An Integer Programming Formulation of the Minimum Common String Partition Problem.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S M Ferdous
Full Text Available We consider the problem of finding a minimum common string partition (MCSP of two strings, which is an NP-hard problem. The MCSP problem is closely related to genome comparison and rearrangement, an important field in Computational Biology. In this paper, we map the MCSP problem into a graph applying a prior technique and using this graph, we develop an Integer Linear Programming (ILP formulation for the problem. We implement the ILP formulation and compare the results with the state-of-the-art algorithms from the literature. The experimental results are found to be promising.
An Integer Programming Formulation of the Minimum Common String Partition Problem.
Ferdous, S M; Rahman, M Sohel
2015-01-01
We consider the problem of finding a minimum common string partition (MCSP) of two strings, which is an NP-hard problem. The MCSP problem is closely related to genome comparison and rearrangement, an important field in Computational Biology. In this paper, we map the MCSP problem into a graph applying a prior technique and using this graph, we develop an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) formulation for the problem. We implement the ILP formulation and compare the results with the state-of-the-art algorithms from the literature. The experimental results are found to be promising.
Matrix string partition function
Kostov, Ivan K; Kostov, Ivan K.; Vanhove, Pierre
1998-01-01
We evaluate quasiclassically the Ramond partition function of Euclidean D=10 U(N) super Yang-Mills theory reduced to a two-dimensional torus. The result can be interpreted in terms of free strings wrapping the space-time torus, as expected from the point of view of Matrix string theory. We demonstrate that, when extrapolated to the ultraviolet limit (small area of the torus), the quasiclassical expressions reproduce exactly the recently obtained expression for the partition of the completely reduced SYM theory, including the overall numerical factor. This is an evidence that our quasiclassical calculation might be exact.
Topological string partition functions as polynomials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Yau Shingtung
2004-01-01
We investigate the structure of the higher genus topological string amplitudes on the quintic hypersurface. It is shown that the partition functions of the higher genus than one can be expressed as polynomials of five generators. We also compute the explicit polynomial forms of the partition functions for genus 2, 3, and 4. Moreover, some coefficients are written down for all genus. (author)
Modular invariant partition functions for toroidally compactified bosonic string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ardalan, F.; Arfaei, H.
1988-06-01
We systematically find all the modular invariant partition functions for the toroidally compactified closed bosonic string defined on a subset of a simply laced simple Lie algebra lattice, or equivalently for the closed bosonic string moving on a group manifold with the WZW coefficient k=1. We examine the relation between modular invariance of partition function and the possibility of describing it by an even Lorentzian self dual lattice in our context. (author). 23 refs
Non-Perturbative Nekrasov Partition Function from String Theory
Antoniadis, Ignatios; Hohenegger, Stefan; Narain, K S; Assi, Ahmad Zein
2014-01-01
We calculate gauge instanton corrections to a class of higher derivative string effective couplings introduced in [1]. We work in Type I string theory compactified on K3xT2 and realise gauge instantons in terms of D5-branes wrapping the internal space. In the field theory limit we reproduce the deformed ADHM action on a general {\\Omega}-background from which one can compute the non-perturbative gauge theory partition function using localisation. This is a non-perturbative extension of [1] and provides further evidence for our proposal of a string theory realisation of the {\\Omega}-background.
A hybrid metaheuristic for closest string problem.
Mousavi, Sayyed Rasoul
2011-01-01
The Closest String Problem (CSP) is an optimisation problem, which is to obtain a string with the minimum distance from a number of given strings. In this paper, a new metaheuristic algorithm is investigated for the problem, whose main feature is relatively high speed in obtaining good solutions, which is essential when the input size is large. The proposed algorithm is compared with four recent algorithms suggested for the problem, outperforming them in more than 98% of the cases. It is also remarkably faster than all of them, running within 1 s in most of the experimental cases.
Graphs on Surfaces and the Partition Function of String Theory
Garcia-Islas, J. Manuel
2007-01-01
Graphs on surfaces is an active topic of pure mathematics belonging to graph theory. It has also been applied to physics and relates discrete and continuous mathematics. In this paper we present a formal mathematical description of the relation between graph theory and the mathematical physics of discrete string theory. In this description we present problems of the combinatorial world of real importance for graph theorists. The mathematical details of the paper are as follows: There is a com...
The optimal graph partitioning problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Michael Malmros; Holm, Søren
1993-01-01
In this paper we consider the problem of partitioning the set of nodes in a graph in at most p classes, such that the sum of node weights in any class is not greater than the class capacity b, and such that the sum of edge weights, for edges connecting nodes in the same class, is maximal. This pr......In this paper we consider the problem of partitioning the set of nodes in a graph in at most p classes, such that the sum of node weights in any class is not greater than the class capacity b, and such that the sum of edge weights, for edges connecting nodes in the same class, is maximal...
The approximability of the String Barcoding problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rizzi Romeo
2006-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract The String Barcoding (SBC problem, introduced by Rash and Gusfield (RECOMB, 2002, consists in finding a minimum set of substrings that can be used to distinguish between all members of a set of given strings. In a computational biology context, the given strings represent a set of known viruses, while the substrings can be used as probes for an hybridization experiment via microarray. Eventually, one aims at the classification of new strings (unknown viruses through the result of the hybridization experiment. In this paper we show that SBC is as hard to approximate as Set Cover. Furthermore, we show that the constrained version of SBC (with probes of bounded length is also hard to approximate. These negative results are tight.
The wave function behavior of the open topological string partition function on the conifold
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kashani-Poor, Amir-Kian
2007-01-01
We calculate the topological string partition function to all genus on the conifold, in the presence of branes. We demonstrate that the partition functions for different brane backgrounds (smoothly connected along a quantum corrected moduli space) can be interpreted as the same wave function in different polarizations. This behavior has a natural interpretation in the Chern-Simons target space description of the topological theory. Our detailed analysis however indicates that non-perturbatively, a modification of real Chern-Simons theory is required to capture the correct target space theory of the topological string. We perform our calculations in the framework of a free fermion representation of the open topological string, demonstrating that this framework extends beyond the simple C 3 geometry. The notion of a fermionic brane creation operator arises in this setting, and we study to what extent the wave function properties of the partition function can be extended to this operator
Text string detection from natural scenes by structure-based partition and grouping.
Yi, Chucai; Tian, YingLi
2011-09-01
Text information in natural scene images serves as important clues for many image-based applications such as scene understanding, content-based image retrieval, assistive navigation, and automatic geocoding. However, locating text from a complex background with multiple colors is a challenging task. In this paper, we explore a new framework to detect text strings with arbitrary orientations in complex natural scene images. Our proposed framework of text string detection consists of two steps: 1) image partition to find text character candidates based on local gradient features and color uniformity of character components and 2) character candidate grouping to detect text strings based on joint structural features of text characters in each text string such as character size differences, distances between neighboring characters, and character alignment. By assuming that a text string has at least three characters, we propose two algorithms of text string detection: 1) adjacent character grouping method and 2) text line grouping method. The adjacent character grouping method calculates the sibling groups of each character candidate as string segments and then merges the intersecting sibling groups into text string. The text line grouping method performs Hough transform to fit text line among the centroids of text candidates. Each fitted text line describes the orientation of a potential text string. The detected text string is presented by a rectangle region covering all characters whose centroids are cascaded in its text line. To improve efficiency and accuracy, our algorithms are carried out in multi-scales. The proposed methods outperform the state-of-the-art results on the public Robust Reading Dataset, which contains text only in horizontal orientation. Furthermore, the effectiveness of our methods to detect text strings with arbitrary orientations is evaluated on the Oriented Scene Text Dataset collected by ourselves containing text strings in nonhorizontal
String theory and the dark glueball problem
Halverson, James; Nelson, Brent D.; Ruehle, Fabian
2017-02-01
We study cosmological constraints on dark pure Yang-Mills sectors. Dark glueballs are overproduced for large regions of ultraviolet parameter space. The problem may be alleviated in two ways: via a large preferential reheating into the visible sector, motivating certain inflation or modulus decay models, or via decays into axions or moduli, which are strongly constrained by nucleosynthesis and Δ Neff bounds. String models frequently have multiple hidden Yang-Mills sectors, which are subject to even stronger constraints due to the existence of multiple dark glueballs.
Thermal partition function of non-critical bosonic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Hiroshi.
1989-06-01
The thermal free energy of free non-critical bosonic strings in a D-dimensional space-time is examined. By integrating (or summing) over the Weyl freedom, the free energy and the one-loop vacuum amplitude are modular invariant for any D < 26. Thus the (background) Weyl invariance is realized. In the case of L → ∞, where L is the compactification radius of the Weyl mode, the physical spectrum circulating in the loop becomes continuous. A connection between this continuous spectrum and the unitarity of string perturbation theory is briefly mentioned. (author)
A parallel genetic algorithm for the set partitioning problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Levine, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Mathematics and Computer Science Division.
1994-05-01
In this dissertation the author reports on his efforts to develop a parallel genetic algorithm and apply it to the solution of set partitioning problem -- a difficult combinatorial optimization problem used by many airlines as a mathematical model for flight crew scheduling. He developed a distributed steady-state genetic algorithm in conjunction with a specialized local search heuristic for solving the set partitioning problem. The genetic algorithm is based on an island model where multiple independent subpopulations each run a steady-state genetic algorithm on their subpopulation and occasionally fit strings migrate between the subpopulations. Tests on forty real-world set partitioning problems were carried out on up to 128 nodes of an IBM SP1 parallel computer. The authors found that performance, as measured by the quality of the solution found and the iteration on which it was found, improved as additional subpopulation found and the iteration on which it was found, improved as additional subpopulations were added to the computation. With larger numbers of subpopulations the genetic algorithm was regularly able to find the optimal solution to problems having up to a few thousand integer variables. In two cases, high-quality integer feasible solutions were found for problems with 36,699 and 43,749 integer variables, respectively. A notable limitation they found was the difficulty solving problems with many constraints.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghoshal, D.; Sen, A.
1991-01-01
We calculate the partition function of the (ρ, ρ + 1) minimal model, perturbed by the operators φ 1.3 and φ 3.1 , to leading order in 1/ρ, and show that the result agrees with the partition functions of the (ρ-1, ρ) and (ρ+1, ρ+2) minimal models respectively. We also relate the change in the partition function of a conformal field theory under a perturbation to a change in the free energy of appropriate string field theory due to a change in the background. (orig.)
String Theory: Big Problem for Small Size
Sahoo, S.
2009-01-01
String theory is the most promising candidate theory for a unified description of all the fundamental forces that exist in nature. It provides a mathematical framework that combines quantum theory with Einstein's general theory of relativity. The typical size of a string is of the order of 10[superscript -33] cm, called the Planck length. But due…
Musculoskeletal problems among string instrumentalists in South Africa
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adedayo T. Ajidahun
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Background: Musicians who play string instruments are affected more by musculoskeletal injuries when compared to other instrument playing groups. Musculoskeletal problems are commonly found in the upper extremities and trunk. Several risk factors such as gender, practice hours and instrument played are associated with the prevalence and distribution of musculoskeletal problems among string instrumentalists. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, distribution, severity and risk factors for musculoskeletal problems among string instrumentalists. Method: A cross-sectional study design using both online and paper-based questionnaires were used to collect data from string instrumentalists playing in both amateur and professional orchestras in South Africa. Results: A total of 114 string instrumentalists participated in the study, of which 86 (77% reported problems in one or more anatomic regions while 39 (35% were currently experiencing musculoskeletal problems that affected their performance. The trunk and both shoulders were the most commonly affected body regions. The majority of the participants reported the severity of the complaints as mild to moderate with aching, soreness, tingling and fatigue being the most commonly used descriptors of the symptoms of playing-related musculoskeletal problems. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the prevalence of musculoskeletal problems that affect performance is high among string instrumentalists in South Africa. An evaluation of associated risk factors with the aim of reducing injuries may be important in improving performance.
Cosmic strings: A problem or a solution?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bennett, D.P.; Bouchet, F.R.
1987-10-01
The most fundamental issue in the theory of cosmic strings is addressed by means of Numerical Simulations: the existence of a scaling solution. The resolution of this question will determine whether cosmic strings can form the basis of an attractive theory of galaxy formation or prove to be a cosmological disaster like magnetic monopoles or domain walls. After a brief discussion of our numerical technique, results are presented which, though still preliminary, offer the best support to date of this scaling hypothesis. 6 refs., 2 figs
A solution to the decompactification problem in chiral heterotic strings
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Ioannis Florakis
2017-08-01
Full Text Available We present a solution to the decompactification problem of gauge thresholds in chiral heterotic string theories with two large extra dimensions, where supersymmetry is spontaneously broken by the Scherk–Schwarz mechanism. Whenever the Kaluza–Klein scale that controls supersymmetry breaking is much lower than the string scale, the infinite towers of heavy states contribute non-trivially to the renormalisation of gauge couplings, which typically grow linearly with the large volume of the internal space and invalidate perturbation theory. We trace the origin of the decompactification problem to properties of the six dimensional theory obtained in the infinite volume limit and show that thresholds may instead exhibit logarithmic volume dependence and we provide the conditions for this to occur. We illustrate this mechanism with explicit string constructions where the decompactification problem does not occur.
Efficient parallel algorithms for string editing and related problems
Apostolico, Alberto; Atallah, Mikhail J.; Larmore, Lawrence; Mcfaddin, H. S.
1988-01-01
The string editing problem for input strings x and y consists of transforming x into y by performing a series of weighted edit operations on x of overall minimum cost. An edit operation on x can be the deletion of a symbol from x, the insertion of a symbol in x or the substitution of a symbol x with another symbol. This problem has a well known O((absolute value of x)(absolute value of y)) time sequential solution (25). The efficient Program Requirements Analysis Methods (PRAM) parallel algorithms for the string editing problem are given. If m = ((absolute value of x),(absolute value of y)) and n = max((absolute value of x),(absolute value of y)), then the CREW bound is O (log m log n) time with O (mn/log m) processors. In all algorithms, space is O (mn).
Discrete and Continuous Models for Partitioning Problems
Lellmann, Jan
2013-04-11
Recently, variational relaxation techniques for approximating solutions of partitioning problems on continuous image domains have received considerable attention, since they introduce significantly less artifacts than established graph cut-based techniques. This work is concerned with the sources of such artifacts. We discuss the importance of differentiating between artifacts caused by discretization and those caused by relaxation and provide supporting numerical examples. Moreover, we consider in depth the consequences of a recent theoretical result concerning the optimality of solutions obtained using a particular relaxation method. Since the employed regularizer is quite tight, the considered relaxation generally involves a large computational cost. We propose a method to significantly reduce these costs in a fully automatic way for a large class of metrics including tree metrics, thus generalizing a method recently proposed by Strekalovskiy and Cremers (IEEE conference on computer vision and pattern recognition, pp. 1905-1911, 2011). © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonora, Loriano; Bytsenko, Andrey; Elizalde, Emilio
2012-01-01
This review paper contains a concise introduction to highest weight representations of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras, vertex operator algebras and Hilbert schemes of points, together with their physical applications to elliptic genera of superconformal quantum mechanics and superstring models. The common link of all these concepts and of the many examples considered in this paper is to be found in a very important feature of the theory of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras: the modular properties of the characters (generating functions) of certain representations. The characters of the highest weight modules represent the holomorphic parts of the partition functions on the torus for the corresponding conformal field theories. We discuss the role of the unimodular (and modular) groups and the (Selberg-type) Ruelle spectral functions of hyperbolic geometry in the calculation of elliptic genera and associated q-series. For mathematicians, elliptic genera are commonly associated with new mathematical invariants for spaces, while for physicists elliptic genera are one-loop string partition function. (Therefore, they are applicable, for instance, to topological Casimir effect calculations.) We show that elliptic genera can be conveniently transformed into product expressions, which can then inherit the homology properties of appropriate polygraded Lie algebras. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of Stuart Dowker’s 75th birthday devoted to ‘Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics’. (review)
Performance on patterned string problems by common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)
Gagne, Matthew; Levesque, Kathryn; Nutile, Lauren; Locurto, Charles
2012-01-01
This experiment examined the performance of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) on a series of patterned string problems to assess the marmosets’ understanding of means-ends relationships. One marmoset, Jet, was exposed to a series of problems that were ordered in terms of perceived difficulty during two testings that were separated by one year. In the second testing Jet received problems that had been used during the first testing along with three new problems. Each of the new problems was designed to be an exemplar of the type of problem that Jet had experienced difficulty with in the first testing. A second marmoset, Peaches, was tested on the same set of problems given to Jet in the second testing. Results indicated that the marmosets’ performance on these problems fell into three categories. In one category, some problems were solved without evidence of trial and error learning. In a second category, there were problems in which the marmosets responded at chance levels initially but evidenced improvement as a function of extended testing. In a third category, some problems appeared to be virtually unsolvable even with extended testing. Taken together, these results indicate that the marmosets were able to learn the means-ends connection between pulling a string and obtaining food. This learning was best characterized as a trial and error process for some problem forms, while for others there appeared to be rapid learning that did not require extensive practice. The instances of rapid learning may be the result of the application of a simple spatial proximity rule in which the marmosets chose the string that was closest to an imaginary line drawn between the marmoset and the reinforcer. PMID:22576582
Zörnig, Peter
2015-08-01
We present integer programming models for some variants of the farthest string problem. The number of variables and constraints is substantially less than that of the integer linear programming models known in the literature. Moreover, the solution of the linear programming-relaxation contains only a small proportion of noninteger values, which considerably simplifies the rounding process. Numerical tests have shown excellent results, especially when a small set of long sequences is given.
Exact Cover Problem in Milton Babbitt's All-partition Array
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bemman, Brian; Meredith, David
2015-01-01
, A, and a collection of distinct subsets of this set, S, then a subset of S is an exact cover of A if it exhaustively and exclu- sively partitions A. We provide a backtracking algorithm for solving this problem in an all-partition array and compare the output of this algorithm with an analysis...
Solving the String Statistics Problem in Time O(n log n)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Lyngsø, Rune B.; Östlin, Anna
2002-01-01
The string statistics problem consists of preprocessing a string of length n such that given a query pattern of length m, the maximum number of non-overlapping occurrences of the query pattern in the string can be reported efficiently. Apostolico and Preparata introduced the minimal augmented suf...
Single string planning problem arising in liner shipping industries: A heuristic approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gelareh, Shahin; Neamatian Monemi, Rahimeh; Mahey, Philippe
2013-01-01
We propose an efficient heuristic approach for solving instances of the Single String Planning Problem (SSPP) arising in the liner shipping industry. In the SSPP a Liner Service Provider (LSP) only revises one of its many operational strings, and it is assumed that the other strings are unchangea...
Isospectral Flows for the Inhomogeneous String Density Problem
Górski, Andrzej Z.; Szmigielski, Jacek
2018-02-01
We derive isospectral flows of the mass density in the string boundary value problem corresponding to general boundary conditions. In particular, we show that certain class of rational flows produces in a suitable limit all flows generated by polynomials in negative powers of the spectral parameter. We illustrate the theory with concrete examples of isospectral flows of discrete mass densities which we prove to be Hamiltonian and for which we provide explicit solutions of equations of motion in terms of Stieltjes continued fractions and Hankel determinants.
Pigeons learn virtual patterned-string problems in a computerized touch screen environment.
Wasserman, Edward A; Nagasaka, Yasuo; Castro, Leyre; Brzykcy, Stephen J
2013-09-01
For many decades, developmental and comparative psychologists have used a variety of string tasks to assess the perceptual and cognitive capabilities of human children of different ages and different species of nonhuman animals. The most important and widely used of these problems are patterned-string tasks, in which the organism is shown two or more strings, only one of which is connected to a reward. The organism must determine which string is attached to the reward and pull it. We report a new way to implement patterned-string tasks via a computerized touch screen apparatus. Pigeons successfully learned such virtual patterned-string tasks and exhibited the same general performance profile as animals given conventional patterned-string tasks. In addition, variations in the length, separation, and alignment of the strings reliably affected the pigeons' virtual string-pulling behavior. These results not only testify to the power and versatility of our computerized string task, but they also demonstrate that pigeons can concurrently contend with a broad range of demanding patterned-string problems, thereby eliminating many alternative interpretations of their behavior. The virtual patterned-string task may thus permit expanded exploration of other species and variables which would be unlikely to be undertaken either because of inadequacies of conventional methodology or sensorimotor limitations of the studied organisms.
Solution of the dilaton problem in open bosonic string theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bern, Z. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Dunbar, D.C. (Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom))
1991-01-01
One of the most remarkable features of string theories is that they seem to provide a framework for a consistent theory of quantum gravity which is unified with all other forces. String theories fall into the two basic, a priori equally interesting, categories of open and closed string theories. For the past five years virtually all attention has been focused on purely closed string theories even though the reincarnation of string theory began with the discovery of anomaly cancellation and finiteness in the Green-Schwarz open superstring. It is the authors' purpose in this essay to rekindle interest in open string theories as potential theories of nature, including gravity. All string theories naively contain a massless dilaton which couples with the strength of gravity in direct violation of experiment. They present a simple mechanism for giving the dilaton a mass in unoriented open bosonic string theories.
Solution of the dilaton problem in open bosonic string theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bern, Z.; Dunbar, D.C.
1991-01-01
One of the most remarkable features of string theories is that they seem to provide a framework for a consistent theory of quantum gravity which is unified with all other forces. String theories fall into the two basic, a priori equally interesting, categories of open and closed string theories. For the past five years virtually all attention has been focused on purely closed string theories even though the reincarnation of string theory began with the discovery of anomaly cancellation and finiteness in the Green-Schwarz open superstring. It is the authors' purpose in this essay to rekindle interest in open string theories as potential theories of nature, including gravity. All string theories naively contain a massless dilaton which couples with the strength of gravity in direct violation of experiment. They present a simple mechanism for giving the dilaton a mass in unoriented open bosonic string theories
The 3+1 Problem as a String Rewriting System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joseph Sinyor
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The 3+1 problem can be viewed, starting with the binary form for any ∈, as a string of “runs” of 1s and 0s, using methodology introduced by Błażewicz and Pettorossi in 1983. A simple system of two unary operators rewrites the length of each run, so that each new string represents the next odd integer on the 3+1 path. This approach enables the conjecture to be recast as two assertions. (I Every odd ∈ lies on a distinct 3+1 trajectory between two Mersenne numbers (2−1 or their equivalents, in the sense that every integer of the form (4+1 with being odd is equivalent to because both yield the same successor. (II If (2−1→(2−1 for any ,,>0, <; that is, the 3+1 function expressed as a map of 's is monotonically decreasing, thereby ensuring that the function terminates for every integer.
The Consensus String Problem and the Complexity of Comparing Hidden Markov Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lyngsø, Rune Bang; Pedersen, Christian Nørgaard Storm
2002-01-01
The basic theory of hidden Markov models was developed and applied to problems in speech recognition in the late 1960s, and has since then been applied to numerous problems, e.g. biological sequence analysis. Most applications of hidden Markov models are based on efficient algorithms for computing...... the probability of generating a given string, or computing the most likely path generating a given string. In this paper we consider the problem of computing the most likely string, or consensus string, generated by a given model, and its implications on the complexity of comparing hidden Markov models. We show...... that computing the consensus string, and approximating its probability within any constant factor, is NP-hard, and that the same holds for the closely related labeling problem for class hidden Markov models. Furthermore, we establish the NP-hardness of comparing two hidden Markov models under the L∞- and L1...
On solving energy-dependent partitioned eigenvalue problem by ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
An energy-dependent partitioning scheme is explored for extracting a small number of eigenvalues of a real symmetric matrix with the help of genetic algorithm. The proposed method is tested with matrices of different sizes (30 × 30 to 1000 × 1000). Comparison is made with Löwdin's strategy for solving the problem.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Renata Biadacz
2015-04-01
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to present scientific and didactic achievements of Polish accounting at the turn of the 19th century. The first part of the study addresses key issues in the development of accounting science and practice on Polish territory during the Partitions period. In the second part, attention is focused on scientific achievements of J. Walicki, B. Wilmowski and P. Ciompa. The third part discusses the question of Polish accounting handbooks at the turn of the 19th century, as well as the state of accounting practice at that time and problems in the development of professional periodicals on Polish territory during the Partitions. The last part focuses on various perspectives on the nature of accounting in handbooks from the late 19th and early 20th century. The research method applied is literature study based on selected textbooks and scientific papers published in Polish language in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The article provides a synthetic overview of the state of accounting knowledge and professional accounting periodicals on Polish soil during the Partitions, which had an impact on further development of accounting in Poland.
Metaheuristic ILS with path relinking for the number partitioning problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cesar Augusto Souza de Oliveira
2017-07-01
Full Text Available This study brings an implementation of a metaheuristic procedure to solve the Number Partitioning Problem (NPP, which is a classic NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem. The presented problem has applications in different areas, such as: logistics, production and operations management, besides important relationships with other combinatorial problems. This paper aims to perform a comparative analysis between the proposed algorithm with others metaheuristics using a group of instances available on the literature. Implementations of constructive heuristics, local search and metaheuristics ILS with path relinking as mechanism of intensification and diversification were made in order to improve solutions, surpassing the others algorithms.
Polyhedral Computations for the Simple Graph Partitioning Problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Michael Malmros
The simple graph partitioning problem is to partition an edge-weighted graph into mutually disjoint subgraphs, each containing no more than b nodes, such that the sum of the weights of all edges in the subgraphs is maximal. In this paper we present a branch-and-cut algorithm for the problem...... that uses several classes of facet-defining inequalities as cuttingplanes. These are b-tree, clique, cycle with ear, multistar, and S, Tinequalities. Descriptions of the separation procedures that are used for these inequality classes are also given. In order to evaluate the usefulness of the inequalities...... and the overall performance of the branch-and-cut algorithm several computational experiments are conducted. We present some of the results of these experiments....
A hybrid nested partitions algorithm for banking facility location problems
Xia, Li
2010-07-01
The facility location problem has been studied in many industries including banking network, chain stores, and wireless network. Maximal covering location problem (MCLP) is a general model for this type of problems. Motivated by a real-world banking facility optimization project, we propose an enhanced MCLP model which captures the important features of this practical problem, namely, varied costs and revenues, multitype facilities, and flexible coverage functions. To solve this practical problem, we apply an existing hybrid nested partitions algorithm to the large-scale situation. We further use heuristic-based extensions to generate feasible solutions more efficiently. In addition, the upper bound of this problem is introduced to study the quality of solutions. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach. © 2010 IEEE.
Testing problem solving in turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) using the string-pulling test.
Ellison, Anne Margaret; Watson, Jane; Demers, Eric
2015-01-01
To examine problem solving in turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), six captive vultures were presented with a string-pulling task, which involved drawing a string up to access food. This test has been used to assess cognition in many bird species. A small piece of meat suspended by a string was attached to a perch. Two birds solved the problem without apparent trial-and-error learning; a third bird solved the problem after observing a successful bird, suggesting that this individual learned from the other vulture. The remaining birds failed to complete the task. The successful birds significantly reduced the time needed to solve the task from early trials compared to late trials, suggesting that they had learned to solve the problem and improved their technique. The successful vultures solved the problem in a novel way: they pulled the string through their beak with their tongue, and may have gathered the string in their crop until the food was in reach. In contrast, ravens, parrots and finches use a stepwise process; they pull the string up, tuck it under foot, and reach down to pull up another length. As scavengers, turkey vultures use their beak for tearing and ripping at carcasses, but possess large, flat, webbed feet that are ill-suited to pulling or grasping. The ability to solve this problem and the novel approach used by the turkey vultures in this study may be a result of the unique evolutionary pressures imposed on this scavenging species.
Vinci, Stefano; Smith, Anne; Ranelli, Sonia
2015-09-01
Music research has investigated the prevalence of playing-related musculoskeletal problems in adults and children, but the prevalence in adolescents has not been established. String instrumentalists report high problem rates, though it is unclear whether rates vary between upper and lower strings in adolescent instrumentalists. Further, there is limited evidence for the association between physical characteristics and playing problems in this group of musicians. Seventy-six adolescent string musicians from the West Australian Youth Orchestras were surveyed. Their experience of playing problems, both symptoms (PRMS) and disorders (PRMD), within the last month and measurements of body mass index, hand span, and joint mobility (Beighton scale) were obtained. Prevalence rates were calculated and compared between upper and lower string instrumentalists using a chi-squared test. Logistic regression examined the association of physical measures with playing problems, adjusting for confounding factors. Within the last month, 73.5% participants reported experiencing a PRMS and 26.5percnt; reported experiencing a PRMD. There was no significant difference between the problem rates in upper and lower string instrumentalists. After adjusting for potential confounders, an increasing count of hypermobile joints remained significantly associated with problems (OR 1.76, CI 1.02 to 3.04, p=0.042). This study found playing problems are common in adolescent string instrumentalists, though rates did not differ between upper and lower string players. Joint hypermobility was associated with playing-related problems in adolescent musicians. Early identification of problems in this group of maturing musicians may help prevent disabling disorders and maximize performance.
Abstract Knowledge in the Broken-String Problem: Evidence from Nonhuman Primates and Pre-Schoolers
Mayer, Carolina; Call, Josep; Albiach-Serrano, Anna; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; Sabbatini, Gloria; Seed, Amanda
2014-01-01
There is still large controversy about whether abstract knowledge of physical problems is uniquely human. We presented 9 capuchin monkeys, 6 bonobos, 6 chimpanzees and 48 children with two versions of a broken-string problem. In the standard condition, participants had to choose between an intact and a broken string as means to a reward. In the critical condition, the functional parts of the strings were covered up and replaced by perceptually similar, but non-functional cues. Apes, monkeys and young children performed significantly better in the standard condition in which the cues played a functional role, indicating knowledge of the functional properties involved. Moreover, a control experiment with chimpanzees and young children ruled out that this difference in performance could be accounted for by differences of perceptual feedback in the two conditions. We suggest that, similar to humans, nonhuman primates partly rely on abstract concepts in physical problem-solving. PMID:25272161
Congruences of null strings in complex space-times and some Cauchy--Kovalevski-like problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, I.; Rozga, K.
1984-01-01
It is shown that a problem of construction of a local congruence of null strings is equivalent to a natural Cauchy--Kovalevski-like problem, related to an equation for a spinor field k/sub A/ defining the congruence. Initial data are specified on two-dimensional submanifolds. In left-conformally-flat spaces, the solution of that problem exists for arbitrary initial data
Remarks on the gauge fixing problems of the spinning string in Neveu-Schwarz-Ramond formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Randjbar-Daemi, S.; Salam, A.
1985-12-01
We discuss the problems of gauge fixing for the spinning string in the Neveu-Schwarz-Ramond formalism. We demonstrate that the usual Teichmueller parameters have fermionic counterparts. For a surface of genius g the complex dimension of the fermionic Teichmueller variables is 2g-2 if g>=2. (author)
Jost, Jürgen
2007-01-01
This book presents a mathematical treatment of Bosonic string theory from the point of view of global geometry. As motivation, Jost presents the theory of point particles and Feynman path integrals. He provides detailed background material, including the geometry of Teichmüller space, the conformal and complex geometry of Riemann surfaces, and the subtleties of boundary regularity questions. The high point is the description of the partition function for Bosonic strings as a finite-dimensional integral over a moduli space of Riemann surfaces. Jost concludes with some topics related to open and closed strings and D-branes. Bosonic Strings is suitable for graduate students and researchers interested in the mathematics underlying string theory.
Fast parallel DNA-based algorithms for molecular computation: the set-partition problem.
Chang, Weng-Long
2007-12-01
This paper demonstrates that basic biological operations can be used to solve the set-partition problem. In order to achieve this, we propose three DNA-based algorithms, a signed parallel adder, a signed parallel subtractor and a signed parallel comparator, that formally verify our designed molecular solutions for solving the set-partition problem.
Constraint Programming Approach to the Problem of Generating Milton Babbitt's All-partition Arrays
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tanaka, Tsubasa; Bemman, Brian; Meredith, David
2016-01-01
elements and corresponding to a distinct integer partition of 12. Constraint programming (CP) is a tool for solving such combinatorial and constraint satisfaction problems. In this paper, we use CP for the first time to formalize this problem in generating an all-partition array. Solving the whole...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ortiz, Sara Torres; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus
to their similar social structure and great variety of vocalizations, but their problem-solving capabilities have not been studied before. Two to four strings were suspended in different configurations to the underside of a perch. A food reward was attached at the end of one of the strings. The food could...... not be obtained by flying or reached from the ground. By varying different spatial configurations of strings and rewards, different cognitive skills could be investigated. Four conures (two females and two males) were tested. All four individuals solved three out of four tested string configurations (four...
A new modeling and solution approach for the number partitioning problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bahram Alidaee
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The number partitioning problem has proven to be a challenging problem for both exact and heuristic solution methods. We present a new modeling and solution approach that consists of recasting the problem as an unconstrained quadratic binary program that can be solved by efficient metaheuristic methods. Our approach readily accommodates both the common two-subset partition case as well as the more general case of multiple subsets. Preliminary computational experience is presented illustrating the attractiveness of the method.
On solving energy-dependent partitioned eigenvalue problem by ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. An energy-dependent partitioning scheme is explored for extracting a small number of eigenvalues of a real symmetric matrix with the help of genetic algorithm. The proposed method is tested with matrices of different sizes (30 × 30 to 1000 × 1000). Com- parison is made with Löwdin's strategy for solving the ...
Bohr's Electron was Problematic for Einstein: String Theory Solved the Problem
Webb, William
2013-04-01
Neils Bohr's 1913 model of the hydrogen electron was problematic for Albert Einstein. Bohr's electron rotates with positive kinetic energies +K but has addition negative potential energies - 2K. The total net energy is thus always negative with value - K. Einstein's special relativity requires energies to be positive. There's a Bohr negative energy conflict with Einstein's positive energy requirement. The two men debated the problem. Both would have preferred a different electron model having only positive energies. Bohr and Einstein couldn't find such a model. But Murray Gell-Mann did! In the 1960's, Gell-Mann introduced his loop-shaped string-like electron. Now, analysis with string theory shows that the hydrogen electron is a loop of string-like material with a length equal to the circumference of the circular orbit it occupies. It rotates like a lariat around its centered proton. This loop-shape has no negative potential energies: only positive +K relativistic kinetic energies. Waves induced on loop-shaped electrons propagate their energy at a speed matching the tangential speed of rotation. With matching wave speed and only positive kinetic energies, this loop-shaped electron model is uniquely suited to be governed by the Einstein relativistic equation for total mass-energy. Its calculated photon emissions are all in excellent agreement with experimental data and, of course, in agreement with those -K calculations by Neils Bohr 100 years ago. Problem solved!
An Inverse Eigenvalue Problem for a Vibrating String with Two Dirichlet Spectra
Rundell, William
2013-04-23
A classical inverse problem is "can you hear the density of a string clamped at both ends?" The mathematical model gives rise to an inverse Sturm-Liouville problem for the unknown density ñ, and it is well known that the answer is negative: the Dirichlet spectrum from the clamped end-point conditions is insufficient. There are many known ways to add additional information to gain a positive answer, and these include changing one of the boundary conditions and recomputing the spectrum or giving the energy in each eigenmode-the so-called norming constants. We make the assumption that neither of these changes are possible. Instead we will add known mass-densities to the string in a way we can prescribe and remeasure the Dirichlet spectrum. We will not be able to answer the uniqueness question in its most general form, but will give some insight to what "added masses" should be chosen and how this can lead to a reconstruction of the original string density. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
The basis property of eigenfunctions in the problem of a nonhomogeneous damped string
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Łukasz Rzepnicki
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The equation which describes the small vibrations of a nonhomogeneous damped string can be rewritten as an abstract Cauchy problem for the densely defined closed operator \\(i A\\. We prove that the set of root vectors of the operator \\(A\\ forms a basis of subspaces in a certain Hilbert space \\(H\\. Furthermore, we give the rate of convergence for the decomposition with respect to this basis. In the second main result we show that with additional assumptions the set of root vectors of the operator \\(A\\ is a Riesz basis for \\(H\\.
The TensorFlow Partitioning and Scheduling Problem: It's the Critical Path!
Mayer, Ruben; Mayer, Christian; Laich, Larissa
2017-01-01
State-of-the-art data flow systems such as TensorFlow impose iterative calculations on large graphs that need to be partitioned on heterogeneous devices such as CPUs, GPUs, and TPUs. However, partitioning can not be viewed in isolation. Each device has to select the next graph vertex to be executed, i.e., perform local scheduling decisions. Both problems, partitioning and scheduling, are NP-complete by themselves but have to be solved in combination in order to minimize overall execution time...
Integer Programming Formulation of the Problem of Generating Milton Babbitt's All-partition Arrays
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tanaka, Tsubasa; Bemman, Brian; Meredith, David
2016-01-01
partition regions are allowed. This permits us to describe the problem using a set of linear constraints necessary for IP. In particular, we show that this problem can be defined as a special case of the well-known problem of set-covering (SCP), modified with additional constraints. Due to the difficulty...... of the problem, we have yet to discover a solution. However, we assess the potential practicality of our method by running it on smaller similar problems....
Du, Qiang; Lin, Fanghua
2009-01-01
We present and analyse numerical approximations of a norm-preserving gradient flow and consider applications to an optimal eigenvalue partition problem. We consider various discretizations and demonstrate that many of the properties shared by the continuous counterpart can be preserved at the discrete level. The numerical algorithms are then used to study the nonlinear and non-local interfacial dynamics associated with the optimal partition. This paper is published as part of a collection in honour of Todd Dupont's 65th birthday.
Modeling nonlinear problems in the mechanics of strings and rods the role of the balance laws
O'Reilly, Oliver M
2017-01-01
This book presents theories of deformable elastic strings and rods and their application to broad classes of problems. Readers will gain insights into the formulation and analysis of models for mechanical and biological systems. Emphasis is placed on how the balance laws interplay with constitutive relations to form a set of governing equations. For certain classes of problems, it is shown how a balance of material momentum can play a key role in forming the equations of motion. The first half of the book is devoted to the purely mechanical theory of a string and its applications. The second half of the book is devoted to rod theories, including Euler’s theory of the elastica, Kirchhoff ’s theory of an elastic rod, and a range of Cosserat rod theories. A variety of classic and recent applications of these rod theories are examined. Two supplemental chapters, the first on continuum mechanics of three-dimensional continua and the second on methods from variational calculus, are included to provide relevant ...
An Efficient Algorithm for Partitioning and Authenticating Problem-Solutions of eLeaming Contents
Dewan, Jahangir; Chowdhury, Morshed; Batten, Lynn
2013-01-01
Content authenticity and correctness is one of the important challenges in eLearning as there can be many solutions to one specific problem in cyber space. Therefore, the authors feel it is necessary to map problems to solutions using graph partition and weighted bipartite matching. This article proposes an efficient algorithm to partition…
Open-closed string correspondence in open string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baumgartl, M.; Sachs, I.
2008-01-01
We address the problem of describing different closed string backgrounds in background independent open string field theory: A shift in the closed string background corresponds to a collective excitation of open strings. As an illustration we apply the formalism to the case where the closed string background is a group manifold. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
The Train Driver Recovery Problem - a Set Partitioning Based Model and Solution Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rezanova, Natalia Jurjevna; Ryan, David
The need to recover a train driver schedule occurs during major disruptions in the daily railway operations. Using data from the train driver schedule of the Danish passenger railway operator DSB S-tog A/S, a solution method to the Train Driver Recovery Problem (TDRP) is developed. The TDRP...... is formulated as a set partitioning problem. The LP relaxation of the set partitioning formulation of the TDRP possesses strong integer properties. The proposed model is therefore solved via the LP relaxation and Branch & Price. Starting with a small set of drivers and train tasks assigned to the drivers within...
Solving large scale crew scheduling problems by using iterative partitioning
E.J.W. Abbink (Erwin)
2008-01-01
textabstractThis paper deals with large-scale crew scheduling problems arising at the Dutch railway operator, Netherlands Railways (NS). NS operates about 30,000 trains a week. All these trains need a driver and a certain number of conductors. No available crew scheduling algorithm can solve such
An Iterated Tabu Search Approach for the Clique Partitioning Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gintaras Palubeckis
2014-01-01
all cliques induced by the subsets is as small as possible. We develop an iterated tabu search (ITS algorithm for solving this problem. The proposed algorithm incorporates tabu search, local search, and solution perturbation procedures. We report computational results on CPP instances of size up to 2000 vertices. Performance comparisons of ITS against state-of-the-art methods from the literature demonstrate the competitiveness of our approach.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Cullum, J. K.; Johnson, K.; Tůma, Miroslav
2003-01-01
Roč. 10, - (2003), s. 445-465 ISSN 1070-5325 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/02/0595; GA AV ČR IAA1030103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : parallel algorithms * graph partitioning * problem decomposition * rate of convergence Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.042, year: 2003
Optimality Bounds for a Variational Relaxation of the Image Partitioning Problem
Lellmann, Jan
2012-11-09
We consider a variational convex relaxation of a class of optimal partitioning and multiclass labeling problems, which has recently proven quite successful and can be seen as a continuous analogue of Linear Programming (LP) relaxation methods for finite-dimensional problems. While for the latter several optimality bounds are known, to our knowledge no such bounds exist in the infinite-dimensional setting. We provide such a bound by analyzing a probabilistic rounding method, showing that it is possible to obtain an integral solution of the original partitioning problem from a solution of the relaxed problem with an a priori upper bound on the objective. The approach has a natural interpretation as an approximate, multiclass variant of the celebrated coarea formula. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
RRES: A Novel Approach to the Partitioning Problem for a Typical Subset of System Graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Knerr
2008-03-01
Full Text Available The research field of system partitioning in modern electronic system design started to find strong advertence of scientists about fifteen years ago. Since a multitude of formulations for the partitioning problem exist, the same multitude could be found in the number of strategies that address this problem. Their feasibility is highly dependent on the platform abstraction and the degree of realism that it features. This work originated from the intention to identify the most mature and powerful approaches for system partitioning in order to integrate them into a consistent design framework for wireless embedded systems. Within this publication, a thorough characterisation of graph properties typical for task graphs in the field of wireless embedded system design has been undertaken and has led to the development of an entirely new approach for the system partitioning problem. The restricted range exhaustive search algorithm is introduced and compared to popular and well-reputed heuristic techniques based on tabu search, genetic algorithm, and the global criticality/local phase algorithm. It proves superior performance for a set of system graphs featuring specific properties found in human-made task graphs, since it exploits their typical characteristics such as locality, sparsity, and their degree of parallelism.
RRES: A Novel Approach to the Partitioning Problem for a Typical Subset of System Graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Knerr B
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract The research field of system partitioning in modern electronic system design started to find strong advertence of scientists about fifteen years ago. Since a multitude of formulations for the partitioning problem exist, the same multitude could be found in the number of strategies that address this problem. Their feasibility is highly dependent on the platform abstraction and the degree of realism that it features. This work originated from the intention to identify the most mature and powerful approaches for system partitioning in order to integrate them into a consistent design framework for wireless embedded systems. Within this publication, a thorough characterisation of graph properties typical for task graphs in the field of wireless embedded system design has been undertaken and has led to the development of an entirely new approach for the system partitioning problem. The restricted range exhaustive search algorithm is introduced and compared to popular and well-reputed heuristic techniques based on tabu search, genetic algorithm, and the global criticality/local phase algorithm. It proves superior performance for a set of system graphs featuring specific properties found in human-made task graphs, since it exploits their typical characteristics such as locality, sparsity, and their degree of parallelism.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakatsu, Toshio.
1994-07-01
The analogue of the string equation which specifies the partition function of c=1 string with a compactification radius β is an element of Z ≥1 is described in the framework of Toda lattice hierarchy. (author)
Complex world-sheets from N=2 strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbon, J.L.F.
1996-01-01
We study some properties of target space strings constructed from (2,1) heterotic strings. We argue that world-sheet complexification is a general property of the bosonic sector of such target world-sheets. We give a target space interpretation of this fact and relate it to the non-gaussian nature of free string field theory. We provide several one-loop calculations supporting the stringy construction of critical world-sheets in terms of (2,1) models. Using finite-temperature boundary conditions in the underlying (2,1) string we obtain non-chiral target space spin structures, and point out some of the problems arising for chiral spin structures, such as the heterotic world-sheet. To this end, we study the torus partition function of the corresponding asymmetric orbifold of the (2,1) string. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ooguri, H.
1995-08-01
In physics, solvable models have played very important roles. Understanding a simple model in detail teaches us a lot about more complicated models in generic situations. Five years ago, C. Vafa and I found that the closed N = 2 string theory, that is a string theory with the N = 2 local supersymmetry on the worldsheet, is classically equivalent to the self-dual Einstein gravity in four spacetime dimensions. Thus this string theory is solvable at the classical level. More recently, we have examined the N = 2 string partition function for spacial compactifications, and computed it to all order in the string perturbation expansion. The fact that such computation is possible at all suggests that the N = 2 string theory is solvable even quantum mechanically
Semenov, Alexander; Zaikin, Oleg
2016-01-01
In this paper we propose an approach for constructing partitionings of hard variants of the Boolean satisfiability problem (SAT). Such partitionings can be used for solving corresponding SAT instances in parallel. For the same SAT instance one can construct different partitionings, each of them is a set of simplified versions of the original SAT instance. The effectiveness of an arbitrary partitioning is determined by the total time of solving of all SAT instances from it. We suggest the approach, based on the Monte Carlo method, for estimating time of processing of an arbitrary partitioning. With each partitioning we associate a point in the special finite search space. The estimation of effectiveness of the particular partitioning is the value of predictive function in the corresponding point of this space. The problem of search for an effective partitioning can be formulated as a problem of optimization of the predictive function. We use metaheuristic algorithms (simulated annealing and tabu search) to move from point to point in the search space. In our computational experiments we found partitionings for SAT instances encoding problems of inversion of some cryptographic functions. Several of these SAT instances with realistic predicted solving time were successfully solved on a computing cluster and in the volunteer computing project SAT@home. The solving time agrees well with estimations obtained by the proposed method.
Ant Colony Optimization ACO For The Traveling Salesman Problem TSP Using Partitioning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alok Bajpai
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract An ant colony optimization is a technique which was introduced in 1990s and which can be applied to a variety of discrete combinatorial optimization problem and to continuous optimization. The ACO algorithm is simulated with the foraging behavior of the real ants to find the incremental solution constructions and to realize a pheromone laying-and-following mechanism. This pheromone is the indirect communication among the ants. In this paper we introduces the partitioning technique based on the divide and conquer strategy for the traveling salesman problem which is one of the most important combinatorial problem in which the original problem is partitioned into the group of sub problems. And then we apply the ant colony algorithm using candidate list strategy for each smaller sub problems. After that by applying the local optimization and combining the sub problems to find the good solution for the original problem by improving the exploration efficiency of the ants. At the end of this paper we have also be presented the comparison of result with the normal ant colony system for finding the optimal solution to the traveling salesman problem.
Perturbative string thermodynamics near black hole horizons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mertens, Thomas G.; Verschelde, Henri; Zakharov, Valentin I.
2015-01-01
We provide further computations and ideas to the problem of near-Hagedorn string thermodynamics near (uncharged) black hole horizons, building upon our earlier work http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP03(2014)086. The relevance of long strings to one-loop black hole thermodynamics is emphasized. We then provide an argument in favor of the absence of α ′ -corrections for the (quadratic) heterotic thermal scalar action in Rindler space. We also compute the large k limit of the cigar orbifold partition functions (for both bosonic and type II superstrings) which allows a better comparison between the flat cones and the cigar cones. A discussion is made on the general McClain-Roth-O’Brien-Tan theorem and on the fact that different torus embeddings lead to different aspects of string thermodynamics. The black hole/string correspondence principle for the 2d black hole is discussed in terms of the thermal scalar. Finally, we present an argument to deal with arbitrary higher genus partition functions, suggesting the breakdown of string perturbation theory (in g s ) to compute thermodynamical quantities in black hole spacetimes.
Perturbative string thermodynamics near black hole horizons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mertens, Thomas G.; Verschelde, Henri [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Krijgslaan, 281-S9, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Zakharov, Valentin I. [ITEP,B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics & Technology,Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, 141700 (Russian Federation); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University,Sukhanova str. 8, Vladivostok, 690950 (Russian Federation)
2015-06-24
We provide further computations and ideas to the problem of near-Hagedorn string thermodynamics near (uncharged) black hole horizons, building upon our earlier work http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP03(2014)086. The relevance of long strings to one-loop black hole thermodynamics is emphasized. We then provide an argument in favor of the absence of α{sup ′}-corrections for the (quadratic) heterotic thermal scalar action in Rindler space. We also compute the large k limit of the cigar orbifold partition functions (for both bosonic and type II superstrings) which allows a better comparison between the flat cones and the cigar cones. A discussion is made on the general McClain-Roth-O’Brien-Tan theorem and on the fact that different torus embeddings lead to different aspects of string thermodynamics. The black hole/string correspondence principle for the 2d black hole is discussed in terms of the thermal scalar. Finally, we present an argument to deal with arbitrary higher genus partition functions, suggesting the breakdown of string perturbation theory (in g{sub s}) to compute thermodynamical quantities in black hole spacetimes.
Searching for optimal integer solutions to set partitioning problems using column generation
Bredström, David; Jörnsten, Kurt; Rönnqvist, Mikael
2007-01-01
We describe a new approach to produce integer feasible columns to a set partitioning problem directly in solving the linear programming (LP) relaxation using column generation. Traditionally, column generation is aimed to solve the LP relaxation as quick as possible without any concern of the integer properties of the columns formed. In our approach we aim to generate the columns forming the optimal integer solution while simultaneously solving the LP relaxation. By this we can re...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehiddin Al-Baali
2015-12-01
Full Text Available We deal with the design of parallel algorithms by using variable partitioning techniques to solve nonlinear optimization problems. We propose an iterative solution method that is very efficient for separable functions, our scope being to discuss its performance for general functions. Experimental results on an illustrative example have suggested some useful modifications that, even though they improve the efficiency of our parallel method, leave some questions open for further investigation.
Brevik, Iver
2012-09-01
The main part of this paper is to present an updated review of the Casimir energy at zero and finite temperature for the transverse oscillations of a piecewise uniform closed string. We make use of three different regularizations: the cutoff method, the complex contour integration method and the zeta-function method. The string model is relativistic, in the sense that the velocity of sound is for each string piece set equal to the velocity of light. In this sense the theory is analogous to the electromagnetic theory in a dielectric medium in which the product of permittivity and permeability is equal to unity (an isorefractive medium). We demonstrate how the formalism works for a two-piece string, and for a 2N-piece string, and show how in the latter case a compact recursion relation serves to facilitate the formalism considerably. The Casimir energy turns out to be negative, and the more so the larger the number of pieces in the string. The two-piece string is quantized in D-dimensional spacetime, in the limit when the ratio between the two tensions is very small. We calculate the free energy and other thermodynamic quantities, demonstrate scaling properties, and comment finally on the meaning of the Hagedorn critical temperature for the two-piece string. Thereafter, as a novel development we present a scalar field theory for a real field in three-dimensional space in a potential rising linearly with a longitudinal coordinate z in the interval 0 birthday devoted to ‘Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics’.
The Train Driver Recovery Problem - a Set Partitioning Based Model and Solution Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rezanova, Natalia Jurjevna; Ryan, David
2010-01-01
The need to recover a train driver schedule occurs during major disruptions in the daily railway operations. Based on data from the Danish passenger railway operator DSB S-tog A/S, a solution method to the train driver recovery problem (TDRP) is developed. The TDRP is formulated as a set...... partitioning problem. We define a disruption neighbourhood by identifying a small set of drivers and train tasks directly affected by the disruption. Based on the disruption neighbourhood, the TDRP model is formed and solved. If the TDRP solution provides a feasible recovery for the drivers within...
Implementation of a partitioned algorithm for simulation of large CSI problems
Alvin, Kenneth F.; Park, K. C.
1991-01-01
The implementation of a partitioned numerical algorithm for determining the dynamic response of coupled structure/controller/estimator finite-dimensional systems is reviewed. The partitioned approach leads to a set of coupled first and second-order linear differential equations which are numerically integrated with extrapolation and implicit step methods. The present software implementation, ACSIS, utilizes parallel processing techniques at various levels to optimize performance on a shared-memory concurrent/vector processing system. A general procedure for the design of controller and filter gains is also implemented, which utilizes the vibration characteristics of the structure to be solved. Also presented are: example problems; a user's guide to the software; the procedures and algorithm scripts; a stability analysis for the algorithm; and the source code for the parallel implementation.
On the W-hair of string black holes and the singularity problem
Ellis, John R.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.
1992-01-01
We argue that the infinitely many gauge symmetries of string theory provide an infinite set of conserved (gauge) quantum numbers (W-hair) which characterise black hole states and maintain quantum coherence, even during exotic processes like black hole evaporation/decay. We study ways of measuring the W-hair of spherically-symmetric four-dimensional objects with event horizons, treated as effectively two-dimensional string black holes. Measurements can be done either through the s-wave scattering of light particles off the string black-hole background, or through interference experiments of Aharonov-Bohm type. We also speculate on the role of the extended W-symmetries possessed by the topological field theories that describe the region of space-time around a singularity.
The Linearized Simultaneous String-Design and Cargo-Routing Problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Plum, Christian Edinger Munk
A global liner shipping network, consists of a billion dollar investment in assets. Designing this network, to minimize costs, while considering operational constraints is thus of great relevance. Empirical studies of the cost structure of a networks strings (ship rotations), show linear relation...
Banks, J. W.; Henshaw, W. D.; Schwendeman, D. W.; Tang, Qi
2017-08-01
A stable partitioned algorithm is developed for fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems involving viscous incompressible flow and rigid bodies. This added-mass partitioned (AMP) algorithm remains stable, without sub-iterations, for light and even zero mass rigid bodies when added-mass and viscous added-damping effects are large. The scheme is based on a generalized Robin interface condition for the fluid pressure that includes terms involving the linear acceleration and angular acceleration of the rigid body. Added-mass effects are handled in the Robin condition by inclusion of a boundary integral term that depends on the pressure. Added-damping effects due to the viscous shear forces on the body are treated by inclusion of added-damping tensors that are derived through a linearization of the integrals defining the force and torque. Added-damping effects may be important at low Reynolds number, or, for example, in the case of a rotating cylinder or rotating sphere when the rotational moments of inertia are small. In this first part of a two-part series, the properties of the AMP scheme are motivated and evaluated through the development and analysis of some model problems. The analysis shows when and why the traditional partitioned scheme becomes unstable due to either added-mass or added-damping effects. The analysis also identifies the proper form of the added-damping which depends on the discrete time-step and the grid-spacing normal to the rigid body. The results of the analysis are confirmed with numerical simulations that also demonstrate a second-order accurate implementation of the AMP scheme.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Krause, Axel
2006-01-01
We show that all three conditions for the cosmological relevance of heterotic cosmic strings, the right tension, stability and a production mechanism at the end of inflation, can be met in the strongly coupled M-theory regime. Whereas cosmic strings generated from weakly coupled heterotic strings have the well-known problems posed by Witten in 1985, we show that strings arising from M5-branes wrapped around 4-cycles (divisors) of a Calabi-Yau in heterotic M-theory compactifications solve these problems in an elegant fashion
Duodenal parasites test; Giardia - string test ... To have this test, you swallow a string with a weighted gelatin capsule on the end. The string is pulled out 4 hours later. Any bile , blood, or mucus attached to ...
M-strings, Elliptic Genera and N=4 String Amplitudes
Hohenegger, Stefan
2014-01-01
We study mass-deformed N=2 gauge theories from various points of view. Their partition functions can be computed via three dual approaches: firstly, (p,q)-brane webs in type II string theory using Nekrasov's instanton calculus, secondly, the (refined) topological string using the topological vertex formalism and thirdly, M theory via the elliptic genus of certain M-strings configurations. We argue for a large class of theories that these approaches yield the same gauge theory partition function which we study in detail. To make their modular properties more tangible, we consider a fourth approach by connecting the partition function to the equivariant elliptic genus of R^4 through a (singular) theta-transform. This form appears naturally as a specific class of one-loop scattering amplitudes in type II string theory on T^2, which we calculate explicitly.
M-strings, elliptic genera and N = 4 string amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hohenegger, S.; Iqbal, A.
2014-01-01
We study mass-deformed N = 2 gauge theories from various points of view. Their partition functions can be computed via three dual approaches: firstly, (p,q)-brane webs in type II string theory using Nekrasov's instanton calculus, secondly, the (refined) topological string using the topological vertex formalism and thirdly, M theory via the elliptic genus of certain M-strings configurations. We argue for a large class of theories that these approaches yield the same gauge theory partition function which we study in detail. To make their modular properties more tangible, we consider a fourth approach by connecting the partition function to the equivariant elliptic genus of C 2 through a (singular) theta-transform. This form appears naturally as a specific class of one-loop scattering amplitudes in type II string theory on T 2 , which we calculate explicitly. (Copyright copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabio Burderi
2007-05-01
Full Text Available Motivated by the study of decipherability conditions for codes weaker than Unique Decipherability (UD, we introduce the notion of coding partition. Such a notion generalizes that of UD code and, for codes that are not UD, allows to recover the ``unique decipherability" at the level of the classes of the partition. By tacking into account the natural order between the partitions, we define the characteristic partition of a code X as the finest coding partition of X. This leads to introduce the canonical decomposition of a code in at most one unambiguouscomponent and other (if any totally ambiguouscomponents. In the case the code is finite, we give an algorithm for computing its canonical partition. This, in particular, allows to decide whether a given partition of a finite code X is a coding partition. This last problem is then approached in the case the code is a rational set. We prove its decidability under the hypothesis that the partition contains a finite number of classes and each class is a rational set. Moreover we conjecture that the canonical partition satisfies such a hypothesis. Finally we consider also some relationships between coding partitions and varieties of codes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caselle, Michele; Panero, Marco; Pellegrini, Roberto; Vadacchino, Davide
2015-01-01
In U(1) lattice gauge theory in three spacetime dimensions, the problem of confinement can be studied analytically in a semi-classical approach, in terms of a gas of monopoles with Coulomb-like interactions. In addition, this theory can be mapped to a spin model via an exact duality transformation, which allows one to perform high-precision numerical studies of the confining potential. Taking advantage of these properties, we carried out an accurate investigation of the effective string describing the low-energy properties of flux tubes in this confining gauge theory. We found striking deviations from the expected Nambu-Goto-like behavior, and, for the first time, evidence for contributions that can be described by a term proportional to the extrinsic curvature of the effective string worldsheet. Such term is allowed by Lorentz invariance, and its presence in the infrared regime of the U(1) model was indeed predicted by Polyakov several years ago. Our results show that this term scales as expected according to Polyakov’s solution, and becomes the dominant contribution to the effective string action in the continuum limit. We also demonstrate analytically that the corrections to the confining potential induced by the extrinsic curvature term can be related to the partition function of the massive perturbation of a c=1 bosonic conformal field theory. The implications of our results for SU(N) Yang-Mills theories in three and in four spacetime dimensions are discussed.
Caselle, Michele; Panero, Marco; Pellegrini, Roberto; Vadacchino, Davide
2015-01-01
In U(1) lattice gauge theory in three spacetime dimensions, the problem of confinement can be studied analytically in a semi-classical approach, in terms of a gas of monopoles with Coulomb-like interactions. In addition, this theory can be mapped to a spin model via an exact duality transformation, which allows one to perform high-precision numerical studies of the confining potential. Taking advantage of these properties, we carried out an accurate investigation of the effective string describing the low-energy properties of flux tubes in this confining gauge theory. We found striking deviations from the expected Nambu-Goto-like behavior, and, for the first time, evidence for contributions that can be described by a term proportional to the extrinsic curvature of the effective string worldsheet. Such term is allowed by Lorentz invariance, and its presence in the infrared regime of the U(1) model was indeed predicted by Polyakov several years ago. Our results show that this term scales as expected according to Polyakov's solution, and becomes the dominant contribution to the effective string action in the continuum limit. We also demonstrate analytically that the corrections to the confining potential induced by the extrinsic curvature term can be related to the partition function of the massive perturbation of a c = 1 bosonic conformal field theory. The implications of our results for SU( N ) Yang-Mills theories in three and in four spacetime dimensions are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Caselle, Michele [Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Torino and INFN - Sezione di Torino,Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Panero, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Torino and INFN - Sezione di Torino,Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Instituto de Física Téorica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Calle Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Cantoblanco E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Pellegrini, Roberto [Physics Department, Swansea University,Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Vadacchino, Davide [Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Torino and INFN - Sezione di Torino,Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy)
2015-01-20
In U(1) lattice gauge theory in three spacetime dimensions, the problem of confinement can be studied analytically in a semi-classical approach, in terms of a gas of monopoles with Coulomb-like interactions. In addition, this theory can be mapped to a spin model via an exact duality transformation, which allows one to perform high-precision numerical studies of the confining potential. Taking advantage of these properties, we carried out an accurate investigation of the effective string describing the low-energy properties of flux tubes in this confining gauge theory. We found striking deviations from the expected Nambu-Goto-like behavior, and, for the first time, evidence for contributions that can be described by a term proportional to the extrinsic curvature of the effective string worldsheet. Such term is allowed by Lorentz invariance, and its presence in the infrared regime of the U(1) model was indeed predicted by Polyakov several years ago. Our results show that this term scales as expected according to Polyakov’s solution, and becomes the dominant contribution to the effective string action in the continuum limit. We also demonstrate analytically that the corrections to the confining potential induced by the extrinsic curvature term can be related to the partition function of the massive perturbation of a c=1 bosonic conformal field theory. The implications of our results for SU(N) Yang-Mills theories in three and in four spacetime dimensions are discussed.
Distributed memory compiler methods for irregular problems: Data copy reuse and runtime partitioning
Das, Raja; Ponnusamy, Ravi; Saltz, Joel; Mavriplis, Dimitri
1991-01-01
Outlined here are two methods which we believe will play an important role in any distributed memory compiler able to handle sparse and unstructured problems. We describe how to link runtime partitioners to distributed memory compilers. In our scheme, programmers can implicitly specify how data and loop iterations are to be distributed between processors. This insulates users from having to deal explicitly with potentially complex algorithms that carry out work and data partitioning. We also describe a viable mechanism for tracking and reusing copies of off-processor data. In many programs, several loops access the same off-processor memory locations. As long as it can be verified that the values assigned to off-processor memory locations remain unmodified, we show that we can effectively reuse stored off-processor data. We present experimental data from a 3-D unstructured Euler solver run on iPSC/860 to demonstrate the usefulness of our methods.
Optimal Packed String Matching
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany
2011-01-01
In the packed string matching problem, each machine word accommodates – characters, thus an n-character text occupies n/– memory words. We extend the Crochemore-Perrin constantspace O(n)-time string matching algorithm to run in optimal O(n/–) time and even in real-time, achieving a factor – speedup...... over traditional algorithms that examine each character individually. Our solution can be efficiently implemented, unlike prior theoretical packed string matching work. We adapt the standard RAM model and only use its AC0 instructions (i.e., no multiplication) plus two specialized AC0 packed string...
Interpolating string field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zwiebach, B.
1992-01-01
This paper reports that a minimal area problem imposing different length conditions on open and closed curves is shown to define a one-parameter family of covariant open-closed quantum string field theories. These interpolate from a recently proposed factorizable open-closed theory up to an extended version of Witten's open string field theory capable of incorporating on shell closed strings. The string diagrams of the latter define a new decomposition of the moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces with punctures and boundaries based on quadratic differentials with both first order and second order poles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neveu, A.
1986-01-01
There exist several string models. In the first lecture, the simplest one, the open bosonic string, which turns out to live most naturally in 26 dimensions will be described in some detail. In the second lecture, the closed bosonic strings, and the open and closed 10-dimensional strings (superstrings) are reviewed. In the third lecture, various compactification schemes which have been proposed to deal with the extra space dimensions, from 4 to 10 or 26 are dealt with; in particular, the Frenkel-Kac construction which builds non-Abelian internal symmetry groups out of the compactified dimensions, and the resulting heterotic string are described. Finally, in the fourth lecture, the important problem of the second quantization of string theories, and of the underlying gauge invariance which is responsible for the possibility of dealing, in a consistent fashion, with interacting high-spin states without negative metric is addressed. 41 references, 8 figures
Boundary string field theory and an open string one-loop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Tae Jin; Viswanathan, K. S.; Yang, Yi
2003-01-01
We discuss the open string one-loop partition function in the tachyon condensation background of an unstable D-brane system. We evaluate the partition function by using the boundary-state formulation and find that it is in complete agreement with the result obtained in the boundary string field theory. This suggests that the open string higher loop diagrams may be produced consistently by using a closed string field theory, where the D-brane plays the role of a source for the closed string field
String matching with variable length gaps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel
2012-01-01
We consider string matching with variable length gaps. Given a string T and a pattern P consisting of strings separated by variable length gaps (arbitrary strings of length in a specified range), the problem is to find all ending positions of substrings in T that match P. This problem is a basic...
Compactified webs and domain wall partition functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shabbir, Khurram [Government College University, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)
2017-04-15
In this paper we use the topological vertex formalism to calculate a generalization of the ''domain wall'' partition function of M-strings. This generalization allows calculation of partition function of certain compactified webs using a simple gluing algorithm similar to M-strings case. (orig.)
A new memetic algorithm for mitigating tandem automated guided vehicle system partitioning problem
Pourrahimian, Parinaz
2017-11-01
Automated Guided Vehicle System (AGVS) provides the flexibility and automation demanded by Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS). However, with the growing concern on responsible management of resource use, it is crucial to manage these vehicles in an efficient way in order reduces travel time and controls conflicts and congestions. This paper presents the development process of a new Memetic Algorithm (MA) for optimizing partitioning problem of tandem AGVS. MAs employ a Genetic Algorithm (GA), as a global search, and apply a local search to bring the solutions to a local optimum point. A new Tabu Search (TS) has been developed and combined with a GA to refine the newly generated individuals by GA. The aim of the proposed algorithm is to minimize the maximum workload of the system. After all, the performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated using Matlab. This study also compared the objective function of the proposed MA with GA. The results showed that the TS, as a local search, significantly improves the objective function of the GA for different system sizes with large and small numbers of zone by 1.26 in average.
Number of generations in free fermionic string models
Giannakis, I; Yuan, K; Giannakis, Ioannis; Nanopoulos, D V; Yuan, Kajia
1995-01-01
In string theory there seems to be an intimate connection between spacetime and world-sheet physics. Following this line of thought we investigate the family problem in a particular class of string solutions, namely the free fermionic string models. We find that the number of generations N_g is related to the index of the supersymmetry generator of the underlying N=2 internal superconformal field theory which is always present in any N=1 spacetime supersymmetric string vacuum. We also derive a formula for the index and thus for the number of generations which is sensitive to the boundary condition assignments of the internal fermions and to certain coefficients which determine the weight with which each spin-structure of the model contributes to the one-loop partition function. Finally we apply our formula to several realistic string models in order to derive N_g and we verify our results by constructing explicitly the massless spectrum of these string models.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan Hongmo.
1987-10-01
The paper traces the development of the String Theory, and was presented at Professor Sir Rudolf Peierls' 80sup(th) Birthday Symposium. The String theory is discussed with respect to the interaction of strings, the inclusion of both gauge theory and gravitation, inconsistencies in the theory, and the role of space-time. The physical principles underlying string theory are also outlined. (U.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popov, A.D.
1991-01-01
We introduce hyperbolic strings as closed bosonic strings with the target space R d-1,1 xT q+1,1 which has an additional time-like dimension in the internal space. The Fock spaces of the q-parametric family of standard bosonic, fermionic and heterotic strings with the target spaces of dimension n≤d+q are shown to be embedded into the Fock space of hyperbolic strings. The condition of the absence of anomaly fixes d and q for all three types of strings written in a bosonized form. (orig.)
Video Analysis of a Plucked String: An Example of Problem-based Learning
Wentworth, Christopher D.; Buse, Eric
2009-11-01
Problem-based learning is a teaching methodology that grounds learning within the context of solving a real problem. Typically the problem initiates learning of concepts rather than simply being an application of the concept, and students take the lead in identifying what must be developed to solve the problem. Problem-based learning in upper-level physics courses can be challenging, because of the time and financial requirements necessary to generate real data. Here, we present a problem that motivates learning about partial differential equations and their solution in a mathematical methods for physics course. Students study a plucked elastic cord using high speed digital video. After creating video clips of the cord motion under different tensions they are asked to create a mathematical model. Ultimately, students develop and solve a model that includes damping effects that are clearly visible in the videos. The digital video files used in this project are available on the web at http://physics.doane.edu .
Chen, Wenbin; Hendrix, William; Samatova, Nagiza F
2017-12-01
The problem of aligning multiple metabolic pathways is one of very challenging problems in computational biology. A metabolic pathway consists of three types of entities: reactions, compounds, and enzymes. Based on similarities between enzymes, Tohsato et al. gave an algorithm for aligning multiple metabolic pathways. However, the algorithm given by Tohsato et al. neglects the similarities among reactions, compounds, enzymes, and pathway topology. How to design algorithms for the alignment problem of multiple metabolic pathways based on the similarity of reactions, compounds, and enzymes? It is a difficult computational problem. In this article, we propose an algorithm for the problem of aligning multiple metabolic pathways based on the similarities among reactions, compounds, enzymes, and pathway topology. First, we compute a weight between each pair of like entities in different input pathways based on the entities' similarity score and topological structure using Ay et al.'s methods. We then construct a weighted k-partite graph for the reactions, compounds, and enzymes. We extract a mapping between these entities by solving the maximum-weighted k-partite matching problem by applying a novel heuristic algorithm. By analyzing the alignment results of multiple pathways in different organisms, we show that the alignments found by our algorithm correctly identify common subnetworks among multiple pathways.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaku, M.
1987-01-01
In this article, the authors summarize the rapid progress in constructing string field theory actions, such as the development of the covariant BRST theory. They also present the newer geometric formulation of string field theory, from which the BRST theory and the older light cone theory can be derived from first principles. This geometric formulation allows us to derive the complete field theory of strings from two geometric principles, in the same way that general relativity and Yang-Mills theory can be derived from two principles based on global and local symmetry. The geometric formalism therefore reduces string field theory to a problem of finding an invariant under a new local gauge group they call the universal string group (USG). Thus, string field theory is the gauge theory of the universal string group in much the same way that Yang-Mills theory is the gauge theory of SU(N). The geometric formulation places superstring theory on the same rigorous group theoretical level as general relativity and gauge theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Iris, Cagatay; Pacino, Dario; Røpke, Stefan
2015-01-01
. To improve the performance of the set partitioning formulations, a number of variable reduction techniques are proposed. Furthermore, we analyze the effects of different discretization schemes and the impact of using a time-variant/invariant quay crane allocation policy. Computational experiments show...
Rossing, Thomas D.; Hanson, Roger J.
In the next eight chapters, we consider some aspects of the science of bowed string instruments, old and new. In this chapter, we present a brief discussion of bowed strings, a subject that will be developed much more thoroughly in Chap. 16. Chapters 13-15 discuss the violin, the cello, and the double bass. Chapter 17 discusses viols and other historic string instruments, and Chap. 18 discusses the Hutchins-Schelleng violin octet.
Fast Searching in Packed Strings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bille, Philip
2009-01-01
Given strings P and Q the (exact) string matching problem is to find all positions of substrings in Q matching P. The classical Knuth-Morris-Pratt algorithm [SIAM J. Comput., 1977] solves the string matching problem in linear time which is optimal if we can only read one character at the time....... However, most strings are stored in a computer in a packed representation with several characters in a single word, giving us the opportunity to read multiple characters simultaneously. In this paper we study the worst-case complexity of string matching on strings given in packed representation. Let m...... word-RAM with logarithmic word size we present an algorithm using time O(n/log(sigma) n + m + occ) Here occ is the number of occurrences of P in Q. For m = o(n) this improves the O(n) bound...
Architectures and representations for string transduction
Chrupala, Grzegorz
2015-01-01
String transduction problems are ubiquitous in natural language processing: they include transliteration, grapheme-to-phoneme conversion, text normalization and translation. String transduction can be reduced to the simpler problems of sequence labeling by expressing the target string as a sequence
String theory compactifications
Graña, Mariana
2017-01-01
The lectures in this book provide graduate students and non-specialist researchers with a concise introduction to the concepts and formalism required to reduce the ten-dimensional string theories to the observable four-dimensional space-time - a procedure called string compactification. The text starts with a very brief introduction to string theory, first working out its massless spectrum and showing how the condition on the number of dimensions arises. It then dwells on the different possible internal manifolds, from the simplest to the most relevant phenomenologically, thereby showing that the most elegant description is through an extension of ordinary Riemannian geometry termed generalized geometry, which was first introduced by Hitchin. Last but not least, the authors review open problems in string phenomenology, such as the embedding of the Standard Model and obtaining de Sitter solutions.
Sigma models and renormalization of string loops
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tseytlin, A.A.
1989-05-01
An extension of the ''σ-model β-functions - string equations of motion'' correspondence to the string loop level is discussed. Special emphasis is made on how the renormalization group acts in string loops and, in particular, on the renormalizability property of the generating functional Z-circumflex for string amplitudes (related to the σ model partition function integrated over moduli). Renormalization of Z-circumflex at one and two loop order is analyzed in some detail. We also discuss an approach to renormalization based on operators of insertion of topological fixtures. (author). 70 refs
On exceptional instanton strings
Del Zotto, Michele; Lockhart, Guglielmo
2017-09-01
According to a recent classification of 6d (1 , 0) theories within F-theory there are only six "pure" 6d gauge theories which have a UV superconformal fixed point. The corresponding gauge groups are SU(3) , SO(8) , F 4 , E 6 , E 7, and E 8. These exceptional models have BPS strings which are also instantons for the corresponding gauge groups. For G simply-laced, we determine the 2d N=(0,4) worldsheet theories of such BPS instanton strings by a simple geometric engineering argument. These are given by a twisted S 2 compactification of the 4d N=2 theories of type H 2 , D 4 , E 6 , E 7 and E 8 (and their higher rank generalizations), where the 6d instanton number is mapped to the rank of the corresponding 4d SCFT. This determines their anomaly polynomials and, via topological strings, establishes an interesting relation among the corresponding T 2 × S 2 partition functions and the Hilbert series for moduli spaces of G instantons. Such relations allow to bootstrap the corresponding elliptic genera by modularity. As an example of such procedure, the elliptic genera for a single instanton string are determined. The same method also fixes the elliptic genus for case of one F 4 instanton. These results unveil a rather surprising relation with the Schur index of the corresponding 4d N=2 models.
Cosmological Quantum String Vacua and String-String Duality
Rey, Soo-Jong
1996-01-01
Implications of string-string dualities to cosmological string vacua are discussed. Cosmological vacua of classical string theories comprise of disjoint classses mapped one another by scale-factor T-duality. Each classes are, however, afflicted with initial/final cosmological singularities. It is argued that quantum string theories and string-string dualities dramatically resolve these cosmological singularities out so that disjoint classical cosmological vacua are continuously connected in a...
Splitting strings on integrable backgrounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vicedo, Benoit
2011-05-01
We use integrability to construct the general classical splitting string solution on R x S 3 . Namely, given any incoming string solution satisfying a necessary self-intersection property at some given instant in time, we use the integrability of the worldsheet σ-model to construct the pair of outgoing strings resulting from a split. The solution for each outgoing string is expressed recursively through a sequence of dressing transformations, the parameters of which are determined by the solutions to Birkhoff factorization problems in an appropriate real form of the loop group of SL 2 (C). (orig.)
Quantum backreaction in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evnin, O.
2012-01-01
There are situations in string theory when a finite number of string quanta induce a significant backreaction upon the background and render the perturbation theory infrared-divergent. The simplest example is D0-brane recoil under an impact by closed strings. A more physically interesting case is backreaction on the evolution of a totally compact universe due to closed string gas. Such situations necessitate qualitative amendments to the traditional formulation of string theory in a fixed classical background. In this contribution to the proceedings of the XVII European Workshop on String Theory in Padua, I review solved problems and current investigations in relation to this kind of quantum backreaction effects. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
String duality and novel theories without gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kachru, Shamit
1998-01-01
We describe some of the novel 6d quantum field theories which have been discovered in studies of string duality. The role these theories (and their 4d descendants) may play in alleviating the vacuum degeneracy problem in string theory is reviewed. The DLCQ of these field theories is presented as one concrete way of formulating them, independent of string theory
The issue of supersymmetry breaking in strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Binetruy, P.
1989-12-01
We discuss the central role that supersymmetry plays in string models, both in spacetime and at the level of the string world-sheet. The problems associated with supersymmetry-breaking are reviewed together with some of the attempts to solve them, in the string as well as the field theory approach
String loop divergences and effective lagrangians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fischler, W.; Klebanov, I.; Susskind, L.
1988-01-01
We isolate logarithmic divergences from bosonic string amplitudes on a disc. These divergences are compared with 'tadpole' divergences in the effective field theory, with a covariant cosmological term implied by the counting of string coupling constants. We find an inconsistency between the two. This might be a problem in eliminating divergences from the bosonic string. (orig.)
Test particle trajectories near cosmic strings
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Gauge strings have their energy concentrated in a very thin tube, the radius of which is of the order of the symmetry- breaking scale whereas the global strings are such that their energy extends to regions far beyond the central core. Strings have an important astrophysical consequence, namely, the double quasar problem ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaves, Max
2006-01-01
The conception of the magnetic string is presented as an infinitely thin bundle of magnetic flux lines. The magnetic strings are surrounded by a film of current that rotates around them, and are a solution of Maxwell's equations. The magnetic potential contains a line singularity, and its stability can be established topologically. A few comments are added on the possibility that they may exist at a cosmological scale as relics of the Big Bang. (author) [es
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thorn, C.B.
1988-01-01
The possibility of studying non-perturbative effects in string theory using a world sheet lattice is discussed. The light-cone lattice string model of Giles and Thorn is studied numerically to assess the accuracy of ''coarse lattice'' approximations. For free strings a 5 by 15 lattice seems sufficient to obtain better than 10% accuracy for the bosonic string tachyon mass squared. In addition a crude lattice model simulating string like interactions is studied to find out how easily a coarse lattice calculation can pick out effects such as bound states which would qualitatively alter the spectrum of the free theory. The role of the critical dimension in obtaining a finite continuum limit is discussed. Instead of the ''gaussian'' lattice model one could use one of the vertex models, whose continuum limit is the same as a gaussian model on a torus of any radius. Indeed, any critical 2 dimensional statistical system will have a stringy continuum limit in the absence of string interactions. 8 refs., 1 fig. , 9 tabs
Stringy instanton counting and topological strings
Manabe, Masahide
2015-07-01
We study the stringy instanton partition function of four dimensional U( N) supersymmetric gauge theory which was obtained by Bonelli et al. in 2013. In type IIB string theory on , the stringy U( N) instantons of charge k are described by k D1-branes wrapping around the bound to N D5-branes on . The KK corrections induced by compactification of the give the stringy corrections. We find a relation between the stringy instanton partition function whose quantum stringy corrections have been removed and the K-theoretic instanton partition function, or by geometric engineering, the refined topological A-model partition function on a local toric Calabi-Yau threefold. We also study the quantum stringy corrections in the stringy instanton partition function which is not captured by the refined topological strings.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morais, Sebastien
2016-01-01
In many scientific areas, the size and the complexity of numerical simulations lead to make intensive use of massively parallel runs on High Performance Computing (HPC) architectures. Such computers consist in a set of processing units (PU) where memory is distributed. Distribution of simulation data is therefore crucial: it has to minimize the computation time of the simulation while ensuring that the data allocated to every PU can be locally stored in memory. For most of the numerical simulations, the physical and numerical data are based on a mesh. The computations are then performed at the cell level (for example within triangles and quadrilaterals in 2D, or within tetrahedrons and hexahedrons in 3D). More specifically, computing and memory cost can be associated to each cell. In our context, where the mathematical methods used are finite elements or finite volumes, the realization of the computations associated with a cell may require information carried by neighboring cells. The standard implementation relies to locally store useful data of this neighborhood on the PU, even if cells of this neighborhood are not locally computed. Such non computed but stored cells are called ghost cells, and can have a significant impact on the memory consumption of a PU. The problem to solve is thus not only to partition a mesh on several parts by affecting each cell to one and only one part while minimizing the computational load assigned to each part. It is also necessary to keep into account that the memory load of both the cells where the computations are performed and their neighbors has to fit into PU memory. This leads to partition the computations while the mesh is distributed with overlaps. Explicitly taking these data overlaps into account is the problem that we propose to study. (author) [fr
Quantum background independence in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Witten, E.
1994-01-01
Not only in physical string theories, but also in some highly simplified situations, background independence has been difficult to understand. It is argued that the ''holomorphic anomaly'' of Bershadsky, Cecotti, Ooguri and Vafa gives a fundamental explanation of some of the problems. Moreover, their anomaly equation can be interpreted in terms of a rather peculiar quantum version of background independence: in systems afflicted by the anomaly, background independence does not hold order by order in perturbation theory, but the exact partition function as a function of the coupling constants has a background independent interpretation as a state in an auxiliary quantum Hilbert space. The significance of this auxiliary space is otherwise unknown. (author). 23 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Engquist, J. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University (Netherlands); Sundell, P. [INFN, Pisa (Italy); Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); Tamassia, L. [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)
2007-05-15
The group theoretical structure underlying physics in anti de Sitter (AdS) spacetime is intrinsically different with respect to the flat case, due to the presence of special ultra-short representations, named singletons, that do not admit a flat space limit. The purpose of this collaboration is to exploit this feature in the study of string and brane dynamics in AdS spacetime, in particular while trying to establish a connection between String Theory in AdS backgrounds (in the tensionless limit) and Higher-Spin Gauge Theory. (orig.)
Analyzing the Responses of 7-8 Year Olds When Solving Partitioning Problems
Badillo, Edelmira; Font, Vicenç; Edo, Mequè
2015-01-01
We analyze the mathematical solutions of 7- to 8-year-old pupils while individually solving an arithmetic problem. The analysis was based on the "configuration of objects," an instrument derived from the onto-semiotic approach to mathematical knowledge. Results are illustrated through a number of cases. From the analysis of mathematical…
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.
Intended primarily for use by instrumental music teachers who do not have a major concentration in strings, this guide provides pertinent basic resources, materials, teaching--learning expectation, and a general overall guide to achievement levels at various stages of development. Discussions are presented of Choosing the Proper Method Book,…
Ibáñez, Luis E
2015-01-01
This chapter reviews a number of topics in the field of string phenomenology, focusing on orientifold/F-theory models yielding semirealistic low-energy physics. The emphasis is on the extraction of the low-energy effective action and possible tests of specific models at the LHC.
Deterministic indexing for packed strings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye
2017-01-01
Given a string S of length n, the classic string indexing problem is to preprocess S into a compact data structure that supports efficient subsequent pattern queries. In the deterministic variant the goal is to solve the string indexing problem without any randomization (at preprocessing time...... or query time). In the packed variant the strings are stored with several character in a single word, giving us the opportunity to read multiple characters simultaneously. Our main result is a new string index in the deterministic and packed setting. Given a packed string S of length n over an alphabet σ......, we show how to preprocess S in O(n) (deterministic) time and space O(n) such that given a packed pattern string of length m we can support queries in (deterministic) time O (m/α + log m + log log σ), where α = w/log σ is the number of characters packed in a word of size w = θ(log n). Our query time...
Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Schwarz, John H.
String theory is one of the most exciting and challenging areas of modern theoretical physics. This book guides the reader from the basics of string theory to recent developments. It introduces the basics of perturbative string theory, world-sheet supersymmetry, space-time supersymmetry, conformal field theory and the heterotic string, before describing modern developments, including D-branes, string dualities and M-theory. It then covers string geometry and flux compactifications, applications to cosmology and particle physics, black holes in string theory and M-theory, and the microscopic origin of black-hole entropy. It concludes with Matrix theory, the AdS/CFT duality and its generalizations. This book is ideal for graduate students and researchers in modern string theory, and will make an excellent textbook for a one-year course on string theory. It contains over 120 exercises with solutions, and over 200 homework problems with solutions available on a password protected website for lecturers at www.cambridge.org/9780521860697. Comprehensive coverage of topics from basics of string theory to recent developments Ideal textbook for a one-year course in string theory Includes over 100 exercises with solutions Contains over 200 homework problems with solutions available to lecturers on-line
Strings draw theorists together
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, Michael
2000-01-01
Theorists are confident that they are closer than ever to finding a quantum theory that unites gravity with the three other fundamental forces in nature. Many of the leading figures in the world of string theory met at the California Institute of Technology in January to discuss recent progress in the field and to reflect on the state of the theory. The enthusiastic mood of the gathering was based on the fact that string theory provides an elegant framework for a unified theory of all the forces and particles in nature, and also gives a consistent quantum-mechanical description of general relativity. String theory, and more precisely superstring theory, describes the assortment of elementary particles such as quarks and leptons, and the gauge bosons responsible for mediating forces in a unified manner as different modes of vibration of a single extended string. This version of the theory also embodies supersymmetry a conjectured symmetry that unifies fermions and bosons. Furthermore, the fact that the string has a fundamental length scale - the ''string length'' - apparently cures the short-distance problems of uniting general relativity with quantum theory. The main problem with the early formulations of superstring theory was that they emphasized the ''perturbative'' point of view, an approximation that describes string-like quantum-mechanical particles moving through classical (that is non quantum-mechanical) space-time. However, very general arguments require that any quantum theory of gravity should also describe space-time geometry in a quantum-mechanical manner. The classical geometry of space-time should then emerge as an approximate description at distance scales much larger than the so-called Planck scale of 10 -33 m. This requires an understanding of the theory beyond the perturbative approximation. It is the quest for this more fundamental description of string theory that has provided the main challenge for string theorists over the past decade. Much
Parameterized String Matching Algorithms with Application to ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In the parameterized string matching problem, a given pattern P is said to match with a sub-string t of the text T, if there exist a bijection from the symbols of P to the symbols of t. Salmela and Tarhio solve the parameterized string matching problem in sub-linear time by applying the concept of q-gram in the Horspool algorithm ...
De Hoop, A.T.; Abubakar, A.; Habashy, T.M.
2009-01-01
The contrast-source stress-velocity integral-equation formulation of three-dimensional time-domain elastodynamic scattering problems is discussed. A novel feature of the formulation is a tensor partitioning of the relevant dynamic stress and the contrast source volume density of deformation rate.
Refined topological strings on local ℙ2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iqbal, Amer; Kozçaz, Can
2017-01-01
We calculate the refined topological string partition function of the Calabi-Yau threefold which is the total space of the canonical bundle on ℙ 2 (the local ℙ 2 ). The refined topological vertex formalism can not be directly applied to local ℙ 2 therefore we use the properties of the refined Hopf link to define a new two legged vertex which together with the refined vertex gives the partition function of the local ℙ 2 .
Conformal techniques in string theory and string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giddings, S.B.
1987-01-01
The application of some conformal and Riemann surface techniques to string theory and string field theory is described. First a brief review of Riemann surface techniques and of the Polyakov approach to string theory is presented. This is followed by a discussion of some features of string field theory and of its Feynman rules. Specifically, it is shown that the Feynman diagrams for Witten's string field theory respect modular invariance, and in particular give a triangulation of moduli space. The Polyakov formalism is then used to derive the Feynman rules that should follow from this theory upon gauge-fixing. It should also be possible to apply this derivation to deduce the Feynman rules for other gauge-fixed string field theories. Following this, Riemann surface techniques are turned to the problem of proving the equivalence of the Polyakov and light-cone formalisms. It is first shown that the light-cone diagrams triangulate moduli space. Then the Polyakov measure is worked out for these diagrams, and shown to equal that deduced from the light-cone gauge fixed formalism. Also presented is a short description of the comparison of physical states in the two formalisms. The equivalence of the two formalisms in particular constitutes a proof of the unitarity of the Polyakov framework for the closed bosonic string
On the placement of a number of strings in a cllection of hats ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The following problem is considered in this paper: Suppose k strings of unit length are to be distributed amongst x hats. If cuts in the strings are allowed, how should the string (parts) be distributed amongst the hats so that, if the shortest string is removed from each hat, the remaining (combined) string length in the hat with ...
Hoover, Todd F.
2010-01-01
The "Magic" String is a discrepant event that includes a canister with what appears to be the end of two strings protruding from opposite sides of it. Due to the way the strings are attached inside the canister, it appears as if the strings can magically switch the way they are connected. When one string end is pulled, the observer's expectation…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Svrcek, Peter; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC; Witten, Edward; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study
2006-06-09
In the context of string theory, axions appear to provide the most plausible solution of the strong CP problem. However, as has been known for a long time, in many string-based models, the axion coupling parameter Fa is several orders of magnitude higher than the standard cosmological bounds. We re-examine this problem in a variety of models, showing that Fa is close to the GUT scale or above in many models that have GUT-like phenomenology, as well as some that do not. On the other hand, in some models with Standard Model gauge fields supported on vanishing cycles, it is possible for Fa to be well below the GUT scale.
The volume conjecture and topological strings
Dijkgraaf, R.; Fuji, H.
2009-01-01
In this paper, we discuss a relation between Jones-Witten theory of knot invariants and topological open string theory on the basis of the volume conjecture. We find a similar Hamiltonian structure for both theories, and interpret the AJ conjecture as the D-module structure for a D-brane partition
Kim, Joonho; Kim, Seok; Lee, Kimyeong; Park, Jaemo; Vafa, Cumrun
2017-09-01
We study a family of 2d N=(0, 4) gauge theories which describes at low energy the dynamics of E-strings, the M2-branes suspended between a pair of M5 and M9 branes. The gauge theory is engineered using a duality with type IIA theory, leading to the D2-branes suspended between an NS5-brane and 8 D8-branes on an O8-plane. We compute the elliptic genus of this family of theories, and find agreement with the known results for single and two E-strings. The partition function can in principle be computed for arbitrary number of E-strings, and we compute them explicitly for low numbers. We test our predictions against the partially known results from topological strings, as well as from the instanton calculus of 5d Sp(1) gauge theory. Given the relation to topological strings, our computation provides the all genus partition function of the refined topological strings on the canonical bundle over 1/2K3.
Compressed and Practical Data Structures for Strings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Anders Roy
in the following. Finger Search in Grammar-Compressed Strings. Grammar-based compression, where one replaces a long string by a small context-free grammar that generates the string, is a simple and powerful paradigm that captures many popular compression schemes. Given a grammar, the random access problem...... string. We present new data structures that achieve optimal time for updates and queries while using space linear in the size of the optimal relative compression, for nearly all combinations of parameters. We also present solutions for restricted and extended sets of updates. To achieve these results, we...... revisit the dynamic partial sums problem and the substring concatenation problem. We present new optimal or near optimal bounds for these problems. Plugging in our new results we also immediately obtain new bounds for the string indexing for patterns with wildcards problem and the dynamic text and static...
Hadronic density of states from string theory.
Pando Zayas, Leopoldo A; Vaman, Diana
2003-09-12
We present an exact calculation of the finite temperature partition function for the hadronic states corresponding to a Penrose-Güven limit of the Maldacena-Nùñez embedding of the N=1 super Yang-Mills (SYM) into string theory. It is established that the theory exhibits a Hagedorn density of states. We propose a semiclassical string approximation to the finite temperature partition function for confining gauge theories admitting a supergravity dual, by performing an expansion around classical solutions characterized by temporal windings. This semiclassical approximation reveals a hadronic energy density of states of a Hagedorn type, with the coefficient determined by the gauge theory string tension as expected for confining theories. We argue that our proposal captures primarily information about states of pure N=1 SYM theory, given that this semiclassical approximation does not entail a projection onto states of large U(1) charge.
Brandenberger, Robert H.
2008-01-01
String gas cosmology is a string theory-based approach to early universe cosmology which is based on making use of robust features of string theory such as the existence of new states and new symmetries. A first goal of string gas cosmology is to understand how string theory can effect the earliest moments of cosmology before the effective field theory approach which underlies standard and inflationary cosmology becomes valid. String gas cosmology may also provide an alternative to the curren...
String moduli inflation. An overview
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cicoli, Michele; Quevedo, Fernando
2011-06-01
We present an overview of inflationary models derived from string theory focusing mostly on closed string moduli as inflatons. After a detailed discussion of the η-problem and different approaches to address it, we describe possible ways to obtain a de Sitter vacuum with all closed string moduli stabilised. We then look for inflationary directions and present some of the most promising scenarios where the inflatons are either the real or the imaginary part of Kaehler moduli. We pay particular attention on extracting potential observable implications, showing how most of the scenarios predict negligible gravitational waves and could therefore be ruled out by the Planck satellite. We conclude by briefly mentioning some open challenges in string cosmology beyond deriving just inflation. (orig.)
String theory or field theory?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marshakov, A.V.
2002-01-01
The status of string theory is reviewed, and major recent developments - especially those in going beyond perturbation theory in the string theory and quantum field theory frameworks - are analyzed. This analysis helps better understand the role and place of experimental phenomena, it is emphasized that there are some insurmountable problems inherent in it - notably the impossibility to formulate the quantum theory of gravity on its basis - which prevent it from being a fundamental physical theory of the world of microscopic distances. It is this task, the creation of such a theory, which string theory, currently far from completion, is expected to solve. In spite of its somewhat vague current form, string theory has already led to a number of serious results and greatly contributed to progress in the understanding of quantum field theory. It is these developments, which are our concern in this review [ru
Fast searching in packed strings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bille, Philip
2011-01-01
Given strings P and Q the (exact) string matching problem is to find all positions of substrings in Q matching P. The classical Knuth–Morris–Pratt algorithm [SIAM J. Comput. 6 (2) (1977) 323–350] solves the string matching problem in linear time which is optimal if we can only read one character...... at the time. However, most strings are stored in a computer in a packed representation with several characters in a single word, giving us the opportunity to read multiple characters simultaneously. In this paper we study the worst-case complexity of string matching on strings given in packed representation....... Let m⩽n be the lengths P and Q, respectively, and let σ denote the size of the alphabet. On a standard unit-cost word-RAM with logarithmic word size we present an algorithm using timeO(nlogσn+m+occ). Here occ is the number of occurrences of P in Q. For m=o(n) this improves the O(n) bound of the Knuth...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strominger, A.
1987-01-01
A gauge invariant cubic action describing bosonic closed string field theory is constructed. The gauge symmetries include local spacetime diffeomorphisms. The conventional closed string spectrum and trilinear couplings are reproduced after spontaneous symmetry breaking. The action S is constructed from the usual ''open string'' field of ghost number minus one half. It is given by the associator of the string field product which is non-vanishing because of associativity anomalies. S does not describe open string propagation because open string states associate and can thereby be shifted away. A field theory of closed and open strings can be obtained by adding to S the cubic open string action. (orig.)
Diaz, Victor Alfonzo; Giusti, Andrea
2018-03-01
The aim of this paper is to present a simple generalization of bosonic string theory in the framework of the theory of fractional variational problems. Specifically, we present a fractional extension of the Polyakov action, for which we compute the general form of the equations of motion and discuss the connection between the new fractional action and a generalization the Nambu-Goto action. Consequently, we analyze the symmetries of the modified Polyakov action and try to fix the gauge, following the classical procedures. Then we solve the equations of motion in a simplified setting. Finally, we present a Hamiltonian description of the classical fractional bosonic string and introduce the fractional light-cone gauge. It is important to remark that, throughout the whole paper, we thoroughly discuss how to recover the known results as an "integer" limit of the presented model.
ABCD of Beta Ensembles and Topological Strings
Krefl, Daniel
2012-01-01
We study beta-ensembles with Bn, Cn, and Dn eigenvalue measure and their relation with refined topological strings. Our results generalize the familiar connections between local topological strings and matrix models leading to An measure, and illustrate that all those classical eigenvalue ensembles, and their topological string counterparts, are related one to another via various deformations and specializations, quantum shifts and discrete quotients. We review the solution of the Gaussian models via Macdonald identities, and interpret them as conifold theories. The interpolation between the various models is plainly apparent in this case. For general polynomial potential, we calculate the partition function in the multi-cut phase in a perturbative fashion, beyond tree-level in the large-N limit. The relation to refined topological string orientifolds on the corresponding local geometry is discussed along the way.
From cosmic string to superconducting string
Kim, H C; Lee, B K
1999-01-01
We consider the dynamical symmetry breaking of a chirally-invariant Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in the background gravity of a local cosmic string. By analyzing the one-loop effective action, we show how a cosmic string at a very high energy scale forms a global superconducting string to the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking at a low energy.
The status and future prospects of string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, D.J.
1990-01-01
After a general introduction to the description of the fundamental forces by gauge theories and the difficulties occurring in the attemps of unifying these theories with gravity the reasons for the introduction of string theory are explained. After a description of the construction of a string theory the string theory of gravity is considered. Then the problems of string theory are described. Thereafter elastic scattering in string theory at energies comparable with the Planck mass is considered. Finally some prospects for string theory are discussed. (HSI)
Cosmological problems of the string axion alleviated by high scale SUSY of m3/2≃10–100 TeV
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masahiro Kawasaki
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The string axion may provide the most attractive solution to the strong CP problem in QCD. However, the axion energy density easily exceeds the dark matter density in the present universe due to a large decay constant around 1016 GeV, unless the initial value of the axion field is finely tuned. We show that this problem is alleviated if and only if the SUSY particle mass scale is 10–100 TeV, since the decay of the saxion can produce a large enough amount of entropy after the QCD phase transition, not disturbing the BBN prediction. The saxion decay also produces a large number of the lightest SUSY particles (LSPs. As a consequence, R-parity needs to be violated to avoid the overproduction of the LSPs. The saxion field can be stabilized with relatively simple Kähler potentials, not inducing a too large axion dark radiation. Despite the large entropy production, the observed baryon number is explained by the Affleck–Dine mechanism. Furthermore, the constraint from isocurvature perturbations is relaxed, and the Hubble constant during inflation can be as large as several ×1010 GeV.
Evidence for string substructure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergman, O.
1996-06-01
The author argues that the behavior of string theory at high temperature and high longitudinal boosts, combined with the emergence of p-branes as necessary ingredients in various string dualities, point to a possible reformulation of strings, as well as p-branes, as composites of bits. He reviews the string-bit models, and suggests generalizations to incorporate p-branes
Fingerprints in Compressed Strings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge; Gørtz, Inge Li
2013-01-01
The Karp-Rabin fingerprint of a string is a type of hash value that due to its strong properties has been used in many string algorithms. In this paper we show how to construct a data structure for a string S of size N compressed by a context-free grammar of size n that answers fingerprint queries....... That is, given indices i and j, the answer to a query is the fingerprint of the substring S[i,j]. We present the first O(n) space data structures that answer fingerprint queries without decompressing any characters. For Straight Line Programs (SLP) we get O(logN) query time, and for Linear SLPs (an SLP...... derivative that captures LZ78 compression and its variations) we get O(loglogN) query time. Hence, our data structures has the same time and space complexity as for random access in SLPs. We utilize the fingerprint data structures to solve the longest common extension problem in query time O(logNlogℓ) and O...
EFFECTIVE ACTIONS FOR HETEROTIC STRING THEORY
SUELMANN, H
Heterotic String Theory is an attempt to construct a description of nature that is more satisfying than the Standard Model. A major problem is that it is very difficult to do explicit calculations in string theory. Therefore, it is useful to construct a 'normal' field theory that approximates HST.
Partition functions for supersymmetric black holes
Manschot, Jan
2008-01-01
This dissertation presents recent discoveries on partition functions for four-dimensional supersymmetric black holes. These partition functions are important tools to explain the entropy of black holes from a microscopic point of view within string theory and M-theory. The results are applied to two central research topics in modern theoretical physics, namely (1) the correspondence between the physics (including gravity) within an Anti-de Sitter space and conformal field theory, and (2) the relation between black holes and topological strings.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Suliman, Ridhwaan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A fully-coupled partitioned finite volume–finite volume and hybrid finite volume–finite element fluid-structure interaction scheme is presented. The fluid domain is modelled as a viscous incompressible isothermal region governed by the Navier...
Towards optimal packed string matching
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany
2014-01-01
In the packed string matching problem, it is assumed that each machine word can accommodate up to α characters, thus an n-character string occupies n/α memory words.(a) We extend the Crochemore–Perrin constant-space O(n)-time string-matching algorithm to run in optimal O(n/α) time and even in real......-time, achieving a factor α speedup over traditional algorithms that examine each character individually. Our macro-level algorithm only uses the standard AC0 instructions of the word-RAM model (i.e. no integer multiplication) plus two specialized micro-level AC0 word-size packed-string instructions. The main word...... matching work.(b) We also consider the complexity of the packed string matching problem in the classical word-RAM model in the absence of the specialized micro-level instructions wssm and wslm. We propose micro-level algorithms for the theoretically efficient emulation using parallel algorithms techniques...
String theory or field theory?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marshakov, Andrei V
2002-01-01
The status of string theory is reviewed, and major recent developments - especially those in going beyond perturbation theory in the string theory and quantum field theory frameworks - are analyzed. This analysis helps better understand the role and place of string theory in the modern picture of the physical world. Even though quantum field theory describes a wide range of experimental phenomena, it is emphasized that there are some insurmountable problems inherent in it - notably the impossibility to formulate the quantum theory of gravity on its basis - which prevent it from being a fundamental physical theory of the world of microscopic distances. It is this task, the creation of such a theory, which string theory, currently far from completion, is expected to solve. In spite of its somewhat vague current form, string theory has already led to a number of serious results and greatly contributed to progress in the understanding of quantum field theory. It is these developments which are our concern in this review. (reviews of topical problems)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, D.J.
1986-01-01
Traditional string theories, either bosonic or supersymmetric, came in two varieties, closed string theories and open string theories. Closed string are neutral objects which describe at low energies gravity or supergravity. Open strings have geometrically invariant ends to which charge can be attached, thereby obtaining, in addition to gravity, Yang-Mills gauge interactions. Recently a new kind of string theory was discovered--the heterotic string, which is a chiral hybrid of the closed superstring and the closed bosonic string, and which produces by an internal dynamical mechanism gauge interactions of a totally specified kind. Although this theory is found in an attempt to produce a superstring theory which would yield a low energy E/sub 8/xE/sub 8/ supersymmetric, anomaly free, gauge theory, as suggested by the anomaly cancellation mechanism of Green and Schwarz, it fits naturally into the general framework of consistent string theories
The spectral problem for strings on twisted AdS{sub 5} Multiplication-Sign S{sup 5}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leeuw, Marius de, E-mail: deleeuwm@phys.ethz.ch [ETH Zuerich, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); van Tongeren, Stijn J., E-mail: s.j.vantongeren@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)
2012-07-21
We discuss the spectral problem for integrable superstrings on generically twisted AdS{sub 5} Multiplication-Sign S{sup 5}, meaning all its orbifolds and TsT transformed versions. We explicitly give the asymptotic description of these theories through a twisted transfer matrix, and carefully match the geometric deformations with twists allowed by integrability. We then discuss the mirror TBA equations that describe these theories at finite size. This unifies the treatment of various specific deformations previously considered in this setting, and extends it to completely general twists.
Closed String Amplitudes from Gauge Fixed String Field Theory
Drukker, Nadav
2002-01-01
Closed string diagrams are derived from cubic open string field theory using a gauge fixed kinetic operator. The basic idea is to use a string propagator that does not generate a boundary to the world sheet. Using this propagator and the closed string vertex, the moduli space of closed string surfaces is covered, so closed string scattering amplitudes should be reproduced. This kinetic operator could be a gauge fixed form of the string field theory action around the closed string vacuum.
Face recognition using ensemble string matching.
Chen, Weiping; Gao, Yongsheng
2013-12-01
In this paper, we present a syntactic string matching approach to solve the frontal face recognition problem. String matching is a powerful partial matching technique, but is not suitable for frontal face recognition due to its requirement of globally sequential representation and the complex nature of human faces, containing discontinuous and non-sequential features. Here, we build a compact syntactic Stringface representation, which is an ensemble of strings. A novel ensemble string matching approach that can perform non-sequential string matching between two Stringfaces is proposed. It is invariant to the sequential order of strings and the direction of each string. The embedded partial matching mechanism enables our method to automatically use every piece of non-occluded region, regardless of shape, in the recognition process. The encouraging results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using syntactic methods for face recognition from a single exemplar image per person, breaking the barrier that prevents string matching techniques from being used for addressing complex image recognition problems. The proposed method not only achieved significantly better performance in recognizing partially occluded faces, but also showed its ability to perform direct matching between sketch faces and photo faces.
Quantum Inhomogeneities in String Cosmology
Buonanno, A; Ungarelli, C; Veneziano, Gabriele
1998-01-01
Within two specific string cosmology scenarios --differing in the way the pre- and post-big bang phases are joined-- we compute the size and spectral slope of various types of cosmologically amplified quantum fluctuations that arise in generic compactifications of heterotic string theory. By further imposing that these perturbations become the dominant source of energy at the onset of the radiation era, we obtain physical bounds on the background's moduli, and discuss the conditions under which both a (quasi-) scale-invariant spectrum of axionic perturbations and sufficiently large seeds for the galactic magnetic fields are generated. We also point out a potential problem with achieving the exit to the radiation era when the string coupling is near its present value.
Relativistic classical strings. II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galvao, C.A.P.
1985-01-01
The interactions of strings with electromagnetic and gravitational fields are extensively discussed. Some concepts of differential geometry are reviewed. Strings in Kaluza-Klein manifolds are studied. (L.C.) [pt
Stringy instanton counting and topological strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Manabe, Masahide [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)
2015-07-20
We study the stringy instanton partition function of four dimensional N=2U(N) supersymmetric gauge theory which was obtained by Bonelli et al. in 2013. In type IIB string theory on ℂ{sup 2}×T{sup ∗}ℙ{sup 1}×ℂ, the stringy U(N) instantons of charge k are described by k D1-branes wrapping around the ℙ{sup 1} bound to N D5-branes on ℂ{sup 2}×ℙ{sup 1}. The KK corrections induced by compactification of the ℙ{sup 1} give the stringy corrections. We find a relation between the stringy instanton partition function whose quantum stringy corrections have been removed and the K-theoretic instanton partition function, or by geometric engineering, the refined topological A-model partition function on a local toric Calabi-Yau threefold. We also study the quantum stringy corrections in the stringy instanton partition function which is not captured by the refined topological strings.
Bhattacharyya, S.; Donahoe, R. J.; Graham, E. Y.
2006-12-01
For much of the U.S., coal-fired power plants are the most important source of electricity for domestic and industrial use. Large quantities of fly ash and other coal combustion by-products are produced every year, the majority of which is impounded in lagoons and landfills located throughout the country. Many older fly ash disposal facilities are unlined and have been closed for decades. Fly ash often contains high concentrations of toxic trace elements such as arsenic, boron, chromium, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, lead, strontium and vanadium. Trace elements present in coal fly ash are of potential concern due to their toxicity, high mobility in the environment and low drinking water MCL values. Concern about the potential release of these toxic elements into the environment due to leaching of fly ash by acid rain, groundwater or acid mine drainage has prompted the EPA to develop national standards under the subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to regulate ash disposal in landfills and surface impoundments. An attempt is made to predict the leaching of toxic elements into the environment by studying trace element partitioning in coal fly ash. A seven step sequential chemical extraction procedure (SCEP) modified from Filgueiras et al. (2002) is used to determine the trace element partitioning in seven coal fly ash samples collected directly from electric power plants. Five fly ash samples were derived from Eastern Bituminous coal, one derived from Western Sub-bituminous coal and the other derived from Northern Lignite. The sequential chemical extraction procedure gives valuable information on the association of trace elements: 1) soluble fraction, 2) exchangeable fraction, 3) acid soluble fraction, 4) easily reducible fraction, 5) moderately reducible fraction, 6) poorly reducible fraction and 7) oxidizable organics/sulfide fraction. The trace element partitioning varies with the composition of coal fly ash which is influenced by the
2015-10-01
UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 689 Technical Report ARWSE-TR-14026 STD ::STRING APPEND Tom Nealis...DATES COVERED (From – To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE STD ::STRING APPEND 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...two or more strings together while developing a C++ application is a very common task. For std ::strings, there are two primary ways to achieve the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chudnovsky, E.; Vilenkin, A.
1988-01-01
If light superconducting strings were formed in the early Universe, then it is very likely that now they exist in abundance in the interstellar plasma and in stars. The dynamics of such strings can be dominated by friction, so that they are ''frozen'' into the plasma. Turbulence of the plasma twists and stretches the strings, forming a stochastic string network. Such networks must generate particles and magnetic fields, and may play an important role in the physics of stars and of the Galaxy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barendregt, Wolmet; Börjesson, Peter; Eriksson, Eva
2017-01-01
In this paper, we present the forced collaborative interaction game StringForce. StringForce is developed for a special education context to support training of collaboration skills, using readily available technologies and avoiding the creation of a "mobile bubble". In order to play StringForce ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cardona, Biel [Departament d’Estructura i Constituents de la Matèriaand Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB) Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona,Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Gomis, Joaquim [Departament d’Estructura i Constituents de la Matèriaand Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB) Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona,Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University,Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Pons, Josep M. [Departament d’Estructura i Constituents de la Matèriaand Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB) Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona,Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)
2016-07-11
We construct the canonical action of a Carroll string doing the Carroll limit of a canonical relativistic string. We also study the Killing symmetries of the Carroll string, which close under an infinite dimensional algebra. The tensionless limit and the Carroll p-brane action are also discussed.
Document retrieval on repetitive string collections.
Gagie, Travis; Hartikainen, Aleksi; Karhu, Kalle; Kärkkäinen, Juha; Navarro, Gonzalo; Puglisi, Simon J; Sirén, Jouni
2017-01-01
Most of the fastest-growing string collections today are repetitive, that is, most of the constituent documents are similar to many others. As these collections keep growing, a key approach to handling them is to exploit their repetitiveness, which can reduce their space usage by orders of magnitude. We study the problem of indexing repetitive string collections in order to perform efficient document retrieval operations on them. Document retrieval problems are routinely solved by search engines on large natural language collections, but the techniques are less developed on generic string collections. The case of repetitive string collections is even less understood, and there are very few existing solutions. We develop two novel ideas, interleaved LCPs and precomputed document lists , that yield highly compressed indexes solving the problem of document listing (find all the documents where a string appears), top- k document retrieval (find the k documents where a string appears most often), and document counting (count the number of documents where a string appears). We also show that a classical data structure supporting the latter query becomes highly compressible on repetitive data. Finally, we show how the tools we developed can be combined to solve ranked conjunctive and disjunctive multi-term queries under the simple [Formula: see text] model of relevance. We thoroughly evaluate the resulting techniques in various real-life repetitiveness scenarios, and recommend the best choices for each case.
Introduction to conformal field theory. With applications to string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blumenhagen, Ralph; Plauschinn, Erik
2009-01-01
Based on class-tested notes, this text offers an introduction to Conformal Field Theory with a special emphasis on computational techniques of relevance for String Theory. It introduces Conformal Field Theory at a basic level, Kac-Moody algebras, one-loop partition functions, Superconformal Field Theories, Gepner Models and Boundary Conformal Field Theory. Eventually, the concept of orientifold constructions is explained in detail for the example of the bosonic string. In providing many detailed CFT calculations, this book is ideal for students and scientists intending to become acquainted with CFT techniques relevant for string theory but also for students and non-specialists from related fields. (orig.)
Note on closed-string interactions a la Witten
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Romans, L.J.
1987-08-20
We consider the problem of formulating a field theory of interacting closed strings analogous to Witten's open-string field theory. Two natural candidates have been suggested for an off-shell three-string interaction vertex: one scheme involves a cyclic geometric overlap in spacetime, while the other is obtained by 'stuttering' the Fock-space realization of the open-string vertex. We demonstrate that these two approaches are in fact equivalent, utilizing the operator formalism as developed to describe Witten's theory. Implications of this result for the construction of closed-string theories are briefly discussed.
A note on closed-string interactions a la Witten
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romans, L.J.
1987-01-01
We consider the problem of formulating a field theory of interacting closed strings analogous to Witten's open-string field theory. Two natural candidates have been suggested for an off-shell three-string interaction vertex: one scheme involves a cyclic geometric overlap in spacetime, while the other is obtained by 'stuttering' the Fock-space realization of the open-string vertex. We demonstrate that these two approaches are in fact equivalent, utilizing the operator formalism as developed to describe Witten's theory. Implications of this result for the construction of closed-string theories are briefly discussed. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hosomichi, Kazuo
2008-01-01
We study FZZT-branes and open string amplitudes in (p, q) minimal string theory. We focus on the simplest boundary changing operators in two-matrix models, and identify the corresponding operators in worldsheet theory through the comparison of amplitudes. Along the way, we find a novel linear relation among FZZT boundary states in minimal string theory. We also show that the boundary ground ring is realized on physical open string operators in a very simple manner, and discuss its use for perturbative computation of higher open string amplitudes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vishniac, E.T.
1987-01-01
We examine the compatibility of inflation with the cosmic string theory for galaxy formation. There is a general conflict between having sufficient string tension to effect galaxy formation, and reheating after inflation to a high enough temperature that strings may form in a thermal phase transition. To escape this conflict, we propose a class of models where the inflation is coupled to the string-producing field. The strings are formed late in inflation as the inflaton rolls towards its zero-temperature value. A large subset of these models have a novel large-scale distribution of galaxies that is fractal, displays biasing without dynamics or feedback mechanisms, and contains voids. (orig.)
Bajan Birds Pull Strings: Two Wild Antillean Species Enter the Select Club of String-Pullers.
Audet, Jean-Nicolas; Ducatez, Simon; Lefebvre, Louis
2016-01-01
String-pulling is one of the most popular tests in animal cognition because of its apparent complexity, and of its potential to be applied to very different taxa. In birds, the basic procedure involves a food reward, suspended from a perch by a string, which can be reached by a series of coordinated pulling actions with the beak and holding actions of the pulled lengths of string with the foot. The taxonomic distribution of species that pass the test includes several corvids, parrots and parids, but in other families, data are much spottier and the number of individuals per species that succeed is often low. To date, the association between string-pulling ability and other cognitive traits was never tested. It is generally assumed that string-pulling is a complex form of problem-solving, suggesting that performance on string-pulling and other problem-solving tasks should be correlated. Here, we show that individuals of two innovative species from Barbados, the bullfinch Loxigilla barbadensis and the Carib grackle Quiscalus lugubris fortirostris, pass the string-pulling test. Eighteen of the 42 bullfinches tested succeeded, allowing us to correlate performance on this test to that on several other behavioral measurements. Surprisingly, string-pulling in bullfinches was unrelated to shyness, neophobia, problem-solving, discrimination and reversal learning performance. Only two of 31 grackles tested succeeded, precluding correlational analyses with other measures but still, the two successful birds largely differed in their other behavioral traits.
Spin structures on algebraic curves and their applications in string theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrari, F.
1990-01-01
The free fields on a Riemann surface carrying spin structures live on an unramified r-covering of the surface itself. When the surface is represented as an algebraic curve related to the vanishing of the Weierstrass polynomial, its r-coverings are algebraic curves as well. We construct explicitly the Weierstrass polynomial associated to the r-coverings of an algebraic curve. Using standard techniques of algebraic geometry it is then possible to solve the inverse Jacobi problem for the odd spin structures. As an application we derive the partition functions of bosonic string theories in many examples, including two general curves of genus three and four. The partition functions are explicitly expressed in terms of branch points apart from a factor which is essentially a theta constant. 53 refs., 4 figs. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lawrence, Albion
2001-01-01
We study the physics of open strings in bosonic and type II string theories in the presence of unstable D-branes. When the potential energy of the open string tachyon is at its minimum, Sen has argued that only closed strings remain in the perturbative spectrum. We explore the scenario of Yi and of Bergman, Hori and Yi, who argue that the open string degrees of freedom are strongly coupled and disappear through confinement. We discuss arguments using open string field theory and worldsheet boundary RG flows, which seem to indicate otherwise. We then describe a solitonic excitation of the open string tachyon and gauge field with the charge and tension of a fundamental closed string. This requires a double scaling limit where the tachyon is taken to its minimal value and the electric field is taken to its maximum value. The resulting flux tube has an unconstrained spatial profile; and for large fundamental string charge, it appears to have light, weakly coupled open strings living in the core. We argue that the flux tube acquires a size or order α' through sigma model and string coupling effects; and we argue that confinement effects make the light degrees of freedom heavy and strongly interacting
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lawrence, Albion
2001-07-25
We study the physics of open strings in bosonic and type II string theories in the presence of unstable D-branes. When the potential energy of the open string tachyon is at its minimum, Sen has argued that only closed strings remain in the perturbative spectrum. We explore the scenario of Yi and of Bergman, Hori and Yi, who argue that the open string degrees of freedom are strongly coupled and disappear through confinement. We discuss arguments using open string field theory and worldsheet boundary RG flows, which seem to indicate otherwise. We then describe a solitonic excitation of the open string tachyon and gauge field with the charge and tension of a fundamental closed string. This requires a double scaling limit where the tachyon is taken to its minimal value and the electric field is taken to its maximum value. The resulting flux tube has an unconstrained spatial profile; and for large fundamental string charge, it appears to have light, weakly coupled open strings living in the core. We argue that the flux tube acquires a size or order {alpha}' through sigma model and string coupling effects; and we argue that confinement effects make the light degrees of freedom heavy and strongly interacting.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freund, P.G.O.
1988-01-01
According to the author nobody has succeeded as yet in extracting any new numbers from string theory. This paper discusses how if one cannot get new numbers from string theory, maybe one can get new strings out of number theory. Number theory is generally regarded as the purest form of mathematics. So how can it conceivably make contact with physics which aims at describing nature? The author discusses how the connecting link of these two disciplines is provided by the compact Riemann surfaces. These appear as world sheets of interacting strings. For instance, string-string scattering at the three-loop level involves the four external strings attaching themselves to a genus three compact surface
The String and the Cosmic Bounce
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bozza V.
2014-04-01
Full Text Available String theory introduces a new fundamental scale (the string length that is expected to regularize the singularities of classical general relativity. In a cosmological context, the Big Bang is no longer regarded as the beginning of time, but just a transition between a Pre-Big Bang collapse phase and the current expansion. We will review old and recent attempts to build consistent bouncing cosmologies inspired to string theories, discussing their solved and unsolved problems, focussing on the observables that may distinguish them from standard inflationary scenarios.
Rectilinear partitioning of irregular data parallel computations
Nicol, David M.
1991-01-01
New mapping algorithms for domain oriented data-parallel computations, where the workload is distributed irregularly throughout the domain, but exhibits localized communication patterns are described. Researchers consider the problem of partitioning the domain for parallel processing in such a way that the workload on the most heavily loaded processor is minimized, subject to the constraint that the partition be perfectly rectilinear. Rectilinear partitions are useful on architectures that have a fast local mesh network. Discussed here is an improved algorithm for finding the optimal partitioning in one dimension, new algorithms for partitioning in two dimensions, and optimal partitioning in three dimensions. The application of these algorithms to real problems are discussed.
Towards a Database System for Large-scale Analytics on Strings
Sahli, Majed A.
2015-07-23
parallel space traversal technique, called FAST, that enables ACME to scale to thousands of cores. High degree of concurrency is achieved by partition- ing the search space horizontally and balancing the workload among cores with minimal communication overhead. Consequently, complex queries are solved in minutes instead of days. ACME is a versatile system that runs on workstations, clusters, and supercomputers. It is the first to utilize a supercomputer and scale to 16 thousand CPUs. Merely using more cores does not guarantee efficiency, because of the related overheads. To this end, we introduce an automatic tuning mechanism that suggests the appropriate number of cores to meet user constraints in terms of runtime while minimizing the financial cost of cloud resources. Particularly, we study workload frequency distributions then build a model that finds the best problem decomposition and estimates serial and parallel runtimes. Finally, we generalize our automatic tuning method as a general method, called APlug. APlug can be used in other applications and we integrate it with systems for molecular docking and multiple sequence alignment.
Strings, texture, and inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hodges, H.M.; Primack, J.R.
1991-01-01
We examine mechanisms, several of which are proposed here, to generate structure formation, or to just add large-scale features, through either gauged or global cosmic strings or global texture, within the framework of inflation. We first explore the possibility that strings or texture form if there is no coupling between the topological theory and the inflaton or spacetime curvature, via (1) quantum creation, and (2) a sufficiently high reheat temperature. In addition, we examine the prospects for the inflaton field itself to generate strings or texture. Then, models with the string/texture field coupled to the curvature, and an equivalent model with coupling to the inflaton field, are considered in detail. The requirement that inflationary density fluctuations are not so large as to conflict with observations leads to a number of constraints on model parameters. We find that strings of relevance for structure formation can form in the absence of coupling to the inflaton or curvature through the process of quantum creation, but only if the strings are strongly type I, or if they are global strings. If formed after reheating, naturalness suggests that gauged cosmic strings correspond to a type-I superconductor. Similarly, gauged strings formed during inflation via conformal coupling ξ=1/6 to the spacetime curvature (in a model suggested by Yokoyama in order to evade the millisecond pulsar constraint on cosmic strings) are expected to be strongly type I
Goldengorin, B.; Ghosh, D.
Maximization of submodular functions on a ground set is a NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem. Data correcting algorithms are among the several algorithms suggested for solving this problem exactly and approximately. From the point of view of Hasse diagrams data correcting algorithms use
Electric drill-string telemetry
Carcione, J M
2003-01-01
We design a numerical algorithm for simulation of low-frequency electric-signal transmission through a drill string. This is represented by a transmission line with varying geometrical and electromagnetic properties versus depth, depending on the characteristics of the drill-string/formation system. These properties are implicitly modeled by the series impedance and the shunt admittance of the transmission line. The differential equations are parabolic, since at low frequencies the wave field is diffusive. We use an explicit scheme for the solution of parabolic problems, based on a Chebyshev expansion of the evolution operator and the Fourier pseudospectral method to compute the spatial derivatives. The results are verified by comparison to analytical solutions obtained for the initial-value problem with a voltage source.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin Chiamin; McDonald, John
2006-01-01
Supergravity corrections due to the energy density of a right-handed sneutrino can generate a negative mass squared for the inflaton, flattening the inflaton potential and reducing the spectral index and inflaton energy density. For the case of D-term hybrid inflation, we show that the spectral index can be lowered from the conventional value n=0.98 to a value within the range favored by the latest WMAP analysis, n=0.951 -0.019 +0.015 . The modified energy density is consistent with nonobservation of cosmic strings in the CMB if n<0.946. The WMAP lower bound on the spectral index implies that the D-term cosmic string contribution may be very close present CMB limits, contributing at least 5% to the CMB multipoles
Gadde, Abhijit; Haghighat, Babak; Kim, Joonho; Kim, Seok; Lockhart, Guglielmo; Vafa, Cumrun
2018-02-01
We consider bound states of strings which arise in 6d (1,0) SCFTs that are realized in F-theory in terms of linear chains of spheres with negative self-intersections 1,2, and 4. These include the strings associated to N small E 8 instantons, as well as the ones associated to M5 branes probing A and D type singularities in M-theory or D5 branes probing ADE singularities in Type IIB string theory. We find that these bound states of strings admit (0,4) supersymmetric quiver descriptions and show how one can compute their elliptic genera.
Zimmerman Jones, Andrew
2010-01-01
Making Everything Easier!. String Theory for Dummies. Learn:. The basic concepts of this controversial theory;. How string theory builds on physics concepts;. The different viewpoints in the field;. String theory's physical implications. Andrew Zimmerman Jones. Physics Guide, About.com. with Daniel Robbins, PhD in Physics. Your plain-English guide to this complex scientific theory. String theory is one of the most complicated sciences being explored today. Not to worry though! This informative guide clearly explains the basics of this hot topic, discusses the theory's hypotheses and prediction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen-Tannoudji, G.
1989-01-01
This series of lectures is devoted to review ot he connections between QCD and string theories. One reviews the phenomenological models leading to string pictures in non perturbative QCD and the string effects, related to soft gluon coherence, which arise in perturbative QCD. One tries to build a string theory which goes to QCD at the zero slope limit. A specific model, based on superstring theories is shown to agree with QCD four point amplitudes at the Born approximation and with one loop corrections. One shows how this approach can provide a theoretical framework to account for the phenomenological property of parton-hadron duality.(author)
Partitioning sparse rectangular matrices for parallel processing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kolda, T.G.
1998-05-01
The authors are interested in partitioning sparse rectangular matrices for parallel processing. The partitioning problem has been well-studied in the square symmetric case, but the rectangular problem has received very little attention. They will formalize the rectangular matrix partitioning problem and discuss several methods for solving it. They will extend the spectral partitioning method for symmetric matrices to the rectangular case and compare this method to three new methods -- the alternating partitioning method and two hybrid methods. The hybrid methods will be shown to be best.
The path-integral formulation of supersymmetric string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verlinde, H.L.
1988-01-01
The loop corrections to superstring scattering amplitudes are studied. An explicit construction of the partition and correlation functions of all the string fields on an arbitrary ordinary Riemann surface is given in terms of theta-functions. The amplitudes of the space-time supersymmetry current are studied. These are shown to contain unphysical singularities. 94 refs.; 4 figs
Deconfinement and the Hagedorn transition in string theory.
Chaudhuri, S
2001-03-05
We introduce a new definition of the thermal partition function in string theory. With this new definition, the thermal partition functions of all of the string theories obey thermal duality relations with self-dual Hagedorn temperature beta(2)(H) = 4pi(2)alpha('). A beta-->beta(2)(H)/beta transformation maps the type I theory into a new string theory (type I) with thermal D p-branes, spatial hypersurfaces supporting a p-dimensional finite temperature non-Abelian Higgs-gauge theory for p< or =9. We demonstrate a continuous phase transition in the behavior of the static heavy quark-antiquark potential for small separations r(2)(*)
Topological vertex, string amplitudes and spectral functions of hyperbolic geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guimaraes, M.E.X.; Rosa, T.O. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Fisica, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/n, CEP 24210-346, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Luna, R.M. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 6001, Londrina, Parana (Brazil)
2014-05-15
We discuss the homological aspects of the connection between quantum string generating function and the formal power series associated to the dimensions of chains and homologies of suitable Lie algebras. Our analysis can be considered as a new straightforward application of the machinery of modular forms and spectral functions (with values in the congruence subgroup of SL(2,Z)) to the partition functions of Lagrangian branes, refined vertex and open string partition functions, represented by means of formal power series that encode Lie algebra properties. The common feature in our examples lies in the modular properties of the characters of certain representations of the pertinent affine Lie algebras and in the role of Selberg-type spectral functions of a hyperbolic three-geometry associated with q-series in the computation of the string amplitudes. (orig.)
Improved algorithms for approximate string matching (extended abstract
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Papamichail Georgios
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The problem of approximate string matching is important in many different areas such as computational biology, text processing and pattern recognition. A great effort has been made to design efficient algorithms addressing several variants of the problem, including comparison of two strings, approximate pattern identification in a string or calculation of the longest common subsequence that two strings share. Results We designed an output sensitive algorithm solving the edit distance problem between two strings of lengths n and m respectively in time O((s - |n - m|·min(m, n, s + m + n and linear space, where s is the edit distance between the two strings. This worst-case time bound sets the quadratic factor of the algorithm independent of the longest string length and improves existing theoretical bounds for this problem. The implementation of our algorithm also excels in practice, especially in cases where the two strings compared differ significantly in length. Conclusion We have provided the design, analysis and implementation of a new algorithm for calculating the edit distance of two strings with both theoretical and practical implications. Source code of our algorithm is available online.
Bosonisation of four dimensional real fermionic string models and asymmetric orbifolds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bailin, D.; Dunbar, D.C.; Love, A.
1990-01-01
Models of four dimensional strings based on internal world-sheet fermions are bosonised and the partition functions are compared with the partition functions of asymmetric Z 2 M orbifold models. Selection rules and couplings are also compared between the two formations. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Peilu; Qi Zhanshun; Zhu Zhixuan
2000-01-01
Comparison of dry- and water-method for partitioning fission products and minor actinides from the spent fuels, and description of advance of dry-method were done. Partitioning process, some typical concept and some results of dry-method were described. The problems fond in dry-method up to now were pointed out. The partitioning study program was suggested
Cosmological Consequences of String Axions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kain, Ben
2005-12-15
Axion fluctuations generated during inflation lead to isocurvature and non-Gaussian temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation. Following a previous analysis for the model independent string axion we consider the consequences of a measurement of these fluctuations for two additional string axions. We do so independent of any cosmological assumptions except for the axions being massless during inflation. The first axion has been shown to solve the strong CP problem for most compactifications of the heterotic string while the second axion, which does not solve the strong CP problem, obeys a mass formula which is independent of the axion scale. We find that if gravitational waves interpreted as arising from inflation are observed by the PLANCK polarimetry experiment with a Hubble constant during inflation of H{sub inf} {approx}> 10{sup 13} GeV the existence of the first axion is ruled out and the second axion cannot obey the scale independent mass formula. In an appendix we quantitatively justify the often held assumption that temperature corrections to the zero temperature QCD axion mass may be ignored for temperatures T {approx}< {Lambda}{sub QCD}.
Superfermionic superconformal string model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kudryavtsev, V.A.
1994-01-01
A new approach to superconformal dynamics of string interactions is formulated in terms of two-dimensional fermion fields and without boson fields commonly used in string theories. The vertex operators for emission of π-mesons are constructed within the framework of this approach. 5 refs
Semilocal and electroweak strings
Achucarro, A; Vachaspati, T
We review a class of non-topological defects in the standard electroweak model, and their implications. Starting with the semilocal string, which provides a counterexample to many well-known properties of topological vortices, we discuss electroweak strings and their stability with and without
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Furthermore, the success of this description indicates that inflation is likely to be associated with physics at energies considerably higher than the weak scale, for which string theory is arguably our most promising candidate. These observations strongly motivate a detailed search for inflation within string theory, although it ...
Exactly solvable string models of curved space-time backgrounds
Russo, J.G.; Russo, J G; Tseytlin, A A
1995-01-01
We consider a new 3-parameter class of exact 4-dimensional solutions in closed string theory and solve the corresponding string model, determining the physical spectrum and the partition function. The background fields (4-metric, antisymmetric tensor, two Kaluza-Klein vector fields, dilaton and modulus) generically describe axially symmetric stationary rotating (electro)magnetic flux-tube type universes. Backgrounds of this class include both the dilatonic Melvin solution and the uniform magnetic field solution discussed earlier as well as some singular space-times. Solvability of the string sigma model is related to its connection via duality to a much simpler looking model which is a "twisted" product of a flat 2-space and a space dual to 2-plane. We discuss some physical properties of this model as well as a number of generalizations leading to larger classes of exact 4-dimensional string solutions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishibashi, Nobuyuki; Onogi, Tetsuya
1989-01-01
Consistency conditions of open string theories, which can be a powerful tool in open string model building, are proposed. By making use of these conditions and assuming a simple prescription for the Chan-Paton factors, open string theories in several backgrounds are studied. We show that 1. there exist a large number of consistent bosonic open string theories on Z 2 orbifolds, 2. SO(32) type I superstring is the unique consistent model among fermionic string theories on the ten-dimensional flat Minkowski space, and 3. with our prescription for the Chan-Paton factors, there exist no consistent open superstring theories on (six-dimensional Minkowski space-time) x (Z 2 orbifold). (orig.)
2015-01-01
Welcome to String-Math 2015 at Sanya. The conference will be opened in December 31, 2015- January 4, 2016. String theory plays a central role in theoretical physics as a candidate for the quantum theory unifying gravity with other interactions. It has profound connections with broad branches of modern mathematics ever since the birth. In the last decades, the prosperous interaction, built upon the joint efforts from both mathematicians and physicists, has given rise to marvelous deep results in supersymmetric gauge theory, topological string, M-theory and duality on the physics side as well as in algebraic geometry, differential geometry, algebraic topology, representation theory and number theory on the mathematics side. The interplay is two-fold. The mathematics has provided powerful tools to fulfill the physical interconnection of ideas and clarify physical structures to understand the nature of string theory. On the other hand, ideas from string theory and quantum field theory have been a source of sign...
Worldsheet Realization of the Refined Topological String
Antoniadis, I; Hohenegger, S; Narain, K S; Assi, A Zein
2013-01-01
A worldsheet realization of the refined topological string is proposed in terms of physical string amplitudes that compute generalized N=2 F-terms of the form F_{g,n} W^{2g}Y^{2n} in the effective supergravity action. These terms involve the chiral Weyl superfield W and a superfield Y defined as an N=2 chiral projection of a particular anti-chiral T-bar vector multiplet. In Heterotic and Type I theories, obtained upon compactification on the six-dimensional manifold K3xT2, T is the usual K\\"ahler modulus of the T2 torus. These amplitudes are computed exactly at the one-loop level in string theory. They are shown to reproduce the correct perturbative part of the Nekrasov partition function in the field theory limit when expanded around an SU(2) enhancement point of the string moduli space. The two deformation parameters epsilon_- and epsilon_+ of the Omega-supergravity background are then identified with the constant field-strength backgrounds for the anti-self-dual graviphoton and self-dual gauge field of the...
Maximum margin classifier working in a set of strings.
Koyano, Hitoshi; Hayashida, Morihiro; Akutsu, Tatsuya
2016-03-01
Numbers and numerical vectors account for a large portion of data. However, recently, the amount of string data generated has increased dramatically. Consequently, classifying string data is a common problem in many fields. The most widely used approach to this problem is to convert strings into numerical vectors using string kernels and subsequently apply a support vector machine that works in a numerical vector space. However, this non-one-to-one conversion involves a loss of information and makes it impossible to evaluate, using probability theory, the generalization error of a learning machine, considering that the given data to train and test the machine are strings generated according to probability laws. In this study, we approach this classification problem by constructing a classifier that works in a set of strings. To evaluate the generalization error of such a classifier theoretically, probability theory for strings is required. Therefore, we first extend a limit theorem for a consensus sequence of strings demonstrated by one of the authors and co-workers in a previous study. Using the obtained result, we then demonstrate that our learning machine classifies strings in an asymptotically optimal manner. Furthermore, we demonstrate the usefulness of our machine in practical data analysis by applying it to predicting protein-protein interactions using amino acid sequences and classifying RNAs by the secondary structure using nucleotide sequences.
Acoustical properties of drill strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drumheller, D.S.
1988-08-01
The recovery of petrochemical and geothermal resources requires extensive drilling of wells to increasingly greater depths. Real-time collection and telemetry of data about the drilling process while it occurs thousands of feet below the surface is an effective way of improving the efficiency of drilling operations. Unfortunately, due to hostile down-hole environments, telemetry of this data is an extremely difficult problem. Currently, commercial systems transmit data to the surface by producing pressure pulses within the portion of the drilling mud enclosed in the hollow steel drill string. Transmission rates are between two and four data bits per second. Any system capable of raising data rates without increasing the complexity of the drilling process will have significant economic impact. One alternative system is based upon acoustical carrier waves generated within the drill string itself. If developed, this method would accommodate data rates up to 100 bits per second. Unfortunately, the drill string is a periodic structure of pipe and threaded tool joints, the transmission characteristics are very complex and exhibit a banded and dispersive structure. Over the past forty years, attempts to field systems based upon this transmission method have resulted in little success. This paper examines this acoustical transmission problem in great detail. The basic principles of acoustic wave propagation in the periodic structure of the drill string are examined through theory, laboratory experiment, and field test. The results indicate the existence of frequency bands which are virtually free of attenuation and suitable for data transmission at high bit rates. 9 refs., 38 figs., 2 tabs.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Haelterman, R
2016-07-01
Full Text Available that for affine problems both are algebraically identical [54]. The Quasi-Newton Inverse Least Squares algorithm (QN-ILS) was derived from QN-LS in [21] and further generalized in [24]. It quickly overtook QN-LS in popularity, probably as it directly gives... possible linear dependencies; the approach is thus purely algebraic. Note also that the criterion of the method in §4.2 can be written as |Rii|<� · ‖R‖2 = √√√√ η∑ j=1 η∑ i=1 Rji 2 (13) while the criterion in the newly proposed filtering algorithm is |Rii...
Fast algorithms for approximate circular string matching.
Barton, Carl; Iliopoulos, Costas S; Pissis, Solon P
2014-03-22
Circular string matching is a problem which naturally arises in many biological contexts. It consists in finding all occurrences of the rotations of a pattern of length m in a text of length n. There exist optimal average-case algorithms for exact circular string matching. Approximate circular string matching is a rather undeveloped area. In this article, we present a suboptimal average-case algorithm for exact circular string matching requiring time O(n). Based on our solution for the exact case, we present two fast average-case algorithms for approximate circular string matching with k-mismatches, under the Hamming distance model, requiring time O(n) for moderate values of k, that is k=O(m/logm). We show how the same results can be easily obtained under the edit distance model. The presented algorithms are also implemented as library functions. Experimental results demonstrate that the functions provided in this library accelerate the computations by more than three orders of magnitude compared to a naïve approach. We present two fast average-case algorithms for approximate circular string matching with k-mismatches; and show that they also perform very well in practice. The importance of our contribution is underlined by the fact that the provided functions may be seamlessly integrated into any biological pipeline. The source code of the library is freely available at http://www.inf.kcl.ac.uk/research/projects/asmf/.
Cosmic strings and galaxy formation: Current status
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stebbins, A.
1987-04-01
Successes and remaining problems with cosmic string theories of galaxy formation are outlined. Successes of the theory include predictions for the correct amplitude of initial inhomogeneities leading to galaxy formation, the distribution of observed inhomogeneities, the observed correlation function of clusters, and the density profiles of dark matter halos. Potentially serious problems which have been raised are the biased galaxy production (why do galaxies occur in clusters?), the core radius problem (density profiles of galactic halos do not match predictions), the maximal rotation velocity problem (why is there a sharp cutoff in observed rotational velocity of galaxies?), the small galaxy problem (why are all the galaxies relatively small structures?), the angular momentum problem (where do baryons acquire their angular momentum in order to form spirals), and the large-scale structure problem (why do most galaxies appear to lie on surfaces surrounding voids?). Possible approaches to each of these problems are suggested and the future of cosmic string theory is discussed. 25 refs
Duality relation between charged elastic strings and superconducting cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carter, B.
1989-01-01
The mechanical properties of macroscopic electromagnetically coupled string models in a flat or curved background are treated using a covariant formalism allowing the construction of a duality transformation that relates the category of uniform ''electric'' string models, constructed as the (nonconducting) charged generalisation of ordinary uncoupled (violin type) elastic strings, to a category of ''magnetic'' string models comprising recently discussed varieties of ''superconducting cosmic strings''. (orig.)
String field theory. Algebraic structure, deformation properties and superstrings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muenster, Korbinian
2013-01-01
This thesis discusses several aspects of string field theory. The first issue is bosonic open-closed string field theory and its associated algebraic structure - the quantum open-closed homotopy algebra. We describe the quantum open-closed homotopy algebra in the framework of homotopy involutive Lie bialgebras, as a morphism from the loop homotopy Lie algebra of closed string to the involutive Lie bialgebra on the Hochschild complex of open strings. The formulation of the classical/quantum open-closed homotopy algebra in terms of a morphism from the closed string algebra to the open string Hochschild complex reveals deformation properties of closed strings on open string field theory. In particular, we show that inequivalent classical open string field theories are parametrized by closed string backgrounds up to gauge transformations. At the quantum level the correspondence is obstructed, but for other realizations such as the topological string, a non-trivial correspondence persists. Furthermore, we proof the decomposition theorem for the loop homotopy Lie algebra of closed string field theory, which implies uniqueness of closed string field theory on a fixed conformal background. Second, the construction of string field theory can be rephrased in terms of operads. In particular, we show that the formulation of string field theory splits into two parts: The first part is based solely on the moduli space of world sheets and ensures that the perturbative string amplitudes are recovered via Feynman rules. The second part requires a choice of background and determines the real string field theory vertices. Each of these parts can be described equivalently as a morphism between appropriate cyclic and modular operads, at the classical and quantum level respectively. The algebraic structure of string field theory is then encoded in the composition of these two morphisms. Finally, we outline the construction of type II superstring field theory. Specific features of the
Strings - Links between conformal field theory, gauge theory and gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Troost, J.
2009-05-01
String theory is a candidate framework for unifying the gauge theories of interacting elementary particles with a quantum theory of gravity. The last years we have made considerable progress in understanding non-perturbative aspects of string theory, and in bringing string theory closer to experiment, via the search for the Standard Model within string theory, but also via phenomenological models inspired by the physics of strings. Despite these advances, many deep problems remain, amongst which a non-perturbative definition of string theory, a better understanding of holography, and the cosmological constant problem. My research has concentrated on various theoretical aspects of quantum theories of gravity, including holography, black holes physics and cosmology. In this Habilitation thesis I have laid bare many more links between conformal field theory, gauge theory and gravity. Most contributions were motivated by string theory, like the analysis of supersymmetry preserving states in compactified gauge theories and their relation to affine algebras, time-dependent aspects of the holographic map between quantum gravity in anti-de-Sitter space and conformal field theories in the bulk, the direct quantization of strings on black hole backgrounds, the embedding of the no-boundary proposal for a wave-function of the universe in string theory, a non-rational Verlinde formula and the construction of non-geometric solutions to supergravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Witten, Edward
2015-10-21
The Strings 2014 meeting was held at Princeton University June 23-27, 2014, co-sponsored by Princeton University and the Institute for Advanced Study. The goal of the meeting was to provide a stimulating and up-to-date overview of research in string theory and its relations to other areas of physics and mathematics, ranging from geometry to quantum field theory, condensed matter physics, and more. This brief report lists committee members and speakers but contains no scientific information. Note that the talks at Strings 2014 were videotaped and are available on the conference website: http://physics.princeton.edustrings2014/Talk_titles.shtml.
CERN. Geneva
2007-01-01
In this 3-lecture series I will discuss the basics of string theory, some physical applications, and the outlook for the future. I will begin with the main concepts of the classical theory and the application to the study of cosmic superstrings. Then I will turn to the quantum theory and discuss applications to the investigation of hadronic spectra and the recently discovered quark-gluon plasma. I will conclude with a sketch of string models of particle physics and showing some avenues that may lead to a complete formulation of string theory.
Superconducting cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chudnovsky, E.M.; Field, G.B.; Spergel, D.N.; Vilenkin, A.
1986-01-01
Superconducting loops of string formed in the early Universe, if they are relatively light, can be an important source of relativistic particles in the Galaxy. They can be observed as sources of synchrotron radiation at centimeter wavelengths. We propose a string model for two recently discovered radio sources, the ''thread'' in the galactic center and the source G357.7-0.1, and predict that the filaments in these sources should move at relativistic speeds. We also consider superheavy superconducting strings, and the possibility that they be observed as extragalactic radio sources
Can a String's Tension Exert a Torque on a Pulley?
Krause, Dennis E.; Sun, Yifei
2011-01-01
A typical textbook problem in rotational dynamics involves calculating the angular acceleration of a massive pulley due to a string, such as in the example shown in Fig. 1. The string is assumed to be massless and to move without slipping over the pulley, which is mounted on a frictionless axle. If T[subscript L] and T[subscript R] are the…
Non-abelian charged vortices as cosmic strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Manias, M.V.; Naon, C.M.; Schaposnik, F.A.; Trobo, M.
1986-04-24
We study vortex solutions in non-abelian gauge theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking. We construct string configurations with electric charge showing that they necessarily have infinite energy per unit length. Although this prevents its application in problems like catalysis of proton decay, we show, by analyzing the cosmological evolution of the strings, that they can produce density fluctuations leading to galaxy formation.
Non-supersymmetric tachyon-free type-II and type-I closed strings from RCFT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain)], E-mail: bgator@imaff.cfmac.csic.es; Schellekens, A.N. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands)
2007-11-15
We consider non-supersymmetric four-dimensional closed string theories constructed out of tensor products of N=2 minimal models. Generically such theories have closed string tachyons, but these may be removed either by choosing a non-trivial partition function or a suitable Klein bottle projection. We find large numbers of examples of both types.
Cosmic strings and cosmic structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albrecht, A.; Brandenberger, R.; Turok, N.
1987-01-01
The paper concerns the application of the theory of cosmic strings to explain the structure of the Universe. The formation of cosmic strings in the early Universe is outlined, along with the Big Bang theory, Grand Unified theories, and the first three minutes after the Big Bang. A description is given of the shaping of the Universe by cosmic strings, including the evolution of the string. The possibility for direct observation of cosmic strings is discussed. (U.K.)
International conference on string theory
2017-01-01
The Strings 2017 conference is part of the "Strings" series of annual conferences, that bring the entire string theory community together. It will include reviews of major developments in the field, and specialized talks on specific topics. There will also be several public lectures given by conference participants, a pre-Strings school at the Technion, and a post-Strings workshop at the Weizmann Institute.
Casper, William L [Rigby, ID; Clark, Don T [Idaho Falls, ID; Grover, Blair K [Idaho Falls, ID; Mathewson, Rodney O [Idaho Falls, ID; Seymour, Craig A [Idaho Falls, ID
2008-10-07
A drill string comprises a first drill string member having a male end; and a second drill string member having a female end configured to be joined to the male end of the first drill string member, the male end having a threaded portion including generally square threads, the male end having a non-threaded extension portion coaxial with the threaded portion, and the male end further having a bearing surface, the female end having a female threaded portion having corresponding female threads, the female end having a non-threaded extension portion coaxial with the female threaded portion, and the female end having a bearing surface. Installation methods, including methods of installing instrumented probes are also provided.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramond, P.
1987-01-01
We review the construction of the free equations of motion for open and closed strings in 26 dimensions, using the methods of the Florida Group. Differing from previous treatments, we argue that the constraint L 0 -anti L 0 =0 should not be imposed on all the fields of the closed string in the gauge invariant formalism; we show that it can be incorporated in the gauge invariant formalism at the price of being unable to extract the equations of motion from a Langrangian. We then describe our purely algebraic method to introduce interactions, which works equally well for open and closed strings. Quartic interactions are absent except in the Physical Gauge. Finally, we speculate on the role of the measure of the open string path functional. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Espriu, D.
2003-01-01
QCD can be described in a certain kinematical regime by an effective string theory. This string must couple to background chiral fields in a chirally invariant manner, thus taking into account the true chirally non-invariant QCD vacuum. By requiring conformal symmetry of the string and the unitarity constraint on chiral fields we reconstruct the equations of motion for the latter ones. These provide a consistent background for the propagation of the string. By further requiring locality of the effective action we recover the Lagrangian of non-linear sigma model of pion interactions. The prediction is unambiguous and parameter-free. The estimated chiral structural constants of Gasser and Leutwyler fit very well the phenomenological values. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amorim, R.; Barcelos-Neto, J.
1988-05-01
We describe bosonic strings by using a kind of Lagrangian compatible with the zero tension limit. The work is developed on an extended configuration space and the quantization is carried out with details.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramond, P.
1986-01-01
We review the construction of the free equations of motion for open and closed strings in 26 dimensions, using the methods of the Florida Group. Differing from previous treatments, we argue that the constraint L 0 - L 0 -bar = 0 should not be imposed on all the fields of the closed string in the gauge invariant formalism: we show that it can be incorporated in the invariant formalism at the price of being unable to extract the equations of motion from a Lagrangian. We then describe our purely algebraic method to introduce interactions, which works equally well for open and closed strings. Quartic interactions are absent except in the Physical Gauge. Finally, we speculate on the role of the measure of the open string path functional. 20 refs
2008-01-01
String Theory supporters argue that the universe we live in has eleven dimensions, out of which three spacial dimensions and a temporal one, which define the void and the space-time environment we experience daily.
Manipulating Strings in Python
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
William J. Turkel
2012-07-01
Full Text Available This lesson is a brief introduction to string manipulation techniques in Python. Knowing how to manipulate strings plays a crucial role in most text processing tasks. If you’d like to experiment with the following lessons, you can write and execute short programs as we’ve been doing, or you can open up a Python shell / Terminal to try them out on the command line.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gervais, J.L.; Neveu, A.
1980-01-01
Recent works of the authors on string interpretation of the Wilson loop operators in QCD are reviewed in a self-contained fashion. Although most of the results habe already appeared in print, some new material is presented in renormalization of the Wilson loop operator and on the use of light-cone expansion to derive a linear string-like equation in light-cone formalism. (orig.)
String scattering amplitudes and deformed cubic string field theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sheng-Hong Lai
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We study string scattering amplitudes by using the deformed cubic string field theory which is equivalent to the string field theory in the proper-time gauge. The four-string scattering amplitudes with three tachyons and an arbitrary string state are calculated. The string field theory yields the string scattering amplitudes evaluated on the world sheet of string scattering whereas the conventional method, based on the first quantized theory brings us the string scattering amplitudes defined on the upper half plane. For the highest spin states, generated by the primary operators, both calculations are in perfect agreement. In this case, the string scattering amplitudes are invariant under the conformal transformation, which maps the string world sheet onto the upper half plane. If the external string states are general massive states, generated by non-primary field operators, we need to take into account carefully the conformal transformation between the world sheet and the upper half plane. We show by an explicit calculation that the string scattering amplitudes calculated by using the deformed cubic string field theory transform into those of the first quantized theory on the upper half plane by the conformal transformation, generated by the Schwarz–Christoffel mapping.
Optimal shapes of compact strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maritan, A.; Micheletti, C.; Trovato, A.; Banavar, J.R.
2000-07-01
Optimal geometrical arrangements, such as the stacking of atoms, are of relevance in diverse disciplines. A classic problem is the determination of the optimal arrangement of spheres in three dimensions in order to achieve the highest packing fraction; only recently has it been proved that the answer for infinite systems is a face-centred-cubic lattice. This simply stated problem has had a profound impact in many areas, ranging from the crystallization and melting of atomic systems, to optimal packing of objects and subdivision of space. Here we study an analogous problem-that of determining the optimal shapes of closely packed compact strings. This problem is a mathematical idealization of situations commonly encountered in biology, chemistry and physics, involving the optimal structure of folded polymeric chains. We find that, in cases where boundary effects are not dominant, helices with a particular pitch-radius ratio are selected. Interestingly, the same geometry is observed in helices in naturally-occurring proteins. (author)
The quantum equivalence of Nambu and Polyakov string actions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morris, T.R.
1990-01-01
By integrating out the auxiliary metric in the Polyakov string path integral, we derive a path integral for the Nambu action complete with measure. We show how to gauge fix this Nambu form of the partition function. This involves an intermediate partial gauge-fixing step. Our result is the Polyakov path integral in conformal gauge with the correct measure. The intermediate step may enjoy off-shell BRS symmetry by a generalization of the standard procedures. We show how the Teichmueller parameters arise in the Nambu formalism for general genus. These results allow us to make some observations on the physical characteristics of typical string world-sheets. (orig.)
Dabholkar, Atish
This thesis is divided into two chapters. Chapter I is about the dynamics of radiating axionic strings and the lower bound on the mass of the invisible axion. It has been suggested that, without inflation, the decay of axionic strings produced after the Peccei -Quinn phase transition is the primary source of cosmic relic axions. Knowing the density of these axions would then allow the derivation of a cosmological bound on the mass of the axion. In order to obtain a sharp bound it is essential to know the spectrum of the emitted axions and the detailed motion of a global string strongly coupled to the axionic field. To this end, following the analogy with Dirac's treatment of classical radiating electrons, self-consistent renormalized equations are obtained that describe the dynamics of a radiating global string interacting with its surrounding axionic field. The numerical formalism for evolving string trajectories using these equations is described, and is applied to the case of a circular loop. It is argued that for large wavelength oscillations of cosmic string loops, the motion is well approximated by the motion of a free Nambu-Goto string with appropriate renormalization. Consequently, a lower bound of 10 ^{-3} eV on the mass of the axion is obtained. Together with the recent upperbound of 4 times 10^{-4 } eV from the supernova SN1987a, it marginally rules out the invisible axion. Chapter II is about superstrings and solitons. It is shown that the quantum renormalization of the superstring tension vanishes to all orders in string perturbation theory. A low-energy analysis of macroscopic superstrings is presented and various analogies between these superstrings and solitons in supersymmetric theories are discussed. These include the existence of exact multi-string solutions of the low -energy supergravity super-Yang-Mills equations of motion and a Bogomol'nyi bound for the energy per unit length which is saturated by these solutions. Arguments are presented that
New Developments in String Gravity and String Cosmology.A Summary Report
Sanchez, Norma G.
2002-01-01
New Developments in String Gravity and String Cosmology are reported: 1-String driven cosmology and its Predictions. 2-The primordial gravitational wave background in string cosmology. 3-Non-singular string cosmologies from Exact Conformal Field Theories. 4-Quantum Field Theory, String Temperature and the String Phase of de Sitter space-time, 5-Hawking Radiation in String Theory and the String Phase of Black Holes. 6-New Dual Relation between Quantum Field Theory regimes and String regimes in...
String Indexing for Patterns With Wildcards
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel
2012-01-01
We consider the problem of indexing a string t of length n to report the occurrences of a query pattern p containing m characters and j wildcards. Let occ be the number of occurrences of p in t, and σ the size of the alphabet. We obtain the following results. - A linear space index with query time...
Are the String and Einstein Frames Equivalent
Alvarez, Enrique; Conde, Jorge
2001-01-01
The low energy physics as predicted by strings can be expressed in two (conformally related) different variables, usually called {\\em frames}. The problem is raised as to whether it is physically possible in some situations to tell one from the other.
String Indexing for Patterns with Wildcards
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel
2014-01-01
We consider the problem of indexing a string t of length n to report the occurrences of a query pattern p containing m characters and j wildcards. Let occ be the number of occurrences of p in t, and σ the size of the alphabet. We obtain the following results. A linear space index with query time O...
Instantons and cosmologies in string theory
Collinucci, Giulio
2005-01-01
This thesis deals with problems in two subdomains of string theory that are a priori unrelated, and in the last chapter, links are established between those two. The first topic of research is that of D-instantons. These are mathematical objects that allow one to compute physical effects that are
Open string pair creation from worldsheet instantons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schubert, Christian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Torrielli, Alessandro [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, 3584 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)
2010-10-08
Worldline instantons provide a particularly elegant way to derive Schwinger's well-known formula for the pair creation rate due to a constant electric field in quantum electrodynamics. In this communication, we show how to extend this method to the corresponding problem of open string pair creation. (fast track communication)
Finger Search in Grammar-Compressed Strings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bille, Philip; Christiansen, Anders Roy; Cording, Patrick Hagge
2016-01-01
random access, that is, given a position in the original uncompressed string report the character at that position. In this paper we study the random access problem with the finger search property, that is, the time for a random access query should depend on the distance between a specified index f...
Twistor approach to string compactifications: A review
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alexandrov, Sergei, E-mail: salexand@univ-montp2.fr
2013-01-01
We review a progress in obtaining the complete non-perturbative effective action of type II string theory compactified on a Calabi–Yau manifold. This problem is equivalent to understanding quantum corrections to the metric on the hypermultiplet moduli space. We show how all these corrections, which include D-brane and NS5-brane instantons, are incorporated in the framework of the twistor approach, which provides a powerful mathematical description of hyperkähler and quaternion-Kähler manifolds. We also present new insights on S-duality, quantum mirror symmetry, connections to integrable models and topological strings.
Open string topological amplitudes and gaugino masses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antoniadis, I.; Narain, K.S.; Taylor, T.R.
2005-09-01
We discuss the moduli-dependent couplings of the higher derivative F-terms (TrW 2 ) h-1 , where W is the gauge N =1 chiral superfield. They are determined by the genus zero topological partition function F (0,h) , on a world-sheet with h boundaries. By string duality, these terms are also related to heterotic topological amplitudes studied in the past, with the topological twist applied only in the left-moving supersymmetric sector of the internal N =(2,0) superconformal field theory. The holomorphic anomaly of these couplings relates them to terms of the form Π n (TrW 2 ) h-2 , where Π's represent chiral projections of non-holomorphic functions of chiral superfields. An important property of these couplings is that they violate R-symmetry for h ≥ 3. As a result, once supersymmetry is broken by D-term expectation values, (TrW 2 ) 2 generates gaugino masses that can be hierarchically smaller than the scalar masses, behaving as m 1/2 ∼ m 0 4 in string units. Similarly, ΠTrW 2 generates Dirac masses for non-chiral brane fermions, of the same order of magnitude. This mechanism can be used for instance to obtain fermion masses at the TeV scale for scalar masses as high as m 0 ∼ O (10 13 ) GeV. We present explicit examples in toroidal string compactifications with intersecting D-branes. (author)
Kac-Moody algebras and string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cleaver, G.B.
1993-01-01
The focus of this thesis is on (1) the role of Kac-Moody algebras in string theory and the development of techniques for systematically building string theory models based on a higher level (K ≥ 2) KM algebras and (2) fractional superstrings, a new class of solutions based on SU(2) K /U(1) conformal field theories. The content of this thesis is as follows. In chapter two they review KM algebras and their role in string theory. In the next chapter they present two results concerning the construction of modular invariant partition functions for conformal field theories build by tensoring together other conformal field theories. First they show how the possible modular invariants for the tensor product theory are constrained if the allowed modular invariants of the individuals conformal field theory factors have been classified. They illustrate the use of these constraints for theories of the type SU(2) KA direct-product SU(2) KB , finding all consistent theories for K A and K B odd. Second they show how known diagonal modular invariants can be used to construct inherently asymmetric invariants where the holomorphic and anti-holomorphic theories do not share the same chiral algebra. Explicit examples are given. Next, in chapter four they investigate some issues relating to recently proposed fractional superstring theories with D critical K/4 K/4 , as source of spacetime fermions, is demonstrated
Does string theory lead to extended inflation?
Campbell, Bruce A.; Linde, Andrei; Olive, Keith A.
1991-05-01
We consider the relationship between string theory and currently proposed models of extended inflation. In doing so, we discuss the conformal actions in string theory and in Jordan-Brans-Dicke gravity. We show explicitly the equivalence of pictures in which either gauge or gravitational couplings are changing with time. We demonstrate that the existence of the dilation in string theory does not naturally lead to extended inflation as currently discussed. We also discuss the resolution of the graceful exit problem of old inflation in Einstein gravity using either power-law inflation, or exponential inflation with a changing bubble formation rate. On leave of absence from School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amore, Paolo; Fernández, Francisco M.; Garcia, Javier; Gutierrez, German
2014-01-01
We study both analytically and numerically the spectrum of inhomogeneous strings with PT-symmetric density. We discuss an exactly solvable model of PT-symmetric string which is isospectral to the uniform string; for more general strings, we calculate exactly the sum rules Z(p)≡∑ n=1 ∞ 1/E n p , with p=1,2,… and find explicit expressions which can be used to obtain bounds on the lowest eigenvalue. A detailed numerical calculation is carried out for two non-solvable models depending on a parameter, obtaining precise estimates of the critical values where pair of real eigenvalues become complex. -- Highlights: •PT-symmetric Hamiltonians exhibit real eigenvalues when PT symmetry is unbroken. •We study PT-symmetric strings with complex density. •They exhibit regions of unbroken PT symmetry. •We calculate the critical parameters at the boundaries of those regions. •There are exact real sum rules for some particular complex densities
Casali, Eduardo; Tourkine, Piotr
2018-03-01
Twistor string models have been known for more than a decade now but have come back under the spotlight recently with the advent of the scattering equation formalism which has greatly generalized the scope of these models. A striking ubiquitous feature of these models has always been that, contrary to usual string theory, they do not admit vibrational modes and thus describe only conventional field theory. In this paper we report on the surprising discovery of a whole new sector of one of these theories which we call "twisted strings," when spacetime has compact directions. We find that the spectrum is enhanced from a finite number of states to an infinite number of interacting higher spin massive states. We describe both bosonic and world sheet supersymmetric models, their spectra and scattering amplitudes. These models have distinctive features of both string and field theory, for example they are invariant under stringy T-duality but have the high energy behavior typical of field theory. Therefore they describe a new kind of field theories in target space, sitting on their own halfway between string and field theory.
Perspectives on string phenomenology
Kane, Gordon; Kumar, Piyush
2015-01-01
The remarkable recent discovery of the Higgs boson at the CERN Large Hadron Collider completed the Standard Model of particle physics and has paved the way for understanding the physics which may lie beyond it. String/M theory has emerged as a broad framework for describing a plethora of diverse physical systems, which includes condensed matter systems, gravitational systems as well as elementary particle physics interactions. If string/M theory is to be considered as a candidate theory of Nature, it must contain an effectively four-dimensional universe among its solutions that is indistinguishable from our own. In these solutions, the extra dimensions of string/M Theory are “compactified” on tiny scales which are often comparable to the Planck length. String phenomenology is the branch of string/M theory that studies such solutions, relates their properties to data, and aims to answer many of the outstanding questions of particle physics beyond the Standard Model. This book contains perspectives on stri...
Improving the Performance of Interactive Configuration with Regular String Constraints
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Esben Rune; Tiedemann, Peter
2008-01-01
A generalization of the problem of interactive configuration has previously been presented in [1]. This generalization utilized decomposition to extend the standard finite domain interactive configuration framework to deal with unbounded string variables and provided features such as prefix auto...
Computer Corner: Computer Graphics for the Vibrating String.
Smith, David A.; Cunningham, R. Stephen
1986-01-01
Computer graphics are used to display the sum of the first few terms of the series solution for the problem of the vibrating string frequently discussed in introductory courses on differential equations. (MNS)
String field theory solution for any open string background
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Erler, T.; Maccaferri, Carlo
2014-01-01
Roč. 10, Oct (2014), 1-37 ISSN 1029-8479 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP201/12/G028 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : tachyon condensation * string field theory * conformal field models in string theory * bosonic strings Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 6.111, year: 2014
Interacting-string picture of the fermionic string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mandelstam, S.
1986-01-01
This report gives a review of the interacting-string picture of the Bose string. In the present lecture, the author outlines a similar treatment of the Fermionic string. The quantization of the free Fermionic string is carried out to the degrees of freedom x, representing the displacement of the string. Also presented are Grassman degrees of freedom S distributed along the string. The report pictures the fermionic string as a string of dipoles. The general picture of the interaction of such strings by joining and splitting is the same as for the Bose string. The author does not at present have the simplest formula for fermion string scattering amplitudes. A less detailed treatment is given than for the Bose string. The report sets up the functional-integration formalism, derives the analog mode, and indicates in general, terms how the conformal transformation to the z-plane may be performed. The paper concludes by stating without proof the formula for the N-article tree amplitude in the manifestly supersymmetric formalism
Kiritsis, E; Nitti, F
2014-01-01
We extend the holographic trailing string picture of a heavy quark to the case of a bulk geometry dual to a confining gauge theory. We compute the classical trailing confining string solution for a static as well as a uniformly moving quark. The trailing string is infinitely extended and approaches a confining horizon, situated at a critical value of the radial coordinate, along one of the space-time directions, breaking boundary rotational invariance. We compute the equations for the fluctuations around the classical solutions, which are used to obtain boundary force correlators controlling the Langevin dynamics of the quark. The imaginary part of the correlators has a non-trivial low-frequency limit, which gives rise to a viscous friction coefficient induced by the confining vacuum. The vacuum correlators are used to define finite-temperature dressed Langevin correlators with an appropriate high-frequency behavior.
Strings for quantumchromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schomerus, V.
2007-04-01
During the last decade, intriguing dualities between gauge and string theory have been found and explored. they provide a novel window on strongly couplde gauge physics, including QCD-like models. Based on a short historical review of modern string theory, we explain how so-called AdS/CFT dualities emerged at the end of the 1990s. Some of their concrete implications and remarkable recent progress are then illustrated for the simplest example, namely the multicolor limit of N=4 SYM theory in four dimensions. We end with a few comments on existing extensions to more realistic models and applications, in particular to the sQGP. This text is meant as a non-technical introduction to gauge/string dualities for (particle) physicists. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kiritsis, Elias [APC, Université Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Obs. de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité,Bâtiment Condorcet, F-75205, Paris Cedex 13 (UMR du CNRS 7164) (France); Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Crete Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of Crete,71003 Heraklion (Greece); Mazzanti, Liuba [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University,3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Nitti, Francesco [APC, Université Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Obs. de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité,Bâtiment Condorcet, F-75205, Paris Cedex 13 (UMR du CNRS 7164) (France)
2014-02-19
We extend the holographic trailing string picture of a heavy quark to the case of a bulk geometry dual to a confining gauge theory. We compute the classical trailing confining string solution for a static as well as a uniformly moving quark. The trailing string is infinitely extended and approaches a confining horizon, situated at a critical value of the radial coordinate, along one of the space-time directions, breaking boundary rotational invariance. We compute the equations for the fluctuations around the classical solutions, which are used to obtain boundary force correlators controlling the Langevin dynamics of the quark. The imaginary part of the correlators has a non-trivial low-frequency limit, which gives rise to a viscous friction coefficient induced by the confining vacuum. The vacuum correlators are used to define finite-temperature dressed Langevin correlators with an appropriate high-frequency behavior.
Evans, N
2003-01-01
String theory began life in the late 1960s as an attempt to understand the properties of nuclear matter such as protons and neutrons. Although it was not successful it has since developed a life of its own as a possible theory of everything - with the potential to incorporate quantum gravity as well as the other forces of nature. However, in a remarkable about face in the last five years, it has now been discovered that string theory and the standard theory of nuclear matter - QCD - might in fact describe the same physics. This is an exciting development that was the centre of discussion at a major workshop in Seattle in February. After spending 30 years as a possible theory of everything, string theory is returning to its roots to describe the interactions of quarks and gluons. (U.K.)
Non-perturbative effects and the refined topological string
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Marino, Marcos [Geneve Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. de Physique Theorique et Section de Mathematiques; Moriyama, Sanefumi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Kobayashi Maskawa Inst.; Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Mathematics; Okuyama, Kazumi [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Physics
2013-06-15
The partition function of ABJM theory on the three-sphere has non-perturbative corrections due to membrane instantons in the M-theory dual. We show that the full series of membrane instanton corrections is completely determined by the refined topological string on the Calabi-Yau manifold known as local P{sup 1} x P{sup 1}, in the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit. Our result can be interpreted as a first-principles derivation of the full series of non-perturbative effects for the closed topological string on this Calabi-Yau background. Based on this, we make a proposal for the non-perturbative free energy of topological strings on general, local Calabi-Yau manifolds.
Non-perturbative effects and the refined topological string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hatsuda, Yasuyuki; Tokyo Institute of Technology; Marino, Marcos; Moriyama, Sanefumi; Nagoya Univ.; Okuyama, Kazumi
2013-06-01
The partition function of ABJM theory on the three-sphere has non-perturbative corrections due to membrane instantons in the M-theory dual. We show that the full series of membrane instanton corrections is completely determined by the refined topological string on the Calabi-Yau manifold known as local P 1 x P 1 , in the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit. Our result can be interpreted as a first-principles derivation of the full series of non-perturbative effects for the closed topological string on this Calabi-Yau background. Based on this, we make a proposal for the non-perturbative free energy of topological strings on general, local Calabi-Yau manifolds.
Deriving the four-string and open-closed string interactions from geometric string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaku, M.
1990-01-01
One of the questions concerning the covariant open string field theory is why there are two distinct BRST theories and why the four-string interaction appears in one version but not the other. The authors solve this mystery by showing that both theories are gauge-fixed versions of a higher gauge theory, called the geometric string field theory, with a new field, a string verbein e μσ νρ , which allows us to gauge the string length and σ parametrization. By fixing the gauge, the authors can derive the endpoint gauge (the covariantized light cone gauge), the midpoint gauge of Witten, or the interpolating gauge with arbitrary string length. The authors show explicitly that the four-string interaction is a gauge artifact of the geometric theory (the counterpart of the four-fermion instantaneous Coulomb term of QED). By choosing the interpolating gauge, they produce a new class of four-string interactions which smoothly interpolate between the endpoint gauge and the midpoint gauge (where it vanishes). Similarly, they can extract the closed string as a bound state of the open string, which appears in the endpoint gauge but vanishes in the midpoint gauge. Thus, the four-string and open-closed string interactions do not have to be added to the action as long as the string vierbein is included
Instability of colliding metastable strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hiramatsu, Takashi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Yukawa Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Eto, Minoru [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Ookouchi, Yutaka [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kyoto Univ. (Japan). The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research
2013-04-15
We investigate the collision dynamics of two metastable strings which can be viewed as tube-like domain walls with winding numbers interpolating a false vacuum and a true vacuum. We find that depending on the relative angle and speed of two strings, instability of strings increases and the false vacuum is filled out by rapid expansion of the strings or of a remnant of the collision.
String theory in four dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dine, M.
1988-01-01
A representative sample of current ideas about how one might develop a string phenomenology is presented. Some of the obstacles which lie in between string theory and contact with experiment are described. It is hoped that this volume will provide the reader with ways of thinking about string theory in four dimensions and provide tools for asking questions about string theory and ordinary physics. 102 refs
Large-D gravity and low-D strings.
Emparan, Roberto; Grumiller, Daniel; Tanabe, Kentaro
2013-06-21
We show that in the limit of a large number of dimensions a wide class of nonextremal neutral black holes has a universal near-horizon limit. The limiting geometry is the two-dimensional black hole of string theory with a two-dimensional target space. Its conformal symmetry explains the properties of massless scalars found recently in the large-D limit. For black branes with string charges, the near-horizon geometry is that of the three-dimensional black strings of Horne and Horowitz. The analogies between the α' expansion in string theory and the large-D expansion in gravity suggest a possible effective string description of the large-D limit of black holes. We comment on applications to several subjects, in particular to the problem of critical collapse.
Cover array string reconstruction
Crochemore, Maxime; S. Iliopoulos, Costas; P. Pissis, Solon; Tischler, German
2010-01-01
International audience; A proper factor u of a string y is a cover of y if every letter of y is within some occurrence of u in y. The concept generalises the notion of periods of a string. An integer array C is the minimal-cover (resp. maximal-cover) array of y if C[i] is the minimal (resp. maximal) length of covers of y[0.. i], or zero if no cover exists. In this paper, we present a constructive algorithm checking the validity of an array as a minimal-cover or maximal-cover array of some str...
Color characters for white hot string bits
Curtright, Thomas L.; Raha, Sourav; Thorn, Charles B.
2017-10-01
The state space of a generic string bit model is spanned by N ×N matrix creation operators acting on a vacuum state. Such creation operators transform in the adjoint representation of the color group U (N ) [or S U (N ) if the matrices are traceless]. We consider a system of b species of bosonic bits and f species of fermionic bits. The string, emerging in the N →∞ limit, identifies P+=m M √{2 } where M is the bit number operator and P-=H √{2 } where H is the system Hamiltonian. We study the thermal properties of this string bit system in the case H =0 , which can be considered the tensionless string limit: the only dynamics is restricting physical states to color singlets. Then the thermal partition function Tr e-β m M can be identified, putting x =e-β m, with a generating function χ0b f(x ), for which the coefficient of xn in its expansion about x =0 is the number of color singlets with bit number M =n . This function is a purely group theoretic object, which is well studied in the literature. We show that at N =∞ this system displays a Hagedorn divergence at x =1 /(b +f ) with ultimate temperature TH=m /ln (b +f ). The corresponding function for finite N is perfectly finite for 0
String theory in four dimensions
1988-01-01
``String Theory in Four Dimensions'' contains a representative collection of papers dealing with various aspects of string phenomenology, including compactifications on smooth manifolds and more general conformal field theories. Together with the lucid introduction by M. Dine, this material gives the reader a good working knowledge of our present ideas for connecting string theory to nature.
Why Strings? Grand Masters Series.
Klotman, Robert H.
2000-01-01
Discusses the reasons to teach stringed instruments: (1) strings can be adapted to the size of the child; (2) home performance material resource availability; (3) stringed music skills contribute to developing basic skills; and (4) the importance of interaction in music. (CMK)
Open parabosonic string theory between two parallel Dp-branes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hamam, D.; Belaloui, N. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Universite de Jijel (Algeria); Laboratoire de Physique Mathematique et Subatomique, Universite Mentouri Constantine (Algeria)
2012-06-27
We investigate an open parabosonic string theory between two parallel Dp-branes. The spectrum is constructed and the partition function is derived. A common chord between the development of this latter and the degeneracy of the states for each mass level is obtained. The theory is consistent and with no tachyon. The Virasoro algebra is derived and compared to the one of the ordinary case.
Strings in horizons, dissipation and a possible interpretation of the Hagedorn temperature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abdalla, M.C.B. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT/UNESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Botta Cantcheff, M. [Instituto de Fisica La Plata, CONICET, UNLP, CC 67, La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nedel, D.L. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT/UNESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); UFPEL/UNIPAMPA-Bage, Bage, RS (Brazil)
2008-03-15
We consider the entanglement of closed bosonic strings intersecting the event horizon of a Rindler spacetime, and, by using some simplified (rather semiclassical) arguments and some elements of the string field theory, we show the existence of a critical temperature beyond which closed strings cannot be in thermal equilibrium. The order of magnitude of this critical value coincides with the Hagedorn temperature, which suggests an interpretation consistent with the fact of having a partition function that is ill defined for temperatures higher than it. Possible implications of the present approach for the microscopical structure of stretched horizons are also pointed out. (orig.)
Tsutsumanova, Gichka; Russev, Stoyan
2013-01-01
A simple experiment demonstrating the excitation of a standing wave in a metal string is presented here. Several tasks using the set-up are considered, which help the students to better understand the standing waves, the interaction between electric current and magnetic field and the resonance phenomena. This can serve also as a good lecture…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco A.C. Kneipp
2016-12-01
Full Text Available We consider a Yang–Mills–Higgs theory with the gauge group SU(3 broken to its center Z3 by two scalar fields in the adjoint representation and obtain new Z3 strings asymptotic configurations with the gauge field and magnetic field in the direction of the step operators.
On exceptional instanton strings
Del Zotto, M.; Lockhart, G.
According to a recent classification of 6d (1, 0) theories within F-theory there are only six “pure” 6d gauge theories which have a UV superconformal fixed point. The corresponding gauge groups are SU(3), SO(8), F4, E6, E7, and E8. These exceptional models have BPS strings which are also instantons
Hypermultiplets and topological strings
Rocek, M.; Vafa, C.; Vandoren, S.
2005-01-01
The c-map relates classical hypermultiplet moduli spaces in compactifications of type II strings on a Calabi-Yau threefold to vector multiplet moduli spaces via a further compactification on a circle. We give an off-shell description of the c-map in N = 2 superspace. The superspace Lagrangian for
SUPERCOLLIDER: String test success
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1992-01-01
On 14 August at the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) Laboratory in Ellis County, Texas, the Accelerator Systems String Test (ASST) successfully met its objective by operating a half-cell of five collider dipole magnets, one quadrupole magnet, and two spool pieces at the design current of 6500 amperes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schäfer, Mirko; Greiner, Martin
Chaotic strings are coupled Tchebyscheff maps on a ring-network. With a well-specified empirical prescription they are able to explain the coupling constants of the standard model of elementary particle physics. This empirical relationship is tested further by introducing a tunable disorder to ch...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schäfer, Mirko; Greiner, Martin
2011-01-01
Chaotic strings are coupled Tchebyscheff maps on a ring-network. With a well-specified empirical prescription they are able to explain the coupling constants of the standard model of elementary particle physics. This empirical relationship is tested further by introducing a tunable disorder to ch...
2007-01-01
"How can the nature of basic particles be defined beyond the mechanisms presiding over their creation? Besides the standard model of particle physics - resulting from the postulations of quantum mechanics - contemporary science has pinned its hopes on the totally new unifying notion provided by the highly mathematical string theory."(2 pages)
Lectures on strings and dualities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vafa, C.
1997-01-01
In this set of lectures I review recent developments in string theory emphasizing their non-perturbative aspects and their recently discovered duality symmetries. The goal of the lectures is to make the recent exciting developments in string theory accessible to those with no previous background in string theory who wish to join the research effort in this area. Topics covered include a brief review of string theory, its compactifications, solitons and D-branes, black hole entropy and wed of string dualities. (author)
Deformed Topological Partition Function and Nekrasov Backgrounds
Antoniadis, I; Narain, K S; Taylor, T R
2010-01-01
A deformation of the N=2 topological string partition function is analyzed by considering higher dimensional F-terms of the type W^{2g}*Upsilon^n, where W is the chiral Weyl superfield and each Upsilon factor stands for the chiral projection of a real function of N=2 vector multiplets. These terms generate physical amplitudes involving two anti-self-dual Riemann tensors, 2g-2 anti-self-dual graviphoton field strengths and 2n self-dual field strengths from the matter vector multiplets. Their coefficients F_{g,n} generalizing the genus g partition function F_{g,0} of the topological twisted type II theory, can be used to define a generating functional by introducing deformation parameters besides the string coupling. Choosing all matter field strengths to be that of the dual heterotic dilaton supermultiplet, one obtains two parameters that we argue should correspond to the deformation parameters of the Nekrasov partition function in the field theory limit, around the conifold singularity. Its perturbative part ...
Device for balancing parallel strings
Mashikian, Matthew S.
1985-01-01
A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means in association with each of the battery strings in the battery plant for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings by equalizing the voltage across each of the battery strings. Each of the magnetic circuit means generally comprises means for sensing the electrical current flow through one of the battery strings, and a saturable reactor having a main winding connected electrically in series with the battery string, a bias winding connected to a source of alternating current and a control winding connected to a variable source of direct current controlled by the sensing means. Each of the battery strings is formed by a plurality of batteries connected electrically in series, and these battery strings are connected electrically in parallel across common bus conductors.
Gravitational effects of global strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aryal, M.; Everett, A.E.
1986-01-01
We have obtained the gravitational field, in the weak-field approximation, of cosmic strings formed in a phase transition in which a global symmetry is broken (global strings). The effect of this field on light rays passing a global string is found, and the resulting formation of double images and production of discontinuities in the microwave background temperature compared with the corresponding results for gauge strings. There are some differences in the case of global strings, reflecting the fact that the space surrounding such strings is not purely conical. However, the differences between gauge and global strings with masses suitable to explain galaxy formation are small, and the task of distinguishing them observationally appears difficult at best
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Riordan, M. [Stanford University and the University of California, Santa Cruz (United States)]. E-mail: mriordan@ucsc.edu
2007-02-15
In the last few decades, however, physical theory has drifted away from the professional norms advocated by Newton and other enlightenment philosophers. A vast outpouring of hypotheses has occurred under the umbrella of what is widely called string theory. But string theory is not really a 'theory' at all - at least not in the strict sense that scientists generally use the term. It is instead a dense, weedy thicket of hypotheses and conjectures badly in need of pruning. That pruning, however, can come only from observation and experiment, to which string theory (a phrase I will grudgingly continue using) is largely inaccessible. String theory was invented in the 1970s in the wake of the Standard Model of particle physics. Encouraged by the success of gauge theories of the strong, weak and electromagnetic forces, theorists tried to extend similar ideas to energy and distance scales that are orders of magnitude beyond what can be readily observed or measured. The normal, healthy intercourse between theory and experiment - which had led to the Standard Model - has broken down, and fundamental physics now finds itself in a state of crisis. So it is refreshing to hear from a theorist - one who was deeply involved with string theory and championed it in his previous book, Three Roads to Quantum Gravity - that all is not well in this closeted realm. Smolin argues from the outset that viable hypotheses must lead to observable consequences by which they can be tested and judged. String theory by its very nature does not allow for such probing, according to Smolin, and therefore it must be considered as an unprovable conjecture. Towards the end of his book, Smolin suggests other directions fundamental physics can take, particularly in the realm of quantum gravity, to resolve its crisis and reconnect with the observable world. From my perspective, he leans a bit too heavily towards highly speculative ideas such as doubly special relativity, modified Newtonian
String graph construction using incremental hashing.
Ben-Bassat, Ilan; Chor, Benny
2014-12-15
New sequencing technologies generate larger amount of short reads data at decreasing cost. De novo sequence assembly is the problem of combining these reads back to the original genome sequence, without relying on a reference genome. This presents algorithmic and computational challenges, especially for long and repetitive genome sequences. Most existing approaches to the assembly problem operate in the framework of de Bruijn graphs. Yet, a number of recent works use the paradigm of string graph, using a variety of methods for storing and processing suffixes and prefixes, like suffix arrays, the Burrows-Wheeler transform or the FM index. Our work is motivated by a search for new approaches to constructing the string graph, using alternative yet simple data structures and algorithmic concepts. We introduce a novel hash-based method for constructing the string graph. We use incremental hashing, and specifically a modification of the Karp-Rabin fingerprint, and Bloom filters. Using these probabilistic methods might create false-positive and false-negative edges during the algorithm's execution, but these are all detected and corrected. The advantages of the proposed approach over existing methods are its simplicity and the incorporation of established probabilistic techniques in the context of de novo genome sequencing. Our preliminary implementation is favorably comparable with the first string graph construction of Simpson and Durbin (2010) (but not with subsequent improvements). Further research and optimizations will hopefully enable the algorithm to be incorporated, with noticeable performance improvement, in state-of-the-art string graph-based assemblers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
String theory and applications to phenomenology and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Florakis, I.G.
2011-07-01
This thesis treats applications of String Theory to problems of cosmology and high energy phenomenology. In particular, we investigate problems related to the description of the initial state of the universe, using the methods of perturbative String Theory. After a review of the string-theoretic tools that will be employed, we discuss a novel degeneracy symmetry between the bosonic and fermionic massive towers of states (MSDS symmetry), living at particular points of moduli space. We study the marginal deformations of MSDS vacua and exhibit their natural thermal interpretation, in connection with the resolution of the Hagedorn divergences of string thermodynamics. The cosmological evolution of a special, 2-dimensional thermal 'Hybrid' model is presented and the correct implementation of the full stringy degrees of freedom leads to the absence of gravitational singularities, within a fully perturbative treatment. (author)
SAGE: String-overlap Assembly of GEnomes.
Ilie, Lucian; Haider, Bahlul; Molnar, Michael; Solis-Oba, Roberto
2014-09-15
De novo genome assembly of next-generation sequencing data is one of the most important current problems in bioinformatics, essential in many biological applications. In spite of significant amount of work in this area, better solutions are still very much needed. We present a new program, SAGE, for de novo genome assembly. As opposed to most assemblers, which are de Bruijn graph based, SAGE uses the string-overlap graph. SAGE builds upon great existing work on string-overlap graph and maximum likelihood assembly, bringing an important number of new ideas, such as the efficient computation of the transitive reduction of the string overlap graph, the use of (generalized) edge multiplicity statistics for more accurate estimation of read copy counts, and the improved use of mate pairs and min-cost flow for supporting edge merging. The assemblies produced by SAGE for several short and medium-size genomes compared favourably with those of existing leading assemblers. SAGE benefits from innovations in almost every aspect of the assembly process: error correction of input reads, string-overlap graph construction, read copy counts estimation, overlap graph analysis and reduction, contig extraction, and scaffolding. We hope that these new ideas will help advance the current state-of-the-art in an essential area of research in genomics.
String theory and the path to unification: A review of recent developments
Dienes, Keith R.
1997-08-01
This is a pedagogical review article surveying the various approaches towards understanding gauge coupling unification within string theory. As is well known, one of the major problems confronting string phenomenology has been an apparent discrepancy between the scale of gauge coupling unification predicted within string theory, and the unification scale expected within the framework of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). In this article, I provide an overview of the different approaches that have been taken in recent years towards reconciling these two scales, and outline some of the major recent developments in each. These approaches include string GUT models; higher affine levels and non-standard hypercharge normalizations; heavy string threshold corrections; light supersymmetric thresholds; effects from intermediate-scale gauge and matter structure beyond the MSSM; strings without supersymmetry; and strings at strong coupling.
The theta-structure in string theories - 1: bosonic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Miao.
1985-09-01
We explored the theta-structures in bosonic string theories which are similar to those in gauge field theories. The theta-structure of string is due to the multiply connected spatial compact subspace of space-time. The work of this paper shows that there is an energy band E(theta) in the string theory and one may move the tachyon out in theory by choosing some proper theta parameters. (author)
Half-string oscillator approach to string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bordes, J.; Chan Hongmo; Nellen, L.; Tsou Sheungtsun
1989-05-01
We give an operator formulation of the string field theory proposed by E. Witten using half-string oscillator modes. This formalism, identifying the physical string states as infinite matrices, is developed in such a way that interactions at the level of vertices can be calculated in terms of products and traces of these matrices without relying on ill-defined manipulations of functional integrals. (author)
A new method for finding vacua in string phenomenology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gray, James [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris and APC, Universite de Paris 7, 98 bis, Bd. Arago 75014, Paris (France); He, Yang-Hui [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)]|[Merton College, Oxford, OX1 4JD and Mathematical Institute, Oxford University, Oxford (United Kingdom); Ilderton, Anton [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Lukas, Andre [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)
2007-05-15
One of the central problems of string-phenomenology is to find stable vacua in the four dimensional effective theories which result from compactification. We present an algorithmic method to find all of the vacua of any given string-phenomenological system in a huge class. In particular, this paper reviews and then extends hep-th/0606122 to include various nonperturbative effects. These include gaugino condensation and instantonic contributions to the superpotential. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fradkin, E.S.; Tseytlin, A.A.
1982-10-15
We discuss and compare the Lorentz covariant path integral quantization of the three bose string models, namely, the Nambu, Eguchi and Brink-Di Vecchai-Howe-Polyakov (BDHP) ones. Along with a critical review of the subject with some uncertainties and ambiguities clearly stated, various new results are presented. We work out the form of the BDHP string ansatz for the Wilson average and prove a formal inequivalence of the exact Nambu and BDHP models for any space-time dimension d. The above three models known to be equivalent on the classical level, are shown to be equivalent in a semiclassical approximation near a minimal surface and also in the leading 1/d-approximation for the static q-barq-potential. We analyze scattering amplitudes predicted by the BDHP string and find that when exactly calculated for d<26 they are different from the old dual ones, and possess a non-linear spectrum which may be considered as free from tachyons in the ground state.
An invariant string propagator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, A.; Moore, G.; Nelson, P.; Polchinski, J.
1986-01-01
The authors show that the Polyakov path integral is used to define off-shell quantities in string theory. The path integral of Polyakov gives an elegant description of strings and their interactions. However, its use has been limited to obtaining the Koba-Nielsen expressions for S-matrix elements. It is not yet clear what quantities make sense in string theory. This study shows that the path integral can be used to define off-shell quantities as well. In particular it defines a natural n-point function in loop space as the sum of all world surfaces bounded by n specific spacetime curves. The reader is referred for more detail. The report first outlines general evaluation then discusses the additional features added by boundaries. Locally, the three gauge freedoms ξ/sup a/ and δphi can be used to take g/sub ab/ (σ) to the unit matrix. Globally, this is not quite possible. In general the researchers choose a family of fiducial metrics g/sub ab/ (σ,tau), depending on a finite number of Teichmuller parameters tau, and every metric is gauge equivalent to one of these
How to simulate global cosmic strings with large string tension
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klaer, Vincent B.; Moore, Guy D., E-mail: vklaer@theorie.ikp.physik.tu-darmstadt.de, E-mail: guy.moore@physik.tu-darmstadt.de [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 2, Darmstadt, D-64289 Germany (Germany)
2017-10-01
Global string networks may be relevant in axion production in the early Universe, as well as other cosmological scenarios. Such networks contain a large hierarchy of scales between the string core scale and the Hubble scale, ln( f {sub a} / H ) ∼ 70, which influences the network dynamics by giving the strings large tensions T ≅ π f {sub a} {sup 2} ln( f {sub a} / H ). We present a new numerical approach to simulate such global string networks, capturing the tension without an exponentially large lattice.
Maximal unbordered factors of random strings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cording, Patrick Hagge; Knudsen, Mathias Bæk Tejs
2016-01-01
A border of a string is a non-empty prefix of the string that is also a suffix of the string, and a string is unbordered if it has no border. Loptev, Kucherov, and Starikovskaya [CPM 2015] conjectured the following: If we pick a string of length n from a fixed alphabet uniformly at random...
Wilson-Polyakov loops for critical strings and superstrings at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, M.B.
1992-01-01
An open string with end-points fixed at spatial separation L is a string theory analogue of the static quark-antiquark system in quenched QCD. Folowing a review of the quantum mechanics of this system in critical bosonic string theory the partition function at finite β (the inverse temperature) for fixed end-point open strings is discussed. This is related by a conformal transformation ('world-sheet duality') to the correlation function of two closed strings fixed at distinct spatial points (a string theory analogue of two Wilson-Polyakov loops). Temperature duality (β → β' = 4π 2 /β) relates this correlation function, in turn, to the finite-temperature Green function for a closed strong propagating between initial and final states that are at distinct (euclidean) space-time points. In addition, spatial duality relates the fixed end-point open string to the familiar open string with free end-points. A generalization to fixed end-points superstrings is suggested, in which the superalgebra may be viewed as the spatial dual of the usual open-string superalgebra. At zero temperature world-sheet duality relates the partition function of supersymmetric fixed end-point open strings to the correlation function of point-like closed-string states. These couple to combinations of the scalar and pseudoscalar states of a type-2b superstring superfield. At finite temperature supersymmetry is broken and this correlation function involves the propagation of non-supersymmetric states with non-zero winding numbers (which formally include a tachyon at temperatures above the Hagedorn transition). Temperature duality again relates the partition function to the finite-temperature Green function describing the propagator for point-like closed-string states of the dual theory, in which supersymmetry is broken. The singularity that arises in the critical bosonic theory as L is reduced below L = 2 π√α' is absent in the superstring and the static potential is well defined for all
String creation, D-branes and effective field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hung Lingyan
2008-01-01
This paper addresses several unsettled issues associated with string creation in systems of orthogonal Dp-D(8-p) branes. The interaction between the branes can be understood either from the closed string or open string picture. In the closed string picture it has been noted that the DBI action fails to capture an extra RR exchange between the branes. We demonstrate how this problem persists upon lifting to M-theory. These D-brane systems are analysed in the closed string picture by using gauge-fixed boundary states in a non-standard lightcone gauge, in which RR exchange can be analysed precisely. The missing piece in the DBI action also manifests itself in the open string picture as a mismatch between the Coleman-Weinberg potential obtained from the effective field theory and the corresponding open string calculation. We show that this difference can be reconciled by taking into account the superghosts in the (0+1) effective theory of the chiral fermion, that arises from gauge fixing the spontaneously broken world-line local supersymmetries
Quantum stabilization of a hedgehog type of cosmic string
Quandt, M.; Graham, N.; Weigel, H.
2017-10-01
Within a slightly simplified version of the electroweak standard model we investigate the stabilization of cosmic strings by fermion quantum fluctuations. Previous studies of quantum energies considered variants of the Nielsen-Olesen profile embedded in the electroweak gauge group and showed that configurations are favored for which the Higgs vacuum expectation value drops near the string core and the gauge field is suppressed. This work found that the strongest binding was obtained from strings that differ significantly from Nielsen-Olesen configurations, deforming essentially only the Higgs field in order to generate a strong attraction without inducing large gradients. Extending this analysis, we consider the leading quantum correction to the energy per unit length of a hedgehog type string, which, in contrast to the Nielsen-Olesen configuration, contains a pseudoscalar field. To employ the spectral method we develop the scattering and bound state problems for fermions in the background of a hedgehog string. Explicit occupation of bound state levels leads to strings that carry the quantum numbers of the bound fermions. We discuss the parameter space for which stable, hedgehog type cosmic strings emerge and reflect on phenomenological consequences of these findings.
Counting Dependent and Independent Strings
Zimand, Marius
We derive quantitative results regarding sets of n-bit strings that have different dependency or independency properties. Let C(x) be the Kolmogorov complexity of the string x. A string y has α dependency with a string x if C(y) - C(y |x) ≥ α. A set of strings {x 1, ..., x t } is pairwise α-independent if for all inot=j, C(x i ) - C(x i |x j ) ≤ α. A tuple of strings (x 1, ..., x t ) is mutually α-independent if C(x π(1) ... x π(t)) ≥ C(x 1) + ... + C(x t ) - α, for every permutation π of [t]. We show that:
Comparing double string theory actions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Angelis, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi “Federico II” di Napoli,Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo ed. 6, via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Gionti, S.J.G. [Specola Vaticana, Vatican City, V-00120, Vatican City State and Vatican Observatory Research Group, Steward Observatory, The University Of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Marotta, R.; Pezzella, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli,Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo ed. 6, via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy)
2014-04-28
Aimed to a deeper comprehension of a manifestly T-dual invariant formulation of string theory, in this paper a detailed comparison between the non-covariant action proposed by Tseytlin and the covariant one proposed by Hull is done. These are obtained by making both the string coordinates and their duals explicitly appear, on the same footing, in the world-sheet action, so “doubling” the string coordinates along the compact dimensions. After a discussion on the nature of the constraints in both the models and the relative quantization, it results that the string coordinates and their duals behave like “non-commuting” phase space coordinates but their expressions in terms of Fourier modes generate the oscillator algebra of the standard bosonic string. A proof of the equivalence of the two formulations is given. Furthermore, open-string solutions are also discussed.
Comparing double string theory actions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Angelis, L.; Gionti, S.J.G.; Marotta, R.; Pezzella, F.
2014-01-01
Aimed to a deeper comprehension of a manifestly T-dual invariant formulation of string theory, in this paper a detailed comparison between the non-covariant action proposed by Tseytlin and the covariant one proposed by Hull is done. These are obtained by making both the string coordinates and their duals explicitly appear, on the same footing, in the world-sheet action, so “doubling” the string coordinates along the compact dimensions. After a discussion on the nature of the constraints in both the models and the relative quantization, it results that the string coordinates and their duals behave like “non-commuting” phase space coordinates but their expressions in terms of Fourier modes generate the oscillator algebra of the standard bosonic string. A proof of the equivalence of the two formulations is given. Furthermore, open-string solutions are also discussed
Anomalous BRST Ward identity in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demichev, A.P.; Iofa, M.Z.
1990-01-01
BRST transformations are studied in the path integral approach to string theory on Riemann surfaces of genus h≥2. The BRST Ward identity (WI) is shown to be anomalous, the anomaly being due to non-invariance of the functional integration domain under BRST transformations. The distinction between complete Lagrange BRST transformations including the metric and the auxiliary field and the commonly used 'truncated' BRST transformation is discussed in detail. The problem of decoupling of spurions from physical operators is investigated. (orig.)
Towards a string formulation of vortex dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elsebeth Schroeder; Ola Toernkvist
1998-01-01
We derive an exact equation of motion for a non-relativistic vortex in two- and three-dimensional models with a complex field. The velocity is given in terms of gradients of the complex field at the vortex position. We discuss the problem of reducing the field dynamics to a closed dynamical system with non-locally interacting strings as the fundamental degrees of freedom
Quantum gravity partition functions in three dimensions
Maloney, Alexander; Witten, Edward
2010-02-01
We consider pure three-dimensional quantum gravity with a negative cosmological constant. The sum of known contributions to the partition function from classical geometries can be computed exactly, including quantum corrections. However, the result is not physically sensible, and if the model does exist, there are some additional contributions. One possibility is that the theory may have long strings and a continuous spectrum. Another possibility is that complex geometries need to be included, possibly leading to a holomorphically factorized partition function. We analyze the subleading corrections to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and show that these can be correctly reproduced in such a holomorphically factorized theory. We also consider the Hawking-Page phase transition between a thermal gas and a black hole and show that it is a phase transition of Lee-Yang type, associated with a condensation of zeros in the complex temperature plane. Finally, we analyze pure three-dimensional supergravity, with similar results.
Classical theory of radiating strings
Copeland, Edmund J.; Haws, D.; Hindmarsh, M.
1990-01-01
The divergent part of the self force of a radiating string coupled to gravity, an antisymmetric tensor and a dilaton in four dimensions are calculated to first order in classical perturbation theory. While this divergence can be absorbed into a renormalization of the string tension, demanding that both it and the divergence in the energy momentum tensor vanish forces the string to have the couplings of compactified N = 1 D = 10 supergravity. In effect, supersymmetry cures the classical infinities.
Introduction to strings and superstrings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Traubenberg, M.R. de.
1988-01-01
We discuss the main features on the formulation of string theory that, in a primitive level, describe the hadronic phenomenon of duality. We also study an extension of the models of closed and strings with spin. Then, by using supersymmetry, it is formulated the theory of superstrings and heterotic strings with the aim of unify the fundamental interactions and matter. (M.W.O.) [pt
Cosmic strings and galaxy formation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kibble, T.W.B.
1986-01-01
The evolution of a system of strings created at a phase transition early in the history of the universe is reviewed. The two possible end points are a string-dominated universe, which behaves much like a matter-dominated one, and a scaling solution, in which the persistence length of the system of strings scales with the horizon distance. The latter is the basis for a very attractive theory of galaxy formation. (Auth.)
Domain Walls with Strings Attached
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shmakova, Marina
2001-08-20
We have constructed a bulk and brane action of IIA theory which describes a pair of BPS domain walls on S{sub 1}/Z{sub 2}, with strings attached. The walls are given by two orientifold O8-planes with coincident D8-branes and F1-D0-strings are stretched between the walls. This static configuration satisfies all matching conditions for the string and domain wall sources and has 1/4 of unbroken supersymmetry.
Kiritsis, Elias
2007-01-01
This book is the essential new introduction to modern string theory, by one of the world's authorities on the subject. Concise, clearly presented, and up-to-date, String Theory in a Nutshell brings together the best understood and most important aspects of a theory that has been evolving since the early 1980s. A core model of physics that substitutes one-dimensional extended ""strings"" for zero-dimensional point-like particles (as in quantum field theory), string theory has been the leading candidate for a theory that would successfully unify all fundamental forces of nature, includin
Evolution of cosmic string networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albrecht, A.; Turok, N.; Princeton Univ., NJ
1989-06-01
We summarize our new results on cosmic strings. These results include: the application of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics to cosmic string evolution, a simple ''one scale'' model for the long strings which has a great deal of predictive power, results from large scale numerical simulations, and a discussion of the observational consequences of our results. An upper bond on Gμ of approximately 10 -7 emerges from the millisecond pulsar gravity wave bound. We discuss how numerical uncertainties affect this. Any changes which weaken the bound would probably also give the long strings the dominant role in producing observational consequences. 22 refs
Haouzi, Nathan; Kozçaz, Can
2017-01-01
Starting from type IIB string theory on an $ADE$ singularity, the (2,0) little string arises when one takes the string coupling $g_s$ to 0. In this setup, we give a unified description of the codimension-two defects of the little string, for any simple Lie algebra ${\\mathfrak{g}}$. Geometrically, these are D5 branes wrapping 2-cycles of the singularity. Equivalently, the defects are specified by a certain set of weights of $^L {\\mathfrak{g}}$, the Langlands dual of ${\\mathfrak{g}}$. As a firs...
Schomerus, Volker
2017-01-01
Since its conception in the 1960s, string theory has been hailed as one of the most promising routes we have to unify quantum mechanics and general relativity. This book provides a concise introduction to string theory explaining central concepts, mathematical tools and covering recent developments in physics including compactifications and gauge/string dualities. With string theory being a multidisciplinary field interfacing with high energy physics, mathematics and quantum field theory, this book is ideal for both students with no previous knowledge of the field and scholars from other disciplines who are looking for an introduction to basic concepts.
Goldbach Partitions and Sequences
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
Properties of Goldbach partitions of numbers, as sums of primes, are presented and their potential applications to cryptography are described. The sequence of the number of partitions has excel- lent randomness properties. Goldbach partitions can be used to create ellipses and circles on the number line and they can also ...
Convex Regression with Interpretable Sharp Partitions.
Petersen, Ashley; Simon, Noah; Witten, Daniela
2016-06-01
We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable on the basis of a small number of covariates, using an interpretable yet non-additive model. We propose convex regression with interpretable sharp partitions (CRISP) for this task. CRISP partitions the covariate space into blocks in a data-adaptive way, and fits a mean model within each block. Unlike other partitioning methods, CRISP is fit using a non-greedy approach by solving a convex optimization problem, resulting in low-variance fits. We explore the properties of CRISP, and evaluate its performance in a simulation study and on a housing price data set.
String tightening as a self-organizing phenomenon.
Banerjee, Bonny
2007-09-01
The phenomenon of self-organization has been of special interest to the neural network community throughout the last couple of decades. In this paper, we study a variant of the self-organizing map (SOM) that models the phenomenon of self-organization of the particles forming a string when the string is tightened from one or both of its ends. The proposed variant, called the string tightening self-organizing neural network (STON), can be used to solve certain practical problems, such as computation of shortest homotopic paths, smoothing paths to avoid sharp turns, computation of convex hull, etc. These problems are of considerable interest in computational geometry, robotics path-planning, artificial intelligence (AI) (diagrammatic reasoning), very large scale integration (VLSI) routing, and geographical information systems. Given a set of obstacles and a string with two fixed terminal points in a 2-D space, the STON model continuously tightens the given string until the unique shortest configuration in terms of the Euclidean metric is reached. The STON minimizes the total length of a string on convergence by dynamically creating and selecting feature vectors in a competitive manner. Proof of correctness of this anytime algorithm and experimental results obtained by its deployment have been presented in the paper.
Strings, Branes and Symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Westerberg, A.
1997-01-01
Recent dramatic progress in the understanding of the non-perturbative structure of superstring theory shows that extended objects of various kinds, collectively referred to as p-branes, are an integral part of the theory. In this thesis, comprising an introductory text and seven appended research papers, we study various aspects of p-branes with relevance for superstring theory. The first part of the introductory text is a brief review of string theory focussing on the role of p-branes. In particular, we consider the so-called D-branes which currently are attracting a considerable amount of attention. The purpose of this part is mainly to put into context the results of paper 4, 5 and 6 concerning action functionals describing the low-energy dynamics of D-branes. The discussion of perturbative string theory given in this part of the introduction is also intended to provide some background to paper 2 which contains an application of the Reggeon-sewing approach to the construction of string vertices. The second part covers a rather different subject, namely higher-dimensional loop algebras and their cohomology, with the aim of facilitating the reading of papers 1, 3 and 7. The relation to p-branes is to be found in paper 1 where we introduce a certain higher-dimensional generalization of the loop algebra and discuss its potential applicability as a symmetry algebra for p-branes. Papers 3 and 7 are mathematically oriented out-growths of this paper addressing the issue of realizing algebras of this kind, known in physics as current algebras, in terms of pseudo differential operators (PSDOs). The main result of paper 3 is a proof of the equivalence between certain Lie-algebra cocycles on the space of second-quantizable PSDOs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Siciliano, E.R.
1998-05-12
Data and supporting documentation were compiled and analyzed for 26 cases of gas grab samples taken during waste-tank core sampling activities between September 1, 1995 and December 31, 1997. These cases were tested against specific criteria to reduce uncertainties associated with in-tank sampling location and conditions. Of the 26 possible cases, 16 qualified as drill-string grab samples most likely to represent recently released waste gases. The data from these 16 ``confirmed`` cases were adjusted to remove non-waste gas contributions from core-sampling activities (argon or nitrogen purge), the atmospheric background, and laboratory sampler preparation (helium). The procedure for subtracting atmospheric, laboratory, and argon purge gases was unambiguous. No reliable method for determining the exact amount of nitrogen purge gas was established. Thus, the final set of ``Adjusted`` drill string gas data for the 6 nitrogen-purged cases had a greater degree of uncertainty than the final results for the 10 argon-purged cases. Including the appropriate amounts of uncertainty, this final set of data was added to the set of high-quality results from the Retained Gas Sampler (RGS), and good agreement was found for the N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O mole fractions sampled from common tanks. These results indicate that under favorable sampling conditions, Drill-String (DS) grab samples can provide reasonably accurate information about the dominant species of released gas. One conclusion from this set of total gas data is that the distribution of the H{sub 2} mole fractions is bimodal in shape, with an upper bound of 78%.
The bosonic string represented as φ3 graphs: New Monte Carlo simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ambjoern, J.; Boulatov, D.; Kazakov, V.A.
1990-02-01
We discuss a new method for measuring the critical exponent γ for the partition function of the Bosonic string. The statistics seems very good and the fit to γ consists with the assumed asymptotic form for the partition function for dimensions d=1-6. The results are in agreement with analytical results when the target space dimension is d=0, but disagree when d=1. We conjecture that this is due to the appearance of logarithmic corrections to the asymptotic form of the partition function. These corrections might persist for d>1 and might render a determination of γ quite difficult. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wands, David
2002-01-01
I discuss cosmological models either derived from, or inspired by, string theory or M-theory. In particular, I discuss solutions in the low-energy effective theory and the role of the dilaton, moduli and antisymmetric form fields in the dimensionally reduced effective action. The pre-big-bang model is an attempt to use cosmological solutions to make observational predictions. I then discuss the effective theory of gravity found in recent braneworld models where we live on a 3-brane embedded in a five-dimensional spacetime and how the study of cosmological perturbations may enable us to test these ideas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ip, A.K.; Koyanagi, K.; Tarasuk, W.R.
1976-01-01
A method of fabricating rodded fuels suitable for use in pressure tube type reactors and in pressure vessel type reactors is described. Fuel rods are secured as an inner and an outer sub-assembly, each rod attached between mounting rings secured to the rod ends. The two sub-assemblies are telescoped together and positioned by spaced thimbles located between them to provide precise positioning while permittng differential axial movement between the sub-assemblies. Such sub-assemblies are particularly suited for mounting as bundle strings. The method provides particular advantages in the assembly of annular-section fuel pins, which includes booster fuel containing enriched fuel material. (LL)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kachru, Shamit; McAllister, Liam; Sundrum, Raman
2007-04-04
We study sequestering, a prerequisite for flavor-blind supersymmetry breaking in several high-scale mediation mechanisms, in compactifications of type IIB string theory. We find that although sequestering is typically absent in unwarped backgrounds, strongly warped compactifications do readily sequester. The AdS/CFT dual description in terms of conformal sequestering plays an important role in our analysis, and we establish how sequestering works both on the gravity side and on the gauge theory side. We pay special attention to subtle compactification effects that can disrupt sequestering. Our result is a step toward realizing an appealing pattern of soft terms in a KKLT compactification.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kachru, Shamit; McAllister, Liam; Sundrum, Raman
2007-01-01
We study sequestering, a prerequisite for flavor-blind supersymmetry breaking in several high-scale mediation mechanisms, in compactifications of type IIB string theory. We find that although sequestering is typically absent in unwarped backgrounds, strongly warped compactifications do readily sequester. The AdS/CFT dual description in terms of conformal sequestering plays an important role in our analysis, and we establish how sequestering works both on the gravity side and on the gauge theory side. We pay special attention to subtle compactification effects that can disrupt sequestering. Our result is a step toward realizing an appealing pattern of soft terms in a KKLT compactification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amin Boumenir
2008-07-01
Full Text Available We investigate the existence and representation of transmutations, also known as transformation operators, for strings. Using measure theory and functional analytic methods we prove their existence and study their representation. We show that in general they are not close to unity since their representation does not involve a Volterra operator but rather the eigenvalue parameter. We also obtain conditions under which the transmutation is either a bounded or a compact operator. Explicit examples show that they cannot be reduced to Volterra type operators.
New ambitwistor string theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Casali, Eduardo [DAMTP, University of Cambridge,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Geyer, Yvonne; Mason, Lionel; Monteiro, Ricardo [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford,Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Roehrig, Kai A. [DAMTP, University of Cambridge,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)
2015-11-05
We describe new ambitwistor string theories that give rise to the recent amplitude formulae for Einstein-Yang-Mills, (Dirac)-Born-Infeld, Galileons and others introduced by Cachazo, He and Yuan. In the case of the Einstein-Yang-Mills amplitudes, an important role is played by a novel worldsheet conformal field theory that provides the appropriate colour factors precisely without the spurious multitrace terms of earlier models that had to be ignored by hand. This is needed to obtain the correct multitrace terms that arise when Yang-Mills is coupled to gravity.
On small vibrations of a damped Stieltjes string
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olga Boyko
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Inverse problem of recovering masses, coefficients of damping and lengths of the intervals between the masses using two spectra of boundary value problems and the total length of the Stieltjes string (an elastic thread bearing point masses is considered. For the case of point-wise damping at the first counting from the right end mass the problem of recovering the masses, the damping coefficient and the lengths of the subintervals by one spectrum and the total length of the string is solved.
String Theory and the Path to Unification: A Review of Recent Developments
Dienes, Keith R.
1996-01-01
This is a pedagogical review article surveying the various approaches towards understanding gauge coupling unification within string theory. As is well known, one of the major problems confronting string phenomenology has been an apparent discrepancy between the scale of gauge coupling unification predicted within string theory, and the unification scale expected within the framework of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). In this article, I provide an overview of the different a...
On variable length induced vibrations of a vertical string
Sandilo, Sajad H.; van Horssen, Wim T.
2014-05-01
The purpose of this paper is to study the free lateral responses of vertically translating media with variable length, velocity and tension, subject to general initial conditions. The translating media are modeled as taut strings with fixed boundaries. The problem can be used as a simple model to describe the lateral vibrations of an elevator cable, for which the length changes linearly in time, or for which the length changes harmonically about a constant mean length. In this paper an initial-boundary value problem for a linear, axially moving string equation is formulated. In the given model a rigid body is attached to the lower end of the string, and the suspension of this rigid body against the guide rails is assumed to be rigid. For linearly length variations it is assumed that the axial velocity of the string is small compared to nominal wave velocity and the string mass is small compared to car mass, and for the harmonically length variations small oscillation amplitudes are assumed and it is also assumed that the string mass is small compared to the total mass of the string and the car. A multiple-timescales perturbation method is used to construct formal asymptotic approximations of the solutions to show the complicated dynamical behavior of the string. For the linearly varying length analytic approximations of the exact solution are compared with numerical solution. For the harmonically varying length it will be shown that Galerkin's truncation method cannot be applied in all cases to obtain approximations valid on long timescales.
Dogs (Canis familiaris) can learn to attend to connectivity in string pulling tasks.
Riemer, Stefanie; Müller, Corsin; Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig
2014-02-01
String pulling tasks are commonly used to investigate recognition of means-end connections. Previous studies suggested that dogs base their choice on proximity rather than connectivity (Osthaus, Lea, & Slater, 2005), nonetheless, dogs performed successfully in the related support problem (Range, Hentrup, & Virányi, 2011). To reinvestigate dogs' means-end understanding, we tested 34 Border collies in string pulling tasks in which the proximity of the reward to the connected string's end was varied. First, subjects were presented with a four-string task (four parallel perpendicular strings, one baited, with the reward in line with the correct string's end). Dogs that performed above chance in this task were tested with a curved string task, involving one straight and one curved string. When the reward was attached to the curved string, it was equidistant from both strings' ends so that choosing by proximity was not possible. Although group level performance was significantly above chance, only three of 20 dogs met criterion individually, of which one dog subsequently solved a broken string task upon its first presentation. However, the dogs seemed to be unable to overcome their proximity bias in a parallel diagonal string task where proximity of the unconnected string's end to the reward was misleading. We conclude that although dogs may not demonstrate means-end understanding spontaneously, some can learn to pay attention to connectivity when proximity is not a confounding factor. This study supports the notion that animals may apply several alternative strategies to solve physical problems, which are influenced by the test-setup.
Ng, Chiu-king
2010-01-01
When one end of a taut horizontal elastic string is shaken repeatedly up and down, a transverse wave (assume sine waveform) will be produced and travel along it. College students know this type of wave motion well. They know when the wave passes by, each element of the string will perform an oscillating up-down motion, which in mechanics is termed…
Experimenting with String Musical Instruments
LoPresto, Michael C.
2012-01-01
What follows are several investigations involving string musical instruments developed for and used in a "Science of Sound & Light" course. The experiments make use of a guitar, orchestral string instruments and data collection and graphing software. They are designed to provide students with concrete examples of how mathematical formulae, when…
2001-01-01
String 2 is a series of superconducting magnets that are prototypes of those which will be installed in the LHC. It was cooled down to 1.9 Kelvin on September 14th. On Thursday last week, the dipoles of String 2 were successfully taken to nominal current, 11850 A.
Differential formulation in string theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guzzo, M.M.
1987-01-01
The equations of gauge invariance motion for theories of boson open strings and Neveu-Schwarz and Ramond superstring are derived. A construction for string theories using differential formalism, is introduced. The importance of BRST charge for constructing such theories and the necessity of introduction of auxiliary fields are verified. (M.C.K.) [pt
Progress in string theory research
2016-01-01
At the first look, the String Theory seems just an interesting and non-trivial application of the quantum mechanics and the special relativity to vibrating strings. By itself, the quantization of relativistic strings does not call the attention of the particle physicist as a significant paradigm shift. However, when the string quantization is performed by applying the standard rules of the perturbative Quantum Field Theory, one discovers that the strings in certain states have the same physical properties as the gravity in the flat space-time. Chapter one of this book reviews the construction of the thermal bosonic string and D-brane in the framework of the Thermo Field Dynamics (TFD). It briefly recalls the wellknown light-cone quantization of the bosonic string in the conformal gauge in flat space-time, and gives a bird’s eye view of the fundamental concepts of the TFD. Chapter two examines a visual model inspired by string theory, on the system of interacting anyons. Chapter three investigate the late-ti...
Deformations of topological open strings
Hofman, C.; Ma, Whee Ky
Deformations of topological open string theories are described, with an emphasis on their algebraic structure. They are encoded in the mixed bulk-boundary correlators. They constitute the Hochschild complex of the open string algebra - the complex of multilinear maps on the boundary Hilbert space.
Tadpole resummations in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitazawa, Noriaki
2008-01-01
While R-R tadpoles should be canceled for consistency, string models with broken supersymmetry generally have uncanceled NS-NS tadpoles. Their presence signals that the background does not solve the field equations, so that these models are in 'wrong' vacua. In this Letter we investigate, with reference to some prototype examples, whether the true values of physical quantities can be recovered resumming the NS-NS tadpoles, hence by an approach that is related to the analysis based on String Field Theory by open-closed duality. We show that, indeed, the positive classical vacuum energy of a Dp-brane of the bosonic string is exactly canceled by the negative contribution arising from tree-level tadpole resummation, in complete agreement with Sen's conjecture on open-string tachyon condensation and with the consequent analysis based on String Field Theory. We also show that the vanishing classical vacuum energy of the SO(8192) unoriented bosonic open-string theory does not receive any tree-level corrections from the tadpole resummation. This result is consistent with the fact that this (unstable) configuration is free from tadpoles of massless closed-string modes, although there is a tadpole of the closed string tachyon. The application of this method to superstring models with broken supersymmetry is also discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iyer, Ramakrishnan; Johnson, Clifford V; Pennington, Jeffrey S
2011-01-01
We uncover a remarkable role that an infinite hierarchy of nonlinear differential equations plays in organizing and connecting certain c-hat <1 string theories non-perturbatively. We are able to embed the type 0A and 0B (A, A) minimal string theories into this single framework. The string theories arise as special limits of a rich system of equations underpinned by an integrable system known as the dispersive water wave hierarchy. We observe that there are several other string-like limits of the system, and conjecture that some of them are type IIA and IIB (A, D) minimal string backgrounds. We explain how these and several string-like special points arise and are connected. In some cases, the framework endows the theories with a non-perturbative definition for the first time. Notably, we discover that the Painleve IV equation plays a key role in organizing the string theory physics, joining its siblings, Painleve I and II, whose roles have previously been identified in this minimal string context.
String-localized quantum fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mund, Jens; Santos, Jose Amancio dos; Silva, Cristhiano Duarte; Oliveira, Erichardson de
2009-01-01
Full text. The principles of physics admit (unobservable) quantum fields which are localized not on points, but on strings in the sense of Mandelstam: a string emanates from a point in Minkowski space and extends to infinity in some space-like direction. This type of localization might permit the construction of new models, for various reasons: (a) in general, weaker localization implies better UV behaviour. Therefore, the class of renormalizable interactions in the string-localized has a chance to be larger than in the point-localized case; (b) for certain particle types, there are no point-localized (free) quantum fields - for example Anyons in d = 2 + 1, and Wigner's massless 'infinite spin' particles. For the latter, free string-localized quantum fields have been constructed; (c) in contrast to the point-localized case, string-localization admits covariant vector/tensor potentials for fotons and gravitons in a Hilbert space representation with positive energy. We shall present free string-localized quantum fields for various particle types, and some ideas about the perturbative construction of interacting string-localized fields. A central point will be an analogue of gauge theories, completely within a Hilbert space and without ghosts, trading gauge dependence with dependence on the direction of the localization string. In order to discuss renormalizability (item (a)), methods from microlocal analysis (wave front set and scaling degree) are needed. (author)
String theory and cosmological singularities
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
recent times, string theory is providing new perspectives of such singularities which may lead to an understanding of these in the standard framework of time evolution in quantum mechanics. In this article, we describe some of these approaches. Keywords. String theory; cosmological singularities. PACS Nos 11.25.
String theory and particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uranga, Angel
2006-01-01
I will provide a basic introduction to string theory as a unified theory of gravitational and gauge interactions. I will review recent constructions of string theory models leading at low energies to the Standard Model of particle interactions, and which include interesting new phenomenology beyond the standard model, like supersymmetry, boranes, and (possible large) extra dimensions
Bianchi type I string cosmologies
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
sidered to portray early universe reasonably well. Letelier [2] obtained some particular. Bianchi type I string-dust models in which at a certain epoch, strings disappear with a phase transition to an anisotropic fluid. Another Bianchi type I model has been presented by Banerjee et al [3] which obeys Takabayashi's equation of ...
String theory : physics or metaphysics?
Veneziano, Gabriele
2010-01-01
I will give arguments for why the enormous progress made during the last century on understanding elementary particles and their fundamental interactions suggests strings as the truly elementary constituents of Nature. I will then address the issue of whether the string paradigm can in principle be falsified or whether it should be considered as mere metaphysics.
Modeling Regular Replacement for String Constraint Solving
Fu, Xiang; Li, Chung-Chih
2010-01-01
Bugs in user input sanitation of software systems often lead to vulnerabilities. Among them many are caused by improper use of regular replacement. This paper presents a precise modeling of various semantics of regular substitution, such as the declarative, finite, greedy, and reluctant, using finite state transducers (FST). By projecting an FST to its input/output tapes, we are able to solve atomic string constraints, which can be applied to both the forward and backward image computation in model checking and symbolic execution of text processing programs. We report several interesting discoveries, e.g., certain fragments of the general problem can be handled using less expressive deterministic FST. A compact representation of FST is implemented in SUSHI, a string constraint solver. It is applied to detecting vulnerabilities in web applications
Vacuum selection on the string landscape
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tetteh-Lartey, Edward
2007-01-01
I examine some nonanthropic approaches to the string landscape. These approaches are based on finding the initial conditions of the universe using the wave function of the multiverse to select the most probable vacuum out of this landscape. All approaches tackled so far seem to have their own problems and there is no clear-cut alternative to anthropic reasoning. I suggest that finding the initial conditions may be irrelevant since all possible vacua on the landscape are possible initial state conditions and eternal inflation could generate all the other vacua. We are now left to reason out why we are observing the small value of the cosmological constant. I address this issue in the context of noncritical string theory in which all values of the cosmological constant on the landscape are departures from the critical equilibrium state
Poisson hierarchy of discrete strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ioannidou, Theodora, E-mail: ti3@auth.gr [Faculty of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54249, Thessaloniki (Greece); Niemi, Antti J., E-mail: Antti.Niemi@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108, Uppsala (Sweden); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 6083, Fédération Denis Poisson, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F37200, Tours (France); Department of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China)
2016-01-28
The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equation is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra. - Highlights: • Witt (classical Virasoro) algebra is derived in the case of discrete string. • Infinite dimensional hierarchy of Poisson bracket algebras is constructed for discrete strings. • Spinor representation of discrete Frenet equations is developed.
Poisson hierarchy of discrete strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ioannidou, Theodora; Niemi, Antti J.
2016-01-01
The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equation is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra. - Highlights: • Witt (classical Virasoro) algebra is derived in the case of discrete string. • Infinite dimensional hierarchy of Poisson bracket algebras is constructed for discrete strings. • Spinor representation of discrete Frenet equations is developed.
CERN. Geneva
2002-01-01
A theory with such mathematical beauty cannot be wrong: this is one of the main arguments in favour of string theory, which unifies all known physical theories of fundamental interactions in a single coherent description of the universe. But no one has ever observed strings, not even indirectly, nor the space of extra dimensions where they live. However there are good reasons to believe that the 'hidden' dimensions of string theory may be much larger than what we thought in the past and that they may be within experimental reach in the near future - together with the strings themselves. In my talk, I will give an elementary introduction of string theory and describe the main experimental predictions.Organiser(s): Jasper Kirkby / EP DivisionNote: Tea & coffee will be served at 16.00 hrs.
Exactly solvable string models of curved space-time backgrounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Russo, J.G.
1995-01-01
We consider a new 3-parameter class of exact 4-dimensional solutions in closed string theory and solve the corresponding string model, determining the physical spectrum and the partition function. The background fields (4-metric, antisymmetric tensor, two Kaluza-Klein vector fields, dilaton and modulus) generically describe axially symmetric stationary rotating (electro)magnetic flux-tube type universes. Backgrounds of this class include both the ''dilatonic'' (a=1) and ''Kaluza-Klein'' (a=√(3)) Melvin solutions and the uniform magnetic field solution, as well as some singular space-times. Solvability of the string σ-model is related to its connection via duality to a simpler model which is a ''twisted'' product of a flat 2-space and a space dual to 2-plane. We discuss some physical properties of this model (tachyonic instabilities in the spectrum, gyromagnetic ratio, issue of singularities, etc.). It provides one of the first examples of a consistent solvable conformal string model with explicit D=4 curved space-time interpretation. (orig.)
Antusch, Stefan; Cefalà, Francesco; Krippendorf, Sven; Muia, Francesco; Orani, Stefano; Quevedo, Fernando
2018-01-01
A generic feature of string compactifications is the presence of many scalar fields, called moduli. Moduli are usually displaced from their post-inflationary minimum during inflation. Their relaxation to the minimum could lead to the production of oscillons: localised, long-lived, non-linear excitations of the scalar fields. Here we discuss under which conditions oscillons can be produced in string cosmology and illustrate their production and potential phenomenology with two explicit examples: the case of an initially displaced volume modulus in the KKLT scenario and the case of a displaced blow-up Kähler modulus in the Large Volume Scenario (LVS). One, in principle, observable consequence of oscillon dynamics is the production of gravitational waves which, contrary to those produced from preheating after high scale inflation, could have lower frequencies, closer to the currently observable range. We also show that, for the considered parameter ranges, oscillating fibre and volume moduli do not develop any significant non-perturbative dynamics. Furthermore, we find that the vacua in the LVS and the KKLT scenario are stable against local overshootings of the field into the decompatification region, which provides an additional check on the longevity of these metastable configurations.
't Hooft, Gerardus
QCD was proposed as a theory for the strong interactions long before we had any idea as to how it could be that its fundamental constituents, the quarks, are never seen as physical particles. Massless gluons also do not exist as free particles. How can this be explained? The first indication that this question had to be considered in connection with the topological structure of a gauge theory came when Nielsen and Olesen observed the occurrence of stable magnetic vortex structures [1] in the Abelian Higgs model. Expanding on such ideas, the magnetic monopole solution was found [2]. Other roundabout attempts to understand confinement involve instantons. Today, we have better interpretations of these topological structures, including a general picture of the way they do lead to unbound potentials confining quarks. It is clear that these unbound potentials can be ascribed to a string-like structure of the vortices formed by the QCD field lines. Can string theory be used to analyze QCD? Many researchers think so. The leading expert on this is Sacha Polyakov. In his instructive account he adds how he experienced the course of events in Gauge Theory, emphasizing the fact that quite a few discoveries often ascribed to researchers from the West, actually were made independently by scientists from the Soviet Union…
String dualities and superpotential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ha, Tae-Won
2010-09-01
The main objective of this thesis is the computation of the superpotential induced by D5- branes in the type IIB string theory and by five-branes in the heterotic string theory. Both superpotentials have the same functional form which is the chain integral of the holomorphic three-form. Using relative (co)homology we can unify the flux and brane superpotential. The chain integral can be seen as an example of the Abel-Jacobi map. We discuss many structures such as mixed Hodge structure which allows for the computation of Picard-Fuchs differential equations crucial for explicit computations. We blow up the Calabi-Yau threefold along the submanifold wrapped by the brane to obtain geometrically more appropriate configuration. The resulting geometry is non-Calabi-Yau and we have a canonically given divisor. This blown-up geometry makes it possible to restrict our attention to complex structure deformations. However, the direct computation is yet very difficult, thus the main tool for computation will be the lift of the brane configuration to a F-theory compactification. In F-theory, since complex structure, brane and, if present, bundlemoduli are all contained in the complex structure moduli space of the elliptic Calabi-Yau fourfold, the computation can be dramatically simplified. The heterotic/F-theory duality is extended to include the blow-up geometry and thereby used to give the blow-up geometry amore physical meaning. (orig.)
String dualities and superpotential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ha, Tae-Won
2010-09-15
The main objective of this thesis is the computation of the superpotential induced by D5- branes in the type IIB string theory and by five-branes in the heterotic string theory. Both superpotentials have the same functional form which is the chain integral of the holomorphic three-form. Using relative (co)homology we can unify the flux and brane superpotential. The chain integral can be seen as an example of the Abel-Jacobi map. We discuss many structures such as mixed Hodge structure which allows for the computation of Picard-Fuchs differential equations crucial for explicit computations. We blow up the Calabi-Yau threefold along the submanifold wrapped by the brane to obtain geometrically more appropriate configuration. The resulting geometry is non-Calabi-Yau and we have a canonically given divisor. This blown-up geometry makes it possible to restrict our attention to complex structure deformations. However, the direct computation is yet very difficult, thus the main tool for computation will be the lift of the brane configuration to a F-theory compactification. In F-theory, since complex structure, brane and, if present, bundlemoduli are all contained in the complex structure moduli space of the elliptic Calabi-Yau fourfold, the computation can be dramatically simplified. The heterotic/F-theory duality is extended to include the blow-up geometry and thereby used to give the blow-up geometry amore physical meaning. (orig.)
Twist Field as Three String Interaction Vertex in Light Cone String Field Theory
Kishimoto, Isao; Moriyama, Sanefumi; Teraguchi, Shunsuke
2006-01-01
It has been suggested that matrix string theory and light-cone string field theory are closely related. In this paper, we investigate the relation between the twist field, which represents string interactions in matrix string theory, and the three-string interaction vertex in light-cone string field theory carefully. We find that the three-string interaction vertex can reproduce some of the most important OPEs satisfied by the twist field.
Oriented open-closed string theory revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zwiebach, B.
1998-01-01
String theory on D-brane backgrounds is open-closed string theory. Given the relevance of this fact, we give details and elaborate upon our earlier construction of oriented open-closed string field theory. In order to incorporate explicitly closed strings, the classical sector of this theory is open strings with a homotopy associative A ∞ algebraic structure. We build a suitable Batalin-Vilkovisky algebra on moduli spaces of bordered Ricmann surfaces, the construction of which involves a few subtleties arising from the open string punctures and cyclicity conditions. All vertices coupling open and closed strings through disks are described explicitly. Subalgebras of the algebra of surfaces with boundaries are used to discuss symmetries of classical open string theory induced by the closed string sector, and to write classical open string field theory on general closed string backgrounds. We give a preliminary analysis of the ghost-dilaton theorem. copyright 1998 Academic Press, Inc
Bookmarks in Grammar-Compressed Strings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cording, Patrick Hagge; Gawrychowski, Pawel; Weimann, Oren
2016-01-01
We consider the problem of storing a grammar of size n compressing a string of size N, and a set of positions {i1, . . . , i } (bookmarks) such that any substring of length l crossing one of the positions can be decompressed in O(l) time. Our solution uses space O((n + b) max{1, log* n − log*( n....../b + b/n)}). Existing solutions for the bookmarking problem either require more space or a super-constant “kick-off” time to start the decompression....
On tadpoles and vacuum redefinitions in String Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dudas, E.; Nicolosi, M.; Pradisi, G.; Sagnotti, A.
2005-01-01
Tadpoles accompany, in one form or another, all attempts to realize supersymmetry breaking in String Theory, making the present constructions at best incomplete. Whereas these tadpoles are typically large, a closer look at the problem from a perturbative viewpoint has the potential of illuminating at least some of its qualitative features in String Theory. A possible scheme to this effect was proposed long ago by Fischler and Susskind, but incorporating background redefinitions in string amplitudes in a systematic fashion has long proved very difficult. In the first part of this paper, drawing from field theory examples, we thus begin to explore what one can learn by working perturbatively in a 'wrong' vacuum. While unnatural in Field Theory, this procedure presents evident advantages in String Theory, whose definition in curved backgrounds is mostly beyond reach at the present time. At the field theory level, we also identify and characterize some special choices of vacua where tadpole resummations terminate after a few contributions. In the second part we present a notable example where vacuum redefinitions can be dealt with to some extent at the full string level, providing some evidence for a new link between IIB and 0B orientifolds. We finally show that NS-NS tadpoles do not manifest themselves to lowest order in certain classes of string constructions with broken supersymmetry and parallel branes, including brane-antibrane pairs and brane supersymmetry breaking models, that therefore have UV-finite threshold corrections at one loop
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amorim, R.; Barcelos-Neto, J. (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica)
1993-06-01
With the motivation that critical dimensions D[ne]4 might be suggeting that string theories have not been completely formulated, we study more general alternatives. We first consider a direct extension in the world-sheet formulation with N[sub B] bosons and N[sub F] fermions and analyze the conditions for canceling the anomaly in all possible combinations of N[sub B], N[sub F] and D. Later on we incorporate degrees of freedom of antisymmetric tensors to the previous model. The only possibility to cancel the anomaly in this case is with N[sub B]=N[sub F]=1 and the our everyday spacetime dimension D=4. (orig.).
Fingerprints in compressed strings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Cording, Patrick Hagge
2017-01-01
In this paper we show how to construct a data structure for a string S of size N compressed into a context-free grammar of size n that supports efficient Karp–Rabin fingerprint queries to any substring of S. That is, given indices i and j, the answer to a query is the fingerprint of the substring S......[i,j]. We present the first O(n) space data structures that answer fingerprint queries without decompressing any characters. For Straight Line Programs (SLP) we get O(logN) query time, and for Linear SLPs (an SLP derivative that captures LZ78 compression and its variations) we get O(loglogN) query time...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonara, L.; Cotta-Ramusino, P.; Rinaldi, M.
1987-01-01
It is well-known that type I and heterotic superstring theories have a zero mass spectrum which correspond to the field content of N=1 supergravity theory coupled to supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in 10-D. The authors study the field theory ''per se'', in the hope that simple consistency requirements will determine the theory completely once one knows the field content inherited from string theory. The simplest consistency requirements are: N=1 supersymmetry; and absence of chiral anomalies. This is what the authors discuss in this paper here leaving undetermined the question of the range of validity of the resulting field theory. As is known, a model of N=1 supergravity (SUGRA) coupled to supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory was known in the form given by Chapline and Manton. The coupling of SUGRA to SYM was determined by the definition of the ''field strength'' 3-form H in this paper
Ortín, Tomás
2015-01-01
Self-contained and comprehensive, this definitive new edition of Gravity and Strings is a unique resource for graduate students and researchers in theoretical physics. From basic differential geometry through to the construction and study of black-hole and black-brane solutions in quantum gravity - via all the intermediate stages - this book provides a complete overview of the intersection of gravity, supergravity, and superstrings. Now fully revised, this second edition covers an extensive array of topics, including new material on non-linear electric-magnetic duality, the electric-tensor formalism, matter-coupled supergravity, supersymmetric solutions, the geometries of scalar manifolds appearing in 4- and 5-dimensional supergravities, and much more. Covering reviews of important solutions and numerous solution-generating techniques, and accompanied by an exhaustive index and bibliography, this is an exceptional reference work.
On the Classical String Solutions and String/Field Theory Duality
Aleksandrova, D.; Bozhilov, P.
2003-01-01
We classify almost all classical string configurations, considered in the framework of the semi-classical limit of the string/gauge theory duality. Then, we describe a procedure for obtaining the conserved quantities and the exact classical string solutions in general string theory backgrounds, when the string embedding coordinates depend non-linearly on the worldsheet time parameter.
String Formatting Considered Harmful for Novice Programmers
Hughes, Michael C.; Jadud, Matthew C.; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.
2010-01-01
In Java, "System.out.printf" and "String.format" consume a specialised kind of string commonly known as a format string. In our study of first-year students at the Ateneo de Manila University, we discovered that format strings present a substantial challenge for novice programmers. Focusing on their first laboratory we found…
Test particle trajectories near cosmic strings
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We present a detailed analysis of the motion of test particle in the gravitational ﬁeld of cosmic strings in different situations using the Hamilton–Jacobi (H–J) formalism. We have discussed the trajectories near static cosmic string, cosmic string in Brans–Dicke theory and cosmic string in dilaton gravity.
Interaction of cosmic strings with gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frolov, V.P.; Garfinkle, D.
1990-01-01
We find solutions of Einstein's equation representing a gravitational wave interacting with a cosmic-string traveling wave. The motion of test cosmic strings in the gravitational field of a cosmic-string traveling wave is also examined. A solution representing traveling waves on several parallel cosmic strings is also found
Geometry, topology, and string theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Varadarajan, Uday [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
2003-01-01
A variety of scenarios are considered which shed light upon the uses and limitations of classical geometric and topological notions in string theory. The primary focus is on situations in which D-brane or string probes of a given classical space-time see the geometry quite differently than one might naively expect. In particular, situations in which extra dimensions, non-commutative geometries as well as other non-local structures emerge are explored in detail. Further, a preliminary exploration of such issues in Lorentzian space-times with non-trivial causal structures within string theory is initiated.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Franceschini, A.; Simonovic, M.; Roth, A.
2013-01-01
data is desirable, including lower-quality data and/or computational predictions. The STRING database (http://string-db.org/) aims to provide such a global perspective for as many organisms as feasible. Known and predicted associations are scored and integrated, resulting in comprehensive protein...... networks covering >1100 organisms. Here, we describe the update to version 9.1 of STRING, introducing several improvements: (i) we extend the automated mining of scientific texts for interaction information, to now also include full-text articles; (ii) we entirely re-designed the algorithm for transferring...
Spin chain for quantum strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beisert, N.
2005-01-01
We review and compare the integrable structures in N=4 gauge theory and string theory on AdS 5 x S 5 . Recently, Bethe ansaetze for gauge theory/weak coupling and string theory/strong coupling were proposed to describe scaling dimensions in the su(2) subsector. Here we investigate the Bethe equations for quantum string theory, naively extrapolated to weak coupling. Excitingly, we find a spin chain Hamiltonian similar, but not equal, to the gauge theory dilatation operator. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Di Vecchia, P.; Sciuto, S.; Nakayama, R.; Petersen, J.L.; Sidenius, J.R.
1986-11-01
The BRST-invariant N-Reggeon vertex (for the bosonic string) previously given by us in the operator formulation is considered in more detail. In particular we present a direct derivation from the string path integral. Several crucial symmetry properties found a posteriori before, become a priori clearer in this formulation. A number of delicate points related to zero modes, cut off procedures and normal ordering prescriptions are treated in some detail. The old technique of letting the string field acquire a small dimension ε/2 → 0 + is found especially elegant. (orig.)
Plucked Strings and the Harpsichord
GIORDANO, N.; WINANS, J. P.
1999-07-01
The excitation of a harpsichord string when it is set into motion, i.e., plucked, by a plectrum is studied. We find that the amplitude of the resulting string vibration is approximately independent of the velocity with which the key is depressed. This result is in accord with conventional wisdom, but at odds with a recent theoretical model. A more realistic theoretical treatment of the plucking process is then described, and shown to be consistent with our measurements. The experiments reveal several other interesting aspects of the plectrum-string interaction.
Nonassociative gravity in string theory?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blumenhagen, R [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Plauschinn, E, E-mail: ralph.blumenhagen@mpp.mpg.d, E-mail: e.plauschinn@uu.n [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)
2011-01-07
In an on-shell conformal field theory approach, we find indications of a three-bracket structure for target space coordinates in general closed string backgrounds. This generalizes the appearance of noncommutative gauge theories for open strings in two-form backgrounds to a putative noncommutative/nonassociative gravity theory for closed strings probing curved backgrounds with non-vanishing three-form flux. Several aspects and consequences of the three-bracket structure are discussed and a new type of generalized uncertainty principle is proposed.
Geometry, topology, and string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Varadarajan, Uday
2003-01-01
A variety of scenarios are considered which shed light upon the uses and limitations of classical geometric and topological notions in string theory. The primary focus is on situations in which D-brane or string probes of a given classical space-time see the geometry quite differently than one might naively expect. In particular, situations in which extra dimensions, non-commutative geometries as well as other non-local structures emerge are explored in detail. Further, a preliminary exploration of such issues in Lorentzian space-times with non-trivial causal structures within string theory is initiated
Introduction to string field theory. A pedestrian approach to the covariant formulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
West, G.B.
1986-01-01
A relatively elementary account is given of what a string field represents and what is involved in the construction of its covariant action. Emphasis is on drawing a correspondence with similar problems in ordinary field theory and, particularly, using the language and mathematics used in ordinary field theory. Only the free string is discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs. (LEW)
Introduction to string field theory. A pedestrian approach to the covariant formulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
West, G.B.
1986-01-01
A relatively elementary account is given of what a string field represents and what is involved in the construction of its covariant action. Emphasis is on drawing a correspondence with similar problems in ordinary field theory and, particularly, using the language and mathematics used in ordinary field theory. Only the free string is discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs
Some Global Aspects of Duality is String Theory
Alvarez, Enrique; Barbón, José L F; Lozano, Y
1994-01-01
We explore some of the global aspects of duality transformations in String Theory and Field Theory. We analyze in some detail the equivalence of dual models corresponding to different topologies at the level of the partition function and in terms of the operator correspondence for abelian duality. We analyze the behavior of the cosmological constant under these transformations. We also explore several examples of non-abelian duality where the classical background interpretation can be maintained for the original and the dual theories. In particular we construct a non-abelian dual of $SL(2,R)$ which turns out to be a three-dimensional black hole
Charting the landscape of supercritical string theory.
Hellerman, Simeon; Swanson, Ian
2007-10-26
Special solutions of string theory in supercritical dimensions can interpolate in time between theories with different numbers of spacetime dimensions and different amounts of world sheet supersymmetry. These solutions connect supercritical string theories to the more familiar string duality web in ten dimensions and provide a precise link between supersymmetric and purely bosonic string theories. Dimension quenching and c duality appear to be natural concepts in string theory, giving rise to large networks of interconnected theories.
Charting the Landscape of Supercritical String Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hellerman, Simeon; Swanson, Ian
2007-01-01
Special solutions of string theory in supercritical dimensions can interpolate in time between theories with different numbers of spacetime dimensions and different amounts of world sheet supersymmetry. These solutions connect supercritical string theories to the more familiar string duality web in ten dimensions and provide a precise link between supersymmetric and purely bosonic string theories. Dimension quenching and c duality appear to be natural concepts in string theory, giving rise to large networks of interconnected theories
Matrix string theory on pp-waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bonelli, Giulio
2003-06-21
After a brief review on matrix string theory on flat backgrounds, we formulate matrix string models on different pp-wave backgrounds. This will be done both in the cases of constant and variable RR background flux for certain exact string geometries. We exhibit the non-perturbative representation of string interaction and show how the eigenvalue tunnelling drives the WKB expansion to give the usual perturbative string interaction also in supersymmetric pp-wave background cases.
Topological String Theory and Enumerative Geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Y. S
2003-05-19
In this thesis we investigate several problems which have their roots in both topological string theory and enumerative geometry. In the former case, underlying theories are topological field theories, whereas the latter case is concerned with intersection theories on moduli spaces. A permeating theme in this thesis is to examine the close interplay between these two complementary fields of study. The main problems addressed are as follows: In considering the Hurwitz enumeration problem of branched covers of compact connected Riemann surfaces, we completely solve the problem in the case of simple Hurwitz numbers. In addition, utilizing the connection between Hurwitz numbers and Hodge integrals, we derive a generating function for the latter on the moduli space {bar M}{sub g,2} of 2-pointed, genus-g Deligne-Mumford stable curves. We also investigate Givental's recent conjecture regarding semisimple Frobenius structures and Gromov-Witten invariants, both of which are closely related to topological field theories; we consider the case of a complex projective line P{sup 1} as a specific example and verify his conjecture at low genera. In the last chapter, we demonstrate that certain topological open string amplitudes can be computed via relative stable morphisms in the algebraic category.
String theory and cosmological singularities
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
time' can have a beginning or end. Well-known examples are singularities inside black holes and initial or final singularities in expanding or contracting universes. In recent times, string theory is providing new perspectives of such singularities ...
Cache-oblivious string dictionaries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf
2006-01-01
We present static cache-oblivious dictionary structures for strings which provide analogues of tries and suffix trees in the cache-oblivious model. Our construction takes as input either a set of strings to store, a single string for which all suffixes are to be stored, a trie, a compressed trie......, or a suffix tree, and creates a cache-oblivious data structure which performs prefix queries in O(logB n + |P|/B) I/Os, where n is the number of leaves in the trie, P is the query string, and B is the block size. This query cost is optimal for unbounded alphabets. The data structure uses linear space....
String and Sticky Tape Experiments.
Edge, R. D., Ed.
1979-01-01
Explains how to demonstrate the fundamentals of one dimensional kinematics such as Newton's third law of motion, and collision between bodies, using simple materials of marbles, strings, sticky tape, drinking straws, and rubber bands. (GA)
Spin chains and string theory.
Kruczenski, Martin
2004-10-15
Recently, an important test of the anti de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence has been done using rotating strings with two angular momenta. We show that such a test can be described more generally as the agreement between two actions: one a low energy description of a spin chain appearing in the field theory side, and the other a limit of the string action in AdS5xS5. This gives a map between the mean value of the spin in the boundary theory and the position of the string in the bulk, and shows how a string action can emerge from a gauge theory in the large-N limit.
Pattern recognition and string matching
Cheng, Xiuzhen
2002-01-01
The research and development of pattern recognition have proven to be of importance in science, technology, and human activity. Many useful concepts and tools from different disciplines have been employed in pattern recognition. Among them is string matching, which receives much theoretical and practical attention. String matching is also an important topic in combinatorial optimization. This book is devoted to recent advances in pattern recognition and string matching. It consists of twenty eight chapters written by different authors, addressing a broad range of topics such as those from classifica tion, matching, mining, feature selection, and applications. Each chapter is self-contained, and presents either novel methodological approaches or applications of existing theories and techniques. The aim, intent, and motivation for publishing this book is to pro vide a reference tool for the increasing number of readers who depend upon pattern recognition or string matching in some way. This includes student...
On Field Theory of Open Strings, Tachyon Condensation and Closed Strings
Shatashvili, Samson L.
2001-01-01
I review the physical properties of different vacua in the background independent open string field theory. Talk presented at Strings 2001, Mumbai, India, http://theory.theory.tifr.res.in/strings/Proceedings/#sha-s.
Black strings and classical hair
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horowitz, G.T.; Yang, H.
1997-01-01
We examine the geometry near the event horizon of a family of black string solutions with traveling waves. It has previously been shown that the metric is continuous there. Contrary to expectations, we find that the geometry is not smooth, and the horizon becomes singular whenever a wave is present. Both five-dimensional and six-dimensional black strings are considered with similar results. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Strings in the abelized picture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Embacher, F.
1990-01-01
The transformation properties of the bosonic string variables under the recently discovered abelizing operator are exhibited. The intimate relation of this operator to the light-cone gauge condition is illustrated for the classical string. As an application of the formalism, the derivation of the BRST cohomology by the method of Freeman and Olive is carried over to the abelized picture, where it takes a particulary simple form. 14 refs. (Author)
Semiclassical Strings in Supergravity PFT
Banerjee, Aritra; Biswas, Sagar; Panigrahi, Kamal L.
2014-01-01
Puff field theory (PFT) is an example of a non-local field theory which arises from a novel embedding of D-branes in a Melvin universe. We study several rotating and pulsating string solutions of the F-string equations of motion in the supergravity dual of the PFT. Further, we find a PP-wave geometry from this non-local spacetime by applying a Penrose limit and comment on its similarity with the maximally supersymmetric PP-wave background.
Spectral partitioning in equitable graphs.
Barucca, Paolo
2017-06-01
Graph partitioning problems emerge in a wide variety of complex systems, ranging from biology to finance, but can be rigorously analyzed and solved only for a few graph ensembles. Here, an ensemble of equitable graphs, i.e., random graphs with a block-regular structure, is studied, for which analytical results can be obtained. In particular, the spectral density of this ensemble is computed exactly for a modular and bipartite structure. Kesten-McKay's law for random regular graphs is found analytically to apply also for modular and bipartite structures when blocks are homogeneous. An exact solution to graph partitioning for two equal-sized communities is proposed and verified numerically, and a conjecture on the absence of an efficient recovery detectability transition in equitable graphs is suggested. A final discussion summarizes results and outlines their relevance for the solution of graph partitioning problems in other graph ensembles, in particular for the study of detectability thresholds and resolution limits in stochastic block models.
Force and torque of a string on a pulley
de Oliveira, Thiago R.; Lemos, Nivaldo A.
2018-04-01
Every university introductory physics course considers the problem of Atwood's machine taking into account the mass of the pulley. In the usual treatment, the tensions at the two ends of the string are offhandedly taken to act on the pulley and be responsible for its rotation. However, such a free-body diagram of the forces on the pulley is not a priori justified, inducing students to construct wrong hypotheses such as that the string transfers its tension to the pulley or that some symmetry is in operation. We reexamine this problem by integrating the contact forces between each element of the string and the pulley and show that although the pulley does behave as if the tensions were acting on its ends, this comes only as the final result of a detailed analysis. We also address the question of how much friction is needed to prevent the string from slipping over the pulley. Finally, we deal with the case in which the string is on the verge of sliding and show that this cannot happen unless certain conditions are met by the coefficient of static friction and the masses involved.
Dynamics of strings between walls
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eto, Minoru; Fujimori, Toshiaki; Nagashima, Takayuki; Nitta, Muneto; Ohashi, Keisuke; Sakai, Norisuke
2009-01-01
Configurations of vortex strings stretched between or ending on domain walls were previously found to be 1/4 Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) states in N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories in 3+1 dimensions. Among zero modes of string positions, the center of mass of strings in each region between two adjacent domain walls is shown to be non-normalizable whereas the rests are normalizable. We study dynamics of vortex strings stretched between separated domain walls by using two methods, the moduli space (geodesic) approximation of full 1/4 BPS states and the charged particle approximation for string end points in the wall effective action. In the first method we explicitly obtain the effective Lagrangian in the strong coupling limit, which is written in terms of hypergeometric functions, and find the 90 deg. scattering for head-on collision. In the second method the domain wall effective action is assumed to be U(1) N gauge theory, and we find a good agreement between two methods for well-separated strings.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thorlacius, L.
1989-01-01
Open string vacuum configurations are described in terms of a one-dimensional field theory on the worldsheet boundary. The one-dimensional path integral has direct physical interpretation as a source term for closed string fields. This means that the vacuum divergences (Mobius infinities) of the path integral must be renormalized correctly. The author shows that reparametrization invariance Ward identities, apart from specifying the equations of motion of spacetime background gauge fields, also serve to fix the renormalization scheme of the vacuum divergences. He argues that vacuum configurations of open strings correspond to Caldeira-Leggett models of dissipative quantum mechanics (DQM) evaluated at a delocalization critical point. This connection reveals that critical DQM will manifest reparametrization invariance (inherited from the conformal invariance of string theory) rather than just scale invariance. This connection should open up new ways of constructing analytic and approximate solutions of open string theory (in particular, topological solitons such as monopoles and instantons). Type I superstring theory gives rise to a supersymmetric boundary field theory. Bose-Fermi cancellation eliminates vacuum divergences but the one-loop beta function remains the same as in the bosonic theory. Reparametrization invariance Ward identities dictate a boundary state normalization which yields consistent string-loop corrections to spacetime equations of motion, in both the periodic and anti-periodic fermion sectors
Experimental observation of Bethe strings
Wang, Zhe; Wu, Jianda; Yang, Wang; Bera, Anup Kumar; Kamenskyi, Dmytro; Islam, A. T. M. Nazmul; Xu, Shenglong; Law, Joseph Matthew; Lake, Bella; Wu, Congjun; Loidl, Alois
2018-02-01
Almost a century ago, string states—complex bound states of magnetic excitations—were predicted to exist in one-dimensional quantum magnets. However, despite many theoretical studies, the experimental realization and identification of string states in a condensed-matter system have yet to be achieved. Here we use high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy to resolve string states in the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg-Ising chain SrCo2V2O8 in strong longitudinal magnetic fields. In the field-induced quantum-critical regime, we identify strings and fractional magnetic excitations that are accurately described by the Bethe ansatz. Close to quantum criticality, the string excitations govern the quantum spin dynamics, whereas the fractional excitations, which are dominant at low energies, reflect the antiferromagnetic quantum fluctuations. Today, Bethe’s result is important not only in the field of quantum magnetism but also more broadly, including in the study of cold atoms and in string theory; hence, we anticipate that our work will shed light on the study of complex many-body systems in general.
Chern-Simons couplings for dielectric F-strings in matrix string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brecher, Dominic; Janssen, Bert; Lozano, Yolanda
2002-01-01
We compute the non-abelian couplings in the Chern-Simons action for a set of coinciding fundamental strings in both the type IIA and type IIB Matrix string theories. Starting from Matrix theory in a weakly curved background, we construct the linear couplings of closed string fields to type IIA Matrix strings. Further dualities give a type IIB Matrix string theory and a type IIA theory of Matrix strings with winding. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
New expressions for string loop amplitudes leading to an ultra-simple conception of string dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan Hongmo; Tsou Sheungtsun; Bordes, J.; Nellen, L.
1990-11-01
New expressions are derived for string loop amplitudes as overlap integrals of string wave functionals. They are shown to take the form of exchange terms coming from the Bose-Einstein symmetrisation between string segments. One is thus led to the ultra-simple conception that string theory is basically free, and that 'string interactions' are due merely to the fact that strings are composite objects with Bose-Einstein segments as constituents. (author)
The topological string associated with a simple singularity of type D
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakatsu, Toshio.
1994-08-01
The partition function of D N+1 topological string, the coupled system of topological gravity and D N+1 topological minimal matter, is proposed in the framework of KP hierarchy. It is specified by the elements of GL(∞) which constitute the deformed family from the A 2N-1 topological string. Its dispersionless limit is investigated from the view of both dispersionless KP hierarchy and singularity theory. In particular the free energy restricted on the small phase space coincides with that for the topological Landau-Ginzburg model of type D N+1 . (author)
Smoothed analysis of partitioning algorithms for Euclidean functionals
Bläser, Markus; Manthey, Bodo; Rao, B.V. Raghavendra; Dehne, F.; Iacono, J.; Sack, J.-R.
2011-01-01
Euclidean optimization problems such as TSP and minimum-length matching admit fast partitioning algorithms that compute near-optimal solutions on typical instances. We develop a general framework for the application of smoothed analysis to partitioning algorithms for Euclidean optimization problems.
A conjugate gradient method for the spectral partitioning of graphs
Kruyt, Nicolaas P.
1997-01-01
The partitioning of graphs is a frequently occurring problem in science and engineering. The spectral graph partitioning method is a promising heuristic method for this class of problems. Its main disadvantage is the large computing time required to solve a special eigenproblem. Here a simple and
Smile: a computer program for partitioning of programmed logic arrays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Micheli, G.; Santomauro, M.
1983-03-01
This paper presents a new approach to optimal topological design of PLAs (programmed logic arrays). In particular the authors address the array partitioning problem and the implementation of partitioned arrays as block folded or parallel connected PLAs. They present a graph theoretic interpretation of the problem and an efficient heuristic algorithm. A computer program, SMILE, is described and experimental results are reported. 24 references.
ERA: Efficient serial and parallel suffix tree construction for very long strings
Mansour, Essam
2011-09-01
The suffix tree is a data structure for indexing strings. It is used in a variety of applications such as bioinformatics, time series analysis, clustering, text editing and data compression. However, when the string and the resulting suffix tree are too large to fit into the main memory, most existing construction algorithms become very inefficient. This paper presents a disk-based suffix tree construction method, called Elastic Range (ERa), which works efficiently with very long strings that are much larger than the available memory. ERa partitions the tree construction process horizontally and vertically and minimizes I/Os by dynamically adjusting the horizontal partitions independently for each vertical partition, based on the evolving shape of the tree and the available memory. Where appropriate, ERa also groups vertical partitions together to amortize the I/O cost. We developed a serial version; a parallel version for shared-memory and shared-disk multi-core systems; and a parallel version for shared-nothing architectures. ERa indexes the entire human genome in 19 minutes on an ordinary desktop computer. For comparison, the fastest existing method needs 15 minutes using 1024 CPUs on an IBM BlueGene supercomputer.
The Graceful Exit in String Cosmology
Cartier, C.; Madden, R.
2000-01-01
We re-examine the graceful exit problem in the pre-big bang scenario of string cosmology, by considering the most general time-dependent classical correction to the Lagrangian with up to four derivatives. By including possible forms for quantum loop corrections we examine the allowed region of parameter space for the coupling constants which enable our solutions to link smoothly the two asymptotic low-energy branches of the pre-big bang scenario, and observe that these solutions can satisfy recently proposed entropic bounds on viable singularity free cosmologies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deser, S.
1987-01-01
We obtain the Einstein action plus quadratic curvature corrections generated by closed bosonic, heterotic and supersymmetric strings by matching the four-graviton amplitude (to first order in the slope parameter and fourth power of momenta) with an effective local gravitational action. The resulting corrections are first shown to be of the Gauss-Bonnet form. It is then noted that, by the very nature of the slope expansion, the field-redefinition theorem applies. Consequently, only the curvature-squared term is determined, while squares of its contractions are explicitly seen not to contribute. This latter property has a generalization to all orders which implies that the effective gravitational action is unavoidably ghost-free. The properties of solutions to these corrected theories are then examined. First neglecting dilatons, we find the explicit 'Schwarzschild' metrics. Both asymptotically flat and de Sitter solutions are present. The latter are however shown to be unstable. The former have horizons and singularities which are respectively smaller and less violent than in Einstein gravity; the correct sign of the slope parameter also ensures absence of naked singularities. When dilatons are included, the cosmological vacua are gratifyingly excluded. (orig.)
Spatially Partitioned Embedded Runge--Kutta Methods
Ketcheson, David I.
2013-10-30
We study spatially partitioned embedded Runge--Kutta (SPERK) schemes for partial differential equations (PDEs), in which each of the component schemes is applied over a different part of the spatial domain. Such methods may be convenient for problems in which the smoothness of the solution or the magnitudes of the PDE coefficients vary strongly in space. We focus on embedded partitioned methods as they offer greater efficiency and avoid the order reduction that may occur in nonembedded schemes. We demonstrate that the lack of conservation in partitioned schemes can lead to nonphysical effects and propose conservative additive schemes based on partitioning the fluxes rather than the ordinary differential equations. A variety of SPERK schemes are presented, including an embedded pair suitable for the time evolution of fifth-order weighted nonoscillatory spatial discretizations. Numerical experiments are provided to support the theory.
Quantifying biodiversity and asymptotics for a sequence of random strings.
Koyano, Hitoshi; Kishino, Hirohisa
2010-06-01
We present a methodology for quantifying biodiversity at the sequence level by developing the probability theory on a set of strings. Further, we apply our methodology to the problem of quantifying the population diversity of microorganisms in several extreme environments and digestive organs and reveal the relation between microbial diversity and various environmental parameters.
Quantifying biodiversity and asymptotics for a sequence of random strings
Koyano, Hitoshi; Kishino, Hirohisa
2010-06-01
We present a methodology for quantifying biodiversity at the sequence level by developing the probability theory on a set of strings. Further, we apply our methodology to the problem of quantifying the population diversity of microorganisms in several extreme environments and digestive organs and reveal the relation between microbial diversity and various environmental parameters.
Conformal supergravity in twistor-string theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berkovits, Nathan [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Pamplona 145, 01405-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: nberkovi@ift.unesp.br; Witten, Edward [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton NJ 08540 (United States)
2004-08-01
Conformal supergravity arises in presently known formulations of twistor-string theory either via closed strings or via gauge-singlet open strings. We explore this sector of twistor-string theory, relating the relevant string modes to the particles and fields of conformal supergravity. We use the twistor-string theory to compute some tree level scattering amplitudes with supergravitons. Since the supergravitons interact with the same coupling constant as the Yang-Mills fields, conformal supergravity states will contribute to loop amplitudes of Yang-Mills gluons in these theories. Those loop amplitudes will therefore not coincide with the loop amplitudes of pure super Yang-Mills theory. (author)
Gravitational Lensing Signatures of Long Cosmic Strings
De Laix, A A; Vachaspati, T; Laix, Andrew A. de; Krauss, Lawrence M.; Vachaspati, Tanmay
1997-01-01
The gravitational lensing by long, wiggly cosmic strings is shown to produce a large number of lensed images of a background source. In addition to pairs of images on either side of the string, a number of small images outline the string due to small-scale structure on the string. This image pattern could provide a highly distinctive signature of cosmic strings. Since the optical depth for multiple imaging of distant quasar sources by long strings may be comparable to that by galaxies, these image patterns should be clearly observable in the next generation of redshift surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.
String Theory for Pedestrians (1/3)
CERN. Geneva
2009-01-01
This is a non-technical rapid course on string theory. Lecture 1 is an introduction to the basics of the subject: classical and quantum strings, D(irichlet) branes and string-string dualities. In lecture 2 I will discuss string unification of the fundamental forces, covering both its successes and failures. Finally in lecture 3 I will review string models of black hole microstates, the holographic gauge/gravity duality and, if time permits, potential applications to the physics of the strong interactions.
String Theory for Pedestrians (2/3)
CERN. Geneva
2009-01-01
This is a non-technical rapid course on string theory. Lecture 1 is an introduction to the basics of the subject: classical and quantum strings, D(irichlet) branes and string-string dualities. In lecture 2 I will discuss string unification of the fundamental forces, covering both its successes and failures. Finally in lecture 3 I will review string models of black hole microstates, the holographic gauge/gravity duality and, if time permits, potential applications to the physics of the strong interactions.
String Theory for Pedestrians (3/3)
CERN. Geneva
2009-01-01
This is a non-technical rapid course on string theory. Lecture 1 is an introduction to the basics of the subject: classical and quantum strings, D(irichlet) branes and string-string dualities. In lecture 2 I will discuss string unification of the fundamental forces, covering both its successes and failures. Finally in lecture 3 I will review string models of black hole microstates, the holographic gauge/gravity duality and, if time permits, potential applications to the physics of the strong interactions.
Combinatorics of set partitions
Mansour, Toufik
2012-01-01
Focusing on a very active area of mathematical research in the last decade, Combinatorics of Set Partitions presents methods used in the combinatorics of pattern avoidance and pattern enumeration in set partitions. Designed for students and researchers in discrete mathematics, the book is a one-stop reference on the results and research activities of set partitions from 1500 A.D. to today. Each chapter gives historical perspectives and contrasts different approaches, including generating functions, kernel method, block decomposition method, generating tree, and Wilf equivalences. Methods and d
Quantum mechanics vs. general covariance in gravity and string models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martinec, E.J.
1984-01-01
Quantization of simple low-dimensional systems embodying general covariance is studied. Functional methods are employed in the calculation of effective actions for fermionic strings and 1 + 1 dimensional gravity. The author finds that regularization breaks apparent symmetries of the theory, providing new dynamics for the string and non-trivial dynamics for 1 + 1 gravity. The author moves on to consider the quantization of some generally covariant systems with a finite number of physical degrees of freedom, assuming the existence of an invariant cutoff. The author finds that the wavefunction of the universe in these cases is given by the solution to simple quantum mechanics problems
Straight spinning cosmic strings in Brans-Dicke gravity
Dos Santos, S. Mittmann; da Silva, J. M. Hoff; Cindra, J. L.
2018-03-01
An exact solution of straight spinning cosmic strings in Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation is presented. The possibility of the existence of closed time-like curves around these cosmic strings is analyzed. Furthermore, the stability about the formation of the topological defect discussed here is checked. It is shown that the existence of a suitable choice for the integration constants in which closed time-like curves are not allowed. We also study the (im)possibility of using the obtained spacetime in the rotational curves problem.
Ureteric stent placement with extraction string: no strings attached?
Bockholt, Nathan A; Wild, Trevor T; Gupta, Amit; Tracy, Chad R
2012-12-01
Study Type--Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4 What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Of patients treated with an indwelling ureteric stent 80-90% experience lower urinary tract symptoms that are a hindrance to health-related quality of life. The prevalence of the extraction/retrieval string after ureteroscopy for stone disease and stent placement varies significantly between surgeons and published series, but the benefits of eliminating the need for a secondary procedure such as cystoscopy and stent removal, as well as the decrease in cost to the patient are well established. Published reports have not addressed the prevalence of post-procedure related events (PREs) in patients who have received an indwelling ureteric stent with the extraction/retrieval string still intact after ureteroscopy for stone disease. By analysing PREs (Emergency Room visits, unscheduled clinic visits, and telephone calls) related to their stent or procedure for patients with and without an extraction/retrieval string, the feasibility of the extraction string can be validated and the misconceptions about their use can be alleviated. • To review a retrospective ureteric stent cohort with and without extraction string to compare post-procedure related events (PRE), as ureteric stent placement after endoscopic management of urolithiasis is common, but data regarding the potential benefits or disadvantages of ureteric stent placement with extraction string are sparse. • Between June 2009 and June 2010, 293 patients underwent ureteroscopy with or without lithotripsy for stone disease. • In all, 181 patients had a unilateral procedure and underwent stent placement postoperatively. • Records were retrospectively reviewed for operative data and PRE occurring within the first 6 weeks after surgery, defined as unscheduled clinic or Emergency Room visits, or adverse event telephone calls. • Of 181 patients who underwent ureteric stent placement, 43 (23
The Benefits of Adaptive Partitioning for Parallel AMR Applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steensland, Johan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Advanced Software Research and Development
2008-07-01
Parallel adaptive mesh refinement methods potentially lead to realistic modeling of complex three-dimensional physical phenomena. However, the dynamics inherent in these methods present significant challenges in data partitioning and load balancing. Significant human resources, including time, effort, experience, and knowledge, are required for determining the optimal partitioning technique for each new simulation. In reality, scientists resort to using the on-board partitioner of the computational framework, or to using the partitioning industry standard, ParMetis. Adaptive partitioning refers to repeatedly selecting, configuring and invoking the optimal partitioning technique at run-time, based on the current state of the computer and application. In theory, adaptive partitioning automatically delivers superior performance and eliminates the need for repeatedly spending valuable human resources for determining the optimal static partitioning technique. In practice, however, enabling frameworks are non-existent due to the inherent significant inter-disciplinary research challenges. This paper presents a study of a simple implementation of adaptive partitioning and discusses implied potential benefits from the perspective of common groups of users within computational science. The study is based on a large set of data derived from experiments including six real-life, multi-time-step adaptive applications from various scientific domains, five complementing and fundamentally different partitioning techniques, a large set of parameters corresponding to a wide spectrum of computing environments, and a flexible cost function that considers the relative impact of multiple partitioning metrics and diverse partitioning objectives. The results show that even a simple implementation of adaptive partitioning can automatically generate results statistically equivalent to the best static partitioning. Thus, it is possible to effectively eliminate the problem of determining the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skenderis, Kostas
2007-01-01
The book 'String Theory in a Nutshell' by Elias Kiritsis provides a comprehensive introduction to modern string theory. String theory is the leading candidate for a theory that successfully unifies all fundamental forces of nature, including gravity. The subject has been continuously developing since the early 1970s, with classic textbooks on the subject being those of Green, Schwarz and Witten (1987) and Polchinski (1998). Since the latter was published there have been substantial developments, in particular in understanding black holes and gravity/gauge theory dualities. A textbook treatment of this important material is clearly needed, both by students and researchers in string theory and by mathematicians and physicists working in related fields. This book has a good selection of material, starting from basics and moving into classic and modern topics. In particular, Kiritsis' presentation of the basic material is complementary to that of the earlier textbooks and he includes a number of topics which are not easily found or covered adequately elsewhere, for example, loop corrections to string effective couplings. Overall the book nicely covers the major advances of the last ten years, including (non-perturbative) string dualities, black hole physics, AdS/CFT and matrix models. It provides a concise but fairly complete introduction to these subjects which can be used both by students and by researchers. Moreover the emphasis is on results that are reasonably established, as is appropriate for a textbook; concise summaries are given for subjects which are still in flux, with references to relevant reviews and papers. A positive feature of the book is that the bibliography sections at the end of each chapter provide a comprehensive guide to the literature. The bibliographies point to reviews and pedagogical papers on subjects covered in this book as well as those that were omitted. It is rare for a textbook to contain such a self-contained and detailed guide to
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skenderis, Kostas [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, NL-1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2007-11-21
The book 'String Theory in a Nutshell' by Elias Kiritsis provides a comprehensive introduction to modern string theory. String theory is the leading candidate for a theory that successfully unifies all fundamental forces of nature, including gravity. The subject has been continuously developing since the early 1970s, with classic textbooks on the subject being those of Green, Schwarz and Witten (1987) and Polchinski (1998). Since the latter was published there have been substantial developments, in particular in understanding black holes and gravity/gauge theory dualities. A textbook treatment of this important material is clearly needed, both by students and researchers in string theory and by mathematicians and physicists working in related fields. This book has a good selection of material, starting from basics and moving into classic and modern topics. In particular, Kiritsis' presentation of the basic material is complementary to that of the earlier textbooks and he includes a number of topics which are not easily found or covered adequately elsewhere, for example, loop corrections to string effective couplings. Overall the book nicely covers the major advances of the last ten years, including (non-perturbative) string dualities, black hole physics, AdS/CFT and matrix models. It provides a concise but fairly complete introduction to these subjects which can be used both by students and by researchers. Moreover the emphasis is on results that are reasonably established, as is appropriate for a textbook; concise summaries are given for subjects which are still in flux, with references to relevant reviews and papers. A positive feature of the book is that the bibliography sections at the end of each chapter provide a comprehensive guide to the literature. The bibliographies point to reviews and pedagogical papers on subjects covered in this book as well as those that were omitted. It is rare for a textbook to contain such a self-contained and
An exact bosonization rule for c = 1 noncritical string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishibashi, Nobuyuki; Yamaguchi, Atsushi
2007-01-01
We construct a string field theory for c = 1 noncritical strings using the loop variables as the string field. We show how one can express the nonrelativistic free fermions which describes the theory, in terms of these string fields
Experimental investigation of the piano hammer-string interaction.
Birkett, Stephen
2013-04-01
Experimental techniques for investigating the piano hammer-string interaction are described. It is argued that the accuracy, consistency, and scope of conclusions of previous studies can be compromised by limitations of the conventional methods relating to key inputs; physical distortion; numerical distortion, particularly when differentiation or integration of measured signals is used to derive primary response variables; contact identification; and synchronization issues. These problems are discussed, and experimental methods that have been devised to avoid them are described and illustrated by detailed results from a study of the hammer-string interaction in a vertical piano. High resolution displacements are obtained directly by non-contact high-speed imaging and quantitative motion tracking. The attention focused on achieving very accurate and consistent temporal and spatial alignment, including the objective procedure used for contact identification, allows meaningful comparisons of responses from separate tests. String motion at the strike point and on each side of it, as well as hammer motion, is obtained for eight dynamic levels from 1.06 to 2.98 m/s impact velocity. Detailed observations of the force-compression behavior of the hammer interacting with real strings are presented. The direct effects of hammer shank deflection and agraffe string pulses on the interaction are also highlighted.
Testing effective string models of black holes with fixed scalars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krasnitz, M.; Klebanov, I.R.
1997-01-01
We solve the problem of mixing between the fixed scalar and metric fluctuations. First, we derive the decoupled fixed scalar equation for the four-dimensional black hole with two different charges. We proceed to the five-dimensional black hole with different electric (one-brane) and magnetic (five-brane) charges, and derive two decoupled equations satisfied by appropriate mixtures of the original fixed scalar fields. The resulting greybody factors are proportional to those that follow from coupling to dimension (2,2) operators on the effective string. In general, however, the string action also contains couplings to chiral operators of dimension (1,3) and (3,1), which cause disagreements with the semiclassical absorption cross sections. Implications of this for the effective string models are discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Fast Partial Evaluation of Pattern Matching in Strings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ager, Mads Sig; Danvy, Olivier; Rohde, Henning Korsholm
2006-01-01
We show how to obtain all of Knuth, Morris, and Pratt's linear-time string matcher by specializing a quadratic-time string matcher with respect to a pattern string. Although it has been known for 15 years how to obtain this linear matcher by partial evaluation of a quadratic one, how to obtain...... it in linear time has remained an open problem. Obtaining a linear matcher by partial evaluation of a quadratic one is achieved by performing its backtracking at specialization time and memoizing its results. We show (1) how to rewrite the source matcher such that its static intermediate computations can...... be shared at specialization time and (2) how to extend the memoization capabilities of a partial evaluator to static functions. Such an extended partial evaluator, if its memoization is implemented efficiently, specializes the rewritten source matcher in linear time. Finally, we show that the method also...
Fast Partial Evaluation of Pattern Matching in Strings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ager, Mads Sig; Danvy, Olivier; Rohde, Henning Korsholm
2003-01-01
We show how to obtain all of Knuth, Morris, and Pratt's linear-time string matcher by specializing a quadratic-time string matcher with respect to a pattern string. Although it has been known for 15 years how to obtain this linear matcher by partial evaluation of a quadratic one, how to obtain...... it in linear time has remained an open problem. Obtaining a linear matcher by partial evaluation of a quadratic one is achieved by performing its backtracking at specialization time and memoizing its results. We show (1) how to rewrite the source matcher such that its static intermediate computations can...... be shared at specialization time and (2) how to extend the memoization capabilities of a partial evaluator to static functions. Such an extended partial evaluator, if its memoization is implemented efficiently, specializes the rewritten source matcher in linear time. Finally, we show that the method also...
Fast Partial Evaluation of Pattern Matching in Strings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ager, Mads Sig; Danvy, Olivier; Rohde, Henning Korsholm
2003-01-01
We show how to obtain all of Knuth, Morris, and Pratt's linear-time string matcher by partial evaluation of a quadratic-time string matcher with respect to a pattern string. Although it has been known for 15 years how to obtain this linear matcher by partial evaluation of a quadratic one, how...... to obtain it in linear time has remained an open problem.Obtaining a linear matcher by partial evaluation of a quadratic one is achieved by performing its backtracking at specialization time and memoizing its results. We show (1) how to rewrite the source matcher such that its static intermediate...... computations can be shared at specialization time and (2) how to extend the memoization capabilities of a partial evaluator to static functions. Such an extended partial evaluator, if its memoization is implemented efficiently, specializes the rewritten source matcher in linear time....
Aspects of string phenomenology in particle physics and cosmology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antoniadis I.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available I discuss possible connections between several scales in particle physics and cosmology, such the the electroweak, inflation, dark energy and Planck scales. In particular, I discuss the physics of extra dimensions and low scale gravity that are motivated from the problem of mass hierarchy, providing an alternative to low energy supersymmetry. I describe their realization in type I string theory with D-branes and I present the main experimental predictions in particle accelerators and their implications in cosmology. I also show that low-mass-scale string compactifications, with a generic D-brane configuration that realizes the Standard Model by open strings, can explain the relatively broad peak in the diphoton invariant mass spectrum at 750 GeV recently reported by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations.
Tensor gauge field localization on a string-like defect
Sousa, L. J. S.; Cruz, W. T.; Almeida, C. A. S.
2012-05-01
This work is devoted to the study of tensor gauge fields on a string-like defect in six dimensions. This model is very successful in localizing fields of various spins only by gravitational interaction. Due to problems of field localization in membrane models we are motivated to investigate if a string-like defect localizes the Kalb-Ramond field. In contrast to what happens in Randall-Sundrum and thick brane scenarios we find a localized zero mode without the addition of other fields in the bulk. Considering the local string defect we obtain analytical solutions for the massive modes. Also, we take the equations of motion in a supersymmetric quantum mechanics scenario in order to analyze the massive modes. The influence of the mass as well as the angular quantum number in the solutions is described. An additional analysis on the massive modes is performed by the Kaluza-Klein decomposition, which provides new details about the KK masses.
Topological strings from quantum mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grassi, Alba; Marino, Marcos [Geneve Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. de Physique Theorique et Section de Mathematique; Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group
2014-12-15
We propose a general correspondence which associates a non-perturbative quantum-mechanical operator to a toric Calabi-Yau manifold, and we conjecture an explicit formula for its spectral determinant in terms of an M-theoretic version of the topological string free energy. As a consequence, we derive an exact quantization condition for the operator spectrum, in terms of the vanishing of a generalized θ function. The perturbative part of this quantization condition is given by the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the refined topological string, but there are non-perturbative corrections determined by the conventional topological string. We analyze in detail the cases of local P{sup 2}, local P{sup 1} x P{sup 1} and local F{sub 1}. In all these cases, the predictions for the spectrum agree with the existing numerical results. We also show explicitly that our conjectured spectral determinant leads to the correct spectral traces of the corresponding operators, which are closely related to topological string theory at orbifold points. Physically, our results provide a Fermi gas picture of topological strings on toric Calabi-Yau manifolds, which is fully non-perturbative and background independent. They also suggest the existence of an underlying theory of M2 branes behind this formulation. Mathematically, our results lead to precise, surprising conjectures relating the spectral theory of functional difference operators to enumerative geometry.
Differential geometry in string models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez, O.
1986-01-01
In this article the author reviews the differential geometric approach to the quantization of strings. A seminal paper demonstrates the connection between the trace anomaly and the critical dimension. The role played by the Faddeev-Popov ghosts has been instrumental in much of the subsequent work on the quantization of strings. This paper discusses the differential geometry of two dimensional surfaces and its importance in the quantization of strings. The path integral quantization approach to strings will be carefully analyzed to determine the correct effective measure for string theories. The choice of measure for the path integral is determined by differential geometric considerations. Once the measure is determined, the manifest diffeomorphism invariance of the theory will have to be broken by using the Faddeev-Popov ansatz. The gauge fixed theory is studied in detail with emphasis on the role of conformal and gravitational anomalies. In the analysis, the path integral formulation of the gauge fixed theory requires summing over all the distinct complex structures on the manifold
Topological strings from quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grassi, Alba; Marino, Marcos; Hatsuda, Yasuyuki
2014-12-01
We propose a general correspondence which associates a non-perturbative quantum-mechanical operator to a toric Calabi-Yau manifold, and we conjecture an explicit formula for its spectral determinant in terms of an M-theoretic version of the topological string free energy. As a consequence, we derive an exact quantization condition for the operator spectrum, in terms of the vanishing of a generalized θ function. The perturbative part of this quantization condition is given by the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the refined topological string, but there are non-perturbative corrections determined by the conventional topological string. We analyze in detail the cases of local P 2 , local P 1 x P 1 and local F 1 . In all these cases, the predictions for the spectrum agree with the existing numerical results. We also show explicitly that our conjectured spectral determinant leads to the correct spectral traces of the corresponding operators, which are closely related to topological string theory at orbifold points. Physically, our results provide a Fermi gas picture of topological strings on toric Calabi-Yau manifolds, which is fully non-perturbative and background independent. They also suggest the existence of an underlying theory of M2 branes behind this formulation. Mathematically, our results lead to precise, surprising conjectures relating the spectral theory of functional difference operators to enumerative geometry.
String Resonances at Hadron Colliders
Anchordoqui, Luis A; Dai, De-Chang; Feng, Wan-Zhe; Goldberg, Haim; Huang, Xing; Lust, Dieter; Stojkovic, Dejan; Taylor, Tomasz R
2014-01-01
[Abridged] We consider extensions of the standard model based on open strings ending on D-branes. Assuming that the fundamental string mass scale M_s is in the TeV range and that the theory is weakly coupled, we discuss possible signals of string physics at the upcoming HL-LHC run (3000 fb^{-1}) with \\sqrt{s} = 14 TeV, and at potential future pp colliders, HE-LHC and VLHC, operating at \\sqrt{s} = 33 and 100 TeV, respectively. In such D-brane constructions, the dominant contributions to full-fledged string amplitudes for all the common QCD parton subprocesses leading to dijets and \\gamma + jet are completely independent of the details of compactification, and can be evaluated in a parameter-free manner. We make use of these amplitudes evaluated near the first (n=1) and second (n=2) resonant poles to determine the discovery potential for Regge excitations of the quark, the gluon, and the color singlet living on the QCD stack. We show that for string scales as large as 7.1 TeV (6.1 TeV), lowest massive Regge exc...
On bottleneck partitioning k-ary n-cubes
Nicol, David M.; Mao, Weizhen
1994-01-01
Graph partitioning is a topic of extensive interest, with applications to parallel processing. In this context graph nodes typically represent computation, and edges represent communication. One seeks to distribute the workload by partitioning the graph so that every processor has approximately the same workload, and the communication cost (measured as a function of edges exposed by the partition) is minimized. Measures of partition quality vary; in this paper we consider a processor's cost to be the sum of its computation and communication costs, and consider the cost of a partition to be the bottleneck, or maximal processor cost induced by the partition. For a general graph the problem of finding an optimal partitioning is intractable. In this paper we restrict our attention to the class of k-art n-cube graphs with uniformly weighted nodes. Given mild restrictions on the node weight and number of processors, we identify partitions yielding the smallest bottleneck. We also demonstrate by example that some restrictions are necessary for the partitions we identify to be optimal. In particular, there exist cases where partitions that evenly partition nodes need not be optimal.
Black strings ending on horizons
Haddad, Nidal
2012-12-01
We construct an approximate static gravitational solution of the Einstein equations, with negative cosmological constant, describing a test black string stretching from the boundary of the Schwarzschild-AdS5 black brane toward the horizon. The construction builds on a derivative expansion method, assuming that the black brane metric changes slowly along the black string direction. We provide a solution up to second order in derivatives, and it implies, in particular, that the black string must shrink to zero size at the horizon of the black brane. In the near-horizon region of the black brane, where the two horizons intersect, we provide an exact solution of a cone that describes two intersecting horizons at different temperatures. Moreover, we show that this solution equally describes a thin and long black droplet.
Cooperative strings and glassy interfaces.
Salez, Thomas; Salez, Justin; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A
2015-07-07
We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the ideas of molecular crowding and resultant string-like cooperative rearrangement, and address the effects of free interfaces. In the bulk case, we obtain a scaling expression for the number of particles taking part in cooperative strings, and we recover the Adam-Gibbs description of glassy dynamics. Then, by including thermal dilatation, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, the random and string-like characters of the cooperative rearrangement allow us to predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length ξ of bulk relaxation. Finally, we explore the influence of sample boundaries when the system size becomes comparable to ξ. The theory is in agreement with measurements of the glass-transition temperature of thin polymer films, and allows quantification of the temperature-dependent thickness hm of the interfacial mobile layer.
Vector superconductivity in cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dvali, G.R.; Mahajan, S.M.
1992-03-01
We argue that in most realistic cases, the usual Witten-type bosonic superconductivity of the cosmic string is automatically (independent of the existence of superconducting currents) accompanied by the condensation of charged gauge vector bosons in the core giving rise to a new vector type superconductivity. The value of the charged vector condensate is related with the charged scalar expectation value, and vanishes only if the latter goes to zero. The mechanism for the proposed vector superconductivity, differing fundamentally from those in the literature, is delineated using the simplest realistic example of the two Higgs doublet standard model interacting with the extra cosmic string. It is shown that for a wide range of parameters, for which the string becomes scalarly superconducting, W boson condensates (the sources of vector superconductivity) are necessarily excited. (author). 14 refs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Szklarczyk, Damian; Franceschini, Andrea; Kuhn, Michael
2011-01-01
and computational prediction techniques. However, public efforts to collect and present protein interaction information have struggled to keep up with the pace of interaction discovery, partly because protein-protein interaction information can be error-prone and require considerable effort to annotate. Here, we...... present an update on the online database resource Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING); it provides uniquely comprehensive coverage and ease of access to both experimental as well as predicted interaction information. Interactions in STRING are provided with a confidence score......, and accessory information such as protein domains and 3D structures is made available, all within a stable and consistent identifier space. New features in STRING include an interactive network viewer that can cluster networks on demand, updated on-screen previews of structural information including homology...
General relativity, strings, and mathematical physics
Porrati, Massimo
1999-01-01
We give a historical review of some aspects of string theory relevant to our present understanding of general relativity, and connected with Einstein's unification program. We also point out to various mathematical fallouts of $9 string theory. (31 refs).
$\\mathcal{N}=2^\\star$ from Topological Amplitudes in String Theory
Florakis, Ioannis
2016-01-01
In this paper, we explicitly construct string theory backgrounds that realise the so-called $\\mathcal N=2^\\star$ gauge theory. We prove the consistency of our models by calculating their partition function and obtaining the correct gauge theory spectrum. We further provide arguments in favour of the universality of our construction which covers a wide class of models all of which engineer the same gauge theory. We reproduce the corresponding Nekrasov partition function once the $\\Omega$-deformation is included and the appropriate field theory limit taken. This is achieved by calculating the topological amplitudes $F_g$ in the string models. In addition to heterotic and type II constructions, we also realise the mass deformation in type I theory, thus leading to a natural way of uplifting the result to the instanton sector.
Introduction to field theory of strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kikkawa, K.
1987-01-01
The field theory of bosonic string is reviewed. First, theory is treated in a light-cone gauge. After a brief survey of the first quantized theory of free string, the second quantization is discussed. All possible interactions of strings are introduced based on a smoothness condition of work sheets swept out by strings. Perturbation theory is developed. Finally a possible way to the manifest covariant formalism is discussed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Szklarczyk, Damian; Morris, John H; Cook, Helen
2017-01-01
A system-wide understanding of cellular function requires knowledge of all functional interactions between the expressed proteins. The STRING database aims to collect and integrate this information, by consolidating known and predicted protein-protein association data for a large number of organi......A system-wide understanding of cellular function requires knowledge of all functional interactions between the expressed proteins. The STRING database aims to collect and integrate this information, by consolidating known and predicted protein-protein association data for a large number...
Semiclassical strings in supergravity PFT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banerjee, Aritra; Biswas, Sagar; Panigrahi, Kamal L. [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Department of Physics, Kharagpur (India)
2014-10-15
Puff field theory (PFT) is an example of a non-local field theory which arises from a novel embedding of D-branes in a Melvin universe. We study several rotating and pulsating string solutions of the F-string equations of motion in the supergravity dual of the PFT. Further, we find a PP-wave geometry from this non-local spacetime by applying a Penrose limit and comment on its similarity with the maximally supersymmetric PP-wave background. (orig.)
Cosmic string in gravity's rainbow
Momeni, Davood; Upadhyay, Sudhaker; Myrzakulov, Yerlan; Myrzakulov, Ratbay
2017-09-01
In this paper, we study the various cylindrical solutions (cosmic strings) in gravity's rainbow scenario. In particular, we calculate the gravitational field equations corresponding to energy-dependent background. Further, we discuss the possible Kasner, quasi-Kasner and non-Kasner exact solutions of the field equations. In this framework, we find that quasi-Kasner solutions cannot be realized in gravity's rainbow. Assuming only time-dependent metric functions, we also analyse the time-dependent vacuum cosmic strings in gravity's rainbow, which are completely different than the other GR solutions.
Matching and Compression of Strings with Automata and Word Packing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye; Gørtz, Inge Li; Thomassen, Carsten
pattern queries. In the deterministic variant the goal is to solve the string indexing problem without any randomization (at preprocessing time or query time). In the packed variant the strings are stored with several character in a single word, giving us the opportunity to read multiple characters...... different computational models [Fre82,FS89,Fen94, HSS11, HR03, HRS96,RRR01, PD04]. We solve the partial sums problem in the ultra wide word-RAM model, recently introduced by Farzan et al. [FLONS15], where we, in constant time, are allowed to manipulate words of size w2 and access w memory locations. Farzan...... et al. [FLONS15] additionally gave a solution to the dynamic partial sums problem by simulating the RAMBO model to obtain a result by Brodnik et al. [BKMN06]. In this paper we present an improved solution to the dynamic partial sums problem in the ultra wide word-RAM model that supports all...
String Theory, Strongly Correlated Systems, and Duality Twists
Torres Chicon, Nesty Ray
In the first part of this dissertation (Chapter 1), I present a construction of a six dimensional (2,0)-theory model that describes the dynamics of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE). The FQHE appears as part of the low energy description of the Coulomb branch of the A1 (2,0)-theory formulated on a geometry (S 1 x R2)/Zk. At low-energy, the configuration is described in terms of a 4+1D supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory on a cone (R2/Z k) with additional 2+1D degrees of freedom at the tip of the cone that include fractionally charged particles. These fractionally charged "quasi-particles" are BPS strings of the (2,0)-theory wrapped on short cycles. In this framework, a W-boson can be modeled as a bound state of k quasi-particles, which can be used to understand the dynamics of the FQHE. In the second part of this dissertation (Chapters 2-3), I investigate the N=4 SYM theory compactified on a circle, with a varying coupling constant (Janus configuration) and an S-duality twist. I relate this setup to a three dimensional topological theory and to a dual string theory. The equality of these descriptions is exhibited by matching the operator algebra, and the dimensions of the Hilbert space. Additionally, this dissertation addresses a classic result in number theory, called quadratic reciprocity, using string theory language. I present a proof that quadratic reciprocity is a direct consequence of T-duality of Type-II string theory. This is demonstrated by analyzing a partition function of abelian N=4 SYM theory on a certain supersymmetry-preserving four-manifold with variable coupling constant and a SL(2,Z)-duality twist.
The Physics of "String Passing through Ice"
Mohazzabi, Pirooz
2011-01-01
One of the oldest yet interesting experiments related to heat and thermodynamics is placing a string on a block of ice and hanging two masses from the ends of the string. Sometime later, it is discovered that the string has passed through the ice without cutting it in half. A simple explanation of this effect is that the pressure caused by the…
The Illusive Sound of a Bundengan String
Parikesit, Gea O. F.; Kusumaningtyas, Indraswari
2017-01-01
The acoustics of a vibrating string is frequently used as a simple example of how physics can be applied in the field of art. In this paper we describe a simple experiment and analysis using a clipped string. This experiment can generate scientific curiosity among students because the sound generated by the string seem surprising to our senses.…
How Do String Majors Become Teachers?
Ha, Joy
2015-01-01
This study was motivated by the desire to understand how to support the development of competent and confident string instrument teachers. This research investigates early-career string instrument teachers' experiences of pre-service tertiary education and induction, and how these experiences impacted early-career string teachers' competence to…
The Picture Brightens (Slightly) for String Programs
Olson, Cathy Applefeld
2010-01-01
It may not be the best of times for the school's string and orchestra programs, but things certainly are looking up. This article focuses on a recent report which cites the numerous positives, including an increase in the number of districts offering strings classes, a greater variety in the racial mix of strings students, and a less drastic…
Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Riccioni, Fabio
We construct for arbitrary dimensions a universal T-duality covariant expression for the Wess-Zumino terms of supersymmetric String Solitons in toroidally compactified string theories with 32 supercharges. The worldvolume fields occurring in the effective action of these String Solitons form either
Symmetries and Interactions in Matrix String Theory
Hacquebord, F.H.
1999-01-01
This PhD-thesis reviews matrix string theory and recent developments therein. The emphasis is put on symmetries, interactions and scattering processes in the matrix model. We start with an introduction to matrix string theory and a review of the orbifold model that flows out of matrix string theory
Glueballs as rotating folded closed strings
Sonnenschein, Jacob; Weissman, Dorin
2015-12-01
In previous papers [1, 2] we argued that mesons and baryons can be described as rotating open strings in holographic backgrounds. Now we turn to closed strings, which should be the duals of glueballs. We look at the rotating folded closed string in both flat and curved backgrounds.
Are Stopped Strings Preferred in Sad Music?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Huron
2017-01-01
Full Text Available String instruments may be played either with open strings (where the string vibrates between the bridge and a hard wooden nut or with stopped strings (where the string vibrates between the bridge and a performer's finger pressed against the fingerboard. Compared with open strings, stopped strings permit the use of vibrato and exhibit a darker timbre. Inspired by research on the timbre of sad speech, we test whether there is a tendency to use stopped strings in nominally sad music. Specifically, we compare the proportion of potentially open-to-stopped strings in a sample of slow, minor-mode movements with matched major-mode movements. By way of illustration, a preliminary analysis of Samuel Barber's famous Adagio from his Opus 11 string quartet shows that the selected key (B-flat minor provides the optimum key for minimizing open string tones. However, examination of a broader controlled sample of quartet movements by Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven failed to exhibit the conjectured relationship. Instead, major-mode movements were found to avoid possible open strings more than slow minor-mode movements.
Open bosonic string in background electromagnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nesterenko, V.V.
1987-01-01
The classical and quantum dynamics of an open string propagating in the D-dimensional space-time in the presence of a background electromagnetic field is investigated. An important point in this consideration is the use of the generalized light-like gauge. There are considered the strings of two types; the neutral strings with charges at their ends obeying the condition q 1 +q 2 =0 and the charged strings having a net charge q 1 +q 2 ≠ 0. The consistency of theory demands that the background electric field does not exceed its critical value. The distance between the mass levels of the neutral open string decreases (1-e 2 ) times in comparison with the free string, where e is the dimensionless strength of the electric field. The magnetic field does not affect this distance. It is shown that at a classical level the squared mass of the neutral open string has a tachyonic contribution due to the motion of the string as a whole in transverse directions. The tachyonic term disappears if one considers, instead of M 2 , the string energy in a special reference frame where the projection of the total canonical momentum of the string onto the electric field vanishes. The contributions due to zero point fluctuations to the energy spectrum of the neutral string and to the Virasoro operators in the theory of charged string are found
Transverse structure of the QCD string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyer, Harvey B.
2010-01-01
The characterization of the transverse structure of the QCD string is discussed. We formulate a conjecture as to how the stress-energy tensor of the underlying gauge theory couples to the string degrees of freedom. A consequence of the conjecture is that the energy density and the longitudinal-stress operators measure the distribution of the transverse position of the string, to leading order in the string fluctuations, whereas the transverse-stress operator does not. We interpret recent numerical measurements of the transverse size of the confining string and show that the difference of the energy and longitudinal-stress operators is a particularly natural probe at next-to-leading order. Second, we derive the constraints imposed by open-closed string duality on the transverse structure of the string. We show that a total of three independent ''gravitational'' form factors characterize the transverse profile of the closed string, and obtain the interpretation of recent effective string theory calculations: the square radius of a closed string of length β defined from the slope of its gravitational form factor, is given by (d-1/2πσ)log(β/4r 0 ) in d space dimensions. This is to be compared with the well-known result that the width of the open string at midpoint grows as (d-1/2πσ)log(r/r 0 ). We also obtain predictions for transition form factors among closed-string states.
General relativity invariance and string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aref'eva, I.Ya.; Volovich, I.V.
1987-04-01
The general covariance principle in the string field theory is considered. The algebraic properties of the string Lie derivative are discussed. The string vielbein and spin connection are introduced and an action invariant under general co-ordinate transformation is proposed. (author). 18 refs
Introduction to the theory of strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peskin, M.E.
1985-10-01
These lectures present, from an introductory perspective, some basic aspects of the quantum theory of strings. They treat (1) the kinematics, spectrum, and scattering amplitude of the bosonic string, (2) the spectrum and supersymmetry of Green-Schwarz superstring, and (3) the identification of the underlying gauge invariances of the string theory. 43 refs
Partitioning of unstructured meshes for load balancing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, O.C.; Otto, S.W.
1994-01-01
Many large-scale engineering and scientific calculations involve repeated updating of variables on an unstructured mesh. To do these types of computations on distributed memory parallel computers, it is necessary to partition the mesh among the processors so that the load balance is maximized and inter-processor communication time is minimized. This can be approximated by the problem, of partitioning a graph so as to obtain a minimum cut, a well-studied combinatorial optimization problem. Graph partitioning algorithms are discussed that give good but not necessarily optimum solutions. These algorithms include local search methods recursive spectral bisection, and more general purpose methods such as simulated annealing. It is shown that a general procedure enables to combine simulated annealing with Kernighan-Lin. The resulting algorithm is both very fast and extremely effective. (authors) 23 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab
VLSI PARTITIONING ALGORITHM WITH ADAPTIVE CONTROL PARAMETER
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. N. Filippenko
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of very large-scale integration circuit partitioning. A graph is selected as a mathematical model describing integrated circuit. Modification of ant colony optimization algorithm is presented, which is used to solve graph partitioning problem. Ant colony optimization algorithm is an optimization method based on the principles of self-organization and other useful features of the ants’ behavior. The proposed search system is based on ant colony optimization algorithm with the improved method of the initial distribution and dynamic adjustment of the control search parameters. The experimental results and performance comparison show that the proposed method of very large-scale integration circuit partitioning provides the better search performance over other well known algorithms.
$N=2^∗$ (non-)Abelian theory in the $\\Omega$ background from string theory
Samsonyan, Marine; Antoniadis, Ignatios
2018-01-01
We present a D-brane realisation of the Abelian and non-Abelian N = 2 ∗ theory both in five and four dimensions. We compute topological amplitudes in string theory for Ω deformed spacetime first with one and then with two parameters. In the field theory limit we recover the perturbative partition function of the deformed N = 2 ∗ theory in agreement with the existing literature.
Patterned-string tasks: relation between fine motor skills and visual-spatial abilities in parrots.
Krasheninnikova, Anastasia
2013-01-01
String-pulling and patterned-string tasks are often used to analyse perceptual and cognitive abilities in animals. In addition, the paradigm can be used to test the interrelation between visual-spatial and motor performance. Two Australian parrot species, the galah (Eolophus roseicapilla) and the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), forage on the ground, but only the galah uses its feet to manipulate food. I used a set of string pulling and patterned-string tasks to test whether usage of the feet during foraging is a prerequisite for solving the vertical string pulling problem. Indeed, the two species used techniques that clearly differed in the extent of beak-foot coordination but did not differ in terms of their success in solving the string pulling task. However, when the visual-spatial skills of the subjects were tested, the galahs outperformed the cockatiels. This supports the hypothesis that the fine motor skills needed for advanced beak-foot coordination may be interrelated with certain visual-spatial abilities needed for solving patterned-string tasks. This pattern was also found within each of the two species on the individual level: higher motor abilities positively correlated with performance in patterned-string tasks. This is the first evidence of an interrelation between visual-spatial and motor abilities in non-mammalian animals.
Patterned-string tasks: relation between fine motor skills and visual-spatial abilities in parrots.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anastasia Krasheninnikova
Full Text Available String-pulling and patterned-string tasks are often used to analyse perceptual and cognitive abilities in animals. In addition, the paradigm can be used to test the interrelation between visual-spatial and motor performance. Two Australian parrot species, the galah (Eolophus roseicapilla and the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus, forage on the ground, but only the galah uses its feet to manipulate food. I used a set of string pulling and patterned-string tasks to test whether usage of the feet during foraging is a prerequisite for solving the vertical string pulling problem. Indeed, the two species used techniques that clearly differed in the extent of beak-foot coordination but did not differ in terms of their success in solving the string pulling task. However, when the visual-spatial skills of the subjects were tested, the galahs outperformed the cockatiels. This supports the hypothesis that the fine motor skills needed for advanced beak-foot coordination may be interrelated with certain visual-spatial abilities needed for solving patterned-string tasks. This pattern was also found within each of the two species on the individual level: higher motor abilities positively correlated with performance in patterned-string tasks. This is the first evidence of an interrelation between visual-spatial and motor abilities in non-mammalian animals.
Bianchi type I string cosmologies
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
By making use of Letelier's form of energy–momentum tensor for a cloud of stringdust we present some classes of solutions of general relativistic ﬁeld equations which describe cosmological string-dust models in Bianchi type I space-time. Some of the classes of models obey Takabayashi's equation of state whereas a class ...
Defect branes as Alice strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okada, Takashi; Sakatani, Yuho
2015-01-01
There exist various defect-brane backgrounds in supergravity theories which arise as the low energy limit of string theories. These backgrounds typically have non-trivial monodromies, and if we move a charged probe around the center of a defect, its charge will be changed by the action of the monodromy. During the process, the charge conservation law seems to be violated. In this paper, to resolve this puzzle, we examine a dynamics of the charge changing process and show that the missing charge of the probe is transferred to the background. We then explicitly construct the resultant background after the charge transfer process by utilizing dualities. This background has the same monodromy as the original defect brane, but has an additional charge which does not have any localized source. In the literature, such a charge without localized source is known to appear in the presence of Alice strings. We argue that defect branes can in fact be regarded as a realization of Alice strings in string theory and examine the charge transfer process from that perspective.
String formation beyond leading colour
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Christiansen, Jesper R. [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University,Sölvegatan 14, Lund (Sweden); Theoretical Physics, CERN,CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Skands, Peter Z. [Theoretical Physics, CERN,CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University,VIC-3800 (Australia)
2015-08-03
We present a new model for the hadronisation of multi-parton systems, in which colour correlations beyond leading N{sub C} are allowed to influence the formation of confining potentials (strings). The multiplet structure of SU(3) is combined with a minimisation of the string potential energy, to decide between which partons strings should form, allowing also for “baryonic” configurations (e.g., two colours can combine coherently to form an anticolour). In e{sup +}e{sup −}collisions, modifications to the leading-colour picture are small, suppressed by both colour and kinematics factors. But in pp collisions, multi-parton interactions increase the number of possible subleading connections, counteracting their naive 1/N{sub C}{sup 2} suppression. Moreover, those that reduce the overall string lengths are kinematically favoured. The model, which we have implemented in the PYTHIA 8 generator, is capable of reaching agreement not only with the important 〈p{sub ⊥}〉(n{sub charged}) distribution but also with measured rates (and ratios) of kaons and hyperons, in both ee and pp collisions. Nonetheless, the shape of their p{sub ⊥} spectra remains challenging to explain.
Hofman, C.; Park, J.-S.
1997-01-01
The recent developmen ts in string theory suggest that the space-time coordinates should be generalized to non-comm uting matrices. P ostulating this suggestion as the fun- damen tal geometrical principle, w e form ulate a candidate for covariant second quantized RNS superstrings as a topological
Topological strings and quantum curves
Hollands, L.
2009-01-01
This thesis presents several new insights on the interface between mathematics and theoretical physics, with a central role for Riemann surfaces. First of all, the duality between Vafa-Witten theory and WZW models is embedded in string theory. Secondly, this model is generalized to a web of
String theory and cosmological singularities
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Well-known examples are singularities inside black holes and initial or final singularities in expanding or contracting universes. In recent times, string theory is providing new perspectives of such singularities which may lead to an understanding of these in the standard framework of time evolution in quantum mechanics.
Probing the string winding sector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aldazabal, Gerardo; Mayo, Martín [G. Física CAB-CNEA and CONICET, Centro Atómico Bariloche,Av. Bustillo 9500, Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro, Centro Atómico Bariloche,Av. Bustillo 9500, Bariloche (Argentina); Nuñez, Carmen [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA),C.C. 67 - Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Física, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires,C.C. 67 - Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2017-03-17
We probe a slice of the massive winding sector of bosonic string theory from toroidal compactifications of Double Field Theory (DFT). This string subsector corresponds to states containing one left and one right moving oscillators. We perform a generalized Kaluza Klein compactification of DFT on generic 2n-dimensional toroidal constant backgrounds and show that, up to third order in fluctuations, the theory coincides with the corresponding effective theory of the bosonic string compactified on n-dimensional toroidal constant backgrounds, obtained from three-point amplitudes. The comparison between both theories is facilitated by noticing that generalized diffeomorphisms in DFT allow to fix generalized harmonic gauge conditions that help in identifying the physical degrees of freedom. These conditions manifest as conformal anomaly cancellation requirements on the string theory side. The explicit expression for the gauge invariant effective action containing the physical massless sector (gravity+antisymmetric+gauge+ scalar fields) coupled to towers of generalized Kaluza Klein massive states (corresponding to compact momentum and winding modes) is found. The action acquires a very compact form when written in terms of fields carrying O(n,n) indices, and is explicitly T-duality invariant. The global algebra associated to the generalized Kaluza Klein compactification is discussed.
Genus g temperature string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murphy, P.; Sen, S.
1989-01-01
The geometric approach to bosonic temperature string theory for genus g is formulated in the operator approach of Vafa. It is shown that the Hagedorn temperature exists for all genus g and a conjectured genus g expression for superstring theories with temperature is constructed. (orig.)
The Science of String Instruments
Rossing, Thomas D
2010-01-01
Many performing musicians, as well as instrument builders, are coming to realize the importance of understanding the science of musical instruments. This book explains how string instruments produce sound. It presents basic ideas in simple language, and it also translates some more sophisticated ideas in non-technical language. It should be of interest to performers, researchers, and instrument makers alike.
CERN. Geneva
2014-01-01
The presence of the surrounding medium makes their dynamics dramatically different from those of ordinary string-like objects propagating in empty space, leading to quite peculiar phenomena, observed in experiments and simulations. I will argue that the effective theory provides an optimal theoretical framework to understand such phenomena, and to make precise quantitative predictions about them.
Strings, fields and critical phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ambjoern, J.
1987-07-01
The connection between field theory and critical phenomena is reviewed. Emphasis is put on the use of Monte Carlo methods in the study of non-perturbative aspects of field theory. String theory is then described as a statistical theory of random surfaces and the critical behaviour is analyzed both by analytical and numerical methods. (orig.)
Modified Steiner functional string action
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baillie, C.F.; Johnston, D.A.
1992-01-01
It has recently been suggested by Ambartzumian et al. that the modified Steiner functional has desirable properties as an action for random surfaces and hence string world sheets. We perform a simulation of this action on a dynamically triangulated random surface to investigate this claim and find that the surfaces are in a flat phase
Bianchi type I string cosmologies
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
if a proper initial condition, viz., inflation is imposed on the very early universe. Various types of inflationary cosmologies are being considered and the string cosmology is one. It is generally believed that the very early universe underwent phase transitions, which gave rise to topologically stable structures; of particular ...
Topological Strings and Integrable Hierarchies
Aganagic, M; Klemm, A D; Marino, M; Vafa, C; Aganagic, Mina; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Klemm, Albrecht; Marino, Marcos; Vafa, Cumrun
2006-01-01
We consider the topological B-model on local Calabi-Yau geometries. We show how one can solve for the amplitudes by using W-algebra symmetries which encodes the symmetries of holomorphic diffeomorphisms of the Calabi-Yau. In the highly effective fermionic/brane formulation this leads to a free fermion description of the amplitudes. Furthermore we argue that topological strings on Calabi-Yau geometries provide a unifying picture connecting non-critical (super)strings, integrable hierarchies, and various matrix models. In particular we show how the ordinary matrix model, the double scaling limit of matrix models, and Kontsevich-like matrix model are all related and arise from studying branes in specific local Calabi-Yau three-folds. We also show how A-model topological string on P^1 and local toric threefolds (and in particular the topological vertex) can be realized and solved as B-model topological string amplitudes on a Calabi-Yau manifold.
Introductory lectures on conformal field theory and strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Randjbar-Daemi, S.; Strathdee, J.
1990-01-01
The aim of these lectures is to provide an introduction to a first quantized formulation of string theory. This amounts to developing a consistent set of prescriptions for the perturbative computation of on-shell string amplitudes. The principal tool in this development is 2-dimensional conformal field theory on oriented manifolds of finite genus without boundaries (we treat only closed strings). This class of theory is much simpler than 4-dimensional quantum gravity with which it has many similarities. The geometry is not dynamical in this case, and the matter fields are not sensitive to local features of the geometry but only to global properties which can be characterized by a finite set of parameters (moduli). This can be formulated as field theory on a Riemann surface. We specialize mainly to free field theories for which the quantization problem can be completely solved by elementary means. An introduction to the general case will be given in Lectures II and III where the algebraic approach is discussed. The mathematics of Riemann surfaces is a well developed subject whose formalism is reviewed along with some of the principal theorems in Lecture IV. Physical string states are realized in the Hilbert space of a conformal field theory by the action of so-called ''vertex operators'' on the field theory vacuum state. Correlation functions of these vertex operators serve as ingredients for the computation of string amplitudes. They are to be integrated so as to include the contributions of all conformally inequivalent geometries, and a further manipulation (the GSO projection) is to be performed. These steps are to be regarded as part of the string prescription. The are introduced ad hoc to meet invariance and unitarity requirements. However, in these introductory lectures we give a description only of the integration over geometries (Lecture VII). The GSO projection, and related questions of modular invariance and unitarity are beyond the scope of these lectures
Post processing for offline Chinese handwritten character string recognition
Wang, YanWei; Ding, XiaoQing; Liu, ChangSong
2012-01-01
Offline Chinese handwritten character string recognition is one of the most important research fields in pattern recognition. Due to the free writing style, large variability in character shapes and different geometric characteristics, Chinese handwritten character string recognition is a challenging problem to deal with. However, among the current methods over-segmentation and merging method which integrates geometric information, character recognition information and contextual information, shows a promising result. It is found experimentally that a large part of errors are segmentation error and mainly occur around non-Chinese characters. In a Chinese character string, there are not only wide characters namely Chinese characters, but also narrow characters like digits and letters of the alphabet. The segmentation error is mainly caused by uniform geometric model imposed on all segmented candidate characters. To solve this problem, post processing is employed to improve recognition accuracy of narrow characters. On one hand, multi-geometric models are established for wide characters and narrow characters respectively. Under multi-geometric models narrow characters are not prone to be merged. On the other hand, top rank recognition results of candidate paths are integrated to boost final recognition of narrow characters. The post processing method is investigated on two datasets, in total 1405 handwritten address strings. The wide character recognition accuracy has been improved lightly and narrow character recognition accuracy has been increased up by 10.41% and 10.03% respectively. It indicates that the post processing method is effective to improve recognition accuracy of narrow characters.
Facet-defining inequalities for the simple graph partitioning polytope
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Michael Malmros
2007-01-01
The simple graph partitioning problem is to partition an edge-weighted graph into mutually node-disjoint subgraphs, each containing at most b nodes, such that the sum of the weights of all edges in the subgraphs is maximal. In this paper we provide several classes of facet-defining inequalities...
On the partition dimension of two-component graphs
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
D O Haryeni
2017-11-17
Nov 17, 2017 ... Partition dimension; disconnected graph; component. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. 05C12, 05C15. 1. Introduction. The study of the partition dimension for graphs was initiated by Chartrand et al. [2] aimed at finding a new way to solve the problem in metric dimensions of graphs. Many results.
With string model to time series forecasting
Pinčák, Richard; Bartoš, Erik
2015-10-01
Overwhelming majority of econometric models applied on a long term basis in the financial forex market do not work sufficiently well. The reason is that transaction costs and arbitrage opportunity are not included, as this does not simulate the real financial markets. Analyses are not conducted on the non equidistant date but rather on the aggregate date, which is also not a real financial case. In this paper, we would like to show a new way how to analyze and, moreover, forecast financial market. We utilize the projections of the real exchange rate dynamics onto the string-like topology in the OANDA market. The latter approach allows us to build the stable prediction models in trading in the financial forex market. The real application of the multi-string structures is provided to demonstrate our ideas for the solution of the problem of the robust portfolio selection. The comparison with the trend following strategies was performed, the stability of the algorithm on the transaction costs for long trade periods was confirmed.
Ultrasensitive string-based temperature sensors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Tom; Schmid, Silvan; Gronberg, L.
2011-01-01
microstrings was measured. The relative change in resonant frequency per temperature change of -1.74 +/- 0.04%/ degrees C of the aluminum strings is more than one order of magnitude higher than of the silicon nitride strings and of comparable state-of-the-art AuPd strings.......Resonant strings are a promising concept for ultra sensitive temperature detection. We present an analytical model for the sensitivity with which we optimize the temperature response of resonant strings by varying geometry and material. The temperature sensitivity of silicon nitride and aluminum...
Set Partitions and the Multiplication Principle
Lockwood, Elise; Caughman, John S., IV
2016-01-01
To further understand student thinking in the context of combinatorial enumeration, we examine student work on a problem involving set partitions. In this context, we note some key features of the multiplication principle that were often not attended to by students. We also share a productive way of thinking that emerged for several students who…
String theory as a Lilliputian world
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ambjørn, J.; Makeenko, Y.
2016-01-01
Lattice regularizations of the bosonic string do not allow us to probe the tachyon. This has often been viewed as the reason why these theories have never managed to make any contact to standard continuum string theories when the dimension of spacetime is larger than two. We study the continuum string theory in large spacetime dimensions where simple mean field theory is reliable. By keeping carefully the cutoff we show that precisely the existence of a tachyon makes it possible to take a scaling limit which reproduces the lattice-string results. We compare this scaling limit with another scaling limit which reproduces standard continuum-string results. If the people working with lattice regularizations of string theories are akin to Gulliver they will view the standard string-world as a Lilliputian world no larger than a few lattice spacings.
String theory as a Lilliputian world
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ambjørn, J., E-mail: ambjorn@nbi.dk [The Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); IMAPP, Radboud University, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Makeenko, Y., E-mail: makeenko@nbi.dk [The Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2016-05-10
Lattice regularizations of the bosonic string do not allow us to probe the tachyon. This has often been viewed as the reason why these theories have never managed to make any contact to standard continuum string theories when the dimension of spacetime is larger than two. We study the continuum string theory in large spacetime dimensions where simple mean field theory is reliable. By keeping carefully the cutoff we show that precisely the existence of a tachyon makes it possible to take a scaling limit which reproduces the lattice-string results. We compare this scaling limit with another scaling limit which reproduces standard continuum-string results. If the people working with lattice regularizations of string theories are akin to Gulliver they will view the standard string-world as a Lilliputian world no larger than a few lattice spacings.
Dynamical AdS strings across horizons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ishii, Takaaki [University of Colorado,390 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Murata, Keiju [Keio University,4-1-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama 223-8521 (Japan)
2016-03-07
We examine the nonlinear classical dynamics of a fundamental string in anti-de Sitter spacetime. The string is dual to the flux tube between an external quark-antiquark pair in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. We perturb the string by shaking the endpoints and compute its time evolution numerically. We find that with sufficiently strong perturbations the string continues extending and plunges into the Poincaré horizon. In the evolution, effective horizons are also dynamically created on the string worldsheet. The quark and antiquark are thus causally disconnected, and the string transitions to two straight strings. The forces acting on the endpoints vanish with a power law whose slope depends on the perturbations. The condition for this transition to occur is that energy injection exceeds the static energy between the quark-antiquark pair.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rensburg, E J Janse van; Ma, J
2006-01-01
We examine partitions and their natural three-dimensional generalizations, plane partitions, as models of vesicles undergoing an inflation-deflation transition. The phase diagrams of these models include a critical point corresponding to an inflation-deflation transition, and exhibits multicritical scaling in the vicinity of a multicritical point located elsewhere on the critical curve. We determine the locations of the multicritical points by analysing the generating functions using analytic and numerical means. In addition, we determine the numerical values of the multicritical scaling exponents associated with the multicritical scaling regimes in these models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carlip, S [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)
2006-10-21
The early 1980s, when I first learned theory, were desperate times for graduate students. We searched frantically for coherent introductions, passing tattered copies of review articles around like samizdat, struggling over obscure references to ancient models of strong interactions, and flocking to lectures-not least those by Joe Polchinski-that promised to really explain what was going on. If only this book had been around, it would have saved much grief. Volume I, The Bosonic String, offers a clear and well organized introduction to bosonic string theory. Topics range from the 'classical' (spectra, vertex operators, consistency conditions, etc.) to the 'modern' (D-branes first appear in an exercise at the end of chapter 1, noncommutative geometry shows up in chapter 8). Polchinski does not hesitate to discuss sophisticated matters-path integral measures, BRST symmetries, etc.-but his approach is pedagogical, and his writing is lucid, if sometimes a bit terse. Chapters end with problems that are sometimes difficult but never impossible. A very useful annotated bibliography directs readers to resources for further study, and a nearly 30-page glossary provides short but clear definitions of key terms. There is much here that will appeal to relativists. Polchinski uses the covariant Polyakov path integral approach to quantization from early on; he clearly distinguishes Weyl invariance from conformal invariance; he is appropriately careful about using complex coordinates on topologically nontrivial manifolds; he keeps the string world sheet metric explicit at the start instead of immediately hiding it by a gauge choice. Volume II includes an elegant introduction to anticommuting coordinates and superconformal transformations. A few conventions may cause confusion-%, Polchinski's stress-energy tensor, for instance, differs from the standard general relativistic definition by a factor of -2{pi}, and while this is briefly mentioned in the text
Does a String-Particle Dualism Indicate the Uncertainty Principle's Philosophical Dichotomy?
Mc Leod, David; Mc Leod, Roger
2007-04-01
String theory may allow resonances of neutrino-wave-strings to account for all experimentally detected phenomena. Particle theory logically, and physically, provides an alternate, contradictory dualism. Is it contradictory to symbolically and simultaneously state that λp = h, but, the product of position and momentum must be greater than, or equal to, the same (scaled) Plank's constant? Our previous electron and positron models require `membrane' vibrations of string-linked neutrinos, in closed loops, to behave like traveling waves, Tws, intermittently metamorphosing into alternately ascending and descending standing waves, Sws, between the nodes, which advance sequentially through 360 degrees. Accumulated time passages as Tws detail required ``loop currents'' supplying magnetic moments. Remaining time partitions into the Sws' alternately ascending and descending phases: the physical basis of the experimentally established 3D modes of these ``particles.'' Waves seem to indicate that point mass cannot be required to exist instantaneously at one point; Mott's and Sneddon's Wave Mechanics says that a constant, [mass], is present. String-like resonances may also account for homeopathy's efficacy, dark matter, and constellations' ``stick-figure projections,'' as indicated by some traditional cultures, all possibly involving neutrino strings. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NES07.C2.5
On the consistency and high-energy behavior of string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mende, P.F.
1988-01-01
In Part I, it is shown that the heterotic string is free of gauge and gravitational anomalies by showing that (a) unless the gauge group is E S x E S or Spin(32)/Z 2 or a subgroup, the internal sector partition function vanishes so there is no consistent theory; and (b) for E 8 x E 8 and Spin(32)/Z 2 compactifications, the longitudinal modes of the massless gauge particles decouple, as required by gauge invariance. We discuss the geometric interpretation for string theory when the action is invariant under a modular subgroup. In Part II, the high-energy behavior of string scattering amplitudes is studied to all orders in perturbation theory, with the aim of exploring the short-distance structure of string theory. It is shown that the sum over all Riemann surfaces is dominated by a saddle point. Consequently, the high-energy limit is universal and simple to calculate. In this limit the amplitudes fall off much faster than allowed by field theory. The dominant saddle points are identified as coming from world sheets which are Z G+1 symmetric algebraic curves, and their contribution to the scattering amplitude is evaluated for the bosonic to all orders and for the heterotic string to two-loop order. An interesting spacetime picture of the high-energy limit emerges. The issue of summing the perturbation expansion is addressed
Black Holes, q-Deformed 2d Yang-Mills, and Non-perturbative Topological Strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aganagic, Mina; Ooguri, Hirosi; Saulina, Natalia; Vafa, Cumrun
2005-01-28
We count the number of bound states of BPS black holes on local Calabi-Yau three-folds involving a Riemann surface of genus g. We show that the corresponding gauge theory on the brane reduces to a q-deformed Yang-Mills theory on the Riemann surface. Following the recent connection between the black hole entropy and the topological string partition function, we find that for a large black hole charge N, up to corrections of O(e^-N), Z_BH is given as a sum of a square of chiral blocks, each of which corresponds to a specific D-brane amplitude. The leading chiral block, the vacuum block, corresponds to the closed topological string amplitudes. The sub-leading chiral blocks involve topological string amplitudes with D-brane insertions at 2g-2 points on the Riemann surface analogous to the Omega points in the large N 2d Yang-Mills theory. The finite N amplitude provides a non-perturbative definition of topological strings in these backgrounds. This also leads to a novel non-perturbative formulation of c=1 non-critical string at the self-dual radius.
Nested partitions method, theory and applications
Shi, Leyuan
2009-01-01
There is increasing need to solve large-scale complex optimization problems in a wide variety of science and engineering applications, including designing telecommunication networks for multimedia transmission, planning and scheduling problems in manufacturing and military operations, or designing nanoscale devices and systems. Advances in technology and information systems have made such optimization problems more and more complicated in terms of size and uncertainty. Nested Partitions Method, Theory and Applications provides a cutting-edge research tool to use for large-scale, complex systems optimization. The Nested Partitions (NP) framework is an innovative mix of traditional optimization methodology and probabilistic assumptions. An important feature of the NP framework is that it combines many well-known optimization techniques, including dynamic programming, mixed integer programming, genetic algorithms and tabu search, while also integrating many problem-specific local search heuristics. The book uses...
Gluing Nekrasov Partition Functions
Qiu, Jian; Tizzano, Luigi; Winding, Jacob; Zabzine, Maxim
2015-07-01
In this paper we summarise the localisation calculation of 5D super Yang-Mills on simply connected toric Sasaki-Einstein (SE) manifolds. We show how various aspects of the computation, including the equivariant index, the asymptotic behaviour and the factorisation property are governed by the combinatorial data of the toric geometry. We prove that the perturbative partition function on a simply connected SE manifold corresponding to an n-gon toric diagram factorises to n copies of perturbative part (zero instanton sector) of the Nekrasov partition function. This leads us to conjecture a prescription for the computation of the complete partition function, by gluing n copies of the full Nekrasov partition functions. This work is a generalisation of some earlier computation carried out on Y p, q manifolds, whose moment map cone has a quadrangle base and our result is valid for manifolds whose moment map cones have pentagon base, hexagon base, etc. The algorithm we used for dealing with general cones may also be of independent interest.
Goldbach Partitions and Sequences
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 11. Goldbach Partitions and Sequences. Subhash Kak. General Article Volume 19 Issue 11 November 2014 pp 1028-1037. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/11/1028-1037 ...
An investigation into the cognition behind spontaneous string pulling in New Caledonian crows.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alex H Taylor
Full Text Available The ability of some bird species to pull up meat hung on a string is a famous example of spontaneous animal problem solving. The "insight" hypothesis claims that this complex behaviour is based on cognitive abilities such as mental scenario building and imagination. An operant conditioning account, in contrast, would claim that this spontaneity is due to each action in string pulling being reinforced by the meat moving closer and remaining closer to the bird on the perch. We presented experienced and naïve New Caledonian crows with a novel, visually restricted string-pulling problem that reduced the quality of visual feedback during string pulling. Experienced crows solved this problem with reduced efficiency and increased errors compared to their performance in standard string pulling. Naïve crows either failed or solved the problem by trial and error learning. However, when visual feedback was available via a mirror mounted next to the apparatus, two naïve crows were able to perform at the same level as the experienced group. Our results raise the possibility that spontaneous string pulling in New Caledonian crows may not be based on insight but on operant conditioning mediated by a perceptual-motor feedback cycle.
Partitioning a macroscopic system into independent subsystems
Delle Site, Luigi; Ciccotti, Giovanni; Hartmann, Carsten
2017-08-01
We discuss the problem of partitioning a macroscopic system into a collection of independent subsystems. The partitioning of a system into replica-like subsystems is nowadays a subject of major interest in several fields of theoretical and applied physics. The thermodynamic approach currently favoured by practitioners is based on a phenomenological definition of an interface energy associated with the partition, due to a lack of easily computable expressions for a microscopic (i.e. particle-based) interface energy. In this article, we outline a general approach to derive sharp and computable bounds for the interface free energy in terms of microscopic statistical quantities. We discuss potential applications in nanothermodynamics and outline possible future directions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Negri, L.J.
1982-01-01
A tecnique permiting the construction of a lagrangian function for nao-holononic systems is established. The classical formalism of the relativistic strings is discussed in the point of view of the Dirac theory for singular systems and in the context of a problem of two-dimensional surface immersion in space-time. It is shown how to solve the problem corresponding to the immersion in the case of free-finite and open strings by the specification of a non-conventional gauge. The relation between the string theory and Maxwell fields of place 2 is analyzed and the properties of string 'current density' to obtain new information about the model is explored. (L.C.) [pt
Remarks on entanglement entropy in string theory
Balasubramanian, Vijay; Parrikar, Onkar
2018-03-01
Entanglement entropy for spatial subregions is difficult to define in string theory because of the extended nature of strings. Here we propose a definition for bosonic open strings using the framework of string field theory. The key difference (compared to ordinary quantum field theory) is that the subregion is chosen inside a Cauchy surface in the "space of open string configurations." We first present a simple calculation of this entanglement entropy in free light-cone string field theory, ignoring subtleties related to the factorization of the Hilbert space. We reproduce the answer expected from an effective field theory point of view, namely a sum over the one-loop entanglement entropies corresponding to all the particle-excitations of the string, and further show that the full string theory regulates ultraviolet divergences in the entanglement entropy. We then revisit the question of factorization of the Hilbert space by analyzing the covariant phase-space associated with a subregion in Witten's covariant string field theory. We show that the pure gauge (i.e., BRST exact) modes in the string field become dynamical at the entanglement cut. Thus, a proper definition of the entropy must involve an extended Hilbert space, with new stringy edge modes localized at the entanglement cut.
Matrix strings in weakly curved background fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schiappa, Ricardo
2001-01-01
We investigate further the recent proposal for the form of the Matrix theory action in weak background fields. We perform DVV reduction to the multiple D0-brane action in order to find the Matrix string theory action for multiple fundamental strings in curved but weak NSNS and RR backgrounds. This matrix sigma model gives a definite prescription on how to deal with RR fields with an explicit spacetime dependence in Type II string theory. We do this both via the 9-11 flip and the chain of T and S dualities, and further check on their equivalence explicitly. In order to do so, we also discuss the implementation of S-duality in the operators of the 2-dimensional worldvolume supersymmetric gauge theory describing the Type IIB D-string. We compare the result to the known Green-Schwarz sigma model action (for one string), and use this comparison in order to discuss about possible, non-linear background curvature corrections to the Matrix string action (involving many strings), and therefore to the Matrix theory action. We illustrate the nonabelian character of our action with an example involving multiple fundamental strings in a nontrivial RR flux, where the strings are polarized into a noncommutative configuration. This corresponds to a dielectric type of effect on fundamental strings
Topological strings on singular elliptic Calabi-Yau 3-folds and minimal 6d SCFTs
Del Zotto, Michele; Gu, Jie; Huang, Min-xin; Kashani-Poor, Amir-Kian; Klemm, Albrecht; Lockhart, Guglielmo
2018-03-01
We apply the modular approach to computing the topological string partition function on non-compact elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau 3-folds with higher Kodaira singularities in the fiber. The approach consists in making an ansatz for the partition function at given base degree, exact in all fiber classes to arbitrary order and to all genus, in terms of a rational function of weak Jacobi forms. Our results yield, at given base degree, the elliptic genus of the corresponding non-critical 6d string, and thus the associated BPS invariants of the 6d theory. The required elliptic indices are determined from the chiral anomaly 4-form of the 2d worldsheet theories, or the 8-form of the corresponding 6d theories, and completely fix the holomorphic anomaly equation constraining the partition function. We introduce subrings of the known rings of Weyl invariant Jacobi forms which are adapted to the additional symmetries of the partition function, making its computation feasible to low base wrapping number. In contradistinction to the case of simpler singularities, generic vanishing conditions on BPS numbers are no longer sufficient to fix the modular ansatz at arbitrary base wrapping degree. We show that to low degree, imposing exact vanishing conditions does suffice, and conjecture this to be the case generally.
Dark energy from the string axiverse.
Kamionkowski, Marc; Pradler, Josef; Walker, Devin G E
2014-12-19
String theories suggest the existence of a plethora of axionlike fields with masses spread over a huge number of decades. Here, we show that these ideas lend themselves to a model of quintessence with no super-Planckian field excursions and in which all dimensionless numbers are order unity. The scenario addresses the "Why now?" problem-i.e., Why has accelerated expansion begun only recently?-by suggesting that the onset of dark-energy domination occurs randomly with a slowly decreasing probability per unit logarithmic interval in cosmic time. The standard axion potential requires us to postulate a rapid decay of most of the axion fields that do not become dark energy. The need for these decays is averted, though, with the introduction of a slightly modified axion potential. In either case, a universe like ours arises in roughly 1 in 100 universes. The scenario may have a host of observable consequences.
Possible Low-Energy Manifestations of Strings and Gravity
Antoniadis, Ignatios
Despite the important experimental success of general relativity, there are several theoretical reasons indicating that gravitational phenomena may change radically from the predictions of Einstein's theory at very short distances. A main motivation comes from studies of unifying all fundamental forces in the framework of a consistent quantum theory, called string theory. In the first part of my lectures (Sects. 1-6), I discuss the main motivations and directions for physics beyond the Standard Model of elementary particles and I give a short introduction on perturbative string theory. This theory introduces a new physical constant, the string length, under which a new fundamental structure appears, changing drastically the laws of nature. In particular, lowering the string scale in the TeV region provides a theoretical framework for solving the so-called mass hierarchy problem: the apparent weakness of gravity can be accounted for by the existence of large internal dimensions, in the submillimeter region, and transverse to a braneworld where our observed universe is confined. In the second part of my lectures (Sects. 7-11), I describe the main properties of this scenario and its implications for new gravitational phenomena that can be observed at both particle colliders, and in non-accelerator experiments searching for new short-range forces.
Dogs can learn to attend to connectivity in string pulling tasks
Riemer, Stefanie; Müller, Corsin; Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig
2014-01-01
String pulling tasks are commonly used to investigate recognition of means-end connections. Previous studies suggested that dogs base their choice on proximity rather than connectivity (Osthaus, Lea, & Slater, 2005), nonetheless, dogs performed successfully in the related support problem (Range, Hentrup, & Virányi, 2011). To re-investigate dogs’ means-end understanding, we tested 34 Border collies in string pulling tasks in which the proximity of the reward to the connected string’s end was varied. First, subjects were presented with a four-string task (four parallel perpendicular strings, one baited, with the reward in line with the correct string’s end). Dogs that performed above chance in this task were tested with a curved string task, involving one straight and one curved string. When the reward was attached to the curved string, it was equidistant from both strings’ ends so that choosing by proximity was not possible. While group level performance was significantly above chance, only three of 20 dogs met criterion individually, of which one dog subsequently solved a broken string task upon its first presentation. However, the dogs seemed to be unable to overcome their proximity bias in a parallel diagonal string task where proximity of the unconnected string’s end to the reward was misleading. We conclude that although dogs may not demonstrate means-end understanding spontaneously, some can learn to pay attention to connectivity when proximity is not a confounding factor. This study supports the notion that animals may apply several alternative strategies to solve physical problems, which are influenced by the test-setup. PMID:23875921
Persistent homology and string vacua
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cirafici, Michele [Center for Mathematical Analysis, Geometry and Dynamical Systems,Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa,Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques,Le Bois-Marie, 35 route de Chartres, F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France)
2016-03-08
We use methods from topological data analysis to study the topological features of certain distributions of string vacua. Topological data analysis is a multi-scale approach used to analyze the topological features of a dataset by identifying which homological characteristics persist over a long range of scales. We apply these techniques in several contexts. We analyze N=2 vacua by focusing on certain distributions of Calabi-Yau varieties and Landau-Ginzburg models. We then turn to flux compactifications and discuss how we can use topological data analysis to extract physical information. Finally we apply these techniques to certain phenomenologically realistic heterotic models. We discuss the possibility of characterizing string vacua using the topological properties of their distributions.
On noncommutative open string theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Russo, J.G.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M.M.
2000-08-01
We investigate new compactifications of OM theory giving rise to a 3+1 dimensional open string theory with noncommutative x 0 -x 1 and x 2 -x 3 coordinates. The theory can be directly obtained by starting with a D3 brane with parallel (near critical) electric and magnetic field components, in the presence of a RR scalar field. The magnetic parameter permits to interpolate continuously between the x 0 -x 1 noncommutative open string theory and the x 2 -x 3 spatial noncommutative U(N) super Yang-Mills theory. We discuss SL(2, Z) transformations of this theory. Using the supergravity description of the large N limit, we also compute corrections to the quark-antiquark Coulomb potential arising in the NCOS theory. (author)
Wrapping rules (in) string theory
Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Riccioni, Fabio
2018-01-01
In this paper we show that the number of all 1/2-BPS branes in string theory compactified on a torus can be derived by universal wrapping rules whose formulation we present. These rules even apply to branes in less than ten dimensions whose ten-dimensional origin is an exotic brane. In that case the wrapping rules contain an additional combinatorial factor that is related to the highest dimension in which the ten-dimensional exotic brane, after compactification, can be realized as a standard brane. We show that the wrapping rules also apply to cases with less supersymmetry. As a specific example, we discuss the compactification of IIA/IIB string theory on ( T 4/ ℤ 2) × T n .
Precise Analysis of String Expressions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Aske Simon; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff
2003-01-01
, including statically checking the syntax of dynamically generated expressions, such as SQL queries. Our analysis constructs flow graphs from class files and generates a context-free grammar with a nonterminal for each string expression. The language of this grammar is then widened into a regular language......We perform static analysis of Java programs to answer a simple question: which values may occur as results of string expressions? The answers are summarized for each expression by a regular language that is guaranteed to contain all possible values. We present several applications of this analysis...... are automatically produced. We present extensive benchmarks demonstrating that the analysis is efficient and produces results of useful precision....
Chronology protection in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dyson, Lisa
2004-01-01
Many solutions of General Relativity appear to allow the possibility of time travel. This was initially a fascinating discovery, but geometries of this type violate causality, a basic physical law which is believed to be fundamental. Although string theory is a proposed fundamental theory of quantum gravity, geometries with closed timelike curves have resurfaced as solutions to its low energy equations of motion. In this paper, we will study the class of solutions to low energy effective supergravity theories related to the BMPV black hole and the rotating wave-D1-D5-brane system. Time travel appears to be possible in these geometries. We will attempt to build the causality violating regions and propose that stringy effects prohibit their construction. The proposed chronology protection agent for these geometries mirrors a mechanism string theory employs to resolve a class of naked singularities. (author)
1994-01-01
On 6-7 December 1994, a string of powerful superconducting magnets for CERN's next particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), ran successfully at 8.36 tesla for 24 hours. This magnetic field is 100 000 times that of the Earth and is required to keep beams of protons travelling on the correct circular path over 27 km at 7 TeV in the new LHC accelerator.