WorldWideScience

Sample records for stringed musical instrument

  1. Experimenting with String Musical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    What follows are several investigations involving string musical instruments developed for and used in a "Science of Sound & Light" course. The experiments make use of a guitar, orchestral string instruments and data collection and graphing software. They are designed to provide students with concrete examples of how mathematical formulae, when…

  2. 75 FR 61177 - In the Matter of Certain Stringed Musical Instruments and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Stringed Musical Instruments and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission... States after importation of certain stringed musical instruments and components thereof by reason of... (``Floyd Rose Marketing''); Davitt & Hanser Music Co. d/b/a HHI of Hebron, KY; (``Davitt''); Ping Well...

  3. The Science of String Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Rossing, Thomas D

    2010-01-01

    Many performing musicians, as well as instrument builders, are coming to realize the importance of understanding the science of musical instruments. This book explains how string instruments produce sound. It presents basic ideas in simple language, and it also translates some more sophisticated ideas in non-technical language. It should be of interest to performers, researchers, and instrument makers alike.

  4. Are Stopped Strings Preferred in Sad Music?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Huron

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available String instruments may be played either with open strings (where the string vibrates between the bridge and a hard wooden nut or with stopped strings (where the string vibrates between the bridge and a performer's finger pressed against the fingerboard. Compared with open strings, stopped strings permit the use of vibrato and exhibit a darker timbre. Inspired by research on the timbre of sad speech, we test whether there is a tendency to use stopped strings in nominally sad music. Specifically, we compare the proportion of potentially open-to-stopped strings in a sample of slow, minor-mode movements with matched major-mode movements. By way of illustration, a preliminary analysis of Samuel Barber's famous Adagio from his Opus 11 string quartet shows that the selected key (B-flat minor provides the optimum key for minimizing open string tones. However, examination of a broader controlled sample of quartet movements by Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven failed to exhibit the conjectured relationship. Instead, major-mode movements were found to avoid possible open strings more than slow minor-mode movements.

  5. Micro-X-Ray Fluorescence and the Old Masters . Non-destructive in situ characterisation of the varnish of historical Low Countries stringed musical instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Francesco; Saverwyns, Steven; Van Bos, Marina; Chillura Martino, Delia Francesca; Ceulemans, Anne-Emmanuelle; de Valck, Joris; Caponetti, Eugenio

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, a growing attention has been addressed to the study of the varnish from early musical instruments. The surfaces of nine historical Low Countries stringed musical instruments from the collection of the "Musical Instruments Museum" in Brussels were non-destructively analysed by in situ micro-X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy in dispersive mode. It was found that the main pigments dispersed in the varnish were iron- and manganese-based earths. The presence of a chromium-based pigment in one of the analysed instruments makes it appreciably different from the others. Other findings were discussed and compared with previously published results. The collection of such information plays a relevant role in the recovery of the applied formulations that is an interesting issue for conservators, luthiers and art historians.

  6. Non-invasive identification of organic materials in historical stringed musical instruments by reflection infrared spectroscopy: a methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invernizzi, Claudia; Daveri, Alessia; Vagnini, Manuela; Malagodi, Marco

    2017-05-01

    The analysis of historical musical instruments is becoming more relevant and the interest is increasingly moving toward the non-invasive reflection FTIR spectroscopy, especially for the analysis of varnishes. In this work, a specific infrared reflectance spectral library of organic compounds was created with the aim of identifying musical instrument materials in a totally non-invasive way. The analyses were carried out on pure organic compounds, as bulk samples and laboratory wooden models, to evaluate the diagnostic reflection mid-infrared (MIR) bands of proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, and resins by comparing reflection spectra before and after the KK correction. This methodological approach was applied to real case studies represented by four Stradivari violins and a Neapolitan mandolin.

  7. Evaluating musical instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D. Murray

    2014-01-01

    Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians

  8. Evaluating musical instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D. Murray

    2014-04-01

    Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians.

  9. Virginia Apgar and string music

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios-Sánchez, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    Virginia Apgar (1909-1974) is one of the most recognized American doctors, worldwide known by his contribution as the developer of the "Apgar test" a method used for the evaluation of newborns all over the world. She had many interests. She was anesthesiologist, a brilliant teacher and researcher, but she also loved lecture, basketball, fishing, golf, philately, and music. She played violin and cello and she interpreted that instruments in various chamber groups. Being motivated by one of her...

  10. Collaborative Composing in High School String Chamber Music Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine collaborative composing in high school string chamber music ensembles. Research questions included the following: (a) How do high school string instrumentalists in chamber music ensembles use verbal and musical forms of communication to collaboratively compose a piece of music? (b) How do selected variables…

  11. Aeroacoustics of Musical Instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabre, B.; Gilbert, J.; Hirschberg, Abraham; Pelorson, X.

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in the quality of sound produced by musical instruments and their playability. In wind instruments, a hydrodynamic source of sound is coupled to an acoustic resonator. Linear acoustics can predict the pitch of an instrument. This can significantly reduce the trial-and-error process

  12. Virtual Reality Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur; Kojs, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development and availability of low-cost technologies have created a wide interest in virtual reality. In the field of computer music, the term “virtual musical instruments” has been used for a long time to describe software simulations, extensions of existing musical instruments......, and ways to control them with new interfaces for musical expression. Virtual reality musical instruments (VRMIs) that include a simulated visual component delivered via a head-mounted display or other forms of immersive visualization have not yet received much attention. In this article, we present a field...... overview of VRMIs from the viewpoint of the performer. We propose nine design guidelines, describe evaluation methods, analyze case studies, and consider future challenges....

  13. Virtual reality musical instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur; Kojs, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development and availability of low cost technologies has created a wide interest in virtual reality (VR), but how to design and evaluate multisensory interactions in VR remains as a challenge. In this paper, we focus on virtual reality musical instruments, present an overview of our...... design and evaluation guidelines, and examine historical case studies. Our main contribution is to inform the design and evaluation of the future VRMIs and consider the challenges....

  14. CT analysis of bowed stringed instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirr, S A; Waddle, J R

    1997-06-01

    To determine the utility of computed tomography (CT) for the noninvasive evaluation of bowed stringed instruments. Thirty-seven instruments that ranged in quality from student instruments to exquisite Stradivarius violins were analyzed with CT. Accuracy of thickness measurements was determined from 24 measurements of cross-sectional pieces sawed from a student violin. Accuracy of density measurements was determined from 328 CT attenuation measurements of 16 woods used in stringed instruments. Substantial differences of normal structure were noted between the masterpieces crafted in Cremona, Italy, and factory-produced student instruments. Unexpected defects were detected in nine of 14 instruments older than 100 years and ranged from a few wormholes (eight instruments) to many wormholes and extensive repair (one violin). CT thickness and attenuation measurements correlated well to the line of identity with actual measurements (P < .0001). Two cellos and a viola have been constructed from CT-derived information. The viola was awarded a gold medal at a recent international competition. CT provides the modern luthier and acoustic scientist with a unique tool for characterization of normal structure, defects, and repair and for accurate measurements of wood thickness and density. CT-derived information aids in the replication of original masterpieces. CT evaluation may have an important role in the valuation, insurance, and identification of valuable stringed instruments.

  15. Advancements in Actuated Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overholt, Daniel; Berdahl, Edgar; Hamilton, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This article presents recent developments in actuated musical instruments created by the authors, who also describe an ecosystemic model of actuated performance activities that blur traditional boundaries between the physical and virtual elements of musical interfaces. Actuated musical instruments...... in that they produce sound via vibrating element(s) that are co-manipulated by humans and electromechanical systems. We examine the possibilities that arise when such instruments are played in different performative environments and music-making scenarios, and we postulate that such designs may give rise to new...... methods of musical performance. The Haptic Drum, the Feedback Resonance Guitar, the Electromagnetically Prepared Piano, the Overtone Fiddle and Teleoperation with Robothands are described, along with musical examples and reflections on the emergent properties of the performance ecologies...

  16. Discrete-time modelling of musical instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaelimaeki, Vesa; Pakarinen, Jyri; Erkut, Cumhur; Karjalainen, Matti

    2006-01-01

    This article describes physical modelling techniques that can be used for simulating musical instruments. The methods are closely related to digital signal processing. They discretize the system with respect to time, because the aim is to run the simulation using a computer. The physics-based modelling methods can be classified as mass-spring, modal, wave digital, finite difference, digital waveguide and source-filter models. We present the basic theory and a discussion on possible extensions for each modelling technique. For some methods, a simple model example is chosen from the existing literature demonstrating a typical use of the method. For instance, in the case of the digital waveguide modelling technique a vibrating string model is discussed, and in the case of the wave digital filter technique we present a classical piano hammer model. We tackle some nonlinear and time-varying models and include new results on the digital waveguide modelling of a nonlinear string. Current trends and future directions in physical modelling of musical instruments are discussed

  17. The Five-String Banjo in the Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenneth H.

    2011-01-01

    The banjo is an instrument of unique image and sound. It has a long history in North America from its arrival on slave ships from North Africa to its contemporary use in jazz and popular music. Adding the instrument to the general music classroom can open new realms of timbre and new avenues of exploration into the instruments of cultures around…

  18. Background instrumental music and serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittono, H

    1997-06-01

    Although speech and vocal music are consistently shown to impair serial recall for visually presented items, instrumental music does not always produce a significant disruption. This study investigated the features of instrumental music that would modulate the disruption in serial recall. 24 students were presented sequences of nine digits and required to recall the digits in order of presentation. Instrumental music as played either forward or backward during the task. Forward music caused significantly more disruption than did silence, whereas the reversed music did not. Some higher-order factor may be at work in the effect of background music on serial recall.

  19. Berimbau: A simple instrument for teaching basic concepts in the physics and psychoacoustics of music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilão, Rui C.; Melo, Santino L. S.

    2014-12-01

    We address the production of musical tones by a simple musical instrument of the Brazilian tradition: the berimbau-de-barriga. The vibration physics of the string and of the air mass inside the gourd are reviewed. Straightforward measurements of an actual berimbau, which illustrate the basic physical phenomena, are performed using a PC-based "soundcard oscilloscope." The inharmonicity of the string and the role of the gourd are discussed in the context of known results in the psychoacoustics of pitch definition.

  20. Why Strings? Grand Masters Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotman, Robert H.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the reasons to teach stringed instruments: (1) strings can be adapted to the size of the child; (2) home performance material resource availability; (3) stringed music skills contribute to developing basic skills; and (4) the importance of interaction in music. (CMK)

  1. Musical Intonation of Wind Instruments and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendri, G.; Valdan, M.; Gratton, L. M.; Oss, S.

    2015-01-01

    Wind musical instruments are affected in their intonation by temperature. We show how to account for these effects in a simple experiment, and provide results in languages accessible to both physics and music professionals.

  2. Musical intonation of wind instruments and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendri, G.; Valdan, M.; Gratton, L. M.; Oss, S.

    2015-05-01

    Wind musical instruments are affected in their intonation by temperature. We show how to account for these effects in a simple experiment, and provide results in languages accessible to both physics and music professionals.

  3. Thoracic outlet syndrome affecting high-performance musicians playing bowed string instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaree, Christopher J; Wang, Kevin; Lin, Peter H

    2017-06-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome, a condition due to neurovascular compression in the upper shoulder region, can be caused by chronic repetitive activity of the upper extremities. Studies have linked upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders to high-performance musicians who play bowed string instruments such as the violin or viola. We report herein a case series of five elite musicians, including three violinists and two violaists, who developed neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome following years of intense practice. Successful surgical treatment including first rib resection, scalenectomy, and brachial plexus neurolysis was performed in all patients. All patients were able to resume their musical career following surgical treatment. Our report represents the first description of thoracic outlet syndrome in high-performance bowed string instrumentalists. Clinicians should be aware of thoracic outlet syndrome as a differential diagnosis when treating string instrumentalists with upper extremity musculoskeletal ailments.

  4. Adult Perspectives of Learning Musical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulston, Kathryn; Jutras, Peter; Kim, Seon Joo

    2015-01-01

    This article reports findings from a qualitative study of adults' perceptions and experiences of learning musical instruments. Conducted in the south-east United States, 15 adults who were learning instruments were recruited via community music groups and private instrumental teachers. Analysis of transcripts of semi-structured interviews…

  5. The Squiggle: A Digital Musical Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Sheehan, Brian

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the issues pertaining to thedesign of digital musical instruments that are to effectively fillthe role of traditional instruments (i.e. those based on physicalsound production mechanisms). The design andimplementation of a musical instrument that addresses some ofthese issues, using scanned synthesis coupled to a "smart"physical system, is described.

  6. Roger Long’s gut-strung keyboard instruments and Thomas Barton’s harpsichord stringing

    OpenAIRE

    Rowland, David

    2016-01-01

    In 1720 Pepusch signed an inventory of the Duke of Chandos’s instruments that included a gut-strung harpsichord by a ‘Mr Longfellow of Pembroke Hall in Cambridge’. The maker was in fact Roger Long, Fellow and later Master of Pembroke Hall (now Pembroke College), Lowndes Professor of Astronomy, but also a keen musician and maker of astronomical, musical and other instruments. Long’s commonplace book in Pembroke’s library contains valuable information about gut and wire harpsichord stringing fr...

  7. Two Studies of Pitch in String Instrument Vibrato: Perception and Pitch Matching Responses of University and High School String Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geringer, John M.; MacLeod, Rebecca B.; Ellis, Julia C.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated pitch perception of string vibrato tones among string players in two separate studies. In both studies we used tones of acoustic instruments (violin and cello) as stimuli. In the first, we asked 192 high school and university string players to listen to a series of tonal pairs: one tone of each pair was performed with vibrato and…

  8. The Effect of Music on Hearing of String Musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Mirhaj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hearing sensitivity is so vital for musicians as loud music can cause hearing loss. The aim of this study was to assess hearing sensitivity of musicians in order to determine the effects of music exposure on hearing organ. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 15 string musicians with musicianship history of more than 10 years and 15 normal hearing subjects. They all were male and 20-30 years old. TEOAE and DPOAE performed and after otoscopy, immittance and pure tone audiometry in octave frequencies between 250 to 16000 Hz. Results: There is not significant difference between pure tone thresholds of two groups for all frequencies. A significant difference of TEOAE is found between two groups for total response and amplitudes of TEOAE .DPOAE amplitudes are not significantly different between two groups. Conclusion: Musicianship may affect TEOAE amplitudes , but cannot affect results of PTA and DPOAE. Therefore this can be useful to detect cochlear lesions secondary to music exposure and also as a tool in hearing protection program.

  9. Audio Data Augmentation with respect to Musical Instrument Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Siddharth Bhardwaj

    2017-01-01

    Identifying musical instruments in a polyphonic music recording is a difficult yet crucial problem in music information retrieval. It helps in auto-tagging of a musical piece by instrument, consequently enabling searching music databases by instrument. Other useful applications of instrument recognition are source separation, genre recognition, music transcription, and instrument specific equalizations. We review the state of the art methods for the task, including the recent Convolutional Ne...

  10. Instruments for documentation of music therapy sessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    to the most basic information about what happened in each session, and graphs provide an overview of the music therapy course over time. In the presentation I will give examples of this instrument and show how the documentation of the process is included in a larger research study with focus on measuring...... the effect of music therapy in an RCT (Ridder & Stige 2010). My purpose of presenting the instrument, and show case examples where it has been used, is to inspire clinicians and researchers to develop similar instruments; meaningful not only to clinical practice, but also for documentation and large scale...... research. References: Ridder, H.M. & Stige, B. (2011). A joint research protocol for music therapy in dementia care. Conference Issue; World Congress in Music Therapy, Seoul 2011. Music Therapy Today, 9(1), 90-91....

  11. Applying Computer-Assisted Musical Instruction to Music Appreciation Course: An Example with Chinese Musical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Shi-Jer; Guo, Yuan-Chang; Zhu, Yi-Zhen; Shih, Ru-Chu; Dzan, Wei-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effectiveness of computer-assisted musical instruction (CAMI) in the Learning Chinese Musical Instruments (LCMI) course. The CAMI software for Chinese musical instruments was developed and administered to 228 students in a vocational high school. A pretest-posttest non-equivalent control group design with three…

  12. Teaching Strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    Intended primarily for use by instrumental music teachers who do not have a major concentration in strings, this guide provides pertinent basic resources, materials, teaching--learning expectation, and a general overall guide to achievement levels at various stages of development. Discussions are presented of Choosing the Proper Method Book,…

  13. Examining the Intersections of Music Making and Teaching for Four String Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological case study was to examine the intersections of music making and teaching for four string teachers. Data included background surveys, three interviews per participant, videotaped classroom observations (jointly viewed during the second interview), and a focus group interview that included music making. Findings…

  14. Musical instruments from the Mayan culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo, Isabel Elena Romero; Redondo, Jose de Jesus Negrete; Paulin, Pablo Roberto Lizana

    2002-11-01

    This research work presents different kinds of sound generation instruments from the Mayan culture together with the Pablo Castellanos and Arturo Chamorro classification. It has to be noted that most of these musical instruments, whistles and noise generators are lost and some of them can only be seen on codex and museums. (To be presented in Spanish.)

  15. String Music Educators' Perceptions of the Impact of New String Programs on Student Outcomes, School Music Programs, and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Robert; Russell, Joshua A.; Hamann, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of newly initiated string programs on teachers, schools, districts, communities, and existing music program administration and students. Research questions pertained to (a) locations, student access, and instructional offerings; (b) educators; and (c) perceived impact on student outcomes. Data…

  16. A Prospective Evaluation of Duplex Ultrasound for Thoracic Outlet Syndrome in High-Performance Musicians Playing Bowed String Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Garret; Wang, Kevin; Demaree, Christopher J; Jiang, Jenny S; Cheung, Mathew; Bechara, Carlos F; Lin, Peter H

    2018-01-25

    Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a neurovascular condition involving the upper extremity, which is known to occur in individuals who perform chronic repetitive upper extremity activities. We prospectively evaluate the incidence of TOS in high-performance musicians who played bowed string musicians. Sixty-four high-performance string instrument musicians from orchestras and professional musical bands were included in the study. Fifty-two healthy volunteers formed an age-matched control group. Bilateral upper extremity duplex scanning for subclavian vessel compression was performed in all subjects. Provocative maneuvers including Elevated Arm Stress Test (EAST) and Upper Limb Tension Test (ULTT) were performed. Abnormal ultrasound finding is defined by greater than 50% subclavian vessel compression with arm abduction, diminished venous waveforms, or arterial photoplethysmography (PPG) tracing with arm abduction. Bowed string instruments performed by musicians in our study included violin (41%), viola (33%), and cello (27%). Positive EAST or ULTT test in the musician group and control group were 44%, and 3%, respectively ( p = 0.03). Abnormal ultrasound scan with vascular compression was detected in 69% of musicians, in contrast to 15% of control subjects ( p = 0.03). TOS is a common phenomenon among high-performance bowed string instrumentalists. Musicians who perform bowed string instruments should be aware of this condition and its associated musculoskeletal symptoms.

  17. Bamboo and Wood in Musical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G. K.

    2008-08-01

    Over centuries and millennia, our ancestors worldwide found the most appropriate materials for increasingly complex acoustical applications. In the temperate climate of Europe, where the instruments of the Western symphony orchestra were developed and perfected, instrument makers still primarily take advantage of the unique property combination and the aesthetic appeal of wood. In all other continents, one material dominates and is frequently chosen for the manufacture of wind, string, and percussion instruments: the grass bamboo. Here, we review from a materials science perspective bamboo's and wood's unique and highly optimized structure and properties. Using material property charts plotting acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient against one another, we analyze and explain why bamboo and specific wood species are ideally suited for the manufacture of xylophone bars and chimes, flutes and organs, violins and zithers, violin bows, and even strings.

  18. Gender Association with Stringed Instruments: A Four-Decade Analysis of Texas All-State Orchestras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Vicki D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to track the gender makeup of the five string sections (Violin 1, Violin 2, Viola, Cello, and String Bass) of Texas Music Educators Association (TMEA) All-State Orchestras from 1971 to 2010, to determine if a clear gender stereotype was evident in any of the sections and if there had been a trend towards a change in…

  19. Impact of Changes in Playing Time on Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Pain in String Music Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Judith; Tousignant-Laflamme, Yannick; Guay, Manon

    2018-03-01

    During their training, musicians must develop good work habits that they will carry on throughout their professional career in order to avoid potential chronic health problems, such as musculoskeletal pain. The effect of sudden changes in instrument playing-time on the development of playing-related musculoskeletal pain (PRMP) has not been thoroughly investigated in music students playing bowed string instruments (BSI), even though they are regularly exposed to such changes to perfect their playing skills. To explore the association between sudden changes in instrument playing-time and changes in PRMP in BSI players. A prospective cohort study was completed with BSI students attending a summer music camp offering high-level training. Participants completed a self-administered 23-item questionnaire designed for the study upon arrival at camp (T1) and then 7 days later (T2). Ninety-three BSI students (16±4 yrs old) completed the questionnaires, for a 23% response rate. Their playing-time increased by 23±14 hrs between T1 and T2. Complaints in pain frequency (e.g., from never to most of the time) and intensity (19±24 mm on VAS) significantly increased between T1 and T2 and were correlated with an increase in playing-time. A sudden increase in playing-time, such as that experienced by elite BSI students attending an intensive music camp, was related to an increase in PRMP. However, in this study, changes in pain characteristics were only partly explained by the change in playing-time.

  20. [Unusual application of computerized tomography: the study of musical instruments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattoni, F; Melgara, C; Sicola, C; Uslenghi, C M

    1999-03-01

    We report on the use of CT in the study of bowed stringed instruments to assess structural defects and/or damage before proceeding to any repair. Two antique masterpieces from the Castello Sforzesco Museum of Antique Musical Instruments were analyzed with CT. They were an exquisite wood and ivory guitar from Naples (Italy) and a very rare Giuseppe Guarneri "del Gesù" violin from Cremona (Italy), both crafted in the early years of the 18th century. We evaluated the wood thickness, the neck and its heel. In the wood structure we studied the course and thickness of hypo- and hyperdense lines. The examination showed three types of signs: normal wood structure: hypodense, thin, parallel lines; wormholes: hypodense lines with irregular course and variable thickness; previous repair signs: thin or thick more or less parallel hyperdense lines. The study confirmed that CT is a valuable tool to investigate normal structure, defects and damage, providing accurate information for the evaluation and repair of antique stringed instruments.

  1. Purging Musical Instrument Sample Databases Using Automatic Musical Instrument Recognition Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Livshin , Arie; Rodet , Xavier

    2009-01-01

    cote interne IRCAM: Livshin09a; None / None; National audience; Compilation of musical instrument sample databases requires careful elimination of badly recorded samples and validation of sample classification into correct categories. This paper introduces algorithms for automatic removal of bad instrument samples using Automatic Musical Instrument Recognition and Outlier Detection techniques. Best evaluation results on a methodically contaminated sound database are achieved using the introdu...

  2. Students' Attitudes towards Individual Musical Instrument Courses in Music Education Graduate Programs in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önder, Gülten Cüceoglu

    2015-01-01

    The Individual Musical Instrument course is a compulsory part of the curriculum, in the Music Education Departments of universities in Turkey. The main purpose of the course is to ensure that each student is able to play a musical instrument and, use the instrument once they become music teachers. This study aims to determine the attitudes of…

  3. Instrumentation as a Stylistic Determinant in Nigerian Gospel Music ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, various musical instruments used in Nigerian gospel music are described and categorized before discussing their musical, socio-linguistic symbolic, aesthetic, and stylistic functions. Since Nigerian gospel music has been categorized into distinct styles (Adedeji, 2004a), instrumentation could be argued to be ...

  4. Neutrons and music: Imaging investigation of ancient wind musical instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Festa, G.; Tardino, G.; Pontecorvo, L.; Mannes, D.C.; Senesi, R.; Gorini, G.; Andreani, C.

    2014-01-01

    A set of seven musical instruments and two instruments cares from the ‘Fondo Antico della Biblioteca del Sacro Convento’ in Assisi, Italy, were investigated through neutron and X-ray imaging techniques. Historical and scientific interests around ancient musical instruments motivate an intense research effort for their characterization using non-destructive and non-invasive techniques. X-ray and neutron tomography/radiography were applied to the study of composite material samples containing wood, hide and metals. The study was carried out at the NEUTRA beamline, PSI (Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland). Results of the measurements provided new information on the composite and multi-scale structure, such as: the internal structure of the samples, position of added materials like metals, wood fiber displays, deformations, presence of adhesives and their spatial distribution and novel insight about construction methods to guide the instruments’ restoration process

  5. Neutrons and music: Imaging investigation of ancient wind musical instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Festa, G., E-mail: giulia.festa@roma2.infn.it [Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata (Italy); Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-IPCF, Messina (Italy); Tardino, G. [BauArt Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Pontecorvo, L. [Conservatorio di Cosenza – Cosenza Conservatory (Italy); Mannes, D.C. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Senesi, R. [Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata (Italy); Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-IPCF, Messina (Italy); Gorini, G. [Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Andreani, C. [Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata (Italy); Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-IPCF, Messina (Italy)

    2014-10-01

    A set of seven musical instruments and two instruments cares from the ‘Fondo Antico della Biblioteca del Sacro Convento’ in Assisi, Italy, were investigated through neutron and X-ray imaging techniques. Historical and scientific interests around ancient musical instruments motivate an intense research effort for their characterization using non-destructive and non-invasive techniques. X-ray and neutron tomography/radiography were applied to the study of composite material samples containing wood, hide and metals. The study was carried out at the NEUTRA beamline, PSI (Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland). Results of the measurements provided new information on the composite and multi-scale structure, such as: the internal structure of the samples, position of added materials like metals, wood fiber displays, deformations, presence of adhesives and their spatial distribution and novel insight about construction methods to guide the instruments’ restoration process.

  6. The Stringed Drum and the 16th Century Music: New Iconographical Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballester i Gibert, Jordi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with a stringed drum depicted in an anonymous Catalan panel from the mid 16th century. The panel, coming from the church of Barruera (Boí valley, disappeared during the Spanish Civil War and we only have a black and white photography kept in the Institut Amatller d’Art Hispànic in Barcelona. Nevertheless, the study of this depiction shows several aspects related to the instrument and its musical use. Some of these aspects allow us to deal with different hypothesis connecting the stringed drum with the performance practice: on the one hand the instrument appears in a courtly renaissance atmosphere, being played at a banquet; on the other hand the instrument appears not only accompanying the one-hand flute (as it can be seen in other depictions but also making up a consort together with a fiddle.

    El presente artículo se centra en la representación, hasta ahora desconocida, de un tambor de cuerdas pintado en una tabla anónima catalana de mediados del siglo XVI, procedente de la pequeña iglesia de Barruera (Vall de Boí. Dicha tabla desapareció durante la guerra civil española y solo la conocemos a través de una fotografía en blanco y negro que se conserva en el Instituto Amatller de Arte Hispánico (Barcelona. No obstante, el estudio de la representación clarifica algunos aspectos relativos al uso del instrumento que hasta ahora no se habían podido demostrar: por un lado nos sitúa el tambor de cuerdas en el contexto de un banquete cortesano de ambiente renacentista; por otro lado relaciona el instrumento no solo con su acompañante habitual – la flauta de una sola mano – sino también con la viola de arco.

  7. Instrumental-Music Study and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heninger, Benjamin Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This quantitative study explained relationships among independent variables that included instrumental music participation and achievement on a standardized test by participants in the ninth grade at a western Wisconsin high school. The ACT "Aspire" (2017) test is a vertically articulated, standards-based system of assessments. Subtest…

  8. Predictors of Instrumental Music Teacher Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Robert Louis, III

    2012-01-01

    Previous research studies related to teacher quality have found that teacher attrition rates are at an all-time high. Although much research has been conducted in the area of job satisfaction within the general teaching population, few studies of job satisfaction exist for instrumental music teachers. The purpose of this correlational study was to…

  9. Gender and Musical Instruments: Winds of Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervoudakes, Jason; Tanur, Judith M.

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a study of student preference for musical instruments over 3 decades in 600 elementary, secondary, and colleges. Finds that gender-based segregation has increased at the high school and college level, but findings at the elementary level are inconclusive. (CFR)

  10. The Meaning of Musical Instruments and Music Technologies in Children's Lives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jytte Susanne

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, I will investigate the role of musical instruments in children’s lives. A musical instrument is a thing which has the capacity to produce a variation of sounds perceived as music when the musician follows certain conventions and rules. The child who learns to play a musical...... the gap between consuming music and playing music be relevant in children’s live in the recent historical period of advanced liberalism? In the chapter, I will investigate the role of musical instruments for children who practice classical music....... instrument involves him/herself both with music as a cultural field and with the steady technical and expressive requirements from the particular musical instrument. However, whereas music accompanies very many activities in everyday life of children, fewer children have such an active relationship...

  11. Investigation of phase coupling phenomena in sustained portion of musical instruments sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov, Shlomo; Rodet, Xavier

    2003-01-01

    This work investigates aperiodicities that occur in the sustained portion of a sound of musical instrument played by a human player, due to synchronous versus asynchronous deviations of the partial phases. By using an additive sinusoidal analysis, phases of individual partials are precisely extracted and their correlation statistics and coupling effects are analyzed. It is shown that various musical instruments exhibit different phase coupling characteristics. The effect of phase coupling is compared to analysis by means of higher order statistics and it is shown that both methods are closely mathematically related. Following a detailed analysis of phase coupling for various musical instruments it is suggested that phase coupling is an important characteristic of a sustained portion of sound of individual musical instruments, and possibly even of instrumental families. Interesting differences in phase deviations where found for the flute, trumpet and cello. For the cello, the effect of vibrato is examined by comparing the analysis of a closed string sound played with a natural vibrato to analysis of an open string sound that contains no vibrato. Following, a possible model for phase deviations in the cello is presented and a simulation of phase fluctuations for this model is performed.

  12. Analysis and Synthesis of Musical Instrument Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, James W.

    For synthesizing a wide variety of musical sounds, it is important to understand which acoustic properties of musical instrument sounds are related to specific perceptual features. Some properties are obvious: Amplitude and fundamental frequency easily control loudness and pitch. Other perceptual features are related to sound spectra and how they vary with time. For example, tonal "brightness" is strongly connected to the centroid or tilt of a spectrum. "Attack impact" (sometimes called "bite" or "attack sharpness") is strongly connected to spectral features during the first 20-100 ms of sound, as well as the rise time of the sound. Tonal "warmth" is connected to spectral features such as "incoherence" or "inharmonicity."

  13. Spectroscopic Analysis to Characterize Finishing Treatments of Ancient Bowed String Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocco, Giacomo; Rovetta, Tommaso; Gulmini, Monica; Piccirillo, Anna; Licchelli, Maurizio; Malagodi, Marco

    2017-11-01

    Historical bowed string instruments exhibit acoustic features and aesthetic appeal that are still considered inimitable. These characteristics seem to be in large part determined by the materials used in the ground and varnishing treatments after the assembly of the instrument. These finishing processes were kept secret by the violinmakers and the traditional methods were handed down orally from master craftsmen to apprentices. Today, the methods of the past can represent a secret to be revealed through scientific investigations. The "Cremonese" methods used in the 17th and 18th centuries were lost as the last Great Masters from the Amati, Guarneri, and Stradivari families passed away. In this study, we had the chance of combining noninvasive and microinvasive techniques on six fragments of historical musical instruments. The fragments were detached from different instruments during extraordinary maintenance and restoration treatments, which involved the substitution of severely damaged structural parts like top plates, back plates, or ribs. Therefore, the fragments can offer to the scientists a valuable overview on the materials and techniques used by the violinmakers. The results obtained by portable X-ray fluorescence, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared microscopy allowed us to: (1) determine the stratigraphy of six instruments; (2) obtain new information about the materials involved in the finishing processes employed in Cremona; and (3) elucidate the technological relationship among the procedures adopted in the violin making workshops during the considered period.

  14. Good News in Inclusive String Music Education: Adaptive Strategies for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaj, Kasia

    2016-01-01

    There has been a paradigm shift in the field of string instrument instruction and working with students with disabilities over the past 25 years. The previously reported lack of educational preparation for teachers in including students with disabilities in string classrooms and ensembles seems to have been improved upon through teacher training…

  15. The Finnish Five-String Kantele: Sustainably Designed for Musical Joy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruokonen, Inkeri; Sepp, Anu; Moilanen, Venla; Autio, Ossi; Ruismaki, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the five-string kantele as an example of the Finnish national heritage, a school instrument and an example of sustainable design. A qualitative case study was made by collecting the data from the Finnish students--prospective teachers--and the sixth form pupils, who had designed and carved their own five-string kanteles. The…

  16. Beyond Guided Listening: Exploring World Musics with Classroom Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolome, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores issues of authenticity related to adapting world music examples for classroom instruments and suggests ways to engage students in active, participatory music-making activities derived from diverse musical cultures. Several lesson plan segments are provided to aid general music specialists in implementing "play along"…

  17. Development and Trial of a Two Year Program of String Instruction. Appendix F, Music. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. School of Music.

    This appendix contains music for the violin, viola, and cello, as well as rhythm games. The three parts of the appendix are: I. Tunes for the String Player, II. Our First Exercises, and III. Sight Reading. See TE 499 832 for the final report proper. (DB)

  18. Making String Education Culturally Responsive: The Musical Lives of African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Ebru Tuncer

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the violin experiences of African American students at an Elementary School in northern Florida to consider the potential for culturally-responsive string education. The hermeneutical approach was used to answer the research questions: (1) What are the personal musical worlds of these African American…

  19. Gender Associations with World Music Instruments by Secondary School Music Students from the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Steven N.; VanWeelden, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    This article investigated possible gender associations with world music instruments by secondary school-age music students from the USA. Specific questions included: (1) Do the primary instruments played by the students influence gender associations of world music instruments? (2) Does age influence possible gender associations with world music…

  20. The Language of African Musical Instruments: Issues in Composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, the performance practices of African musical instruments that will enhance the derivation of the aesthetical quality and value of the African music was examined. Furthermore, the impact of the culture of the people on the instrumental musical performance was also examined. The methodology used for this study ...

  1. Towards a Transcultural Theory of Democracy for Instrumental Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    At present, instrumental music education, defined in this paper as the teaching and learning of music through wind bands and symphony orchestras of Western origin, appears embattled. Among the many criticisms made against instrumental music education, critics claim that bands and orchestras exemplify an authoritarian model of teaching that does…

  2. Musical instruments in the 21st century identities, configurations, practices

    CERN Document Server

    Campo, Alberto; Egermann, Hauke; Hardjowirogo, Sarah-Indriyati; Weinzierl, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    By exploring the many different types and forms of contemporary musical instruments, this book contributes to a better understanding of the conditions of instrumentality in the 21st century. Providing insights from science, humanities and the arts, authors from a wide range of disciplines discuss the following questions: · What are the conditions under which an object is recognized as a musical instrument? · What are the actions and procedures typically associated with musical instruments? · What kind of (mental and physical) knowledge do we access in order to recognize or use something as a musical instrument? · How is this knowledge being shaped by cultural conventions and temporal conditions? · How do algorithmic processes 'change the game' of musical performance, and as a result, how do they affect notions of instrumentality? · How do we address the question of instrumental identity within an instrument's design process? · What properties can be used to differentiate successful and unsuccessful ins...

  3. Musicians as Instrumental Music Teachers: Issues from an Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Instrumental music teaching occupies a significant portion of the protean career of a musician. Musicians teach their instrument in schools, conservatoires and in private studios. The aim of this paper is to identify educational opportunities available for the education of musicians as instrumental music teachers, to discuss issues associated with…

  4. Digital musical instruments for people with physical disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Vamvakousis, Zacharias

    2016-01-01

    Playing a musical instrument has been shown to have a positive impact in the life of individuals in many different ways. Nevertheless, due to physical disabilities, some people are unable to play conventional musical instruments. In this dissertation, we consider different types of physical disabilities and implement specific digital musical instruments suitable for people with disabilities of each type. Firstly, we consider the case of people with limited sensorimotor upper limb functions, a...

  5. Instrumental Techniques: Guitar, Course Number: Music: 5631.3-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennitt, Barth; Thum, Marie-Jo

    A course which is an introduction to music emphasizing modes and forms is outlined. Objectives include: (1) The student will select the title of a familiar melody from a list provided; (2) The student will identify by ear the performing medium from the following choices: violin, voice, piano, guitar, clarinet, trombone, organ, string bass,…

  6. Energy conserving schemes for the simulation of musical instrument contact dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatziioannou, Vasileios; van Walstijn, Maarten

    2015-03-01

    Collisions are an innate part of the function of many musical instruments. Due to the nonlinear nature of contact forces, special care has to be taken in the construction of numerical schemes for simulation and sound synthesis. Finite difference schemes and other time-stepping algorithms used for musical instrument modelling purposes are normally arrived at by discretising a Newtonian description of the system. However because impact forces are non-analytic functions of the phase space variables, algorithm stability can rarely be established this way. This paper presents a systematic approach to deriving energy conserving schemes for frictionless impact modelling. The proposed numerical formulations follow from discretising Hamilton's equations of motion, generally leading to an implicit system of nonlinear equations that can be solved with Newton's method. The approach is first outlined for point mass collisions and then extended to distributed settings, such as vibrating strings and beams colliding with rigid obstacles. Stability and other relevant properties of the proposed approach are discussed and further demonstrated with simulation examples. The methodology is exemplified through a case study on tanpura string vibration, with the results confirming the main findings of previous studies on the role of the bridge in sound generation with this type of string instrument.

  7. The impact of the long-term playing of musical instruments on the stomatognathic system - review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głowacka, Arleta; Matthews-Kozanecka, Maja; Kawala, Maciej; Kawala, Beata

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we have made a review of the influence of playing musical instruments on the formation of malocclusion and TMJ disorders in musicians. Primary attention was paid to the effects of wind and stringed instruments. The aim of the article was the presentation of research and opinions about this problem in the last 25 years. It is reported that long-term and repetitive playing of musical instruments, particularly stringed (violin and viola) and wind instruments can cause dysfunctions of the stomatognathic system. The impact of wind instruments was assessed in terms of the type of mouthpiece. We studied the possibility of repositioning the front teeth and reducing the width of the upper dental arch and overbite. There were also reports on the use of a specific instrument to improve the child's occlusion. Studies have also been performed on the usefulness of relaxation plates in order to improve, and even prevent, dysfunction caused by the constant stress on the same parts of the stomatognathic system. The experiments were mainly based on interviews, dental cast analyses and cephalometric analyses. Additional methods were dynamometer tests and muscle tension palpation.

  8. Helium and Sulfur Hexafluoride in Musical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forinash, Kyle; Dixon, Cory L.

    2014-11-01

    The effects of inhaled helium on the human voice were investigated in a recent article in The Physics Teacher.1 As mentioned in that article, demonstrations of the effect are a popular classroom activity. If the number of YouTube videos is any indication, the effects of sulfur hexafluoride on the human voice are equally popular. However, there appears to be little information available on the effects of either of these gases on musical instruments.2 We describe here the results of a student project that involved measuring the frequency shifts in an organ pipe, a trumpet, and a trombone as the result of filling the instruments with these two gases. The project was one of several possible end-of-semester projects required in an elective science of sound course for non-science majors.

  9. Facilitating access to atonal music: Ligeti's second string quartet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay also establishes a connection with the modulor, a harmonic measure which Le Corbusier proposed and applied in the design of buildings. Firstly, it is shown that the order of the numbers in the Fibonacci series creates the opportunity to label trichords that appear frequently in atonal music. Secondly, prominent ...

  10. Q&A: Brian Greene on music and string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jascha

    2010-05-01

    Brian Greene, author of best-selling books The Elegant Universe and The Fabric of the Cosmos, is a theoretical physicist at Columbia University, New York. As an orchestral work based on his 2008 children's book, Icarus at the Edge of Time, premieres next week, Greene discusses black holes and how music might portray the physics of warped space-time.

  11. Music Teacher Knowledge: An Examination of the Intersections between Instrumental Music Teaching and Conducting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Sommer H.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the complexities of instrumental music teacher knowledge as they relate to the intersection between instrumental music teaching and conducting, and to explore how participants describe and perceive these intersections. The key research question guiding this study was, How do high school instrumental music…

  12. Confluence: Tom Nunn’s Sculptured Musical Instruments For Improvisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tewari, Sudhanshu Ganesh

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation examines the work of Tom Nunn (b. 1946), a musician who has spent the past thirty-eight years developing new musical instruments designed specifically for playing improvised music. The culmination of his research is the Electroacoustic Percussion Board (EPB), consisting of a soundboard, amplified with contact microphones, to which sound making devices are attached. Electroacoustic Percussion Boards are an entirely new type of musical instrument: free improvisation embodied i...

  13. History and Perspectives of the Study of Ethnic Musical Instruments in Karelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia S. Мikhailova

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the history of studying traditional musical instruments in Karelia, analyzes how theoretical research relates to playing ethnic musical instruments and predicts the perspectives of the ethnic musical instrument study development in Karelia.

  14. Concept Teaching in Instrumental Music Education: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Leonard

    2017-01-01

    This article is a review of research literature on the teaching of concepts in instrumental music education. It is organized in four parts (a) the value of concept teaching in large instrumental ensembles, (b) time spent teaching concepts during rehearsals, (c) approaches to concept teaching, and (d) implications for music education. Research has…

  15. Affinity for Music: A Study of the Role of Emotion in Musical Instrument Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    StGeorge, Jennifer; Holbrook, Allyson; Cantwell, Robert

    2014-01-01

    For many people, the appeal of music lies in its connection to human emotions. A significant body of research has explored the emotions that are experienced through either the formal structure of music or through its symbolic messages. Yet in the instrumental music education field, this emotional connection is rarely examined. In this article, it…

  16. Flute-like musical instruments: A toy model investigated through numerical continuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrien, Soizic; Vergez, Christophe; Fabre, Benoît

    2013-07-01

    Self-sustained musical instruments (bowed string, woodwind and brass instruments) can be modelled by nonlinear lumped dynamical systems. Among these instruments, flutes and flue organ pipes present the particularity to be modelled as a delay dynamical system. In this paper, such a system, a toy model of flute-like instruments, is studied using numerical continuation. Equilibrium and periodic solutions are explored with respect to the blowing pressure, with focus on amplitude and frequency evolutions along the different solution branches, as well as "jumps" between periodic solution branches. The influence of a second model parameter (namely the inharmonicity) on the behaviour of the system is addressed. It is shown that harmonicity plays a key role in the presence of hysteresis or quasiperiodic regime. Throughout the paper, experimental results on a real instrument are presented to illustrate various phenomena, and allow some qualitative comparisons with numerical results.

  17. Low-cost coding of directivity information for the recording of musical instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braasch, Jonas; Martens, William L.; Woszczyk, Wieslaw

    2004-05-01

    Most musical instruments radiate sound according to characteristic spatial directivity patterns. These patterns are usually not only strongly frequency dependent, but also time-variant functions of various parameters of the instrument, such as pitch and the playing technique applied (e.g., plucking versus bowing of string instruments). To capture the directivity information when recording an instrument, Warusfel and Misdariis (2001) proposed to record an instrument using four channels, one for the monopole and the others for three orthogonal dipole parts. In the new recording setup presented here, it is proposed to store one channel at a high sampling frequency, along with directivity information that is updated only every few milliseconds. Taking the binaural sluggishness of the human auditory system into account in this way provides a low-cost coding scheme for subsequent reproduction of time-variant directivity patterns.

  18. Ancient music instrument in east java: study about continuity and change in the 10-15 century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamungkas, H.; Thomas, N. A.; Nasution

    2018-01-01

    This research is included in art history, especially music art in East Java. The oldest evidence of musical instruments in this area is evidenced through the Jalatunda site, Trawas. On one of the relief panels found apsara (nymphs) plays vina (stringed instrument). This site was from the 10th century. Since then the relief of musical instruments more and more carved. This is apparent in some temples in East Java after the 11th century. Not only in terms of the number of instruments, but the type of musical instruments is also displayed more diverse. The inflatable instrument (xylophone), the percussion instrument (membraphone), or idiophone show diversity over time. The development is an interesting phenomenon in the life of music art. Problems in this research, whether within the period of 5 centuries (10-15 AD century) there is a change in how to play instrument. This research uses ethnographic analogy method. In the archaeological discipline, this method is used to reconstruct past lives through activities that can be found in temple reliefs in East Java.

  19. Neural correlates of recognition and naming of musical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfi, Amy M; Bruss, Joel; Karlan, Brett; Abel, Taylor J; Tranel, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Retrieval of lexical (names) and conceptual (semantic) information is frequently impaired in individuals with neurological damage. One category of items that is often affected is musical instruments. However, distinct neuroanatomical correlates underlying lexical and conceptual knowledge for musical instruments have not been identified. We used a neuropsychological approach to explore the neural correlates of knowledge retrieval for musical instruments. A large sample of individuals with focal brain damage (N = 298), viewed pictures of 16 musical instruments and were asked to name and identify each instrument. Neuroanatomical data were analyzed with a proportional MAP-3 method to create voxelwise lesion proportion difference maps. Impaired naming (lexical retrieval) of musical instruments was associated with damage to the left temporal pole and inferior pre- and postcentral gyri. Impaired recognition (conceptual knowledge retrieval) of musical instruments was associated with a more broadly and bilaterally distributed network of regions, including ventromedial prefrontal cortices, occipital cortices, and superior temporal gyrus. The findings extend our understanding of how musical instruments are processed at neural system level, and elucidate factors that may explain why brain damage may or may not produce anomia or agnosia for musical instruments. Our findings also help inform broader understanding of category-related knowledge mapping in the brain, as musical instruments possess several characteristics that are similar to various other categories of items: They are inanimate and highly manipulable (similar to tools), produce characteristic sounds (similar to animals), and require fine-grained visual differentiation between each other (similar to people). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The relation between instrumental musical activity and cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna-Pladdy, Brenda; MacKay, Alicia

    2011-05-01

    Intensive repetitive musical practice can lead to bilateral cortical reorganization. However, whether musical sensorimotor and cognitive abilities transfer to nonmusical cognitive abilities that are maintained throughout the life span is unclear. In an attempt to identify modifiable lifestyle factors that may potentially enhance successful aging, we evaluated the association between musical instrumental participation and cognitive aging. Seventy older healthy adults (ages 60-83) varying in musical activity completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. The groups (nonmusicians, low and high activity musicians) were matched on age, education, history of physical exercise, while musicians were matched on age of instrumental acquisition and formal years of musical training. Musicians were classified in the low (1-9 years) or high (>10 years) activity group based on years of musical experience throughout their life span. The results of this preliminary study revealed that participants with at least 10 years of musical experience (high activity musicians) had better performance in nonverbal memory (η2 = .106), naming (η2 = .103), and executive processes (η2 = .131) in advanced age relative to nonmusicians. Several regression analyses evaluated how years of musical activity, age of acquisition, type of musical training, and other variables predicted cognitive performance. These correlational results suggest a strong predictive effect of high musical activity throughout the life span on preserved cognitive functioning in advanced age. A discussion of how musical participation may enhance cognitive aging is provided along with other alternative explanations.

  1. Popular Music and the Instrumental Ensemble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boespflug, George

    1999-01-01

    Discusses popular music, the role of the musical performer as a creator, and the styles of jazz and popular music. Describes the pop ensemble at the college level, focusing on improvisation, rehearsals, recording, and performance. Argues that pop ensembles be used in junior and senior high school. (CMK)

  2. Frequency-Zooming ARMA Modeling for Analysis of Noisy String Instrument Tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. A. Esquef

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses model-based analysis of string instrument sounds. In particular, it reviews the application of autoregressive (AR modeling to sound analysis/synthesis purposes. Moreover, a frequency-zooming autoregressive moving average (FZ-ARMA modeling scheme is described. The performance of the FZ-ARMA method on modeling the modal behavior of isolated groups of resonance frequencies is evaluated for both synthetic and real string instrument tones immersed in background noise. We demonstrate that the FZ-ARMA modeling is a robust tool to estimate the decay time and frequency of partials of noisy tones. Finally, we discuss the use of the method in synthesis of string instrument sounds.

  3. Decoding auditory attention to instruments in polyphonic music using single-trial EEG classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treder, Matthias S.; Purwins, Hendrik; Miklody, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Polyphonic music (music consisting of several instruments playing in parallel) is an intuitive way of embedding multiple information streams. The different instruments in a musical piece form separate information streams that seamlessly integrate into a coherent and hedonistically appealing entity...

  4. Music@Home: A novel instrument to assess the home musical environment in the early years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politimou, Nina; Stewart, Lauren; Müllensiefen, Daniel; Franco, Fabia

    2018-01-01

    The majority of children under the age of 5 appear to show spontaneous enjoyment of singing, being exposed to music and interacting with musical instruments, but whether variations in engaging in such activities in the home could contribute to developmental outcomes is still largely unknown. Critically, researchers lack a comprehensive instrument with good psychometric properties to assess the home musical environment from infancy to the preschool years. To address this gap, this paper presents two studies that describe the development and validation of the Music@Home questionnaire, which comprises two versions: Infant and Preschool. In Study 1, an initial pool of items was generated and administered to a wide audience of parents (n = 287 for the Infant, n = 347 for the Preschool version). Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify different dimensions comprising the home musical environment of both infants and pre-schoolers, and to reduce the initial pool of items to a smaller number of meaningful items. In Study 2, convergent and divergent validity and internal and test-retest reliability of the new instrument were established, using data from a different sample of participants (n = 213 for the Infant, n = 213 for the Preschool version). The second study also investigated associations between the Music@Home and musical characteristics of the parents, such as their musical education and personal engagement with music. Overall, the Music@Home constitutes a novel, valid and reliable instrument that allows for the systematic assessment of distinct aspects of the home musical environment in families with children under the age of 5. Furthermore, the Infant and Preschool versions of the Music@Home present differential associations with musical characteristics of the parents opening a new area of inquiry into how musical exposure and interaction in the home may vary across different developmental stages.

  5. Musical Expression: An Observational Study of Instrumental Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Jessika; Juslin, Patrik N.

    2008-01-01

    Research has shown that both music students and teachers think that expression is important. Yet, we know little about how expression is taught to students. Such knowledge is needed in order to enhance teaching of expression. The aim of this study was thus to explore the nature of instrumental music teaching in its natural context, with a focus on…

  6. Musical Instrument Identification using Multiscale Mel-frequency Cepstral Coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Morvidone, Marcela; Daudet, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the benefits of evaluating Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) over several time scales in the context of automatic musical instrument identification for signals that are monophonic but derived from real musical settings. We define several sets of features derived from MFCCs...

  7. Using Longitudinal Scales Assessment for Instrumental Music Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Samuel H.

    2014-01-01

    In music education, current assessment trends emphasize student reflection, tracking progress over time, and formative as well as summative measures. This view of assessment requires instrumental music educators to modernize their approaches without interfering with methods that have proven to be successful. To this end, the Longitudinal Scales…

  8. Building Your Instrumental Music Program in an Urban School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixon, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    MENC has recently, recapitulated its vision of "Music for All" in its strategic plan, which warns that "30 to 50 per cent of new teachers who work in urban areas leave the field in their first three years of service.'' This undoubtedly affects instrumental music instruction for urban children. Collegial sharing is one solution to problems…

  9. 48 The Nigerian Musical Instrument Production Industry Sunday ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    perspectives of employment, revenue to government, occupational therapy, recreation/decoration, source of musical sound and cultural identity. Employment: In the Woliwo-Onitsha workshop-market, over four-hundred (400) Nigerians are actively involved in the construction and trading of the Nigerian musical instruments.

  10. Musical instruments depicted in medieval Serbian art under oriental and western influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović Roksanda

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Researching musical instruments on frescoes, miniatures, icons and sculptural decorations of mediaeval Serbian art, painted and sculptured in the manner of Byzantine art, we discover Oriental and Western influences. Musical instruments arriving from the Orient were unchanged for centuries and those from West Europe were mainly used in the Middle Ages or the Renaissance. Oriental and Western influences can be observed on instruments of all families-idiophones, membranophones, bowed and string instruments, as well as on aero phones. The same form of some crotales and cymbals can be found both in Oriental and Western art, the majority of membranophones are of Oriental origin, but the tambourine on Bodani frescoes originated in West Europe. Lyres and angular harps are close to Antique tradition. Some bowed instruments, psalteries, lutes, harps, short horns, business and shawms have Oriental patterns and other instruments of these families accepted Western shapes. There are, as well, same kinds of bowed instruments and S-trumpets peculiar for both continents.

  11. How does Architecture Sound for Different Musical Instrument Performances?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saher, Konca; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses how consideration of sound _in particular a specific musical instrument_ impacts the design of a room. Properly designed architectural acoustics is fundamental to improve the listening experience of an instrument in rooms in a conservatory. Six discrete instruments (violin...

  12. Musical instrument technology of the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Paul

    2004-05-01

    This paper presents a brief history of the technical development of musical instruments during the 20th century. Starting with early electronic instruments (such as the Theremin-1917) invented prior to the organization of ASA, the history includes the development of electronic organs, synthesizers, and computer music. This paper provides an introduction to the session, giving a framework for the papers which follow in the session.

  13. Finding the Muse: Teaching Musical Expression to Adolescents in the One-to-One Studio Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, Eleanor A.

    2011-01-01

    One-to-one music lessons are a common and effective way of learning a musical instrument. This investigation into one-to-one music teaching at the secondary school level explores the teaching of musical expression by two instrumental music teachers of brass and strings. The lessons of the two teachers with two students each were video recorded…

  14. Musical instruments of Brazilian capoeira: Historical roots, symbolism, and use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilari, Beatriz

    2002-11-01

    This paper describes the historical roots, symbolism, and uses of musical instruments in capoeira. A martial art form of Afro-Brazilian origin, capoeira is rhythmically performed to music in a roda (i.e., circle). Capoeira is at times defined as a martial art form disguised as dance because it is rooted in the struggles of African slaves. Elements of music, dance, fight, and ritual are part of this unique martial art form, which has two main styles: Angola and Regional. Capoeira styles are important as they determine rhythmic patterns, chant, movement, and musical instrumentation in a roda. The leading instrument in all capoeira styles is the berimbau. The instrument dictates the rhythm and movement of capoeira players in a roda (Ilari, 2001). Made out of a wooden stick, a wire, and a gourd and played with a stick and a coin, the berimbau is considered a sacred instrument due to its association with the cry of the slaves. Other instruments used in capoeira are pandeiros, agogo bells, reco-recos, and atabaques. A discussion regarding the use of these instruments within the context of capoeira will be presented at the conference. The incorporation of these instruments into contemporary Brazilian music will also be considered.

  15. From the Museum to the Music Classroom: Teaching the "Umrhubhe" as an Ensemble Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dontsa, Luvuyo

    2008-01-01

    While there is a keen interest in indigenous African instrumental music among South African university music students, indigenous music instruments such as the "umrhubhe" (musical bow without a calabash resonator) have not found their way into the classroom. Most music departments focus on the teaching and learning of western instruments…

  16. Instrument-Making as Music-Making: An Ethnographic Study of "Shakuhachi" Students' Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunobu, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Instrument-making is a powerful way to teach and learn music, especially world music. This case study looks at adult music learners whose engagement in music involves instrument-making and the long lasting practice of music. A case in point is Japanese and North American practitioners of Japanese bamboo flutes, especially the end-blown…

  17. Review of the Technology-Utilization Level of String Instrument Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döger, Didem; Kiliç, Ilgim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the technology-utilization level of Fine Arts High School string instrument teachers. A pattern based on descriptive method has been used to conduct the researchers. Research data has been collected via literature review and questionnaire developed and prepared by the researcher. SPSS program has been…

  18. Motivating stroke rehabilitation through music: A feasibility study using digital musical instruments in the home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedro, Kirk; Grierson, Mick; Bodak, Rebeka

    2016-01-01

    Digital approaches to physical rehabilitation are becoming increasingly common [14] and embedding these new technologies within a musical framework may be particularly motivating [11,12]. The current feasibility study aimed to test if digital musical instruments (DMIs) could aid in the self-manag...... in functional measures with some evidence for transfer into tasks of daily living....

  19. Aesthetic Alliances in Poetry and Music: T. S. Eliot's Four Quartets and String Quartets by Bela Bartok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaz, Mildred Meyer

    1979-01-01

    This paper argues that, although T. S. Eliot's "Four Quartets" provoke comparisons with the late quartets of Beethoven, an analysis of Four Quartets and Bela Bartok's Fourth and Fifth String Quartets produces a clearer understanding of the formal structures in the poetry and music. Symmetries offset asymmetries. (Author/KC)

  20. Playing-related musculoskeletal problems in children learning instrumental music: the association between problem location and gender, age, and music exposure factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranelli, Sonia; Straker, Leon; Smith, Anne

    2011-09-01

    Playing-related musculoskeletal problems (PRMP) are common in adult musicians, and risk factors include gender, music exposure, and particularly instrument type. Emerging evidence suggests PRMP are common in children and adolescents and that risk factors may be similar. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PRMP, both symptoms and disorders, and PRMP location in children and adolescents as well as the associations with gender, age, and music exposure factors such as type and number of instruments and playing time. This study surveyed 731 children (460 females), aged 7 to 17 years, studying instrumental music in government schools in Perth, Australia. Lifetime and monthly symptoms, monthly disorders (inability to play an instrument as usual), and PRMP location were examined. Chi-squared analyses were used to evaluate associations between gender, age, music exposure, and PRMP outcomes. Logistic regression evaluated the independent association of these potential risk factors with PRMP prevalence and location. RESULTS) Sixty-seven percent of students reported PRMP symptoms at some point, 56% reported them within the last month, and 30% reported an inability to play as usual within the last month. After adjustment for gender and age, the type of instrument played (upper and lower strings, woodwind, and brass) was significantly associated with all PRMP (pchildhood ages. Odds ratios for the risk of PRMP in different locations varied by instrument played. The high prevalence and location of PRMP are important issues for child and adolescent instrumentalists. Gender, age, and music exposure are associated with PRMP risk and need to be addressed to ensure musicians' personal well-being and musical longevity.

  1. The Prospects of Musical Instruments For People with Physical Disabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Veirum; Overholt, Daniel; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    Many forms of enabling technologies exist today. While technologies aimed at enabling basic tasks in everyday life (locomotion, eating, etc.) are more common, musical instruments for people with disabilities can provide a chance for emotional enjoyment, as well as improve physical conditions...... through therapeutic use. The field of musical instruments for people with physical disabilities, however, is still an emerging area of research. In this article, we look at the current state of developments, including a survey of custom designed instruments, augmentations / modifications of existing...

  2. Phase synchronization of instrumental music signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sayan; Palit, Sanjay Kumar; Banerjee, Santo; Ariffin, M. R. K.; Bhattacharya, D. K.

    2014-06-01

    Signal analysis is one of the finest scientific techniques in communication theory. Some quantitative and qualitative measures describe the pattern of a music signal, vary from one to another. Same musical recital, when played by different instrumentalists, generates different types of music patterns. The reason behind various patterns is the psycho-acoustic measures - Dynamics, Timber, Tonality and Rhythm, varies in each time. However, the psycho-acoustic study of the music signals does not reveal any idea about the similarity between the signals. For such cases, study of synchronization of long-term nonlinear dynamics may provide effective results. In this context, phase synchronization (PS) is one of the measures to show synchronization between two non-identical signals. In fact, it is very critical to investigate any other kind of synchronization for experimental condition, because those are completely non identical signals. Also, there exists equivalence between the phases and the distances of the diagonal line in Recurrence plot (RP) of the signals, which is quantifiable by the recurrence quantification measure τ-recurrence rate. This paper considers two nonlinear music signals based on same raga played by two eminent sitar instrumentalists as two non-identical sources. The psycho-acoustic study shows how the Dynamics, Timber, Tonality and Rhythm vary for the two music signals. Then, long term analysis in the form of phase space reconstruction is performed, which reveals the chaotic phase spaces for both the signals. From the RP of both the phase spaces, τ-recurrence rate is calculated. Finally by the correlation of normalized tau-recurrence rate of their 3D phase spaces and the PS of the two music signals has been established. The numerical results well support the analysis.

  3. Reliability of the input admittance of bowed-string instruments measured by the hammer method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ailin; Woodhouse, Jim

    2014-12-01

    The input admittance at the bridge, measured by hammer testing, is often regarded as the most useful and convenient measurement of the vibrational behavior of a bowed string instrument. However, this method has been questioned, due especially to differences between human bowing and hammer impact. The goal of the research presented here is to investigate the reliability and accuracy of this classic hammer method. Experimental studies were carried out on cellos, with three different driving conditions and three different boundary conditions. Results suggest that there is nothing fundamentally different about the hammer method, compared to other kinds of excitation. The third series of experiments offers an opportunity to explore the difference between the input admittance measuring from one bridge corner to another and that of single strings. The classic measurement is found to give a reasonable approximation to that of all four strings. Some possible differences between the hammer method and normal bowing and implications of the acoustical results are also discussed.

  4. On the status of music and musical instruments in Arabic culture after the advent of Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoštarić Ada I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article bases its arguments mainly on data found in secondary literature about the propriety of music in Arabic culture after the advent of Islam. One of the oldest sources in Arabic on the subject is Damm al-malāhī (The Condemnation of Instruments of Diversion. In it, the author, Ibn Abī al-Dunyā (823-894 condemned listening to music and musical instruments. Subsequently, many books addressed the question of whether music is illicit (ar. harām. Western scholars defined this corpus of literature as a kind of polemic about the permissibility of music and musical instruments in Islamic culture. Since there is no verse (ar. Áya in the Qur’Án which explicitly forbids or allows music, and since, at the same time, the hadīt literature abounds with contradictory statements about the practice of the prophet Muhammad regarding listening to music and musical instruments, this question continues to resurface, either in the media or on web pages specifically devoted to the issue. This topic is also quite interesting in terms of the reflexions one can encounter in the Muslim areas of the ex-Yugoslav region. At the same time, the article touches upon the special place that the Qur’ān recitation (ar. tilāwat al-Qur’ān and Islamic call to prayer (ar. adān have in Muslim communities. We often find both of them in chapters on religious music, and can, for instance, hear Gorans from Kosovo say (colloquially that one sings the call to prayer. Nevertheless, although both the Recitation and the call to prayer employ the system of maqāms found in secular forms of music, in religious Islamic circles they have never been defined as music, nor are they understood as such in Islamic public opinion. It has been said innumerable times that it is not the (listening to music per se that is forbidden, but rather the circumstances surrounding music, sometimes associated with the consumption of alcohol or similar behaviour, which leads to transgression of

  5. Nonlinear internal friction, chaos, fractal and musical instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Z.Q.; Lung, C.W.

    1995-08-01

    Nonlinear and structure sensitive internal friction phenomena in materials are used for characterizing musical instruments. It may be one of the most important factors influencing timbre of instruments. As a nonlinear dissipated system, chaos and fractals are fundamental peculiarities of sound spectra. It is shown that the concept of multi range fractals can be used to decompose the frequency spectra of melody. New approaches are suggested to improve the fabrication, property characterization and physical understanding of instruments. (author). 18 refs, 4 figs

  6. Instrumentational complexity of music genres and why simplicity sells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percino, Gamaliel; Klimek, Peter; Thurner, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Listening habits are strongly influenced by two opposing aspects, the desire for variety and the demand for uniformity in music. In this work we quantify these two notions in terms of instrumentation and production technologies that are typically involved in crafting popular music. We assign an 'instrumentational complexity value' to each music style. Styles of low instrumentational complexity tend to have generic instrumentations that can also be found in many other styles. Styles of high complexity, on the other hand, are characterized by a large variety of instruments that can only be found in a small number of other styles. To model these results we propose a simple stochastic model that explicitly takes the capabilities of artists into account. We find empirical evidence that individual styles show dramatic changes in their instrumentational complexity over the last fifty years. 'New wave' or 'disco' quickly climbed towards higher complexity in the 70s and fell back to low complexity levels shortly afterwards, whereas styles like 'folk rock' remained at constant high instrumentational complexity levels. We show that changes in the instrumentational complexity of a style are related to its number of sales and to the number of artists contributing to that style. As a style attracts a growing number of artists, its instrumentational variety usually increases. At the same time the instrumentational uniformity of a style decreases, i.e. a unique stylistic and increasingly complex expression pattern emerges. In contrast, album sales of a given style typically increase with decreasing instrumentational complexity. This can be interpreted as music becoming increasingly formulaic in terms of instrumentation once commercial or mainstream success sets in.

  7. Instrumentational complexity of music genres and why simplicity sells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamaliel Percino

    Full Text Available Listening habits are strongly influenced by two opposing aspects, the desire for variety and the demand for uniformity in music. In this work we quantify these two notions in terms of instrumentation and production technologies that are typically involved in crafting popular music. We assign an 'instrumentational complexity value' to each music style. Styles of low instrumentational complexity tend to have generic instrumentations that can also be found in many other styles. Styles of high complexity, on the other hand, are characterized by a large variety of instruments that can only be found in a small number of other styles. To model these results we propose a simple stochastic model that explicitly takes the capabilities of artists into account. We find empirical evidence that individual styles show dramatic changes in their instrumentational complexity over the last fifty years. 'New wave' or 'disco' quickly climbed towards higher complexity in the 70s and fell back to low complexity levels shortly afterwards, whereas styles like 'folk rock' remained at constant high instrumentational complexity levels. We show that changes in the instrumentational complexity of a style are related to its number of sales and to the number of artists contributing to that style. As a style attracts a growing number of artists, its instrumentational variety usually increases. At the same time the instrumentational uniformity of a style decreases, i.e. a unique stylistic and increasingly complex expression pattern emerges. In contrast, album sales of a given style typically increase with decreasing instrumentational complexity. This can be interpreted as music becoming increasingly formulaic in terms of instrumentation once commercial or mainstream success sets in.

  8. Instrumentational Complexity of Music Genres and Why Simplicity Sells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percino, Gamaliel; Klimek, Peter; Thurner, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Listening habits are strongly influenced by two opposing aspects, the desire for variety and the demand for uniformity in music. In this work we quantify these two notions in terms of instrumentation and production technologies that are typically involved in crafting popular music. We assign an ‘instrumentational complexity value’ to each music style. Styles of low instrumentational complexity tend to have generic instrumentations that can also be found in many other styles. Styles of high complexity, on the other hand, are characterized by a large variety of instruments that can only be found in a small number of other styles. To model these results we propose a simple stochastic model that explicitly takes the capabilities of artists into account. We find empirical evidence that individual styles show dramatic changes in their instrumentational complexity over the last fifty years. ‘New wave’ or ‘disco’ quickly climbed towards higher complexity in the 70s and fell back to low complexity levels shortly afterwards, whereas styles like ‘folk rock’ remained at constant high instrumentational complexity levels. We show that changes in the instrumentational complexity of a style are related to its number of sales and to the number of artists contributing to that style. As a style attracts a growing number of artists, its instrumentational variety usually increases. At the same time the instrumentational uniformity of a style decreases, i.e. a unique stylistic and increasingly complex expression pattern emerges. In contrast, album sales of a given style typically increase with decreasing instrumentational complexity. This can be interpreted as music becoming increasingly formulaic in terms of instrumentation once commercial or mainstream success sets in. PMID:25551631

  9. Basic requirements for realistic and unprejudiced evaluation of musical instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogram, Klaus

    2003-10-01

    In the past, the laboratory of musical acoustics of the PTB had to develop methods of subjective and objective evaluations of all kinds of musical instruments for a competition which was launched by the German ministry of economics. For this work the following questions had to be answered: (1) What makes a musical instrument play well from physical and subjective viewpoints? (2) How does the musician play the instrument, and what does he think when playing? (3) What is the influence of room acoustical parameters on sound quality? (4) How strong is the influence of prejudices concerning the brand, color, and type? (5) How can we measure the main acoustical parameters objectively? (6) What is the correlation between objective and subjective results? This presentation will give answers to these questions based on 10 years of experience with such evaluations by the author.

  10. Feeling-of-knowing for songs and instrumental music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovitz, Brian E; Peynircioğlu, Zehra F

    2011-09-01

    We explored the differences between metamemory judgments for titles as well as for melodies of instrumental music and those for songs with lyrics. Participants were given melody or title cues and asked to provide the corresponding titles or melodies or feeling of knowing (FOK) ratings. FOK ratings were higher but less accurate for titles with melody cues than vice versa, but only in instrumental music, replicating previous findings. In a series of seven experiments, we ruled out style, instrumentation, and strategy differences as explanations for this asymmetry. A mediating role of lyrics between the title and the melody in songs was also ruled out. What emerged as the main explanation was the degree of familiarity with the musical pieces, which was manipulated either episodically or semantically, and within this context, lyrics appeared to serve as an additional source of familiarity. Results are discussed using the Interactive Theory of how FOK judgments are made. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. INSTRUMENTAL TRAINING OF THE BACHELOR DEGREE STUDENTS IN MUSIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Zerrate Rubio.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is presented by the research team “Instrumental Didactic”, from the Faculty of Arts of the Universidad Pedagógica Nacional de Colombia, and brings out an analysis on the current instrumental training of its students in the bachelor degree in music. In the course of this research project, the team has specified some terms and topics such as “meaningful learning”, “didactic”, and “teaching-learning processes”. Then, using data-collection instruments such as audio and video recording and interviews, the pedagogical practices of the team’s teachers were analyzed. The key question for the research was: What sort of instrumental training might better enhance meaningful learning about pedagogy and musical didactics for the bachelor degree students in music at the UPN?The process of investigation allowed the group of teachers to strengthen the interaction inside of it as a research team, confirming, at the same time, the importance of instrumental didactics in the training of the bachelor degree students in music. Furthermore, the teachers as a team recognized the need of careful thought all along the research process, in order to clarify the knowledge that guides pedagogical action, and identified practical difficulties related to meaningful learning among the students, thus providing referents for the teacher’s didactic action in the instrumental training, such as the identification of widespread and common technical and attitudinal mistakes amidst the bachelor degree students.

  12. Variation in posture quality across musical instruments and its impact during performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Piñeiro, Patricia; Díaz-Pereira, M Pino; Martínez Vidal, Aurora

    2018-06-01

    Bad posture increases the risk that a musician may suffer from musculoskeletal disorders. This study compared posture quality required by different instruments or families of instruments. Using an ad-hoc postural observation instrument embracing 11 postural variables, four experts evaluated the postures of 100 students attending a Spanish higher conservatory of music. The agreement of the experts' evaluations was statistically confirmed by a Cohen's κ value between 0.855 and 1.000 and a Kendall value between 0.709 and 1.000 (p < 0.001 in all cases). Moreover, χ 2 tests revealed significant association between instrument families and seated posture with respect to pelvic attitude, dorsal curvature and head alignment in both sagittal and frontal planes. This analysis also showed an association between instrument families and standing posture with respect to the frontal plane of the axis of gravity, pelvic attitude, head alignment in the frontal plane, the sagittal plane of the shoulders and overall posture. While certain postural defects appear to be common to all families of instruments, others are more characteristic of some families than others. The instrument associated with the best posture quality was the bagpipe, followed by percussion and strings.

  13. A Transcultural Theory of Thinking for Instrumental Music Education: Philosophical Insights from Confucius and Dewey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    In music education, thinking is often construed in terms of acquiring conceptual knowledge of musical elements. Research has found, however, that instrumental music educators have largely neglected conceptual teaching and learning. This begs the following questions: What is the nature of thinking in instrumental music education? How should…

  14. Digital Waveguide Architectures for Virtual Musical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julius O.

    Digital sound synthesis has become a standard staple of modern music studios, videogames, personal computers, and hand-held devices. As processing power has increased over the years, sound synthesis implementations have evolved from dedicated chip sets, to single-chip solutions, and ultimately to software implementations within processors used primarily for other tasks (such as for graphics or general purpose computing). With the cost of implementation dropping closer and closer to zero, there is increasing room for higher quality algorithms.

  15. Traditional musical instruments in Serbian folk tradition: Etnophraseological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Vesna N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to give an insight in the significance and role of native musical instruments in Serbian folk tradition based on the representation of these instruments in the Serbian ethnographic material. The focus will also be on the semantic description of phraseological units that have those instruments as central components, in order to show how different cultural contents, typical for a particular native culture, are precisely reflected in the phraseology and language fund of that culture. We will first try to present those instruments and provide brief ethnological analysis of their role in the folk life, followed by the whole repertoire and semantic description of phrasemes, whose central lexical element has the name of a folk musical instrument or some related actions. Ethnographic and phraseological data related to folk instruments was taken from the Serbian ethnographic material and dictionaries of Serbian language. The analysis showed that in Serbian traditional culture musical instruments were used as a signaling tools as well as for communication between people and higher powers.

  16. Can Indian classical instrumental music reduce pain felt during venepuncture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Rajiv; Bavdekar, S B; Jadhav, Sandhya

    2009-05-01

    Local anesthetic agent is not usually used to reduce pain experienced by children undergoing venepuncture. This study was undertaken to determine comparative efficacy of local anesthetic cream, Indian classical instrumental music and placebo, in reducing pain due to venepuncture in children. Children aged 5-12 yr requiring venepuncture were enrolled in a prospective randomized clinical trial conducted at a tertiary care center. They were randomly assigned to 3 groups: local anesthetic (LA), music or placebo (control) group. Eutactic mixture of local anesthetic agents (EMLA) and Indian classical instrumental music (raaga-Todi) were used in the first 2 groups, respectively. Pain was assessed independently by parent, patient, investigator and an independent observer at the time of insertion of the cannula (0 min) and at 1- and 5 min after the insertion using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Kruskal- Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to assess the difference amongst the VAS scores. Fifty subjects were enrolled in each group. Significantly higher VAS scores were noted in control (placebo) group by all the categories of observers (parent, patient, investigator, independent observer) at all time points. The VAS scores obtained in LA group were lowest at all time points. However, the difference between VAS scores in LA group were significantly lower than those in music group only at some time-points and with some categories of observers (parent: 1 min; investigator: 0-, 1-, 5 min and independent observer: 5 min). Pain experienced during venepuncture can be significantly reduced by using EMLA or Indian classical instrumental music. The difference between VAS scores with LA and music is not always significant. Hence, the choice between EMLA and music could be dictated by logistical factors.

  17. Bi-musicality and dialogical musicality : Influences of Javanese gamelan participation on Western instrumental learning

    OpenAIRE

    Haddon, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative research examines the influence of learning Javanese gamelan on aspects of musicianship, attitudes and approaches relating to the learning and performance of Western instruments experienced by a sample of UK university music students. In addition to benefits to musicianship, students delineated positive developments in attitudes and approaches to learning and performance. While bi-musicality may be the prerogative of only those who can maintain expertise concurrently in more ...

  18. LESSER KNOWN MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS IN KOSOVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rešad Fazli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author presented the instruments that were originated in this region, as well as those instruments that are brought from other regions, and became deeply carved into the tradition and culture of the local people, that they feel as their own. Some of these instruments are kept only here in this region, and they are not used anymore in the area they originated from. This paper also covers instruments that are rarely used or completely lost in this region.

  19. Practice Makes Perfect: Playing Musical Instruments at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremli, Jack; Gremli, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the importance of considering individual students' learning styles when encouraging them to practice their musical instruments at home on a regular basis, focusing on how to accommodate learning style preferences related to: light; time of day; persistence; nutritional intake; furniture design; practicing in pairs or small groups;…

  20. Chinese Songs We Can Sing and Chinese Instrumental Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Ethnic Resource Center for the Pacific.

    This booklet includes a number of Chinese songs (with English translations) designed for use with a tape recording produced by the Ethnic Resource Center for the Pacific, Educational Foundations, University of Hawaii. A pronunciation key and a listing of cassette recordings of Chinese instrumental music are provided. (EB)

  1. Instrumental Music Educators' Experiences in a Professional Development Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draves, Tami J.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the experiences of instrumental music teachers in Designing Arts Instruction, a 4-day professional development course in a large urban school district. Specifically, I was interested in which activities participants (a) found most relevant and applicable to their current teaching situation, (b)…

  2. Including Exceptional Students in Your Instrumental Music Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixon, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the method and adaptations used by the author in including students with special needs in an instrumental music program. To ensure success in the program, the author shares the method he uses to include exceptional students and enumerates some possible adaptations. There are certainly other methods and modifications that…

  3. A Mixed Methods Portrait of Urban Instrumental Music Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Kate R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to learn about the ways that instrumental music teachers in Chicago navigated the urban landscape. The design of the study most closely resembles Creswell and Plano Clark's (2007) two-part Triangulation Convergence Mixed Methods Design, with the addition of an initial exploratory focus group component.…

  4. A Call for More Instrumental Music Teaching Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllaki, Angeliki

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that researchers and practioners aiming to improve practice in our institutions are called upon to "open up" the field of instrumental teaching. Music educators need to reflect on how particular lesson behaviours or types of teacher-pupil interactions are influenced by the specific institutional,…

  5. An Ethic of Care in High School Instrumental Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Scott N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to apply Noddings' ethic of care to a qualitative inquiry of select instrumental music educators. In the first section I describe and define an ethic of care, considering specifically who is involved in a caring relationship, how an ethic of care can be taught, and strategies for educational implementation and…

  6. Who Gets to Play? Investigating Equity in Musical Instrument Instruction in Scottish Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscardini, Lio; Barron, David S.; Wilson, Alastair

    2013-01-01

    There is a widely held view that learning to play a musical instrument is a valuable experience for all children in terms of their personal growth and development. Although there is no statutory obligation for instrumental music provision in Scottish primary schools, there are well-established Instrumental Music Services in Local Education…

  7. Nonlinear dynamics of musical reed and brass wind instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D. M.

    1999-06-01

    A musical wind instrument transforms a constant pressure input from the player's mouth into a fluctuating pressure output in the form of a radiating sound wave. In reed woodwind and brass instruments, this transformation is achieved through a nonlinear coupling between two vibrating systems: the flow control valve formed by the mechanical reed or the lips of the player, and the air column contained by the pipe. Although the basic physics of reed wind instruments was developed by Helmholtz in the nineteenth century, the application of ideas from the modern theory of nonlinear dynamics has led to recent advances in our understanding of some musically important features of wind instrument behaviour. As a first step, the nonlinear aspects of the musical oscillator can be considered to be concentrated in the flow control valve; the air column can be treated as a linear vibrating system, with a set of natural modes of vibration corresponding to the standing waves in the pipe. Recent models based on these assumptions have had reasonable success in predicting the threshold blowing pressure and sounding frequency of a clarinet, as well as explaining at least qualitatively the way in which the timbre of the sound varies with blowing pressure. The situation is more complicated for brass instruments, in which the player's lips provide the flow valve. Experiments using artificial lips have been important in permitting systematic studies of the coupling between lips and air column; the detailed nature of this coupling is still not fully understood. In addition, the assumption of linearity in the air column vibratory system sometimes breaks down for brass instruments. Nonlinear effects in the propagation of high amplitude sound waves can lead to the development of shock waves in trumpets and trombones, with important musical consequences.

  8. Backscattering at a pulsed neutron source, the MUSICAL instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alefeld, B.

    1995-01-01

    In the first part the principles of the neutron backscattering method are described and some simple considerations about the energy resolution and the intensity are presented. A prototype of a backscattering instrument, the first Juelich instrument, is explained in some detail and a representative measurement is shown which was performed on the backscattering instrument IN10 at the ILL in Grenoble. In the second part a backscattering instrument designed for a pulsed neutron source is proposed. It is shown that a rather simple modification, which consists in the replacement of the Doppler drive of the conventional backscattering instrument by a multi silicon monochromator crystal (MUSICAL) leads to a very effective instrument, benefitting from the peak flux of the pulsed source. ((orig.))

  9. Backscattering at a pulsed neutron source, the MUSICAL instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alefeld, B.

    1995-02-01

    In the first part the principles of the neutron backscattering method are described and some simple considerations about the energy resolution and the intensity are presented. A prototype of a backscattering instrument, the first Jülich instrument, is explained in some detail and a representative measurement is shown which was performed on the backscattering instrument IN10 at the ILL in Grenoble. In the second part a backscattering instrument designed for a pulsed neutron source is proposed. It is shown that a rather simple modification, which consists in the replacement of the Doppler drive of the conventional backscattering instrument by a multi silicon monochromator cryst al (MUSICAL) leads to a very effective instrument, benefitting from the peak flux of the pulsed source.

  10. Modeling Harpsichord Plucking: The Plectrum and the String

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perng, Jack; Rossing, Thomas; Smith, Julius

    2011-11-01

    The harpsichord is a plucked string keyboard instrument that was popular during the Renaissance and Baroque music eras. Although it was later replaced by the more expressive piano, it has mounted a comeback due to the early music movement today. A physical model of the harpsichord's plucking mechanism is presented, detailing the plectrum-string interaction which illustrates many aspects of the harpsichord's characteristic sound.

  11. Translation and adaptation procedures for music therapy outcome instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; McDermott, Orii; Orrell, Martin

    2017-01-01

    With increasing occurrence of international multicentre studies, there is a need for music therapy outcome measures to become more widely available across countries. For countries where English is not the first language, translation and cross-cultural adaptation of outcome measures may be necessary....... A literature review identified a knowledge gap regarding translation procedures of outcome measures used in music therapy research. However, a large body of translation guidelines is available in other health professions. We used the guidelines from these related fields to identify guidelines and outline...... procedural steps for the translation and adaptation of music therapy outcome instruments. OBS: 50 free online copies to share: http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/d8TPZbkVMjzgKg7DjcmT/full...

  12. Recognition of Traditional Musical Instruments Sampled by Conventional Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, G.; Salerno, M.; Frattale Mascioli, F. M.

    2000-12-01

    The correct classification of single musical sources is a relevant aspect for the source separation task and the automatic transcription of polyphonic music. In this paper, we present a classification experiment on six different musical instruments: violin, clarinet, flute, oboe, saxophone and piano. It is characterized by two steps. In the first step, a suitable signal preprocessing based on FFT and QFT (Q-constant Frequency Transform) is adopted for feature extraction and data set preparation. In the second step, a nonexclusive classification method is proposed to handle the inevitable overlapping among classes. It is obtained by a co-operative clustering technique. The success of this kind of classification method is conditioned by the adopted clustering procedure. We propose a hierarchical scale-based approach for this task, carrying out good results.

  13. Musical instruments put in a new light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Matthew

    2012-10-01

    Hundreds of years old and worth millions of pounds, violins prized by the world's top musicians have been shown to benefit from the occasional health check. Since the late 1990s many violins have undergone hospital-based X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans that reveal an instrument's condition and history, as well as the source of its unique acoustic properties.

  14. Discrimination of musical instrument sounds resynthesized with simplified spectrotemporal parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, S; Beauchamp, J W; Meneguzzi, S

    1999-02-01

    The perceptual salience of several outstanding features of quasiharmonic, time-variant spectra was investigated in musical instrument sounds. Spectral analyses of sounds from seven musical instruments (clarinet, flute, oboe, trumpet, violin, harpsichord, and marimba) produced time-varying harmonic amplitude and frequency data. Six basic data simplifications and five combinations of them were applied to the reference tones: amplitude-variation smoothing, coherent variation of amplitudes over time, spectral-envelope smoothing, forced harmonic-frequency variation, frequency-variation smoothing, and harmonic-frequency flattening. Listeners were asked to discriminate sounds resynthesized with simplified data from reference sounds resynthesized with the full data. Averaged over the seven instruments, the discrimination was very good for spectral envelope smoothing and amplitude envelope coherence, but was moderate to poor in decreasing order for forced harmonic frequency variation, frequency variation smoothing, frequency flattening, and amplitude variation smoothing. Discrimination of combinations of simplifications was equivalent to that of the most potent constituent simplification. Objective measurements were made on the spectral data for harmonic amplitude, harmonic frequency, and spectral centroid changes resulting from simplifications. These measures were found to correlate well with discrimination results, indicating that listeners have access to a relatively fine-grained sensory representation of musical instrument sounds.

  15. Musical Performance Anxiety and the Relationship between Learning Styles and the Instrument and Singing Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahal, Onur

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between musical performance anxiety, learning styles, and the field of instrument and solo singing music teacher candidates. Musical performance anxiety has been investigated at various musical events, such as performance during exams, singing and playing on stage, or in front of judges for an…

  16. Bi-Musicality and Dialogical Musicality: Influences of Javanese Gamelan Participation on Western Instrumental Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddon, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative research examines the influence of learning Javanese gamelan on aspects of musicianship, attitudes and approaches relating to the learning and performance of Western instruments experienced by a sample of UK university music students. In addition to benefits to musicianship, students delineated positive developments in attitudes…

  17. Trained Musical Performers' and Musically Untrained College Students' Ability to Discriminate Music Instrument Timbre as a Function of Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Dennis Alan

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of trained musicians and musically untrained college students to discriminate music instrument timbre as a function of duration. Specific factors investigated were the thresholds for timbre discrimination as a function of duration, musical ensemble participation as training, and the relative discrimination abilities of vocalists and instrumentalists. The subjects (N = 126) were volunteer college students from intact classes from various disciplines separated into musically untrained college students (N = 43) who had not participated in musical ensembles and trained musicians (N = 83) who had. The musicians were further divided into instrumentalists (N = 51) and vocalists (N = 32). The Method of Constant Stimuli, using a same-different response procedure with 120 randomized, counterbalanced timbre pairs comprised of trumpet, clarinet, or violin, presented in durations of 20 to 100 milliseconds in a sequence of pitches, in two blocks was used for data collection. Complete, complex musical timbres were recorded digitally and presented in a sequence of changing pitches to more closely approximate an actual music listening experience. Under the conditions of this study, it can be concluded that the threshold for timbre discrimination as a function of duration is at or below 20 ms. Even though trained musicians tended to discriminate timbre better than musically untrained college students, musicians cannot discriminate timbre significantly better then those subjects who have not participated in musical ensembles. Additionally, instrumentalists tended to discriminate timbre better than vocalists, but the discrimination is not significantly different. Recommendations for further research include suggestions for a timbre discrimination measurement tool that takes into consideration the multidimensionality of timbre and the relationship of timbre discrimination to timbre source, duration, pitch, and loudness.

  18. A musical instrument using in vitro neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Eduardo R.; Nasuto, Slawomir J.; Troisi, Anna R.; Downes, Julia; Chiaramonte, Antonino; Spencer, Matthew; Hammond, Mark; Xydas, Dimitris; Whalley, Ben; Becerra, Victor; Warwick, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a musical instrument, which uses in vitro neuronal networks to synthesise sounds. Cultures of dissociated neurons are grown on a dish with an embedded rectangular array of electrodes (MEA). Isolated neurons reconnect with one another via an extensive network of synaptically connected projections to form a dense monolayer of neurons. Cultures are provided with stimulation, which influences their activity, and can modify the culture’s state. The core of the sound synthesis e...

  19. Pitch Fork: A Novel tactile Digital Musical Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Peter; Overholt, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Pitch Fork is a prototype of an alternate, actuated digital musical instrument (DMI). It uses 5 infra-red and 4 piezoelectric sensors to control an additive synthesis engine. Iron bars are used as the physical point of contact in interaction with the aim of using material computation to control aspects of the digitally produced sound. This choice of material was also chosen to affect player experience. Sensor readings are relayed to a Macbook via an Arduino Mega. Mappings and audio output sig...

  20. Learning a Music Instrument in Early Childhood: What Can We Learn from Professional Musicians' Childhood Memories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Wyverne

    2008-01-01

    Professional early childhood educators are often asked for advice about whether or when a young child should learn to play a music instrument. Many educators who do not have a background in music education may not be confident in providing such advice. A range of overseas research has supported learning a music instrument in the early childhood…

  1. Factors Affecting Literacy Achievement of Eighth Grade Middle School Instrumental Music Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Johnny T.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this pretest-posttest comparative efficacy study was to analyze factors affecting literacy achievement of eighth grade middle school instrumental music students (n = 38) including (a) socioeconomic status (SES), (b) gender, (c) grade point average (GPA), (d) music motivation, (e) music involvement, and (f) instrument section. The…

  2. Authentic Membership: The Experiences of Two Students with Hearing Loss in Instrumental Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdett, John Paul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of two students with hearing loss participating in instrumental music. Four orienting questions guided the inquiry: (a) What factors contribute to these students' motivation to continue participating in instrumental music?; (b) How is hearing loss affecting each student's music participation…

  3. Developing a Scale for Strategies Used during the Practice and Learning of Instrumental Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uygun, Mehtap Aydiner; Kilinçer, Özlem

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable scale to identify the strategies students who study instrumental music use during the practice and learning of instrumental music based on their own responses. The study group comprised of 358 students studying music education in five universities in the academic year of 2015 to 2016.…

  4. Bowed Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Thomas D.; Hanson, Roger J.

    In the next eight chapters, we consider some aspects of the science of bowed string instruments, old and new. In this chapter, we present a brief discussion of bowed strings, a subject that will be developed much more thoroughly in Chap. 16. Chapters 13-15 discuss the violin, the cello, and the double bass. Chapter 17 discusses viols and other historic string instruments, and Chap. 18 discusses the Hutchins-Schelleng violin octet.

  5. Perception and Modeling of Affective Qualities of Musical Instrument Sounds across Pitch Registers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Stephen; Douglas, Chelsea; Vempala, Naresh N

    2017-01-01

    Composers often pick specific instruments to convey a given emotional tone in their music, partly due to their expressive possibilities, but also due to their timbres in specific registers and at given dynamic markings. Of interest to both music psychology and music informatics from a computational point of view is the relation between the acoustic properties that give rise to the timbre at a given pitch and the perceived emotional quality of the tone. Musician and nonmusician listeners were presented with 137 tones produced at a fixed dynamic marking (forte) playing tones at pitch class D# across each instrument's entire pitch range and with different playing techniques for standard orchestral instruments drawn from the brass, woodwind, string, and pitched percussion families. They rated each tone on six analogical-categorical scales in terms of emotional valence (positive/negative and pleasant/unpleasant), energy arousal (awake/tired), tension arousal (excited/calm), preference (like/dislike), and familiarity. Linear mixed models revealed interactive effects of musical training, instrument family, and pitch register, with non-linear relations between pitch register and several dependent variables. Twenty-three audio descriptors from the Timbre Toolbox were computed for each sound and analyzed in two ways: linear partial least squares regression (PLSR) and nonlinear artificial neural net modeling. These two analyses converged in terms of the importance of various spectral, temporal, and spectrotemporal audio descriptors in explaining the emotion ratings, but some differences also emerged. Different combinations of audio descriptors make major contributions to the three emotion dimensions, suggesting that they are carried by distinct acoustic properties. Valence is more positive with lower spectral slopes, a greater emergence of strong partials, and an amplitude envelope with a sharper attack and earlier decay. Higher tension arousal is carried by brighter sounds

  6. Musical Instrument-Associated Health Issues and Their Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoshi, Kae; Minami, Taro; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Tomizawa, Yasuko

    2017-09-01

    Playing musical instruments can bring joy to people, but can also cause a wide variety of health issues that range from mild disorders to potentially fatal conditions. Although sports medicine is an established medical subspecialty, relatively few studies have investigated the health issues associated with musical instruments. Here we present an overview of these health issues. These include infections due to microorganisms, allergic reactions, as well as mechanical injuries from sustained high pressures within the oral, mediastinal, thoracic, and abdominal cavities. For example, wind instruments can potentially harbor thousands of pathogenic organisms. If several players share the same instrument, these instruments present potential hazards in the spread of infections. A fatal case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a bagpiper is particularly noteworthy. Similarly, a case of gastrointestinal anthrax in an animal-hide drummer is a reminder of this rare but highly fatal disease. Although not fatal, hearing-related disorders, neuromuscular issues, musculoskeletal problems, and contact dermatitis are also very common among instrumentalists. This review aims to illuminate these under-recognized health issues by highlighting both the common conditions and the rare but fatal cases.

  7. Instrumental music influences recognition of emotional body language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Stock, Jan; Peretz, Isabelle; Grèzes, Julie; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2009-05-01

    In everyday life, emotional events are perceived by multiple sensory systems. Research has shown that recognition of emotions in one modality is biased towards the emotion expressed in a simultaneously presented but task irrelevant modality. In the present study, we combine visual and auditory stimuli that convey similar affective meaning but have a low probability of co-occurrence in everyday life. Dynamic face-blurred whole body expressions of a person grasping an object while expressing happiness or sadness are presented in combination with fragments of happy or sad instrumental classical music. Participants were instructed to categorize the emotion expressed by the visual stimulus. The results show that recognition of body language is influenced by the auditory stimuli. These findings indicate that crossmodal influences as previously observed for audiovisual speech can also be obtained from the ignored auditory to the attended visual modality in audiovisual stimuli that consist of whole bodies and music.

  8. Sound quality of brass-wind musical instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Robert W.

    2003-10-01

    Confronted with the phrase ``sound quality'' applied to brass-instrument sound, the typical player will respond, ``Oh, you mean tone.'' For the player, this one word lumps together all spectrum-dependent features of the sound. The player may deliberately vary tone quality depending on the type of music being performed, the other performers involved, and the performance space. After a review of those features of tone quality common to all brass instruments and the differences between the various members of the family, some more subtle questions will be addressed. How and to what extent can the player control tone color without changing equipment? How does the player choose his or her equipment? How does the instrument maker offer choices to the player? How does the tone as heard in the audience differ from that heard by the player? Time permitting, there will be consideration of the difficulties in establishing a meaningful vocabulary for the discussion of tone quality.

  9. The perception of size in musical instrument sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dinther, Ralph; Patterson, Roy D.

    2005-04-01

    There is size information in natural sounds. For example, as humans grow in height their vocal tract increases in length, and this produces a predictable decrease in formant frequency. Recent studies have shown that listeners can judge the relative size of two individuals with considerable precision, and they can recognize vowels scaled well beyond the range normally experienced. This paper reports two psychophysical studies designed to extend the research to musical instrument sounds. The first showed that listeners can discriminate the relative size of instruments reliably, although not quite as well as for voices. The second showed that listeners can recognize instrument sounds scaled in size and pitch well beyond the range of normal experience. The research supports the hypothesis that the auditory system applies some kind of active normalization to all input sounds. [Work supported by the U.K. Medical Research Council (G9901257, G9900362), and ONRIFO (Grant N00014-03-1-1023).

  10. Psychological Sex Type and Preferences for Musical Instruments in Fourth and Fifth Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsel, Tiffany J.; Dixon, Wallace E., Jr.; Blades-Zeller, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Observes that biological sex is an important determinant of whether elementary students persevere in musical instrument training and hypothesizes that psychological sex-type may also play an important role. Shows that psychological sex-type directly impacts choice of instrument type. Suggests applications to musical instrument education. (DSK)

  11. A Comprehensive Review of Sensors and Instrumentation Methods in Devices for Musical Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Brum Medeiros; Marcelo M. Wanderley

    2014-01-01

    Digital Musical Instruments (DMIs) are musical instruments typically composed of a control surface where user interaction is measured by sensors whose values are mapped to sound synthesis algorithms. These instruments have gained interest among skilled musicians and performers in the last decades leading to artistic practices including musical performance, interactive installations and dance. The creation of DMIs typically involves several areas, among them: arts, design and engineering. The ...

  12. William Lincer: Fifty Years of String Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kella, John J.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Lincer's eight-part, innovative program for string instrument instruction used at the Julliard School of Music. The program includes breathing and relaxation studies, body-movement and muscle-action studies, feeling and self-awareness studies, and concentration and visualization studies. (AM)

  13. The Impact of Earl Scruggs on the Five String Banjo

    OpenAIRE

    Jonassen, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    With its distinct sound and virtuoso playing style, the five string banjo is of central importance to bluegrass music, and most banjo playing in bluegrass is based on the style of the central individual Earl Scruggs. In this thesis, a technical insight to the playing techniques used on the banjo in bluegrass music is achieved using transcriptions, and both technical and musical analysis. Historical context for both the banjo as an instrument, bluegrass as a genre and Earl Scruggs as a musicia...

  14. Current Status of String Teacher Education at University Music Teacher Training Schools in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokturk , Dilek

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the status of undergraduate string teacher education curriculum in Turkish universities in both eastern and western regions. To accomplish this task, the relative strengths and weaknesses of Turkish string teacher education were investigated through an intensive literature review and a survey. Seventy-one…

  15. Instrumental Music Education Students' Perceptions of Tensions Experienced during Their Undergraduate Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Colleen; Eros, John; Pellegrino, Kristen; West, Chad

    2010-01-01

    In response to recent concern regarding music education major retention and as an effort to contribute to the "lives of teachers" scholarship in music education, the primary research question for this study was: How do undergraduate students describe their lived experiences within the instrumental music education community? Data included a…

  16. Decoding auditory attention to instruments in polyphonic music using single-trial EEG classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treder, M S; Purwins, H; Miklody, D; Sturm, I; Blankertz, B

    2014-04-01

    Polyphonic music (music consisting of several instruments playing in parallel) is an intuitive way of embedding multiple information streams. The different instruments in a musical piece form concurrent information streams that seamlessly integrate into a coherent and hedonistically appealing entity. Here, we explore polyphonic music as a novel stimulation approach for use in a brain-computer interface. In a multi-streamed oddball experiment, we had participants shift selective attention to one out of three different instruments in music audio clips. Each instrument formed an oddball stream with its own specific standard stimuli (a repetitive musical pattern) and oddballs (deviating musical pattern). Contrasting attended versus unattended instruments, ERP analysis shows subject- and instrument-specific responses including P300 and early auditory components. The attended instrument can be classified offline with a mean accuracy of 91% across 11 participants. This is a proof of concept that attention paid to a particular instrument in polyphonic music can be inferred from ongoing EEG, a finding that is potentially relevant for both brain-computer interface and music research.

  17. Decoding auditory attention to instruments in polyphonic music using single-trial EEG classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treder, M. S.; Purwins, H.; Miklody, D.; Sturm, I.; Blankertz, B.

    2014-04-01

    Objective. Polyphonic music (music consisting of several instruments playing in parallel) is an intuitive way of embedding multiple information streams. The different instruments in a musical piece form concurrent information streams that seamlessly integrate into a coherent and hedonistically appealing entity. Here, we explore polyphonic music as a novel stimulation approach for use in a brain-computer interface. Approach. In a multi-streamed oddball experiment, we had participants shift selective attention to one out of three different instruments in music audio clips. Each instrument formed an oddball stream with its own specific standard stimuli (a repetitive musical pattern) and oddballs (deviating musical pattern). Main results. Contrasting attended versus unattended instruments, ERP analysis shows subject- and instrument-specific responses including P300 and early auditory components. The attended instrument can be classified offline with a mean accuracy of 91% across 11 participants. Significance. This is a proof of concept that attention paid to a particular instrument in polyphonic music can be inferred from ongoing EEG, a finding that is potentially relevant for both brain-computer interface and music research.

  18. School Music and Society: A Content Analysis of the Midwestern Conference on School Vocal and Instrumental Music, 1946-1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Chad

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of the session content presented in the first fifty years (1946-1996) of the (Michigan) state music education conference," The Midwestern Conference on School Vocal and Instrumental Music." The purpose of this study was to examine instructional techniques, technology, social/societal, and multicultural…

  19. An Investigation of the Relationships between Mathematics and Music Skills of Students Participating in Successful High School Instrumental Music Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Scott

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory phenomenological study was designed to investigate the relationships between mathematics and music skills of students participating in successful high school instrumental music programs. The participants of this study were purposefully selected and included one math educator or math department chairperson and the band or orchestra…

  20. The Relationship between Pre-Service Music Teachers' Self-Efficacy Belief in Musical Instrument Performance and Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgin, Demet

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Strong self-efficacy bring achievement in instrument education as in other disciplines. Achievement will increase the quality of instrument education, and it will be reflected in the professional lives of pre-service teachers and their students. This suggests that research on belief in musical instrument performance is necessary.…

  1. PECULIARITIES OF PROGRAMME MUSIC IN THE INSTRUMENTAL SUITE OF COMPOSERS FROM THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEREZOVICOVA TATIANA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the study of the instrumental suites written by native composers from the point of view of the realization of programme music. The author analyses different kinds of programme music such as genre, stylistic, pictorial (without any subject, with a generalized subject, with a concrete subject, as well as latent programme music, felt in some non-programme compositions declared and expressed through specific instrumental means.

  2. Intracorporeal Circular Stapled Esophagojejunostomy Using Conventional Purse-String Suture Instrument After Laparoscopic Total Gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiguo; Guo, Yongfang; Qiu, Zhigang; Niu, Dongguang; Zhang, Jianli

    2017-12-01

    An optimal alimentary tract reconstruction technique after laparoscopic total gastrectomy (LTG) remains controversial. The authors developed a new simple technique for intracorporeal esophagojejunal anastomosis that employs a conventional purse-string suture instrument (PSI) and circular stapler. From May 2014 to April 2016, 41 consecutive patients with gastric cancer underwent LTG in the author's institution. Intracorporeal esophagojejunal anastomosis using the following method was attempted for all patients. After total gastrectomy was completed laparoscopically, a small vertical incision (about 40 mm) was created at the left midclavicular line and retracted by a wound retractor. An anvil of a 25 mm circular stapler was introduced into the abdominal cavity. Then a previously prepared surgical glove, which was cut open at the thumb and the little finger through which the two hand shafts of the PSI were passed separately and sealed by ties, was attached to the wound retractor to maintain airtightness, and the PSI was introduced into the abdominal cavity. The following procedure was similar to conventional open surgery except that it was performed under laparoscopic vision. Intracorporeal esophagojejunal anastomosis was performed successfully for all 41 patients. No case required extension of the initial incision for difficulties during anastomosis. The mean operation time was 245 minutes, and the mean time for the purse-string suture and anvil placement was 15 minutes. Tumor-free margins were achieved in all 41 patients. There were no anastomosis-related complications or other major surgical complications. With the described method, intracorporeal esophagojejunal anastomosis can be performed easily and safely.

  3. Acoustics and the Performance of Music Manual for Acousticians, Audio Engineers, Musicians, Architects and Musical Instrument Makers

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Acoustics and the Performance of Music connects scientific understandings of acoustics with practical applications to musical performance. Of central importance are the tonal characteristics of musical instruments and the singing voice including detailed representations of directional characteristics. Furthermore, room acoustical concerns related to concert halls and opera houses are considered. Based on this, suggestions are made for musical performance. Included are seating arrangements within the orchestra and adaptations of performance techniques to the performance environment. In the presentation we dispense with complicated mathematical connections and deliberately aim for conceptual explanations accessible to musicians, particularly for conductors. The graphical representations of the directional dependence of sound radiation by musical instruments and the singing voice are unique. Since the first edition was published in 1978, this book has been completely revised and rewritten to include current rese...

  4. The Impact of Instrumental Music Learning on Attainment at Age 16: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Susan; Rogers, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing international evidence that playing a musical instrument has a positive impact on attainment at school but little research has been undertaken in the UK. This study addresses this drawing on data on attainment at age 11 and 16 relating to 608 students, 115 of whom played a musical instrument. The fndings showed that the young…

  5. Extrinsic Motivators Affecting Fourth-Grade Students' Interest and Enrollment in an Instrumental Music Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil, Martina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate fourth-grade students' extrinsic motivators for joining and continuing in a school instrumental music program. Three research questions were investigated: (a) What extrinsic motivators have influenced fourth-grade students' initial interest and continuing participation in an instrumental music program?…

  6. The Effect of Three Orchestra/School Partnerships on Students' Interest in Instrumental Music Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeles, Hal

    2004-01-01

    This study is an examination of the influence of three orchestra/school partnerships on students' interest in instrumental music. A vocational choice school was used to assess students' interest in instrumental music. Surveys were administered to second- through fourth-grade students at partnership and nonpartnership schools. Results indicated…

  7. A View of Current Evaluative Practices in Instrumental Music Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Amber Dahlén

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how instrumental music educator skills are being evaluated in current undergraduate programs. While accrediting organizations mandate certain elements of these programs, they provide limited guidance on what evaluative approaches should be used. Instrumental music teacher educators in the College Music…

  8. The Effects of Participation in School Instrumental Music Programs on Student Academic Achievement and School Attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Kevin O.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether or not students that participated in a school sponsored instrumental music program had higher academic achievement and attendance than students that did not participate in a school sponsor instrumental music program. Units of measurement included standardized test scores and attendance, without taking into consideration…

  9. USAGE OF PICTOGRAMS TO INTRODUCE MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS TO EDUCABLE MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN AS AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunsu YILMA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine and investigate the perception ability of musical instruments of educable mentally retarded children with the support of visual elements. The research is conducted for every children individually in a special education and rehabilitation centre. The problematic of this research is the level of perception ability of musical instruments with visual support on mild mentally retarded children. In this research, perception ability of defining pictograms by music is introduced as an alternative method. It is researched that how educable mentally retarded children perceive pictograms by music tools. In this case, it is aimed to introduce musical instruments to educable mentally retarded children by pictograms with music. The research is applied with a qualitative approach. Data were obtained with the recorder, then they were turned into texts and analyzed with content analysis method.

  10. Issues of academic study and practical acquisition of Tuvan music (a case study of Tuvan instrumental music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Yu. Suzukey

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the 20th century, Tuvan music culture has undergone dramatic upheaval and a number of transformations. Today we face an acute need to rethink the achievements and losses incurred over that period of time. The objective of this article is to reconsider some basic parameters of Tuvan music culture that are responsible for preserving the integrity of its sound structure. The relevance of the topic is due to a current conceptual rift between the musical practices and their scholarly interpretations. In the Soviet period, culture throughout the entire USSR was solely driven by the European model of musical development with no reliance on practices typical for ethnical cultures. We are currently witnessing a decline in the numbers of those representing oral and audial traditional culture, while the numbers of music college graduates, those who studied at conservatoires, universities, academies of culture and arts, and thus come as bearers of values lying outside of the tradition. Tuvan musical practice is experiencing an invasion of academic vocabulary and non-relevant appraisal criteria. However, Tuvan musical culture, having always been primarily oral, has developed its own acoustic structure, as well as mechanisms and methods for non-scriptory transfer of knowledge. But these vernacular methods are still insufficiently explored. The author postulates that the system of Tuvan instrumental music organization is unique and acts as a basis for unconventional sound of musical instruments and xöömei (throat singing. Distinctive timbre and inimitable flair of the sound is achieved by original system of bourdon-overtone sound coordination. Music is created for audial enjoyment. But musicologists (mainly in Russia are still analyzing the notation they keep making of performed folk instrumental pieces and xöömei. Such an approach drastically narrows the entire panorama of traditional instrumental music. A positive factor is that contemporary Tuvan

  11. Relationship of vibro-mechanical properties and microstructure of wood and varnish interface in string instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi Gilani, Marjan; Pflaum, Johanna; Hartmann, Stefan; Kaufmann, Rolf; Baumgartner, Michael; Schwarze, Francis Willis Mathew Robert

    2016-04-01

    Wood varnish coatings not only are aesthetically important, but also preserve the musical instrument from wear and fluctuations in the ambient humidity. Depending on the thickness, extent of penetration into the wood and the physical and mechanical properties after hardening, varnishes may change the mechanical and also vibro-acoustical properties of the coated wood. Contrary to studies on the chemistry of the varnish and primer used for old and contemporary musical instruments, the physical and mechanical properties of the varnished wood in relation to the geometry of their interface have been poorly studied. We implemented non-destructive test methods, i.e., vibration tests and X-ray tomography, to characterize the hardening-dependent change in the vibrational properties of master grade tone wood specimens after coating with four different varnishes. Two were manufactured in the laboratory, and two were supplied from master violin makers. For a controlled accelerated hardening of the varnish, a UV exposure method was used. It was demonstrated that varnishes increase wood damping, along and perpendicular to the grain directions. Varnishes reduce the sound radiation along the grain, but increase it in the perpendicular direction. Changes in the vibrational properties were discussed together with results of 3D images of wood and varnish microstructure, obtained from a customized tabletop X-ray microtomographic setup. For comparison, the microstructure of the interface of the varnished wood in the laboratory and of specimens from two old violins was analyzed with the same X-ray tomography setup. Laboratory varnishes with various compositions penetrated differently into the wood structure. One varnish of a master grade old violin had a higher density and was also thicker and penetrated weaker into the wood, which is more likely related to a more sophisticated primer and varnish application. The study demonstrates the importance of the vibro-mechanical properties of

  12. Utility of the three-dimensional reconstruction by means of helical scanography in the study of stringed instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morillo Zarate, Anibal Jose; Uriza Carrasco, Luis Felipe

    1998-01-01

    The evaluation of stringed instruments with axial computerized tomography (CT) sections has been described as a reliable method for the study of its internal components and for the detection of damaged instruments. We present the application of helical CT with thin sections and 3-D reconstructions in a series of violins, for an anatomical study of the instrument. The 3-D images offer complementary information and permit a better evaluation of the internal structure of the violin that can be useful for the understanding of the secrets of its construction and for the diagnosis of structural lesions that can affect its acoustic performance

  13. MODELLING THE FUTURE MUSIC TEACHERS’ READINESS TO PERFORMING AND INTERPRETIVE ACTIVITY DURING INSTRUMENTAL TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenj Bo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the main fields of training future music teachers in Ukrainian system of higher education is instrumental music one, such as skills of performing and interpretive activities. The aim of the article is to design a model of the future music teachers’ readiness to performing and interpretive activities in musical and instrumental training. The process of modelling is based on several interrelated scientific approaches, including systemic, personality-centered, reflective, competence, active and creative ones. While designing a model of music future teachers’ readinesses to musical interpretive activities, its philosophical, informative, interactive, hedonistic, creative functions are taken into account. Important theoretical and methodological factors are thought to be principles of musical and pedagogical education: culture correspondence and reflection; unity of emotional and conscious, artistic and technical items in musical education; purposeful interrelations and art and pedagogical communication between teachers and students; intensification of music and creative activity. Above-mentioned pedagogical phenomenon is subdivided into four components: motivation-oriented, cognitive-evaluating, performance-independent, creative and productive. For each component relevant criteria and indicators are identified. The stages of future music teachers’ readiness to performing interpretative activity are highlighted: information searching one, which contributes to the implementation of complex diagnostic methods (surveys, questionnaires, testing; regulative and performing one, which is characterized by future music teachers’ immersion into music performing and interpretative activities; operational and reflective stage, which involves activation of mechanisms of future music teachers’ self-knowledge, self-realization, formation of skills of independent artistic and expressive various music genres and styles interpretation; projective and

  14. Exploratory and Creative Properties of Physical-Modeling-based Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven

    be supported and even challenged by the instruments they use. What is it that makes one musical instrument more creatively inspiring than another, and how do we evaluate how well it succeeds? In order to present answers to these questions, the thesis focusses on the sound synthesis technique of physical......Digital musical instruments are developed to enable musicians to find new ways of expressing themselves. The development and evaluation of these instruments can be approached from many different perspectives depending on which capabilities one wants the musicians to have. This thesis attempts...... to approach development and evaluation of these instruments with the notion that instruments today are able to facilitate the creative process that is so crucial for creating music. The fundamental question pursued throughout the thesis is how creative work processes of composers of electronic music can...

  15. An enactive approach to the preservation of musical instruments reconstructing Russolo’s intonarumori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Götzen, Amalia De

    2009-01-01

    In the early twentieth century, the Italian Futurist Luigi Russolo made a set of instruments called Intonarumori. In each, sound was generated inside a box with a horn, by means such as a wheel scraping on a string, controlled by a crank and one or more levers. The original instruments were all d...

  16. Structural and functional plasticity specific to musical training with wind instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uk-Su eChoi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous neuroimaging studies have shown structural and functional changes resulting from musical training. Among these studies, changes in primary sensory areas are mostly related to motor functions. In this study, we looked for some similar functional and structural changes in other functional modalities, such as somatosensory function, by examining the effects of musical training with wind instruments. We found significant changes in two aspects of neuroplasticity, cortical thickness and resting-state neuronal networks. A group of subjects with several years of continuous musical training and who are currently playing in university wind ensembles showed differences in cortical thickness in lip- and tongue-related brain areas versus non-music playing subjects. Cortical thickness in lip-related brain areas was significantly thicker and that in tongue-related areas was significantly thinner in the music playing group compared with that in the non-music playing group. Association analysis of lip-related areas in the music playing group showed that the increase in cortical thickness was caused by musical training. In addition, seed-based correlation analysis showed differential activation in the precentral gyrus and supplementary motor areas between the music and non-music playing groups. These results suggest that high-intensity training with specific musical instruments could induce structural changes in related anatomical areas and could also generate a new functional neuronal network in the brain.

  17. Structural and functional plasticity specific to musical training with wind instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Uk-Su; Sung, Yul-Wan; Hong, Sujin; Chung, Jun-Young; Ogawa, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    Numerous neuroimaging studies have shown structural and functional changes resulting from musical training. Among these studies, changes in primary sensory areas are mostly related to motor functions. In this study, we looked for some similar functional and structural changes in other functional modalities, such as somatosensory function, by examining the effects of musical training with wind instruments. We found significant changes in two aspects of neuroplasticity, cortical thickness, and resting-state neuronal networks. A group of subjects with several years of continuous musical training and who are currently playing in university wind ensembles showed differences in cortical thickness in lip- and tongue-related brain areas vs. non-music playing subjects. Cortical thickness in lip-related brain areas was significantly thicker and that in tongue-related areas was significantly thinner in the music playing group compared with that in the non-music playing group. Association analysis of lip-related areas in the music playing group showed that the increase in cortical thickness was caused by musical training. In addition, seed-based correlation analysis showed differential activation in the precentral gyrus and supplementary motor areas (SMA) between the music and non-music playing groups. These results suggest that high-intensity training with specific musical instruments could induce structural changes in related anatomical areas and could also generate a new functional neuronal network in the brain.

  18. Dynamical computation of constrained flexible systems using a modal Udwadia-Kalaba formulation: Application to musical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, J; Debut, V

    2017-02-01

    Most musical instruments consist of dynamical subsystems connected at a number of constraining points through which energy flows. For physical sound synthesis, one important difficulty deals with enforcing these coupling constraints. While standard techniques include the use of Lagrange multipliers or penalty methods, in this paper, a different approach is explored, the Udwadia-Kalaba (U-K) formulation, which is rooted on analytical dynamics but avoids the use of Lagrange multipliers. This general and elegant formulation has been nearly exclusively used for conceptual systems of discrete masses or articulated rigid bodies, namely, in robotics. However its natural extension to deal with continuous flexible systems is surprisingly absent from the literature. Here, such a modeling strategy is developed and the potential of combining the U-K equation for constrained systems with the modal description is shown, in particular, to simulate musical instruments. Objectives are twofold: (1) Develop the U-K equation for constrained flexible systems with subsystems modelled through unconstrained modes; and (2) apply this framework to compute string/body coupled dynamics. This example complements previous work [Debut, Antunes, Marques, and Carvalho, Appl. Acoust. 108, 3-18 (2016)] on guitar modeling using penalty methods. Simulations show that the proposed technique provides similar results with a significant improvement in computational efficiency.

  19. Analog-to-digital conversion to accommodate the dynamics of live music in hearing instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockley, Neil S; Bahlmann, Frauke; Fulton, Bernadette

    2012-09-01

    Hearing instrument design focuses on the amplification of speech to reduce the negative effects of hearing loss. Many amateur and professional musicians, along with music enthusiasts, also require their hearing instruments to perform well when listening to the frequent, high amplitude peaks of live music. One limitation, in most current digital hearing instruments with 16-bit analog-to-digital (A/D) converters, is that the compressor before the A/D conversion is limited to 95 dB (SPL) or less at the input. This is more than adequate for the dynamic range of speech; however, this does not accommodate the amplitude peaks present in live music. The hearing instrument input compression system can be adjusted to accommodate for the amplitudes present in music that would otherwise be compressed before the A/D converter in the hearing instrument. The methodology behind this technological approach will be presented along with measurements to demonstrate its effectiveness.

  20. Effects of training on recognition of musical instruments presented through cochlear implant simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Virginia D; Oleson, Jacob; Jiang, Dingfeng; Gfeller, Kate

    2009-01-01

    The simulation of the CI (cochlear implant) signal presents a degraded representation of each musical instrument, which makes recognition difficult. To examine the efficiency and effectiveness of three types of training on recognition of musical instruments as presented through simulations of the sounds transmitted through a CI. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three training conditions: repeated exposure, feedback, and direct instruction. Sixty-six adults with normal hearing. Each participant completed three training sessions per week, over a five-week time period, in which they listened to the CI simulations of eight different musical instruments. Analyses on percent of instruments identified correctly showed statistically significant differences between recognition accuracy of the three training conditions (p different types of training are differentially effective with regard to improving recognition of musical instruments presented through a degraded signal, which has practical implications for the auditory rehabilitation of persons who use cochlear implants.

  1. The Effects of Training on Recognition of Musical Instruments by Adults with Cochlear Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Virginia D

    2012-11-01

    This study examines the efficiency and effectiveness of three types of training on recognition of musical instruments by adults with cochlear implants (CI). Seventy-one adults with CIs were randomly assigned to one of three training conditions: feedback on response accuracy, feedback-plus (response accuracy plus correct answer), and direct instruction. Each participant completed three training sessions per week over a five-week time period in which they listened to recorded excerpts of eight different musical instruments. Results showed significant pre-to-posttest improvement in music instrument recognition accuracy for all three training conditions (22.9-25.7%, p types of auditory rehabilitation for persons who use CIs.

  2. Music Regulators in Two String Quartets: A Comparison of Communicative Behaviors between Low- and High-Stress Performance Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasutti, Michele; Concina, Eleonora; Wasley, David; Williamon, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    In ensemble performances, group members use particular bodily behaviors as a sort of “language” to supplement the lack of verbal communication. This article focuses on music regulators, which are defined as signs to other group members for coordinating performance. The following two music regulators are considered: body gestures for articulating attacks (a set of movements externally directed that are used to signal entrances in performance) and eye contact. These regulators are recurring observable behaviors that play an important role in non-verbal communication among ensemble members. To understand how they are used by chamber musicians, video recordings of two string quartet performances (Quartet A performing Bartók and Quartet B performing Haydn) were analyzed under two conditions: a low stress performance (LSP), undertaken in a rehearsal setting, and a high stress performance (HSP) during a public recital. The results provide evidence for more emphasis in gestures for articulating attacks (i.e., the perceived strength of a performed attack-type body gesture) during HSP than LSP. Conversely, no significant differences were found for the frequency of eye contact between HSP and LSP. Moreover, there was variability in eye contact during HSP and LSP, showing that these behaviors are less standardized and may change according to idiosyncratic performance conditions. Educational implications are discussed for improving interpersonal communication skills during ensemble performance. PMID:27610089

  3. Music Regulators in Two String Quartets: A Comparison of Communicative Behaviors between Low- and High-Stress Performance Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasutti, Michele; Concina, Eleonora; Wasley, David; Williamon, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    In ensemble performances, group members use particular bodily behaviors as a sort of "language" to supplement the lack of verbal communication. This article focuses on music regulators, which are defined as signs to other group members for coordinating performance. The following two music regulators are considered: body gestures for articulating attacks (a set of movements externally directed that are used to signal entrances in performance) and eye contact. These regulators are recurring observable behaviors that play an important role in non-verbal communication among ensemble members. To understand how they are used by chamber musicians, video recordings of two string quartet performances (Quartet A performing Bartók and Quartet B performing Haydn) were analyzed under two conditions: a low stress performance (LSP), undertaken in a rehearsal setting, and a high stress performance (HSP) during a public recital. The results provide evidence for more emphasis in gestures for articulating attacks (i.e., the perceived strength of a performed attack-type body gesture) during HSP than LSP. Conversely, no significant differences were found for the frequency of eye contact between HSP and LSP. Moreover, there was variability in eye contact during HSP and LSP, showing that these behaviors are less standardized and may change according to idiosyncratic performance conditions. Educational implications are discussed for improving interpersonal communication skills during ensemble performance.

  4. Music regulators in two string quartet ensembles: a comparison of communicative behaviours between low- and high-stress performance conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Biasutti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In ensemble performances, group members use particular bodily behaviours as a sort of language to supplement the lack of verbal communication. This research study focuses on music regulators, which are defined as signs to other group members for coordinating performance. The following two music regulators are considered: body gestures for articulating attacks (a set of movements externally directed that are used to signal entrances in performance and eye contacts. These regulators are recurring observable behaviors that play an important role in nonverbal communication among ensemble members. To understand how these regulators are used by chamber musicians, video recordings of members of two string quartet ensemble performances (Quartet Ensemble A performing Bartók and Quartet Ensemble B performing Haydn were analysed under two conditions: a low stress performance (LSP, undertaken in a rehearsal setting, and a high stress performance (HSP during a live concert. The results provide evidence for more emphasis in gestures for articulating attacks (i.e. the perceived strength of a performed attack-type body gestures during HSP than LSP. . Conversely, no significant differences were found for the frequency of eye contact between HSP and LSP. Moreover, there was variability in eye contacts during HSP and LSP, showing that these behaviours are less standardised and may change according to idiosyncratic performing conditions. Educational implications are discussed for improving interpersonal communication skills during ensemble performance.

  5. Pengaruh Immediet Instrumental Music Hearing Therapy Dengan Progresive Muscle Relaxation Exercise Terhadap Rest Heart Reat

    OpenAIRE

    Trisnowiyanto, Bambang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to know the immediate effect of listening to music (instrumental music hearing therapy) and muscle relaxation exercises (progressive muscle relaxation exercise) to the resting pulse rate.Background: the number of heartbeats in one minute, which gives a clear picture of the load when the activity of the heart muscle is needed at a particular time. The heart rate can be affected by physical exercise and a good atmosphere to listen to music.Subject: students of junior high school were...

  6. An Instrument for Every Child: A Study on Long-Term Effects of Extended Music Education in German Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupp-Schleußner, Valerie; Lehmann-Wermser, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Does extended music education during primary school foster long-term musical participation? What other factors contribute to long-term musical participation? In our study on "Impacts and Long-Term Effects of Musical Participation," we investigate how the German programme "An Instrument for Every Child (JeKi)," which fosters the…

  7. Gender Associations for Musical Instruments in Nursery Children: The Effect of Sound and Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Nigel; Shibazaki, Kagari

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a study carried out with 105 children, aged between three and four years in three nursery units in London and Surrey, UK. The aim of this study was to explore the level of association which young children have between various musical instruments, musical styles and a particular gender. However, we also aimed to…

  8. The Effects of Altering Environmental and Instrumental Context on the Performance of Memorized Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Jennifer; Backlin, William

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments investigated whether musical memory was context dependent. Instrumental musicians memorized music in one context and recalled in either the same or a different context. Contexts included atypical performing environments (Experiment 1: lobby/conference room) or commonly encountered environments (Experiment 2: practice room,…

  9. Lived Experiences of Secondary Instrumental Music Teachers Who Teach Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinciguerra, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Very little research is published on teaching music to students with learning disabilities. Nevertheless, federal law mandates that instruction of such students take place in all public schools. The purpose of this study was to investigate the lived experiences of four secondary instrumental music teachers who teach five students with learning…

  10. Insights and Opinions of College Students on Classical Piano Instrumental Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelayo, Jose Maria G., III

    2013-01-01

    Classical Piano Instrumental Music has been used for meditation hitherto. This study tried to discover the insights and opinions of individuals with no formal musical training and how it may affect their mood, emotions, feelings, imagination, attitude, perception in life, and personality. The researcher conducted this study in order to determine…

  11. Responding to Culture in the Instrumental Music Programme: A Teacher's Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, Carlos R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to examine how one music teacher responds to student's cultural backgrounds through a middle school instrumental music programme in the US. The study sought to uncover the events, situations and circumstances that served as catalysts for curricular change and the rationales that gave it purpose. It also examined…

  12. An overview of musical instruments used in South American dance traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Paul A.

    2002-11-01

    Musical instruments used in South American dances combine elements from Amerindian, African, and European musical traditions. The Amerindian influence can be seen in Andean instruments, such as the end-blown flute, panpipe, and charango (modified from the European guitar). The berimau, a musical bow used in the Brazilian capoeira dance, is an example of African influence. The bandoneon is a square-ended German concertina most famous for its use in the tango from Argentina. This paper provides an overview of the musical instruments commonly used in South American dance traditions in relationship to their origins. The acoustics of some of these instruments, such as the guitar, has been studied in detail, whereas others, like the Brazilian cuica, provide opportunity for new studies.

  13. What Predicts Level of Expertise Attained, Quality of Performance, and Future Musical Aspirations in Young Instrumental Players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Research exploring learning outcomes in instrumental music has tended to focus on attainment ignoring other outcomes including long-term commitment to engage with music. This research addresses this issue. One hundred and sixty-three instrumental music students completed a questionnaire which sought information about their practising strategies,…

  14. Understanding musical concepts of tempo and instrument in the third grade of elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with examining the quality of knowledge, i.e. the levels of internalization of the concepts tempo and instrument taught within the subject Musical Culture in the third grade of elementary school. The quality of knowledge we defined by different levels of understanding the selected concepts. Apart from theoretical considerations of general questions regarding the process of musical education in elementary school, in the available methodology literature the authors do not discuss the problem of concepts development in Musical Culture teaching. Hence, it can be safely said that this paper opens a new research field in the area of methodology of Musical Culture teaching. Additionally, one of the important aims of our work is to stress concrete teaching procedures which can stimulate a more efficient development of musical concepts. The obtained results show that the knowledge of the majority of the third-grade students of the concept tempo (and instrument is on the initial pre-conceptual level, and the level of knowing verbal definitions. According to this, the teaching of Musical Culture in the third grade of elementary school insufficiently recognizes the unique nature of musical acquisition and its developmental dimension, in comparison to other school subjects. The development of scientific concepts in Musical Culture teaching starts with spontaneous musical experiences, but for understanding the concepts, and their efficient application, necessary is the student's thoughtful engagement and processing of sound and pre-conceptual knowledge as well as theoretical knowledge.

  15. Expressivity in Open-ended Constructive Play: Building and Playing Musical Lego Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kasper; Stougaard, Jeppe; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2016-01-01

    and performed with their instruments on stage. The workshop was facilitated by a tangible music-making platform called Hitmachine, aiming to empower children to collectively make expressive music without the need for prior musical skills. The findings show how age influenced the children’s expressivity......This paper presents the findings from a case study in designing for open-ended constructive play for children. The study is based on a workshop where more that 150 children in ages 3-13 built and played their own musical instruments from Lego. The children used different sensors for playing......, and gives insight into the open-ended qualities of constructive play with music. Based on these findings we propose the Constructive Play Expressivity Model, as a tool for guiding designers’ way of thinking about different areas of expressivity, when designing for constructive play interaction....

  16. Perceiving speech rhythm in music: listeners classify instrumental songs according to language of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Erin E

    2009-06-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the musical rhythm of a particular culture may parallel the speech rhythm of that culture's language (Patel, A. D., & Daniele, J. R. (2003). An empirical comparison of rhythm in language and music. Cognition, 87, B35-B45). The present experiments aimed to determine whether listeners actually perceive such rhythmic differences in a purely musical context (i.e., in instrumental music without words). In Experiment 1a, listeners successfully classified instrumental renditions of French and English songs having highly contrastive rhythmic differences. Experiment 1b replicated this result with the same songs containing rhythmic information only. In Experiments 2a and 2b, listeners successfully classified original and rhythm-only stimuli when language-specific rhythmic differences were less contrastive but more representative of differences found in actual music and speech. These findings indicate that listeners can use rhythmic similarities and differences to classify songs originally composed in two languages having contrasting rhythmic prosody.

  17. A Survey of Florida High School Instrumental Music Programs: Rationale for the Inclusion of Jazz Ensemble Experience in Music Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Jonathan R.

    2011-01-01

    During the past 60 years, jazz music has slowly become recognized as a genre worthy of study in high school music programs throughout the United States. Only a few researchers have analyzed large samples of jazz-related instruction in instrumental music programs, and of these studies no data were collected to investigate the inclusion of jazz in…

  18. The Electronic Valve Instrument (EVI), an electronic musical wind controller for playing synthesizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Nyle A.

    2004-05-01

    The Electronic Valve Instrument (EVI) is an electronic musical wind instrument with playing techniques similar to that of a trumpet. Invented by Nyle Steiner in the early 1970's, it was designed to give the performer control of dynamics from breath pressure and the ability to make a humanly generated vibrato. Other musical paramaters can be controlled as well. It has a playing range of seven octaves (similar to that of a piano). When musical lines are played using this instrument (controller) connected to an electronic music synthesizer, the sound is much more natural sounding and expressive than when a normal musical keyboard is used. The evolution of this instrument from the pre-Midi era to it latest Midi configuration, principles of operation, synthesizer programming, and its wide use in movie and TV scoring will be discussed. The EVI has played featured musical lines in many major movie soundtracks and TV shows such as Apocalypse Now, Witness, Dead Poets Society, Fatal Attraction, No Way Out, Gorillas in the Mist, and many others. The EVI design has also been adapted as an Electronic Woodwind Instrument (EWI) by Nyle Steiner and has been manufactured and sold worldwide by the AKAI Co. in Japan.

  19. String Theory - The Physics of String-Bending and Other Electric Guitar Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, David Robert

    2014-01-01

    Electric guitar playing is ubiquitous in practically all modern music genres. In the hands of an experienced player, electric guitars can sound as expressive and distinct as a human voice. Unlike other more quantised instruments where pitch is a discrete function, guitarists can incorporate micro-tonality and, as a result, vibrato and sting-bending are idiosyncratic hallmarks of a player. Similarly, a wide variety of techniques unique to the electric guitar have emerged. While the mechano-acoustics of stringed instruments and vibrating strings are well studied, there has been comparatively little work dedicated to the underlying physics of unique electric guitar techniques and strings, nor the mechanical factors influencing vibrato, string-bending, fretting force and whammy-bar dynamics. In this work, models for these processes are derived and the implications for guitar and string design discussed. The string-bending model is experimentally validated using a variety of strings and vibrato dynamics are simulated. The implications of these findings on the configuration and design of guitars is also discussed. PMID:25054880

  20. String theory--the physics of string-bending and other electric guitar techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Robert Grimes

    Full Text Available Electric guitar playing is ubiquitous in practically all modern music genres. In the hands of an experienced player, electric guitars can sound as expressive and distinct as a human voice. Unlike other more quantised instruments where pitch is a discrete function, guitarists can incorporate micro-tonality and, as a result, vibrato and sting-bending are idiosyncratic hallmarks of a player. Similarly, a wide variety of techniques unique to the electric guitar have emerged. While the mechano-acoustics of stringed instruments and vibrating strings are well studied, there has been comparatively little work dedicated to the underlying physics of unique electric guitar techniques and strings, nor the mechanical factors influencing vibrato, string-bending, fretting force and whammy-bar dynamics. In this work, models for these processes are derived and the implications for guitar and string design discussed. The string-bending model is experimentally validated using a variety of strings and vibrato dynamics are simulated. The implications of these findings on the configuration and design of guitars is also discussed.

  1. String theory--the physics of string-bending and other electric guitar techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, David Robert

    2014-01-01

    Electric guitar playing is ubiquitous in practically all modern music genres. In the hands of an experienced player, electric guitars can sound as expressive and distinct as a human voice. Unlike other more quantised instruments where pitch is a discrete function, guitarists can incorporate micro-tonality and, as a result, vibrato and sting-bending are idiosyncratic hallmarks of a player. Similarly, a wide variety of techniques unique to the electric guitar have emerged. While the mechano-acoustics of stringed instruments and vibrating strings are well studied, there has been comparatively little work dedicated to the underlying physics of unique electric guitar techniques and strings, nor the mechanical factors influencing vibrato, string-bending, fretting force and whammy-bar dynamics. In this work, models for these processes are derived and the implications for guitar and string design discussed. The string-bending model is experimentally validated using a variety of strings and vibrato dynamics are simulated. The implications of these findings on the configuration and design of guitars is also discussed.

  2. Algumas ideias de Paulo Bosísio sobre aspectos da educação musical instrumental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Romanelli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on findings from an interview conducted with Professor Paulo Bosísio, who is one of Brazil’s main authorities in violin pedagogy. In the interview that was conducted in January, 2004 in the city of Quatro Barras (state of Paraná, Professor Bosísio describes his own musical path, musical beginnings, characteristics of instrumental teachers, the triadic relationship that exists between student-teacher-parent in instrumental music education, the issue of musical literacy and notation, and the Suzuki Method, among other issues. Implications for instrumental music education are drawn at the end of the paper.

  3. [Medicine, music, friendship and prejudices: Billroth I and Billroth II, the string quartets Opus 51, N° 1 and N° 2 by Johannes Brahms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Felipe C

    2012-06-01

    The great German surgeon Theodor Billroth and the imaginative and creative composer Johannes Brahms had a very close friendship centered on musical activities, that lasted for more than thirty years while they lived and worked in Zurich and Vienna, during the second half of the Nineteenth Century. Billroth, besides his all-consuming medical activities, had time to be a musical enthusiast who directed orchestras, played the violin in chamber music groups, and wrote musical criticism for newspapers. The common affection between these two creative giants is documented by their abundant and effusive correspondence, by the constant requests by Brahms of Billroth's opinions regarding his compositions, and by the positive and stimulating answers that Billroth gave to these requests. Billroth opened his house for musical evenings to play Brahms chamber compositions for the first time, and Brahms dedicated his two Opus 51 string quartets Nos. 1 and 2, known in the musical milieu as Billroth I and II, to his physician friend. Unfortunately, the close bonds between these two geniuses weakened towards the end of their lives as a result of Billroth's becoming intolerant to the lack of social refinements and gruff behavior of the composer. This baffling intolerance of Billroth to his friend Brahms can be better understood after reading Billroth's writings in his book The Medical Sciences in the German Universities. A Study in the History of Civilization. There Billroth expresses strong prejudices against potential medical students of humble social origins, such as those of Brahms, coupled to a primitive anti-Semitism.

  4. Approaches of High School Instrumental Music Educators in Response to Student Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Scott N.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this multiple instrumental case study was to explore approaches of four high school instrumental music educators assuming the role of facilitative teacher in responding to challenges affecting the social and emotional well-being of their students. This study utilized the framework of social emotional learning as a lens to view the…

  5. Longitudinal Evaluation of the Integration of Digital Musical Instruments into Existing Compositional Work Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Serafin, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores a longitudinal approach to the qualitative evaluation of a set of digital musical instruments, which were developed with a focus on creativity and exploration. The instruments were lent to three electronic musicians/composers for a duration of four weeks. Free exploration...

  6. Is there an association between temporomandibular disorders and playing a musical instrument? A review of literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atallah, M.M.; Visscher, C.M.; van Selms, M.K.A.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2014-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) have a multifactorial etiology. Among others, parafunctions and oral habits have been suggested as important initiating and perpetuating factors. Playing a musical instrument that loads the masticatory system, like wind instruments and the violin or viola, has been

  7. Teacher Educators' Visions of Pedagogical Training within Instrumental Higher Music Education. A Case in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntunen, Marja-Leena

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the visions of teacher educators of instrumental pedagogy (n = 12) in higher music education regarding "good" teaching and instrumental student teacher preparation. The theoretical basis for the study was research on teachers' visions (Hammerness, 2006): teachers' own conceptions of ideal teaching…

  8. Cognitive priming in sung and instrumental music: activation of inferior frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, B; Koelsch, S; Escoffier, N; Bigand, E; Lalitte, P; Friederici, A D; von Cramon, D Y

    2006-07-15

    Neural correlates of the processing of musical syntax-like structures have been investigated via expectancy violation due to musically unrelated (i.e., unexpected) events in musical contexts. Previous studies reported the implication of inferior frontal cortex in musical structure processing. However - due to the strong musical manipulations - activations might be explained by sensory deviance detection or repetition priming. Our present study investigated neural correlates of musical structure processing with subtle musical violations in a musical priming paradigm. Instrumental and sung sequences ended on related and less-related musical targets. The material controlled sensory priming components, and differences in target processing required listeners' knowledge on musical structures. Participants were scanned with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) while performing speeded phoneme and timbre identification judgments on the targets. Behavioral results acquired in the scanner replicated the facilitation effect of related over less-related targets. The blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal linked to target processing revealed activation of right inferior frontal areas (i.e., inferior frontal gyrus, frontal operculum, anterior insula) that was stronger for less-related than for related targets, and this was independent of the material carrying the musical structures. This outcome points to the implication of inferior frontal cortex in the processing of syntactic relations also for musical material and to its role in the processing and integration of sequential information over time. In addition to inferior frontal activation, increased activation was observed in orbital gyrus, temporal areas (anterior superior temporal gyrus, posterior superior temporal gyrus and sulcus, posterior middle temporal gyrus) and supramarginal gyrus.

  9. Test instruments used by Journal of Music Therapy authors from 1984-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, D

    2000-01-01

    Issues of the Journal of Music Therapy from 1984 to 1997 were selected to investigate the application of test instruments in music therapy research. All experimental and descriptive research articles were reviewed to determine if the methodology included test instruments. Other types of measurements-physiological measures, behavioral observations, computerized devices, and self-reports were excluded from the analysis. Test instruments were categorized as either published, unpublished, or researcher-constructed. A test instrument was "published" if, after a search in the "Test Review Locator" of the Buros Mental Measurements Web Site, a reference was found in one or more of the following publications-Mental Measurement Yearbooks, Tests in Print, or Test Critiques. A test was categorized as "unpublished" if the developer was cited in the JMT article but the test was not located in one or more of the above publications. All other test instruments were categorized as researcher-constructed tests designed for the specific study in the article. From 1984-1997, 220 articles were published in JMT. Approximately 83% (n = 183) of the total were experimental or descriptive research studies. Of the 183 articles research studies, 92 (50%) included a test instrument. Reviews of method sections of the 92 articles resulted in a listing of 115 different test instruments. Percentages of researcher-constructed tests, unpublished tests, and published tests were 25%, 35%, and 40% respectively. Lists of tests document the all-encompassing range of client populations and the broad view of human behavior included in the practice of music as therapy. The Journal of Music Therapy, in addition to providing the latest research findings regarding the effectiveness of music as a therapeutic medium, provides an excellent source for updating information about the availability and applicability of test instruments for music therapy clinical practice and training.

  10. Understanding musical concepts of tempo and instrument in the third grade of elementary school

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Vesna; Vukićević Nataša

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with examining the quality of knowledge, i.e. the levels of internalization of the concepts tempo and instrument taught within the subject Musical Culture in the third grade of elementary school. The quality of knowledge we defined by different levels of understanding the selected concepts. Apart from theoretical considerations of general questions regarding the process of musical education in elementary school, in the available methodology literature the authors do not discus...

  11. Full-Band Quasi-Harmonic Analysis and Synthesis of Musical Instrument Sounds with Adaptive Sinusoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Caetano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sinusoids are widely used to represent the oscillatory modes of musical instrument sounds in both analysis and synthesis. However, musical instrument sounds feature transients and instrumental noise that are poorly modeled with quasi-stationary sinusoids, requiring spectral decomposition and further dedicated modeling. In this work, we propose a full-band representation that fits sinusoids across the entire spectrum. We use the extended adaptive Quasi-Harmonic Model (eaQHM to iteratively estimate amplitude- and frequency-modulated (AM–FM sinusoids able to capture challenging features such as sharp attacks, transients, and instrumental noise. We use the signal-to-reconstruction-error ratio (SRER as the objective measure for the analysis and synthesis of 89 musical instrument sounds from different instrumental families. We compare against quasi-stationary sinusoids and exponentially damped sinusoids. First, we show that the SRER increases with adaptation in eaQHM. Then, we show that full-band modeling with eaQHM captures partials at the higher frequency end of the spectrum that are neglected by spectral decomposition. Finally, we demonstrate that a frame size equal to three periods of the fundamental frequency results in the highest SRER with AM–FM sinusoids from eaQHM. A listening test confirmed that the musical instrument sounds resynthesized from full-band analysis with eaQHM are virtually perceptually indistinguishable from the original recordings.

  12. Predicting Preservice Music Teachers' Performance Success in Instrumental Courses Using Self-Regulated Study Strategies and Predictor Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersozlu, Zehra N.; Nietfeld, John L.; Huseynova, Lale

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which self-regulated study strategies and predictor variables predict performance success in instrumental performance college courses. Preservice music teachers (N = 123) from a music education department in two state universities in Turkey completed the Music Self-Regulated Studying…

  13. Tool-assisted rhythmic drumming in palm cockatoos shares key elements of human instrumental music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinsohn, Robert; Zdenek, Christina N; Cunningham, Ross B; Endler, John A; Langmore, Naomi E

    2017-06-01

    All human societies have music with a rhythmic "beat," typically produced with percussive instruments such as drums. The set of capacities that allows humans to produce and perceive music appears to be deeply rooted in human biology, but an understanding of its evolutionary origins requires cross-taxa comparisons. We show that drumming by palm cockatoos ( Probosciger aterrimus ) shares the key rudiments of human instrumental music, including manufacture of a sound tool, performance in a consistent context, regular beat production, repeated components, and individual styles. Over 131 drumming sequences produced by 18 males, the beats occurred at nonrandom, regular intervals, yet individual males differed significantly in the shape parameters describing the distribution of their beat patterns, indicating individual drumming styles. Autocorrelation analyses of the longest drumming sequences further showed that they were highly regular and predictable like human music. These discoveries provide a rare comparative perspective on the evolution of rhythmicity and instrumental music in our own species, and show that a preference for a regular beat can have other origins before being co-opted into group-based music and dance.

  14. Describing Preservice Instrumental Music Educators' Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millican, J. Si

    2016-01-01

    In this descriptive study, I investigated the pedagogical content knowledge of 206 undergraduate music education students by presenting video recordings of beginning band students playing excerpts from their class method books. I asked these preservice educators to identify performance problems and offer potential solutions to the causes of those…

  15. Learning a Musical Instrument: The Case for Parental Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this research were to identify the ways in which parents may most constructively support their children's musical development, and to ascertain whether styles of parent-teacher and parent-pupil interaction would influence the extent to which parents engage in different types of supportive behaviours. A model of parent involvement as…

  16. Changes in vibrational properties of coated wood through ti me from application of varnish, with recipes used in European or Iranian string instruments making

    OpenAIRE

    Brémaud , Iris; Karami , Elham; Bardet , Sandrine; Gilles , Nicolas; Perego , François; Zare , Samad; Gril , Joseph ,

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The influence of vanishing process on the vibrational properties of the wood+coating systems was studied using different types and recipes of instrument making varnishes, used in traditional Iranian string instruments making, or in European violin-quartet making. The focus is on the time evolution of these properties, that can be involved in the changing behaviour of newly made instruments. The different tested varnishes recipes were applied on wood representative of e...

  17. The association between singing and/or playing a musical instrument and cognitive functions in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansens, D; Deeg, D J H; Comijs, H C

    2017-05-19

    Cognitive decline happens to everyone when aging, but to some more than others. Studies with children, adults, and professional musicians suggest that making music could be associated with better cognitive functioning. In older adults however, this association is less well investigated, which is therefore the aim of this study. In this cross-sectional study data from 1101 participants aged 64 and older from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were used. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to test the association between making music and cognitive functioning and time spent making music and cognitive functioning. ANCOVA analyses were performed to differentiate between participants who made no music, only sang, only played an instrument or both sang and played an instrument in terms of cognitive functioning. Making music was significantly positively associated with letter fluency, learning and attention/short-term memory. Time spent making music yielded no significant results. The ANCOVA analyses showed higher scores for participants who only played an instrument compared to participants who made no music on learning, working memory and processing speed. For processing speed the instrument only group also had a higher score than participants who only sang. Making music at least once every two weeks and especially playing a musical instrument, is associated with better attention, episodic memory and executive functions. The results suggest that making music might be a potential protective factor for cognitive decline; however, to support this notion a longitudinal study design is needed.

  18. Doctoral colloquium: The application of established gestural languages in the control mappings of free-hand gestural musical instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, D.

    2016-01-01

    The “mapping problem” is a long standing issue in the development of digital musical instruments, and occurs when an instrument’s musical response fails to reflect the performer’s gestural actions. This paper describes ongoing doctoral research that seeks to address this issue by studying the existing gestural languages of Soundpainting and American Sign Language in order to influence the control mappings of free-hand gestural musical instruments. The research seeks to contribute a framework ...

  19. The Aristocrat of Bands: A Historical Investigation of the Tennessee State University Instrumental Music Program and Its Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Reginald A.

    2009-01-01

    Instrumental music education, as it evolved in the segregated African American communities and their educational institutions, remains an under-investigated area of historical research. As a partial remedy to that circumstance, this study sought to document one of the more noteworthy of such accounts, the history of instrumental music ensembles at…

  20. O grupo UAKTI: três décadas de música instrumental e de novos instrumentos musicais acústicos The Brazilian UAKTI group: three decades of instrumental music and new acoustical musical instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Andrés

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo panorâmico sobre a história do grupo instrumental UAKTI, cobrindo desde a formação musical de seu idealizador, luthier, compositor e multi-instrumentista Marco Antônio Guimarães até a construção e utilização dos novos instrumentos musicais acústicos que norteiam sua estética e continuada produção no Brasil e no exterior por mais de três décadas.Panoramic study on the history of Brazilian instrumental group UAKTI, ranging from the musical background of its mentor, composer, luthier and multi-instrumentalist Marco Antônio Guimarães until the construction and use of the new acoustical musical instruments that lead to the aesthetics and continued production in Brazil and abroad for over three decades.

  1. The Status of MUSIC: A Multicolor Sub/millimeter MKID Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaerth, J. A.; Czakon, N. G.; Day, P. K.; Downes, T. P.; Duan, R.; Glenn, J.; Golwala, S. R.; Hollister, M. I.; LeDuc, H. G.; Maloney, P. R.; Mazin, B. A.; Nguyen, H. T.; Noroozian, O.; Sayers, J.; Siegel, S.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2012-05-01

    We report on the recent progress of the Multicolor Submillimeter (kinetic) Inductance Camera, or MUSIC. MUSIC will use antenna-coupled Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors to observe in four colors (150 GHz, 230 GHz, 290 GHz and 350 GHz) with 2304 detectors, 576 per band, at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. It will deploy in 2012. Here we provide an overview of the instrument, focusing on the array design. We have also used a pathfinder demonstration instrument, DemoCam, to identify problems in advance of the deployment of MUSIC. In particular, we identified two major limiters of our sensitivity: out-of-band light directly coupling to the detectors (i.e. not through the antenna), effectively an excess load, and a large 1/f contribution from our amplifiers and electronics. We discuss the steps taken to mitigate these effects to reach background-limited performance (BLIP) in observation.

  2. Experience Playing a Musical Instrument and Overnight Sleep Enhance Performance on a Sequential Typing Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Tucker

    Full Text Available The smooth, coordinated fine motor movements required to play a musical instrument are not only highly valued in our society; they also predict academic success in areas that generalize beyond the motor domain, including reading and math readiness, and verbal abilities. Interestingly, motor skills that overlap with those required to play a musical instrument (e.g., sequential finger tapping markedly improve (get faster over a night of sleep, but not after a day spent awake. Here we studied whether individuals who play musical instruments that require fine finger motor skill are better able to learn and consolidate a simple motor skill task compared to those who do not play an instrument, and whether sleep-specific motor skill benefits interact with those imparted by musical experience. We used the motor sequence task (MST, which taps into a core skill learned and used by musicians, namely, the repetition of learned sequences of key presses. Not surprisingly, we found that musicians were faster than non-musicians throughout the learning session, typing more correct sequences per 30-sec trial. In the 12hrs that followed learning we found that sleep and musical experience both led to greater improvement in performance. Surprisingly, musicians retested after a day of wake performed slightly better than non-musicians who had slept between training and retest, suggesting that musicians have the capacity to consolidate a motor skill across waking hours, while non-musicians appear to lack this capacity. These findings suggest that the musically trained brain is optimized for motor skill consolidation across both wake and sleep, and that sleep may simply promote a more effective use of this machinery. In sum, there may be something special about musicians, perhaps a neurophysiological advantage, that leads to both the expected-greater motor speed at learning-and the surprising-greater motor skill improvement over time.

  3. Experience Playing a Musical Instrument and Overnight Sleep Enhance Performance on a Sequential Typing Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Matthew A; Nguyen, Nam; Stickgold, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The smooth, coordinated fine motor movements required to play a musical instrument are not only highly valued in our society; they also predict academic success in areas that generalize beyond the motor domain, including reading and math readiness, and verbal abilities. Interestingly, motor skills that overlap with those required to play a musical instrument (e.g., sequential finger tapping) markedly improve (get faster) over a night of sleep, but not after a day spent awake. Here we studied whether individuals who play musical instruments that require fine finger motor skill are better able to learn and consolidate a simple motor skill task compared to those who do not play an instrument, and whether sleep-specific motor skill benefits interact with those imparted by musical experience. We used the motor sequence task (MST), which taps into a core skill learned and used by musicians, namely, the repetition of learned sequences of key presses. Not surprisingly, we found that musicians were faster than non-musicians throughout the learning session, typing more correct sequences per 30-sec trial. In the 12hrs that followed learning we found that sleep and musical experience both led to greater improvement in performance. Surprisingly, musicians retested after a day of wake performed slightly better than non-musicians who had slept between training and retest, suggesting that musicians have the capacity to consolidate a motor skill across waking hours, while non-musicians appear to lack this capacity. These findings suggest that the musically trained brain is optimized for motor skill consolidation across both wake and sleep, and that sleep may simply promote a more effective use of this machinery. In sum, there may be something special about musicians, perhaps a neurophysiological advantage, that leads to both the expected-greater motor speed at learning-and the surprising-greater motor skill improvement over time.

  4. Experience Playing a Musical Instrument and Overnight Sleep Enhance Performance on a Sequential Typing Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Matthew A.; Nguyen, Nam; Stickgold, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The smooth, coordinated fine motor movements required to play a musical instrument are not only highly valued in our society; they also predict academic success in areas that generalize beyond the motor domain, including reading and math readiness, and verbal abilities. Interestingly, motor skills that overlap with those required to play a musical instrument (e.g., sequential finger tapping) markedly improve (get faster) over a night of sleep, but not after a day spent awake. Here we studied whether individuals who play musical instruments that require fine finger motor skill are better able to learn and consolidate a simple motor skill task compared to those who do not play an instrument, and whether sleep-specific motor skill benefits interact with those imparted by musical experience. We used the motor sequence task (MST), which taps into a core skill learned and used by musicians, namely, the repetition of learned sequences of key presses. Not surprisingly, we found that musicians were faster than non-musicians throughout the learning session, typing more correct sequences per 30-sec trial. In the 12hrs that followed learning we found that sleep and musical experience both led to greater improvement in performance. Surprisingly, musicians retested after a day of wake performed slightly better than non-musicians who had slept between training and retest, suggesting that musicians have the capacity to consolidate a motor skill across waking hours, while non-musicians appear to lack this capacity. These findings suggest that the musically trained brain is optimized for motor skill consolidation across both wake and sleep, and that sleep may simply promote a more effective use of this machinery. In sum, there may be something special about musicians, perhaps a neurophysiological advantage, that leads to both the expected—greater motor speed at learning—and the surprising—greater motor skill improvement over time. PMID:27472398

  5. A Comprehensive Review of Sensors and Instrumentation Methods in Devices for Musical Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Carolina Brum; Wanderley, Marcelo M.

    2014-01-01

    Digital Musical Instruments (DMIs) are musical instruments typically composed of a control surface where user interaction is measured by sensors whose values are mapped to sound synthesis algorithms. These instruments have gained interest among skilled musicians and performers in the last decades leading to artistic practices including musical performance, interactive installations and dance. The creation of DMIs typically involves several areas, among them: arts, design and engineering. The balance between these areas is an essential task in DMI design so that the resulting instruments are aesthetically appealing, robust, and allow responsive, accurate and repeatable sensing. In this paper, we review the use of sensors in the DMI community as manifested in the proceedings of the International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME 2009–2013). Focusing on the sensor technologies and signal conditioning techniques used by the NIME community. Although it has been claimed that specifications for artistic tools are harder than those for military applications, this study raises a paradox showing that in most of the cases, DMIs are based on a few basic sensors types and unsophisticated engineering solutions, not taking advantage of more advanced sensing, instrumentation and signal processing techniques that could dramatically improve their response. We aim to raise awareness of limitations of any engineering solution and to assert the benefits of advanced electronics instrumentation design in DMIs. For this, we propose the use of specialized sensors such as strain gages, advanced conditioning circuits and signal processing tools such as sensor fusion. We believe that careful electronic instrumentation design may lead to more responsive instruments. PMID:25068865

  6. A Comprehensive Review of Sensors and Instrumentation Methods in Devices for Musical Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Brum Medeiros

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Digital Musical Instruments (DMIs are musical instruments typically composed of a control surface where user interaction is measured by sensors whose values are mapped to sound synthesis algorithms. These instruments have gained interest among skilled musicians and performers in the last decades leading to artistic practices including musical performance, interactive installations and dance. The creation of DMIs typically involves several areas, among them: arts, design and engineering. The balance between these areas is an essential task in DMI design so that the resulting instruments are aesthetically appealing, robust, and allow responsive, accurate and repeatable sensing. In this paper, we review the use of sensors in the DMI community as manifested in the proceedings of the International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME 2009–2013. Focusing on the sensor technologies and signal conditioning techniques used by the NIME community. Although it has been claimed that specifications for artistic tools are harder than those for military applications, this study raises a paradox showing that in most of the cases, DMIs are based on a few basic sensors types and unsophisticated engineering solutions, not taking advantage of more advanced sensing, instrumentation and signal processing techniques that could dramatically improve their response. We aim to raise awareness of limitations of any engineering solution and to assert the benefits of advanced electronics instrumentation design in DMIs. For this, we propose the use of specialized sensors such as strain gages, advanced conditioning circuits and signal processing tools such as sensor fusion. We believe that careful electronic instrumentation design may lead to more responsive instruments.

  7. A comprehensive review of sensors and instrumentation methods in devices for musical expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Carolina Brum; Wanderley, Marcelo M

    2014-07-25

    Digital Musical Instruments (DMIs) are musical instruments typically composed of a control surface where user interaction is measured by sensors whose values are mapped to sound synthesis algorithms. These instruments have gained interest among skilled musicians and performers in the last decades leading to artistic practices including musical performance, interactive installations and dance. The creation of DMIs typically involves several areas, among them: arts, design and engineering. The balance between these areas is an essential task in DMI design so that the resulting instruments are aesthetically appealing, robust, and allow responsive, accurate and repeatable sensing. In this paper, we review the use of sensors in the DMI community as manifested in the proceedings of the International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME 2009-2013). Focusing on the sensor technologies and signal conditioning techniques used by the NIME community. Although it has been claimed that specifications for artistic tools are harder than those for military applications, this study raises a paradox showing that in most of the cases, DMIs are based on a few basic sensors types and unsophisticated engineering solutions, not taking advantage of more advanced sensing, instrumentation and signal processing techniques that could dramatically improve their response. We aim to raise awareness of limitations of any engineering solution and to assert the benefits of advanced electronics instrumentation design in DMIs. For this, we propose the use of specialized sensors such as strain gages, advanced conditioning circuits and signal processing tools such as sensor fusion. We believe that careful electronic instrumentation design may lead to more responsive instruments.

  8. An Observational Study of Score Study Practices among Undergraduate Instrumental Music Education Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvey, Brian A.; Montemayor, Mark; Baumgartner, Christopher M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate undergraduate instrumental music education majors' score study practices as they related to the effectiveness of their simulated conducting. Participants (N = 30) were video recorded in two sessions in which they completed a 20-min score study session and a simulated conducting performance. In the first…

  9. Effect of Color-Coded Notation on Music Achievement of Elementary Instrumental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, George L.

    1991-01-01

    Presents results of a study of color-coded notation to teach music reading to instrumental students. Finds no clear evidence that color-coded notation enhances achievement on performing by memory, sight-reading, or note naming. Suggests that some students depended on the color-coding and were unable to read uncolored notation well. (DK)

  10. WAVE : a virtual audio environment: an immersive musical instrument using a low cost technological system

    OpenAIRE

    Valbom, Leonel; Forni, Christophe; Marcos, Adérito

    2004-01-01

    The WAVE project proposes a multidisciplinary investigation in order to create a model-prototype of a virtual immersive instrument using audio, visual technologies, and virtual reality. This model will open up new horizons for the processes involved in music making by dealing not only with relevant technological issues, but especially with meaningful research in theareas of human-machine interaction and sound.

  11. Gender and Musical Instrument Stereotypes in Middle School Children: Have Trends Changed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrape, Elizabeth R.; Dittloff, Alexandra L.; Callahan, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have established that gender stereotypes are associated with children's choice of musical instrument. Though some have suggested that these gender stereotypes may be trending toward change, other studies have indicated that gender stereotypes are long-standing and still very much at issue. This descriptive study of middle school…

  12. Motivations Impacting upon Music Instrument Teachers' Decisions to Teach and Perform in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Kelly A.; Daniel, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore why highly trained musicians choose to teach in higher education. An international population from nine countries of music instrument teachers was sampled via online survey, to determine their reasons for teaching in higher education. Motivational constructs from the expectancy-value framework were used,…

  13. Arts Involvement Predicts Academic Achievement Only When the Child Has a Musical Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Laura N.; Cordes, Sara; Winner, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    We examined the associations between academic achievement and arts involvement (access to a musical instrument for the child at home, participation in unspecified after-school arts activities) in a sample of 2339 11-12-year-olds surveyed in the USA between 1998 and 2008. We compared the contributions of these variables to other kinds of cognitive…

  14. Exploratory Study of Approvals and Disapprovals in Australian Instrumental Music Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Katie

    2008-01-01

    Research on the use of approvals/disapprovals in classroom teaching has highlighted praise as more effective than criticism, specific evaluation more valuable than general, and gender differences. This study investigated the use of positive/negative and specific/general evaluation and gender effects in instrumental music lessons in higher…

  15. On Practice, Skill and Competition: A Pragmatist Theory of Action for Instrumental Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Leonard

    2017-01-01

    Practice, skill and competition are important aspects of participating in school bands and orchestras. However, writers have questioned their value. In this philosophical paper, I mine the writings of the American pragmatists--in particular, their theories of habit and experience--to construct a theory of action for instrumental music education,…

  16. High School Instrumental Music Students' Attitudes and Beliefs regarding Practice: An Application of Attribution Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatt, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore high school band students' perspectives of instrumental music practice from within the attribution theory paradigm and to attempt to elucidate the secondary student's attitudes toward practice. High school band students from three Midwestern school districts (N = 218) completed a survey that was used to…

  17. Confucian "Creatio in Situ"--Philosophical Resource for a Theory of Creativity in Instrumental Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    In this philosophical essay, I propose a theory of creativity for instrumental music education inspired by Confucian "creatio in situ" ("situational creativity"). Through an analysis of three major texts from classical Confucianism--the "Analects," the "Zhongyong" ("Doctrine of the Mean"), and the…

  18. A Survey of the Characteristics and Perceptions of Urban and Suburban Secondary Instrumental Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Kate R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey and compare the characteristics and perceptions of randomly selected urban and suburban (N=20) secondary instrumental music teachers in the Chicago area. Descriptive analysis of the demographic data demonstrated the following: suburban participants had higher levels of educational attainment than their urban…

  19. The interaction between room and musical instruments studied by multi-channel auralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger; Otondo, Felipe

    2005-01-01

    in the anechoic recording. With this technique the variations in sound radiation from the musical instrument during the performance e.g. due to changes in level or movements can be reproduced with the influence of the surrounding room surfaces. Examples include a grand piano and a clarinet....

  20. Informing New String Programmes: Lessons Learned from an Australian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Fintan; Rickard, Nikki; Gill, Anneliese; Grimmett, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Although there are many examples of notable string programmes there has been relatively little comparative analysis of these programmes. This paper examines three benchmark string programmes (The University of Illinois String Project, The Tower Hamlets String Teaching Project and Colourstrings) alongside Music4All, an innovative string programme…

  1. Music Performance Anxiety in Instrumental Music Students: A Multiple Case Study of Teacher Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieger, Crystal

    2017-01-01

    Music Performance Anxiety (MPA) is a sometimes debilitating condition affecting many young musicians as they perform in testing or concert settings. These students may consult their teachers to seek aid in overcoming their anxiety. The purpose of this multiple case study was to investigate the strategies and methods utilized by middle and high…

  2. Algumas ideias de Paulo Bosísio sobre aspectos da educação musical instrumental

    OpenAIRE

    Guilherme Romanelli; Beatriz Ilari; Paulo Bosísio

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from an interview conducted with Professor Paulo Bosísio, who is one of Brazil’s main authorities in violin pedagogy. In the interview that was conducted in January, 2004 in the city of Quatro Barras (state of Paraná), Professor Bosísio describes his own musical path, musical beginnings, characteristics of instrumental teachers, the triadic relationship that exists between student-teacher-parent in instrumental music education, the issue of musical literacy a...

  3. The Hugh Davies Collection: live electronic music and self-built electro-acoustic musical instruments, 1967–1975

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr James Mooney

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Hugh Davies Collection (HDC at the Science Museum in London comprises 42 items of electronic sound apparatus owned by English experimental musician Hugh Davies (1943–2005, including self-built electro-acoustic musical instruments and modified sound production and manipulation hardware. An early proponent of ‘live electronic music’ (performed live on stage rather than constructed on magnetic tape in a studio, Davies’s DIY approach shaped the development of experimental and improvised musics from the late 1960s onwards. However, his practice has not been widely reported in the literature, hence little information is readily available about the material artefacts that constituted and enabled it. This article provides the first account of the development of Davies’s practice in relation to the objects in the HDC: from the modified electronic sound apparatus used in his early live electronic compositions (among the first of their kind by a British composer; through the ‘instrumental turn’ represented by his first self-built instrument, Shozyg I (1968; to his mature practice, where self-built instruments like Springboard Mk. XI (1974 replaced electronic transformation as the primary means by which Davies explored new and novel sound-worlds. As well as advancing knowledge of Davies’s pioneering work in live electronics and instrument-building and enhancing understanding of the objects in the HDC, this article shows how object biographic and archival methodologies can be combined to provide insight into the ways in which objects (instruments, technologies and practices shape each other over time.

  4. The Apprentice to Master Journey: Exploring Tertiary Music Instrument Teachers’ Reflections on Their Experiences as Learner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many students worldwide engage in lessons on a music instrument; the most common format for this type of learning isthe one-to-one or studio lesson where the master guides the apprentice. At the same time, the one-to-one or studio lesson is an isolated area of practice, given that it takes place behind closed doors. In addition, while the literature for classroom music teachers is substantial with regard to investigating how they describe their own previous teaching experiences or the general characteristics of effective teachers, in comparison there are few studies that explore what music instrument teachers believe are effective characteristics and attributes of their previous teachers and lessons. In order to address this problem, this exploratory article focuses on the reflections of current higher education performing arts teachers; specifically music instrument teachers and their experiences of teachers and lessons. Survey data were obtained from 171 practitioners from nine nations. The respondents were asked to reflect on their initial, pre-tertiary and tertiary lesson experiences and teachers, and to identify the most significant influences on their learning. The data reveal a number of findings, such as the dominance of the master-apprentice social and learning relationship, the characteristics and attributes of inspiring teachers and/or learning experiences, and the fact that some respondents do not have any positive reflections on some periods of their learning.  The data also point towards the cyclical nature of music instrument learning and teaching, with masters guiding apprentices who then become the masters.

  5. A study on feature analysis for musical instrument classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jeremiah D; Simmermacher, Christian; Cranefield, Stephen

    2008-04-01

    In tackling data mining and pattern recognition tasks, finding a compact but effective set of features has often been found to be a crucial step in the overall problem-solving process. In this paper, we present an empirical study on feature analysis for recognition of classical instrument, using machine learning techniques to select and evaluate features extracted from a number of different feature schemes. It is revealed that there is significant redundancy between and within feature schemes commonly used in practice. Our results suggest that further feature analysis research is necessary in order to optimize feature selection and achieve better results for the instrument recognition problem.

  6. Student Learning Styles in Advanced Instrumental Music Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Katie

    2007-01-01

    Despite a large body of research into learning styles from cognitive, personality and activity perspectives, the definition of learning style is still unclear. The assessment instruments commonly in use have methodological problems. The learning styles of conservatorium instrumentalists are scarcely known and are best studied using an…

  7. Movement Instruction to Facilitate Beat Competency in Instrumental Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Colleen; Marshall, Herbert; Hartz, Barry

    2014-01-01

    This article offers instrumental directors at all levels some suggestions for the use of movement to facilitate "beat competency". We use the term beat competency to refer to a musician's ability to play with a consistent sense of pulse and balanced subdivision, as well as the eventual ability to bring that sense of pulse to reading…

  8. Experiments with a musical instrument. The continuator and young children aged between 3-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rita Addessi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between technology and learning is becoming increasingly important in the field of musical education. However there are few studies regarding the interaction between children and musical instruments. This article looks at a study carried out with children aged between 3 and 5, and a particular interactive musical system: the Continuator, which was created by the SONY-Computer Science Laboratory in Paris. An analysis of the studies shows that the Continuator is capable of developing interesting interaction between children and the machine and creative musical processes in early childhood. It is possible to observe an evolution in interaction and microprocesses similar to those seen in adult/child interaction. The abilty of the system ton to attract and maintain attention in the children as been interpreted through Csikszentmihalyi’s Flow Theory . This article gives an overview of literature regarding musical education and new technologies, a description of the interactive system used in our experimental project, the pilot protocol and the analysis of the two case studies. We also draw certain conclusions regarding the psychological and pedagogical implications of the results.

  9. Nonlinear modes of clarinet-like musical instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreland, Daniel; Bellizzi, Sergio; Vergez, Christophe; Bouc, Robert

    2009-07-01

    The concept of nonlinear modes is applied in order to analyze the behavior of a model of woodwind reed instruments. Using a modal expansion of the impedance of the instrument, and by projecting the equation for the acoustic pressure on the normal modes of the air column, a system of second-order ordinary differential equations is obtained. The equations are coupled through the nonlinear relation describing the volume flow of air through the reed channel in response to the pressure difference across the reed. The system is treated using an amplitude-phase formulation for nonlinear modes, where the frequency and damping functions, as well as the invariant manifolds in the phase space, are unknowns to be determined. The formulation gives, without explicit integration of the underlying ordinary differential equation, access to the transient, the limit cycle, its period and stability. The process is illustrated for a model reduced to three normal modes of the air column.

  10. Project for a New Classification of Musical Instruments

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    André Schaeffner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This is an English translation of an article originally published as “Projet d'une classification nouvelle des instruments de musique.” Bulletin du Musée d'Ethnographie du Trocadéro 1, 1931, 21–25. Draft translation: Claudia Riehl and Gerd Grupe, with advice on terminology by Susanne Fürniß, copy-editing: Jessica Sloan-Leitner.

  11. Measurement of effects on tone with lip-protecting music splints for wind instrument players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katada, Chigusa; Nozaki, Kazunori; Imai, Miharu; Kawamoto, Masayuki; Shima, Yuko; Tamagawa, Hiroo; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Ohboshi, Naoki; Toda, Tadao

    2004-05-01

    To protect against lip trauma from wind instruments, music splints that cover the sharp edges of incisor teeth are often manufactured by dentists. Wind instrument players who have installed these custom-made music splints often express not only their lip comfort but also changes in their tone quality. In this study, we investigated the effect of the splints to the tone quality. We recorded three types of trumpet sounds such as long tones, arpeggios with perfect fifth, and tonguing tones with and without using a splint, respectively, by a professional trumpet player in an anechoic room. After fast Fourier transform, the higher harmonics was observed more in the splint group than in the nonsplint group, with sharp peaks from 5000 to 8000 Hz. We also examined the differences of these sound groups with recognition tests by two groups of listeners such as professional musicians and nonprofessional persons. Though sound-pressure levels of higher harmonics in two sound groups were lower than those at 400 to 2000 Hz, the musically trained persons recognized the difference perfectly. These results suggest the target of measurement to evaluate the effect of music splints.

  12. Benefits of a Classroom Based Instrumental Music Program on Verbal Memory of Primary School Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Nikki S.; Vasquez, Jorge T.; Murphy, Fintan; Gill, Anneliese; Toukhsati, Samia R.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a benefit of music training on a number of cognitive functions including verbal memory performance. The impact of school-based music programs on memory processes is however relatively unknown. The current study explored the effect of increasing frequency and intensity of classroom-based instrumental training…

  13. A Case Study of an Instrumental Music Program and Its Influence on the Culture of a School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Anthony Terence

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to examine how participation in a school-based instrumental music program contributed to the culture of a suburban high school. The questions guiding the research were: (1) How and why are multiple music programs supported by staff, students, parents and the community at this school? (2) What are the benefits of…

  14. Assessment of Whole-Class Instrumental Music Learning in England and the United States of America: An International Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Daniel; Fautley, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Despite ostensibly sharing a common language, music education terminology as used in England and the United States has many different practical meanings and corresponding connotations. In this comparative study, the authors consider these differences in relation to whole-class learning of instrumental music, a comparative newcomer to the English…

  15. Influence of videogames and musical instruments on performances at a simulator for robotic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moglia, Andrea; Perrone, Vittorio; Ferrari, Vincenzo; Morelli, Luca; Boggi, Ugo; Ferrari, Mauro; Mosca, Franco; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2017-06-01

    To assess if exposure to videogames, musical instrument playing, or both influence the psychomotor skills level, assessed by a virtual reality simulator for robot-assisted surgery (RAS). A cohort of 57 medical students were recruited: playing musical instruments (group 1), videogames (group 2), both (group 3), and no activity (group 4); all students executed four exercises on a virtual simulator for RAS. Subjects from group 3 achieved the best performances on overall score: 527.09 ± 130.54 vs. 493.73 ± 108.88 (group 2), 472.72 ± 85.31 (group 1), and 403.13 ± 99.83 (group 4). Statistically significant differences (p videogames is higher than that in those practicing either one alone. The effect of videogames appears negligible in individuals playing the piano.

  16. Physiology, anatomy, and plasticity of the cerebral cortex in relation to musical instrument performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramo, Mark Jude

    2004-05-01

    The acquisition and maintenance of fine-motor skills underlying musical instrument performance rely on the development, integration, and plasticity of neural systems localized within specific subregions of the cerebral cortex. Cortical representations of a motor sequence, such as a sequence of finger movements along the keys of a saxophone, take shape before the figure sequence occurs. The temporal pattern and spatial coordinates are computed by networks of neurons before and during the movements. When a finger sequence is practiced over and over, performance gets faster and more accurate, probably because cortical neurons generating the sequence increase in spatial extent, their electrical discharges become more synchronous, or both. By combining experimental methods such as single- and multi-neuron recordings, focal stimulation, microanatomical tracers, gross morphometry, evoked potentials, and functional imaging in humans and nonhuman primates, neuroscientists are gaining insights into the cortical physiology, anatomy, and plasticity of musical instrument performance.

  17. A Geometrical Method for Sound-Hole Size and Location Enhancement in Lute Family Musical Instruments: The Golden Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Jafari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new analytical approach, the Golden Method, to enhance sound-hole size and location in musical instruments of the lute family in order to obtain better sound damping characteristics based on the concept of the golden ratio and the instrument geometry. The main objective of the paper is to increase the capability of lute family musical instruments in keeping a note for a certain time at a certain level to enhance the instruments’ orchestral characteristics. For this purpose, a geometry-based analytical method, the Golden Method is first described in detail in an itemized feature. A new musical instrument is then developed and tested to confirm the ability of the Golden Method in optimizing the acoustical characteristics of musical instruments from a damping point of view by designing the modified sound-hole. Finally, the new-developed instrument is tested, and the obtained results are compared with those of two well-known instruments to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method. The experimental results show that the suggested method is able to increase the sound damping time by at least 2.4% without affecting the frequency response function and other acoustic characteristics of the instrument. This methodology could be used as the first step in future studies on design, optimization and evaluation of musical instruments of the lute family (e.g., lute, oud, barbat, mandolin, setar, and etc..

  18. A Design Approach to Engage with Audience with Wearable Musical Instruments: Sound Gloves

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Chi-Hsia; Tahiroglu, Koray

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of engaging the audience with new musical instruments in live performance context. We introduce design concerns that we consider influential to enhance the communication flow between the audience and the performer. We also propose and put in practice a design approach that considers the use of performance space as a way to engage with the audience. A collaborative project, Sound Gloves, presented here exemplifies such a concept by dissolving the space between pe...

  19. Instrument Identification in Polyphonic Music: Feature Weighting to Minimize Influence of Sound Overlaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goto Masataka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a new solution to the problem of feature variations caused by the overlapping of sounds in instrument identification in polyphonic music. When multiple instruments simultaneously play, partials (harmonic components of their sounds overlap and interfere, which makes the acoustic features different from those of monophonic sounds. To cope with this, we weight features based on how much they are affected by overlapping. First, we quantitatively evaluate the influence of overlapping on each feature as the ratio of the within-class variance to the between-class variance in the distribution of training data obtained from polyphonic sounds. Then, we generate feature axes using a weighted mixture that minimizes the influence via linear discriminant analysis. In addition, we improve instrument identification using musical context. Experimental results showed that the recognition rates using both feature weighting and musical context were 84.1 for duo, 77.6 for trio, and 72.3 for quartet; those without using either were 53.4, 49.6, and 46.5 , respectively.

  20. Identification of the finishing technique of an early eighteenth century musical instrument using FTIR spectromicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Loïc; Robinet, Laurianne; Cohen, Serge X; Sandt, Christophe; Le Hô, Anne-Solenn; Soulier, Balthazar; Lattuati-Derieux, Agnès; Echard, Jean-Philippe

    2011-03-01

    The study of varnishes from musical instruments presents the difficulty of analysing very thin layers of heterogeneous materials on samples most of which are generally brittle and difficult to prepare. Such study is crucial to the understanding of historical musical instrument varnishing practices since written sources before 1800 are very rare and not precise. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and imaging methods were applied to identify the major chemical components within the build-up of the varnish layers on a cello made by one of the most prominent French violin-makers of the eighteenth century (Jacques Boquay, ca. 1680-1730). Two types of FTIR imaging methods were used: scanning with a synchrotron-based microscope and full-field imaging using a 2D imager with a conventional source. An interpretation of the results obtained from these studies on the Boquay cello is that the maker first applied a proteinaceous layer, probably gelatine-based animal glue. He later applied a second layer based on a mixture of a drying oil and diterpenic resin from Pinaceae sp. From an historical perspective, the results complement previous studies by describing a second technique used for musical instrument finishes at the beginning of the eighteenth century in Europe.

  1. Multiple-instrument polyphonic music transcription using a temporally constrained shift-invariant model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetos, Emmanouil; Dixon, Simon

    2013-03-01

    A method for automatic transcription of polyphonic music is proposed in this work that models the temporal evolution of musical tones. The model extends the shift-invariant probabilistic latent component analysis method by supporting the use of spectral templates that correspond to sound states such as attack, sustain, and decay. The order of these templates is controlled using hidden Markov model-based temporal constraints. In addition, the model can exploit multiple templates per pitch and instrument source. The shift-invariant aspect of the model makes it suitable for music signals that exhibit frequency modulations or tuning changes. Pitch-wise hidden Markov models are also utilized in a postprocessing step for note tracking. For training, sound state templates were extracted for various orchestral instruments using isolated note samples. The proposed transcription system was tested on multiple-instrument recordings from various datasets. Experimental results show that the proposed model is superior to a non-temporally constrained model and also outperforms various state-of-the-art transcription systems for the same experiment.

  2. A group music intervention using percussion instruments with familiar music to reduce anxiety and agitation of institutionalized older adults with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Huei-chuan; Lee, Wen-li; Li, Tzai-li; Watson, Roger

    2012-06-01

    This experimental study aimed to evaluate the effects of a group music intervention on anxiety and agitation of institutionalized older adults with dementia. A total of 60 participants were randomly assigned to an experimental or a control group. The experimental group received a 30-min music intervention using percussion instruments with familiar music in a group setting in mid afternoon twice weekly for 6 weeks, whereas the control group received usual care with no music intervention. The Rating of Anxiety in Dementia scale was used to assess anxiety, and Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory was used to assess agitation at baseline, week 4 and week 6. Repeated measures analysis of covariance indicated that older adults who received a group music intervention had a significantly lower anxiety score than those in the control group while controlling for pre-test score and cognitive level (F = 8.98, p = 0.004). However, the reduction of agitation between two groups was not significantly different. Anxiety and agitation are common in older adults with dementia and have been reported by caregivers as challenging care problems. An innovative group music intervention using percussion instruments with familiar music as a cost-effective approach has the potential to reduce anxiety and improve psychological well-being of those with dementia. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Cosmogonic Perceptions in the Armenian Traditional Musical Instrument-crafting Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikichian, Hripsime

    2015-07-01

    Based on research data and materials recorded by folk musicians and craftsmen, the article presents the musical instrument-crafting in traditional culture, its contribution in to re-establishment of cosmic order. In this context, the several issues are reviewed in detail: individuality of craftsmen and musicians, the raw materials for the creation of instrument, the instrument structure, the manufacturing process, the ornaments and application. According to the traditional view, using the elements of nature and imitating the sounds of nature and human psychological states the master imitates God repeating the process of creation of the Universe. So, the Instrument is held capable to influence the society contributing to the eternity of life.

  4. El gesto instrumental y la voz cantada en la significación musical The Instrumental Gesture and the Singing Voice as part of the Musical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Martinez Ulloa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El escrito está articulado en tres partes. En la primera se presenta una breve reflexión sobre las modalidades en que el cuerpo del músico actúa y condiciona el gesto sonoro, tanto en el cantante como en el instrumentista. En la segunda se hace uso de la filosofía de Merleau-Ponty para describir la relación cuerpo-mundo físico y sus implicancias en el conocer. Finalmente, en la tercera parte, se analizan las consecuencias de dicha filosofía para una mejor comprensión de lo musical como fruto de cuerpos y dirigido a cuerpos, concluyendo que lo esencial de la música se juega en una fase prediscursiva, como indicalidad del emocionar corpóreo: un ex-cribir el cuerpo más allá de éste.This article is divided into three parts. In the first part, a brief reflection is presented about the ways in which the musician body acts and at the same time conditions the sound gesture, both among singers and instrument players. In the second part, the author resorts to the philosophical thought of Merleau-Ponty in order to describe the relationship between body and physical world and the ways this relationship influences the process of knowing. Finally, in the third part, the consequences of this philosophy are analyzed in terms of its contribution to a better understanding of the musical process as something produced by bodies which in turn address itself to other bodies. The conclusion states that the essence of music unfolds itself not in the discourse itself but in a moment antedating the discourse, or apre-discoursive moment, as an indication of the bodily emotion, or a way of projecting the body, beyond the body itself.

  5. Playing-Related Health Problems Among Instrumental Music Students at a University in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Karen; Boon, Ong Kuan

    2016-09-01

    Musicians from a wide range of backgrounds experience playing-related health problems including musculoskeletal disorders, hearing loss, and performance anxiety. Few studies have focused specifically on the health concerns of musicians in Malaysia. This study aimed to investigate playing-related health problems among student musicians at a university in Malaysia as well as their knowledge and awareness of playing-related health problems. Instrumental music students enrolled in undergraduate and post-graduate university music courses (n=98) participated in a self-report online survey which addressed aspects such as educational background, playing experience, knowledge and awareness of musicians' health issues, history of physical problems, lifestyle factors, and prevention and management strategies. Of the total participants, 28.9% reported that they were currently experiencing playing-related pain in a body part, and 46.4% had experienced playing-related pain at some time. More than half (56.7%) felt that they have not received enough information or advice on playing-related health during their current studies. Musicians who experienced playing-related pain, tension, and discomfort reported the main problem sites to be the fingers and hands, arms, neck, and shoulders. The study results demonstrate that Malaysian university music students are affected by similar types of playing-related physical problems as their counterparts around the world. A greater awareness and knowledge of injury prevention and management strategies is needed so that these music students can sustain healthy playing careers.

  6. Use of CT in detection of internal damage and repair and determination of authenticity in high-quality bowed stringed instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirr, S A; Waddle, J R

    1999-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was used to evaluate 17 high-quality violins and cellos crafted between 1633 and 1872 by master craftsmen such as Guarneri, Amati, and Stradivari. Multiple high-resolution CT scans were obtained in each instrument, and additional scans were obtained when defects or repair was detected. Varying degrees of internal damage (eg, wormholes, air gaps, plastic deformities of wood) or repair (eg, glue lines, filler material, wooden cleats and patches) not seen at visual inspection were detected in all 17 instruments. In addition, CT allowed noninvasive identification of the internal wood grain pattern unique to each instrument, thereby facilitating verification of authenticity to help protect against loss, theft, or forgery. The information provided by CT analysis of valuable bowed stringed instruments may prove useful to prospective buyers or to insurance companies that specialize in insuring such instruments against accidental loss or damage.

  7. Sacred Prelude, Op.1 [String Quintet version

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Jonathan D.

    2006-01-01

    A natural rubato is felt throughout this haunting, single-movement, chamber work for string quintet. Its much darker than usual instrumentation sees two violas and two cellos set against only one violin (which sometimes, like a single voice, soars high above the texture). The sound is reminiscent of that of ancient church music. Written in the stile antico, it opens with a “Plainsong”, then comes the main central “Anthem”. There is a brief reprise of the opening theme, before the work closes ...

  8. String test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duodenal parasites test; Giardia - string test ... To have this test, you swallow a string with a weighted gelatin capsule on the end. The string is pulled out 4 hours later. Any bile , blood, or mucus attached to ...

  9. Oldest playable musical instruments found at Jiahu early Neolithic site in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Harbottle, G; Wang, C; Kong, Z

    1999-09-23

    Excavations at the early Neolithic site of Jiahu in Henan Province, China have produced what may be the earliest complete, playable, tightly-dated multinote musical instruments. Jiahu was occupied from 7000 BC to 5700 BC, considerably antedating the well known Peiligang culture. Here we describe six exquisitely made complete flutes which were found in radiocarbon-dated excavation layers, along with fragments of perhaps 30 more. The flutes are made from the ulnae of the red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis Millen) and have 5, 6, 7 and 8 holes. The best preserved flute has been played and tonally analysed. In addition to early musical artefacts, the archaeological record at Jiahu contains important information on the very foundations of Chinese society. We describe the archaeological characteristics of the Jiahu site, details concerning its dating, its place in the prehistory of the Chinese Neolithic, the ethnicity of its population and the results of a tonal analysis of a nearly 9,000-year-old musical instrument found there.

  10. Developing an instrument model to assess teachers’ creativity in designing and teaching music subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udi Utomo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at developing an instrument model to assess teacher’s creativity in designing and teaching music at school. The study was conducted by adapting the approach of Research and Development (R&D from the model designed by Borg and Gall and the cycle model design developed by Cenamo & Kalk. The development comprises two stages; the model development and dissemination. The model development encompassed of model planning, model designing, as well as the try out. While, the dissemination stage was done by presenting the research result at a conference. At the end of the study, it was proven that the assessment instrument model used to assess teachers’ creativity in designing and teaching music subject at school had met with the research aim. It was shown from the try out test on the assessment instrument model development that: (1 the assessment material, assessment technique, rater criteria, assessment object, units of observation, competence test process, time allotment, observation process, measurement criteria, as well as the measurement rubric had been considered appropriate and had provenly matched from one to another so that it can be applied well; (2 the reliability of the assessment instrument based on Intraclass Correlation Coefficients/ICC test on consistency and absolute agreement definition type as well as the Generalizability Coefficient had met the criteria.

  11. ATTITUDES OF THE MUSIC TEACHER CANDIDATES IN TURKEYTOWARDS THE “INDIVIDUAL INSTRUMENT TRAINING LESSON”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Çoban

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is a descriptive study conducted in order to determine the attitudelevels of candidate music teachers studying at theMusic Education Departmentsof Universities in Turkey towards the instrument lesson during their education atthe universities. Working group of this study is comprised of senior studentsstudying in Faculty of Education from different universities of Turkey. The scaleused in the study was adopted from the attitude scale prepared by Tufan andGüdek (2008 and aimed at the piano lesson and thestudies of validity andreliability were carried out. After the factor analysis performed, the factorstructure of the scale was determined as; value, pleasure and necessity. As a resultof the study, value, pleasure and necessity dimensions, which are thesubdimensions of the Attitude Scale of the teachercandidates aimed at theinstrument lesson, were compared with one another within the context of thestudy findings and consequently, significant determinations were revealed.

  12. Music

    OpenAIRE

    Deinert, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    The musical ending [of Goethe's Novelle] recalls the fascination with "music as metaphor", "the power of music", among recent and contemporary poets from Pope and Dryden and Collins to E.T.A. Hoffmann and Kleist and, of course to Goethe himself. Music saves Faust's life on Easter morning at the end of a dreadful night, and we'll encounter a similar role of music in his Trilogie der Leidenschaft which we'll read in this context.

  13. Determining the Attitudes of Undergraduate Students Having Vocational Music Education towards Individual Instrument Course According to Different Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluçay, Taner

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to determine attitudes of undergraduate students who studied music vocationally towards the individual instrument course according to the variables of grade, gender, individual instrument and graduated high school type. The research data were obtained from 102 undergraduate students studying in Erzincan…

  14. Examination of Strategies Fine Arts High School Students Use during the Practice and Learning of Instrumental Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uygun, Mehtap Aydiner; Kilinçer, Özlem

    2017-01-01

    Like every field of learning, it is important to use various strategies in instrumental music to learn it easily and permanently and to attain the skills to learn independently. This requires determining the strategies used by students studying instrument education. The purpose of this study was to examine the strategies fine arts high school…

  15. Verbal learning in the context of background music: no influence of vocals and instrumentals on verbal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz; Brügger, Eliane; Brummer, Moritz; Scherrer, Stephanie; Alahmadi, Nsreen

    2014-03-26

    Whether listening to background music enhances verbal learning performance is still a matter of dispute. In this study we investigated the influence of vocal and instrumental background music on verbal learning. 226 subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups (one control group and 4 experimental groups). All participants were exposed to a verbal learning task. One group served as control group while the 4 further groups served as experimental groups. The control group learned without background music while the 4 experimental groups were exposed to vocal or instrumental musical pieces during learning with different subjective intensity and valence. Thus, we employed 4 music listening conditions (vocal music with high intensity: VOC_HIGH, vocal music with low intensity: VOC_LOW, instrumental music with high intensity: INST_HIGH, instrumental music with low intensity: INST_LOW) and one control condition (CONT) during which the subjects learned the word lists. Since it turned out that the high and low intensity groups did not differ in terms of the rated intensity during the main experiment these groups were lumped together. Thus, we worked with 3 groups: one control group and two groups, which were exposed to background music (vocal and instrumental) during verbal learning. As dependent variable, the number of learned words was used. Here we measured immediate recall during five learning sessions (recall 1 - recall 5) and delayed recall for 15 minutes (recall 6) and 14 days (recall 7) after the last learning session. Verbal learning improved during the first 5 recall sessions without any strong difference between the control and experimental groups. Also the delayed recalls were similar for the three groups. There was only a trend for attenuated verbal learning for the group passively listened to vocals. This learning attenuation diminished during the following learning sessions. The exposure to vocal or instrumental background music during encoding did not

  16. The influence of the directivity of musical instruments in a room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otondo, Felipe; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of the directivity of musical instruments are presented as part of the study of the influence of their representation in room acoustic simulations and auralizations. Pairs of measured and averaged directivities have been used both for room simulation comparisons and as a basis...... for listening experiments with auralizations. Room simulation results show a clear influence of the changes in the representation directivity on the distribution of acoustical parameters in the room. The results of the listening experiments with auralizations show that some changes produced by directivity...... variations can be perceived by the listener. Among these changes, loudness was perceived in the highest degree, followed by reverberance and clarity....

  17. Acceptance of hearing protection aids in members of an instrumental and voice music band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Maria Helena; Morata, Thais Catalani; Marques, Jair Mendes

    2007-01-01

    There are barriers to effective hearing protection among musicians. To investigate the acceptance of hearing protection aids in members of an instrumental and voice music band. A prospective study of 34 members of the Municipal Indaial Band. Sound pressure levels were measured during a rehearsal, indicating mean levels ranging from 96.4 dB(A) to 106.9 dB(A). Subjects answered questionnaires and underwent audiometry. They attended a lecture in which folders and hearing protection aids were provided; subjects were asked to try using the protectors for 3 months. At the end of the study period, 56.2% reported not liking hearing protection, while 43.7 % accepted such protection. The most common complaints were discomfort with sounds (58.8 %) and tinnitus (47%). 77.1% said that music might cause hearing impairment. A statistically significant difference was observed in the right ear at 4 and 6 kHz and at the left ear in 3, 4 and 6 kHz when median thresholds were compared with those from unexposed controls. Although most subjects seemed aware of the risk, few took preventive measures against hearing loss. This suggests the need for periodic educational campaigns and specific legislation tailored to music professionals.

  18. An investigation of prior knowledge in Automatic Music Transcription systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazau, Dorian; Revillon, Guillaume; Krywyk, Julien; Adam, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    Automatic transcription of music is a long-studied research field with many operational systems available commercially. In this paper, a generic transcription system able to host various prior knowledge parameters has been developed, followed by an in-depth investigation of their impact on music transcription. Explicit links between musical knowledge and algorithmic formalism have been made. Musical knowledge covers classes of timbre, musicology, and playing style of an instrument repertoire. An evaluation sound corpus gathering musical pieces played by human performers from three different instrument repertoires, namely, classical piano, steel-string acoustic guitar, and the marovany zither from Madagascar, has been developed. The different components of musical knowledge have been successively incorporated in a complete transcription system, consisting mainly of a Probabilistic Latent Component Analysis algorithm post-processed with a Hidden Markov Model, and their impact on transcription results have been comparatively evaluated.

  19. Verbal learning in the context of background music: no influence of vocals and instrumentals on verbal learning.

    OpenAIRE

    Jancke L; Brugger E; Brummer M; Scherrer S; Alahmadi N

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whether listening to background music enhances verbal learning performance is still a matter of dispute. In this study we investigated the influence of vocal and instrumental background music on verbal learning. METHODS: 226 subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups (one control group and 4 experimental groups). All participants were exposed to a verbal learning task. One group served as control group while the 4 further groups served as experimental groups. The con...

  20. Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech, Marcel Lysgaard

    2017-01-01

    Old Comedy was a musical experience of great variety. Accompanied by the piper, both choruses and actors sang frequently during the performance. Music in Old comedy reflects to some extend the importance of music in Athenian everyday life, but as Greek Comedy evolved and detached it self more...... and more from the everyday topics, music similarly lost part of its importance within the plays themselves....

  1. Exploring the Effects of Pitch Layout on Learning a New Musical Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer MacRitchie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although isomorphic pitch layouts are proposed to afford various advantages for musicians playing new musical instruments, this paper details the first substantive set of empirical tests on how two fundamental aspects of isomorphic pitch layouts affect motor learning: shear, which makes the pitch axis vertical, and the adjacency (or nonadjacency of pitches a major second apart. After receiving audio-visual training tasks for a scale and arpeggios, performance accuracies of 24 experienced musicians were assessed in immediate retention tasks (same as the training tasks, but without the audio-visual guidance and in a transfer task (performance of a previously untrained nursery rhyme. Each participant performed the same tasks with three different pitch layouts and, in total, four different layouts were tested. Results show that, so long as the performance ceiling has not already been reached (due to ease of the task or repeated practice, adjacency strongly improves performance accuracy in the training and retention tasks. They also show that shearing the layout, to make the pitch axis vertical, worsens performance accuracy for the training tasks but, crucially, it strongly improves performance accuracy in the transfer task when the participant needs to perform a new, but related, task. These results can inform the design of pitch layouts in new musical instruments.

  2. Playing a Musical Instrument as a Protective Factor against Dementia and Cognitive Impairment: A Population-Based Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports that playing a musical instrument may benefit cognitive development and health at young ages. Whether playing an instrument provides protection against dementia has not been established. In a population-based cotwin control study, we examined the association between playing a musical instrument and whether or not the twins developed dementia or cognitive impairment. Participation in playing an instrument was taken from informant-based reports of twins' leisure activities. Dementia diagnoses were based on a complete clinical workup using standard diagnostic criteria. Among 157 twin pairs discordant for dementia and cognitive impairment, 27 pairs were discordant for playing an instrument. Controlling for sex, education, and physical activity, playing a musical instrument was significantly associated with less likelihood of dementia and cognitive impairment (odds ratio [OR] = 0.36 [95% confidence interval 0.13–0.99]). These findings support further consideration of music as a modifiable protective factor against dementia and cognitive impairment. PMID:25544932

  3. Instrumental and vocal music effects on EEG and EKG in neonates of depressed and non-depressed mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Diego, Miguel; Field, Tiffany

    2006-12-01

    Neonates (M age=16 days) born to depressed and non-depressed mothers were randomly assigned to hear an audiotaped lullaby of instrumental music with vocals or without vocals. Neonatal EEG and EKG were recorded for 2min (baseline) of silence and for 2min of one or the other music presentation. Neonates of non-depressed mothers showed greater relative right frontal EEG asymmetry to both types of music, suggesting a withdrawal response. Neonates of depressed mothers on the other hand showed greater relative left frontal EEG asymmetry to the instrumental without vocal segment, suggesting an approach response, and greater relative right frontal EEG asymmetry to the instrumental with vocal segment, suggesting a withdrawal response. Heart rate decelerations occurred following the music onset for both groups of infants, however, compared to infants of non-depressed mothers, infants of depressed mothers showed a delayed heart rate deceleration, suggesting slower processing and/or delayed attention. These findings suggest that neonates of depressed and non-depressed mothers show different EKG and EEG responses to instrumental music with versus without vocals.

  4. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL MODEL OF FORMING FUTURE MUSIC TEACHER’S CREATIVE THINKING IN INSTRUMENTAL AND PERFORMING TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiia Lavrentieva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article conceptual bases of forming students’ creative thinking in the instrumental and performing activities are revealed, taking current training trends into account. The contradictions between the requirements of society to create favorable conditions to realize future music teachers’ creative potential and current directions of a higher educational establishment to ‘a result”, which causes a specific system of promotion and support students’ value orientations and encourages students to master existing knowledge, algorithms, and performing models, depict the relevant problems of making out the system of the future music teachers’ instrumental and performing training that is aimed at developing their creative thinking. It is noted that while defining such phenomena as creative thinking and cognitive work a great number of scientists emphasizes on the word “create” which means finding and creating something that hasn’t been found in the previous individual or social experience. The aim of the article is to disclose the content and stages of implementing structural and functional model of forming future music teachers’ creative thinking The model is formed as an alternative to information and reproductive approach to training future specialists. The concept model is based on the target of forming future music teachers’ creative and methodological thinking, professional competence, activity and approaches to the students’ training to complete fulfillment of modern needs of professional and music education. The author specifies criteria of structural model of future music teachers’ creative thinking. They are value and motivational, cognitive and educational, action and technological, creative and modulating ones The effectiveness of the future music teachers’ creative thinking in instrumental and performing training depends on the level of forming clear science-based system that has a certain conceptual

  5. Satire in Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Stefanija

    2011-12-01

    Bernard Shaw, contemporary musical feuilletons, and so on; and 6 folk-music legacy, to which it seems reasonable to add some of contemporary musical-poetic genres of popular culture, especially rap. After delineating the fields in which music has been connected to satire, the relations between them are analyzed in some detail with discussion of the march section in Mahler’s Third Symphony (Gustav Mahler and universal satire, Shostakovich’s Eighth String Quartet (Dmitri Shostakovich and social satire, and Lebič’s ingenious Fauvel ’86 (Lojze Lebič and gestural satire. The last section of the article offers a typology of the satirical potential in music. Five types of relations between music and language’s meanings are considered, as well as five groups of satire-connected levers in instrumental music: 1. Music has certain aesthetic features that evoke a “strange” effect: a music takes a “neutral,” “parallel-world” stance toward the text, without direct involvement in the meaning of the text; b music “highlights” the sense of the text; c music “comments” on the text in exposing different “telling details”; d music tries to negate the text. 2. Musical incorporates certain “coded chips” such as a motifs from one’s own oeuvre; b motifs from compositions by other authors; c “encrypted statements,” such as the “sign” in Shostakovich: the DSCH motif, the BACH motif, and so on; d semanticized “cultural gestures,” such as Wagner’s funeral march in Shostakovich’s Eighth String Quartet. 3. Musical flow is characterized by a “breach of genres”: a various musical forms; for instance, the symphony and the Lied in Mahler, or b “low-brow” and “high” styles in Mahler and other composers. 4. Musical flow violates the established cultural norms, not only musical ones, with items such as a certain cultural position, such as John Cage’s 4’33’’; b specific, not only musical, ideology, the Poeme Symphonique by Gy

  6. How Do String Majors Become Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Joy

    2015-01-01

    This study was motivated by the desire to understand how to support the development of competent and confident string instrument teachers. This research investigates early-career string instrument teachers' experiences of pre-service tertiary education and induction, and how these experiences impacted early-career string teachers' competence to…

  7. Automatic Music Transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapuri, Anssi; Virtanen, Tuomas

    Written musical notation describes music in a symbolic form that is suitable for performing a piece using the available musical instruments. Traditionally, musical notation indicates the pitch, target instrument, timing, and duration of each sound to be played. The aim of music transcription either by humans or by a machine is to infer these musical parameters, given only the acoustic recording of a performance.

  8. Transforming 3D Coloured Pixels into Musical Instrument Notes for Vision Substitution Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Bologna

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the See ColOr project is to achieve a noninvasive mobility aid for blind users that will use the auditory pathway to represent in real-time frontal image scenes. We present and discuss here two image processing methods that were experimented in this work: image simplification by means of segmentation, and guiding the focus of attention through the computation of visual saliency. A mean shift segmentation technique gave the best results, but for real-time constraints we simply implemented an image quantification method based on the HSL colour system. More particularly, we have developed two prototypes which transform HSL coloured pixels into spatialised classical instrument sounds lasting for 300 ms. Hue is sonified by the timbre of a musical instrument, saturation is one of four possible notes, and luminosity is represented by bass when luminosity is rather dark and singing voice when it is relatively bright. The first prototype is devoted to static images on the computer screen, while the second has been built up on a stereoscopic camera which estimates depth by triangulation. In the audio encoding, distance to objects was quantified into four duration levels. Six participants with their eyes covered by a dark tissue were trained to associate colours with musical instruments and then asked to determine on several pictures, objects with specific shapes and colours. In order to simplify the protocol of experiments, we used a tactile tablet, which took the place of the camera. Overall, colour was helpful for the interpretation of image scenes. Moreover, preliminary results with the second prototype consisting in the recognition of coloured balloons were very encouraging. Image processing techniques such as saliency could accelerate in the future the interpretation of sonified image scenes.

  9. Transforming 3D Coloured Pixels into Musical Instrument Notes for Vision Substitution Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deville Benoît

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the See ColOr project is to achieve a noninvasive mobility aid for blind users that will use the auditory pathway to represent in real-time frontal image scenes. We present and discuss here two image processing methods that were experimented in this work: image simplification by means of segmentation, and guiding the focus of attention through the computation of visual saliency. A mean shift segmentation technique gave the best results, but for real-time constraints we simply implemented an image quantification method based on the HSL colour system. More particularly, we have developed two prototypes which transform HSL coloured pixels into spatialised classical instrument sounds lasting for 300 ms. Hue is sonified by the timbre of a musical instrument, saturation is one of four possible notes, and luminosity is represented by bass when luminosity is rather dark and singing voice when it is relatively bright. The first prototype is devoted to static images on the computer screen, while the second has been built up on a stereoscopic camera which estimates depth by triangulation. In the audio encoding, distance to objects was quantified into four duration levels. Six participants with their eyes covered by a dark tissue were trained to associate colours with musical instruments and then asked to determine on several pictures, objects with specific shapes and colours. In order to simplify the protocol of experiments, we used a tactile tablet, which took the place of the camera. Overall, colour was helpful for the interpretation of image scenes. Moreover, preliminary results with the second prototype consisting in the recognition of coloured balloons were very encouraging. Image processing techniques such as saliency could accelerate in the future the interpretation of sonified image scenes.

  10. The Effect of Mode of Instruction and Instrument Authenticity on Children's Attitudes, Information Recall, and Performance Skill for Music from Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembrook, Randall G.; Robinson, Charles R.

    1997-01-01

    Determines whether modes of instruction and uses of different instruments affect students attitudes, recall, and performance skill for Ghandian music. Stresses that authentic instruments are important in achieving optimum attitude and knowledge outcomes in multicultural music instruction. Identifies the benefits of live instruction as opposed to…

  11. Communication of Expectations between Principals and Entry-Year Instrumental Music Teachers: Implications for Music Teacher Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of arts educators, including music educators, has evolved into a high-stakes situation that drives teacher pay, promotion, and retention. This assessment process is driven by federal policy advocating for a value-added model based on student performance. Principals, who are often charged with assessing artistic musical performance,…

  12. Teaching Musical Awareness: The Development and Application of a "Toolkit" of Strategies for Instrumental Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Vicky

    2007-01-01

    Despite recent moves toward a more collaborative relationship between the academic pursuit of music analysis and the practical pursuit of music performance, there remains a gulf between the two disciplines. This is partly because attempts at collaboration have generally focused on the use of music performance as a way of teaching music analysis…

  13. Musics of Oceania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Raymond F.

    1972-01-01

    Article examines the music and musical instruments of an area commonly referred to as the South Sea Isles. Author also points out the musical function and cultural meaning of specific musical styles. (RK)

  14. String theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Hongmo.

    1987-10-01

    The paper traces the development of the String Theory, and was presented at Professor Sir Rudolf Peierls' 80sup(th) Birthday Symposium. The String theory is discussed with respect to the interaction of strings, the inclusion of both gauge theory and gravitation, inconsistencies in the theory, and the role of space-time. The physical principles underlying string theory are also outlined. (U.K.)

  15. Music Used for Parkinson’s Dancing Classes: Rationale and Validity or Instruments and Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Winifred A. Beevers; Meg E Morris; Janet McConville

    2015-01-01

    Music has the potential to motivate, support and improve exercise performance while reducing the perceptions of fatigue. The music used in exercise groups is rarely examined in detail. This article is an investigation into finding existing methods for analysing recorded music as used in exercise groups. No single method or tool was identified. Existing music analysis methods focus on music that is heard or performed in the therapy session, and are used to facilitate discussion and interpr...

  16. El papel de los instrumentos musicales en la globalización de la música The Role of Musical Instruments in the Globalization of Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazadi wa Mukuma

    2010-03-01

    successful with the duplication of sounds of musical instruments for computer games, but the creation of zones of cultural interaction as defined by actual musical instruments is presenting challenges with the unification of cultural values into one global community. In music, globalization implies «world music» that is articulated as a hybrid product. The process of globalization is readily realized electronically, with sounds of musical instruments, but the creation of zones of cultural interaction, with the same musical instruments, will require a mixture of configuration of factors ranging from ecology to language and cultural manifestation. The objective of zones of cultural interaction is not to unify style of music, but through globalization is the sharing of actual musical instruments. To accomplish this objective, geographic spaces will have to surmount the globalization of the world ecology, language, and culture.

  17. How the degree of instrumental practice in music increases perceptual sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Bellini, Eleonora

    2018-04-20

    Literature has shown that playing a musical instrument is associated with the formation of multimodal audio visuomotor representations that are strongly instrument-specific. Here, we investigated the effect of increased motor practice on perceptual sensitivity in 32 professional musicians of comparable expertise but with different amounts of instrumental practice with piano (10,000 vs. 3,000 estimated hours). Stimuli consisted of images of pianists' hands and piano arpeggio sounds. In half of the cases, the piano fingering and piano sounds were congruent, while they were incongruent in the other cases. ERPs were recorded from 128 sites while musicians performed a congruent vs. incongruent discrimination task. A fronto-central error-related negativity (ERN), mainly generated within the anterior cingulate cortex, was observed in response to incongruent videos only in pianists. Non-pianist musicians were able to carry out the task (with a worse performance) but exhibited a smaller response-related N400 to incongruent stimuli. Source reconstruction applied to ERP responses to incongruent stimuli indicated a less automatic mechanism for detecting sensory-motor deviance and a greater emphasis on visual rather than on acoustic features in non-pianists. Overall the data suggest a profound difference between the two populations of musicians and advise against considering "expert" populations to include those that undertook only a few weeks/months of training in a new discipline. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Music Instrument Teachers in Higher Education: An Investigation of the Key Influences on How They Teach in the Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Ryan; Parkes, Kelly A.

    2017-01-01

    In higher education music instrument teaching, there is a strong tradition of high-level performers being recruited to teach advanced students within the private studio despite the fact these educators often have no training in pedagogy. The studio environment also continues to be dominated by the one-to-one lesson format and the master-apprentice…

  19. Exploring Music Instrument Teaching and Learning Environments: Video Analysis as a Means of Elucidating Process and Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Ryan

    2006-01-01

    This article outlines the methods developed to engage in a detailed investigation of video footage of piano teaching, involving advanced students in both one-to-one and small-group settings. The paper presents the research to date in the field of musical instrument teaching, considers various challenges associated with video footage analysis, and…

  20. Cognitive, Affective, and Meta-Cognitive Skill Development through Instrumental Music: A Positive Impact on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the skills students develop through participation in instrumental music and the effect it has on their academic achievement through student and parent/guardian surveys. Fifty-eight percent of cognitive skills were identified as being obtained by a majority of students, 70% of affective skills, and 71% of meta-cognitive skills…

  1. Synchrotron radiation microtomography of musical instruments: a non-destructive monitoring technique for insect infestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Bentivoglio-Ravasio

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available X-ray computed tomography is becoming a common technique for the structural analysis of samples of cultural relevance, providing luthiers, art historians, conservators and restorators with a unique tool for the characterization of musical instruments. Synchrotron-radiation phase-contrast microtomography is an ideal technique for the non-destructive 3D analysis of samples where small lowabsorbing details such as larvae and eggs can be detected. We report results from the first feasibility studies performed at the Elettra synchrotron laboratory, where the 1494 organ by Lorenzo Gusnasco da Pavia has been studied. Together with important information about the structural conditions, the presence of xylophages could be detected and characterized.

  2. Christian Marclay : « iconoclasme » musical et interrogation sur l’instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Massin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Le travail de Christian Marclay, artiste multiforme, improvisateur et performer, explore systématiquement un espace au confluent des arts sonores et visuels (vidéo, photos, installations, sculptures. Comment réfléchir sur le son à travers les objets tangibles et les représentations visuelles qui le réifient ? Comment produire – par une pratique musicale de platiniste notamment – de nouveaux sons et de nouveaux rapports à la musique ? Ce double axe d’interrogation rencontre nécessairement la question de l’instrument. Iconoclasme musical dans la double lignée du mouvement punk et de Fluxus ? Ou /et interrogation sur le fonctionnement de l’instrument dans la pratique vive d’une musique à réinventer ? On voudrait suggérer qu’une telle approche esthétique peut nourrir l’approche ontologique de l’instrument et, en paraphrasant Nelson Goodman, poser la question « quand y a-t-il instrument ? ».Christian Marclay : Musical « iconoclasism » and an instrumental interrogative Christian Marclay a polyvalent/multiform artist who improvises and performs. His work systematically explores the artistic space where audio arts and visual arts (video, photos, installations and sculpture merge. How can sound be considered in relation to tangible objects and visual representations that give it some actuality ? How can new sounds and new relationships with music be produced by any musical output for example of a turntablist ? This bilateral enquiry necessarily confronts the topic of the instrument. Is it a musical iconoclasism in the dynamic of both punk and Fluxus ? Or/and a questioning of the way the instrument works while a vivid musical practice has to be reinvented? It is suggested that such an esthetical approach may feed the ontological approach of the instrument and, to paraphrase Nelson Goodman, ask the question “When is something an instrument ?”.

  3. Hyperbolic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, A.D.

    1991-01-01

    We introduce hyperbolic strings as closed bosonic strings with the target space R d-1,1 xT q+1,1 which has an additional time-like dimension in the internal space. The Fock spaces of the q-parametric family of standard bosonic, fermionic and heterotic strings with the target spaces of dimension n≤d+q are shown to be embedded into the Fock space of hyperbolic strings. The condition of the absence of anomaly fixes d and q for all three types of strings written in a bosonized form. (orig.)

  4. Action in Perception: Prominent Visuo-Motor Functional Symmetry in Musicians during Music Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burunat, Iballa; Brattico, Elvira; Puoliväli, Tuomas; Ristaniemi, Tapani; Sams, Mikko; Toiviainen, Petri

    2015-01-01

    Musical training leads to sensory and motor neuroplastic changes in the human brain. Motivated by findings on enlarged corpus callosum in musicians and asymmetric somatomotor representation in string players, we investigated the relationship between musical training, callosal anatomy, and interhemispheric functional symmetry during music listening. Functional symmetry was increased in musicians compared to nonmusicians, and in keyboardists compared to string players. This increased functional symmetry was prominent in visual and motor brain networks. Callosal size did not significantly differ between groups except for the posterior callosum in musicians compared to nonmusicians. We conclude that the distinctive postural and kinematic symmetry in instrument playing cross-modally shapes information processing in sensory-motor cortical areas during music listening. This cross-modal plasticity suggests that motor training affects music perception.

  5. Action in Perception: Prominent Visuo-Motor Functional Symmetry in Musicians during Music Listening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iballa Burunat

    Full Text Available Musical training leads to sensory and motor neuroplastic changes in the human brain. Motivated by findings on enlarged corpus callosum in musicians and asymmetric somatomotor representation in string players, we investigated the relationship between musical training, callosal anatomy, and interhemispheric functional symmetry during music listening. Functional symmetry was increased in musicians compared to nonmusicians, and in keyboardists compared to string players. This increased functional symmetry was prominent in visual and motor brain networks. Callosal size did not significantly differ between groups except for the posterior callosum in musicians compared to nonmusicians. We conclude that the distinctive postural and kinematic symmetry in instrument playing cross-modally shapes information processing in sensory-motor cortical areas during music listening. This cross-modal plasticity suggests that motor training affects music perception.

  6. Subsurface drill string

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, William L [Rigby, ID; Clark, Don T [Idaho Falls, ID; Grover, Blair K [Idaho Falls, ID; Mathewson, Rodney O [Idaho Falls, ID; Seymour, Craig A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-10-07

    A drill string comprises a first drill string member having a male end; and a second drill string member having a female end configured to be joined to the male end of the first drill string member, the male end having a threaded portion including generally square threads, the male end having a non-threaded extension portion coaxial with the threaded portion, and the male end further having a bearing surface, the female end having a female threaded portion having corresponding female threads, the female end having a non-threaded extension portion coaxial with the female threaded portion, and the female end having a bearing surface. Installation methods, including methods of installing instrumented probes are also provided.

  7. Improved Digit Span in Children after a 6-Week Intervention of Playing a Musical Instrument: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that music training not only improves children's musical skills, but also enhances their cognitive functions. However, there is a disagreement about what domain(s might be affected. Moreover, effects of short-term (instrumental training have not been examined, although more basic studies have suggested neuroplasticity within several weeks. Consequently, the present exploratory pilot study investigated the effect of a six-week instrumental practice program (i.e., playing the keyboard harmonica on children's cognitive functions using a randomized controlled trial. Forty children (aged 6–8 years were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (n = 20, which received a 6-week (12-session keyboard harmonica curriculum, or an untrained control group (n = 20. Different from traditional instrumental training, the curriculum did not use musical scores to emphasize creating association between sound (auditory modality and finger movement (somato-motor system. Cognitive measurements included verbal ability, processing speed, working memory, and inhibitory control, which were administered before and after the curriculum in both groups. After the 6-week training, only the experimental group showed a significant improvement in the Digit Span test (especially in the Digit Span Backward that measures working memory. However, no significant influences were found on the other cognitive tests. The result suggests that several weeks of instrumental music training may be beneficial to improving children's working memory. In addition, we used an inexpensive and portable keyboard harmonica; therefore, our instructional method is easy to apply in classrooms or other circumstances. If the method is applied to music lessons in schools or in the community, it may help improve children's working memory.

  8. The effect of vocal and instrumental music on cardio respiratory variables, energy expenditure and exertion levels during sub maximal treadmill exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitha, D; Sejil, T V; Rao, Shwetha; Roshan, C J; Roshan, C J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of vocal and instrumental music on various physiological parameters during submaximal exercise. Each subject underwent three sessions of exercise protocol without music, with vocal music, and instrumental versions of same piece of music. The protocol consisted of 10 min treadmill exercise at 70% HR(max) and 20 min of recovery. Minute to minute heart rate and breath by breath recording of respiratory parameters, rate of energy expenditure and perceived exertion levels were measured. Music, irrespective of the presence or absence of lyrics, enabled the subjects to exercise at a significantly lower heart rate and oxygen consumption, reduced the metabolic cost and perceived exertion levels of exercise (P Music having a relaxant effect could have probably increased the parasympathetic activation leading to these effects.

  9. Sa’Unine String Orchestra, Orkes Geseknya Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranti - Rachmawanti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   This article explains the result of Sa’Unine String Orchestra as one of Indonesian orchestras in popular culture. Main idea of this research is to uncover and describe the characteristic, func- tion, and role of Sa’Unine String Orchestra within the popular culture in Indonesia. This research used qualitative method with ethnographical approaches to identify all facts that discovered during research. The conclusions of this research show that Sa’Unine String Orchestra moves in two ways, there are; the idealism which had a vision to create a real Indonesian string orchestra and a part of music industry. At the end, these two ways are connected to each other because of the earnings of those. Music industry becomes a support factor which create the idealism of Sa’Unine String Or- chestra to be an Indonesian String Orchestra.   Keywords: String Orchestra, Music, Popular Culture.

  10. Opportunistic Music

    OpenAIRE

    Hachet , Martin; Kian , Arash; Berthaut , Florent; Franco , Jean-Sébastien; Desainte-Catherine , Myriam

    2009-01-01

    International audience; While mixed reality has inspired the development of many new musical instruments, few approaches explore the potential of mobile setups. We present a new musical interaction concept, called "opportunistic music". It allows musicians to recreate a hardware musical controller using any objects of their immediate environment. This approach benefits from the physical properties of real objects for controlling music. Our prototype is based on a stereo-vision tracking system...

  11. Improved Digit Span in Children after a 6-Week Intervention of Playing a Musical Instrument: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xia; Ohsawa, Chie; Suzuki, Akiko; Sekiyama, Kaoru

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that music training not only improves children's musical skills, but also enhances their cognitive functions. However, there is a disagreement about what domain(s) might be affected. Moreover, effects of short-term (training have not been examined, although more basic studies have suggested neuroplasticity within several weeks. Consequently, the present exploratory pilot study investigated the effect of a six-week instrumental practice program (i.e., playing the keyboard harmonica) on children's cognitive functions using a randomized controlled trial. Forty children (aged 6-8 years) were randomly assigned to either the experimental group ( n = 20), which received a 6-week (12-session) keyboard harmonica curriculum, or an untrained control group ( n = 20). Different from traditional instrumental training, the curriculum did not use musical scores to emphasize creating association between sound (auditory modality) and finger movement (somato-motor system). Cognitive measurements included verbal ability, processing speed, working memory, and inhibitory control, which were administered before and after the curriculum in both groups. After the 6-week training, only the experimental group showed a significant improvement in the Digit Span test (especially in the Digit Span Backward) that measures working memory. However, no significant influences were found on the other cognitive tests. The result suggests that several weeks of instrumental music training may be beneficial to improving children's working memory. In addition, we used an inexpensive and portable keyboard harmonica; therefore, our instructional method is easy to apply in classrooms or other circumstances. If the method is applied to music lessons in schools or in the community, it may help improve children's working memory.

  12. The Perceptions of Cooperating Teachers Regarding the Skills and Knowledge of Student Teachers Working in Beginning and Middle School Instrumental Music Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Christopher David

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain the perceptions of cooperating teachers in beginning and middle school instrumental music regarding their student teachers' skills and knowledge both at the beginning and at the end of the student teaching experience. The related research has focused primarily on two areas of music teacher education. Program…

  13. The Acoustic Properties of Water Submerged Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta and Spruce (Picea spp. Wood and Their Suitability for Use as Musical Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin Hilde

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wood is a common material used for the manufacture of many products, and submerged wood, in particular, has been used in niche markets and musical instruments. In order to examine if submerged wood in British Columbia, Canada, would be appropriate for use as musical instruments, a study was performed in 2007 on submerged wood from Ootsa Lake, British Columbia, Canada. The results of that study showed the wood was not suitable for musical instruments. In this paper, the wood samples were allowed to age untouched in a laboratory setting and were then retested under the hypothesis that physical acoustic characteristics would improve. It was shown, however, that acoustic properties became less adequate after being left to dry over time. This article describes the density, speed of sound, acoustic constant and characteristic impedance properties for submerged wood and a comparison is made for different applications for musical instruments.

  14. SPECIFIC OF INSTRUMENTAL AND MASTERYING TRAINING OF PROSPECTIVE MUSIC TEACHERS IN THE INNOVATIVE DIMENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Labunets

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the specific instrumental performing arts trainingof pedagogical universities students to implement innovativeactivities. It is outlined that modernization of Ukrainian higher education on the innovative basis is a prerequisite for its integration into the European educational space and that is the methodological basis for the development of modern educational strategies and tactics of the educational sphere. The main tasks of modern educational innovative processes:the transition to a dynamic step training system of artistic profile, which will allow opportunities to meet individual in obtaining certain educational and qualification levels for the desired direction in accordance with its capabilities and ensure mobility in the labor market are determined. Innovative pedagogical education as a subsystem within education, generating its core objective which preceded its establishment and which state determines the overall quality are considered. It is found out that the willingness of future teachers for innovativeactivities is provided by the complete connections of its professional development with general cultural one and it manifests in becoming him as a professional. It is emphasized that innovative pedagogical education is realized as the professional and personal development of teachers in mastering system of general cultural procedures and ways of its practical application. It is outlined the nature and methodological orientation of training future music teachers for productive activity in comprehensive schools based on the principles of integration into the European educational space and that is the methodological basis for the development of modern educational strategies and tactics of education in Ukraine.

  15. Semi-automatic system for UV images analysis of historical musical instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondi, Piercarlo; Invernizzi, Claudia; Licchelli, Maurizio; Lombardi, Luca; Malagodi, Marco; Rovetta, Tommaso

    2015-06-01

    The selection of representative areas to be analyzed is a common problem in the study of Cultural Heritage items. UV fluorescence photography is an extensively used technique to highlight specific surface features which cannot be observed in visible light (e.g. restored parts or treated with different materials), and it proves to be very effective in the study of historical musical instruments. In this work we propose a new semi-automatic solution for selecting areas with the same perceived color (a simple clue of similar materials) on UV photos, using a specifically designed interactive tool. The proposed method works in two steps: (i) users select a small rectangular area of the image; (ii) program automatically highlights all the areas that have the same color of the selected input. The identification is made by the analysis of the image in HSV color model, the most similar to the human perception. The achievable result is more accurate than a manual selection, because it can detect also points that users do not recognize as similar due to perception illusion. The application has been developed following the rules of usability, and Human Computer Interface has been improved after a series of tests performed by expert and non-expert users. All the experiments were performed on UV imagery of the Stradivari violins collection stored by "Museo del Violino" in Cremona.

  16. Error metrics for predicting discrimination of original and spectrally altered musical instrument sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, James W.; Horner, Andrew

    2003-10-01

    The correspondence of various error metrics to human discrimination data was investigated. Time-varying harmonic amplitude data were obtained from spectral analysis of eight musical instrument sounds (bassoon, clarinet, flute, horn, oboe, saxophone, trumpet, and violin). The data were altered using fixed random multipliers on the harmonic amplitudes, and the sounds were additively resynthesized with estimated average spectral errors ranging from 1% to 50%. Listeners attempted to discriminate the randomly altered sounds from reference sounds resynthesized from the original data. Then, various error metrics were used to calculate the spectral differences between the original and altered sounds, and the R2 correspondence between the error metrics and the discrimination data was measured. A relative-amplitude spectral error metric gave the best correspondence to average subject discrimination data, capturing over 90% of the variation relative to a Fourth-order regression curve, although other formulas gave similar results. Error metrics which used a small number of representative analysis frames gave results which compared favorably to using all frames of the analysis.

  17. Bosonic strings

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    This book presents a mathematical treatment of Bosonic string theory from the point of view of global geometry. As motivation, Jost presents the theory of point particles and Feynman path integrals. He provides detailed background material, including the geometry of Teichmüller space, the conformal and complex geometry of Riemann surfaces, and the subtleties of boundary regularity questions. The high point is the description of the partition function for Bosonic strings as a finite-dimensional integral over a moduli space of Riemann surfaces. Jost concludes with some topics related to open and closed strings and D-branes. Bosonic Strings is suitable for graduate students and researchers interested in the mathematics underlying string theory.

  18. 75 FR 16838 - In the Matter of Certain Stringed Musical Instruments and Components Thereof (II); Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, 19 U.S.C. 1337, on behalf of Geoffrey Lee McCabe of Hollywood... shall be served: (a) The complainant is-- Geoffrey Lee McCabe, 6104 Glen Oak, Hollywood, CA 90068. (b...

  19. Cosmological Quantum String Vacua and String-String Duality

    OpenAIRE

    Rey, Soo-Jong

    1996-01-01

    Implications of string-string dualities to cosmological string vacua are discussed. Cosmological vacua of classical string theories comprise of disjoint classses mapped one another by scale-factor T-duality. Each classes are, however, afflicted with initial/final cosmological singularities. It is argued that quantum string theories and string-string dualities dramatically resolve these cosmological singularities out so that disjoint classical cosmological vacua are continuously connected in a...

  20. Exploring the Content of Instrumental Lessons and Gender Relations in Australian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Katie

    2008-01-01

    This observational study analysed the lesson content of 24 instrumental lessons (piano, strings and winds) using a gender-balanced sample (equal numbers of male/female teachers and students) from five Australian higher education institutions to ascertain the priorities of topics in advanced applied music lessons in the Western Classical tradition.…

  1. Verbal art and music in the Gavião language of Rondônia: methodology for the study and the documentation of speech played on musical instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Moore

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In a language with distinctive tone and length, such as Gavião of Rondônia, the first question about speech played by musical instruments is the relation between the melodies and the super-segmental phonology of the corresponding words in sung speech and in normal speech. The sung speech is useful for learning and explaining the musical notes. It is influenced by the phonological possibilities of the spoken form and by the musical possibilities of the instrumental form, being intermediate between the two. This art is performed with various Gavião traditional musical instruments. The role of the instrumental sung speech is artistic and also practical, to help to maintain the oral heritage. This practice represents a little-studied and threatened cultural heritage of the traditional substratum of the cultures of Amazonia. On the Indigenous Reserve Igarapé Lourdes we used an original methodology to document this phenomenon in the musical instruments which the Gavião collaborators identified as 'speaking' or 'singing'. The recording and transcription sessions necessary for this type of research will be explained here. They show the relation of acoustic iconicity which exists between the words and the music. Linguistic analysis makes it possible to understand the phonetic and phonological nature of the iconicity.

  2. Ecological Development and Validation of a Music Performance Rating Scale for Five Instrument Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrigley, William J.; Emmerson, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated ways to improve the quality of music performance evaluation in an effort to address the accountability imperative in tertiary music education. An enhanced scientific methodology was employed incorporating ecological validity and using recognized qualitative methods involving grounded theory and quantitative methods…

  3. Ensemble-Based Instrumental Music Instruction: Dead-End Tradition or Opportunity for Socially Enlightened Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuser, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Public school music education in the USA remains wedded to large ensemble performance. Instruction tends to be teacher directed, relies on styles from the Western canon and exhibits little concern for musical interests of students. The idea that a fundamental purpose of education is the creation of a just society is difficult for many music…

  4. Gaining Insight into Cultural Geography through the Study of Musical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Alexander K.

    2010-01-01

    At present, the need for an understanding of both physical and cultural geography is increasingly urgent in America's schools. The present study explores using music as focus for the exploration of geography. Not only is music strongly linked to culture and environment but also its study provides an experiential understanding of a given culture in…

  5. Instrumental Music as Content Literacy Education: An Instructional Framework Based on the Continuous Improvement Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Victor Russell Tarbet

    2007-01-01

    Background: Educational guidelines and reforms focused on literacy, including No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), have contributed to a music education culture and climate focused on language literacy rather than on the core content literacies inherent in music itself. Purpose: The purpose of this…

  6. Now Hear This: Using Recorded Models in the Instrumental Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    Most teachers agree that a demonstration can be more effective than a verbal description. Math teachers model multiplication exercises, and physical education teachers model how to throw a ball. Likewise, music teachers model correct embouchure. Modeling can help students understand music concepts that are difficult to explain verbally, and visual…

  7. Higuchi’s Method applied to detection of changes in timbre of digital sound synthesis of string instruments with the functional transformation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjanapen, Manorth; Kunsombat, Cherdsak; Chiangga, Surasak

    2017-09-01

    The functional transformation method (FTM) is a powerful tool for detailed investigation of digital sound synthesis by the physical modeling method, the resulting sound or measured vibrational characteristics at discretized points on real instruments directly solves the underlying physical effect of partial differential equation (PDE). In this paper, we present the Higuchi’s method to examine the difference between the timbre of tone and estimate fractal dimension of musical signals which contains information about their geometrical structure that synthesizes by FTM. With the Higuchi’s method we obtain the whole process is not complicated, fast processing, with the ease of analysis without expertise in the physics or virtuoso musicians and the easiest way for the common people can judge that sounds similarly presented.

  8. Use Jazz to Teach Your String Students Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Standards 3 and 9 of the National Standards for Music Education charge teachers to teach improvisation as well as music of diverse cultures. Jazz is a musical style that is perfect to cover both content areas. Until now, however, jazz repertoire and improvisation have not played a major role in the education of string students. One reason is that…

  9. Magnetic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, Max

    2006-01-01

    The conception of the magnetic string is presented as an infinitely thin bundle of magnetic flux lines. The magnetic strings are surrounded by a film of current that rotates around them, and are a solution of Maxwell's equations. The magnetic potential contains a line singularity, and its stability can be established topologically. A few comments are added on the possibility that they may exist at a cosmological scale as relics of the Big Bang. (author) [es

  10. Musical examination to bridge audio data and sheet music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xunyu; Cross, Timothy J.; Xiao, Liangliang; Hei, Xiali

    2015-03-01

    useful for teaching music lessons on the web. The developed system is evaluated with songs played with guitar, keyboard, violin, and other popular musical instruments (primarily electronic or stringed instruments). The Musicians Aid system is successful at both representing and analyzing audio data and it is also powerful in assisting individuals interested in learning and understanding music.

  11. Lattice strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorn, C.B.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of studying non-perturbative effects in string theory using a world sheet lattice is discussed. The light-cone lattice string model of Giles and Thorn is studied numerically to assess the accuracy of ''coarse lattice'' approximations. For free strings a 5 by 15 lattice seems sufficient to obtain better than 10% accuracy for the bosonic string tachyon mass squared. In addition a crude lattice model simulating string like interactions is studied to find out how easily a coarse lattice calculation can pick out effects such as bound states which would qualitatively alter the spectrum of the free theory. The role of the critical dimension in obtaining a finite continuum limit is discussed. Instead of the ''gaussian'' lattice model one could use one of the vertex models, whose continuum limit is the same as a gaussian model on a torus of any radius. Indeed, any critical 2 dimensional statistical system will have a stringy continuum limit in the absence of string interactions. 8 refs., 1 fig. , 9 tabs

  12. The Kodály and Rajkó Methods: Voices, Instruments, Ethnicity, and the Globalization of Hungarian Music Education in the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn M. Hooker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Music is one of the fields in which Hungary has distinguished itself around the world, and music education is an arena in which Hungarian methods have had a profound impact. The basic principles of Hungarian music-pedagogical methods, developed by Zoltán Kodály (1882–1967 and his disciples and thus known as the Kodály method, are systematic instruction in sight-singing using “movable-do” solfège and rhythmic syllables, with the ideal of developing music literacy in all children through high-quality music, mainly classical and folk repertoire for choirs. Another type of well-known Hungarian music, so-called “Gypsy music,” is specifically denied legitimacy both in Kodály’s writings and those of some of his students, for two reasons: much of it is primarily instrumental instead of vocal, and it is considered “bad.” Yet Romani (Gypsy musicians from Hungary have also become famous internationally, some from quite a young age. The Rajkó Ensemble, established in 1952 as the Gypsy Orchestra of the Young Communists’ League, brought Hungarian and Hungarian-Gypsy music to over a hundred countries over the years. Interviews with Rajkó members, some conducted by the author and some previously published, reveal those musicians struggling to claim the legitimacy not only of their music but of their music pedagogy, implicitly comparing the Rajkó method to the Kodály method. After a brief discussion of the Kodály method and its history, this essay gives some examples of how that method has dealt with talented Romani youth in Hungary; compares the Kodály method to methods of teaching instrumental music in Roma communities and in the Rajkó Ensemble; and considers how American ideals of multicultural education challenge some of Kodály’s tenets.

  13. The Impact of Scholastic Instrumental Music and Scholastic Chess Study on the Standardized Test Scores of Students in Grades Three, Four, and Five

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Edwin E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of instrumental music study and group chess lessons on the standardized test scores of suburban elementary public school students (grades three through five) in Levittown, New York. The study divides the students into the following groups and compares the standardized test scores of each: a) instrumental music…

  14. Nonlinearities and synchronization in musical acoustics and music psychology

    CERN Document Server

    Bader, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinearities are a crucial and founding principle in nearly all musical systems, may they be musical instruments, timbre or rhythm perception and production, or neural networks of music perception. This volume gives an overview about present and past research in these fields. In Musical Acoustics, on the one hand the nonlinearities in musical instruments often produce the musically interesting features. On the other, musical instruments are nonlinear by nature, and tone production is the result of synchronization and self-organization within the instruments. Furthermore, as nearly all musical instruments are driven by impulses an Impulse Pattern Formulation (IPF) is suggested, an iterative framework holding for all musical instruments. It appears that this framework is able to reproduce the complex and perceptionally most salient initial transients of musical instruments. In Music Psychology, nonlinearities are present in all areas of musical features, like pitch, timbre, or rhythm perception. In terms of r...

  15. String Stretching, Frequency Modulation, and Banjo Clang

    OpenAIRE

    Politzer, David

    2014-01-01

    The banjo’s floating bridge, string break angle, and flexible drumhead all contribute to substantial audio range frequency modulation. From the world of electronic music synthesis, it is known that modulating higher frequency sounds with lower acoustic frequencies leads to metallic and bell-like tone. The mechanics of the banjo does just that quite naturally, modulating fundamentals and harmonics with the motion of the bridge. In technical terms, with a floating bridge, string stretching is f...

  16. Singleton strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engquist, J. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University (Netherlands); Sundell, P. [INFN, Pisa (Italy); Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); Tamassia, L. [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2007-05-15

    The group theoretical structure underlying physics in anti de Sitter (AdS) spacetime is intrinsically different with respect to the flat case, due to the presence of special ultra-short representations, named singletons, that do not admit a flat space limit. The purpose of this collaboration is to exploit this feature in the study of string and brane dynamics in AdS spacetime, in particular while trying to establish a connection between String Theory in AdS backgrounds (in the tensionless limit) and Higher-Spin Gauge Theory. (orig.)

  17. Are children who play a sport or a musical instrument better at motor imagery than children who do not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Abhishikta; Barnsley, Nadia; Mohan, Rahul; McCormick, Marianne; McAuley, James H; Moseley, G Lorimer

    2012-10-01

    Playing a sport or a musical instrument is presumed to improve motor ability. One would therefore predict that children who play a sport or music are better at motor imagery tasks, which rely on an intact cortical proprioceptive representation and precise motor planning, than children who do not. The authors tested this prediction. This study involved an online questionnaire and then a motor imagery task. The task measured the reaction time (RT) and the accuracy for left/right-hand judgements in children aged 5 to 17 years. Forty pictured hands (20 left), held in various positions and rotated zero, 90°, 180° or 270°, were displayed on a screen. Participants indicated whether the displayed hands were left or right by pressing keys on a keyboard. Fifty-seven children (30 boys; mean±SD age=10±3.3 years) participated. The mean±SD RT was 3015.4±1330.0 ms and the accuracy was 73.9±16.6%. There was no difference in RT between children who played sport, music, neither or both (four-level one-way analysis of variance, p=0.85). There was no difference in accuracy between groups either (Kruskal-Wallis, p=0.46). In a secondary analysis, participants whose parents rated them as being 'clumsy' were no slower (n.s.) but were about 25% less accurate than those rated coordinated or very coordinated (psport or music is associated with better cortical proprioceptive representation and motor planning. Secondary analyses suggest that parent-rated clumsiness is negatively related to motor imagery performance.

  18. Small amplitude transverse waves on taut strings: exploring the significant effects of longitudinal motion on wave energy location and propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, David R.

    2013-03-01

    Introductory discussions of energy transport due to transverse waves on taut strings universally assume that the effects of longitudinal motion can be neglected, but this assumption is not even approximately valid unless the string is idealized to have a zero relaxed length, a requirement approximately met by the slinky spring. While making this additional idealization is probably the best approach to take when discussing waves on strings at the introductory level, for intermediate to advanced undergraduate classes in continuum mechanics and general wave phenomena where somewhat more realistic models of strings can be investigated, this paper makes the following contributions. First, various approaches to deriving the general energy continuity equation are critiqued and it is argued that the standard continuum mechanics approach to deriving such equations is the best because it leads to a conceptually clear, relatively simple derivation which provides a unique answer of greatest generality. In addition, a straightforward algorithm for calculating the transverse and longitudinal waves generated when a string is driven at one end is presented and used to investigate a cos2 transverse pulse. This example illustrates much important physics regarding energy transport in strings and allows the ‘attack waves’ observed when strings in musical instruments are struck or plucked to be approximately modelled and analysed algebraically. Regarding the ongoing debate as to whether the potential energy density in a string can be uniquely defined, it is shown by coupling an external energy source to a string that a suggested alternative formula for potential energy density requires an unphysical potential energy to be ascribed to the source for overall energy to be conserved and so cannot be considered to be physically valid.

  19. Small amplitude transverse waves on taut strings: exploring the significant effects of longitudinal motion on wave energy location and propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, David R

    2013-01-01

    Introductory discussions of energy transport due to transverse waves on taut strings universally assume that the effects of longitudinal motion can be neglected, but this assumption is not even approximately valid unless the string is idealized to have a zero relaxed length, a requirement approximately met by the slinky spring. While making this additional idealization is probably the best approach to take when discussing waves on strings at the introductory level, for intermediate to advanced undergraduate classes in continuum mechanics and general wave phenomena where somewhat more realistic models of strings can be investigated, this paper makes the following contributions. First, various approaches to deriving the general energy continuity equation are critiqued and it is argued that the standard continuum mechanics approach to deriving such equations is the best because it leads to a conceptually clear, relatively simple derivation which provides a unique answer of greatest generality. In addition, a straightforward algorithm for calculating the transverse and longitudinal waves generated when a string is driven at one end is presented and used to investigate a cos 2 transverse pulse. This example illustrates much important physics regarding energy transport in strings and allows the ‘attack waves’ observed when strings in musical instruments are struck or plucked to be approximately modelled and analysed algebraically. Regarding the ongoing debate as to whether the potential energy density in a string can be uniquely defined, it is shown by coupling an external energy source to a string that a suggested alternative formula for potential energy density requires an unphysical potential energy to be ascribed to the source for overall energy to be conserved and so cannot be considered to be physically valid. (paper)

  20. Role of curvatures in determining the characteristics of a string vibrating against a doubly curved obstacle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harkirat; Wahi, Pankaj

    2017-08-01

    The motion of a string in the presence of a doubly curved obstacle is investigated. A mathematical model has been developed for a general shape of the obstacle. However, detailed analysis has been performed for a shape relevant to the Indian stringed musical instruments like Tanpura and Sitar. In particular, we explore the effect of obstacle's curvature in the plane perpendicular to the string axis on its motion. This geometrical feature of the obstacle introduces a coupling between motions in mutually perpendicular directions over and above the coupling due to the stretching nonlinearity. We find that only one planar motion is possible for our system. Small amplitude planar motions are stable to perturbations in the perpendicular direction resulting in non-whirling motions while large amplitude oscillations lead to whirling motions. The critical amplitude of oscillations, across which there is a transition in the qualitative behavior of the non-planar trajectories, is determined using Floquet theory. Our analysis reveals that a small obstacle curvature in a direction perpendicular to the string axis leads to a considerable reduction in the critical amplitudes required for initiation of whirling motions. Hence, this obstacle curvature has a destabilizing effect on the planar motions in contrast to the curvature along the string axis which stabilizes planar motions.

  1. Using Pitch, Amplitude Modulation, and Spatial Cues for Separation of Harmonic Instruments from Stereo Music Recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Pardo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent work in blind source separation applied to anechoic mixtures of speech allows for improved reconstruction of sources that rarely overlap in a time-frequency representation. While the assumption that speech mixtures do not overlap significantly in time-frequency is reasonable, music mixtures rarely meet this constraint, requiring new approaches. We introduce a method that uses spatial cues from anechoic, stereo music recordings and assumptions regarding the structure of musical source signals to effectively separate mixtures of tonal music. We discuss existing techniques to create partial source signal estimates from regions of the mixture where source signals do not overlap significantly. We use these partial signals within a new demixing framework, in which we estimate harmonic masks for each source, allowing the determination of the number of active sources in important time-frequency frames of the mixture. We then propose a method for distributing energy from time-frequency frames of the mixture to multiple source signals. This allows dealing with mixtures that contain time-frequency frames in which multiple harmonic sources are active without requiring knowledge of source characteristics.

  2. The Effects of Performance Quality Ratings on Perceptions of Instrumental Music Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, Jacqueline C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which the perceptions of observers instructed to rate the quality of students' performances within ensemble rehearsals and applied lessons differ from those not so instructed. Music education majors (N = 52) wrote statements of observation during their viewing of a stimulus tape. All participants were informed of…

  3. The Social-Emotional Impact of Instrumental Music Performance on Economically Disadvantaged South African Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devroop, Karendra

    2012-01-01

    Within the literature there exists a large volume of research studies attesting to the positive relationships between studying music and various psychological and sociological variables. A close examination of these studies reveals that only a handful were conducted on disadvantaged populations. Accordingly, it remains unclear to what extent these…

  4. A Discussion of Gunther Schuller's Approach to Conducting: Implications for the Instrumental Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Janice

    2008-01-01

    What professional musicians say and do affects the attitudes and actions of music educators in the classroom. One example comes from influential conductor/composer, Gunther Schuller, who, in his controversial 1997 book, "The Compleat Conductor", defines, espouses, and recommends his own "philosophy of conducting." An examination of his ideas and,…

  5. Describing Instrumental Music Teachers' Thinking: Implications for Understanding Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millican, J. Si

    2013-01-01

    Pedagogical content knowledge, the particular ways that teachers understand their subjects in order to instruct others, has been described and explored in the math and science education fields in some depth, yet little research exists illustrating this concept in music instruction. I used a descriptive approach to explore expert beginning band…

  6. String phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Ibáñez, Luis E

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews a number of topics in the field of string phenomenology, focusing on orientifold/F-theory models yielding semirealistic low-energy physics. The emphasis is on the extraction of the low-energy effective action and possible tests of specific models at the LHC.

  7. Learning How to Be a Research-Minded Teacher: Four Instrumental Music Education Students Investigate Good Music Teaching through Case Study Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindberg, Laura K.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence, both in general education and music education, points to the significance of inquiry as a part of teacher preparation. The purpose of this case study was to investigate the ways in which an introductory research project would help preservice music educators understand good "music teaching" and to discover the extent…

  8. Efficient synthesis of tension modulation in strings and membranes based on energy estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanzini, Federico; Marogna, Riccardo; Bank, Balázs

    2012-01-01

    String and membrane vibrations cannot be considered as linear above a certain amplitude due to the variation in string or membrane tension. A relevant special case is when the tension is spatially constant and varies in time only in dependence of the overall string length or membrane surface. The most apparent perceptual effect of this tension modulation phenomenon is the exponential decay of pitch in time. Pitch glides due to tension modulation are an important timbral characteristic of several musical instruments, including the electric guitar and tom-tom drum, and many ethnic instruments. This paper presents a unified formulation to the tension modulation problem for one-dimensional (1-D) (string) and two-dimensional (2-D) (membrane) cases. In addition, it shows that the short-time average of the tension variation, which is responsible for pitch glides, is approximately proportional to the system energy. This proportionality allows the efficient physics-based sound synthesis of pitch glides. The proposed models require only slightly more computational resources than linear models as opposed to earlier tension-modulated models of higher complexity. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America.

  9. The "Magic" String

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Todd F.

    2010-01-01

    The "Magic" String is a discrepant event that includes a canister with what appears to be the end of two strings protruding from opposite sides of it. Due to the way the strings are attached inside the canister, it appears as if the strings can magically switch the way they are connected. When one string end is pulled, the observer's expectation…

  10. Effects of a school-based instrumental music program on verbal and visual memory in primary school children: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo eRoden

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of a school-based instrumental training program on the development of verbal and visual memory skills in primary school children. Participants either took part in a music program with weekly 45 minutes sessions of instrumental lessons in small groups at school, or they received extended natural science training. A third group of children did not receive additional training. Each child completed verbal and visual memory tests for three times over a period of 18 months. Significant Group by Time interactions were found in the measures of verbal memory. Children in the music group showed greater improvements than children in the control groups after controlling for children's socio-economic background, age and IQ. No differences between groups were found in the visual memory tests. These findings are consistent with and extend previous research by suggesting that children receiving music training may benefit from improvements in their verbal memory skills.

  11. Effects of a school-based instrumental music program on verbal and visual memory in primary school children: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Ingo; Kreutz, Gunter; Bongard, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a school-based instrumental training program on the development of verbal and visual memory skills in primary school children. Participants either took part in a music program with weekly 45 min sessions of instrumental lessons in small groups at school, or they received extended natural science training. A third group of children did not receive additional training. Each child completed verbal and visual memory tests three times over a period of 18 months. Significant Group by Time interactions were found in the measures of verbal memory. Children in the music group showed greater improvements than children in the control groups after controlling for children's socio-economic background, age, and IQ. No differences between groups were found in the visual memory tests. These findings are consistent with and extend previous research by suggesting that children receiving music training may benefit from improvements in their verbal memory skills.

  12. Effects of a School-Based Instrumental Music Program on Verbal and Visual Memory in Primary School Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Ingo; Kreutz, Gunter; Bongard, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a school-based instrumental training program on the development of verbal and visual memory skills in primary school children. Participants either took part in a music program with weekly 45 min sessions of instrumental lessons in small groups at school, or they received extended natural science training. A third group of children did not receive additional training. Each child completed verbal and visual memory tests three times over a period of 18 months. Significant Group by Time interactions were found in the measures of verbal memory. Children in the music group showed greater improvements than children in the control groups after controlling for children’s socio-economic background, age, and IQ. No differences between groups were found in the visual memory tests. These findings are consistent with and extend previous research by suggesting that children receiving music training may benefit from improvements in their verbal memory skills. PMID:23267341

  13. Enhancement of numeric cognition in children with low achievement in mathematic after a non-instrumental musical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Fabiana Silva; Santos, Flávia H

    2017-03-01

    Studies suggest that musical training enhances spatial-temporal reasoning and leads to greater learning of mathematical concepts. The aim of this prospective study was to verify the efficacy of a Non-Instrumental Musical Training (NIMT) on the Numerical Cognition systems in children with low achievement in math. For this purpose, we examined, with a cluster analysis, whether children with low scores on Numerical Cognition would be grouped in the same cluster at pre and post-NIMT. Participants were primary school children divided into two groups according to their scores on an Arithmetic test. Results with a specialized battery of Numerical Cognition revealed improvements for Cluster 2 (children with low achievement in math) especially for number production capacity compared to normative data. Besides, the number of children with low scores in Numerical Cognition decreased at post-NIMT. These findings suggest that NIMT enhances Numerical Cognition and seems to be a useful tool for rehabilitation of children with low achievement in math. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development and initial validation of an instrument to assess the motivational qualities of music in exercise and sport: the Brunel Music Rating Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorghis, C I; Terry, P C; Lane, A M

    1999-09-01

    Equivocal results of the psychophysical effects of music have been explained in part by the insensitivity of researchers to important personal and situational variables when selecting music. The aim of the present study was to operationalize a conceptual framework for the prediction of psychophysical responses to music into a music rating inventory to assess the motivational qualities of music in exercise and sport environments. An initial item pool was developed and administered to 334 aerobics instructors. Exploratory factor analysis produced a 13-item, four-factor structure (association, musicality, cultural impact and rhythm response), which accounted for 59.2% of the variance. This model demonstrated acceptable fit indices when tested using confirmatory factor analysis on 314 exercise-to-music participants, and was better than an alternative two-factor model. When cross-validated using multisample confirmatory factor analysis, the model also showed an acceptable fit overall, although some invariance in the rhythm response factor was evident that can be attributed to the exclusive use of synchronous music by aerobics instructors. The Brunel Music Rating Inventory appears to be a valid and reliable tool for both researchers and practitioners to assess the motivational qualities of music in exercise and sport environments.

  15. Effects of a School-Based Instrumental Music Program on Verbal and Visual Memory in Primary School Children: A Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Roden, Ingo; Kreutz, Gunter; Bongard, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a school-based instrumental training program on the development of verbal and visual memory skills in primary school children. Participants either took part in a music program with weekly 45 minutes sessions of instrumental lessons in small groups at school, or they received extended natural science training. A third group of children did not receive additional training. Each child completed verbal and visual memory tests for three times over a period of 18 ...

  16. The Comparison of Novice and Master Instrumental Music Educators' Use of Figurative Language and Their Attitudes Concerning It as a Tool for Effective Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Matthew H.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the use of figurative language between master and novice instrumental music teachers and to investigate their attitudes toward figurative language as a teaching tool. Figurative language is defined as any creative verbal instruction intended to teach a concept. Sixteen (N = 16) secondary school,…

  17. Experiments in Area of Musical Sound in the Chamber and Instrumental Works by Rodion Shchedrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaytseva Marina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article scientifically proves the peculiarities of Rodion Shchedrin’s musical thinking. Having analysed such piano works by Rodion Shchedrin as "Imitating Albéniz", "Humoresque", arranged for violin and piano by D. M. Tsyganov, "Balalaika" for solo violin without a bow, there have been identified composer’s innovations in the field of violin sound. It has been proved that the search for new expressive violin-coloristic resources was due to the desire of the composer to discover the new worlds of sound, create an original work, which would masterfully implement the most complex creative tasks.

  18. The Beginnings and Development of the Collection of Historic Musical Instruments of the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrix Darmstaedter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Collection of Historic Musical Instruments of the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna (KHM was founded during the First World War when the inventories of the collections owned by Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Este (1863-1914 went to the Imperial museum in Vienna after his assassination. From 1916/17 on, the renowned art historian Julius von Schlosser (1866-1938 and his successor, Hermann Julius Hermann (1869-1953, organized one of the most important collections and exhibitions exclusively dedicated to musical instruments. They assembled valuable items from the 16th century that had belonged to Archduke Ferdinand II’s (1529-1595 Cabinet of Curiosities, objects collected by members of the Obizzi dynasty in the castle of Catajo, and recently acquired historical instruments connected with the Viennese tradition of instrument making. In 1920, Schlosser wrote his fundamental catalogue on the newly established collection that  is considered to be the fi rst systematical and scientifi c publication on historic musical instruments in Austria. During the following years, he strove towards amplifying the inventory and expanding the exhibition. He transferred precious items originally belonging to the movables depot of the erstwhile court (Hofmobiliendepot and instruments left in former imperial residences, such as the castle of Laxenburg. The contribution reviews previously unpublished archived sources documenting the early history of the collection and broaches the issue of the extended exhibition in the 1920s, discusses the thematic orientations of the collection and the principles in museum didactic that consequently arose. Moreover, the position of the collection and its policy in the context of other museums with similar emphases at that time will be analyzed. La collezione di strumenti musicali antichi del Kunsthistorisches Museum a Vienna (KHM é stata fondata durante la prima guerra mondiale quando l’inventario delle collezioni dell

  19. Does playing a musical instrument impose a risk for temporomandibular disorders? A review of literature: Stellt das Spielen eines Instruments ein Risiko für kraniomandibuläre Dysfunktionen dar? Eine Übersichtsarbeit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Selms, M.K.A.; Attallah, M.M.; Visscher, C.M.; Ahlberg, J.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2015-01-01

    Playing a musical instrument that loads the masticatory system, such as the violin or oboe, has been suggested to be part of the group of etiological factors for temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). In 2014, a review of literature was published that explicitly focused on the possible association

  20. Natural frequencies, modeshapes and modal interactions for strings vibrating against an obstacle: Relevance to Sitar and Veena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, A. K.; Wahi, P.

    2015-03-01

    We study the vibration characteristics of a string with a smooth unilateral obstacle placed at one of the ends similar to the strings in musical instruments like sitar and veena. In particular, we explore the correlation between the string vibrations and some unique sound characteristics of these instruments like less inharmonicity in the frequencies, a large number of overtones and the presence of both frequency and amplitude modulations. At the obstacle, we have a moving boundary due to the wrapping of the string and an appropriate scaling of the spatial variable leads to a fixed boundary at the cost of introducing nonlinearity in the governing equation. Reduced order system of equations has been obtained by assuming a functional form for the string displacement which satisfies all the boundary conditions and gives the free length of the string in terms of the modal coordinates. To study the natural frequencies and mode-shapes, the nonlinear governing equation is linearized about the static configuration. The natural frequencies have been found to be harmonic and they depend on the shape of the obstacle through the effective free length of the string. Expressions have been obtained for the time-varying mode-shapes as well as the variation of the nodal points. Modal interactions due to coupling have been studied which show the appearance of higher overtones as well as amplitude modulations in our theoretical model akin to the experimental observations. All the obtained results have been verified with an alternate formulation based on the assumed mode method with polynomial shape functions.

  1. String Gas Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenberger, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    String gas cosmology is a string theory-based approach to early universe cosmology which is based on making use of robust features of string theory such as the existence of new states and new symmetries. A first goal of string gas cosmology is to understand how string theory can effect the earliest moments of cosmology before the effective field theory approach which underlies standard and inflationary cosmology becomes valid. String gas cosmology may also provide an alternative to the curren...

  2. Closed string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strominger, A.

    1987-01-01

    A gauge invariant cubic action describing bosonic closed string field theory is constructed. The gauge symmetries include local spacetime diffeomorphisms. The conventional closed string spectrum and trilinear couplings are reproduced after spontaneous symmetry breaking. The action S is constructed from the usual ''open string'' field of ghost number minus one half. It is given by the associator of the string field product which is non-vanishing because of associativity anomalies. S does not describe open string propagation because open string states associate and can thereby be shifted away. A field theory of closed and open strings can be obtained by adding to S the cubic open string action. (orig.)

  3. The Association of Music Experience, Pattern of Practice and Performance Anxiety with Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Problems (PRMP) in Children Learning Instrumental Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranelli, Sonia; Smith, Anne; Straker, Leon

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence supporting the social and cognitive benefits of music education. However aspects of music practice, such as an increase in frequency and intensity of practice, are associated with playing-related musculoskeletal problems in adult musicians, though with limited evidence in children. The aim of this study was to describe the music…

  4. From cosmic string to superconducting string

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, H C; Lee, B K

    1999-01-01

    We consider the dynamical symmetry breaking of a chirally-invariant Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in the background gravity of a local cosmic string. By analyzing the one-loop effective action, we show how a cosmic string at a very high energy scale forms a global superconducting string to the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking at a low energy.

  5. Samba and the other sambas: Instrumentation in different forms of Brazil's main musical genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majlis, Pablo; Ilari, Beatriz

    2002-11-01

    The aim of the present paper is to describe the instruments of the different forms of samba, their origin, and their uses, focusing on percussion instruments. Samba is a Brazilian popular genre that developed mainly during the 20th century, though being deeply rooted in the precedent centuries of colonization and metissage between the Portuguese colonizers and the Africans that were brought as slaves. From its origins to the present day, samba has branched into multiple forms and instrumentation. Perhaps the most famous samba form is the samba enredo. This type of samba accompanies the Carnival parade in Rio de Janeiro, and features hundreds of percussionists. Another possible samba group instrumentation can be as simple as a single voice and a matchbox played by the singer. Between these two extremes there are several possible formations for a samba group, depending on the social context and function in which it occurs. Different group formations sometimes imply different song forms. Examples include samba de roda (i.e., circle samba), samba de gafieira (i.e., ballroom samba), and samba-cancao (i.e., samba ballad), among others. Some instruments will be available for attendees to try during the conference.

  6. Preservice Music Teachers' Attitudes toward Popular Music in the Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, D. Gregory; Gooding, Lori F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine preservice music educators' attitudes toward popular music in the music classroom. On a survey instrument designed by the investigators, participants ("N" = 82) rated (a) the effectiveness of popular music in addressing the National Standards for Music Education, (b) the appropriateness of popular…

  7. The Music Industry Conference Guide for Music Educators. A Supplement to the Music Educators Journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music Educators Journal, 1988

    1988-01-01

    This supplement is a comprehensive guide to the music industry designed for music teachers. Included are tips for contacting music businesses and suggestions on ordering music, robes, instruments, computer software, and other supplies. Includes an annotated directory of Music Industry Conference members. (JDH)

  8. Approaches to and Treatment Strategies for Playing-Related Pain Problems Among Czech Instrumental Music Students: An Epidemiological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Christos I; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2015-09-01

    The current study examined the severity of playing-related pain (PRP) problems among music students at the Prague State Conservatoire, as well as the various treatment methods used by these students and how they approach and deal with these phenomena while studying. In total, 180 instrumental students participated and completed a paper questionnaire. Of these, 88.9% reported that they had experienced PRP at least once in their lives, with 12.6% experiencing pain every time they play. The onset of PRP seemed to coincide with the transition period on entry to the conservatoire and was associated with the increase in hours of practice. Specific body regions associated with playing each particular instrument were most frequently affected, with females being more susceptible than males to the development of PRP. An alarming 35% of the affected students tended not to seek help at all, whereas those who did tended to seek advice first from their instrument tutor and second from medical doctors. Most students who visited doctors reported that medical treatments only partially helped them to overcome PRP problems. The most frequent treatment methods used were resting, gel or creams, and physical exercises. Students believed that inappropriate posture played a key role in the development of their PRP problems. Finally, students indicated a willingness to be aware of and educated about PRP issues during their studies. Further exploration of PRP problems among student musicians is warranted. Better understanding of differing attitudes toward, use of, and efficiency of various treatment methods after the occurrence of PRPs will provide additional insight for prevention and treatment.

  9. Musicians Crossing Musical Instrument Gender Stereotypes: A Study of Computer-Mediated Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeles, Harold F.; Hafeli, Mary; Sears, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined computer-mediated communication (CMC) -- blogs and responses to YouTube postings -- to better understand how CMCs reflect adolescents' attitudes towards musicians playing instruments that cross gender stereotypes. Employing purposive sampling, we used specific search terms, such as "girl drummer", to identify a…

  10. Collaborative Creativity in Instrumental Group Music Learning as a Site for Enhancing Pupil Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnard, Pamela; Dragovic, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the nature of the elements that co-influence collaborative creativity in nd the intrinsic potential for enhancing pupil wellbeing as evidenced in a particular secondary-school (extra-curricular) group instrumental programme "Percussion 1." Wenger's Community of Practice (CoP) and Engestrom's Activity Theory (AT)…

  11. The effectiveness and influence of Vocal and Instrumental Improvisation in Music Therapy on children diagnosed with autism. Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Knapik-Szweda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a developmental disorder which is difficult to recognize and diagnose. The present study examines the effectiveness of music therapy intervention based on improvisational techniques with the elements of Creative Music Therapy by Paul Nordoff and Clive Robbins and improvisational techniques by Tony Wigram (such as imitating, frameworking, dialogues, holding on developmentl of children with Autism (two boys diagnosed with autism - case 1. and case 2, especially in verbal and nonverbal communication, disturbance behavior patterns, cognitive and social-emotional areas. The results indicate a positive outcome in two music therapy observing tools: Scale I Child – Therapist Relationship in Coactive Musical Experience Rating Form and Scale II Musical Communicativeness Rating Form. The tables indicate the intensity of interaction between the therapist and the subject during the music therapy process (including communication skills, cognitive skills and behavior patterns. The results of case 1 are indicated in Scale I and Scale II and show a significant effect of improvisational music therapy. The important findings from the analysis of behavior in the sessions were Stability and confidence in interpersonal musical relationship, Activity relationship developing, (scale 1.. The results of the case 2. show small changes in musical behavior when it comes to Stability and confidence in interpersonal musical relationship, but in Activity relationship developing the indicators show a lot of changes between sessions. The results of the research indicate that music therapy intervention has a positive outcome and may be an effective method to increase functioning of children with autism

  12. Phosphorus in antique iron music wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodway, M

    1987-05-22

    Harpsichords and other wire-strung musical instruments were made with longer strings about the beginning of the 17th century. This change required stronger music wire. Although these changes coincided with the introduction of the first mass-produced steel (iron alloyed with carbon), carbon was not found in samples of antique iron harpsichord wire. The wire contained an amount of phosphorus sufficient to have impeded its conversion to steel, and may have been drawn from iron rejected for this purpose. The method used to select pig iron for wire drawing ensured the highest possible phosphorus content at a time when its presence in iron was unsuspected. Phosphorus as an alloying element has had the reputation for making steel brittle when worked cold. Nevertheless, in replicating the antique wire, it was found that lowcarbon iron that contained 0.16 percent phosphorus was easily drawn to appropriate gauges and strengths for restringing antique harpsichords.

  13. Evidence for string substructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, O.

    1996-06-01

    The author argues that the behavior of string theory at high temperature and high longitudinal boosts, combined with the emergence of p-branes as necessary ingredients in various string dualities, point to a possible reformulation of strings, as well as p-branes, as composites of bits. He reviews the string-bit models, and suggests generalizations to incorporate p-branes

  14. A new method for the radiation representation of musical instruments in auralizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger; Otondo, Felipe

    2005-01-01

    A new method for the representation of sound sources that vary their directivity in time in auralizations is introduced. A recording method with multi-channel anechoic recordings is proposed in connection with the use of a multiple virtual source reproduction system in auralizations. Listening ex...... to be significant. Further applications of the method are considered for ensembles within room auralizations as well as in the field of studio recording techniques for large instruments....

  15. "Voice Forum" The Human Voice as Primary Instrument in Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard; Storm, Sanne

    2009-01-01

    Aspects will be drawn on the human voice as tool for embodying our psychological and physiological state, and attempting integration of feelings. Presentations and dialogues on different methods and techniques in "Therapy related body-and voice work.", as well as the human voice as a tool...... for nonverbal orientation and information both to our selves and others. Focus on training on the voice instrument, the effect and impact of the human voice, and listening perspectives...

  16. The neural processing of musical instrument size information in the brain investigated by magnetoencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Andre; van Dinther, Ralph; Patterson, Roy D.

    2005-04-01

    The specific cortical representation of size was investigated by recording auditory evoked fields (AEFs) elicited by changes of instrument size and pitch. In Experiment 1, a French horn and one scaled to double the size played a three note melody around F3 or its octave, F4. Many copies of these four melodies were played in random order and the AEF was measured continuously. A similar procedure was applied to saxophone sounds in a separate run. In Experiment 2, the size and type of instrument (French horn and saxophone) were varied without changing the octave. AEFs were recorded in five subjects using magnetoencephalography and evaluated by spatio-temporal source analysis with one equivalent dipole in each hemisphere. The morphology of the source waveforms revealed that each note within the melody elicits a well-defined P1-N1-P2 AEF-complex with adaptation for the 2nd and 3rd note. At the transition of size, pitch, or both, a larger AEF-complex was evoked. However, size changes elicited a stronger N1 than pitch changes. Furthermore, this size-related N1 enhancement was larger for French horn than saxophone. The results indicate that the N1 plays an important role in the specific representation of instrument size.

  17. Differential geometry in string models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, O.

    1986-01-01

    In this article the author reviews the differential geometric approach to the quantization of strings. A seminal paper demonstrates the connection between the trace anomaly and the critical dimension. The role played by the Faddeev-Popov ghosts has been instrumental in much of the subsequent work on the quantization of strings. This paper discusses the differential geometry of two dimensional surfaces and its importance in the quantization of strings. The path integral quantization approach to strings will be carefully analyzed to determine the correct effective measure for string theories. The choice of measure for the path integral is determined by differential geometric considerations. Once the measure is determined, the manifest diffeomorphism invariance of the theory will have to be broken by using the Faddeev-Popov ansatz. The gauge fixed theory is studied in detail with emphasis on the role of conformal and gravitational anomalies. In the analysis, the path integral formulation of the gauge fixed theory requires summing over all the distinct complex structures on the manifold

  18. Musical education, Orff instrumental and pedagogy of the musical creation: Antonio Alcázar and the ‘Con cierto Des-concierto’ of the Faculty of Education of Cuenca (UCLM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio de la Ossa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Alcázar devised in 1996 a didactic proposal directed to the students of Cuenca and province that was carried out by his students of the specialty of Music Education of the University School of the Teachers of Cuenca (University of Castilla-La Mancha. Previously, the teacher organized a workshop aimed at future teachers. Thus, under his direction, original idea, arrangements, selection of the repertoire and from several assemblages that started of different pieces interpreted with the instrumental Orff and of the use of different objects and sound materials of daily use, taking as base the Pedagogy of the creation Musical, different concerts were designed that were enjoyed between 1996 and 2001 by more than twelve thousand children. Its title, ‘Con cierto Des-concierto’ (‘With Certain Des-concert’. In them, students, through singing, instrumental practice, movement, active listening, sound exploration and very different creative initiatives and many other activities invited the participants to a journey through very different atmospheres, sensations, feelings and languages through music from very varied latitudes in a fun and surprising musical journey around the world. After nearly twenty years, in February 2017, it was decided to hold a new meeting and celebrate the anniversary of the ‘Con cierto Des-concierto’. In this way, more than fifty teachers, former students of the career of Music Education, who had been part of one of the first six editions, were assembled. As a result, eight concerts were held, attended by nearly 1,800 children, many of whom were enrolled in colleges in which the teachers themselves taught.

  19. Frequently Asked Questions about Music Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of music in music therapy? Music therapists utilize music as a therapeutic tool; the genre and type of instrument is tailored to the individual and to the goals that are established between the client and the music therapist. Since music choice/usage is tailored to ...

  20. Cultural Heritage Digitalization on Traditional Sundanese Music Instrument Using Augmented Reality Markerless Marker Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Arifitama

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Research into cultural heritage which implements augmented reality technology is limited. Most recent research on cultural heritage are limited on storing data and information in the form of databases, this creates a disadvantage for people who wants to see and feel at the same moment on actual cultural heritage objects. This paper, proposes a solution which could merge the existing cultural object with people using augmented reality technology. This technology would preserve traditional instrument in the form of 3D object which can be digitally protected. The result showed that the use of augmented reality on preserving cultural heritage would benefit people who try to protect their culture.

  1. Analysis of the learning curve for transurethral resection of the prostate. Is there any influence of musical instrument and video game skills on surgical performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaçake, Kleiton Gabriel Ribeiro; Nakano, Elcio Tadashi; Soares, Iva Barbosa; Cordeiro, Paulo; Srougi, Miguel; Antunes, Alberto Azoubel

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the learning curve for transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) among urology residents and study the impact of video game and musical instrument playing abilities on its performance. A prospective study was performed from July 2009 to January 2013 with patients submitted to TURP for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Fourteen residents operated on 324 patients. The following parameters were analyzed: age, prostate-specific antigen levels, prostate weight on ultrasound, pre- and postoperative serum sodium and hemoglobin levels, weight of resected tissue, operation time, speed of resection, and incidence of capsular lesions. Gender, handedness, and prior musical instrument and video game playing experience were recorded using survey responses. The mean resection speed in the first 10 procedures was 0.36 g/min and reached a mean of 0.51 g/min after the 20(th) procedure. The incidence of capsular lesions decreased progressively. The operation time decreased progressively for each subgroup regardless of the difference in the weight of tissue resected. Those experienced in playing video games presented superior resection speed (0.45 g/min) when compared with the novice (0.35 g/min) and intermediate (0.38 g/min) groups (p=0.112). Musical instrument playing abilities did not affect the surgical performance. Speed of resection, weight of resected tissue, and percentage of resected tissue improve significantly and the incidence of capsular lesions reduces after the performance of 10 TURP procedures. Experience in playing video games or musical instruments does not have a significant effect on outcomes.

  2. Effect of listening to Vedic chants and Indian classical instrumental music on patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: A randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padam, Anita; Sharma, Neetu; Sastri, O S K S; Mahajan, Shivani; Sharma, Rajesh; Sharma, Deepak

    2017-01-01

    A high level of preoperative anxiety is common among patients undergoing medical and surgical procedures. Anxiety impacts of gastroenterological procedures on psychological and physiological responses are worth consideration. To analyze the effect of listening to Vedic chants and Indian classical instrumental music on anxiety levels and on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and oxygen saturation in patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. A prospective, randomized controlled trial was done on 199 patients undergoing upper GI endoscopy. On arrival, their anxiety levels were assessed using state and trait scores and various physiological parameters such as HR, BP, and SpO 2 . Patients were randomly divided into three groups: Group I of 67 patients who were made to listen prerecorded Vedic chants for 10 min, Group II consisting of 66 patients who listened to Indian classical instrumental music for 10 min, and Group III of 66 controls who remained seated for same period in the same environment. Thereafter, their anxiety state scores and physiological parameters were reassessed. A significant reduction in anxiety state scores was observed in the patients in Group I (from 40.4 ± 8.9 to 38.5 ± 10.7; P classical instrumental music has beneficial effects on alleviating anxiety levels induced by apprehension of invasive procedures and can be of therapeutic use.

  3. How musical are music video game players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasinski, Amanda C; Hannon, Erin E; Snyder, Joel S

    2016-10-01

    Numerous studies have shown that formal musical training is associated with sensory, motor, and cognitive advantages in individuals of various ages. However, the nature of the observed differences between musicians and nonmusicians is poorly understood, and little is known about the listening skills of individuals who engage in alternative types of everyday musical activities. Here, we show that people who have frequently played music video games outperform nonmusicians controls on a battery of music perception tests. These findings reveal that enhanced musical aptitude can be found among individuals who play music video games, raising the possibility that music video games could potentially enhance music perception skills in individuals across a broad spectrum of society who are otherwise unable to invest the time and/or money required to learn a musical instrument.

  4. The heterotic string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Traditional string theories, either bosonic or supersymmetric, came in two varieties, closed string theories and open string theories. Closed string are neutral objects which describe at low energies gravity or supergravity. Open strings have geometrically invariant ends to which charge can be attached, thereby obtaining, in addition to gravity, Yang-Mills gauge interactions. Recently a new kind of string theory was discovered--the heterotic string, which is a chiral hybrid of the closed superstring and the closed bosonic string, and which produces by an internal dynamical mechanism gauge interactions of a totally specified kind. Although this theory is found in an attempt to produce a superstring theory which would yield a low energy E/sub 8/xE/sub 8/ supersymmetric, anomaly free, gauge theory, as suggested by the anomaly cancellation mechanism of Green and Schwarz, it fits naturally into the general framework of consistent string theories

  5. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, G.; Nadi, M.; Hedjiedj, A.; Weber, S.

    1995-01-01

    This second chapter on instrumentation gives little general consideration on history and classification of instrumentation, and two specific states of the art. The first one concerns NMR (block diagram of instrumentation chain with details on the magnets, gradients, probes, reception unit). The first one concerns precision instrumentation (optical fiber gyro-meter and scanning electron microscope), and its data processing tools (programmability, VXI standard and its history). The chapter ends with future trends on smart sensors and Field Emission Displays. (D.L.). Refs., figs

  6. Exploring shamanic journeying: repetitive drumming with shamanic instructions induces specific subjective experiences but no larger cortisol decrease than instrumental meditation music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Gingras

    Full Text Available Exposure to repetitive drumming combined with instructions for shamanic journeying has been associated with physiological and therapeutic effects, such as an increase in salivary immunoglobulin A. In order to assess whether the combination of repetitive drumming and shamanic instructions is specifically associated with these effects, we compared the effect of listening to either repetitive drumming or instrumental meditation music for 15 minutes on salivary cortisol concentration and on self-reported physiological and psychological states. For each musical style, two groups of participants were exposed to two conditions: instructions for shamanic journeying or relaxation instructions. A total of 39 participants (24 females inexperienced in shamanic journeying completed the experiment. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured before and after exposure to music. In addition, participants filled out a mood questionnaire before and after the experiment and completed a post experiment questionnaire on their experiences. A significant decrease in the concentration in salivary cortisol was observed across all musical styles and instructions, indicating that exposure to 15 minutes of either repetitive drumming or instrumental meditation music, while lying down, was sufficient to induce a decrease in cortisol levels. However, no differences were observed across conditions. Significant differences in reported emotional states and subjective experiences were observed between the groups. Notably, participants exposed to repetitive drumming combined with shamanic instructions reported experiencing heaviness, decreased heart rate, and dreamlike experiences significantly more often than participants exposed to repetitive drumming combined with relaxation instructions. Our findings suggest that the subjective effects specifically attributed to repetitive drumming and shamanic journeying may not be reflected in differential endocrine responses.

  7. Exploring shamanic journeying: repetitive drumming with shamanic instructions induces specific subjective experiences but no larger cortisol decrease than instrumental meditation music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, Bruno; Pohler, Gerald; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to repetitive drumming combined with instructions for shamanic journeying has been associated with physiological and therapeutic effects, such as an increase in salivary immunoglobulin A. In order to assess whether the combination of repetitive drumming and shamanic instructions is specifically associated with these effects, we compared the effect of listening to either repetitive drumming or instrumental meditation music for 15 minutes on salivary cortisol concentration and on self-reported physiological and psychological states. For each musical style, two groups of participants were exposed to two conditions: instructions for shamanic journeying or relaxation instructions. A total of 39 participants (24 females) inexperienced in shamanic journeying completed the experiment. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured before and after exposure to music. In addition, participants filled out a mood questionnaire before and after the experiment and completed a post experiment questionnaire on their experiences. A significant decrease in the concentration in salivary cortisol was observed across all musical styles and instructions, indicating that exposure to 15 minutes of either repetitive drumming or instrumental meditation music, while lying down, was sufficient to induce a decrease in cortisol levels. However, no differences were observed across conditions. Significant differences in reported emotional states and subjective experiences were observed between the groups. Notably, participants exposed to repetitive drumming combined with shamanic instructions reported experiencing heaviness, decreased heart rate, and dreamlike experiences significantly more often than participants exposed to repetitive drumming combined with relaxation instructions. Our findings suggest that the subjective effects specifically attributed to repetitive drumming and shamanic journeying may not be reflected in differential endocrine responses.

  8. Action and familiarity effects on self and other expert musicians’ Laban effort-shape analyses of expressive bodily behaviors in instrumental music performance: a case study approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Mary C.; Davidson, Jane W.

    2014-01-01

    Self-reflective performance review and expert evaluation are features of Western music performance practice. While music is usually the focus, visual information provided by performing musicians’ expressive bodily behaviors communicates expressiveness to musically trained and untrained observers. Yet, within a seemingly homogenous group, such as one of musically trained individuals, diversity of experience exists. Individual differences potentially affect perception of the subtleties of expressive performance, and performers’ effective communication of their expressive intentions. This study aimed to compare self- and other expert musicians’ perception of expressive bodily behaviors observed in marimba performance. We hypothesized that analyses of expressive bodily behaviors differ between expert musicians according to their specialist motor expertise and familiarity with the music. Two professional percussionists and experienced marimba players, and one professional classical singer took part in the study. Participants independently conducted Laban effort-shape analysis – proposing that intentions manifest in bodily activity are understood through shared embodied processes – of a marimbists’ expressive bodily behaviors in an audio-visual performance recording. For one percussionist, this was a self-reflective analysis. The work was unfamiliar to the other percussionist and singer. Perception of the performer’s expressive bodily behaviors appeared to differ according to participants’ individual instrumental or vocal motor expertise, and familiarity with the music. Furthermore, individual type of motor experience appeared to direct participants’ attention in approaching the analyses. Findings support forward and inverse perception–action models, and embodied cognitive theory. Implications offer scientific rigor and artistic interest for how performance practitioners can reflectively analyze performance to improve expressive communication. PMID

  9. Action and familiarity effects on self and other expert musicians’ Laban effort-shape analyses of expressive bodily behaviors in instrumental music performance: A case study approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C Broughton

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-reflective performance review and expert evaluation are features of Western music performance practice. While music is usually the focus, visual information provided by performing musicians’ expressive bodily behaviors communicates expressiveness to musically trained and untrained observers. Yet, within a seemingly homogenous group such as one of musically trained individuals, diversity of experience exists. Individual differences potentially affect perception of the subtleties of expressive performance, and performers’ effective communication of their expressive intentions. This study aimed to compare self- and other expert musicians’ perception of expressive bodily behaviors observed in marimba performance. We hypothesised that analyses of expressive expressive bodily behaviors differ between expert musicians according to their specialist motor expertise and familiarity with the music. Two professional percussionists and experienced marimba players, and one professional classical singer took part in the study. Participants independently conducted Laban effort-shape analysis – proposing that intentions manifest in bodily activity are understood through shared embodied processes – of a marimbists’ expressive bodily behaviors in an audio-visual performance recording. For one percussionist, this was a self-reflective analysis. The work was unfamiliar to the other percussionist and singer. Perception of the performer’s expressive bodily behaviors differed according to participants’ individual instrumental or vocal motor expertise, and familiarity with the music. Furthermore, individual type of motor experience appeared to direct participants’ attention in approaching the analyses. Findings support forward and inverse perception-action models, and embodied cognitive theory. Implications offer scientific rigour and artistic interest for how performance practitioners can reflectively analyze performance to improve expressive

  10. Action and familiarity effects on self and other expert musicians' Laban effort-shape analyses of expressive bodily behaviors in instrumental music performance: a case study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Mary C; Davidson, Jane W

    2014-01-01

    Self-reflective performance review and expert evaluation are features of Western music performance practice. While music is usually the focus, visual information provided by performing musicians' expressive bodily behaviors communicates expressiveness to musically trained and untrained observers. Yet, within a seemingly homogenous group, such as one of musically trained individuals, diversity of experience exists. Individual differences potentially affect perception of the subtleties of expressive performance, and performers' effective communication of their expressive intentions. This study aimed to compare self- and other expert musicians' perception of expressive bodily behaviors observed in marimba performance. We hypothesized that analyses of expressive bodily behaviors differ between expert musicians according to their specialist motor expertise and familiarity with the music. Two professional percussionists and experienced marimba players, and one professional classical singer took part in the study. Participants independently conducted Laban effort-shape analysis - proposing that intentions manifest in bodily activity are understood through shared embodied processes - of a marimbists' expressive bodily behaviors in an audio-visual performance recording. For one percussionist, this was a self-reflective analysis. The work was unfamiliar to the other percussionist and singer. Perception of the performer's expressive bodily behaviors appeared to differ according to participants' individual instrumental or vocal motor expertise, and familiarity with the music. Furthermore, individual type of motor experience appeared to direct participants' attention in approaching the analyses. Findings support forward and inverse perception-action models, and embodied cognitive theory. Implications offer scientific rigor and artistic interest for how performance practitioners can reflectively analyze performance to improve expressive communication.

  11. Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanfi, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    may cause detrimental long-term effects. Three studies have examined the effect of music therapy procedural support (MTPS) under needle procedures. Consequently, this study aims at examining the effects of MTPS in an RCT. Moreover, the study addresses clinical aspects of the applied MT intervention...... and provides research-based clinical tools. Methods 41 children (1 to 10 years) were enrolled and underwent a single PIVA procedure. The children were randomly assigned to either an MT or a comparable control group receiving PIVA. In addition, the music therapy (MT) group received individualised MTPS (i.......e. music alternate engagement) before, during, and after PIVA. The intervention was performed by a trained music therapist and comprised preferred songs, improvised songs/music, and instrument playing. The study was carried out in accordance with the rules in force regarding research ethics and clinical MT...

  12. Closed String Amplitudes from Gauge Fixed String Field Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Drukker, Nadav

    2002-01-01

    Closed string diagrams are derived from cubic open string field theory using a gauge fixed kinetic operator. The basic idea is to use a string propagator that does not generate a boundary to the world sheet. Using this propagator and the closed string vertex, the moduli space of closed string surfaces is covered, so closed string scattering amplitudes should be reproduced. This kinetic operator could be a gauge fixed form of the string field theory action around the closed string vacuum.

  13. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor

  14. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  15. Psychiatry and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamie, Shamsul Haque; Tikka, Sai Krishna

    2014-04-01

    Vocal and/or instrumental sounds combined in such a way as to produce beauty of form, harmony and expression of emotion is music. Brain, mind and music are remarkably related to each other and music has got a strong impact on psychiatry. With the advent of music therapy, as an efficient form of alternative therapy in treating major psychiatric conditions, this impact has been further strengthened. In this review, we deliberate upon the historical aspects of the relationship between psychiatry and music, neural processing underlying music, music's relation to classical psychology and psychopathology and scientific evidence base for music therapy in major psychiatric disorders. We highlight the role of Indian forms of music and Indian contribution to music therapy.

  16. A new method for the radiation representation of musical instruments in auralizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger; Otondo, Felipe

    2005-01-01

    A new method for the representation of sound sources that vary their directivity in time in auralizations is introduced. A recording method with multi-channel anechoic recordings is proposed in connection with the use of a multiple virtual source reproduction system in auralizations. Listening ex...... to be significant. Further applications of the method are considered for ensembles within room auralizations as well as in the field of studio recording techniques for large instruments.......A new method for the representation of sound sources that vary their directivity in time in auralizations is introduced. A recording method with multi-channel anechoic recordings is proposed in connection with the use of a multiple virtual source reproduction system in auralizations. Listening...... experiments designed to validate the quality of the reproduction method compared with a fixed directivity representation have showed that there is a clear improvement in the timbral quality of the sound reproduced. The improvement represented by the system regarding the spaciousness of sound did not prove...

  17. The effects of therapeutic instrumental music performance on endurance level, self-perceived fatigue level, and self-perceived exertion of inpatients in physical rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hayoung A; Miller, Karen; Fabian, Chuck

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of a Neurologic Music Therapy (NMT) sensory-motor rehabilitation technique, Therapeutic Instrumental Music Performance (TIMP) as compared to Traditional Occupational Therapy (TOT), on endurance, self-perceived fatigue, and self-perceived exertion of 35 hospitalized patients in physical rehabilitation. The present study attempted to examine whether an active musical experience such as TIMP with musical cueing (i.e., rhythmic auditory cueing) during physical exercises influences one's perception of pain, fatigue, and exertion. All participants were diagnosed with a neurologic disorder or had recently undergone orthopedic surgery. Investigators measured the effects of TOT and TIMP during upper extremity exercise of the less affected or stronger upper extremity. Results showed no significant difference on endurance measures between the 2 treatment conditions (TIMP and TOT). Statistically significant differences were found between TIMP and TOT when measuring their effects on perceived exertion and perceived fatigue. TIMP resulted in significantly less perception of fatigue and exertion levels than TOT. TIMP can be used foran effective sensory-motor rehabilitation technique to decrease perceived exertion and fatigue level of inpatients in physical rehabilitation.

  18. The illusive sound of a Bundengan string

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikesit, Gea O. F.; Kusumaningtyas, Indraswari

    2017-09-01

    The acoustics of a vibrating string is frequently used as a simple example of how physics can be applied in the field of art. In this paper we describe a simple experiment and analysis using a clipped string. This experiment can generate scientific curiosity among students because the sound generated by the string seem surprising to our senses. The first surprise comes from the gong-like sounds produced by the string, which we usually associate with metallic instruments rather than string instruments. The second surprise comes from the fact that when we shift the clip we perceive an increase of pitch, even though the measured value of the frequency with the maximum amplitude is actually decreased. We use high-speed video recording as well as audio spectral analysis to elucidate the physics behind these two surprises. A set of student activities is prepared to help them follow up their curiosity. Students can make their own clipped string, which is found in Indonesia in an instrument called Bundengan, by setting up their own prepared piano as invented by John Cage.

  19. Relativistic classical strings. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, C.A.P.

    1985-01-01

    The interactions of strings with electromagnetic and gravitational fields are extensively discussed. Some concepts of differential geometry are reviewed. Strings in Kaluza-Klein manifolds are studied. (L.C.) [pt

  20. Achievement Identification and Evaluation of Musically Gifted Children in Lower Music School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsic, Anica

    2016-01-01

    Music schools are specific educational institutions which teach children to understand musical language, the rules of musical writing and how to play an instrument. It is assumed that children who enroll in music school have a certain level of "musicality," i.e. possess musical ability. Starting from this premise, in this paper we wanted…

  1. Music and the Brain in Childhood Development. Review of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Susan J.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews literature on effects of music on the brain in childhood development. Areas include: (1) early synaptic growth; (2) nature versus nurture; (3) background music; (4) musical practice; (5) music learning and cognitive skills; (6) transfer of music learning; (7) musical instrument practice; (8) children and music; and (9) transfer effects.…

  2. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described

  3. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.

  4. Chladni Patterns on Drumheads: A ``Physics of Music'' Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worland, Randy

    2011-01-01

    In our "Physics of Music" class for non-science majors, we have developed a laboratory exercise in which students experiment with Chladni sand patterns on drumheads. Chladni patterns provide a kinesthetic, visual, and entertaining way to illustrate standing waves on flat surfaces and are very helpful when making the transition from one-dimensional systems, such as string and wind instruments, to the two-dimensional membranes and plates of the percussion family. Although the sand patterns attributed to Ernst Florens Friedrich Chladni (1756-1827) are often demonstrated for this purpose using metal plates,2-4 the use of drumheads offers several pedagogical and practical advantages in the lab.

  5. std::string Append

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 689 Technical Report ARWSE-TR-14026 STD ::STRING APPEND Tom Nealis...DATES COVERED (From – To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE STD ::STRING APPEND 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...two or more strings together while developing a C++ application is a very common task. For std ::strings, there are two primary ways to achieve the

  6. Strings in the Sun?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, E.; Vilenkin, A.

    1988-01-01

    If light superconducting strings were formed in the early Universe, then it is very likely that now they exist in abundance in the interstellar plasma and in stars. The dynamics of such strings can be dominated by friction, so that they are ''frozen'' into the plasma. Turbulence of the plasma twists and stretches the strings, forming a stochastic string network. Such networks must generate particles and magnetic fields, and may play an important role in the physics of stars and of the Galaxy

  7. World Music Ensemble: Kulintang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    As instrumental world music ensembles such as steel pan, mariachi, gamelan and West African drums are becoming more the norm than the exception in North American school music programs, there are other world music ensembles just starting to gain popularity in particular parts of the United States. The kulintang ensemble, a drum and gong ensemble…

  8. StringForce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barendregt, Wolmet; Börjesson, Peter; Eriksson, Eva

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present the forced collaborative interaction game StringForce. StringForce is developed for a special education context to support training of collaboration skills, using readily available technologies and avoiding the creation of a "mobile bubble". In order to play StringForce ...

  9. Dynamics of Carroll strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardona, Biel [Departament d’Estructura i Constituents de la Matèriaand Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB) Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona,Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Gomis, Joaquim [Departament d’Estructura i Constituents de la Matèriaand Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB) Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona,Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University,Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Pons, Josep M. [Departament d’Estructura i Constituents de la Matèriaand Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB) Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona,Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2016-07-11

    We construct the canonical action of a Carroll string doing the Carroll limit of a canonical relativistic string. We also study the Killing symmetries of the Carroll string, which close under an infinite dimensional algebra. The tensionless limit and the Carroll p-brane action are also discussed.

  10. Teaching Popular Music: Investigating Music Educators' Perceptions and Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, D. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate in-service music teachers' perceptions of popular music in the classroom and to examine their own preparation to teach popular music. A sample of music teachers, drawn from two regional chapters of the American Orff-Schulwerk Association, completed a researcher-designed survey instrument. Results…

  11. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umminger, K.

    2008-01-01

    A proper measurement of the relevant single and two-phase flow parameters is the basis for the understanding of many complex thermal-hydraulic processes. Reliable instrumentation is therefore necessary for the interaction between analysis and experiment especially in the field of nuclear safety research where postulated accident scenarios have to be simulated in experimental facilities and predicted by complex computer code systems. The so-called conventional instrumentation for the measurement of e. g. pressures, temperatures, pressure differences and single phase flow velocities is still a solid basis for the investigation and interpretation of many phenomena and especially for the understanding of the overall system behavior. Measurement data from such instrumentation still serves in many cases as a database for thermal-hydraulic system codes. However some special instrumentation such as online concentration measurement for boric acid in the water phase or for non-condensibles in steam atmosphere as well as flow visualization techniques were further developed and successfully applied during the recent years. Concerning the modeling needs for advanced thermal-hydraulic codes, significant advances have been accomplished in the last few years in the local instrumentation technology for two-phase flow by the application of new sensor techniques, optical or beam methods and electronic technology. This paper will give insight into the current state of instrumentation technology for safety-related thermohydraulic experiments. Advantages and limitations of some measurement processes and systems will be indicated as well as trends and possibilities for further development. Aspects of instrumentation in operating reactors will also be mentioned.

  12. Focusing Internet Searches for World Music Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    Discusses the importance of focusing Internet searches for world music resources. Importance of teaching about music from various cultures; Benefits of identifying a characteristic instrument by name or stylistic terms; Types of music web sites.

  13. Minimal open strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosomichi, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    We study FZZT-branes and open string amplitudes in (p, q) minimal string theory. We focus on the simplest boundary changing operators in two-matrix models, and identify the corresponding operators in worldsheet theory through the comparison of amplitudes. Along the way, we find a novel linear relation among FZZT boundary states in minimal string theory. We also show that the boundary ground ring is realized on physical open string operators in a very simple manner, and discuss its use for perturbative computation of higher open string amplitudes.

  14. Cosmic strings and inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishniac, E.T.

    1987-01-01

    We examine the compatibility of inflation with the cosmic string theory for galaxy formation. There is a general conflict between having sufficient string tension to effect galaxy formation, and reheating after inflation to a high enough temperature that strings may form in a thermal phase transition. To escape this conflict, we propose a class of models where the inflation is coupled to the string-producing field. The strings are formed late in inflation as the inflaton rolls towards its zero-temperature value. A large subset of these models have a novel large-scale distribution of galaxies that is fractal, displays biasing without dynamics or feedback mechanisms, and contains voids. (orig.)

  15. Psychiatry and music

    OpenAIRE

    Nizamie, Shamsul Haque; Tikka, Sai Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Vocal and/or instrumental sounds combined in such a way as to produce beauty of form, harmony and expression of emotion is music. Brain, mind and music are remarkably related to each other and music has got a strong impact on psychiatry. With the advent of music therapy, as an efficient form of alternative therapy in treating major psychiatric conditions, this impact has been further strengthened. In this review, we deliberate upon the historical aspects of the relationship between psychiatry...

  16. Closed Strings From Nothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, Albion

    2001-01-01

    We study the physics of open strings in bosonic and type II string theories in the presence of unstable D-branes. When the potential energy of the open string tachyon is at its minimum, Sen has argued that only closed strings remain in the perturbative spectrum. We explore the scenario of Yi and of Bergman, Hori and Yi, who argue that the open string degrees of freedom are strongly coupled and disappear through confinement. We discuss arguments using open string field theory and worldsheet boundary RG flows, which seem to indicate otherwise. We then describe a solitonic excitation of the open string tachyon and gauge field with the charge and tension of a fundamental closed string. This requires a double scaling limit where the tachyon is taken to its minimal value and the electric field is taken to its maximum value. The resulting flux tube has an unconstrained spatial profile; and for large fundamental string charge, it appears to have light, weakly coupled open strings living in the core. We argue that the flux tube acquires a size or order α' through sigma model and string coupling effects; and we argue that confinement effects make the light degrees of freedom heavy and strongly interacting

  17. Closed Strings From Nothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, Albion

    2001-07-25

    We study the physics of open strings in bosonic and type II string theories in the presence of unstable D-branes. When the potential energy of the open string tachyon is at its minimum, Sen has argued that only closed strings remain in the perturbative spectrum. We explore the scenario of Yi and of Bergman, Hori and Yi, who argue that the open string degrees of freedom are strongly coupled and disappear through confinement. We discuss arguments using open string field theory and worldsheet boundary RG flows, which seem to indicate otherwise. We then describe a solitonic excitation of the open string tachyon and gauge field with the charge and tension of a fundamental closed string. This requires a double scaling limit where the tachyon is taken to its minimal value and the electric field is taken to its maximum value. The resulting flux tube has an unconstrained spatial profile; and for large fundamental string charge, it appears to have light, weakly coupled open strings living in the core. We argue that the flux tube acquires a size or order {alpha}' through sigma model and string coupling effects; and we argue that confinement effects make the light degrees of freedom heavy and strongly interacting.

  18. Instrument Modeling and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Andrew B.; Beauchamp, James W.

    During the 1970s and 1980s, before synthesizers based on direct sampling of musical sounds became popular, replicating musical instruments using frequency modulation (FM) or wavetable synthesis was one of the “holy grails” of music synthesis. Synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 allowed users great flexibility in mixing and matching sounds, but were notoriously difficult to coerce into producing sounds like those of a given instrument. Instrument design wizards practiced the mysteries of FM instrument design.

  19. The arithmetic of strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, P.G.O.

    1988-01-01

    According to the author nobody has succeeded as yet in extracting any new numbers from string theory. This paper discusses how if one cannot get new numbers from string theory, maybe one can get new strings out of number theory. Number theory is generally regarded as the purest form of mathematics. So how can it conceivably make contact with physics which aims at describing nature? The author discusses how the connecting link of these two disciplines is provided by the compact Riemann surfaces. These appear as world sheets of interacting strings. For instance, string-string scattering at the three-loop level involves the four external strings attaching themselves to a genus three compact surface

  20. Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehrer, W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs.

  1. Learning Features of Music from Scratch

    OpenAIRE

    Thickstun, John; Harchaoui, Zaid; Kakade, Sham

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a new large-scale music dataset, MusicNet, to serve as a source of supervision and evaluation of machine learning methods for music research. MusicNet consists of hundreds of freely-licensed classical music recordings by 10 composers, written for 11 instruments, together with instrument/note annotations resulting in over 1 million temporal labels on 34 hours of chamber music performances under various studio and microphone conditions. The paper defines a multi-label clas...

  2. Careers in the Music Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes jobs in the music industry, including instrument designer, sales representative, instrument repair-person, retail music sales-person, recording engineer, and careers in the new video music industry. Educational requirements, personal qualifications, and the advantages and disadvantages of each job are discussed. (AM)

  3. Selective impairment of living things and musical instruments on a verbal 'Semantic Knowledge Questionnaire' in a case of apperceptive visual agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masullo, Carlo; Piccininni, Chiara; Quaranta, Davide; Vita, Maria Gabriella; Gaudino, Simona; Gainotti, Guido

    2012-10-01

    Semantic memory was investigated in a patient (MR) affected by a severe apperceptive visual agnosia, due to an ischemic cerebral lesion, bilaterally affecting the infero-mesial parts of the temporo-occipital cortices. The study was made by means of a Semantic Knowledge Questionnaire (Laiacona, Barbarotto, Trivelli, & Capitani, 1993), which takes separately into account four categories of living beings (animals, fruits, vegetables and body parts) and of artefacts (furniture, tools, vehicles and musical instruments), does not require a visual analysis and allows to distinguish errors concerning super-ordinate categorization, perceptual features and functional/encyclopedic knowledge. When the total number of errors obtained on all the categories of living and non-living beings was considered, a non-significant trend toward a higher number of errors in living stimuli was observed. This difference, however, became significant when body parts and musical instruments were excluded from the analysis. Furthermore, the number of errors obtained on the musical instruments was similar to that obtained on the living categories of animals, fruits and vegetables and significantly higher of that obtained in the other artefact categories. This difference was still significant when familiarity, frequency of use and prototypicality of each stimulus entered into a logistic regression analysis. On the other hand, a separate analysis of errors obtained on questions exploring super-ordinate categorization, perceptual features and functional/encyclopedic attributes showed that the differences between living and non-living stimuli and between musical instruments and other artefact categories were mainly due to errors obtained on questions exploring perceptual features. All these data are at variance with the 'domains of knowledge' hypothesis', which assumes that the breakdown of different categories of living and non-living things respects the distinction between biological entities and

  4. Doppler-musical instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T.J.; Watanabe, N.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a possible ultra-high energy resolution backscattering spectrometer optimized to spallation neutron source. A combination of multi monochromator crystal and Doppler drive provides considerable neutron flux, together with the reasonable energy range -30 < E < 30 μeV, even when the ultra-high energy resolution of ΔE∼0.03 μeV is attained. (author)

  5. Open-closed string correspondence in open string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartl, M.; Sachs, I.

    2008-01-01

    We address the problem of describing different closed string backgrounds in background independent open string field theory: A shift in the closed string background corresponds to a collective excitation of open strings. As an illustration we apply the formalism to the case where the closed string background is a group manifold. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. The Story of Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent Erik

    2016-01-01

    Udvalgte musikværker gennem historien, indspillet med digitale eller analoge instrumenter og udgivet i forbindelse med bogen "Music across Times & Fences"......Udvalgte musikværker gennem historien, indspillet med digitale eller analoge instrumenter og udgivet i forbindelse med bogen "Music across Times & Fences"...

  7. Strings, texture, and inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodges, H.M.; Primack, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    We examine mechanisms, several of which are proposed here, to generate structure formation, or to just add large-scale features, through either gauged or global cosmic strings or global texture, within the framework of inflation. We first explore the possibility that strings or texture form if there is no coupling between the topological theory and the inflaton or spacetime curvature, via (1) quantum creation, and (2) a sufficiently high reheat temperature. In addition, we examine the prospects for the inflaton field itself to generate strings or texture. Then, models with the string/texture field coupled to the curvature, and an equivalent model with coupling to the inflaton field, are considered in detail. The requirement that inflationary density fluctuations are not so large as to conflict with observations leads to a number of constraints on model parameters. We find that strings of relevance for structure formation can form in the absence of coupling to the inflaton or curvature through the process of quantum creation, but only if the strings are strongly type I, or if they are global strings. If formed after reheating, naturalness suggests that gauged cosmic strings correspond to a type-I superconductor. Similarly, gauged strings formed during inflation via conformal coupling ξ=1/6 to the spacetime curvature (in a model suggested by Yokoyama in order to evade the millisecond pulsar constraint on cosmic strings) are expected to be strongly type I

  8. [Music therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, P A; Dallaire, C

    1993-02-01

    Music stands for the mystical expression of life cycles celebrations: birth, death, renewal of seasons, hunting, rituals of passage... It serves in other familiar conjunctures, such as the dentist chair, waiting rooms and on the telephone, helping us to relax or increase our patience. However, music is not for everyone at all times. With each individual, its significance varies according to the moment and the situation. If a nurse can make use of it with some persons, it is because they have convinced her that music can be of comfort to them and can reduce their pain and anxiety. The role of the caregiver is to attend to the sick by different means. Music is one of them. By being alert and prudent, nurses can provide a care traditionally perpetuated as comforting. Music therapy is the controlled use of music and its elements to help the physiological, psychological and emotional integration of the individual in the course of a treatment for illness or incapacity. Its active mode implies that clients participate by playing an instrument or by singing to express oneself. It opens or maintains the field of communication. In the passive mode, therapists use tapes, disks or interpret pieces of music themselves. Its meaning, its power, take on other dimensions. When introducing music on a palliative care unit, for example, an initial assessment of each client is required to discover and monitor the degree of their acceptance. Thereafter, a continuous evaluation ensures that appropriate adjustments are made in the choice of music offered.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Music! Young Discovery Library Series: 25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurencin, Genevieve

    Part of an international series of amply illustrated, colorful, small size books for children ages 5 to 10, this volume presents stories about different aspects of music. The text explains how to listen to music, the main families of musical instruments, the importance of musical instruments in other cultures, and how a violin is constructed. Each…

  10. Spectral analysis of musical sounds with emphasis on the piano

    CERN Document Server

    Koenig, David M

    2014-01-01

    There are three parts to this book which addresses the analysis of musical sounds from the viewpoint of someone at the intersection between physicists, engineers, piano technicians, and musicians. The reader is introduced to a variety of waves and a variety of ways of presenting, visualizing, and analyzing them in the first part. A tutorial on the tools used throughout the book accompanies this introduction. The mathematics behind the tools is left to the appendices. Part 2 is a graphical survey of the classical areas of acoustics that pertain to musical instruments: vibrating strings, bars, membranes, and plates. Part 3 is devoted almost exclusively to the piano. Several two- and three-dimensional graphical tools are introduced to study the following characteristics of pianos: individual notes and interactions among them, the missing fundamental, inharmonicity, tuning visualization, the different distribution of harmonic power for the various zones of the piano keyboard, and potential uses for quality contro...

  11. Topics in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neveu, A.

    1986-01-01

    There exist several string models. In the first lecture, the simplest one, the open bosonic string, which turns out to live most naturally in 26 dimensions will be described in some detail. In the second lecture, the closed bosonic strings, and the open and closed 10-dimensional strings (superstrings) are reviewed. In the third lecture, various compactification schemes which have been proposed to deal with the extra space dimensions, from 4 to 10 or 26 are dealt with; in particular, the Frenkel-Kac construction which builds non-Abelian internal symmetry groups out of the compactified dimensions, and the resulting heterotic string are described. Finally, in the fourth lecture, the important problem of the second quantization of string theories, and of the underlying gauge invariance which is responsible for the possibility of dealing, in a consistent fashion, with interacting high-spin states without negative metric is addressed. 41 references, 8 figures

  12. N = 2 string amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooguri, H.

    1995-08-01

    In physics, solvable models have played very important roles. Understanding a simple model in detail teaches us a lot about more complicated models in generic situations. Five years ago, C. Vafa and I found that the closed N = 2 string theory, that is a string theory with the N = 2 local supersymmetry on the worldsheet, is classically equivalent to the self-dual Einstein gravity in four spacetime dimensions. Thus this string theory is solvable at the classical level. More recently, we have examined the N = 2 string partition function for spacial compactifications, and computed it to all order in the string perturbation expansion. The fact that such computation is possible at all suggests that the N = 2 string theory is solvable even quantum mechanically

  13. Music by the numbers from Pythagoras to Schoenberg

    CERN Document Server

    Maor, Eli

    2018-01-01

    Music is filled with mathematical elements, the works of Bach are often said to possess a math-like logic, and Igor Stravinsky said "musical form is close to mathematics," while Arnold Schönberg, Iannis Xenakis, and Karlheinz Stockhausen went further, writing music explicitly based on mathematical principles. Yet Eli Maor argues that music has influenced math at least as much as math has influenced music. Starting with Pythagoras, proceeding through the work of Schönberg, and ending with contemporary string theory, Music by the Numbers tells a fascinating story of composers, scientists, inventors, and eccentrics who played a role in the age-old relationship between music, mathematics, and the sciences, especially physics and astronomy. Music by the Numbers explores key moments in this history, particularly how problems originating in music have inspired mathematicians for centuries. Perhaps the most famous of these problems is the vibrating string, which pitted some of the greatest mathematicians of the ei...

  14. Optimal Packed String Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany

    2011-01-01

    In the packed string matching problem, each machine word accommodates – characters, thus an n-character text occupies n/– memory words. We extend the Crochemore-Perrin constantspace O(n)-time string matching algorithm to run in optimal O(n/–) time and even in real-time, achieving a factor – speedup...... over traditional algorithms that examine each character individually. Our solution can be efficiently implemented, unlike prior theoretical packed string matching work. We adapt the standard RAM model and only use its AC0 instructions (i.e., no multiplication) plus two specialized AC0 packed string...

  15. Interpolating string field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwiebach, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that a minimal area problem imposing different length conditions on open and closed curves is shown to define a one-parameter family of covariant open-closed quantum string field theories. These interpolate from a recently proposed factorizable open-closed theory up to an extended version of Witten's open string field theory capable of incorporating on shell closed strings. The string diagrams of the latter define a new decomposition of the moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces with punctures and boundaries based on quadratic differentials with both first order and second order poles

  16. 6d string chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadde, Abhijit; Haghighat, Babak; Kim, Joonho; Kim, Seok; Lockhart, Guglielmo; Vafa, Cumrun

    2018-02-01

    We consider bound states of strings which arise in 6d (1,0) SCFTs that are realized in F-theory in terms of linear chains of spheres with negative self-intersections 1,2, and 4. These include the strings associated to N small E 8 instantons, as well as the ones associated to M5 branes probing A and D type singularities in M-theory or D5 branes probing ADE singularities in Type IIB string theory. We find that these bound states of strings admit (0,4) supersymmetric quiver descriptions and show how one can compute their elliptic genera.

  17. String theory for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmerman Jones, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Making Everything Easier!. String Theory for Dummies. Learn:. The basic concepts of this controversial theory;. How string theory builds on physics concepts;. The different viewpoints in the field;. String theory's physical implications. Andrew Zimmerman Jones. Physics Guide, About.com. with Daniel Robbins, PhD in Physics. Your plain-English guide to this complex scientific theory. String theory is one of the most complicated sciences being explored today. Not to worry though! This informative guide clearly explains the basics of this hot topic, discusses the theory's hypotheses and prediction

  18. QCD and hadronic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen-Tannoudji, G.

    1989-01-01

    This series of lectures is devoted to review ot he connections between QCD and string theories. One reviews the phenomenological models leading to string pictures in non perturbative QCD and the string effects, related to soft gluon coherence, which arise in perturbative QCD. One tries to build a string theory which goes to QCD at the zero slope limit. A specific model, based on superstring theories is shown to agree with QCD four point amplitudes at the Born approximation and with one loop corrections. One shows how this approach can provide a theoretical framework to account for the phenomenological property of parton-hadron duality.(author)

  19. Heterotic cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Krause, Axel

    2006-01-01

    We show that all three conditions for the cosmological relevance of heterotic cosmic strings, the right tension, stability and a production mechanism at the end of inflation, can be met in the strongly coupled M-theory regime. Whereas cosmic strings generated from weakly coupled heterotic strings have the well-known problems posed by Witten in 1985, we show that strings arising from M5-branes wrapped around 4-cycles (divisors) of a Calabi-Yau in heterotic M-theory compactifications solve these problems in an elegant fashion

  20. The cognitive organization of music knowledge: a clinical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Rohani; Hailstone, Julia C; Warren, Jane E; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2010-04-01

    Despite much recent interest in the clinical neuroscience of music processing, the cognitive organization of music as a domain of non-verbal knowledge has been little studied. Here we addressed this issue systematically in two expert musicians with clinical diagnoses of semantic dementia and Alzheimer's disease, in comparison with a control group of healthy expert musicians. In a series of neuropsychological experiments, we investigated associative knowledge of musical compositions (musical objects), musical emotions, musical instruments (musical sources) and music notation (musical symbols). These aspects of music knowledge were assessed in relation to musical perceptual abilities and extra-musical neuropsychological functions. The patient with semantic dementia showed relatively preserved recognition of musical compositions and musical symbols despite severely impaired recognition of musical emotions and musical instruments from sound. In contrast, the patient with Alzheimer's disease showed impaired recognition of compositions, with somewhat better recognition of composer and musical era, and impaired comprehension of musical symbols, but normal recognition of musical emotions and musical instruments from sound. The findings suggest that music knowledge is fractionated, and superordinate musical knowledge is relatively more robust than knowledge of particular music. We propose that music constitutes a distinct domain of non-verbal knowledge but shares certain cognitive organizational features with other brain knowledge systems. Within the domain of music knowledge, dissociable cognitive mechanisms process knowledge derived from physical sources and the knowledge of abstract musical entities.

  1. Computed fingertip touch for the instrumental control of musical sound : with an excursion on the computed retinal afterimage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P.A. de Jong PhD

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, we present an articulated, empirical view on what human music making is, and on how this fundamentally relates to computation. The experimental evidence which we obtained seems to indicate that this view can be used as a tool, to systematically generate models, hypotheses and new

  2. Computed fingertip touch for the instrumental control of musical sound with an excursion on the computed retinal afterimage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Anastasius Prosper Anselmus de

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, we present an articulated, empirical view on what human music making is, and on how this fundamentally relates to computation. The experimental evidence which we obtained seems to indicate that this view can be used as a tool, to systematically generate models, hypotheses and new

  3. "If I Play My Sax My Parents Are Nice to Me": Opportunity and Motivation in Musical Instrument and Singing Tuition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Little consideration has been given to the factors which motivate children to take up music tuition, or their reasons for giving up. In part, this is a reflection of the limited extent to which children have been consulted directly in relation to issues exclusively affecting them. This study considered opportunity and motivation for young people…

  4. Music and Dyslexia: The Therapeutic Use of Instrument (Piano) Training with a Child with Dyslexia (A Case Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Bilgehan

    2017-01-01

    Dyslexia is defined as a difficulty in learning at an expected level according to age, intelligence and education that is given, even though the intelligence level of the individual is normal or above normal. Individuals with dyslexia have difficulties in many developmental areas that can be considered in the scope of music therapy. Interventions…

  5. Assyrian Music and Iconography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Maria Paim Pozzer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The sources about music in ancient Mesopotamia are numerous, there are hundreds of cuneiform tablets in Sumerian and Akkadian language, and also iconic representations of material culture have been rescued by archeology. The texts of varied nature show myths, staves and musical theories, displaying speci?c vocabulary about the act of musical performance, on musicians and musical instruments. In these documents, the rich iconography of war among the Assyrians is also revealing of musical practice, including in military contexts. There is evidence of foreign musicians within the Assyrian royal courts in the cuneiform tablets, in the stone

  6. Music and Music Intervention for Therapeutic Purposes in Patients with Ventilator Support; Gamelan Music Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhartini Suhartini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gamelan music is one of folk music for Javanese people. Several research studies testing the effects of music were conducted in Western countries. The music studies for therapeutic purposes used classical music commonly. Even in Indonesia, some researchers may use that music for therapeutic purposes. This concern article explains the perspective music and music intervention as therapeutic purposes, view with Javanese classical music.Objectives: To explore the evidence of music and music intervention for therapeutic purposes and to describe the perspective of gamelan music used in nursing interventionMethods: Using five bibliography databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Science Direct, Interscience, and Proquest were searched from 1999-2010 for original clinical reports or reviews that evaluated the use of complementary therapy for therapeutic intervention in patients with ventilator support. The term of complementary therapy, anxiety, and pain were used in a comprehensive search of electronic databases. Articles were screened and excluded based on the title and abstract information.Results: Music brings about helpful changes in the emotional and physical health of patients, and has the ability to provide an altered state of physical arousal and subsequent mood improvement by processing a progression of musical notes of varying tone, rhythm, and instrumentation for a pleasing effect.Conclusion: Music can be used for therapeutic purposes, for instance to reduce anxiety, to decrease pain sensation, and some effects of psychological impact. Include, the gamelan music can be offer for patients for Javanese people in Indonesia.Key words: Music, music intervention, therapeutic purposes

  7. Superfermionic superconformal string model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryavtsev, V.A.

    1994-01-01

    A new approach to superconformal dynamics of string interactions is formulated in terms of two-dimensional fermion fields and without boson fields commonly used in string theories. The vertex operators for emission of π-mesons are constructed within the framework of this approach. 5 refs

  8. Semilocal and electroweak strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achucarro, A; Vachaspati, T

    We review a class of non-topological defects in the standard electroweak model, and their implications. Starting with the semilocal string, which provides a counterexample to many well-known properties of topological vortices, we discuss electroweak strings and their stability with and without

  9. Inflationary string theory?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Furthermore, the success of this description indicates that inflation is likely to be associated with physics at energies considerably higher than the weak scale, for which string theory is arguably our most promising candidate. These observations strongly motivate a detailed search for inflation within string theory, although it ...

  10. The effect of expressive and instrumental touch on the behavior states of older adults with late-stage dementia of the Alzheimer's type and on music therapist's perceived rapport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgrave, Melita

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of music therapy interventions utilizing two types of touch, expressive touch and instrumental touch, on the behavior states of older adults who have late-stage dementia of the Alzheimer's type. A secondary purpose of this study was to examine the perceived effectiveness of the music therapist when expressive and instrumental touch was employed during music therapy sessions. A within-subject design was used with 9 participants receiving 3 sessions in each of the experimental conditions: no touch, expressive touch, and instrumental touch. Results of a one-way ANOVA revealed that expressive touch was significantly more effective during the initial session in eliciting and maintaining alert behavior states than the instrumental and control conditions; however, there were no significant differences between the experimental and control conditions during the first and second session repetitions. Rapport ratings revealed that the therapist's client rapport was perceived to be significantly higher during both the expressive touch and instrumental touch conditions than during the control condition. These findings have important implications for music therapy practice and the effective use of nonverbal communication.

  11. Open string model building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Nobuyuki; Onogi, Tetsuya

    1989-01-01

    Consistency conditions of open string theories, which can be a powerful tool in open string model building, are proposed. By making use of these conditions and assuming a simple prescription for the Chan-Paton factors, open string theories in several backgrounds are studied. We show that 1. there exist a large number of consistent bosonic open string theories on Z 2 orbifolds, 2. SO(32) type I superstring is the unique consistent model among fermionic string theories on the ten-dimensional flat Minkowski space, and 3. with our prescription for the Chan-Paton factors, there exist no consistent open superstring theories on (six-dimensional Minkowski space-time) x (Z 2 orbifold). (orig.)

  12. String-Math 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Welcome to String-Math 2015 at Sanya. The conference will be opened in December 31, 2015- January 4, 2016. String theory plays a central role in theoretical physics as a candidate for the quantum theory unifying gravity with other interactions. It has profound connections with broad branches of modern mathematics ever since the birth. In the last decades, the prosperous interaction, built upon the joint efforts from both mathematicians and physicists, has given rise to marvelous deep results in supersymmetric gauge theory, topological string, M-theory and duality on the physics side as well as in algebraic geometry, differential geometry, algebraic topology, representation theory and number theory on the mathematics side. The interplay is two-fold. The mathematics has provided powerful tools to fulfill the physical interconnection of ideas and clarify physical structures to understand the nature of string theory. On the other hand, ideas from string theory and quantum field theory have been a source of sign...

  13. [A study on the normal values of musical sounds in cochlear implants test battery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ruijuan; Wang, Shuo; Zhou, Yun; Qi, Beier; Chen, Xueqing; Liu, Bo

    2013-07-01

    To establish music reference values for normal-hearing (NH) person in China, in order to give convenience in clinical application. The NH participant group included 39 subjects, of which 21 females and 18 males. Musical Sounds in Cochlear Implants test battery was used to assess the music perception ability for normal-hearing participants. The median pitch difference NH participants could discriminate for string was 2.5 semitones and 0.5 for flute. The average scores of rhythm discrimination, melody discrimination, chord discrimination, instrument identification and instrument number detection test were 86.1% (SD = 11.2), 76.5% (SD = 11.1), 75.6% (SD = 11.4), 89.9% (SD = 13.0) and 74.1% (SD = 20.7), respectively. The MuSIC test could be a test for music perception ability for China users and in further study the material that more suited for our culture should be added into it.

  14. Effects of movement music therapy with a percussion instrument on physical and frontal lobe function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Nobuko; Umemura, Tomohiro; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Hirai, Takayoshi

    2017-09-22

    We tested the hypothesis that performing a rhythmic physical task accompanied by a cognitive task, such as multitask movement music therapy (MMT) involving repetitive rhythmic movement with a musical instrument (the Naruko clapper), may improve pre-frontal cortex (PFC) function and cognitive performance. Forty-five older adult participants with MCI (74.62 ± 5.05 years) participated in this randomized, controlled, single-blind intervention trial. 35 were assigned to the MMT group and 10 to the control STT group. Before and after the 12-week exercise program, we administered six physical function tests, the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), and measured relative oxyhemoglobin concentrations using 45-multichannel functional near-infrared spectroscopy as a reflection of hemodynamic responses in the PFC. We observed significant improvements in FAB scores only in the MMT group. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the PFC during the exercise was significantly increased in the MMT group compared with the STT group. The CBF increase was significantly correlated among various channels in the MMT group. The MMT program appeared to stimulate the PFC and improve cognitive performance in our older adult participants with MCI, suggesting that the repetitive, rhythmic movements of MMT can activate the prefrontal area in older adults. Clinical Trial Registry Numbers: R000026130, UMIN000022671 (2016/06/08) [(University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) Center] retrospectively registered.

  15. Principles of musical acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, William M

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Musical Acoustics focuses on the basic principles in the science and technology of music. Musical examples and specific musical instruments demonstrate the principles. The book begins with a study of vibrations and waves, in that order. These topics constitute the basic physical properties of sound, one of two pillars supporting the science of musical acoustics. The second pillar is the human element, the physiological and psychological aspects of acoustical science. The perceptual topics include loudness, pitch, tone color, and localization of sound. With these two pillars in place, it is possible to go in a variety of directions. The book treats in turn, the topics of room acoustics, audio both analog and digital, broadcasting, and speech. It ends with chapters on the traditional musical instruments, organized by family. The mathematical level of this book assumes that the reader is familiar with elementary algebra. Trigonometric functions, logarithms and powers also appear in the book, but co...

  16. String field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaku, M.

    1987-01-01

    In this article, the authors summarize the rapid progress in constructing string field theory actions, such as the development of the covariant BRST theory. They also present the newer geometric formulation of string field theory, from which the BRST theory and the older light cone theory can be derived from first principles. This geometric formulation allows us to derive the complete field theory of strings from two geometric principles, in the same way that general relativity and Yang-Mills theory can be derived from two principles based on global and local symmetry. The geometric formalism therefore reduces string field theory to a problem of finding an invariant under a new local gauge group they call the universal string group (USG). Thus, string field theory is the gauge theory of the universal string group in much the same way that Yang-Mills theory is the gauge theory of SU(N). The geometric formulation places superstring theory on the same rigorous group theoretical level as general relativity and gauge theory

  17. Duality relation between charged elastic strings and superconducting cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, B.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanical properties of macroscopic electromagnetically coupled string models in a flat or curved background are treated using a covariant formalism allowing the construction of a duality transformation that relates the category of uniform ''electric'' string models, constructed as the (nonconducting) charged generalisation of ordinary uncoupled (violin type) elastic strings, to a category of ''magnetic'' string models comprising recently discussed varieties of ''superconducting cosmic strings''. (orig.)

  18. Musculoskeletal pain among Polish music school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocka, Agnieszka; Mynarski, Władysław; Powerska-Didkowska, Aneta; Grabara, Małgorzata; Garbaciak, Wiesław

    2014-06-01

    To assess the prevalence and intensity of musculoskeletal pain and to estimate probability of developing playing-related musculoskeletal disorders, depending on risk factors, including gender, years of playing the musical instrument, frequency of practice (number of days per week), average daily practice time, and habitual physical activity level, in young instrumentalists. A total of 225 instrumentalists aged 10-18 years, including 107 string-players, 64 keyboardists, and 54 wind-players, were investigated. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) together with a numerical visual-analogue pain intensity scale (VAS) was used to assess the participants' musculoskeletal pain. The young instrumentalists most often complained of pain located in the neck (60.4%), wrists (44.4%), and upper (41.7%) and lower back (38.2%) areas. Girls complained of musculoskeletal pain significantly more often than the boys. A probability of the pain symptoms was increased with each consecutive year of practice (OR 1.135; 95%CI 1.021-1.261). Musculoskeletal pain in various body parts had already commenced at a young age in our sample of music students, and there was a gender difference (girls were more often affected). Results of our study suggest that an early prophylaxis of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders is needed among young musicians playing the various instruments.

  19. Final Report: "Strings 2014"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witten, Edward

    2015-10-21

    The Strings 2014 meeting was held at Princeton University June 23-27, 2014, co-sponsored by Princeton University and the Institute for Advanced Study. The goal of the meeting was to provide a stimulating and up-to-date overview of research in string theory and its relations to other areas of physics and mathematics, ranging from geometry to quantum field theory, condensed matter physics, and more. This brief report lists committee members and speakers but contains no scientific information. Note that the talks at Strings 2014 were videotaped and are available on the conference website: http://physics.princeton.edustrings2014/Talk_titles.shtml.

  20. String theory for pedestrians

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    In this 3-lecture series I will discuss the basics of string theory, some physical applications, and the outlook for the future. I will begin with the main concepts of the classical theory and the application to the study of cosmic superstrings. Then I will turn to the quantum theory and discuss applications to the investigation of hadronic spectra and the recently discovered quark-gluon plasma. I will conclude with a sketch of string models of particle physics and showing some avenues that may lead to a complete formulation of string theory.

  1. Superconducting cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, E.M.; Field, G.B.; Spergel, D.N.; Vilenkin, A.

    1986-01-01

    Superconducting loops of string formed in the early Universe, if they are relatively light, can be an important source of relativistic particles in the Galaxy. They can be observed as sources of synchrotron radiation at centimeter wavelengths. We propose a string model for two recently discovered radio sources, the ''thread'' in the galactic center and the source G357.7-0.1, and predict that the filaments in these sources should move at relativistic speeds. We also consider superheavy superconducting strings, and the possibility that they be observed as extragalactic radio sources

  2. Sound and Sense. The Role of Instrumentation in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Conceptions of Musical Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselager, Jens

    2001-01-01

    Instrumentation, musikforståelse, værkbegreb, orkesterteknikker, transkriptioner, particel, hermeneutisk fortolkning af musik, klangfarve og musikalsk narrativitet......Instrumentation, musikforståelse, værkbegreb, orkesterteknikker, transkriptioner, particel, hermeneutisk fortolkning af musik, klangfarve og musikalsk narrativitet...

  3. Differentiation in the Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standerfer, Stephanie L.

    2011-01-01

    Differentiating music instruction can be done well with a bit of forethought and creativity. When strategically used, music educators can better meet students' needs and make great strides in individual and overall student achievement. A variety of K-12 choral, instrumental, and general music examples is included. (Contains 7 notes and 2 tables.)

  4. Cosmic strings and cosmic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, A.; Brandenberger, R.; Turok, N.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the application of the theory of cosmic strings to explain the structure of the Universe. The formation of cosmic strings in the early Universe is outlined, along with the Big Bang theory, Grand Unified theories, and the first three minutes after the Big Bang. A description is given of the shaping of the Universe by cosmic strings, including the evolution of the string. The possibility for direct observation of cosmic strings is discussed. (U.K.)

  5. International conference on string theory

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The Strings 2017 conference is part of the "Strings" series of annual conferences, that bring the entire string theory community together. It will include reviews of major developments in the field, and specialized talks on specific topics. There will also be several public lectures given by conference participants, a pre-Strings school at the Technion, and a post-Strings workshop at the Weizmann Institute.

  6. Music-Making and Musical Comprehension with Robotic Building Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    creativity. This paper presents a project where modular robotics is used to create a platform for creative musical expression that allows users to experiment with musical genres without any prior musical knowledge or skills. The project is an example of how to create “intelligent learning material......Being able to express oneself musically and experiment with music composition is traditionally determined by one’s ability to play an actual instrument with a certain degree of craftsmanship. Lack of skills may cause difficulties for children and young people to experience the joy of musical...

  7. Field theory of strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramond, P.

    1987-01-01

    We review the construction of the free equations of motion for open and closed strings in 26 dimensions, using the methods of the Florida Group. Differing from previous treatments, we argue that the constraint L 0 -anti L 0 =0 should not be imposed on all the fields of the closed string in the gauge invariant formalism; we show that it can be incorporated in the gauge invariant formalism at the price of being unable to extract the equations of motion from a Langrangian. We then describe our purely algebraic method to introduce interactions, which works equally well for open and closed strings. Quartic interactions are absent except in the Physical Gauge. Finally, we speculate on the role of the measure of the open string path functional. (orig.)

  8. The QCD Effective String

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espriu, D.

    2003-01-01

    QCD can be described in a certain kinematical regime by an effective string theory. This string must couple to background chiral fields in a chirally invariant manner, thus taking into account the true chirally non-invariant QCD vacuum. By requiring conformal symmetry of the string and the unitarity constraint on chiral fields we reconstruct the equations of motion for the latter ones. These provide a consistent background for the propagation of the string. By further requiring locality of the effective action we recover the Lagrangian of non-linear sigma model of pion interactions. The prediction is unambiguous and parameter-free. The estimated chiral structural constants of Gasser and Leutwyler fit very well the phenomenological values. (author)

  9. Strings with zero tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, R.; Barcelos-Neto, J.

    1988-05-01

    We describe bosonic strings by using a kind of Lagrangian compatible with the zero tension limit. The work is developed on an extended configuration space and the quantization is carried out with details.

  10. Field theory of strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramond, P.

    1986-01-01

    We review the construction of the free equations of motion for open and closed strings in 26 dimensions, using the methods of the Florida Group. Differing from previous treatments, we argue that the constraint L 0 - L 0 -bar = 0 should not be imposed on all the fields of the closed string in the gauge invariant formalism: we show that it can be incorporated in the invariant formalism at the price of being unable to extract the equations of motion from a Lagrangian. We then describe our purely algebraic method to introduce interactions, which works equally well for open and closed strings. Quartic interactions are absent except in the Physical Gauge. Finally, we speculate on the role of the measure of the open string path functional. 20 refs

  11. String Theory Rocks!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    String Theory supporters argue that the universe we live in has eleven dimensions, out of which three spacial dimensions and a temporal one, which define the void and the space-time environment we experience daily.

  12. String theory compactifications

    CERN Document Server

    Graña, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    The lectures in this book provide graduate students and non-specialist researchers with a concise introduction to the concepts and formalism required to reduce the ten-dimensional string theories to the observable four-dimensional space-time - a procedure called string compactification. The text starts with a very brief introduction to string theory, first working out its massless spectrum and showing how the condition on the number of dimensions arises. It then dwells on the different possible internal manifolds, from the simplest to the most relevant phenomenologically, thereby showing that the most elegant description is through an extension of ordinary Riemannian geometry termed generalized geometry, which was first introduced by Hitchin. Last but not least, the authors review open problems in string phenomenology, such as the embedding of the Standard Model and obtaining de Sitter solutions.

  13. Applied Music (Individual Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Background information and resources to help students in grades 9-12 in Texas pursue an individual study contract in applied music is presented. To fulfill a contract students must publicly perform from memory, with accompaniment as specified, three selections from a list of approved music for their chosen field (instrument or voice). Material…

  14. Remote Music Tuition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Duffy; D. Williams; I. Kegel; T. Stevens; A.J. Jansen (Jack); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); P. Healey

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractIt is common to learn to play an orchestral musical instrument through one-to-one lessons with an experienced tutor. For musicians who choose to study performance at an undergraduate level and beyond, their tutor is an important part of their professional musical development. For many

  15. A Framework for Music-Speech Segregation using Music Fingerprinting and Acoustic Echo Cancellation Principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, F.; Habib, H. A.; Khan, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background interference creates voice intelligibility issue for listerner. This research work considers background music as interference for communication through smart phone in areas with loud background music. This paper proposes a novel framework for background music segregation from human speech using music fingerprinting and acoustic echo cancellation. Initially, background music is searched in the database by music fingerprinting. Identified background music is registered and segregated using acoustic echo cancellation. Proposed approach generates better quality music speech segregation than existing algorithms. The research work is novel and segregates background music completely in comparison to existing approaches where single instruments are segregated successfully. (author)

  16. Computer Music Synthesis and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Lydia

    What is computer music composition? Composers are using the computer for everything from MIDI instruments communicating with computer sequencers, pitch trackers analyzing the sounds of acoustic instruments and converting them to pitch information, live performers with recorded music, performers with interactive computer programs, computer music produced by dancers using sensors, automatic music composition with the computer programs composing the music, composing with sounds or parts of sounds rather than notes, how to structure the use of time, composing with timbres, or the colors of sounds, and timbre morphing, such as a gong morphing to a voice, composing with textures and texture morphing, such as fluttertonguing morphing to pitch, granular synthesis, trills and convolution.

  17. Manipulating Strings in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This lesson is a brief introduction to string manipulation techniques in Python. Knowing how to manipulate strings plays a crucial role in most text processing tasks. If you’d like to experiment with the following lessons, you can write and execute short programs as we’ve been doing, or you can open up a Python shell / Terminal to try them out on the command line.

  18. String dynamics in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervais, J.L.; Neveu, A.

    1980-01-01

    Recent works of the authors on string interpretation of the Wilson loop operators in QCD are reviewed in a self-contained fashion. Although most of the results habe already appeared in print, some new material is presented in renormalization of the Wilson loop operator and on the use of light-cone expansion to derive a linear string-like equation in light-cone formalism. (orig.)

  19. String scattering amplitudes and deformed cubic string field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Hong Lai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We study string scattering amplitudes by using the deformed cubic string field theory which is equivalent to the string field theory in the proper-time gauge. The four-string scattering amplitudes with three tachyons and an arbitrary string state are calculated. The string field theory yields the string scattering amplitudes evaluated on the world sheet of string scattering whereas the conventional method, based on the first quantized theory brings us the string scattering amplitudes defined on the upper half plane. For the highest spin states, generated by the primary operators, both calculations are in perfect agreement. In this case, the string scattering amplitudes are invariant under the conformal transformation, which maps the string world sheet onto the upper half plane. If the external string states are general massive states, generated by non-primary field operators, we need to take into account carefully the conformal transformation between the world sheet and the upper half plane. We show by an explicit calculation that the string scattering amplitudes calculated by using the deformed cubic string field theory transform into those of the first quantized theory on the upper half plane by the conformal transformation, generated by the Schwarz–Christoffel mapping.

  20. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...... provides the performer extensive virtuoso capabilities in terms of instrumental range, harmony, timbre, or spatial, textural, acoustic, technical, or technological qualities. The discussion will be illustrated by a composition case study involving augmented musical instrument electromagnetic resonator...

  1. Instructional Objectives Exchange. Music K-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    This collection of 97 instructional objectives reflects major concepts, fundamentals, and applications in music appreciation at kindergarten through sixth grade levels. The objectives are organized into the following categories: Melody; Harmony; Musical Form (design); Musical Sound; Musical Style; Rhythm Performance Skills; and Band Instruments.…

  2. Terry E. Miller on Thai Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Patricia Shehan

    1994-01-01

    Reports on an interview with Terry E. Miller, a specialist on music of Thailand and other southeastern Asian nations. Discusses the culture, the role of music, and musical instruments of Thailand. Includes a list of resources and two lesson plans for teaching about Thai music. (CFR)

  3. Strings, Axions and Solitons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabholkar, Atish

    This thesis is divided into two chapters. Chapter I is about the dynamics of radiating axionic strings and the lower bound on the mass of the invisible axion. It has been suggested that, without inflation, the decay of axionic strings produced after the Peccei -Quinn phase transition is the primary source of cosmic relic axions. Knowing the density of these axions would then allow the derivation of a cosmological bound on the mass of the axion. In order to obtain a sharp bound it is essential to know the spectrum of the emitted axions and the detailed motion of a global string strongly coupled to the axionic field. To this end, following the analogy with Dirac's treatment of classical radiating electrons, self-consistent renormalized equations are obtained that describe the dynamics of a radiating global string interacting with its surrounding axionic field. The numerical formalism for evolving string trajectories using these equations is described, and is applied to the case of a circular loop. It is argued that for large wavelength oscillations of cosmic string loops, the motion is well approximated by the motion of a free Nambu-Goto string with appropriate renormalization. Consequently, a lower bound of 10 ^{-3} eV on the mass of the axion is obtained. Together with the recent upperbound of 4 times 10^{-4 } eV from the supernova SN1987a, it marginally rules out the invisible axion. Chapter II is about superstrings and solitons. It is shown that the quantum renormalization of the superstring tension vanishes to all orders in string perturbation theory. A low-energy analysis of macroscopic superstrings is presented and various analogies between these superstrings and solitons in supersymmetric theories are discussed. These include the existence of exact multi-string solutions of the low -energy supergravity super-Yang-Mills equations of motion and a Bogomol'nyi bound for the energy per unit length which is saturated by these solutions. Arguments are presented that

  4. Music life : creating and playing music at the living room using furniture as a media

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Gustavo Dore; 奥出, 直人

    2011-01-01

    Music Life is an application for the Media Furniture system that enables people to express themselves through music using furniture as a interface. In Brazilian culture live music inside the home during parties is a common and exciting situation where people bond by playing music. Music Life brings this experience of playing music together at home with high sound quality (timbre and pitch) without the years necessary for mastering an analog instrument. Using Design Thinking approach for innov...

  5. Suita Zodiak: Komposisi Musik untuk String Kuartet dan Trio Woodwind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovan Bagus Jatmika

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Zodiak adalah rasi bintang di sepanjang garis ekliptika yang terdiri atas 12 bagian, yaitu Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagitarius, Capricorn, Aquarius, dan Pisces. Ke-12 zodiak tersebut memiliki karakter yang berbeda karena dibedakan oleh modus (cardinal, fixed, mutable dan elemen (api, tanah, udara, air yang menyusunnya. Fenomena ini, dalam konteks komposisi musik, merupakan hal-hal ekstra musikal. Hal-hal ekstra musikal inilah yang akan diangkat ke dalam komposisi musik programa dengan judul “Suita Zodiak”. Komposisi ini disusun dalam 12 gerakan dan disusun dalam 12 tonalitas yang berbeda. Masing-masing gerakan menggambarkan karakter 12 zodiak dari Aries hingga Pisces. Karakter dari ketiga modus yang menyusun zodiak ditransformasi ke musik melalui pembedaan tekstur, sedangkan karakter dari keempat elemen yang menyusun zodiak ditransformasi ke musik melalui pembedaan karakter melodi, suasana musikal, dan pembedaan tempo. Pemaknaan tentang karakter 12 zodiak kemudian dijadikan batasan dalam penciptaan “Suita Zodiak” bersifat arbitrer. Hal ini mengacu pada beberapa karya yang pernah diciptakan sebelumnya, yang sebagian besar menghubungkan karya musik dengan unsur ekstra musikalnya secara arbitrer. Karya ini digarap dalam format string kuartet dan trio woodwind dengan mengembangkan beberapa konsep melodi yang diambil dari thesaurus of scales and melodic pattern.   Zodiac Suite: Music Composition for String Quaertet and Trio Woodwind. Zodiac is the constellations along the ecliptic line consisting of 12 parts, namely Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagitarius, Capricorn, Aquarius, and Pisces. The 12 zodiacs have different characters because they are distinguished by the mode (cardinal, fixed, mutable and elements (fire, earth, air, water that are arranged them. This phenomenon, in the context of musical composition, is extra-musical things. These extra-musical things will be lifted

  6. New Developments in String Gravity and String Cosmology.A Summary Report

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Norma G.

    2002-01-01

    New Developments in String Gravity and String Cosmology are reported: 1-String driven cosmology and its Predictions. 2-The primordial gravitational wave background in string cosmology. 3-Non-singular string cosmologies from Exact Conformal Field Theories. 4-Quantum Field Theory, String Temperature and the String Phase of de Sitter space-time, 5-Hawking Radiation in String Theory and the String Phase of Black Holes. 6-New Dual Relation between Quantum Field Theory regimes and String regimes in...

  7. Expect the Unexpected: Experimental music, or the ignorance of sound design

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Basile

    2015-01-01

    Experimental music is a style of music that defines itself by opposition to other music styles. Many music lovers define their musical experience in opposition to other music styles,1 but experimental music bases its own characteristics not on rythmic or melodic patterns, or specific instruments, but on the very idea of difference. Experimental music is music that differs. And quite often, together with this idea of difference, comes the idea of surprise. The audience expects that songs or pe...

  8. Celebrate the Arts: Make It Musical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, Cathy Murray

    2000-01-01

    Presents an activity combining music and art in which students create a picture expressing a particular style of music. Develops skills in painting and drawing from observation. The paintings include a realistic drawing of one or more instruments and convey the feelings of the instrument's musical style. (CMK)

  9. Using Popular Music to Teach Global Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jim

    1990-01-01

    Shows how studying sources of popular music and instruments help students understand historical patterns of immigration and geography. Presents lessons and materials for exploring origins of popular musical instruments and music that developed in the United States from other cultures. Includes several related classroom activities, recommended…

  10. Unusual motions of a vibrating string

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Roger J.

    2003-10-01

    The actual motions of a sinusoidally driven vibrating string can be very complex due to nonlinear effects resulting from varying tension and longitudinal motion not included in simple linear theory. Commonly observed effects are: generation of motion perpendicular to the driving force, sudden jumps in amplitude, hysteresis, and generation of higher harmonics. In addition, these effects are profoundly influenced by wire asymmetries which in a brass harpsichord wire can cause a small splitting of each natural frequency of free vibration into two closely spaced frequencies (relative separation ~0.2% to 2%), each associated with transverse motion along two orthogonal characteristic wire axes. Some unusual resulting patterns of complex motions of a point on the wire are exhibited on videotape. Examples include: sudden changes of harmonic content, generation of subharmonics, and motion which appears nearly chaotic but which has a pattern period of over 10 s. Another unusual phenomenon due to entirely different causes can occur when a violin string is bowed with a higher than normal force resulting in sounds ranging from about a musical third to a twelfth lower than the sound produced when the string is plucked.

  11. The Spatial-Temporal Reasoning States of Children Who Play a Musical Instrument, Regarding the Mathematics Lesson: Teachers' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezer, Murat; Cumhur, Meryem; Hürsen, Emine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to try to investigate the spatial-temporal reasoning states of primary school children between the ages 8 and 11 who play an instrument, regarding mathematics lessons from the teachers' views. This current study is both qualitative and quantitative in nature. In other words, the mixed research method was used in the study.…

  12. Music Researchers' Musical Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollner, Clemens; Ginsborg, Jane; Williamon, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness of the importance of reflexivity across various disciplines, which encourages researchers to scrutinize their research perspectives. In order to contextualize and reflect upon research in music, this study explores the musical background, current level of musical engagement and the listening habits of music…

  13. Materiality for Musical Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, Rikard; Tahiroğlu, Koray; Riis, Morten S.

    2016-01-01

    Nordic universities. Electronic music instrument makers participated in providing the course. In eleven days the students designed and built interfaces for musical expressions , composed a piece, and performed at the Norberg electronic music festival. The students explored the relationship between......We organised an elven day intense course in materiality for musical expressions to explore underlying principles of New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME) in higher education. We grounded the course in different aspects of ma-teriality and gathered interdisciplinary student teams from three...... technology and possible musical expression with a strong connection to culture and place. The emphasis on performance provided closure and motivated teams to move forward in their design and artistic processes. On the basis of the course we discuss an interdisciplinary NIME course syllabus, and we infer...

  14. Demonstrating DREAM: A Digital Resource Exchange about Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upitis, Rena; Boese, Karen; Abrami, Philip C.

    2015-01-01

    The Digital Resource Exchange About Music (DREAM) is an online tool for exchanging information about digital learning tools for music education. DREAM was designed by our team to encourage music teachers to learn about digital resources related to learning to play a musical instrument, both in classroom and independent music studio settings. In…

  15. PT-symmetric strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amore, Paolo; Fernández, Francisco M.; Garcia, Javier; Gutierrez, German

    2014-01-01

    We study both analytically and numerically the spectrum of inhomogeneous strings with PT-symmetric density. We discuss an exactly solvable model of PT-symmetric string which is isospectral to the uniform string; for more general strings, we calculate exactly the sum rules Z(p)≡∑ n=1 ∞ 1/E n p , with p=1,2,… and find explicit expressions which can be used to obtain bounds on the lowest eigenvalue. A detailed numerical calculation is carried out for two non-solvable models depending on a parameter, obtaining precise estimates of the critical values where pair of real eigenvalues become complex. -- Highlights: •PT-symmetric Hamiltonians exhibit real eigenvalues when PT symmetry is unbroken. •We study PT-symmetric strings with complex density. •They exhibit regions of unbroken PT symmetry. •We calculate the critical parameters at the boundaries of those regions. •There are exact real sum rules for some particular complex densities

  16. Windings of twisted strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casali, Eduardo; Tourkine, Piotr

    2018-03-01

    Twistor string models have been known for more than a decade now but have come back under the spotlight recently with the advent of the scattering equation formalism which has greatly generalized the scope of these models. A striking ubiquitous feature of these models has always been that, contrary to usual string theory, they do not admit vibrational modes and thus describe only conventional field theory. In this paper we report on the surprising discovery of a whole new sector of one of these theories which we call "twisted strings," when spacetime has compact directions. We find that the spectrum is enhanced from a finite number of states to an infinite number of interacting higher spin massive states. We describe both bosonic and world sheet supersymmetric models, their spectra and scattering amplitudes. These models have distinctive features of both string and field theory, for example they are invariant under stringy T-duality but have the high energy behavior typical of field theory. Therefore they describe a new kind of field theories in target space, sitting on their own halfway between string and field theory.

  17. Perspectives on string phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Gordon; Kumar, Piyush

    2015-01-01

    The remarkable recent discovery of the Higgs boson at the CERN Large Hadron Collider completed the Standard Model of particle physics and has paved the way for understanding the physics which may lie beyond it. String/M theory has emerged as a broad framework for describing a plethora of diverse physical systems, which includes condensed matter systems, gravitational systems as well as elementary particle physics interactions. If string/M theory is to be considered as a candidate theory of Nature, it must contain an effectively four-dimensional universe among its solutions that is indistinguishable from our own. In these solutions, the extra dimensions of string/M Theory are “compactified” on tiny scales which are often comparable to the Planck length. String phenomenology is the branch of string/M theory that studies such solutions, relates their properties to data, and aims to answer many of the outstanding questions of particle physics beyond the Standard Model. This book contains perspectives on stri...

  18. Musculoskeletal problems among string instrumentalists in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adedayo T. Ajidahun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musicians who play string instruments are affected more by musculoskeletal injuries when compared to other instrument playing groups. Musculoskeletal problems are commonly found in the upper extremities and trunk. Several risk factors such as gender, practice hours and instrument played are associated with the prevalence and distribution of musculoskeletal problems among string instrumentalists. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, distribution, severity and risk factors for musculoskeletal problems among string instrumentalists. Method: A cross-sectional study design using both online and paper-based questionnaires were used to collect data from string instrumentalists playing in both amateur and professional orchestras in South Africa. Results: A total of 114 string instrumentalists participated in the study, of which 86 (77% reported problems in one or more anatomic regions while 39 (35% were currently experiencing musculoskeletal problems that affected their performance. The trunk and both shoulders were the most commonly affected body regions. The majority of the participants reported the severity of the complaints as mild to moderate with aching, soreness, tingling and fatigue being the most commonly used descriptors of the symptoms of playing-related musculoskeletal problems. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the prevalence of musculoskeletal problems that affect performance is high among string instrumentalists in South Africa. An evaluation of associated risk factors with the aim of reducing injuries may be important in improving performance.

  19. New Learning of Music after Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobe Damage: Evidence from an Amnesic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi eValtonen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Damage to the hippocampus impairs the ability to acquire new declarative memories, but not the ability to learn simple motor tasks. An unresolved question is whether hippocampal damage affects learning for music performance, which requires motor processes, but in a cognitively complex context. We studied learning of novel musical pieces by sight-reading in a newly-identified amnesic, LSJ, who was a skilled amateur violist prior to contracting herpes simplex encephalitis. LSJ has suffered virtually complete destruction of the hippocampus bilaterally, as well as extensive damage to other medial temporal lobe structures and the left anterior temporal lobe. Because of LSJ’s rare combination of musical training and near-complete hippocampal destruction, her case provides a unique opportunity to investigate the role of the hippocampus for complex motor learning processes specifically related to music performance. Three novel pieces of viola music were composed, closely matched for factors contributing to a piece’s musical complexity. LSJ practiced playing two of the pieces, one in each of two sessions during the same day. Relative to a third unpracticed control piece, LSJ showed significant pre- to post-training improvement for the two practiced pieces. Learning effects were observed both with detailed analyses of correctly played notes, and with subjective whole-piece performance evaluations by string instrument players. The learning effects were evident immediately after practice and 14 days later. The observed learning stands in sharp contrast to LSJ’s complete lack of awareness that the same pieces were being presented repeatedly, and to the profound impairments she exhibits in other learning tasks. Although learning in simple motor tasks has been previously observed in amnesic patients, our results demonstrate that non-hippocampal structures can support complex learning of novel musical sequences for music performance.

  20. New learning of music after bilateral medial temporal lobe damage: evidence from an amnesic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtonen, Jussi; Gregory, Emma; Landau, Barbara; McCloskey, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Damage to the hippocampus impairs the ability to acquire new declarative memories, but not the ability to learn simple motor tasks. An unresolved question is whether hippocampal damage affects learning for music performance, which requires motor processes, but in a cognitively complex context. We studied learning of novel musical pieces by sight-reading in a newly identified amnesic, LSJ, who was a skilled amateur violist prior to contracting herpes simplex encephalitis. LSJ has suffered virtually complete destruction of the hippocampus bilaterally, as well as extensive damage to other medial temporal lobe structures and the left anterior temporal lobe. Because of LSJ's rare combination of musical training and near-complete hippocampal destruction, her case provides a unique opportunity to investigate the role of the hippocampus for complex motor learning processes specifically related to music performance. Three novel pieces of viola music were composed and closely matched for factors contributing to a piece's musical complexity. LSJ practiced playing two of the pieces, one in each of the two sessions during the same day. Relative to a third unpracticed control piece, LSJ showed significant pre- to post-training improvement for the two practiced pieces. Learning effects were observed both with detailed analyses of correctly played notes, and with subjective whole-piece performance evaluations by string instrument players. The learning effects were evident immediately after practice and 14 days later. The observed learning stands in sharp contrast to LSJ's complete lack of awareness that the same pieces were being presented repeatedly, and to the profound impairments she exhibits in other learning tasks. Although learning in simple motor tasks has been previously observed in amnesic patients, our results demonstrate that non-hippocampal structures can support complex learning of novel musical sequences for music performance.