are determined primarily by their effect on the central blood volume. Thus during environmental stress, flow...

  17. Temperature effect on rose downy mildew development under environmental controlled conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Filgueira D., Juan José; Zambrano, Angélica

    2014-01-01

    The rose downy mildew disease, caused by Peronospora sparsa Berkeley, is one of the most important that affect rose crops in Colombia. To manage this disease, flower growers must deal with high-costs due to the excessive application of fungicides, but without good results. Studies on P. sparsa behavior have shown its narrow relationship with environmental conditions. In this study, the temperature effect was evaluated during the infection and sporulation of P. sparsa in Charlotte leaflets, a ...

  18. Evaluation of the performance characteristics of radon and radon-daughter concentration measurement devices under controlled environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, M.D.

    1989-04-01

    The Technical Measurements Center (TMC) conducted a study to expose 10 radon and 7 radon-daughter concentration measurement devices in the DOE/GJPO Radon/Radon-Daughter Environmental Chamber for a series of 24 controlled-environment tests. The tests evaluated the devices' response to temperature, relative humidity, dew point, condensation-nuclei concentration, radon-daughter/radon equilibrium ratio, and non-uniform radon and radon-daughter concentration. Devices were evaluated for linear response as a function of concentration. In addition to response to environmental parameters, the evaluation included determining the utility of the devices in providing reasonable assurance of compliance with the radon and radon-daughter concentration standards for DOE remedial action programs. This reasonable assurance criterion is based on a coefficient of variation of 25 percent for devices deployed for year-long measurements and a coefficient of variation of 18 percent for devices deployed for intermittent sampling. 39 refs., 65 figs., 33 tabs

  19. Control system and environmental parameters monitoring of the Tandetron Accelerator clean room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia V, M.E.; Garcia H, J.M.; Flores M, J.

    2007-01-01

    A control system and monitoring of humidity and temperature implemented by means of a system based on a microcontroller, an intelligent sensor and a stage of power for the actuators handling is described. The change of the levels of reference of the control system and the monitoring of the physical controlled variables can be carried out from any connected computer to a local net or Internet. (Author)

  20. Environmental optimal control strategies based on plant canopy photosynthesis responses and greenhouse climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lujuan; Xie, Songhe; Cui, Jiantao; Liu, Tao

    2006-11-01

    It is the essential goal of intelligent greenhouse environment optimal control to enhance income of cropper and energy save. There were some characteristics such as uncertainty, imprecision, nonlinear, strong coupling, bigger inertia and different time scale in greenhouse environment control system. So greenhouse environment optimal control was not easy and especially model-based optimal control method was more difficult. So the optimal control problem of plant environment in intelligent greenhouse was researched. Hierarchical greenhouse environment control system was constructed. In the first level data measuring was carried out and executive machine was controlled. Optimal setting points of climate controlled variable in greenhouse was calculated and chosen in the second level. Market analysis and planning were completed in third level. The problem of the optimal setting point was discussed in this paper. Firstly the model of plant canopy photosynthesis responses and the model of greenhouse climate model were constructed. Afterwards according to experience of the planting expert, in daytime the optimal goals were decided according to the most maximal photosynthesis rate principle. In nighttime on plant better growth conditions the optimal goals were decided by energy saving principle. Whereafter environment optimal control setting points were computed by GA. Compared the optimal result and recording data in real system, the method is reasonable and can achieve energy saving and the maximal photosynthesis rate in intelligent greenhouse

  1. A review of the environmental survivability of telerobotic control sensor systems for use in nuclear waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, D.E.; Burks, B.L.

    1994-05-01

    This report was prepared by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP). During the next few years field deployment of remotely operated systems in nuclear waste cleanup operations will increase dramatically as DOE strives to efficiently and safely remediate the many waste storage sites. Typically, the most fragile components in remote systems are the sensors that provide feedback to the operators or to computer control algorithms. The purpose of this review is to determine the availability of environmentally hardened sensors to support control of a manipulator or vehicle system in a waste tank environment. The emphasis of the report is on the environmental ruggedness of currently available sensors. For the purpose of this review a set of nominal requirements for survivability were adopted conditions in the single-shell tanks at Hanford. This report is designed to be a practical guide to the state of the art in commercially available environmentally tolerant sensors for use with robotic systems. It is neither intended to be an exhaustive review of the technical literature on potential measurement techniques nor a complete physical review of the functioning of particular sensor systems. This report is intended to be a living document. As additional, corrected, or updated information is received from sensor manufacturers, it will be incorporated into the report database. The physical report will then be periodically revised and released in updated format. The authors wish to apologize to any sources of environmentally hardened sensors that were omitted during this review and encourage submission of new or updated data

  2. Final environmental impact statement for standards for the control of byproduct materials from uranium ore processing (40 CFR 192). Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency is establishing public health and environmental standards (40 CFR 192) for uranium and thorium mill tailings at licensed mill sites under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (PL. 95-604). Mills are currently located in Colorado, New Mexico, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Washington and Wyoming. These standards are issued to reduce and control the hazards associated with uranium and thorium mill Tailings. Controls are required both during the operational period of mills and for disposal of the tailings piles, to assure environmentally sound, long-term protection of public health and stabilization of the tailings

  3. Possible environmental, occupational, and other etiologic factors for Parkinson's disease: a case-control study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, A; Hellenbrand, W; Robra, B P; Vieregge, P; Nischan, P; Joerg, J; Oertel, W H; Ulm, G; Schneider, E

    1996-05-01

    In a case-control study, we investigated the possible etiologic relevance to Parkinson's disease (PD) of rural factors such as farming activity, pesticide exposures, well-water drinking, and animal contacts; toxicologic exposures such as wood preservatives, heavy metals, and solvents; general anesthesia; head trauma; and differences in the intrauterine environment. We recruited 380 patients in nine German clinics, 379 neighborhood control subjects, and 376 regional control subjects in the largest case-control study investigating such factors and collected data in structured personal interviews using conditional logistic regression to control for educational status and cigarette smoking. The latter was strongly inversely associated with PD. There were significantly elevated odds ratios (OR) for pesticide use, in particular, for organochlorines and alkylated phosphates, but no association was present between PD and other rural factors. A significantly elevated OR was present for exposure to wood preservatives. Subjective assessment by the probands indicated that exposure to some heavy metals, solvents, exhaust fumes, and carbon monoxide was significantly more frequent among patients than control subjects, but this was not confirmed by a parallel assessment of job histories according to a job exposure matrix. Patients had undergone general anesthesia and suffered severe head trauma more often than control subjects, but a dose-response gradient was not present. Patients reported a significantly larger number of amalgam-filled teeth before their illness than control subjects. The frequency of premature births and birth order did not differ between patients and control subjects. Patients reported significantly more relatives affected with PD than control subjects. These results support a role for environmental and genetic factors in the etiology of PD.

  4. Tenth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference: Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: high efficiency preparation; advanced physical coal cleaning; superclean emission systems; air toxics and mercury measurement and control workshop; and mercury measurement and control workshop. Selected papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. Weed control in the public area: combining environmental and economic targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempenaar, C.; Saft, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Herbicide weed control on pavements has the lowest direct costs to control weeds compared to available non-chemical methods. However, side effects of herbicides on pavements (e.g. run-off to surface water) can be large when used without special precautions. In this paper data are shown on costs and

  6. Biomass fueled fluidized bed combustion: atmospheric emissions, emission control devices and environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, S.W.; Jenkins, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    Fluidized bed combustors have become the technological choice for power generation from biomass fuels in California. Atmospheric emission data obtained during compliance tests are compared for five operating 18 to 32 MW fluidized bed combustion power plants. The discussion focuses on the impact of fuel properties and boiler design criteria on the emission of pollutants, the efficiency of pollution control devices, and regulations affecting atmospheric emissions. Stack NO x emission factors are shown not to vary substantially among the five plants which burn fuels with nitrogen concentrations between 0.3 and 1.1% dry weight. All facilities use at least one particular control device, but not all use limestone injection or other control techniques for sulfur and chlorine. The lack of control for chlorine suggests the potential for emission of toxic species due to favorable temperature conditions existing in the particulate control devices, particularly when burning fuels containing high concentrations of chlorine. (Author)

  7. Environmental control of plant nuclear gene expression by chloroplast redox signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette ePfalz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant photosynthesis takes place in specialised cell organelles, the chloroplasts, which perform all essential steps of this process. The proteins involved in photosynthesis are encoded by genes located on the plastid and nuclear genomes. Proper function and regulation of light harvesting and energy fixation thus requires a tight coordination of the gene expression machineries in the two genetic compartments. This is achieved by a bi-directional exchange of information between nucleus and plastids. Signals emerging from plastids report the functional and developmental state of the organelle to the nucleus and initiate distinct nuclear gene expression profiles, which trigger responses that support or improve plastid functions. Recent research indicated that this signalling is absolutely essential for plant growth and development. Reduction/oxidation (redox signals from photosynthesis are key players in this information network since they do report functional disturbances in photosynthesis, the primary energy source of plants. Such disturbances are caused by environmental fluctuations for instance in illumination, temperature or water availability. These environmental changes affect the linear electron flow of photosynthesis and result in changes of the redox state of the components involved (e.g. the plastoquinone pool or coupled to it (e.g. the thioredoxin pool. Thus, the changes in redox state directly reflect the environmental impact and serve as immediate plastidial signals to the nucleus. The triggered responses range from counterbalancing reactions within the physiological range up to severe stress responses including cell death. This review focuses on physiological redox signals from photosynthetic electron transport, their relation to the environment, potential transduction pathways to the nucleus and their impact on nuclear gene expression.

  8. Drifts and Environmental Disturbances in Atomic Clock Subsystems: Quantifying Local Oscillator, Control Loop, and Ion Resonance Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzer, Daphna G; Diener, William A; Murphy, David W; Rao, Shanti R; Tjoelker, Robert L

    2017-03-01

    Linear ion trap frequency standards are among the most stable continuously operating frequency references and clocks. Depending on the application, they have been operated with a variety of local oscillators (LOs), including quartz ultrastable oscillators, hydrogen-masers, and cryogenic sapphire oscillators. The short-, intermediate-, and long-term stability of the frequency output is a complicated function of the fundamental performances, the time dependence of environmental disturbances, the atomic interrogation algorithm, the implemented control loop, and the environmental sensitivity of the LO and the atomic system components. For applications that require moving these references out of controlled lab spaces and into less stable environments, such as fieldwork or spaceflight, a deeper understanding is needed of how disturbances at different timescales impact the various subsystems of the clock and ultimately the output stability. In this paper, we analyze which perturbations have an impact and to what degree. We also report on a computational model of a control loop, which keeps the microwave source locked to the ion resonance. This model is shown to agree with laboratory measurements of how well the feedback removes various disturbances and also with a useful analytic approach we developed for predicting these impacts.

  9. Environmental control by means of studying the natural areas with nuclear physics methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyarkina, A.P.; Glukhov, G.G.; Rezchikov, V.I.; Shelud'ko, S.I.

    1988-01-01

    Element composition of precipitation accumulated in natural areas (snow, peat) is investigated by neutron activation technique using nuclear reactor. Content of microelements (Fe, Co, Sc, Au, Hg, Sb, Br, Na) is determined in both maximal contamination industrial area and at a distance more, than 40 km from the area. Snow cover and peat occurrence are shown to be convenient substrates to investigate contamination of the industrial centre vicinities in space and time. Standard development of MPC (maximum permissible concentration) contents of industrial dust ingredients, especially toxic ones, in these substrates allows to solve quickly many problems raised by environmental monitoring. 10 refs.; 2 tabs

  10. Environmental control and intersite variations of phenolics in Betula nana in tundra ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graglia, Enrico; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Shaver, Gaius R.

    2001-01-01

    to a decade of warming, fertilization and shading. • Nitrogen and a number of phenolics, including condensed and hydrolysable tannins, flavonoids, phenolic glucosides and chlorogenic acids, were analysed in B. nana leaves. • Phenolic concentrations showed marked between-site differences (e.g. condensed...... tannins were 50% higher at Abisko than at Toolik); responses to the environmental manipulations were more pronounced at Toolik compared with Abisko. Warming increased condensed tannins and decreased hydrolysable tannins at Toolik, but had no effect at Abisko, whereas fertilization and shading generally...

  11. Family-environmental factors associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Chinese children: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianming du Prel Carroll

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, affecting an estimated 5 to 12% of school-aged children worldwide. From 15 to 19 million Chinese children suffer from ADHD. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between family-environmental factors and ADHD in a sample of Chinese children.A pair-matched, case-control study was conducted with 161 ADHD children and 161 non-ADHD children of matching age and sex, all from 5-18 years of age. The ADHD subjects and the normal controls were all evaluated via structured diagnostic interviews. We examined the association between family-environmental factors and ADHD using the conditional multiple logistic regression with backward stepwise selection to predict the associated factors of ADHD.Having experienced emotional abuse and being a single child were both significant factors associated with children diagnosed with ADHD. ADHD subjects were more likely to have suffered from emotional abuse (OR = 11.09, 95% CI = 2.15-57.29, P = 0.004 and have been a single child in the family (OR = 6.32, 95% CI = 2.09-19.14, P = 0.001 when compared to normal controls. The results were not modified by other confounding factors.Our findings provide evidence that family-environmental factors are associated with ADHD among children in China. These findings, if confirmed by future research, may help to decrease ADHD by increasing the awareness of the effects of childhood emotional abuse.

  12. Environmental Assessment for Toxecon Retrofit for Mercury and Multi-Pollutant Control, Presque Isle Power Plant, Marquette, Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2003-09-25

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluates environmental issues associated with constructing and operating an integrated emissions control system proposed by We Energies and its project partners with cost-shared funding support by DOE. The proposed project would be demonstrated at the existing 90-MW Units 7, 8, and 9 of We Energies' coal-fired Presque Isle Power Plant in Marquette, Michigan. The commercial-scale demonstrate would allow utilities to make decisions regarding the integrated emissions control system as a viable commercial option. DOE's share of the funding for the 5-year demonstration project would be about $25 million, while $25 million would also be provided by We Energies and its project partners. This project was selected by DOE under the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) for negotiation of a cooperative agreement to demonstrate the integration of technologies to reduce emissions of mercury (Hg) and particulate matter, as well as potentially control sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) emissions. DOE's decision is whether or not to fund the project. The EA evaluates the principal environmental issues, including air quality, waste management, and traffic, that could result from construction and operation of the proposed project. The EA also considers two reasonably foreseeable scenarios that could result from the no-action alternative in which DOE would not provide cost-shared funding for the proposed project. Key findings include that potential air quality impacts resulting from the proposed project would generally be beneficial because plantwide air emissions would decrease or continue at the same level. The decrease in stack exit temperature would decrease the plume rise, which could result in increased downwind ground-level concentrations of those air pollutants experience little or no decrease in stack emissions. However, results of air dispersion modeling indicated that no

  13. Pedestrian road traffic injuries in urban Peruvian children and adolescents: case control analyses of personal and environmental risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Donroe

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Child pedestrian road traffic injuries (RTIs are an important cause of death and disability in poorer nations, however RTI prevention strategies in those countries largely draw upon studies conducted in wealthier countries. This research investigated personal and environmental risk factors for child pedestrian RTIs relevant to an urban, developing world setting.This is a case control study of personal and environmental risk factors for child pedestrian RTIs in San Juan de Miraflores, Lima, Perú. The analysis of personal risk factors included 100 cases of serious pedestrian RTIs and 200 age and gender matched controls. Demographic, socioeconomic, and injury data were collected. The environmental risk factor study evaluated vehicle and pedestrian movement and infrastructure at the sites in which 40 of the above case RTIs occurred and 80 control sites.After adjustment, factors associated with increased risk of child pedestrian RTIs included high vehicle volume (OR 7.88, 95%CI 1.97-31.52, absent lane demarcations (OR 6.59, 95% CI 1.65-26.26, high vehicle speed (OR 5.35, 95%CI 1.55-18.54, high street vendor density (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.01-1.55, and more children living in the home (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.00-1.56. Protective factors included more hours/day spent in school (OR 0.52, 95%CI 0.33-0.82 and years of family residence in the same home (OR 0.97, 95%CI 0.95-0.99.Reducing traffic volumes and speeds, limiting the number of street vendors on a given stretch of road, and improving lane demarcation should be evaluated as components of child pedestrian RTI interventions in poorer countries.

  14. Chemical and environmental vector control as a contribution to the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis on the Indian subcontinent: cluster randomized controlled trials in Bangladesh, India and Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Pradeep

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bangladesh, India and Nepal are working towards the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis (VL by 2015. In 2005 the World Health Organization/Training in Tropical Diseases launched an implementation research programme to support integrated vector management for the elimination of VL from Bangladesh, India and Nepal. The programme is conducted in different phases, from proof-of-concept to scaling up intervention. This study was designed in order to evaluate the efficacy of the three different interventions for VL vector management: indoor residual spraying (IRS; long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLIN; and environmental modification (EVM through plastering of walls with lime or mud. Methods Using a cluster randomized controlled trial we compared three vector control interventions with a control arm in 96 clusters (hamlets or neighbourhoods in each of the 4 study sites: Bangladesh (one, India (one and Nepal (two. In each site four villages with high reported VL incidences were included. In each village six clusters and in each cluster five households were randomly selected for sand fly collection on two consecutive nights. Control and intervention clusters were matched with average pre-intervention vector densities. In each site six clusters were randomly assigned to each of the following interventions: indoor residual spraying (IRS; long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLIN; environmental management (EVM or control. All the houses (50-100 in each intervention cluster underwent the intervention measures. A reduction of intra-domestic sand fly densities measured in the study households by overnight US Centres for Disease Prevention and Control light trap captures (that is the number of sand flies per trap per night was the main outcome measure. Results IRS, and to a lesser extent EVM and LLINs, significantly reduced sand fly densities for at least 5 months in the study households irrespective of type of walls or whether or

  15. Optimization of technology and boiler control to improve economical and environmental parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stosek, V.; Neuman, P.; Mechura, V.; Masek, Z. [EGU Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    For cutting emissions NO{sub x} and CO in the Czech Republic are mostly applied primary measurers. At the same time measuring and control systems are innovated. Analog control systems are replaced by digital and computer network is developed in the power energy generation. It enables application of sophisticated information and diagnostic systems. It is shown how the EGU designs modification of technology equipment, measurement and control systems to increase efficiency and cut NO{sub x} emission levels at 110 MWe units at Prunerov power station and 200 MWe units at Tusimice before and after reconstruction are presented.

  16. Waterborne Electrospinning of Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) by Control of Environmental Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolaert, Ella; Ryckx, Paulien; Geltmeyer, Jozefien; Maji, Samarendra; Van Steenberge, Paul H M; D'hooge, Dagmar R; Hoogenboom, Richard; De Clerck, Karen

    2017-07-19

    With increasing toxicity and environmental concerns, electrospinning from water, i.e., waterborne electrospinning, is crucial to further exploit the resulting nanofiber potential. Most water-soluble polymers have the inherent limitation of resulting in water-soluble nanofibers, and a tedious chemical cross-linking step is required to reach stable nanofibers. An interesting alternative route is the use of thermoresponsive polymers, such as poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM), as they are water-soluble beneath their lower critical solution temperature (LCST) allowing low-temperature electrospinning while the obtained nanofibers are water-stable above the LCST. Moreover, PNIPAM nanofibers show major potential to many application fields, including biomedicine, as they combine the well-known on-off switching behavior of PNIPAM, thanks to its LCST, with the unique properties of nanofibers. In the present work, based on dedicated turbidity and rheological measurements, optimal combinations of polymer concentration, environmental temperature, and relative humidity are identified allowing, for the first time, the production of continuous, bead-free PNIPAM nanofibers electrospun from water. More specifically, PNIPAM gelation was found to occur well below its LCST at higher polymer concentrations leading to a temperature regime where the viscosity significantly increases without compromising the polymer solubility. This opens up the ecological, water-based production of uniform PNIPAM nanofibers that are stable in water at temperatures above PNIPAM's LCST, making them suitable for various applications, including drug delivery and switchable cell culture substrates.

  17. The use of ion chromatography in environmental and process control in the nuclear industry. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, M.M.

    1996-01-01

    Ion chromatography has become the method choice for determining sub ppb for inorganic anions and cations, such as chloride, sulfide, fluoride, sodium, potassium, and ammonium, in aqueous matrices. Steam generators in pressurized water reactors nuclear power plants occasionally experience tubing degradation by a variety of corrosion related mechanisms which depends on water chemistry. Ion chromatography is also used in other environmental applications such as air pollution, industrial hygiene, drinking water quality, and industrial waste treatment. In this paper, several methods of separation and detection are present and also a number of examples of samples for various types of water are shown. The examples will include sub ppb amounts of chloride, sulfate, sodium, potassium, and ammonium in high purity turbine steam. Testing of chlorinated drinking water for inorganic anions including chlorite, chloride chlorate nitrite, nitrate as other organic anions using chemically suppressed conductivity. The role of chemical suppression is discussed. The analysis of ppb levels of transition moles in high purity water using ion chromatography with post column derivatization and UV detection are reviewed. Testing of disinfected drinking water with ozone for bromate, the detection of cyanide in waste after acid digestion, and the detection of highly toxic hexavalent in the presence of trivalent chromium is discussed. A fast method for the analysis of rain water for anions and cations is described. The presentation will also show new method (chelation ion chromatography) which enables ppb levels of heavy metals to be determined as pollutants in difficult environmental matrices such seawater, and oyster tissue. 4 figs

  18. The use of ion chromatography in environmental and process control in the nuclear industry. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, M M [Ultra Tech Inc, 28 Teiba St. Dokki-Cairo, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Ion chromatography has become the method choice for determining sub ppb for inorganic anions and cations, such as chloride, sulfide, fluoride, sodium, potassium, and ammonium, in aqueous matrices. Steam generators in pressurized water reactors nuclear power plants occasionally experience tubing degradation by a variety of corrosion related mechanisms which depends on water chemistry. Ion chromatography is also used in other environmental applications such as air pollution, industrial hygiene, drinking water quality, and industrial waste treatment. In this paper, several methods of separation and detection are present and also a number of examples of samples for various types of water are shown. The examples will include sub ppb amounts of chloride, sulfate, sodium, potassium, and ammonium in high purity turbine steam. Testing of chlorinated drinking water for inorganic anions including chlorite, chloride chlorate nitrite, nitrate as other organic anions using chemically suppressed conductivity. The role of chemical suppression is discussed. The analysis of ppb levels of transition moles in high purity water using ion chromatography with post column derivatization and UV detection are reviewed. Testing of disinfected drinking water with ozone for bromate, the detection of cyanide in waste after acid digestion, and the detection of highly toxic hexavalent in the presence of trivalent chromium is discussed. A fast method for the analysis of rain water for anions and cations is described. The presentation will also show new method (chelation ion chromatography) which enables ppb levels of heavy metals to be determined as pollutants in difficult environmental matrices such seawater, and oyster tissue. 4 figs.

  19. Environmental radiometric control at the vicinity of the Instituto de Energia Atomica, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedani, M.I.

    1979-01-01

    Optimized derived limits (ODL) for gaseous and liquid wastes released to the environment of Instituto de Energia Atomica (IEA) following the ICRP's recommendations were determined. Techniques for routine environmental monitoring were implanted in order to ensure that these limits be respected. The treatment of liquid wastes which gives rise to the optimized discharge resulted from cost-benefit analysis, is the elimination of medium half-lived radioisotopes in the soil. The ODL value for iodine-131 is 50mCi/y and 7,5 Ci/y for gaseous and liquid effluents, respectively. The ODL values for other radionuclides of radiosanitary interest in liquid waste also determined. The most appropriate environmental monitoring techniques for IEA were studied and parameters of radioactive material dilution in the atmosphere and water courses were determined. Sample collection points were chosen to obtain the most representative data for the evaluation of radioactive dose in the critical group and the detriment produced in the population. Detection system and methods were calibrated and standardized for the determination of radionuclides in wastes released from IEA in order to evaluate their concentrations in the main transference pathways. (Author) [pt

  20. Controlling corrosion of carbon steel in cooling water applications -- A novel environmentally acceptable approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, G.; Miller, A.E.

    1998-01-01

    Cr(VI) containing salts have been in use for a long time as one of the best inhibitors for minimizing corrosion of carbon steel in cooling water applications. Irrespective of the type of system, i.e., once through, open recirculating, pressurized water reactor power plants, etc. and irrespective of the conductivity of water, i.e., low or high, Cr(VI) salts always have proven to be very effective inhibitors. However, the toxicity of chromate compounds and the consequential disposal difficulties have made it essential to look for an alternate treatment. It is however, imperative that the alternate system must provide the matching efficiency as that provided by Cr(VI) salts and that it should also be easy to maintain and be economical. While many researchers have been trying to find a suitable chromate free inhibitor system, the present authors have explored the possibility of formulating an inhibitor system containing Cr(VI) at a concentration below the safety limit for drinking water as suggested by EPA/OSHA. This is based on the assumption that EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) and OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) only regulate the discharge and exposure limits of chromium above which it is found harmful. Therefore, any new formulation containing Cr(VI) well below these safety limits should be acceptable environmentally. If such a formulation can perform similar to ones with high concentration of Cr(VI), it will also be commercially acceptable. The authors will discuss the preliminary results of such a strategy