Ibáñez, Luis E
2015-01-01
This chapter reviews a number of topics in the field of string phenomenology, focusing on orientifold/F-theory models yielding semirealistic low-energy physics. The emphasis is on the extraction of the low-energy effective action and possible tests of specific models at the LHC.
Phenomenological Hints from a Class of String Motivated Model Constructions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hans Peter Nilles
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We use string theory constructions towards the generalisation of the supersymmetric standard model of strong and electroweak interactions. Properties of the models depend crucially on the location of fields in extradimensional compact space. This allows us to extract some generic lessons for the phenomenological properties of the low energy effective action. Within this scheme we present a compelling model based on local grand unification and mirage mediation of supersymmetry breakdown. We analyse the properties of the specific model towards its possible tests at the LHC and the complementarity to direct dark matter searches.
Perspectives on string phenomenology
Kane, Gordon; Kumar, Piyush
2015-01-01
The remarkable recent discovery of the Higgs boson at the CERN Large Hadron Collider completed the Standard Model of particle physics and has paved the way for understanding the physics which may lie beyond it. String/M theory has emerged as a broad framework for describing a plethora of diverse physical systems, which includes condensed matter systems, gravitational systems as well as elementary particle physics interactions. If string/M theory is to be considered as a candidate theory of Nature, it must contain an effectively four-dimensional universe among its solutions that is indistinguishable from our own. In these solutions, the extra dimensions of string/M Theory are “compactified” on tiny scales which are often comparable to the Planck length. String phenomenology is the branch of string/M theory that studies such solutions, relates their properties to data, and aims to answer many of the outstanding questions of particle physics beyond the Standard Model. This book contains perspectives on stri...
LHC Phenomenology and Cosmology of String-Inspired Intersecting D-Brane Models
Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Goldberg, Haim; Huang, Xing; Lust, Dieter; Taylor, Tomasz R.; Vlcek, Brian
2012-01-01
We discuss the phenomenology and cosmology of a Standard-like Model inspired by string theory, in which the gauge fields are localized on D-branes wrapping certain compact cycles on an underlying geometry, whose intersection can give rise to chiral fermions. The energy scale associated with string physics is assumed to be near the Planck mass. To develop our program in the simplest way, we work within the construct of a minimal model with gauge-extended sector U (3)_B \\times Sp (1)_L \\times U (1)_{I_R} \\times U (1)_L. The resulting U (1) content gauges the baryon number B, the lepton number L, and a third additional abelian charge I_R which acts as the third isospin component of an SU(2)_R. All mixing angles and gauge couplings are fixed by rotation of the U(1) gauge fields to a basis diagonal in hypercharge Y and in an anomaly free linear combination of I_R and B-L. The anomalous $Z'$ gauge boson obtains a string scale St\\"uckelberg mass via a 4D version of the Green-Schwarz mechanism. To keep the realizatio...
String Phenomenology: Past, Present and Future Perspectives
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alon E. Faraggi
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The observation of a scalar resonance at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC, compatible with perturbative electroweak symmetry breaking, reinforces the Standard Model (SM parameterisation of all subatomic data. The logarithmic evolution of the SM gauge and matter parameters suggests that this parameterisation remains viable up to the Planck scale, where gravitational effects are of comparable strength. String theory provides a perturbatively consistent scheme to explore how the parameters of the Standard Model may be determined from a theory of quantum gravity. The free fermionic heterotic string models provide concrete examples of exact string solutions that reproduce the spectrum of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. Contemporary studies entail the development of methods to classify large classes of models. This led to the discovery of exophobic heterotic-string vacua and the observation of spinor-vector duality, which provides an insight to the global structure of the space of (2,0 heterotic-string vacua. Future directions entail the study of the role of the massive string states in these models and their incorporation in cosmological scenarios. A complementary direction is the formulation of quantum gravity from the principle of manifest phase space duality and the equivalence postulate of quantum mechanics, which suggest that space is compact. The compactness of space, which implies intrinsic regularisation, may be tightly related to the intrinsic finite length scale, implied by string phenomenology.
Phenomenology and cosmology of weakly coupled string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaillard, Mary K.
1998-01-01
The weakly coupled vacuum of E 8 (circle t imes) E 8 heterotic string theory remains an attractive scenario for phenomenology and cosmology. The particle spectrum is reviewed and the issues of gauge coupling unification, dilaton stabilization and modular cosmology are discussed. A specific model for condensation and supersymmetry breaking, that respects known constraints from string theory and is phenomenologically viable, is described
Phenomenology of mixed modulus-anomaly mediation in fluxed string compactifications and brane models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Kiwoon; Jeong, Kwang-Sik; Okumura, Ken-ichi
2005-01-01
In some string compactifications, for instance the recently proposed KKLT set-up, light moduli are stabilized by nonperturbative effects at supersymmetric AdS vacuum which is lifted to a dS vacuum by supersymmetry breaking uplifting potential. In such models, soft supersymmetry breaking terms are determined by a specific mixed modulus-anomaly mediation in which the two mediations typically give comparable contributions to soft parameters. Similar pattern of soft terms can arise also in brane models to stabilize the radion by nonperturbative effects. We examine some phenomenological consequences of this mixed modulus-anomaly mediation, including the pattern of low energy sparticle spectrum and the possibility of electroweak symmetry breaking. It is noted that adding the anomaly-mediated contributions at M GUT amounts to replacing the messenger scale of the modulus mediation by a mirage messenger scale (m 3/2 /M Pl ) α/2 M GUT where α = m 3/2 /[M 0 ln (M Pl /m 3/2 )] for M 0 denoting the modulus-mediated contribution to the gaugino mass at M GUT . The minimal KKLT set-up predicts α = 1. As a consequence, for α = O(1), the model can lead to a highly distinctive pattern of sparticle masses at TeV scale, particularly when α = 2
Δ(54) flavor phenomenology and strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carballo-Pérez, Brenda [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,Apartado Postal 20-364, Ciudad de México 01000 (Mexico); HEBA Ideas S.A. de C.V.,Calculistas 37, Cd. Mx. 09400 (Mexico); Peinado, Eduardo; Ramos-Sánchez, Saúl [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,Apartado Postal 20-364, Ciudad de México 01000 (Mexico)
2016-12-23
Δ(54) can serve as a flavor symmetry in particle physics, but remains almost unexplored. We show that in a classification of semi-realistic ℤ{sub 3}×ℤ{sub 3} heterotic string orbifolds, Δ(54) turns out to be the most natural flavor symmetry, providing additional motivation for its study. We revisit its phenomenological potential from a low-energy perspective and subject to the constraints of string models. We find a model with Δ(54) arising from heterotic orbifolds that leads to the Gatto-Sartori-Tonin relation for quarks and charged-leptons. Additionally, in the neutrino sector, it leads to a normal hierarchy for neutrino masses and a correlation between the reactor and the atmospheric mixing angles, the latter taking values in the second octant and being compatible at three sigmas with experimental data.
String theory and applications to phenomenology and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Florakis, I.G.
2011-07-01
This thesis treats applications of String Theory to problems of cosmology and high energy phenomenology. In particular, we investigate problems related to the description of the initial state of the universe, using the methods of perturbative String Theory. After a review of the string-theoretic tools that will be employed, we discuss a novel degeneracy symmetry between the bosonic and fermionic massive towers of states (MSDS symmetry), living at particular points of moduli space. We study the marginal deformations of MSDS vacua and exhibit their natural thermal interpretation, in connection with the resolution of the Hagedorn divergences of string thermodynamics. The cosmological evolution of a special, 2-dimensional thermal 'Hybrid' model is presented and the correct implementation of the full stringy degrees of freedom leads to the absence of gravitational singularities, within a fully perturbative treatment. (author)
Quantum supergravity, supergravity anomalies and string phenomenology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaillard, Mary K., E-mail: mkgaillard@lbl.gov
2016-11-15
I discuss the role of quantum effects in the phenomenology of effective supergravity theories from compactification of the weakly coupled heterotic string. An accurate incorporation of these effects requires a regularization procedure that respects local supersymmetry and BRST invariance and that retains information associated with the cut-off scale, which has physical meaning in an effective theory. I briefly outline the Pauli–Villars regularization procedure, describe some applications, and comment on what remains to be done to fully define the effective quantum field theory.
A new method for finding vacua in string phenomenology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gray, James [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris and APC, Universite de Paris 7, 98 bis, Bd. Arago 75014, Paris (France); He, Yang-Hui [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)]|[Merton College, Oxford, OX1 4JD and Mathematical Institute, Oxford University, Oxford (United Kingdom); Ilderton, Anton [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Lukas, Andre [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)
2007-05-15
One of the central problems of string-phenomenology is to find stable vacua in the four dimensional effective theories which result from compactification. We present an algorithmic method to find all of the vacua of any given string-phenomenological system in a huge class. In particular, this paper reviews and then extends hep-th/0606122 to include various nonperturbative effects. These include gaugino condensation and instantonic contributions to the superpotential. (authors)
Phenomenology of TeV little string theory from holography.
Antoniadis, Ignatios; Arvanitaki, Asimina; Dimopoulos, Savas; Giveon, Amit
2012-02-24
We study the graviton phenomenology of TeV little string theory by exploiting its holographic gravity dual five-dimensional theory. This dual corresponds to a linear dilaton background with a large bulk that constrains the standard model fields on the boundary of space. The linear dilaton geometry produces a unique Kaluza-Klein graviton spectrum that exhibits a ~TeV mass gap followed by a near continuum of narrow resonances that are separated from each other by only ~30 GeV. Resonant production of these particles at the LHC is the signature of this framework that distinguishes it from large extra dimensions, where the Kaluza-Klein states are almost a continuum with no mass gap, and warped models, where the states are separated by a TeV.
Kahler stabilized, modular invariant heterotic string models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaillard, Mary K.; Gaillard, Mary K.; Nelson, Brent D.
2007-03-19
We review the theory and phenomenology of effective supergravity theories based on orbifold compactifications of the weakly-coupled heterotic string. In particular, we consider theories in which the four-dimensional theory displays target space modular invariance and where the dilatonic mode undergoes Kahler stabilization. A self-contained exposition of effective Lagrangian approaches to gaugino condensation and heterotic string theory is presented, leading to the development of the models of Binétruy, Gaillard and Wu. Various aspects of the phenomenology of this class of models are considered. These include issues of supersymmetry breaking and superpartner spectra, the role of anomalous U(1) factors, issues of flavor and R-parity conservation, collider signatures, axion physics, and early universe cosmology. For the vast majority of phenomenological considerations the theories reviewed here compare quite favorably to other string-derived models in the literature. Theoretical objections to the framework and directions for further research are identified and discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishibashi, Nobuyuki; Onogi, Tetsuya
1989-01-01
Consistency conditions of open string theories, which can be a powerful tool in open string model building, are proposed. By making use of these conditions and assuming a simple prescription for the Chan-Paton factors, open string theories in several backgrounds are studied. We show that 1. there exist a large number of consistent bosonic open string theories on Z 2 orbifolds, 2. SO(32) type I superstring is the unique consistent model among fermionic string theories on the ten-dimensional flat Minkowski space, and 3. with our prescription for the Chan-Paton factors, there exist no consistent open superstring theories on (six-dimensional Minkowski space-time) x (Z 2 orbifold). (orig.)
Aspects of string phenomenology in particle physics and cosmology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antoniadis I.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available I discuss possible connections between several scales in particle physics and cosmology, such the the electroweak, inflation, dark energy and Planck scales. In particular, I discuss the physics of extra dimensions and low scale gravity that are motivated from the problem of mass hierarchy, providing an alternative to low energy supersymmetry. I describe their realization in type I string theory with D-branes and I present the main experimental predictions in particle accelerators and their implications in cosmology. I also show that low-mass-scale string compactifications, with a generic D-brane configuration that realizes the Standard Model by open strings, can explain the relatively broad peak in the diphoton invariant mass spectrum at 750 GeV recently reported by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fradkin, E.S.; Tseytlin, A.A.
1982-10-15
We discuss and compare the Lorentz covariant path integral quantization of the three bose string models, namely, the Nambu, Eguchi and Brink-Di Vecchai-Howe-Polyakov (BDHP) ones. Along with a critical review of the subject with some uncertainties and ambiguities clearly stated, various new results are presented. We work out the form of the BDHP string ansatz for the Wilson average and prove a formal inequivalence of the exact Nambu and BDHP models for any space-time dimension d. The above three models known to be equivalent on the classical level, are shown to be equivalent in a semiclassical approximation near a minimal surface and also in the leading 1/d-approximation for the static q-barq-potential. We analyze scattering amplitudes predicted by the BDHP string and find that when exactly calculated for d<26 they are different from the old dual ones, and possess a non-linear spectrum which may be considered as free from tachyons in the ground state.
Grand Unification as a Bridge Between String Theory and Phenomenology
Pati, Jogesh C.
In the first part of this paper, we explain what empirical evidence points to the need for having an effective grand unification-like symmetry possessing the symmetry SU(4)-color in 4D. If one assumes the premises of a future predictive theory including gravity — be it string/M-theory or a reincarnation — this evidence then suggests that such a theory should lead to an effective grand unification-like symmetry as above in 4D, near the string-GUT-scale, rather than the standard model symmetry. Advantages of an effective supersymmetric G(224) = SU(2)L × SU(2)R × SU(4)c or SO(10) symmetry in 4D in explaining (i) observed neutrino oscillations, (ii) baryogenesis via leptogenesis, and (iii) certain fermion mass-relations are noted. And certain distinguishing tests of a SUSY G(224) or SO(10)-framework involving CP and flavor violations (as in μ → eγ, τ → μγ, edm's of the neutron and the electron) as well as proton decay are briefly mentioned. Recalling some of the successes we have had in our understanding of nature so far, and the current difficulties of string/M-theory as regards the large multiplicity of string vacua, some comments are made on the traditional goal of understanding vis a vis the recently evolved view of landscape and anthropism.
Grand Unification as a Bridge Between String Theory and Phenomenology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pati, Jogesh C.
2006-06-09
In the first part of the talk, I explain what empirical evidence points to the need for having an effective grand unification-like symmetry possessing the symmetry SU(4)-color in 4D. If one assumes the premises of a future predictive theory including gravity--be it string/M theory or a reincarnation--this evidence then suggests that such a theory should lead to an effective grand unification-like symmetry as above in 4D, near the string-GUT-scale, rather than the standard model symmetry. Advantages of an effective supersymmetric G(224) = SU(2){sub L} x SU(2){sub R} x SU(4){sup c} or SO(10) symmetry in 4D in explaining (1) observed neutrino oscillations, (2) baryogenesis via leptogenesis, and (3) certain fermion mass-relations are noted. And certain distinguishing tests of a SUSY G(224) or SO(10)-framework involving CP and flavor violations (as in {mu} {yields} e{gamma}, {tau} {yields} {mu}{gamma}, edm's of the neutron and the electron) as well as proton decay are briefly mentioned. Recalling some of the successes we have had in our understanding of nature so far, and the current difficulties of string/M theory as regards the large multiplicity of string vacua, some comments are made on the traditional goal of understanding vis a vis the recently evolved view of landscape and anthropism.
Grand Unification as a Bridge Between String Theory and Phenomenology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pati, J
2006-01-01
In the first part of the talk, I explain what empirical evidence points to the need for having an effective grand unification-like symmetry possessing the symmetry SU(4)-color in 4D. If one assumes the premises of a future predictive theory including gravity--be it string/M theory or a reincarnation--this evidence then suggests that such a theory should lead to an effective grand unification-like symmetry as above in 4D, near the string-GUT-scale, rather than the standard model symmetry. Advantages of an effective supersymmetric G(224) = SU(2) L x SU(2) R x SU(4) c or SO(10) symmetry in 4D in explaining (1) observed neutrino oscillations, (2) baryogenesis via leptogenesis, and (3) certain fermion mass-relations are noted. And certain distinguishing tests of a SUSY G(224) or SO(10)-framework involving CP and flavor violations (as in μ → eγ, τ → μγ, edm's of the neutron and the electron) as well as proton decay are briefly mentioned. Recalling some of the successes we have had in our understanding of nature so far, and the current difficulties of string/M theory as regards the large multiplicity of string vacua, some comments are made on the traditional goal of understanding vis a vis the recently evolved view of landscape and anthropism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diaz-Cruz, J. Lorenzo
1996-01-01
This article presents a review of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM), concentrating mainly in the steps needed to derive the lagrangian of the model within the superspace formalism. Some attention is also given to the reduction of parameters that results from incorporating the hypothesis of Grand Unification and low energy Supergravity; the most salient phenomenological consequences are also discussed
Phenomenology of inflationary models
Olyaei, Abbas
2018-01-01
There are many inflationary models compatible with observational data. One can investigate inflationary models by looking at their general features, which are common in most of the models. Here we have investigated some of the single-field models without considering their origin in order to find the phenomenology of them. We have shown how to adjust the simple harmonic oscillator model in order to be in good agreement with observational data.
Superfermionic superconformal string model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kudryavtsev, V.A.
1994-01-01
A new approach to superconformal dynamics of string interactions is formulated in terms of two-dimensional fermion fields and without boson fields commonly used in string theories. The vertex operators for emission of π-mesons are constructed within the framework of this approach. 5 refs
LHC Olympics Workshop and String Phenomenology 2006 Conference
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
David Gross
2006-10-01
This is the final report of the organizers of the String Phenomenolgy program of which the LHC Olympics and the String Phenomenolgy conference were a part. In addition, it includes the list of talks from our website which comprise the online proceedings. The KITP no longer publishes conferences proceedings but rather makes recordings and visuals of all talks available on its website at www.kitp.ucsb.edu Program talks are available at http://online.kitp.ucsb.edu/online/strings06/ Conference talks are are at http://online.itp.ucsb.edu/online/strings_c06/ and LHC Olympics talks are at http://online.itp.ucsb.edu/online/lhco_c06/. These talks constitute the proceedings of these meetings.
Phenomenology of Low Quantum Gravity Scale Models
Benakli, Karim
1999-01-01
We study some phenomenological implications of models where the scale of quantum gravity effects lies much below the four-dimensional Planck scale. These models arise from M-theory vacua where either the internal space volume is large or the string coupling is very small. We provide a critical analysis of ways to unify electroweak, strong and gravitational interactions in M-theory. We discuss the relations between different scales in two M-vacua: Type I strings and Ho\\v rava--Witten supergravity models. The latter allows possibilities for an eleven-dimensional scale at TeV energies with one large dimension below separating our four-dimensional world from a hidden one. Different mechanisms for breaking supersymmetry (gravity mediated, gauge mediated and Scherk-Schwarz mechanisms) are discussed in this framework. Some phenomenological issues such as dark matter (with masses that may vary in time), origin of neutrino masses and axion scale are discussed. We suggest that these are indications that the string scal...
The type IIB string axiverse and its low-energy phenomenology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cicoli, Michele; Goodsell, Mark D.; Ringwald, Andreas
2012-06-01
We study closed string axions in type IIB orientifold compactifications. We show that for natural values of the background fluxes the moduli stabilisation mechanism of the LARGE Volume Scenario (LVS) gives rise to an axiverse characterised by the presence of a QCD axion plus many light axion-like particles whose masses are logarithmically hierarchical. We study the phenomenological features of the LVS axiverse, deriving the masses of the axions and their couplings to matter and gauge fields. We also determine when closed string axions can solve the strong CP problem, and analyse the first explicit examples of semi-realistic models with stable moduli and a QCD axion candidate which is not eaten by an anomalous Abelian gauge boson. We discuss the impact of the choice of inflationary scenario on the LVS axiverse, and summarise the astrophysical, cosmological and experimental constraints upon it. Moreover, we show how models can be constructed with additional light axion-like particles that could explain some intriguing astrophysical anomalies, and could be searched for in the next generation of axion helioscopes and light-shining-through-a-wall experiments.
The type IIB string axiverse and its low-energy phenomenology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cicoli, Michele [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Goodsell, Mark D. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2012-06-15
We study closed string axions in type IIB orientifold compactifications. We show that for natural values of the background fluxes the moduli stabilisation mechanism of the LARGE Volume Scenario (LVS) gives rise to an axiverse characterised by the presence of a QCD axion plus many light axion-like particles whose masses are logarithmically hierarchical. We study the phenomenological features of the LVS axiverse, deriving the masses of the axions and their couplings to matter and gauge fields. We also determine when closed string axions can solve the strong CP problem, and analyse the first explicit examples of semi-realistic models with stable moduli and a QCD axion candidate which is not eaten by an anomalous Abelian gauge boson. We discuss the impact of the choice of inflationary scenario on the LVS axiverse, and summarise the astrophysical, cosmological and experimental constraints upon it. Moreover, we show how models can be constructed with additional light axion-like particles that could explain some intriguing astrophysical anomalies, and could be searched for in the next generation of axion helioscopes and light-shining-through-a-wall experiments.
Phenomenological three center model
Poenaru, D N; Gherghescu, R A; Nagame, Y; Hamilton, J H; Ramayya, A V
2001-01-01
Experimental results on ternary fission of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf suggest the existence of a short-lived quasi-molecular state. We present a three-center phenomenological model able to explain such a state by producing a new minimum in the deformation energy at a separation distance very close to the touching point. The shape parametrization chosen by us allows to describe the essential geometry of the systems in terms of one independent coordinate, namely, the distance between the heavy fragment centers. The shell correction (also treated phenomenologically) only produces quantitative effects; qualitatively it is not essential for the new minimum. Half-lives of some quasi-molecular states which could be formed in sup 1 sup 0 B accompanied fission of sup 2 sup 3 sup 6 U, sup 2 sup 3 sup 6 Pu, sup 2 sup 4 sup 6 Cm, sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf, sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 sup , sup 2 sup 5 sup 6 Fm, sup 2 sup 5 sup 6 sup , sup 2 sup 6 sup 0 No, and sup 2 sup 6 sup 2 Rf are roughly estimated. (authors)
Supersymmetry and String Theory: Beyond the Standard Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rocek, Martin
2007-01-01
When I was asked to review Michael Dine's new book, 'Supersymmetry and String Theory', I was pleased to have a chance to read a book by such an established authority on how string theory might become testable. The book is most useful as a list of current topics of interest in modern theoretical physics. It gives a succinct summary of a huge variety of subjects, including the standard model, symmetry, Yang-Mills theory, quantization of gauge theories, the phenomenology of the standard model, the renormalization group, lattice gauge theory, effective field theories, anomalies, instantons, solitons, monopoles, dualities, technicolor, supersymmetry, the minimal supersymmetric standard model, dynamical supersymmetry breaking, extended supersymmetry, Seiberg-Witten theory, general relativity, cosmology, inflation, bosonic string theory, the superstring, the heterotic string, string compactifications, the quintic, string dualities, large extra dimensions, and, in the appendices, Goldstone's theorem, path integrals, and exact beta-functions in supersymmetric gauge theories. Its breadth is both its strength and its weakness: it is not (and could not possibly be) either a definitive reference for experts, where the details of thorny technical issues are carefully explored, or a textbook for graduate students, with detailed pedagogical expositions. As such, it complements rather than replaces the much narrower and more focussed String Theory I and II volumes by Polchinski, with their deep insights, as well the two older volumes by Green, Schwarz, and Witten, which develop string theory pedagogically. (book review)
Rosen, Steven M
2017-12-01
This paper carries forward the author's contribution to PBMP's previous special issue on Integral Biomathics (Rosen 2015). In the earlier paper, the crisis in contemporary theoretical physics was described and it was demonstrated that the problem can be addressed effectively only by shifting the foundations of physics from objectivist Cartesian philosophy to phenomenological philosophy. To that end, a phenomenological string theory was proposed based on qualitative topology and hypercomplex numbers. The current presentation takes this further by delving into the ancient Chinese origin of phenomenological string theory. First, we discover a deep connection between the Klein bottle, which is crucial to the theory, and the Ho-t'u, an old Chinese number archetype central to Taoist cosmology. The two structures are seen to mirror each other in expressing the curious psychophysical (phenomenological) action pattern at the heart of microphysics. But tackling the question of quantum gravity requires that a whole family of topological dimensions be brought into play. What we find in engaging with these structures is a closely related family of Taoist forebears that, in concert with their successors, provide a blueprint for cosmic evolution. Whereas conventional string theory accounts for the generation of nature's fundamental forces via a notion of symmetry breaking that is essentially static and thus unable to explain cosmogony successfully, phenomenological/Taoist string theory is guided by the dialectical interplay between symmetry and asymmetry inherent in the principle of synsymmetry. This dynamic concept of cosmic change is elaborated on in the three concluding sections of the paper. Here, a detailed analysis of cosmogony is offered, first in terms of the theory of dimensional development and its Taoist (yin-yang) counterpart, then in terms of the evolution of the elemental force particles through cycles of expansion and contraction in a spiraling universe. The paper
LHC Olympics Workshop and String Phenomenology 2006 Conference, August 7 - December 15, 2006
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, D.
2006-01-01
This is the final report of the organizers of the String Phenomenolgy program of which the LHC Olympics and the String Phenomenolgy conference were a part. In addition, it includes the list of talks from our website which comprise the online proceedings. These talks constitute the proceedings of these meetings. Particle physics is at the dawn of a new era, as the Large Hadron Collider, the most powerful accelerator ever built, is set to begin operation at the end of 2007. This instrument will probe distances fully an order of magnitude smaller than probed in the past. It is widely expected that dramatic effects, associated with the breaking of the symmetry of the electroweak interactions, will appear at this scale. Candidate phenomena include supersymmetry, new strong interactions, and large or warped extra dimensions; another possibility is simply the Standard model itself (including the Higgs particle). Similarly, the last decade has seen great leaps in our knowledge of the early history of the universe. Inflation as the origin of cosmic structure is now reasonably well established. Until recently, superstring theory, despite its successes in taming the difficulties of quantum gravity, has proven unable to make definitive predictions for phenomena at accelerators or in the cosmos. Recent developments have raised hopes that this situation is about to change. Previously, one could identify at least three related, major obstacles to any detailed understanding of how string theory was related to nature. (1) There is a vast array of possible string ground states, distinguished, for example, by various topological features. (2) Only those ground states with a unbroken supersymmetry were at all understood quantum mechanically. (3) Among candidate non-supersymmetric states, there were always (pseudo)moduli (scalar fields with potentials which at least asymptotically tend to zero). It seemed that any stable or metastable minima of their potentials would lie in a region
String model of black hole microstates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larsen, F.
1997-01-01
The statistical mechanics of black holes arbitrarily far from extremality is modeled by a gas of weakly interacting strings. As an effective low-energy description of black holes the string model provides several highly nontrivial consistency checks and predictions. Speculations on a fundamental origin of the model suggest surprising simplifications in nonperturbative string theory, even in the absence of supersymmetry. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Time dependent viscous string cloud cosmological models
Tripathy, S. K.; Nayak, S. K.; Sahu, S. K.; Routray, T. R.
2009-09-01
Bianchi type-I string cosmological models are studied in Saez-Ballester theory of gravitation when the source for the energy momentum tensor is a viscous string cloud coupled to gravitational field. The bulk viscosity is assumed to vary with time and is related to the scalar expansion. The relationship between the proper energy density ρ and string tension density λ are investigated from two different cosmological models.
Phenomenological models of raft structure
Shirotori, H.; Komura, S.; Kato, T.; Olmsted, P. D.
2004-04-01
We propose two phenomenological models describing the phase behavior of lipid-lipid systems and lipid-cholesterol systems in order to understand the "rafts" in cell membranes. In our models, the coupling between the lateral phase separation and the internal degree of freedom of a lipid membrane is considered. The calculated phase diagrams are in semiquantitative agreement with the experimental phase diagrams.
Sigma models and renormalization of string loops
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tseytlin, A.A.
1989-05-01
An extension of the ''σ-model β-functions - string equations of motion'' correspondence to the string loop level is discussed. Special emphasis is made on how the renormalization group acts in string loops and, in particular, on the renormalizability property of the generating functional Z-circumflex for string amplitudes (related to the σ model partition function integrated over moduli). Renormalization of Z-circumflex at one and two loop order is analyzed in some detail. We also discuss an approach to renormalization based on operators of insertion of topological fixtures. (author). 70 refs
Gauge invariant actions for string models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banks, T.
1986-06-01
String models of unified interactions are elegant sets of Feynman rules for the scattering of gravitons, gauge bosons, and a host of massive excitations. The purpose of these lectures is to describe the progress towards a nonperturbative formulation of the theory. Such a formulation should make the geometrical meaning of string theory manifest and explain the many ''miracles'' exhibited by the string Feynman rules. There are some new results on gauge invariant observables, on the cosmological constant, and on the symmetries of interacting string field theory. 49 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen-Tannoudji, G.
1989-01-01
This series of lectures is devoted to review ot he connections between QCD and string theories. One reviews the phenomenological models leading to string pictures in non perturbative QCD and the string effects, related to soft gluon coherence, which arise in perturbative QCD. One tries to build a string theory which goes to QCD at the zero slope limit. A specific model, based on superstring theories is shown to agree with QCD four point amplitudes at the Born approximation and with one loop corrections. One shows how this approach can provide a theoretical framework to account for the phenomenological property of parton-hadron duality.(author)
Matrix Models and String World Sheet Duality
de Alwis, S. P.
1997-01-01
The scaling limit used recently to derive matrix models, and a certain analyticity assumption, are invoked to argue that the agreement between some matrix model calculations and supergravity is a consequence of string world sheet duality.
Next Generation Transport Phenomenology Model
Strickland, Douglas J.; Knight, Harold; Evans, J. Scott
2004-01-01
This report describes the progress made in Quarter 3 of Contract Year 3 on the development of Aeronomy Phenomenology Modeling Tool (APMT), an open-source, component-based, client-server architecture for distributed modeling, analysis, and simulation activities focused on electron and photon transport for general atmospheres. In the past quarter, column emission rate computations were implemented in Java, preexisting Fortran programs for computing synthetic spectra were embedded into APMT through Java wrappers, and work began on a web-based user interface for setting input parameters and running the photoelectron and auroral electron transport models.
Differential geometry in string models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez, O.
1986-01-01
In this article the author reviews the differential geometric approach to the quantization of strings. A seminal paper demonstrates the connection between the trace anomaly and the critical dimension. The role played by the Faddeev-Popov ghosts has been instrumental in much of the subsequent work on the quantization of strings. This paper discusses the differential geometry of two dimensional surfaces and its importance in the quantization of strings. The path integral quantization approach to strings will be carefully analyzed to determine the correct effective measure for string theories. The choice of measure for the path integral is determined by differential geometric considerations. Once the measure is determined, the manifest diffeomorphism invariance of the theory will have to be broken by using the Faddeev-Popov ansatz. The gauge fixed theory is studied in detail with emphasis on the role of conformal and gravitational anomalies. In the analysis, the path integral formulation of the gauge fixed theory requires summing over all the distinct complex structures on the manifold
Matrix string models for exact (2,2) string theories in RR backgrounds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bonelli, Giulio E-mail: gbonelli@ulb.ac.be
2003-01-20
We formulate matrix string models on a class of exact string backgrounds with non-constant RR-flux parameterized by a holomorphic prepotential function and with manifest (2,2) supersymmetry. This lifts these string theories to M-theory exposing the non-perturbative string interaction which is studied by generalizing the instanton asymptotic expansion, well established in the flat background case, to this more general case. We obtain also a companion matrix model with four manifest supersymmetries in eleven dimensions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Randjbar-Daemi, S.
1987-01-01
The propagation of closed bosonic strings interacting with background gravitational and dilaton fields is reviewed. The string is treated as a quantum field theory on a compact 2-dimensional manifold. The question is posed as to how the conditions for the vanishing trace anomaly and the ensuing background field equations may depend on global features of the manifold. It is shown that to the leading order in σ-model perturbation theory the string loop effects do not modify the gravitational and the dilaton field equations. However for the purely bosonic strings new terms involving the modular parameter of the world sheet are induced by quantum effects which can be absorbed into a re-definition of the background fields. The authors also discuss some aspects of several regularization schemes such as dimensional, Pauli-Villars and the proper-time cut off in an appendix
Open-string models with broken supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sagnotti, A.
2002-01-01
I review the salient features of three classes of open-string models with broken supersymmetry. These suffice to exhibit, in relatively simple settings, the two phenomena of 'brane supersymmetry' and 'brane supersymmetry breaking'. In the first class of models, to lowest order supersymmetry is broken both in the closed and in the open sectors. In the second class of models, to lowest order supersymmetry is broken in the closed sector, but is exact in the open sector, at least for the low-lying modes, and often for entire towers of string excitations. Finally, in the third class of models, to lowest order supersymmetry is exact in the closed (bulk) sector, but is broken in the open sector. Brane supersymmetry breaking provides a natural solution to some old difficulties met in the construction of open-string vacua. (author)
Anyonic glueballs from an effective string model
Boulanger, Nicolas; Buisseret, Fabien
2016-01-01
Relying on an effective-string approach in which glueballs—bound states of pure Yang-Mills theory—are modeled by closed strings, we give arguments suggesting that anyonic glueballs, i.e. glueballs with arbitrary spin, may exist in (2 +1 )-dimensional Yang-Mills theory. We then focus on the large-Nc limit of S U (Nc) Yang-Mills theory and show that our model leads to a mass spectrum in good agreement with lattice data in the scalar sector, while it predicts the masses and spins of anyonic glueball states.
Supersymmetric standard model from the heterotic string (II)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buchmueller, W. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hamaguchi, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Lebedev, O.; Ratz, M. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.
2006-06-15
We describe in detail a Z{sub 6} orbifold compactification of the heterotic E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} string which leads to the (supersymmetric) standard model gauge group and matter content. The quarks and leptons appear as three 16-plets of SO(10), two of which are localized at fixed points with local SO(10) symmetry. The model has supersymmetric vacua without exotics at low energies and is consistent with gauge coupling unification. Supersymmetry can be broken via gaugino condensation in the hidden sector. The model has large vacuum degeneracy. Certain vacua with approximate B-L symmetry have attractive phenomenological features. The top quark Yukawa coupling arises from gauge interactions and is of the order of the gauge couplings. The other Yukawa couplings are suppressed by powers of standard model singlet fields, similarly to the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. (Orig.)
String theory and particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uranga, Angel
2006-01-01
I will provide a basic introduction to string theory as a unified theory of gravitational and gauge interactions. I will review recent constructions of string theory models leading at low energies to the Standard Model of particle interactions, and which include interesting new phenomenology beyond the standard model, like supersymmetry, boranes, and (possible large) extra dimensions
Bianchi type IX string cosmological model in general relativity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. We have investigated Bianchi type IX string cosmological models in general relativity. To get a determinate solution, we have assumed a condition p = λ i.e. rest energy density for a cloud of strings is equal to the string tension density. The various physical and geometrical aspects of the models are also discussed.
Bianchi type IX string cosmological model in general relativity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We have investigated Bianchi type IX string cosmological models in general relativity. To get a determinate solution, we have assumed a condition ρ= i.e. rest energy density for a cloud of strings is equal to the string tension density. The various physical and geometrical aspects of the models are also discussed.
Covariant perturbations in the gonihedric string model
Rojas, Efraín
2017-11-01
We provide a covariant framework to study classically the stability of small perturbations on the so-called gonihedric string model by making precise use of variational techniques. The local action depends on the square root of the quadratic mean extrinsic curvature of the worldsheet swept out by the string, and is reparametrization invariant. A general expression for the worldsheet perturbations, guided by Jacobi equations without any early gauge fixing, is obtained. This is manifested through a set of highly coupled nonlinear differential partial equations where the perturbations are described by scalar fields, Φi, living in the worldsheet. This model contains, as a special limit, to the linear model in the mean extrinsic curvature. In such a case the Jacobi equations specialize to a single wave-like equation for Φ.
Modeling Regular Replacement for String Constraint Solving
Fu, Xiang; Li, Chung-Chih
2010-01-01
Bugs in user input sanitation of software systems often lead to vulnerabilities. Among them many are caused by improper use of regular replacement. This paper presents a precise modeling of various semantics of regular substitution, such as the declarative, finite, greedy, and reluctant, using finite state transducers (FST). By projecting an FST to its input/output tapes, we are able to solve atomic string constraints, which can be applied to both the forward and backward image computation in model checking and symbolic execution of text processing programs. We report several interesting discoveries, e.g., certain fragments of the general problem can be handled using less expressive deterministic FST. A compact representation of FST is implemented in SUSHI, a string constraint solver. It is applied to detecting vulnerabilities in web applications
Local string models and moduli stabilisation
Quevedo, Fernando
2015-03-01
A brief overview is presented of the progress made during the past few years on the general structure of local models of particle physics from string theory including: moduli stabilisation, supersymmetry breaking, global embedding in compact Calabi-Yau compactifications and potential cosmological implications. Type IIB D-brane constructions and the Large Volume Scenario (LVS) are discussed in some detail emphasising the recent achievements and the main open questions.
Comparison of string models for heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Werner, K.
1990-01-01
An important method to explore new domains in physics is to compare new results with extrapolations from known areas. For heavy ion collision this can be done with string models, which extrapolate from light to heavy systems and which also may be used to extrapolate to higher energies. That does not mean that these string models are only background models, one may easily implement new ideas on top of the known aspects, providing much more reliable models than those formed from scratch. All the models to be considered in this paper have in common that they consist of three independent building blocks: (a) geometry, (b) string formation and (c) string fragmentation. The geometry aspect is treated quite similar in all models: nucleons are distributed inside each nucleus according to some standard parameterization of nuclear densities. The nuclei move through each other on a straight line trajectory, with all the nucleon positions being fixed. Whenever a projectile and a target nucleon come close, they interact. Such an interaction results in string formation. In the last step these strings decay into observable hadrons according to some string fragmentation procedure. The three building blocks are independent, so one can combine different methods in an arbitrary manner. Therefore rather than treating the models one after the other, the author discusses the procedures for string formation and string fragmentation as used by the models. He considers string models in a very general sense, so he includes models where the authors never use the word string, but which may be most naturally interpreted as string models and show strong similarities with real string models. Although very important he does not discuss - for time and space reasons - recent developments concerning secondary scattering
Particle production in string cosmology models
Brustein, Ram; Brustein, Ram; Hadad, Merav
1998-01-01
We compute spectra of particles produced during a dilaton-driven kinetic inflation phase within string cosmology models. The resulting spectra depend on the parameters of the model and on the type of particle and are quite varied, some increasing and some decreasing with frequency. We use an approximation scheme in which all spectra can be expressed in a nice symmetric form, perhaps hinting at a deeper symmetry of the underlying physics. Our results may serve as a starting point for detailed studies of relic abundances, dark matter candidates, and possible sources of large scale anisotropy.
A matrix model from string field theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Syoji Zeze
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate that a Hermitian matrix model can be derived from level truncated open string field theory with Chan-Paton factors. The Hermitian matrix is coupled with a scalar and U(N vectors which are responsible for the D-brane at the tachyon vacuum. Effective potential for the scalar is evaluated both for finite and large N. Increase of potential height is observed in both cases. The large $N$ matrix integral is identified with a system of N ZZ branes and a ghost FZZT brane.
A model of interacting strings and the Hagedorn phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lizzi, F.; Senda, I.
1990-03-01
In this letter we introduce a model of interacting string in which the usual ideal gas approximations are not made. The model is constructed in analogy with nucleation models, the formation of droplets in a supersaturate gas. We consider the strings to be interacting and their number not fixed. The equilibrium configuration is the one for which the time derivatives of the number of strings in the various energies vanishes. We evaluate numerically the equilibrium configurations for various values of the energy density. We find that a density of order one in planck units there is a sharp transition, from a 'gas' phase in which there are many strings, all in the massless or first few excited states, to a 'liquid' phase in which all strings have coalesced into one (or few) highly excited string. (author). 14 refs, 4 figs
Gauge coupling unification in realistic free-fermionic string models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dienes, K.R.; Faraggi, A.E.
1995-01-01
We discuss the unification of gauge couplings within the framework of a wide class of realistic free-fermionic string models which have appeared in the literature, including the flipped SU(5), SO(6)xSO(4), and various SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) models. If the matter spectrum below the string scale is that of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), then string unification is in disagreement with experiment. We therefore examine several effects that may modify the minimal string predictions. First, we develop a systematic procedure for evaluating the one-loop heavy string threshold corrections in free-fermionic string models, and we explicitly evaluate these corrections for each of the realistic models. We find that these string threshold corrections are small, and we provide general arguments explaining why such threshold corrections are suppressed in string theory. Thus heavy thresholds cannot resolve the disagreement with experiment. We also study the effect of non-standard hypercharge normalizations, light SUSY thresholds, and intermediate-scale gauge structure, and similarly conclude that these effects cannot resolve the disagreement with low-energy data. Finally, we examine the effects of additional color triplets and electroweak doublets beyond the MSSM. Although not required in ordinary grand unification scenarios, such states generically appear within the context of certain realistic free-fermionic string models. We show that if these states exist at the appropriate thresholds, then the gauge couplings will indeed unify at the string scale. Thus, within these string models, string unification can be in agreement with low-energy data. (orig.)
With string model to time series forecasting
Pinčák, Richard; Bartoš, Erik
2015-10-01
Overwhelming majority of econometric models applied on a long term basis in the financial forex market do not work sufficiently well. The reason is that transaction costs and arbitrage opportunity are not included, as this does not simulate the real financial markets. Analyses are not conducted on the non equidistant date but rather on the aggregate date, which is also not a real financial case. In this paper, we would like to show a new way how to analyze and, moreover, forecast financial market. We utilize the projections of the real exchange rate dynamics onto the string-like topology in the OANDA market. The latter approach allows us to build the stable prediction models in trading in the financial forex market. The real application of the multi-string structures is provided to demonstrate our ideas for the solution of the problem of the robust portfolio selection. The comparison with the trend following strategies was performed, the stability of the algorithm on the transaction costs for long trade periods was confirmed.
String theory compactifications
Graña, Mariana
2017-01-01
The lectures in this book provide graduate students and non-specialist researchers with a concise introduction to the concepts and formalism required to reduce the ten-dimensional string theories to the observable four-dimensional space-time - a procedure called string compactification. The text starts with a very brief introduction to string theory, first working out its massless spectrum and showing how the condition on the number of dimensions arises. It then dwells on the different possible internal manifolds, from the simplest to the most relevant phenomenologically, thereby showing that the most elegant description is through an extension of ordinary Riemannian geometry termed generalized geometry, which was first introduced by Hitchin. Last but not least, the authors review open problems in string phenomenology, such as the embedding of the Standard Model and obtaining de Sitter solutions.
Linear Sigma Models for Open Strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kachru, Shamit
2001-09-28
We formulate and study a class of massive N = 2 supersymmetric gauge field theories coupled to boundary degrees of freedom on the strip. For some values of the parameters, the infrared limits of these theories can be interpreted as open string sigma models describing D-branes in large-radius Calabi-Yau compactifications. For other values of the parameters, these theories flow to CFTs describing branes in more exotic, non-geometric phases of the Calabi-Yau moduli space such as the Landau-Ginzburg orbifold phase. Some simple properties of the branes (like large radius monodromies and spectra of world-volume excitations) can be computed in our model. We also provide simple worldsheet models of the transitions which occur at loci of marginal stability, and of Higgs-Coulomb transitions.
String model for the dynamics of glass-forming liquids.
Pazmiño Betancourt, Beatriz A; Douglas, Jack F; Starr, Francis W
2014-05-28
We test the applicability of a living polymerization theory to describe cooperative string-like particle rearrangement clusters (strings) observed in simulations of a coarse-grained polymer melt. The theory quantitatively describes the interrelation between the average string length L, configurational entropy Sconf, and the order parameter for string assembly Φ without free parameters. Combining this theory with the Adam-Gibbs model allows us to predict the relaxation time τ in a lower temperature T range than accessible by current simulations. In particular, the combined theories suggest a return to Arrhenius behavior near Tg and a low T residual entropy, thus avoiding a Kauzmann "entropy crisis."
Phenomenology of quark-lepton symmetric models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foot, R.; Lew, H.; Volkas
1991-01-01
Quark-lepton symmetric models are a new class of gauge theories which unify the quarks and leptons. In these models the gauge group of the standard model is extended to include a color group for the leptons, and consequently the quarks and leptons can then be related by a Z 2 discrete quark-lepton symmetry. Phenomenological implications of these theories are explored. Two varieties are analysed: one being the simplest quark-lepton symmetric model, and the other containing conventional left-right symmetry. Each theory has a Z' boson, whose masses are constrained at 90% C.L. to be greater than 700 GeV and 650 GeV respectively. Phenomenological constraints from rare decays and the implications of the extended fermion spectrum are also examined. 37 refs., 2 tabs
Gauge/string duality and hadronic physics
Boschi-Filho, Henrique; Braga, Nelson R. F.
2006-01-01
We review some recent results on phenomenological approaches to strong interactions inspired in gauge/string duality. In particular, we discuss how such models lead to very good estimates for hadronic masses.
Electroweak and Strong Interactions Phenomenology, Concepts, Models
Scheck, Florian
2012-01-01
Electroweak and Strong Interaction: Phenomenology, Concepts, Models, begins with relativistic quantum mechanics and some quantum field theory which lay the foundation for the rest of the text. The phenomenology and the physics of the fundamental interactions are emphasized through a detailed discussion of the empirical fundamentals of unified theories of strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions. The principles of local gauge theories are described both in a heuristic and a geometric framework. The minimal standard model of the fundamental interactions is developed in detail and characteristic applications are worked out. Possible signals of physics beyond that model, notably in the physics of neutrinos are also discussed. Among the applications scattering on nucleons and on nuclei provide salient examples. Numerous exercises with solutions make the text suitable for advanced courses or individual study. This completely updated revised new edition contains an enlarged chapter on quantum chromodynamics an...
Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium
Bishop, James; Evans, J. Scott
2001-01-01
The "Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium" project tackles the issue of reengineering and extension of validated physics-based modeling capabilities ("legacy" computer codes) to application-oriented software for use in science and science-support activities. While the design and architecture layouts are in terms of general particle distributions involved in scattering, impact, and reactive interactions, initial Photochemical Phenomenology Modeling Tool (PPMT) implementations are aimed at construction and evaluation of photochemical transport models with rapid execution for use in remote sensing data analysis activities in distributed systems. Current focus is on the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) data acquired during the CASSINI flyby of Jupiter. Overall, the project has stayed on the development track outlined in the Year 1 annual report and most Year 2 goals have been met. The issues that have required the most attention are: implementation of the core photochemistry algorithms; implementation of a functional Java Graphical User Interface; completion of a functional CORBA Component Model framework; and assessment of performance issues. Specific accomplishments and the difficulties encountered are summarized in this report. Work to be carried out in the next year center on: completion of testing of the initial operational implementation; its application to analysis of the CASSINI/CIRS Jovian flyby data; extension of the PPMT to incorporate additional phenomenology algorithms; and delivery of a mature operational implementation.
The early years of string theory: The dual resonance model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramond, P.
1987-10-01
This paper reviews the past quantum mechanical history of the dual resonance model which is an early string theory. The content of this paper is listed as follows: historical review, the Veneziano amplitude, the operator formalism, the ghost story, and the string story
Phenomenological Model of Vortex Generators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Westergaard, C.
1995-01-01
For some time attempts have been made to improve the power curve of stall regulated wind turbines by using devices like vortex generators VG and Gurney flaps. The vortex produces an additional mixing of the boundary layer and the free stream and thereby increasing the momentum close to the wall......, which again delays separation in adverse pressure gradient regions. A model is needed to include the effect of vortex generators in numerical computations of the viscous flow past rotors. In this paper a simple model is proposed....
Acoustic target models and phenomenology
Neiswander, Paul R.; Kaiser, Stephen G.
2000-07-01
Ground-based and airborne acoustic systems often target vehicles that are powered by reciprocating internal combustion engines. Typically the far-field acoustic spectra of these vehicles are dominated by a few narrow spectral lines that are harmonically related. The dominant harmonics change with engine speed and also with emission angle. This paper describes a simple model that recreates some of this variability. The model breaks the far-field signature into two components: the generation of a train of pressure pulses at each exhaust outlet, and the radiation of sound pressures from the outlet(s) to the far field. Predictions are compared with field test data for two ground vehicles.
Big bang models in string theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Craps, Ben [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and The International Solvay Institutes Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)
2006-11-07
These proceedings are based on lectures delivered at the 'RTN Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Theories', CERN, 16-20 January 2006. The school was mainly aimed at PhD students and young postdocs. The lectures start with a brief introduction to spacetime singularities and the string theory resolution of certain static singularities. Then they discuss attempts to resolve cosmological singularities in string theory, mainly focusing on two specific examples: the Milne orbifold and the matrix big bang.
A phenomenological model for nuclear multifragmentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souza, S.R.; Leray, S.; Paula, L. de; Nemeth, J.; Ngo, C.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette; Ngo, H.
1992-01-01
A phenomenological model for nuclear multifragmentation is presented. It is made up of two complementary parts: molecular dynamics and restructured aggregation. It is applied to study the multifragmentation of 16 O+ 80 Br system at several bombarding energies. The results turn out to be in good agreement with available emulsion data. The production of charged particles and IMF as a function of the bombarding energy is also studied. The results seem to agree quite well with experimental observations and with previous results of other model calculations. (author) 19 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab
Phenomenological aspects of no-scale inflation models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ellis, John [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics,King’s College London,WC2R 2LS London (United Kingdom); Theory Division, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Garcia, Marcos A.G. [William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy,University of Minnesota,116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Nanopoulos, Dimitri V. [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics andAstronomy, Texas A& M University,College Station, 77843 Texas (United States); Astroparticle Physics Group, Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), Mitchell Campus, Woodlands, 77381 Texas (United States); Academy of Athens, Division of Natural Sciences, 28 Panepistimiou Avenue, 10679 Athens (Greece); Olive, Keith A. [William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy,University of Minnesota,116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)
2015-10-01
We discuss phenomenological aspects of inflationary models wiith a no-scale supergravity Kähler potential motivated by compactified string models, in which the inflaton may be identified either as a Kähler modulus or an untwisted matter field, focusing on models that make predictions for the scalar spectral index n{sub s} and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r that are similar to the Starobinsky model. We discuss possible patterns of soft supersymmetry breaking, exhibiting examples of the pure no-scale type m{sub 0}=B{sub 0}=A{sub 0}=0, of the CMSSM type with universal A{sub 0} and m{sub 0}≠0 at a high scale, and of the mSUGRA type with A{sub 0}=B{sub 0}+m{sub 0} boundary conditions at the high input scale. These may be combined with a non-trivial gauge kinetic function that generates gaugino masses m{sub 1/2}≠0, or one may have a pure gravity mediation scenario where trilinear terms and gaugino masses are generated through anomalies. We also discuss inflaton decays and reheating, showing possible decay channels for the inflaton when it is either an untwisted matter field or a Kähler modulus. Reheating is very efficient if a matter field inflaton is directly coupled to MSSM fields, and both candidates lead to sufficient reheating in the presence of a non-trivial gauge kinetic function.
From decay to complete breaking: pulling the strings in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory.
Pepe, M; Wiese, U-J
2009-05-15
We study {2Q+1} strings connecting two static charges Q in (2+1)D SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. While the fundamental {2} string between two charges Q=1/2 is unbreakable, the adjoint {3} string connecting two charges Q=1 can break. When a {4} string is stretched beyond a critical length, it decays into a {2} string by gluon pair creation. When a {5} string is stretched, it first decays into a {3} string, which eventually breaks completely. The energy of the screened charges at the ends of a string is well described by a phenomenological constituent gluon model.
Exactly solvable string models of curved space-time backgrounds
Russo, J.G.; Russo, J G; Tseytlin, A A
1995-01-01
We consider a new 3-parameter class of exact 4-dimensional solutions in closed string theory and solve the corresponding string model, determining the physical spectrum and the partition function. The background fields (4-metric, antisymmetric tensor, two Kaluza-Klein vector fields, dilaton and modulus) generically describe axially symmetric stationary rotating (electro)magnetic flux-tube type universes. Backgrounds of this class include both the dilatonic Melvin solution and the uniform magnetic field solution discussed earlier as well as some singular space-times. Solvability of the string sigma model is related to its connection via duality to a much simpler looking model which is a "twisted" product of a flat 2-space and a space dual to 2-plane. We discuss some physical properties of this model as well as a number of generalizations leading to larger classes of exact 4-dimensional string solutions.
Bianchi-IX string cosmological model in Lyra geometry
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. A class of cosmological solutions of massive strings for the Bianchi-IX space-time are obtained within the framework of Lyra geometry. Various physical and kinematical properties of the models are discussed.
Two-matrix models and c =1 string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonora, L.; Xiong Chuansheng
1994-05-01
We show that the most general two-matrix model with bilinear coupling underlies c = 1 string theory. More precisely we prove that W 1+∞ constraints, a subset of the correlation functions and the integrable hierarchy characterizing such two-matrix model, correspond exactly to the W 1+∞ constraints, to the discrete tachyon correlation functions and the integrable hierarchy of the c = 1 string theory. (orig.)
Number of generations in free fermionic string models
Giannakis, I; Yuan, K; Giannakis, Ioannis; Nanopoulos, D V; Yuan, Kajia
1995-01-01
In string theory there seems to be an intimate connection between spacetime and world-sheet physics. Following this line of thought we investigate the family problem in a particular class of string solutions, namely the free fermionic string models. We find that the number of generations N_g is related to the index of the supersymmetry generator of the underlying N=2 internal superconformal field theory which is always present in any N=1 spacetime supersymmetric string vacuum. We also derive a formula for the index and thus for the number of generations which is sensitive to the boundary condition assignments of the internal fermions and to certain coefficients which determine the weight with which each spin-structure of the model contributes to the one-loop partition function. Finally we apply our formula to several realistic string models in order to derive N_g and we verify our results by constructing explicitly the massless spectrum of these string models.
Modeling Harpsichord Plucking: The Plectrum and the String
Perng, Jack; Rossing, Thomas; Smith, Julius
2011-11-01
The harpsichord is a plucked string keyboard instrument that was popular during the Renaissance and Baroque music eras. Although it was later replaced by the more expressive piano, it has mounted a comeback due to the early music movement today. A physical model of the harpsichord's plucking mechanism is presented, detailing the plectrum-string interaction which illustrates many aspects of the harpsichord's characteristic sound.
String and brane models with spontaneously or dynamically induced tension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guendelman, E.I.; Kaganovich, A.; Nissimov, E.; Pacheva, S.
2002-01-01
We study in some detail the properties of a previously proposed new class of string and brane models whose world-sheet (world-volume) actions are built with a modified reparametrization-invariant measure of integration and which do not contain any ad hoc dimensionful parameters. The ratio of the new and the standard Riemannian integration measure densities plays the role of a dynamically generated string or brane tension. The latter is identified as (the magnitude of) an effective (non-Abelian) electric field strength on the world-sheet or world-volume obeying the standard Gauss-law constraint. As a result a simple classical mechanism for confinement via modified-measure 'color' strings is proposed where the colorlessness of the 'hadrons' is an automatic consequence of the new string dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Espriu, D.
2003-01-01
QCD can be described in a certain kinematical regime by an effective string theory. This string must couple to background chiral fields in a chirally invariant manner, thus taking into account the true chirally non-invariant QCD vacuum. By requiring conformal symmetry of the string and the unitarity constraint on chiral fields we reconstruct the equations of motion for the latter ones. These provide a consistent background for the propagation of the string. By further requiring locality of the effective action we recover the Lagrangian of non-linear sigma model of pion interactions. The prediction is unambiguous and parameter-free. The estimated chiral structural constants of Gasser and Leutwyler fit very well the phenomenological values. (author)
The collider phenomenology of supersymmetric models
Muller, David J.
Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study is to investigate the phenomenology of various supersymmetric models. First, the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) is investigated. This model contains an extended Higgs sector that includes a charged boson. The effect that this charged Higgs boson has on the signatures for top quark pair production at the Tevatron is investigated. The rest of the work is devoted to the phenomenology of models with gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking (GMSB). In GMSB models, the lighter stau can be the next to lightest supersymmetric particle. The signals at hadronic colliders for GMSB models with minimal visible sector content are explored for this case. A GMSB model with non-minimal visible sector content is also explored. This is the left-right symmetric GMSB model which contains doubly charged bosons and fermions that could be light enough in mass to be produced at Run II of the Tevatron. Findings and conclusions. The presence of a charged Higgs boson that is lighter than the top quark is found to have a significant impact on the expected signatures for top quark pair production at the Tevatron. This is marked by an overall decrease in high pT electrons and muons in the final states. In addition, for tan beta less than about one, the three-body decay H+→bbW leads to final states that are not present in the Standard Model. For GMSB models with the lighter stau as the next to lightest supersymmetric particle, the signature at the Tevatron typically involves two or three tau-jets plus large missing transverse energy. This tau-jet signature can be even more pronounced in left-right symmetric GMSB models due to the production of light doubly charged fermions that may couple preferentially to the third generation of leptons. The left-right models can be distinguished from GMSB models with minimal visible sector content by the distribution in angle between the highest ET tau-jets when they come from same sign tau
Phenomenological aspects of no-scale inflation models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ellis, John [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, King' s College London, WC2R 2LS London (United Kingdom); Garcia, Marcos A.G.; Olive, Keith A. [William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Nanopoulos, Dimitri V., E-mail: john.ellis@cern.ch, E-mail: garciagarcia@physics.umn.edu, E-mail: dimitri@physics.tamu.edu, E-mail: olive@physics.umn.edu [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, 77843 Texas (United States)
2015-10-01
We discuss phenomenological aspects of inflationary models wiith a no-scale supergravity Kähler potential motivated by compactified string models, in which the inflaton may be identified either as a Kähler modulus or an untwisted matter field, focusing on models that make predictions for the scalar spectral index n{sub s} and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r that are similar to the Starobinsky model. We discuss possible patterns of soft supersymmetry breaking, exhibiting examples of the pure no-scale type m{sub 0} = B{sub 0} = A{sub 0} = 0, of the CMSSM type with universal A{sub 0} and m{sub 0} ≠ 0 at a high scale, and of the mSUGRA type with A{sub 0} = B{sub 0} + m{sub 0} boundary conditions at the high input scale. These may be combined with a non-trivial gauge kinetic function that generates gaugino masses m{sub 1/2} ≠ 0, or one may have a pure gravity mediation scenario where trilinear terms and gaugino masses are generated through anomalies. We also discuss inflaton decays and reheating, showing possible decay channels for the inflaton when it is either an untwisted matter field or a Kähler modulus. Reheating is very efficient if a matter field inflaton is directly coupled to MSSM fields, and both candidates lead to sufficient reheating in the presence of a non-trivial gauge kinetic function.
sigma model approach to the heterotic string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sen, A.
1985-09-01
Relation between the equations of motion for the massless fields in the heterotic string theory, and the conformal invariance of the sigma model describing the propagation of the heterotic string in arbitrary background massless fields is discussed. It is emphasized that this sigma model contains complete information about the string theory. Finally, we discuss the extension of the Hull-Witten proof of local gauge and Lorentz invariance of the sigma-model to higher order in α', and the modification of the transformation laws of the antisymmetric tensor field under these symmetries. Presence of anomaly in the naive N = 1/2 supersymmetry transformation is also pointed out in this context. 12 refs
Automated adaptive inference of phenomenological dynamical models
Daniels, Bryan
Understanding the dynamics of biochemical systems can seem impossibly complicated at the microscopic level: detailed properties of every molecular species, including those that have not yet been discovered, could be important for producing macroscopic behavior. The profusion of data in this area has raised the hope that microscopic dynamics might be recovered in an automated search over possible models, yet the combinatorial growth of this space has limited these techniques to systems that contain only a few interacting species. We take a different approach inspired by coarse-grained, phenomenological models in physics. Akin to a Taylor series producing Hooke's Law, forgoing microscopic accuracy allows us to constrain the search over dynamical models to a single dimension. This makes it feasible to infer dynamics with very limited data, including cases in which important dynamical variables are unobserved. We name our method Sir Isaac after its ability to infer the dynamical structure of the law of gravitation given simulated planetary motion data. Applying the method to output from a microscopically complicated but macroscopically simple biological signaling model, it is able to adapt the level of detail to the amount of available data. Finally, using nematode behavioral time series data, the method discovers an effective switch between behavioral attractors after the application of a painful stimulus.
Interpretive and Critical Phenomenological Crime Studies: A Model Design
Miner-Romanoff, Karen
2012-01-01
The critical and interpretive phenomenological approach is underutilized in the study of crime. This commentary describes this approach, guided by the question, "Why are interpretive phenomenological methods appropriate for qualitative research in criminology?" Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to describe a model of the interpretive…
A general phenomenological model for work function
Brodie, I.; Chou, S. H.; Yuan, H.
2014-07-01
A general phenomenological model is presented for obtaining the zero Kelvin work function of any crystal facet of metals and semiconductors, both clean and covered with a monolayer of electropositive atoms. It utilizes the known physical structure of the crystal and the Fermi energy of the two-dimensional electron gas assumed to form on the surface. A key parameter is the number of electrons donated to the surface electron gas per surface lattice site or adsorbed atom, which is taken to be an integer. Initially this is found by trial and later justified by examining the state of the valence electrons of the relevant atoms. In the case of adsorbed monolayers of electropositive atoms a satisfactory justification could not always be found, particularly for cesium, but a trial value always predicted work functions close to the experimental values. The model can also predict the variation of work function with temperature for clean crystal facets. The model is applied to various crystal faces of tungsten, aluminium, silver, and select metal oxides, and most demonstrate good fits compared to available experimental values.
Phenomenological modeling of abradable wear in turbomachines
Berthoul, Bérenger; Batailly, Alain; Stainier, Laurent; Legrand, Mathias; Cartraud, Patrice
2018-01-01
Abradable materials are widely used as coatings within compressor and turbine stages of modern aircraft engines in order to reduce operating blade-tip/casing clearances and thus maximize energy efficiency. However, rubbing occurrences between blade tips and coating liners may lead to high blade vibratory levels and endanger their structural integrity through fatigue mechanisms. Accordingly, there is a need for a better comprehension of the physical phenomena at play and for an accurate modeling of the interaction, in order to predict potentially unsafe events. To this end, this work introduces a phenomenological model of the abradable coating removal based on phenomena reported in the literature and accounting for key frictional and wear mechanisms including plasticity at junctions, ploughing, micro-rupture and machining. It is implemented within an in-house software solution dedicated to the prediction of full three-dimensional blade/abradable coating interactions within an aircraft engine low pressure compressor. Two case studies are considered. The first one compares the results of an experimental abradable test rig and its simulation. The second one deals with the simulation of interactions in a complete low-pressure compressor. The consistency of the model with experimental observations is underlined, and the impact of material parameter variations on the interaction and wear behavior of the blade is discussed. It is found that even though wear patterns are remarkably robust, results are significantly influenced by abradable coating material properties.
Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millenium
Bishop, James; Evans, J. Scott
2000-01-01
This project tackles the problem of conversion of validated a priori physics-based modeling capabilities, specifically those relevant to the analysis and interpretation of planetary atmosphere observations, to application-oriented software for use in science and science-support activities. The software package under development, named the Photochemical Phenomenology Modeling Tool (PPMT), has particular focus on the atmospheric remote sensing data to be acquired by the CIRS instrument during the CASSINI Jupiter flyby and orbital tour of the Saturnian system. Overall, the project has followed the development outline given in the original proposal, and the Year 1 design and architecture goals have been met. Specific accomplishments and the difficulties encountered are summarized in this report. Most of the effort has gone into complete definition of the PPMT interfaces within the context of today's IT arena: adoption and adherence to the CORBA Component Model (CCM) has yielded a solid architecture basis, and CORBA-related issues (services, specification options, development plans, etc.) have been largely resolved. Implementation goals have been redirected somewhat so as to be more relevant to the upcoming CASSINI flyby of Jupiter, with focus now being more on data analysis and remote sensing retrieval applications.
String Lagrangian for the Bardakci-Halpern model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antonov, E.N.; Kudryavtsev, V.A.; Lyakhov, K.B.
1984-01-01
The string Lagrangian is constructed for the Bardakci-Halpern model. The anticommuting operators carrying spin are spinors in n-dimensional space-time, rather than vectors, as in the conventional Neveu-Schwarz-Ramond model. The conservation laws leading to the gauge conditions are found
Testing effective string models of black holes with fixed scalars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krasnitz, M.; Klebanov, I.R.
1997-01-01
We solve the problem of mixing between the fixed scalar and metric fluctuations. First, we derive the decoupled fixed scalar equation for the four-dimensional black hole with two different charges. We proceed to the five-dimensional black hole with different electric (one-brane) and magnetic (five-brane) charges, and derive two decoupled equations satisfied by appropriate mixtures of the original fixed scalar fields. The resulting greybody factors are proportional to those that follow from coupling to dimension (2,2) operators on the effective string. In general, however, the string action also contains couplings to chiral operators of dimension (1,3) and (3,1), which cause disagreements with the semiclassical absorption cross sections. Implications of this for the effective string models are discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Static potential in a string model with extrinsic curvatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olesen, P.; Yang, S.K.
1987-01-01
The static quark potential in a string model including extrinsix curvature effects is studied in the large d limit, where d is the dimensionality of euclidean space. At large distances it is explicitly shown that the physical string tension is dynamically generated. Examining the large-distance ''Coulomb'' term in the potential, we show that the non-perturbative effects in general generate non-gaussian efective theories in the infrared regime. At large distances the d → ∞ saddle point is stable for a large range of parameters. (orig.)
Exactly solvable string models of curved space-time backgrounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Russo, J.G.
1995-01-01
We consider a new 3-parameter class of exact 4-dimensional solutions in closed string theory and solve the corresponding string model, determining the physical spectrum and the partition function. The background fields (4-metric, antisymmetric tensor, two Kaluza-Klein vector fields, dilaton and modulus) generically describe axially symmetric stationary rotating (electro)magnetic flux-tube type universes. Backgrounds of this class include both the ''dilatonic'' (a=1) and ''Kaluza-Klein'' (a=√(3)) Melvin solutions and the uniform magnetic field solution, as well as some singular space-times. Solvability of the string σ-model is related to its connection via duality to a simpler model which is a ''twisted'' product of a flat 2-space and a space dual to 2-plane. We discuss some physical properties of this model (tachyonic instabilities in the spectrum, gyromagnetic ratio, issue of singularities, etc.). It provides one of the first examples of a consistent solvable conformal string model with explicit D=4 curved space-time interpretation. (orig.)
Bianchi type-V string cosmological models in general relativity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Bianchi type-V string cosmological models in general relativity are investigated. To get the exact solution of Einstein's field equations, we have taken some scale transformations used by Camci et al [Astrophys. Space Sci. 275, 391 (2001)]. It is shown that Einstein's field equations are solvable for any arbitrary ...
Bianchi type-V string cosmological models in general relativity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Bianchi type-V string cosmological models in general relativity are investigated. To get the exact solution of Einstein's ﬁeld equations, we have taken some scale transformations used by Camci et al [Astrophys. Space Sci. 275, 391 (2001)]. It is shown that Einstein's ﬁeld equations are solvable for any arbitrary cosmic scale ...
Open strings in the SL(2, R) WZWN model with solution for a rigidly rotating string
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lomholt, Michael Andersen; Larsen, A.L.
2003-01-01
then consider open string boundary conditions corresponding to a certain field-dependent gluing condition. This allows us to consider open strings with constant energy and angular momentum. Classically, these open strings naturally generalize the open strings in flat Minkowski space. For rigidly rotating open...... strings, we show that the torsion leads to a bending and an unfolding. We also derive the SL(2, R) Regge relation, which generalizes the linear Minkowski Regge relation. For "high" mass, it takes the form L ≈ ± M/H, where H is the scale of the SL(2, R) group manifold....
Five dimensional LRS Bianchi type-I string cosmological model in Saez and Ballester theory
Mohanty, G.; Sahoo, R. R.; Mahanta, K. L.
2007-12-01
In this paper, it is shown that five dimensional LRS Bianchi type-I string cosmological models do not survive for Geometric and Takabayasi string whereas Barotropic string i.e. ρ= ρ( λ) survives and degenerates string with ρ+ λ=0 in scalar tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Saez and Ballester (Phys. Lett. A 113:467, 1986). Further we studied some physical and geometrical properties of the model.
Five Dimensional Bulk Viscous String Cosmological Models in Saez and Ballester Theory of Gravitation
Samanta, G. C.; Biswal, S. K.; Sahoo, P. K.
2013-05-01
LRS Bianchi type-I bulk viscous string cosmological models are obtained in scalar tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Saez and Ballester (Phys. Lett. A 113:467, 1986). It is shown that cosmic string does not survive for ρ+ λ=0 whereas it survives for the equations of state ρ=(1+ ω) λ (Takabayasi string) and ρ= λ (Geometric string). Some physical and geometrical properties of the exhibited model are discussed.
Phenomenological Model of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
Menshikov, L. I.; Menshikov, P. L.; Fedichev, P. O.
2017-12-01
Hydration forces acting between macroscopic bodies at distances L ≤ 3 nm in pure water are calculated based on the phenomenological model of polar liquids. It is shown that depending on the properties of the bodies, the interacting surfaces polarize the liquid differently, and wetting properties of the surfaces are completely characterized by two parameters. If the surfaces are hydrophilic, liquid molecules are polarized at right angles to the surfaces, and the interaction is the short-range repulsion (the forces of interaction decrease exponentially over the characteristic length λ ≈ 0.2 nm). The interaction between the hydrophobic surfaces is more diversified and has been studied less. For L ≤ 3 nm, the interaction exhibits universal properties, while for L ≤ 3 nm, it considerably depends on the properties of the surfaces and on the distances between them, as well as on the composition of the polar liquid. In full agreement with the available experimental results we find that if the interfaces are mostly hydrophobic, then the interaction is attractive and long-range (the interaction forces diminish exponentially with decay length 1.2 nm). In this case, the resultant polarization of water molecules is parallel to the surface. It is shown that hydration forces are determined by nonlinear effects of polarization of the liquid in the bulk or by analogous nonlinearity of the interaction of water with a submerged body. This means that the forces of interaction cannot be calculated correctly in the linear response approximation. The forces acting between hydrophobic or hydrophilic surfaces are of the entropy type or electrostatic, respectively. It is shown that hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces for L ≤ 3 nm repel each other. The calculated intensity of their interaction is in agreement with experimental data. We predict the existence of an intermediate regime in which a body cannot order liquid molecules, which results in a much weaker attraction that
Model building and phenomenology in supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jong Soo
2008-09-01
Supersymmetry (SUSY) stabilizes the hierarchy between the electroweak scale and the scale of grand unified theories (GUT) or the Planck scale. The simplest supersymmetric extension of the SM, the minimal supersymmetric SM (MSSM) solves several phenomenological problems, e. g. the gauge couplings unify and the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) is a dark matter candidate. In this thesis, Jarlskog invariants, squark pair production at the LHC and massive neutrinos are discussed in the framework of the MSSM and its extensions. (orig.)
Model building and phenomenology in supersymmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim Jong Soo
2008-09-15
Supersymmetry (SUSY) stabilizes the hierarchy between the electroweak scale and the scale of grand unified theories (GUT) or the Planck scale. The simplest supersymmetric extension of the SM, the minimal supersymmetric SM (MSSM) solves several phenomenological problems, e. g. the gauge couplings unify and the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) is a dark matter candidate. In this thesis, Jarlskog invariants, squark pair production at the LHC and massive neutrinos are discussed in the framework of the MSSM and its extensions. (orig.)
Explicit de Sitter flux vacua for global string models with chiral matter
Cicoli, Michele; Klevers, Denis; Krippendorf, Sven; Mayrhofer, Christoph; Quevedo, Fernando; Valandro, Roberto
2014-05-01
We address the open question of performing an explicit stabilisation of all closed string moduli (including dilaton, complex structure and Kähler moduli) in fluxed type IIB Calabi-Yau compactifications with chiral matter. Using toric geometry we construct Calabi-Yau manifolds with del Pezzo singularities. D-branes located at such singularities can support the Standard Model gauge group and matter content or some close extensions. In order to control complex structure moduli stabilisation we consider Calabi-Yau manifolds which exhibit a discrete symmetry that reduces the effective number of complex structure moduli. We calculate the corresponding periods in the symplectic basis of invariant three-cycles and find explicit flux vacua for concrete examples. We compute the values of the flux superpotential and the string coupling at these vacua. Starting from these explicit complex structure solutions, we obtain AdS and dS minima where the Kähler moduli are stabilised by a mixture of D-terms, non-perturbative and perturbative α ' corrections as in the LARGE Volume Scenario. In the considered example the visible sector lives at a dP6 singularity which can be higgsed to the phenomenologically interesting class of models at the dP3 singularity.
Explicit de Sitter flux vacua for global string models with chiral matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cicoli, Michele [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Klevers, Denis [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6396 (United States); Krippendorf, Sven [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Mayrhofer, Christoph [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 19, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Quevedo, Fernando [ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Valandro, Roberto [ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy)
2014-05-05
We address the open question of performing an explicit stabilisation of all closed string moduli (including dilaton, complex structure and Kähler moduli) in fluxed type IIB Calabi-Yau compactifications with chiral matter. Using toric geometry we construct Calabi-Yau manifolds with del Pezzo singularities. D-branes located at such singularities can support the Standard Model gauge group and matter content or some close extensions. In order to control complex structure moduli stabilisation we consider Calabi-Yau manifolds which exhibit a discrete symmetry that reduces the effective number of complex structure moduli. We calculate the corresponding periods in the symplectic basis of invariant three-cycles and find explicit flux vacua for concrete examples. We compute the values of the flux superpotential and the string coupling at these vacua. Starting from these explicit complex structure solutions, we obtain AdS and dS minima where the Kähler moduli are stabilised by a mixture of D-terms, non-perturbative and perturbative α{sup ′} corrections as in the LARGE Volume Scenario. In the considered example the visible sector lives at a dP{sub 6} singularity which can be higgsed to the phenomenologically interesting class of models at the dP{sub 3} singularity.
How to develop a phenomenological model of disability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martiny, Kristian Møller Moltke
2015-01-01
During recent decades various researchers from health and social sciences have been debating what it means for a person to be disabled. A rather overlooked approach has developed alongside this debate, primarily inspired by the philosophical tradition called phenomenology. This paper develops...... a phenomenological model of disability by arguing for a different methodological and conceptual framework from that used by the existing phenomenological approach. The existing approach is developed from the phenomenology of illness, but the paper illustrates how the case of congenital disabilities, looking...... at the congenital disorder called cerebral palsy (CP), presents a fundamental problem for the approach. In order to understand such congenital cases as CP, the experience of disability is described as being gradually different from, rather than a disruption of, the experience of being abled, and it is argued...
Dilaton stabilization in three-generation heterotic string model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beye, Florian, E-mail: fbeye@eken.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Kawasaki (Japan); Kobayashi, Tatsuo, E-mail: kobayashi@particle.sci.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Kuwakino, Shogo, E-mail: kuwakino@cc.kyoto-su.ac.jp [Maskawa Institute for Science and Culture, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kamigamo-Motoyama, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan)
2016-09-10
We study dilaton stabilization in heterotic string models. By utilizing the asymmetric orbifold construction, we construct an explicit three-generation model whose matter content in the visible sector is the supersymmetric standard model with additional vectorlike matter. This model does not contain any geometric moduli fields except the dilaton field. Model building at a symmetry enhancement point in moduli space enlarges the rank of the hidden gauge group. By analyzing multiple hidden gauge sectors, the dilaton field is stabilized by the racetrack mechanism. We also discuss a supersymmetry breaking scenario and F-term uplifting.
Global phenomenological and microscopic optical model potentials for alpha
Guo, Hairui; Su, Xinwu; Liang, Haiying; Xu, Yongli; Han, Yinlu; Shen, Qingbiao
2017-09-01
The global phenomenological and microscopic optical model potentials for alpha with the incident energy up to 400 MeV are obtained. The global phenomenological optical model potential is extracted by simultaneously fitting the experimental data of total reaction cross sections and elastic scattering angular distributions in the mass range of target nuclei 20 ≤ A ≤ 209. The microscopic optical model potential is obtained by the Green function method through nuclear matter approximation and local density approximation based on the effective Skyrme nucleon-nucleon interaction. Both optical model potentials are used to calculate the reaction cross sections and elastic scattering angular distributions for the target nuclei in the mass range 12 ≤ A ≤ 209 at incident alpha energies up to 400 MeV. The calculated results are compared with the experimental data, and the calculated results by phenomenological and microscopic optical model potentials are also compared with each other.
Global phenomenological and microscopic optical model potentials for alpha
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guo Hairui
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The global phenomenological and microscopic optical model potentials for alpha with the incident energy up to 400 MeV are obtained. The global phenomenological optical model potential is extracted by simultaneously fitting the experimental data of total reaction cross sections and elastic scattering angular distributions in the mass range of target nuclei 20 ≤ A ≤ 209. The microscopic optical model potential is obtained by the Green function method through nuclear matter approximation and local density approximation based on the effective Skyrme nucleon-nucleon interaction. Both optical model potentials are used to calculate the reaction cross sections and elastic scattering angular distributions for the target nuclei in the mass range 12 ≤ A ≤ 209 at incident alpha energies up to 400 MeV. The calculated results are compared with the experimental data, and the calculated results by phenomenological and microscopic optical model potentials are also compared with each other.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zabrodin E.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Proton-proton collisions at energies from √s = 200 GeV up to √s = 14 TeV are studied within the microscopic quark-gluon string model. The model is based on Gribov’s Reggeon Field Theory accomplished by string phenomenology. Comparison with experimental data shows that QGSM describes well particle yields, rapidity - and transverse momentum spectra, rise of mean 〈 pT 〉 and forward-backward multiplicity correlations. The latter arise in QGSM because of the addition of various processes with different mean multiplicities. The model also indicates fulfillment of extended longitudinal scaling and violation of Koba-Nielsen-Olesen scaling at LHC. The origin of both features is traced to short-range particle correlations in the strings. Predictions are made for √s = 14 TeV.
Zabrodin, E.; Bravina, L.; Bleibel, J.
2017-12-01
Proton-proton collisions at energies from √s = 200 GeV up to √s = 14 TeV are studied within the microscopic quark-gluon string model. The model is based on Gribov's Reggeon Field Theory accomplished by string phenomenology. Comparison with experimental data shows that QGSM describes well particle yields, rapidity - and transverse momentum spectra, rise of mean 〈 pT 〉 and forward-backward multiplicity correlations. The latter arise in QGSM because of the addition of various processes with different mean multiplicities. The model also indicates fulfillment of extended longitudinal scaling and violation of Koba-Nielsen-Olesen scaling at LHC. The origin of both features is traced to short-range particle correlations in the strings. Predictions are made for √s = 14 TeV.
Interacting-string picture of dual-resonance models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mandelstam, S.
1985-01-01
Dual-resonance models are an alyzed by means of operators which act within the physical Hilbert space of positive-metric states. The basis of the method is to extend the relativistic-string picture of a previous study to interacting particles. Functional methods are used, but their relation to the operator is evident, and factorization is maintained. An expression is given for the N-point amplitude in terms of physical-particle operators. For the three-point function the Neumann functions which occur in this expression are evaluated, so that we have a formula for the on- and off-energy-shell vertex. The authors assume that the string has no longitudinal degrees of freedom, and their results are Lorentz invariant and dual only if d=26
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marzban, C.; Viswanathan, R.R.
1990-12-01
Within the framework of c = 1 matrix models, we consider multi-matrix models. A connection is established between a D-dimensional gas of fermions (bosons) for odd (even) values of D. A statistical mechanical analysis yields the scaling law for the free energy, and hence the susceptibility exponents for the various models. The exponents turn out to be positive for the multi-matrix models, suggesting that these could represent models of 2 d-gravity coupled to c>1 matter. Whereas in the c=1 case the density of states itself diverges as one approaches the critical point, in the D-matrix models various derivatives of the density of states diverge, with the order of the derivative depending on D. This qualitatively different behaviour of the density of states could be a signal of the conjectured ''phase transition'' at c=1. (author). 14 refs
Sun, Jiang-Ming; Li, Tong-Hua; Cong, Pei-Sheng; Tang, Sheng-Nan; Xiong, Wen-Wei
2012-01-01
Identification of protein structural neighbors to a query is fundamental in structure and function prediction. Here we present BS-align, a systematic method to retrieve backbone string neighbors from primary sequences as templates for protein modeling. The backbone conformation of a protein is represented by the backbone string, as defined in Ramachandran space. The backbone string of a query can be accurately predicted by two innovative technologies: a knowledge-driven sequence alignment and encoding of a backbone string element profile. Then, the predicted backbone string is employed to align against a backbone string database and retrieve a set of backbone string neighbors. The backbone string neighbors were shown to be close to native structures of query proteins. BS-align was successfully employed to predict models of 10 membrane proteins with lengths ranging between 229 and 595 residues, and whose high-resolution structural determinations were difficult to elucidate both by experiment and prediction. The obtained TM-scores and root mean square deviations of the models confirmed that the models based on the backbone string neighbors retrieved by the BS-align were very close to the native membrane structures although the query and the neighbor shared a very low sequence identity. The backbone string system represents a new road for the prediction of protein structure from sequence, and suggests that the similarity of the backbone string would be more informative than describing a protein as belonging to a fold. PMID:22415040
Sun, Jiang-Ming; Li, Tong-Hua; Cong, Pei-Sheng; Tang, Sheng-Nan; Xiong, Wen-Wei
2012-07-01
Identification of protein structural neighbors to a query is fundamental in structure and function prediction. Here we present BS-align, a systematic method to retrieve backbone string neighbors from primary sequences as templates for protein modeling. The backbone conformation of a protein is represented by the backbone string, as defined in Ramachandran space. The backbone string of a query can be accurately predicted by two innovative technologies: a knowledge-driven sequence alignment and encoding of a backbone string element profile. Then, the predicted backbone string is employed to align against a backbone string database and retrieve a set of backbone string neighbors. The backbone string neighbors were shown to be close to native structures of query proteins. BS-align was successfully employed to predict models of 10 membrane proteins with lengths ranging between 229 and 595 residues, and whose high-resolution structural determinations were difficult to elucidate both by experiment and prediction. The obtained TM-scores and root mean square deviations of the models confirmed that the models based on the backbone string neighbors retrieved by the BS-align were very close to the native membrane structures although the query and the neighbor shared a very low sequence identity. The backbone string system represents a new road for the prediction of protein structure from sequence, and suggests that the similarity of the backbone string would be more informative than describing a protein as belonging to a fold.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Svrcek, Peter; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC; Witten, Edward; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study
2006-06-09
In the context of string theory, axions appear to provide the most plausible solution of the strong CP problem. However, as has been known for a long time, in many string-based models, the axion coupling parameter Fa is several orders of magnitude higher than the standard cosmological bounds. We re-examine this problem in a variety of models, showing that Fa is close to the GUT scale or above in many models that have GUT-like phenomenology, as well as some that do not. On the other hand, in some models with Standard Model gauge fields supported on vanishing cycles, it is possible for Fa to be well below the GUT scale.
Supersymmetric sigma models and the heterotic string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hull, C.M.; Witten, E.
1989-01-01
The authors define the (1 + 1)-dimensional supersymmetry algebra of type (p, q) to be that generated by p right-handed Majorana-Weyl supercharges and q left-handed ones. They construct the non-linear sigma models with supersymmetry of type (1, 0) and (2, 0) and discuss their geometry and their relevance to compactifications of the heterotic superstring. The sigma-model anomalies can be canceled by a mechanism closely related to that used by Green and Schwarz to cancel gravitational and Yang-Mills anomalies for the superstring
Phenomenological BRDF modeling for engineering applications
Jafolla, James C.; Stokes, Jeffrey A.; Sullivan, Robert J.
1997-09-01
The application of analytical light scattering techniques for virtual prototyping the optical performance of paint coatings provides an effective tool for optimizing paint design for specific optical requirements. This paper describes the phenomenological basis for the scattering coatings computer aided design (ScatCad) code. The ScatCad code predicts the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) and the hemispherical directional reflectance (HDR) of pigmented paint coatings for the purpose of coating design optimization. The code uses techniques for computing the pigment single scattering phase function, multiple scattering radiative transfer, and rough surface scattering to calculate the BRDF and HDR based on the fundamental optical properties of the pigment(s) and binder, pigment number density and size distribution, and surface roughness of the binder-interface and substrate. This is a significant enhancement to the two- flux, Kubelka-Munk analysis that has traditionally been used in the coatings industry. Example calculations and comparison with measurements are also presented.
From topological strings to minimal models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foda, Omar; Wu, Jian-Feng
2015-01-01
We glue four refined topological vertices to obtain the building block of 5D U(2) quiver instanton partition functions. We take the 4D limit of the result to obtain the building block of 4D instanton partition functions which, using the AGT correspondence, are identified with Virasoro conformal blocks. We show that there is a choice of the parameters of the topological vertices that we start with, as well as the parameters and the intermediate states involved in the gluing procedure, such that we obtain Virasoro minimal model conformal blocks.
From topological strings to minimal models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Foda, Omar [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne,Royal Parade, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia); Wu, Jian-Feng [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Henan University,Minglun Street, Kaifeng city, Henan (China); Beijing Institute of Theoretical Physics and Mathematics,3rd Shangdi Street, Beijing (China)
2015-07-24
We glue four refined topological vertices to obtain the building block of 5D U(2) quiver instanton partition functions. We take the 4D limit of the result to obtain the building block of 4D instanton partition functions which, using the AGT correspondence, are identified with Virasoro conformal blocks. We show that there is a choice of the parameters of the topological vertices that we start with, as well as the parameters and the intermediate states involved in the gluing procedure, such that we obtain Virasoro minimal model conformal blocks.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Raby, Stuart; Zhang Renjie
2005-01-01
Motivated by orbifold grand unified theories, we construct a class of three-family Pati-Salam models in a Z6 Abelian symmetric orbifold with two discrete Wilson lines. These models have marked differences from previously-constructed three-family models in prime-order orbifolds. In the limit where one of the six compactified dimensions (which lies in a Z2 sub-orbifold) is large compared to the string length scale, our models reproduce the supersymmetry and gauge symmetry breaking pattern of 5d orbifold grand unified theories on an S1/Z2 orbicircle. We find a horizontal 2+1 splitting in the chiral matter spectra-2 families of matter are localized on the Z2 orbifold fixed points, and 1 family propagates in the 5d bulk-and identify them as the first-two and third families. Remarkably, the first two families enjoy a non-Abelian dihedral D4 family symmetry, due to the geometric setup of the compactified space. In all our models there are always some color triplets, i.e., (6,1,1) representations of the Pati-Salam group, survive orbifold projections. They could be utilized to spontaneously break the Pati-Salam symmetry to that of the Standard Model. One model, with a 5d E 6 symmetry, may give rise to interesting low energy phenomenology. We study gauge coupling unification, allowed Yukawa couplings and some of their phenomenological consequences. The E6 model has a renormalizable Yukawa coupling only for the third family. It predicts a gauge-Yukawa unification relation at the 5d compactification scale, and is capable of generating reasonable quark/lepton masses and mixings. Potential problems are also addressed, they may point to the direction for refining our models
Bianchi type IX string cosmological model in general relativity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Cosmic strings arise during phase transitions after the big-bang explosion as the temperature goes down below some critical temperature [1–3]. These strings have stress energy and couple in a simple way to the gravitational field. The general relativistic formalism of cosmic strings is due to Letelier [4,5]. Stachel [6] has ...
Model-independent approach for dark matter phenomenology ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We have studied the phenomenology of dark matter at the ILC and cosmic positron experiments based on model-independent approach. We have found a strong correlation between dark matter signatures at the ILC and those in the indirect detection experiments of dark matter. Once the dark matter is discovered in the ...
Model-independent approach for dark matter phenomenology
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We have studied the phenomenology of dark matter at the ILC and cosmic positron experiments based on model-independent approach. We have found a strong correlation between dark matter signatures at the ILC and those in the indirect detection experiments of dark matter. Once the dark matter is discovered in the ...
Model-independent approach for dark matter phenomenology ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. We have studied the phenomenology of dark matter at the ILC and cosmic positron experiments based on model-independent approach. We have found a strong correlation between dark matter signatures at the ILC and those in the indirect detec- tion experiments of dark matter. Once the dark matter is discovered ...
Phenomenology of the minimal $ SO (10) $ SUSY model
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. In this talk I define what I call the minimal S O ( 10 ) SUSY model. I then discuss the phenomenological consequences of this theory, vis-a-vis gauge and Yukawa coupling unification, Higgs and super-particle masses, the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, the decay B s → + − and dark matter.
A numerical study of the string function using a primitive equation ocean model
Tyler, R. H.; Käse, R.
We use results from a primitive-equation ocean numerical model (SCRUM) to test a theoretical 'string function' formulation put forward by Tyler and Käse in another article in this issue. The string function acts as a stream function for the large-scale potential energy flow under the combined beta and topographic effects. The model results verify that large-scale anomalies propagate along the string function contours with a speed correctly given by the cross-string gradient. For anomalies having a scale similar to the Rossby radius, material rates of change in the layer mass following the string velocity are balanced by material rates of change in relative vorticity following the flow velocity. It is shown that large-amplitude anomalies can be generated when wind stress is resonant with the string function configuration.
Chern-Simons Theory, Matrix Models, and Topological Strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walcher, J
2006-01-01
This book is a find. Marino meets the challenge of filling in less than 200 pages the need for an accessible review of topological gauge/gravity duality. He is one of the pioneers of the subject and a clear expositor. It is no surprise that reading this book is a great pleasure. The existence of dualities between gauge theories and theories of gravity remains one of the most surprising recent discoveries in mathematical physics. While it is probably fair to say that we do not yet understand the full reach of such a relation, the impressive amount of evidence that has accumulated over the past years can be regarded as a substitute for a proof, and will certainly help to delineate the question of what is the most fundamental quantum mechanical theory. Here is a brief summary of the book. The journey begins with matrix models and an introduction to various techniques for the computation of integrals including perturbative expansion, large-N approximation, saddle point analysis, and the method of orthogonal polynomials. The second chapter, on Chern-Simons theory, is the longest and probably the most complete one in the book. Starting from the action we meet Wilson loop observables, the associated perturbative 3-manifold invariants, Witten's exact solution via the canonical duality to WZW models, the framing ambiguity, as well as a collection of results on knot invariants that can be derived from Chern-Simons theory and the combinatorics of U (∞) representation theory. The chapter also contains a careful derivation of the large-N expansion of the Chern-Simons partition function, which forms the cornerstone of its interpretation as a closed string theory. Finally, we learn that Chern-Simons theory can sometimes also be represented as a matrix model. The story then turns to the gravity side, with an introduction to topological sigma models (chapter 3) and topological string theory (chapter 4). While this presentation is necessarily rather condensed (and the beginner may
The theory and phenomenology of coloured quark models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Close, F.E.
1975-01-01
A general introduction to coloured quark models is given and their phenomenology is described with particular reference to the new particles. It is shown that there are essentially three types of colour models with colour excitation when the colour group is SU(3) - Han-Nambu, Greenberg and a model which has the same charges as that of Tati and which can be thought of as the Gell-Mann colour scheme with excitation of the colour degrees of freedom. Particular attention is paid to the four problems of colour models for PSI phenomenology - the radiative decays, the G parity conservation, the lack of deep inelastic threshold phenomena and the apparent discovery of dileptons at SPEAR. (author)
Diffeomorphisms as symplectomorphisms in history phase space: Bosonic string model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kouletsis, I.; Kuchar, K.V.
2002-01-01
The structure of the history phase space G of a covariant field system and its history group (in the sense of Isham and Linden) is analyzed on an example of a bosonic string. The history space G includes the time map T from the spacetime manifold (the two-sheet) Y to a one-dimensional time manifold T as one of its configuration variables. A canonical history action is posited on G such that its restriction to the configuration history space yields the familiar Polyakov action. The standard Dirac-ADM action is shown to be identical with the canonical history action, the only difference being that the underlying action is expressed in two different coordinate charts on G. The canonical history action encompasses all individual Dirac-ADM actions corresponding to different choices T of foliating Y. The history Poisson brackets of spacetime fields on G induce the ordinary Poisson brackets of spatial fields in the instantaneous phase space G 0 of the Dirac-ADM formalism. The canonical history action is manifestly invariant both under spacetime diffeomorphisms Diff Y and temporal diffeomorphisms Diff T. Both of these diffeomorphisms are explicitly represented by symplectomorphisms on the history phase space G. The resulting classical history phase space formalism is offered as a starting point for projection operator quantization and consistent histories interpretation of the bosonic string model
Zörnig, Peter
2015-08-01
We present integer programming models for some variants of the farthest string problem. The number of variables and constraints is substantially less than that of the integer linear programming models known in the literature. Moreover, the solution of the linear programming-relaxation contains only a small proportion of noninteger values, which considerably simplifies the rounding process. Numerical tests have shown excellent results, especially when a small set of long sequences is given.
The Consensus String Problem and the Complexity of Comparing Hidden Markov Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lyngsø, Rune Bang; Pedersen, Christian Nørgaard Storm
2002-01-01
The basic theory of hidden Markov models was developed and applied to problems in speech recognition in the late 1960s, and has since then been applied to numerous problems, e.g. biological sequence analysis. Most applications of hidden Markov models are based on efficient algorithms for computing...... the probability of generating a given string, or computing the most likely path generating a given string. In this paper we consider the problem of computing the most likely string, or consensus string, generated by a given model, and its implications on the complexity of comparing hidden Markov models. We show...... that computing the consensus string, and approximating its probability within any constant factor, is NP-hard, and that the same holds for the closely related labeling problem for class hidden Markov models. Furthermore, we establish the NP-hardness of comparing two hidden Markov models under the L∞- and L1...
Stability and characteristic propagation speeds in superconducting cosmic and other string models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carter, B.
1989-01-01
A bicharacteristic version is obtained for the differential equations of motion in a recently introduced formalism for the (fully covariant) treatment of a broad range of macroscopic 'thin' string models, with applicability extending from ordinary (violin type) elastic strings to superconducting cosmic strings. In any locally stable state there are two bicharacteristic propagation speeds corresponding to group velocities of transverse (extrinsic) and longitudinal (intrinsic) perturbations. The local stability requirement excludes states in which the string tension T is negative or in which its derivative with respect to the energy density (per unit length) U is positive. (orig.)
Inflation and cosmic strings in models with dynamical symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matheson, A.M.; Brandenberger, R.H.
1989-01-01
We derive the effective action for the composite field which in dynamical symmetry breaking plays the role of the Higgs field. We show that this effective action does not give rise to inflation. It is, however, possible to obtain topological defects such as cosmic strings. There will be fermionic zero modes trapped on the strings, and the strings will therefore be superconducting in a generalized sense. (orig.)
Physics beyond the Standard Model and Collider Phenomenology
Burikham, P
2005-01-01
We briefly review the Standard Model of the particle physics focussing on the gauge hierachy problem and the naturalness problem regarding the stabilization of the light Higgs mass. We list the alternative models which address the hierachy problem in addition to conventional Supersymmetric models and Composite models. They include extra dimensional models and Little Higgs models. We investigate the production of heavy $W_{H}$ at the linear $e^{+}e^{-}$ collider at high centre-of-mass energies at 3 and 5 TeV using the Littlest Higgs model where the global group is $SU(5)/SO(5)$. In certain region of the parameter space, the heavy boson induced signals could be distinguishable from the Standard Model background. Based on tree-level open-string scattering amplitudes in the low string-scale scenario, we derive the massless fermion scattering amplitudes. The amplitudes are required to reproduce those of the Standard Model at tree level in the low energy limit. We then obtain four-fermion contact interactions by ex...
String theory in four dimensions
1988-01-01
``String Theory in Four Dimensions'' contains a representative collection of papers dealing with various aspects of string phenomenology, including compactifications on smooth manifolds and more general conformal field theories. Together with the lucid introduction by M. Dine, this material gives the reader a good working knowledge of our present ideas for connecting string theory to nature.
Phenomenological and ontological models in natural science
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lokajíček, Miloš
2007-01-01
Roč. 4, - (2007), s. 657-669 ISSN 1733-8026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : science in new age * mathematical models * microscopic world * ontological reflection Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion
A phenomenological model of milk coagulation
Osintsev, A.; Gromov, E.; Braginsky, V.
2013-01-01
A model of additional stabilization for the milk colloid system by means of the micelle electric charge arising owing to dissociation of micellar calcium caseinate is offered. The model allows comprehending the unique role of calcium in milk clotting and describing some features of coagulation temperature dependence, as well as explaining the nature of rennet, acid, heat-acid and heat-calcium coagulation within uniform concepts.
Modeling Friction Performance of Drill String Torsional Oscillation Using Dynamic Friction Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xingming Wang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Drill string torsional and longitudinal oscillation can significantly reduce axial drag in horizontal drilling. An improved theoretical model for the analysis of the frictional force was proposed based on microscopic contact deformation theory and a bristle model. The established model, an improved dynamic friction model established for drill strings in a wellbore, was used to determine the relationship of friction force changes and the drill string torsional vibration. The model results were in good agreement with the experimental data, verifying the accuracy of the established model. The analysis of the influence of drilling mud properties indicated that there is an approximately linear relationship between the axial friction force and dynamic shear and viscosity. The influence of drill string torsional oscillation on the axial friction force is discussed. The results indicated that the drill string transverse velocity is a prerequisite for reducing axial friction. In addition, low amplitude of torsional vibration speed can significantly reduce axial friction. Then, increasing the amplitude of transverse vibration speed, the effect of axial reduction is not significant. In addition, by involving general field drilling parameters, this model can accurately describe the friction behavior and quantitatively predict the frictional resistance in horizontal drilling.
String Theory and the Path to Unification: A Review of Recent Developments
Dienes, Keith R.
1996-01-01
This is a pedagogical review article surveying the various approaches towards understanding gauge coupling unification within string theory. As is well known, one of the major problems confronting string phenomenology has been an apparent discrepancy between the scale of gauge coupling unification predicted within string theory, and the unification scale expected within the framework of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). In this article, I provide an overview of the different a...
Phenomenological network models: Lessons for epilepsy surgery.
Hebbink, Jurgen; Meijer, Hil; Huiskamp, Geertjan; van Gils, Stephan; Leijten, Frans
2017-10-01
The current opinion in epilepsy surgery is that successful surgery is about removing pathological cortex in the anatomic sense. This contrasts with recent developments in epilepsy research, where epilepsy is seen as a network disease. Computational models offer a framework to investigate the influence of networks, as well as local tissue properties, and to explore alternative resection strategies. Here we study, using such a model, the influence of connections on seizures and how this might change our traditional views of epilepsy surgery. We use a simple network model consisting of four interconnected neuronal populations. One of these populations can be made hyperexcitable, modeling a pathological region of cortex. Using model simulations, the effect of surgery on the seizure rate is studied. We find that removal of the hyperexcitable population is, in most cases, not the best approach to reduce the seizure rate. Removal of normal populations located at a crucial spot in the network, the "driver," is typically more effective in reducing seizure rate. This work strengthens the idea that network structure and connections may be more important than localizing the pathological node. This can explain why lesionectomy may not always be sufficient. © 2017 The Authors. Epilepsia published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International League Against Epilepsy.
Phenomenological network models : Lessons for epilepsy surgery
Hebbink, Jurgen; Meijer, Hil; Huiskamp, Geertjan; van Gils, Stephanus A.; Leijten, Frans
2017-01-01
The current opinion in epilepsy surgery is that successful surgery is about removing pathological cortex in the anatomic sense. This contrasts with recent developments in epilepsy research, where epilepsy is seen as a network disease. Computational models offer a framework to investigate the
Some exact solutions of magnetized viscous model in string ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. In this paper, we study anisotropic Bianchi-V Universe with magnetic field and bulk viscous fluid in string cosmology. Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by using the equation of state (EoS) for a cloud of strings, and a relationship between bulk viscous coefficient and scalar expansion. The bulk ...
Some exact solutions of magnetized viscous model in string ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper, we study anisotropic Bianchi-V Universe with magnetic field and bulk viscous fluid in string cosmology. Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by using the equation of state (EoS) for a cloud of strings, and a relationship between bulk viscous coefficient and scalar expansion. The bulk viscous ...
D-string fluid in conifold, I: Topological gauge model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahl Laamara, R.; Drissi, L.B.; Saidi, E.H.
2006-01-01
Motivated by similarities between quantum Hall systems a la Susskind and aspects of topological string theory on conifold as well as results obtained in [E.H. Saidi, Topological SL(2) gauge theory on conifold and noncommutative geometry, hep-th/0601020], we study the dynamics of D-string fluids running in deformed conifold in presence of a strong and constant RR background B-field. We first introduce the basis of D-string system in fluid approximation and then derive the holomorphic noncommutative gauge invariant field action describing its dynamics in conifold. This study may be also viewed as embedding Susskind description for Laughlin liquid in type IIB string theory. FQH systems on real manifolds RxS 2 and S 3 are shown to be recovered by restricting conifold to its Lagrangian sub-manifolds. Aspects of quantum behaviour of the string fluid are discussed. ring fluid are discussed
Progress in studying scintillator proportionality: Phenomenological model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bizarri, Gregory; Cherepy, Nerine; Choong, Woon-Seng; Hull, Giulia; Moses, William; Payne, Sephen; Singh, Jai; Valentine, John; Vasilev, Andrey; Williams, Richard
2009-04-30
We present a model to describe the origin of non-proportional dependence of scintillator light yield on the energy of an ionizing particle. The non-proportionality is discussed in terms of energy relaxation channels and their linear and non-linear dependences on the deposited energy. In this approach, the scintillation response is described as a function of the deposited energy deposition and the kinetic rates of each relaxation channel. This mathematical framework allows both a qualitative interpretation and a quantitative fitting representation of scintillation non-proportionality response as function of kinetic rates. This method was successfully applied to thallium doped sodium iodide measured with SLYNCI, a new facility using the Compton coincidence technique. Finally, attention is given to the physical meaning of the dominant relaxation channels, and to the potential causes responsible for the scintillation non-proportionality. We find that thallium doped sodium iodide behaves as if non-proportionality is due to competition between radiative recombinations and non-radiative Auger processes.
Approximate deconvolution models of turbulence analysis, phenomenology and numerical analysis
Layton, William J
2012-01-01
This volume presents a mathematical development of a recent approach to the modeling and simulation of turbulent flows based on methods for the approximate solution of inverse problems. The resulting Approximate Deconvolution Models or ADMs have some advantages over more commonly used turbulence models – as well as some disadvantages. Our goal in this book is to provide a clear and complete mathematical development of ADMs, while pointing out the difficulties that remain. In order to do so, we present the analytical theory of ADMs, along with its connections, motivations and complements in the phenomenology of and algorithms for ADMs.
Multiscale modeling of complex materials phenomenological, theoretical and computational aspects
Trovalusci, Patrizia
2014-01-01
The papers in this volume deal with materials science, theoretical mechanics and experimental and computational techniques at multiple scales, providing a sound base and a framework for many applications which are hitherto treated in a phenomenological sense. The basic principles are formulated of multiscale modeling strategies towards modern complex multiphase materials subjected to various types of mechanical, thermal loadings and environmental effects. The focus is on problems where mechanics is highly coupled with other concurrent physical phenomena. Attention is also focused on the historical origins of multiscale modeling and foundations of continuum mechanics currently adopted to model non-classical continua with substructure, for which internal length scales play a crucial role.
String theory in four dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dine, M.
1988-01-01
A representative sample of current ideas about how one might develop a string phenomenology is presented. Some of the obstacles which lie in between string theory and contact with experiment are described. It is hoped that this volume will provide the reader with ways of thinking about string theory in four dimensions and provide tools for asking questions about string theory and ordinary physics. 102 refs
A string cosmological model in a scalar - Tensor theory of gravitation
Reddy, D. R. K.
An exact Boanchi type -I string cosmological model is obtained in a scalar-tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Saez and Ballester (1985). Some physical properties of the model are also discussed.
Bianchi Type VI String Cosmological Model in Saez Ballester's Scalar-Tensor Theory of Gravitation
Adhav, K. S.; Ugale, M. R.; Kale, C. B.; Bhende, M. P.
2007-12-01
An exact Bianchi type-VI string cosmological model is obtained in a scalar-tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Saez and Ballester (Phys. Lett. 113:467, 1985). Some physical properties of the model are also discussed.
Phenomenological aspects of mirage mediation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loewen, Valeri
2009-07-01
We consider the possibility that string theory vacua with spontaneously broken supersymmetry and a small positive cosmological constant arise due to hidden sector matter interactions, known as F-uplifting/F-downlifting. We analyze this procedure in a model-independent way in the context of type IIB and heterotic string theory. Our investigation shows that the uplifting/downlifting sector has very important consequences for the resulting phenomenology. Not only does it adjust the vacuum energy, but it can also participate in the process of moduli stabilization. In addition, we find that this sector is the dominant source of supersymmetry breaking. It leads to a hybrid mediation scheme and its signature is a relaxed mirage pattern of the soft supersymmetry breaking terms. The low energy spectra exhibit distinct phenomenological properties and di er from conventional schemes considered so far. (orig.)
Phenomenological aspects of mirage mediation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loewen, Valeri
2009-07-15
We consider the possibility that string theory vacua with spontaneously broken supersymmetry and a small positive cosmological constant arise due to hidden sector matter interactions, known as F-uplifting/F-downlifting. We analyze this procedure in a model-independent way in the context of type IIB and heterotic string theory. Our investigation shows that the uplifting/downlifting sector has very important consequences for the resulting phenomenology. Not only does it adjust the vacuum energy, but it can also participate in the process of moduli stabilization. In addition, we find that this sector is the dominant source of supersymmetry breaking. It leads to a hybrid mediation scheme and its signature is a relaxed mirage pattern of the soft supersymmetry breaking terms. The low energy spectra exhibit distinct phenomenological properties and di er from conventional schemes considered so far. (orig.)
Evidence for string substructure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergman, O.
1996-06-01
The author argues that the behavior of string theory at high temperature and high longitudinal boosts, combined with the emergence of p-branes as necessary ingredients in various string dualities, point to a possible reformulation of strings, as well as p-branes, as composites of bits. He reviews the string-bit models, and suggests generalizations to incorporate p-branes
Identification and communication of uncertainties of phenomenological models in PSA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pulkkinen, U.; Simola, K.
2001-11-01
This report aims at presenting a view upon uncertainty analysis of phenomenological models with an emphasis on the identification and documentation of various types of uncertainties and assumptions in the modelling of the phenomena. In an uncertainty analysis, it is essential to include and document all unclear issues, in order to obtain a maximal coverage of unresolved issues. This holds independently on their nature or type of the issues. The classification of uncertainties is needed in the decomposition of the problem and it helps in the identification of means for uncertainty reduction. Further, an enhanced documentation serves to evaluate the applicability of the results to various risk-informed applications. (au)
String cloud cosmologies for Bianchi type-III models with electromagnetic field
Tripathy, S. K.; Sahu, S. K.; Routray, T. R.
2008-06-01
The Saez-Ballester field equations for spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-III cosmological models have been solved for pure geometric cosmic string cloud pervading the universe either in the absence or in presence of electromagnetic field. It has been established here that the model does not survive for geometric cosmic string cloud pervading the universe when there is no electromagnetic field. But in presence of electromagnetic field the model can have plausible solutions fostering the idea that strings forming the surface of the world sheet have to co-exist with electromagnetic field.
On integrable models from pp-wave string backgrounds
Bakas, Ioannis; Bakas, Ioannis; Sonnenschein, Jacob
2002-01-01
We construct solutions of type IIB supergravity with non-trivial Ramond-Ramond 5-form in ten dimensions by replacing the transverse flat space of pp-wave backgrounds with exact $N=(4,4)$ $c=4$ superconformal field theory blocks. These solutions, which also include a dilaton and (in some cases) an anti-symmetric tensor field, lead to integrable models on the world-sheet in the light-cone gauge of string theory. In one instance we demonstrate explicitly the emergence of the complex sine-Gordon model, which coincides with integrable perturbations of the corresponding superconformal building blocks in the transverse space. In other cases we arrive at the supersymmetric Liouville theory or at the complex sine-Liouville model. For axionic instantons in the transverse space, as for the (semi)-wormhole geometry, we obtain an entire class of supersymmetric pp-wave backgrounds by solving the Killing spinor equations as in flat space, supplemented by the appropriate chiral projections; as such, they generalize the usual...
String theory and the path to unification: A review of recent developments
Dienes, Keith R.
1997-08-01
This is a pedagogical review article surveying the various approaches towards understanding gauge coupling unification within string theory. As is well known, one of the major problems confronting string phenomenology has been an apparent discrepancy between the scale of gauge coupling unification predicted within string theory, and the unification scale expected within the framework of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). In this article, I provide an overview of the different approaches that have been taken in recent years towards reconciling these two scales, and outline some of the major recent developments in each. These approaches include string GUT models; higher affine levels and non-standard hypercharge normalizations; heavy string threshold corrections; light supersymmetric thresholds; effects from intermediate-scale gauge and matter structure beyond the MSSM; strings without supersymmetry; and strings at strong coupling.
General analysis of dark radiation in sequestered string models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cicoli, Michele [ICTP,Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna,via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna,via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Muia, Francesco [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna,via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna,via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy)
2015-12-22
We perform a general analysis of axionic dark radiation produced from the decay of the lightest modulus in the sequestered LARGE Volume Scenario. We discuss several cases depending on the form of the Kähler metric for visible sector matter fields and the mechanism responsible for achieving a de Sitter vacuum. The leading decay channels which determine dark radiation predictions are to hidden sector axions, visible sector Higgses and SUSY scalars depending on their mass. We show that in most of the parameter space of split SUSY-like models squarks and sleptons are heavier than the lightest modulus. Hence dark radiation predictions previously obtained for MSSM-like cases hold more generally also for split SUSY-like cases since the decay channel to SUSY scalars is kinematically forbidden. However the inclusion of string loop corrections to the Kähler potential gives rise to a parameter space region where the decay channel to SUSY scalars opens up, leading to a significant reduction of dark radiation production. In this case, the simplest model with a shift-symmetric Higgs sector can suppress the excess of dark radiation ΔN{sub eff} to values as small as 0.14, in perfect agreement with current experimental bounds. Depending on the exact mass of the SUSY scalars all values in the range 0.14≲ΔN{sub eff}≲1.6 are allowed. Interestingly dark radiation overproduction can be avoided also in the absence of a Giudice-Masiero coupling.
Bianchi type-VIh string cloud cosmological models with bulk viscosity
Tripathy, Sunil K.; Behera, Dipanjali
2010-11-01
String cloud cosmological models are studied using spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type VIh metric in the frame work of general relativity. The field equations are solved for massive string cloud in presence of bulk viscosity. A general linear equation of state of the cosmic string tension density with the proper energy density of the universe is considered. The physical and kinematical properties of the models have been discussed in detail and the limits of the anisotropic parameter responsible for different phases of the universe are explored.
Phenomenological constraints on an R-symmetric supersymmetric model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diessner, Philip; Stoeckinger, Dominik [IKTP, TU Dresden (Germany); Kalinowski, Jan [Universitaet Warschau (Poland); Kotlarski, Wojciech [IKTP, TU Dresden (Germany); Universitaet Warschau (Poland)
2015-07-01
R-Symmetry in an additional symmetry which can be imposed on an supersymmetric model. In the Minimal R-Symmetric Supersymmetric Standard Model (MRSSM) this symmetry is incorporated and leads to interesting phenomenological consequences like the prediction of Dirac Gauginos. With an extended Higgs sector in this model it is possible to find different scenarios which can accomodate a Standard Model-like Higgs with a mass of around 125 GeV even with the absence of stop mixing. In this talk, the analysis of the Higgs sector of the MRSSM is presented. Results from scans in the parameter space of the model are shown also taking into account other observables like the W-Boson mass and dark matter results. Also, differences and similarities of the MRSSM to the MSSM are discussed.
Quark-flavour phenomenology of models with extended gauge symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlucci, Maria Valentina
2013-01-01
Gauge invariance is one of the fundamental principles of the Standard Model of particles and interactions, and it is reasonable to believe that it also regulates the physics beyond it. In this thesis we have studied the theory and phenomenology of two New Physics models based on gauge symmetries that are extensions of the Standard Model group. Both of them are particularly interesting because they provide some answers to the question of the origin of flavour, which is still unexplained. Moreover, the flavour sector represents a promising field for the research of indirect signatures of New Physics, since after the first run of LHC we do not have any direct hint of it yet. The first model assumes that flavour is a gauge symmetry of nature, SU(3) 3 f , spontaneously broken by the vacuum expectation values of new scalar fields; the second model is based on the gauge group SU(3) c x SU(3) L x U(1) X , the simplest non-abelian extension of the Standard Model group. We have traced the complete theoretical building of the models, from the gauge group, passing through the nonanomalous fermion contents and the appropriate symmetry breakings, up to the spectra and the Feynman rules, with a particular attention to the treatment of the flavour structure, of tree-level Flavour Changing Neutral Currents and of new CP-violating phases. In fact, these models present an interesting flavour phenomenology, and for both of them we have analytically calculated the contributions to the ΔF=2 and ΔF=1 down-type transitions, arising from new tree-level and box diagrams. Subsequently, we have performed a comprehensive numerical analysis of the phenomenology of the two models. In both cases we have found very effective the strategy of first to identify the quantities able to provide the strongest constraints to the parameter space, then to systematically scan the allowed regions of the latter in order to obtain indications about the key flavour observables, namely the mixing parameters of
LHC phenomenology of composite 2-Higgs doublet models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Curtis, Stefania [University of Florence, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze (Italy); Moretti, Stefano; Yagyu, Kei; Yildirim, Emine [University of Southampton, School of Physics and Astronomy, Southampton (United Kingdom)
2017-08-15
We investigate the phenomenology of Composite 2-Higgs doublet models (C2HDMs) of various Yukawa types based on the global symmetry breaking SO(6) → SO(4) x SO(2). The kinetic part and the Yukawa Lagrangian are constructed in terms of the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Boson (pNGB) matrix and a 6-plet of fermions under SO(6). The scalar potential is assumed to be the same as that of the Elementary 2-Higgs doublet model (E2HDM) with a softly broken discrete Z{sub 2} symmetry. We then discuss the phenomenological differences between the E2HDM and C2HDM by focusing on the deviations from standard model (SM) couplings of the discovered Higgs state (h) as well as on the production cross sections and branching ratios (BRs) at the large Hadron collider (LHC) of extra Higgs bosons. We find that, even if the same deviation in the hVV (V = W,Z) coupling is assumed in the two scenarios, there appear significant differences between the E2HDM and C2HDM from the structure of the Yukawa couplings, so that production and decay features of extra Higgs bosons can be used to distinguish between the two scenarios. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thorn, C.B.
1988-01-01
The possibility of studying non-perturbative effects in string theory using a world sheet lattice is discussed. The light-cone lattice string model of Giles and Thorn is studied numerically to assess the accuracy of ''coarse lattice'' approximations. For free strings a 5 by 15 lattice seems sufficient to obtain better than 10% accuracy for the bosonic string tachyon mass squared. In addition a crude lattice model simulating string like interactions is studied to find out how easily a coarse lattice calculation can pick out effects such as bound states which would qualitatively alter the spectrum of the free theory. The role of the critical dimension in obtaining a finite continuum limit is discussed. Instead of the ''gaussian'' lattice model one could use one of the vertex models, whose continuum limit is the same as a gaussian model on a torus of any radius. Indeed, any critical 2 dimensional statistical system will have a stringy continuum limit in the absence of string interactions. 8 refs., 1 fig. , 9 tabs
Phenomenological modeling of turbulence in Z-pinch implosions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thornhill, J.W.; Whitney, K.G.; Deeney, C.; LePell, P.D.
1994-01-01
A phenomenological investigation into the effects of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence on the initial stagnation dynamics of aluminum wire array and argon gas puff Z-pinch implosions is performed. The increases that turbulence produces in the plasma viscosity, heat conductivity, and electrical resistivity are modeled by using multipliers for these quantities in one-dimensional (1-D) MHD calculations. The major effect of these increases is to soften the 1-D implosions by decreasing the densities that are achieved on axis at stagnation. As a consequence, a set of multipliers can be found that reasonably duplicates the average electron temperatures, ion densities, and mass of the K-shell emission region that were measured at stagnation for a variety of Physics International aluminum wire array and argon gas puff experiments. It is determined that the dependence of these measured quantities on the multipliers is weak once a level of enhancement is reached, where agreement between calculations and experiments is attained. The scaling of K-shell yield with load mass for a fixed implosion velocity is then reexamined, and the minimum load mass needed to efficiently produce K-shell emission by thermalization of kinetic energy is calculated for aluminum and argon using this phenomenological soft implosion modeling. The results show an upward shift in the minimum mass by a factor of 6 when compared to the original nonturbulent hard implosion calculations
From cosmic string to superconducting string
Kim, H C; Lee, B K
1999-01-01
We consider the dynamical symmetry breaking of a chirally-invariant Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in the background gravity of a local cosmic string. By analyzing the one-loop effective action, we show how a cosmic string at a very high energy scale forms a global superconducting string to the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking at a low energy.
Quantum mechanics vs. general covariance in gravity and string models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martinec, E.J.
1984-01-01
Quantization of simple low-dimensional systems embodying general covariance is studied. Functional methods are employed in the calculation of effective actions for fermionic strings and 1 + 1 dimensional gravity. The author finds that regularization breaks apparent symmetries of the theory, providing new dynamics for the string and non-trivial dynamics for 1 + 1 gravity. The author moves on to consider the quantization of some generally covariant systems with a finite number of physical degrees of freedom, assuming the existence of an invariant cutoff. The author finds that the wavefunction of the universe in these cases is given by the solution to simple quantum mechanics problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhanghua Lian
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Multi-stage SRV fracturing in horizontal wells is a new technology developed at home and abroad in recent years to effectively develop shale gas or low-permeability reservoirs, but on the other hand makes the mechanical environment of fracturing strings more complicated at the same time. In view of this, based on the loading features of tubing strings during the multi-stage fracturing of a horizontal well, mechanical models were established for three working cases of multiple packer setting, open differential-pressure sliding sleeve, and open ball-injection sliding sleeve under a hold-down packer. Moreover, mathematical models were respectively built for the above three cases. According to the Lame formula and Von Mises stress calculation formula for the thick-walled cylinder in the theory of elastic mechanics, a mathematical model was also established to calculate the equivalent stress for tubing string safety evaluation when the fracturing string was under the combined action of inner pressure, external squeezing force and axial stress, and another mathematical model was built for the mechanical strength and safety evaluation of multi-stage fracturing strings. In addition, a practical software was developed for the mechanical safety evaluation of horizontal well multi-stage fracturing strings according to the mathematical model developed for the mechanical calculation of the multi-packer string in horizontal wells. The research results were applied and verified in a gas well of Tahe Oilfield in the Tarim Basin with excellent effects, providing a theoretical basis and a simple and reliable technical means for optimal design and safety evaluation of safe operational parameters of multi-stage fracturing strings in horizontal wells.
Strings - Links between conformal field theory, gauge theory and gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Troost, J.
2009-05-01
String theory is a candidate framework for unifying the gauge theories of interacting elementary particles with a quantum theory of gravity. The last years we have made considerable progress in understanding non-perturbative aspects of string theory, and in bringing string theory closer to experiment, via the search for the Standard Model within string theory, but also via phenomenological models inspired by the physics of strings. Despite these advances, many deep problems remain, amongst which a non-perturbative definition of string theory, a better understanding of holography, and the cosmological constant problem. My research has concentrated on various theoretical aspects of quantum theories of gravity, including holography, black holes physics and cosmology. In this Habilitation thesis I have laid bare many more links between conformal field theory, gauge theory and gravity. Most contributions were motivated by string theory, like the analysis of supersymmetry preserving states in compactified gauge theories and their relation to affine algebras, time-dependent aspects of the holographic map between quantum gravity in anti-de-Sitter space and conformal field theories in the bulk, the direct quantization of strings on black hole backgrounds, the embedding of the no-boundary proposal for a wave-function of the universe in string theory, a non-rational Verlinde formula and the construction of non-geometric solutions to supergravity
Description of radiative transitions in the relativistic string model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berdnikov, E.B.; Nanobashvili, G.G.; Pron'ko, G.P.
1991-01-01
The transition operator for a straight-line string in the electromagnetic field has been built. It's matrix elements between the states of arbitrary spin are calculated in lowest order of perturbation theory. The consistensy conditions for the operator of interaction arising due to quantum constraints are also discussed. 12 refs
Monte Carlo evidence for the gluon-chain model of QCD string formation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greensite, J.; San Francisco State Univ., CA
1988-08-01
The Monte Carlo method is used to calculate the overlaps string vertical stroken gluons>, where Ψ string [A] is the Yang-Mills wavefunctional due to a static quark-antiquark pair, and vertical stroken gluons > are orthogonal trial states containing n=0, 1, or 2 gluon operators multiplying the true ground state. The calculation is carried out for SU(2) lattice gauge theory in Coulomb gauge, in D=4 dimensions. It is found that the string state is dominated, at small qanti q separations, by the vacuum ('no-gluon') state, at larger separations by the 1-gluon state, and, at the largest separations attempted, the 2-gluon state begins to dominate. This behavior is in qualitative agreement with the gluon-chain model, which is a large-N colors motivated theory of QCD string formation. (orig.)
Axially symmetric anisotropic string cosmological models in Saez-Ballester theory of gravitation
Kanakavalli, T.; Rao, G. Ananda; Reddy, D. R. K.
2017-02-01
Field equations of a scalar-tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Saez and Ballester (Phys. Lett. A 113:467, 1986) are derived with the help of a spatially homogeneous axially symmetric anisotropic Bianchi type metric in the presence of cosmic string source. To obtain determinate solutions of the field equations we have used the fact that the scalar expansion is proportional to shear scalar and the equations of state which correspond to geometric, Takabayasi and massive strings. It is found that geometric and massive strings do not coexist with the Saez-Ballester Scalar field. However, Takabayasi string which survives has been determined. Also, physical discussion of the dynamical parameters of the model is presented.
Persistent homology and string vacua
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cirafici, Michele [Center for Mathematical Analysis, Geometry and Dynamical Systems,Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa,Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques,Le Bois-Marie, 35 route de Chartres, F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France)
2016-03-08
We use methods from topological data analysis to study the topological features of certain distributions of string vacua. Topological data analysis is a multi-scale approach used to analyze the topological features of a dataset by identifying which homological characteristics persist over a long range of scales. We apply these techniques in several contexts. We analyze N=2 vacua by focusing on certain distributions of Calabi-Yau varieties and Landau-Ginzburg models. We then turn to flux compactifications and discuss how we can use topological data analysis to extract physical information. Finally we apply these techniques to certain phenomenologically realistic heterotic models. We discuss the possibility of characterizing string vacua using the topological properties of their distributions.
Phenomenological modeling of argon Z-pinch implosions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whitney, K.G.; Thornhill, J.W.; Deeney, C.; LePell, P.D.; Coulter, M.C.
1992-01-01
The authors investigate some of the effects of plasma turbulence on the K-shell emission dynamics of argon gas puff Z-pinch implosions. The increases that turbulence produces in the plasma viscosity, heat conductivity, and electrical resistivity are modeled phenomenologically using multipliers for these quantities in the MHD calculations. The choice of multipliers was made by benchmarking a 1-D MHD simulation of a Physics International Inc. argon gas puff experiment against the inferred densities and temperatures achieved in the experiment. These multipliers were then used to study the parametric dependence of the K-shell emission on the energy input to the argon plasma for a fixed mass loading. Comparisons between turbulent and non-turbulent argon implosions are made
A simple phenomenological model for time evolution of social networks
Jiang, J.; Wang, Q. A.; Li, W.; Cai, X.
2015-04-01
Inspired by the maxim ”long union divides and long division unites”, a phenomenological model with the simplification of real social networks is proposed to explore the evolutionary features of these networks composed of the entities whose behaviors are dominated by two events: union and division. The nodes are endowed with some attributes such as identity, ingredient, richness, age and internal diversity, which determine collectively the evolution in a probabilistic way. Through the local interaction of two events, a stationary state of network is reached as a constant amount of nodes survive with no more event happened in the network, like a situation of tripartite confrontation. Besides, the number of survived nodes and the speed of network evolution can be controlled by two parameters.
A note on probabilistic models over strings: the linear algebra approach.
Bouchard-Côté, Alexandre
2013-12-01
Probabilistic models over strings have played a key role in developing methods that take into consideration indels as phylogenetically informative events. There is an extensive literature on using automata and transducers on phylogenies to do inference on these probabilistic models, in which an important theoretical question is the complexity of computing the normalization of a class of string-valued graphical models. This question has been investigated using tools from combinatorics, dynamic programming, and graph theory, and has practical applications in Bayesian phylogenetics. In this work, we revisit this theoretical question from a different point of view, based on linear algebra. The main contribution is a set of results based on this linear algebra view that facilitate the analysis and design of inference algorithms on string-valued graphical models. As an illustration, we use this method to give a new elementary proof of a known result on the complexity of inference on the "TKF91" model, a well-known probabilistic model over strings. Compared to previous work, our proving method is easier to extend to other models, since it relies on a novel weak condition, triangular transducers, which is easy to establish in practice. The linear algebra view provides a concise way of describing transducer algorithms and their compositions, opens the possibility of transferring fast linear algebra libraries (for example, based on GPUs), as well as low rank matrix approximation methods, to string-valued inference problems.
Primordial magnetic seeds from string cosmology
Gasperini, M
2005-01-01
After a discussion of the inflationary production of primordial magnetic seeds, and a short review of various possible mechanisms, we concentrate on the analysis of the photon-dilaton coupling typical of string theory models. Particular attention is paid to the constraints to be imposed on the primordial seed spectrum, and to the possibility of obtaining phenomenological signatures of heterotic and Type I superstrings, in principle accessible to present (or near-future) observations.
Supersymmetry and string theory beyond the standard model
Dine, Michael
2015-01-01
The past decade has witnessed dramatic developments in the fields of experimental and theoretical particle physics and cosmology. This fully updated second edition is a comprehensive introduction to these recent developments and brings this self-contained textbook right up to date. Brand new material for this edition includes the groundbreaking Higgs discovery, results of the WMAP and Planck experiments. Extensive discussion of theories of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking and a new chapter on the landscape, as well as a completely rewritten coda on future directions gives readers a modern perspective on this developing field. A focus on three principle areas: supersymmetry, string theory, and astrophysics and cosmology provide the structure for this book which will be of great interest to graduates and researchers in the fields of particle theory, string theory, astrophysics and cosmology. The book contains several problems, and password-protected solutions will be available to lecturers at www.cambrid...
Frequency-Zooming ARMA Modeling for Analysis of Noisy String Instrument Tones
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paulo A. A. Esquef
2003-09-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses model-based analysis of string instrument sounds. In particular, it reviews the application of autoregressive (AR modeling to sound analysis/synthesis purposes. Moreover, a frequency-zooming autoregressive moving average (FZ-ARMA modeling scheme is described. The performance of the FZ-ARMA method on modeling the modal behavior of isolated groups of resonance frequencies is evaluated for both synthetic and real string instrument tones immersed in background noise. We demonstrate that the FZ-ARMA modeling is a robust tool to estimate the decay time and frequency of partials of noisy tones. Finally, we discuss the use of the method in synthesis of string instrument sounds.
Higgs Phenomenology in the Standard Model and Beyond
Field, Bryan Jonathan; Dawson, Sally
2005-01-01
The way in which the electroweak symmetry is broken in nature is currently unknown. The electroweak symmetry is theoretically broken in the Standard Model by the Higgs mechanism which generates masses for the particle content and introduces a single scalar to the particle spectrum, the Higgs boson. This particle has not yet been observed and the value of it mass is a free parameter in the Standard Model. The observation of one (or more) Higgs bosons would confirm our understanding of the Standard Model. In this thesis, we study the phenomenology of the Standard Model Higgs boson and compare its production observables to those of the Pseudoscalar Higgs boson and the lightest scalar Higgs boson of the Minimally Supersymmetric Standard Model. We study the production at both the Fermilab Tevatron and the future CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In the first part of the thesis, we present the results of our calculations in the framework of perturbative QCD. In the second part, we present our resummed calculations.
Characterisation of a phenomenological model for commercial pneumatic muscle actuators.
Serres, J L; Reynolds, D B; Phillips, C A; Gerschutz, M J; Repperger, D W
2009-08-01
This study focuses on the parameter characterisation of a three-element phenomenological model for commercially available pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs). This model consists of a spring, damping and contractile element arranged in parallel. Data collected from static loading, contraction and relaxation experiments were fitted to theoretical solutions of the governing equation for the three-element model resulting in prediction profiles for the spring, damping and contractile force coefficient. For the spring coefficient, K N/mm, the following relationships were found: K = 32.7 - 0.0321P for 150 < or = P < or = 314 kPa and K = 17 + 0.0179P for 314 < or = P < or = 550 kPa. For the damping coefficient, B Ns/mm, the following relationship was found during contraction: B = 2.90 for 150 < or = P < or = 550 kPa. During relaxation, B = 1.57 for 150 < or = P < or = 372 kPa and B = 0.311 + 0.00338P for 372 < or = P < or = 550. The following relationship for the contractile force coefficient, F(ce) N, was also determined: F(ce) = 2.91P+44.6 for 150 < or = P < or = 550 kPa. The model was then validated by reasonably predicting the response of the PMA to a triangular wave input in pressure under a constant load on a dynamic test station.
Phenomenological comparison of models with extended Higgs sectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muehlleitner, Margarete
2017-01-01
Beyond the Standard Model (SM) extensions usually include extended Higgs sectors. Models with singlet or doublet fields are the simplest ones that are compatible with the ρ parameter constraint. The discovery of new non-SM Higgs bosons and the identification of the underlying model requires dedicated Higgs properties analyses. In this paper, we compare several Higgs sectors featuring 3 CP-even neutral Higgs bosons that are also motivated by their simplicity and their capability to solve some of the flaws of the SM. They are: the SM extended by a complex singlet field (C x SM), the singlet extension of the 2-Higgs-Doublet Model (N2HDM), and the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric SM extension (NMSSM). In addition, we analyse the CP-violating 2-Higgs-Doublet Model (C2HDM), which provides 3 neutral Higgs bosons with a pseudoscalar admixture. This allows us to compare the effects of singlet and pseudoscalar admixtures. Through dedicated scans of the allowed parameter space of the models, we analyse the phenomenologically viable scenarios from the view point of the SM-like Higgs boson and of the signal rates of the non-SM-like Higgs bosons to be found. In particular, we analyse the effect of singlet/pseudoscalar admixture, and the potential to differentiate these models in the near future. This is supported by a study of couplings sums of the Higgs bosons to massive gauge bosons and to fermions, where we identify features that allow us to distinguish the models, in particular when only part of the Higgs spectrum is discovered. Our results can be taken as guidelines for future LHC data analyses, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments, to identify specific benchmark points aimed at revealing the underlying model.
Modelling of helium-mediated quench propagation in the LHC prototype test string-1
Chorowski, M.; Grzegory, P.; Serio, L.; van Weelderen, R.
2000-08-01
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) prototype test string-1, hereafter referred to as the string, is composed of three 10-m long prototype dipole magnets and one 6-m long prototype quadrupole magnet. The magnets are immersed in a pressurized static bath of superfluid helium that is maintained at a pressure of about 1 bar and at a temperature of about 1.9 K. This helium bath constitutes one single hydraulic unit, extending along 42.5 m of the string length. We have measured the triggering of quenches of the string magnets due to the quenching of a single dipole magnet located at the string's extremity, i.e., "quench propagation". Previously reported measurements enabled to establish that in this configuration the quench propagation is mediated by the helium and not by the inter-magnet bus bar connections [L. Coull, D. Hagedorn, G. Krainz, F. Rodriguez-Mateos, R. Schmidt, Quench propagation tests on the LHC superconducting magnet string, in: S. Myers, A. Pacheco, R. Pascual, C. Petit-Jean-Genaz, J. Poole (Eds.), Fifth European Particle Accelerator Conference - EPAC '96, Sitges, Barcelona, Spain, 10-14 June 1996, IOP, Bristol, 1996; F. Rodriguez-Mateos, R. Schmidt, L. Serio, Thermo-hydraulic quench propagation at the LHC superconducting magnet string, in: D. Dew-Hughes, R.G. Scurlock, J.H.P. Watson (Eds), 17th International Cryogenic Engineering Conference (ICEC-17), Bournemouth, UK, 14-17 July 1998, IOP, Bristol, 1998]. We present a model of helium-mediated quench propagation based on the qualitative conclusions of these two previous papers, and on additional information gained from a dedicated series of quench propagation measurements that were not previously reported. We will discuss the specific mechanisms and their main parameters involved at different timescales of the propagation process, and apply the model to make quantitative predictions.
Collider phenomenology of technihadrons in the technicolor straw man model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lane, Kenneth; Mrenna, Stephen
2003-01-01
We discuss the phenomenology of the lightest SU(3) C singlet and nonsinglet technihadrons in the straw man model of low-scale technicolor (TCSM). The technihadrons are assumed to be those arising in top-color-assisted technicolor models in which top-color is broken by technifermion condensates. We improve upon the description of the color-singlet sector presented in our earlier paper introducing the TCSM [K. Lane, Phys. Rev. D 60, 075007 (1999)]. These improvements are most important for subprocess energies well below the masses of the ρ T and ω T vector technihadrons and, therefore, apply especially to e + e - colliders such as CERN LEP and a low-energy linear collider. In the color-octet sector, we consider mixing of the gluon, the coloron V 8 from top-color breaking, and four isosinglet color-octet technirho mesons ρ T8 . We assume, as expected in walking technicolor, that these ρ T8 decay into q-barq, gg, and gπ T final states, but not into π T π T , where π T is a technipion. All the TCSM production and decay processes discussed here are included in the event generator PYTHIA. We present several simulations appropriate for the Fermilab Tevatron collider, and suggest benchmark model lines for further experimental investigation
{Γ}-Convergence Analysis of a Generalized XY Model: Fractional Vortices and String Defects
Badal, Rufat; Cicalese, Marco; De Luca, Lucia; Ponsiglione, Marcello
2018-03-01
We propose and analyze a generalized two dimensional XY model, whose interaction potential has n weighted wells, describing corresponding symmetries of the system. As the lattice spacing vanishes, we derive by {Γ}-convergence the discrete-to-continuum limit of this model. In the energy regime we deal with, the asymptotic ground states exhibit fractional vortices, connected by string defects. The {Γ}-limit takes into account both contributions, through a renormalized energy, depending on the configuration of fractional vortices, and a surface energy, proportional to the length of the strings. Our model describes in a simple way several topological singularities arising in Physics and Materials Science. Among them, disclinations and string defects in liquid crystals, fractional vortices and domain walls in micromagnetics, partial dislocations and stacking faults in crystal plasticity.
Bifurcation analysis and phase diagram of a spin-string model with buckled states.
Ruiz-Garcia, M; Bonilla, L L; Prados, A
2017-12-01
We analyze a one-dimensional spin-string model, in which string oscillators are linearly coupled to their two nearest neighbors and to Ising spins representing internal degrees of freedom. String-spin coupling induces a long-range ferromagnetic interaction among spins that competes with a spin-spin antiferromagnetic coupling. As a consequence, the complex phase diagram of the system exhibits different flat rippled and buckled states, with first or second order transition lines between states. This complexity translates to the two-dimensional version of the model, whose numerical solution has been recently used to explain qualitatively the rippled to buckled transition observed in scanning tunneling microscopy experiments with suspended graphene sheets. Here we describe in detail the phase diagram of the simpler one-dimensional model and phase stability using bifurcation theory. This gives additional insight into the physical mechanisms underlying the different phases and the behavior observed in experiments.
One-loop potential in the new string model with negative stiffness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleinert, H.; Chervyakov, A.M.; Nesterenko, V.V.
1996-01-01
The color-electric flux tube between quarks has a finite thickness therefore also a finite curvature stiffness. Contrary to earlier rigid-string proposal by Polyakov and Kleinert and motivated by the properties of a magnetic flux tube in a type-II superconductor, we put forward the hypothesis that the stiffness is negative. We set up and study the properties of an idealized string model with such negative stiffness. In contrast to the rigid string, the propagator in the new model has no unphysical pole. One-loop calculations show that the model generates an interquark potential which does not contain the square root singularity even for moderate values of a negative stiffness. At large distances, the potential has usual linearly rising term with the universal Luescher correction
Using phenomenological models for forecasting the 2015 Ebola challenge
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bruce Pell
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Background: The rising number of novel pathogens threatening the human population has motivated the application of mathematical modeling for forecasting the trajectory and size of epidemics. Materials and methods: We summarize the real-time forecasting results of the logistic equation during the 2015 Ebola challenge focused on predicting synthetic data derived from a detailed individual-based model of Ebola transmission dynamics and control. We also carry out a post-challenge comparison of two simple phenomenological models. In particular, we systematically compare the logistic growth model and a recently introduced generalized Richards model (GRM that captures a range of early epidemic growth profiles ranging from sub-exponential to exponential growth. Specifically, we assess the performance of each model for estimating the reproduction number, generate short-term forecasts of the epidemic trajectory, and predict the final epidemic size. Results: During the challenge the logistic equation consistently underestimated the final epidemic size, peak timing and the number of cases at peak timing with an average mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of 0.49, 0.36 and 0.40, respectively. Post-challenge, the GRM which has the flexibility to reproduce a range of epidemic growth profiles ranging from early sub-exponential to exponential growth dynamics outperformed the logistic growth model in ascertaining the final epidemic size as more incidence data was made available, while the logistic model underestimated the final epidemic even with an increasing amount of data of the evolving epidemic. Incidence forecasts provided by the generalized Richards model performed better across all scenarios and time points than the logistic growth model with mean RMS decreasing from 78.00 (logistic to 60.80 (GRM. Both models provided reasonable predictions of the effective reproduction number, but the GRM slightly outperformed the logistic growth model with a MAPE of 0
Searching for the standard model in the string landscape: SUSY GUTs
Raby, Stuart
2011-03-01
The standard model is the theory describing all observational data from the highest energies to the largest distances. (There is, however, one caveat: additional forms of energy, not part of the standard model, known as dark matter and dark energy must be included in order to describe the Universe at galactic scales and larger.) High energies refers to physics at the highest energy particle accelerators, including CERN's LEP II (which ceased operation in 2000 to begin construction of the Large Hadron Collider now in operation) and Fermilab's Tevatron, as well as to the energies obtained in particle jets created in so-called active galactic nuclei scattered throughout the visible Universe. Some of these extra-galactic particles bombard our own Earth in the form of cosmic rays, or super-energetic protons which scatter off nucei in the upper atmosphere. String theory is, on the other hand, an unfinished theoretical construct which attempts to describe all matter and their interactions in terms of the harmonic oscillations of open and/or closed strings. It is regarded as unfinished since at present it is a collection of ideas, tied together by powerful consistency conditions, called dualities, with the ultimate goal of finding the completed string theory. At the moment we only have descriptions which are valid in different mutually exclusive limits with names such as type I, IIA, IIB, heterotic, M and F theory. The string landscape has been described in the pages of many scholarly and popular works. It is perhaps best understood as the collection of possible solutions to the string equations; albeit these solutions look totally different in the different limiting descriptions. What do we know about the string landscape? We know that there are such a large number of possible solutions that the only way to represent this number is as 10500 or a 1 followed by 500 zeros. Note that this is not a precise value since the uncertainty is given by a number just as large
Searching for the standard model in the string landscape: SUSY GUTs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raby, Stuart
2011-01-01
The standard model is the theory describing all observational data from the highest energies to the largest distances. (There is, however, one caveat: additional forms of energy, not part of the standard model, known as dark matter and dark energy must be included in order to describe the Universe at galactic scales and larger.) High energies refers to physics at the highest energy particle accelerators, including CERN's LEP II (which ceased operation in 2000 to begin construction of the Large Hadron Collider now in operation) and Fermilab's Tevatron, as well as to the energies obtained in particle jets created in so-called active galactic nuclei scattered throughout the visible Universe. Some of these extra-galactic particles bombard our own Earth in the form of cosmic rays, or super-energetic protons which scatter off nucei in the upper atmosphere. String theory is, on the other hand, an unfinished theoretical construct which attempts to describe all matter and their interactions in terms of the harmonic oscillations of open and/or closed strings. It is regarded as unfinished since at present it is a collection of ideas, tied together by powerful consistency conditions, called dualities, with the ultimate goal of finding the completed string theory. At the moment we only have descriptions which are valid in different mutually exclusive limits with names such as type I, IIA, IIB, heterotic, M and F theory. The string landscape has been described in the pages of many scholarly and popular works. It is perhaps best understood as the collection of possible solutions to the string equations; albeit these solutions look totally different in the different limiting descriptions. What do we know about the string landscape? We know that there are such a large number of possible solutions that the only way to represent this number is as 10 500 or a 1 followed by 500 zeros. Note that this is not a precise value since the uncertainty is given by a number just as large
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Riionheimo Janne
2003-01-01
Full Text Available We describe a technique for estimating control parameters for a plucked string synthesis model using a genetic algorithm. The model has been intensively used for sound synthesis of various string instruments but the fine tuning of the parameters has been carried out with a semiautomatic method that requires some hand adjustment with human listening. An automated method for extracting the parameters from recorded tones is described in this paper. The calculation of the fitness function utilizes knowledge of the properties of human hearing.
String picture for a model of frustrated quantum magnets and dimers.
Jiang, Ying; Emig, Thorsten
2005-03-25
We study the effect of quantum dynamics on geometrically frustrated magnets for a transverse field Ising model at finite temperatures. We develop a microscopic derivation of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson action for this model and show that it can be interpreted as the free energy of a 3D elastic lattice of noncrossing strings. As a first application, we quantitatively predict the phase diagram and correlations, confirming excellently a key prediction of recent simulations about the existence of unusual phase transitions and an ordered phase. We discuss the implications of our string picture for the understanding of the effect of quenched disorder in such quantum frustrated systems.
The independent quark-gluon string model for heavy-ion collisions at ultrarelativistic energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toneev, V.D.; Amelin, N.S.; Gudima, K.K.
1989-06-01
A dynamical model of independent quark-gluon strings is formulated for ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions. The formation and fragmentation of the strings are described in terms of the dual parton model. The consideration of the nuclear interaction is based on a coupled system of relativistic Boltzmann-like kinetic equations including the concept of the hadron formation time. The evolution of energy and baryonic densities is discussed for central O+Au collisions. The calculated characteristics for both the central and fragmentation rapidity region are compared with the recent CERN experimental data to disentangle the contributions of different nuclear effects. (orig.)
Nonlinearity of the forward-backward correlation function in the model with string fusion
Vechernin, Vladimir
2017-12-01
The behavior of the forward-backward correlation functions and the corresponding correlation coefficients between multiplicities and transverse momenta of particles produced in high energy hadronic interactions is analyzed by analytical and MC calculations in the models with and without string fusion. The string fusion is taking into account in simplified form by introducing the lattice in the transverse plane. The results obtained with two alternative definitions of the forward-backward correlation coefficient are compared. It is shown that the nonlinearity of correlation functions increases with the width of observation windows, leading at small string density to a strong dependence of correlation coefficient value on the definition. The results of the modeling enable qualitatively to explain the experimentally observed features in the behavior of the correlation functions between multiplicities and mean transverse momenta at small and large multiplicities.
A non-linear σ-model related to the fine structure of strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdalla, E.; Abdalla, M.C.B.; Lima Santos, A.
1986-07-01
It is shown that a σ-model related to the strings via Polyakov's construction is classically (but not quantum mechanically) integrable. When fermions are suitably introduced the exact on shell solution is discussed. In the locally supersymmetric case the 1/D expansion is used to integrate out the σ-model fields leaving an effective action for graviton and gravitino. (author)
Bosonisation of four dimensional real fermionic string models and asymmetric orbifolds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bailin, D.; Dunbar, D.C.; Love, A.
1990-01-01
Models of four dimensional strings based on internal world-sheet fermions are bosonised and the partition functions are compared with the partition functions of asymmetric Z 2 M orbifold models. Selection rules and couplings are also compared between the two formations. (orig.)
A phenomenological model for particle retention in single, saturated fractures.
Rodrigues, Sandrina; Dickson, Sarah
2014-01-01
Fractured aquifers are some of the most poorly characterized subsurface environments despite posing one of the highest risks to the protection of potable groundwater. This research was designed to improve the understanding of the factors affecting particle transport through fractures by developing a phenomenological model based on laboratory-scale transport data. The model presented in this research employed data from over 70 particle tracer tests conducted in single, saturated, variable-aperture fractures that were obtained from the natural environment and fractured in the laboratory or cast from epoxy in the laboratory. The particles employed were Escherichia coli RS2-GFP and microspheres. The tracer experiments were conducted in natural (dolomitic limestone and granite) as well as epoxy replicas of the natural fractures. The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the most important factors influencing particle retention in fractures are the ratio of the ionic strength of solution to collector charge, the ratio of particle to collector charge, and the ratio of advective to diffusive forces as described by the Peclet number. The model was able to reasonably (R(2) = 0.64) predict the fraction of particles retained; however, it is evident that some factors not accounted for in the model also contributed to retention. This research presents a novel approach to understanding particle transport in fractures, and illustrates the relative importance of various factors affecting the transport mechanisms. The utility of this model lies in the increased understanding of particle transport in fractures, which is extremely useful for directing future research. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.
Duality relation between charged elastic strings and superconducting cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carter, B.
1989-01-01
The mechanical properties of macroscopic electromagnetically coupled string models in a flat or curved background are treated using a covariant formalism allowing the construction of a duality transformation that relates the category of uniform ''electric'' string models, constructed as the (nonconducting) charged generalisation of ordinary uncoupled (violin type) elastic strings, to a category of ''magnetic'' string models comprising recently discussed varieties of ''superconducting cosmic strings''. (orig.)
Phenomenological Model of Current Sheet Canting in Pulsed Electromagnetic Accelerators
Markusic, Thomas; Choueiri, E. Y.
2003-01-01
The phenomenon of current sheet canting in pulsed electromagnetic accelerators is the departure of the plasma sheet (that carries the current) from a plane that is perpendicular to the electrodes to one that is skewed, or tipped. Review of pulsed electromagnetic accelerator literature reveals that current sheet canting is a ubiquitous phenomenon - occurring in all of the standard accelerator geometries. Developing an understanding of current sheet canting is important because it can detract from the propellant sweeping capabilities of current sheets and, hence, negatively impact the overall efficiency of pulsed electromagnetic accelerators. In the present study, it is postulated that depletion of plasma near the anode, which results from axial density gradient induced diamagnetic drift, occurs during the early stages of the discharge, creating a density gradient normal to the anode, with a characteristic length on the order of the ion skin depth. Rapid penetration of the magnetic field through this region ensues, due to the Hall effect, leading to a canted current front ahead of the initial current conduction channel. In this model, once the current sheet reaches appreciable speeds, entrainment of stationary propellant replenishes plasma in the anode region, inhibiting further Hall-convective transport of the magnetic field; however, the previously established tilted current sheet remains at a fairly constant canting angle for the remainder of the discharge cycle, exerting a transverse J x B force which drives plasma toward the cathode and accumulates it there. This proposed sequence of events has been incorporated into a phenomenological model. The model predicts that canting can be reduced by using low atomic mass propellants with high propellant loading number density; the model results are shown to give qualitative agreement with experimentally measured canting angle mass dependence trends.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vishniac, E.T.
1987-01-01
We examine the compatibility of inflation with the cosmic string theory for galaxy formation. There is a general conflict between having sufficient string tension to effect galaxy formation, and reheating after inflation to a high enough temperature that strings may form in a thermal phase transition. To escape this conflict, we propose a class of models where the inflation is coupled to the string-producing field. The strings are formed late in inflation as the inflaton rolls towards its zero-temperature value. A large subset of these models have a novel large-scale distribution of galaxies that is fractal, displays biasing without dynamics or feedback mechanisms, and contains voids. (orig.)
The string prediction models as invariants of time series in the forex market
Pincak, R.
2013-12-01
In this paper we apply a new approach of string theory to the real financial market. The models are constructed with an idea of prediction models based on the string invariants (PMBSI). The performance of PMBSI is compared to support vector machines (SVM) and artificial neural networks (ANN) on an artificial and a financial time series. A brief overview of the results and analysis is given. The first model is based on the correlation function as invariant and the second one is an application based on the deviations from the closed string/pattern form (PMBCS). We found the difference between these two approaches. The first model cannot predict the behavior of the forex market with good efficiency in comparison with the second one which is, in addition, able to make relevant profit per year. The presented string models could be useful for portfolio creation and financial risk management in the banking sector as well as for a nonlinear statistical approach to data optimization.
Selected topics in phenomenology of the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roberts, R.G.
1991-01-01
These lectures cover some aspects of phenomenology of topics in high energy physics which advertise the success of the standard model in dealing with a wide variety of experimental data. First we begin with a look at deep inelastic scattering. This tells us about the structure of the nucleon, which is understood in terms of the SU(3) gauge theory of QCD, which then allows the information on quark and gluon distributions to be carried over to other 'hard' processes such as hadronic production of jets. Recent data on electroweak processes can estimate the value of Sin 2 θw to a precision where the inclusion of radiative corrections allow bounds to be made on the mass of the top quark. Electroweak effects arise in e + e - collisions, but we first present a review of the recent history of this topic within the context of QCD. We bring the subject up to date with a look at the physics at (or near) the Z pole where the measurement of asymmetries can give more information. We look at the conventional description of quark mixing by the CKM matrix and see how the mixing parameters are systematically being extracted from a variety of reactions and decays. In turn, the values can be used to set bounds on the top quark mass. The matter of CP violation in weak interactions is addressed within the context of the standard model, recent data on ε'/ε being the source of current excitement. Finally, we at the theoretical description and experimental efforts to search for the top quark. (author)
Nonlinear observer design for a nonlinear string/cable FEM model using contraction theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Turkyilmaz, Yilmaz; Jouffroy, Jerome; Egeland, Olav
Contraction theory is a recently developed nonlinear analysis tool which may be useful for solving a variety of nonlinear control problems. In this paper, using Contraction theory, a nonlinear observer is designed for a general nonlinear cable/string FEM (Finite Element Method) model. The cable...
On a relation between massive Yang-Mills theories and dual string models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mickelsson, J.
1983-01-01
The relations between mass terms in Yang-Mills theories, projective representations of the group of gauge transformations, boundary conditions on vector potentials and Schwinger terms in local charge algebra commutation relations are discussed. The commutation relations (with Schwinger terms) are similar to the current algebra commutation relations of the SU(N) extended dual string model. (orig.)
Phenomenological study of extended seesaw model for light sterile neutrino
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nath, Newton [Physical Research Laboratory,Navarangpura, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India); Indian Institute of Technology,Gandhinagar, Ahmedabad-382424 (India); Ghosh, Monojit [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University,Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Goswami, Srubabati [Physical Research Laboratory,Navarangpura, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India); Gupta, Shivani [Center of Excellence for Particle Physics (CoEPP), University of Adelaide,Adelaide SA 5005 (Australia)
2017-03-14
We study the zero textures of the Yukawa matrices in the minimal extended type-I seesaw (MES) model which can give rise to ∼ eV scale sterile neutrinos. In this model, three right handed neutrinos and one extra singlet S are added to generate a light sterile neutrino. The light neutrino mass matrix for the active neutrinos, m{sub ν}, depends on the Dirac neutrino mass matrix (M{sub D}), Majorana neutrino mass matrix (M{sub R}) and the mass matrix (M{sub S}) coupling the right handed neutrinos and the singlet. The model predicts one of the light neutrino masses to vanish. We systematically investigate the zero textures in M{sub D} and observe that maximum five zeros in M{sub D} can lead to viable zero textures in m{sub ν}. For this study we consider four different forms for M{sub R} (one diagonal and three off diagonal) and two different forms of (M{sub S}) containing one zero. Remarkably we obtain only two allowed forms of m{sub ν} (m{sub eτ}=0 and m{sub ττ}=0) having inverted hierarchical mass spectrum. We re-analyze the phenomenological implications of these two allowed textures of m{sub ν} in the light of recent neutrino oscillation data. In the context of the MES model, we also express the low energy mass matrix, the mass of the sterile neutrino and the active-sterile mixing in terms of the parameters of the allowed Yukawa matrices. The MES model leads to some extra correlations which disallow some of the Yukawa textures obtained earlier, even though they give allowed one-zero forms of m{sub ν}. We show that the allowed textures in our study can be realized in a simple way in a model based on MES mechanism with a discrete Abelian flavor symmetry group Z{sub 8}×Z{sub 2}.
Some five-dimensional Bianchi type-iii string cosmological models in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samanta, G.C.; Biswal, S.K.; Mohanty, G.; Rameswarpatna, Bhubaneswar
2011-01-01
In this paper we have constructed some five-dimensional Bianchi type-III cosmological models in general relativity when source of gravitational field is a massive string. We obtained different classes of solutions by considering different functional forms of metric potentials. It is also observed that one of the models is not physically acceptable and the other models possess big-bang singularity. The physical and kinematical behaviors of the models are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hosomichi, Kazuo
2008-01-01
We study FZZT-branes and open string amplitudes in (p, q) minimal string theory. We focus on the simplest boundary changing operators in two-matrix models, and identify the corresponding operators in worldsheet theory through the comparison of amplitudes. Along the way, we find a novel linear relation among FZZT boundary states in minimal string theory. We also show that the boundary ground ring is realized on physical open string operators in a very simple manner, and discuss its use for perturbative computation of higher open string amplitudes.
A Hybrid Resynthesis Model for Hammer-String Interaction of Piano Tones
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jensen Kristoffer
2004-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a source/resonator model of hammer-string interaction that produces realistic piano sound. The source is generated using a subtractive signal model. Digital waveguides are used to simulate the propagation of waves in the resonator. This hybrid model allows resynthesis of the vibration measured on an experimental setup. In particular, the nonlinear behavior of the hammer-string interaction is taken into account in the source model and is well reproduced. The behavior of the model parameters (the resonant part and the excitation part is studied with respect to the velocities and the notes played. This model exhibits physically and perceptually related parameters, allowing easy control of the sound produced. This research is an essential step in the design of a complete piano model.
Parametric analysis of a phenomenological model for vortex-induced motions of monocolumn platforms
ROSETTI, Guilherme F.; GONÇALVES, Rodolfo T.; FUJARRA, André L. C.; NISHIMOTO, Kazuo
2011-01-01
Phenomenological models are an important branch in VIV (Vortex-Induced Vibrations) and in VIM (Vortex-Induced Motions) studies to complement the results achieved via CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics), as the latter tool is not presently a suitable tool for intense use in engineering analysis, due to high computer power requirements. A phenomenological model for evaluating the VIM on monocolumn platforms is presented and its results are compared with experimental ones. The main objective is t...
LHC phenomenology of the three-site Higgsless model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Speckner, Christian
2009-07-01
In the last years, extra dimensional models have been proposed which can evade these constraints by delocalizing the Standard Model fermions within the extra dimension, thus allowing to tune the couplings to the new resonances in order to avoid these constraints. This way, such models are a viable method of breaking the electroweak symmetry and retaining perturbative TeV scale unitarity without introducing a fundamental Higgs field. However, extra dimensional models (excluding trivial cases) are intrinsically nonrenormalizable and valid only below a cutoff scale, with most of the new resonances lying in fact above the cutoff. Conceptionally, a honest extension of the Standard Model should only contain the structure below this cutoff, incorporating the extra dimensional mechanism of breaking the symmetry and delaying unitarity violation without making assumptions on the high energy physics above the cutoff scale. The Three-Site Higgsless Model is a minimal implementation of this idea. While it can be motivated by extra dimensional Higgsless models of electroweak symmetry breaking, it in fact contains only one set of extra resonances which lies below the cutoff, delaying unitarity violation to {approx}2-3 TeV. The non-Standard Model part of the spectrum consists of a set of heavy partners for all Standard Model particles with the exception of photon and gluon. The analysis of the experimental constraints reveals that, while the model is consistent with the precision observables, the couplings between the new heavy gauge bosons and the Standard Model fermions have to be exceedingly small ({approx}1% of the isospin gauge coupling) while the new fermions are constrained to be rather heavy with masses above 1.8 TeV. In this thesis, we explored the LHC phenomenology of this scenario. To this end, we calculated the couplings and widths of all the new particles and implemented the model into the Monte-Carlo event generator and WHIZARD / O'Mega. With this implementation
LHC phenomenology of the three-site Higgsless model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Speckner, Christian
2009-01-01
In the last years, extra dimensional models have been proposed which can evade these constraints by delocalizing the Standard Model fermions within the extra dimension, thus allowing to tune the couplings to the new resonances in order to avoid these constraints. This way, such models are a viable method of breaking the electroweak symmetry and retaining perturbative TeV scale unitarity without introducing a fundamental Higgs field. However, extra dimensional models (excluding trivial cases) are intrinsically nonrenormalizable and valid only below a cutoff scale, with most of the new resonances lying in fact above the cutoff. Conceptionally, a honest extension of the Standard Model should only contain the structure below this cutoff, incorporating the extra dimensional mechanism of breaking the symmetry and delaying unitarity violation without making assumptions on the high energy physics above the cutoff scale. The Three-Site Higgsless Model is a minimal implementation of this idea. While it can be motivated by extra dimensional Higgsless models of electroweak symmetry breaking, it in fact contains only one set of extra resonances which lies below the cutoff, delaying unitarity violation to ∼2-3 TeV. The non-Standard Model part of the spectrum consists of a set of heavy partners for all Standard Model particles with the exception of photon and gluon. The analysis of the experimental constraints reveals that, while the model is consistent with the precision observables, the couplings between the new heavy gauge bosons and the Standard Model fermions have to be exceedingly small (∼1% of the isospin gauge coupling) while the new fermions are constrained to be rather heavy with masses above 1.8 TeV. In this thesis, we explored the LHC phenomenology of this scenario. To this end, we calculated the couplings and widths of all the new particles and implemented the model into the Monte-Carlo event generator and WHIZARD / O'Mega. With this implementation, we simulated
Duodenal parasites test; Giardia - string test ... To have this test, you swallow a string with a weighted gelatin capsule on the end. The string is pulled out 4 hours later. Any bile , blood, or mucus attached to ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lawrence, Albion
2001-01-01
We study the physics of open strings in bosonic and type II string theories in the presence of unstable D-branes. When the potential energy of the open string tachyon is at its minimum, Sen has argued that only closed strings remain in the perturbative spectrum. We explore the scenario of Yi and of Bergman, Hori and Yi, who argue that the open string degrees of freedom are strongly coupled and disappear through confinement. We discuss arguments using open string field theory and worldsheet boundary RG flows, which seem to indicate otherwise. We then describe a solitonic excitation of the open string tachyon and gauge field with the charge and tension of a fundamental closed string. This requires a double scaling limit where the tachyon is taken to its minimal value and the electric field is taken to its maximum value. The resulting flux tube has an unconstrained spatial profile; and for large fundamental string charge, it appears to have light, weakly coupled open strings living in the core. We argue that the flux tube acquires a size or order α' through sigma model and string coupling effects; and we argue that confinement effects make the light degrees of freedom heavy and strongly interacting
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lawrence, Albion
2001-07-25
We study the physics of open strings in bosonic and type II string theories in the presence of unstable D-branes. When the potential energy of the open string tachyon is at its minimum, Sen has argued that only closed strings remain in the perturbative spectrum. We explore the scenario of Yi and of Bergman, Hori and Yi, who argue that the open string degrees of freedom are strongly coupled and disappear through confinement. We discuss arguments using open string field theory and worldsheet boundary RG flows, which seem to indicate otherwise. We then describe a solitonic excitation of the open string tachyon and gauge field with the charge and tension of a fundamental closed string. This requires a double scaling limit where the tachyon is taken to its minimal value and the electric field is taken to its maximum value. The resulting flux tube has an unconstrained spatial profile; and for large fundamental string charge, it appears to have light, weakly coupled open strings living in the core. We argue that the flux tube acquires a size or order {alpha}' through sigma model and string coupling effects; and we argue that confinement effects make the light degrees of freedom heavy and strongly interacting.
Strings, texture, and inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hodges, H.M.; Primack, J.R.
1991-01-01
We examine mechanisms, several of which are proposed here, to generate structure formation, or to just add large-scale features, through either gauged or global cosmic strings or global texture, within the framework of inflation. We first explore the possibility that strings or texture form if there is no coupling between the topological theory and the inflaton or spacetime curvature, via (1) quantum creation, and (2) a sufficiently high reheat temperature. In addition, we examine the prospects for the inflaton field itself to generate strings or texture. Then, models with the string/texture field coupled to the curvature, and an equivalent model with coupling to the inflaton field, are considered in detail. The requirement that inflationary density fluctuations are not so large as to conflict with observations leads to a number of constraints on model parameters. We find that strings of relevance for structure formation can form in the absence of coupling to the inflaton or curvature through the process of quantum creation, but only if the strings are strongly type I, or if they are global strings. If formed after reheating, naturalness suggests that gauged cosmic strings correspond to a type-I superconductor. Similarly, gauged strings formed during inflation via conformal coupling ξ=1/6 to the spacetime curvature (in a model suggested by Yokoyama in order to evade the millisecond pulsar constraint on cosmic strings) are expected to be strongly type I
Propagation of cosmic rays through the atmosphere in the quark-gluon strings model
Erlykin, A. D.; Krutikova, N. P.; Shabelski, Y. M.
1985-01-01
The quark-gluon strings model succeeds in the description of multiple hadron production in the central rapidity region of nucleon-nucleon interctions. This model was developed for hadron-nucleus interactions and used for calculation of the cosmic ray propagation through the atmosphere. It is shown that at energies 10 to the 11th power to the 12th power eV, this model gives a satisfactory description of experimental data. But with the increase of the energy up to approximately 10 to the 14th power eV, results of calculations and of experiments begin to differ and this difference rises with the energy. It may indicate that the scaling violation in the fragmentation region of inclusive spectra for hadron-nucleus interactions is stronger than in the quark-gluon strings model.
Quantum stabilization of a hedgehog type of cosmic string
Quandt, M.; Graham, N.; Weigel, H.
2017-10-01
Within a slightly simplified version of the electroweak standard model we investigate the stabilization of cosmic strings by fermion quantum fluctuations. Previous studies of quantum energies considered variants of the Nielsen-Olesen profile embedded in the electroweak gauge group and showed that configurations are favored for which the Higgs vacuum expectation value drops near the string core and the gauge field is suppressed. This work found that the strongest binding was obtained from strings that differ significantly from Nielsen-Olesen configurations, deforming essentially only the Higgs field in order to generate a strong attraction without inducing large gradients. Extending this analysis, we consider the leading quantum correction to the energy per unit length of a hedgehog type string, which, in contrast to the Nielsen-Olesen configuration, contains a pseudoscalar field. To employ the spectral method we develop the scattering and bound state problems for fermions in the background of a hedgehog string. Explicit occupation of bound state levels leads to strings that carry the quantum numbers of the bound fermions. We discuss the parameter space for which stable, hedgehog type cosmic strings emerge and reflect on phenomenological consequences of these findings.
Naturally light hidden photons in LARGE volume string compactifications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goodsell, M. [LPTHE, Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Jaeckel, J. [Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Univ. Durham (United Kingdom); Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2009-09-15
Extra ''hidden'' U(1) gauge factors are a generic feature of string theory that is of particular phenomenological interest. They can kinetically mix with the Standard Model photon and are thereby accessible to a wide variety of astrophysical and cosmological observations and laboratory experiments. In this paper we investigate the masses and the kinetic mixing of hidden U(1)s in LARGE volume compactifications of string theory. We find that in these scenarios the hidden photons can be naturally light and that their kinetic mixing with the ordinary electromagnetic photon can be of a size interesting for near future experiments and observations. (orig.)
Naturally light hidden photons in LARGE volume string compactifications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goodsell, M.; Jaeckel, J.; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A.
2009-09-01
Extra ''hidden'' U(1) gauge factors are a generic feature of string theory that is of particular phenomenological interest. They can kinetically mix with the Standard Model photon and are thereby accessible to a wide variety of astrophysical and cosmological observations and laboratory experiments. In this paper we investigate the masses and the kinetic mixing of hidden U(1)s in LARGE volume compactifications of string theory. We find that in these scenarios the hidden photons can be naturally light and that their kinetic mixing with the ordinary electromagnetic photon can be of a size interesting for near future experiments and observations. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ooguri, H.
1995-08-01
In physics, solvable models have played very important roles. Understanding a simple model in detail teaches us a lot about more complicated models in generic situations. Five years ago, C. Vafa and I found that the closed N = 2 string theory, that is a string theory with the N = 2 local supersymmetry on the worldsheet, is classically equivalent to the self-dual Einstein gravity in four spacetime dimensions. Thus this string theory is solvable at the classical level. More recently, we have examined the N = 2 string partition function for spacial compactifications, and computed it to all order in the string perturbation expansion. The fact that such computation is possible at all suggests that the N = 2 string theory is solvable even quantum mechanically
String field theory in minimal model backgrounds and non-perturbative two-dimensional gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Imbimbo, C.; Mukhi, S.
1991-01-01
The classical phase space of free closed-string field theory in the background of (p,q) minimal models is studied. It is shown that in the limit q→∞ for fixed p, this becomes the phase space of p-1 massless chiral bosons on a two-dimensional target space, twisted by Z p . It is argued that in the interacting theory, the bosons remain free and massless in the limit, but the non-linear gauge symmetries of string field theory require the imposition of W p -algebra conditions on the Hilbert space, allowing a single physical state. The wave function for this state is the KdV τ-function associated to non-perturbative two-dimensional gravity in the matrix-model approach. (orig.)
String states, loops and effective actions in noncommutative field theory and matrix models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steinacker, Harold C., E-mail: harold.steinacker@univie.ac.at
2016-09-15
Refining previous work by Iso, Kawai and Kitazawa, we discuss bi-local string states as a tool for loop computations in noncommutative field theory and matrix models. Defined in terms of coherent states, they exhibit the stringy features of noncommutative field theory. This leads to a closed form for the 1-loop effective action in position space, capturing the long-range non-local UV/IR mixing for scalar fields. The formalism applies to generic fuzzy spaces. The non-locality is tamed in the maximally supersymmetric IKKT or IIB model, where it gives rise to supergravity. The linearized supergravity interactions are obtained directly in position space at one loop using string states on generic noncommutative branes.
String states, loops and effective actions in noncommutative field theory and matrix models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Harold C. Steinacker
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Refining previous work by Iso, Kawai and Kitazawa, we discuss bi-local string states as a tool for loop computations in noncommutative field theory and matrix models. Defined in terms of coherent states, they exhibit the stringy features of noncommutative field theory. This leads to a closed form for the 1-loop effective action in position space, capturing the long-range non-local UV/IR mixing for scalar fields. The formalism applies to generic fuzzy spaces. The non-locality is tamed in the maximally supersymmetric IKKT or IIB model, where it gives rise to supergravity. The linearized supergravity interactions are obtained directly in position space at one loop using string states on generic noncommutative branes.
Sources of CP violation from E{sub 6} inspired heterotic string model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boussahel, M.; Mebarki, N. [Departement de physique Faculte des sciences Universite de M' sila 28000 (Algeria); Laboratoire de Physique Mathematique et Subatomique Mentouri University, Constantine (Algeria)
2012-06-27
Sources of the weak CP violation from the SU{sub L}(3)x SU{sub R}(3)x SU{sub c}(3) subgroup of the E{sub 6} inspired heterotic string model are discussed. It is shown that the number of the Cabibo-Kobayachi-Maskawa like matrices depends on the spontaneous breakdown of the E{sub 6} gauge symmetry and/or supersymmetry.
Discrete state moduli of string theory from c=1 matrix model
Dhar, A; Wadia, S R; Dhar, Avinash; Mandal, Gautam; Wadia, Spenta R
1995-01-01
We propose a new formulation of the space-time interpretation of the c=1 matrix model. Our formulation uses the well-known leg-pole factor that relates the matrix model amplitudes to that of the 2-dimensional string theory, but includes fluctuations around the fermi vacuum on {\\sl both sides} of the inverted harmonic oscillator potential of the double-scaled model, even when the fluctuations are small and confined entirely within the asymptotes in the phase plane. We argue that including fluctuations on both sides of the potential is essential for a consistent interpretation of the leg-pole transformed theory as a theory of space-time gravity. We reproduce the known results for the string theory tree level scattering amplitudes for flat space and linear dilaton background as a special case. We show that the generic case corresponds to more general space-time backgrounds. In particular, we identify the parameter corresponding to background metric perturbation in string theory (black hole mass) in terms of the ...
Exact string theory model of closed timelike curves and cosmological singularities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, Clifford V.; Svendsen, Harald G.
2004-01-01
We study an exact model of string theory propagating in a space-time containing regions with closed timelike curves (CTCs) separated from a finite cosmological region bounded by a big bang and a big crunch. The model is an nontrivial embedding of the Taub-NUT geometry into heterotic string theory with a full conformal field theory (CFT) definition, discovered over a decade ago as a heterotic coset model. Having a CFT definition makes this an excellent laboratory for the study of the stringy fate of CTCs, the Taub cosmology, and the Milne/Misner-type chronology horizon which separates them. In an effort to uncover the role of stringy corrections to such geometries, we calculate the complete set of α ' corrections to the geometry. We observe that the key features of Taub-NUT persist in the exact theory, together with the emergence of a region of space with Euclidean signature bounded by timelike curvature singularities. Although such remarks are premature, their persistence in the exact geometry is suggestive that string theory is able to make physical sense of the Milne/Misner singularities and the CTCs, despite their pathological character in general relativity. This may also support the possibility that CTCs may be viable in some physical situations, and may be a natural ingredient in pre-big bang cosmological scenarios
De Sitter vacua and inflation in no-scale string models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, Christian
2009-09-01
This thesis studies the question of how de Sitter vacua and slow-roll inflation may be realized in string-motivated models. More specifically, we consider 4d N = 1 supergravity theories (without vector multiplets) with Kaehler potentials which are 'no-scale' at leading order. Such theories frequently arise in the moduli sector of string compactifications. We discuss a condition on the scalar geometry (defined by the Kaehler potential) and on the direction of supersymmetry breaking in the scalar manifold, which has to be met in order for the average of the masses of the sGoldstinos to be positive, and hence for metastable vacua to be possible. This condition also turns out to be necessary for the existence of trajectories admitting slow-roll inflation. Its implications for certain scalar manifolds which arise from Calabi-Yau string compactifications are discussed. In particular, for two-moduli models arising from compactifications of heterotic- and type IIB string theory, a simple criterion on the intersection numbers needs to be satisfied for possible de Sitter phases to exist. In addition, we show that subleading corrections breaking the no-scale property may allow the condition on the scalar geometry to be fulfilled, even when it is violated at leading order. Finally, we develop a procedure to construct superpotentials for a given viable Kaehler potential, such that the scalar potential has a realistic local minimum. We propose two-moduli models, with superpotentials which could arise from flux backgrounds and non-perturbative effects, which have a viable vacuum without employing subleading corrections or an uplifting sector. (orig.)
De Sitter vacua and inflation in no-scale string models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gross, Christian
2009-09-15
This thesis studies the question of how de Sitter vacua and slow-roll inflation may be realized in string-motivated models. More specifically, we consider 4d N = 1 supergravity theories (without vector multiplets) with Kaehler potentials which are 'no-scale' at leading order. Such theories frequently arise in the moduli sector of string compactifications. We discuss a condition on the scalar geometry (defined by the Kaehler potential) and on the direction of supersymmetry breaking in the scalar manifold, which has to be met in order for the average of the masses of the sGoldstinos to be positive, and hence for metastable vacua to be possible. This condition also turns out to be necessary for the existence of trajectories admitting slow-roll inflation. Its implications for certain scalar manifolds which arise from Calabi-Yau string compactifications are discussed. In particular, for two-moduli models arising from compactifications of heterotic- and type IIB string theory, a simple criterion on the intersection numbers needs to be satisfied for possible de Sitter phases to exist. In addition, we show that subleading corrections breaking the no-scale property may allow the condition on the scalar geometry to be fulfilled, even when it is violated at leading order. Finally, we develop a procedure to construct superpotentials for a given viable Kaehler potential, such that the scalar potential has a realistic local minimum. We propose two-moduli models, with superpotentials which could arise from flux backgrounds and non-perturbative effects, which have a viable vacuum without employing subleading corrections or an uplifting sector. (orig.)
Phenomenology of a left-right-symmetric model inspired by the trinification model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hetzel, Jamil
2015-02-04
The trinification model is an interesting extension of the Standard Model based on the gauge group SU(3){sub C} x SU(3){sub L} x SU(3){sub R}. It naturally explains parity violation as a result of spontaneous symmetry breaking, and the observed fermion masses and mixings can be reproduced using only a few parameters. We study the low-energy phenomenology of the trinification model in order to compare its predictions to experiment. To this end, we construct a low-energy effective field theory, thereby reducing the number of particles and free parameters that need to be studied. We constrain the model parameters using limits from new-particle searches as well as precision measurements. The scalar sector of the model allows for various phenomenological scenarios, such as the presence of a light fermiophobic scalar in addition to a Standard-Model-like Higgs, or a degenerate (twin) Higgs state at 126 GeV. We show how a measurement of the Higgs couplings can be used to distinguish such scenarios from the Standard Model. We find that the trinification model predicts that several new scalar particles have masses in the O(100 GeV) range. Moreover, large regions of the parameter space lead to measurable deviations from Standard-Model predictions of the Higgs couplings. Hence the trinification model awaits crucial tests at the Large Hadron Collider in the coming years.
Feature-Based and String-Based Models for Predicting RNA-Protein Interaction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Donald Adjeroh
2018-03-01
Full Text Available In this work, we study two approaches for the problem of RNA-Protein Interaction (RPI. In the first approach, we use a feature-based technique by combining extracted features from both sequences and secondary structures. The feature-based approach enhanced the prediction accuracy as it included much more available information about the RNA-protein pairs. In the second approach, we apply search algorithms and data structures to extract effective string patterns for prediction of RPI, using both sequence information (protein and RNA sequences, and structure information (protein and RNA secondary structures. This led to different string-based models for predicting interacting RNA-protein pairs. We show results that demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches, including comparative results against leading state-of-the-art methods.
An approach for modelling CANDU Fuel string vibration induced by unsteady flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fadaee, M.; Yu, S.D., E-mail: mofadaee@ryerson.ca, E-mail: syu@ryerson.ca [Ryerson Univ., Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Toronto, ON (Canada)
2015-07-01
A comprehensive dynamical model is presented in this paper to handle vibration a string of 12 CANDU6 fuel bundles inside a pressure tube under operating conditions. A finite element based computer program is developed at Ryerson University in collaboration with Candu Energy Inc. to simulate fuel string vibration and vibration induced wear in the pressure tube. The focus of this paper is dynamic frictional contact among fuel elements via spacer pads, between fuel elements and the pressure tube via bearing pads, and between neighboring fuel bundles via endplates. The types of deformations are bending, torsion and axial for the fuel elements, and in-plane and out-of-plane bending for the endplates. The system equations of motion are discretized in the time-domain by means of the Bozzak-Newmark scheme; the contact problem is handled using an iterative LCP algorithm. The unsteady flow and flow induced excitations are obtained using the FLUENT-LES. (author)
LRS Bianchi Type II Massive String Cosmological Models with Magnetic Field in Lyra's Geometry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raj Bali
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Bianchi type II massive string cosmological models with magnetic field and time dependent gauge function ( in the frame work of Lyra's geometry are investigated. The magnetic field is in -plane. To get the deterministic solution, we have assumed that the shear ( is proportional to the expansion (. This leads to , where and are metric potentials and is a constant. We find that the models start with a big bang at initial singularity and expansion decreases due to lapse of time. The anisotropy is maintained throughout but the model isotropizes when . The physical and geometrical aspects of the model in the presence and absence of magnetic field are also discussed.
Global phenomenological optical model potential for the 7Li projectile nucleus
Xu, Yongli; Han, Yinlu; Hu, Jiaqi; Liang, Haiying; Wu, Zhendong; Guo, Hairui; Cai, Chonghai
2018-01-01
A new global phenomenological optical model potential for the 7Li projectile is derived from the available experimental data of elastic-scattering angular distributions and reaction cross sections from 27Al to 208Pb with incident energies below 200 MeV. It is based on a smooth, unique functional form for the energy dependence of the potential depths, and physically constrained geometry parameters. The elastic-scattering angular distributions and reaction cross sections for other targets are also predicted by the obtained 7Li global phenomenological optical model potential at different incident energies. These results are further compared with the corresponding experimental data. The performance shows that the 7Li global phenomenological optical model potential can give a satisfactory description for 7Li elastic scattering.
Ab Initio and Phenomenological Modeling of the Phonon Spectrum of Superhard cp-BC2N
Basalaev, Yu. M.; Kopytov, A. V.; Pavlova, T. Yu.; Poplavnoi, A. S.
2015-11-01
The phonon spectrum of hypothetical superhard cp-BC2N is calculated based on ab initio method of density functional in the center of the Brillouin zone and interpolated over the entire Brillouin zone using the Keating phenomenological model. The interaction parameters are determined by optimization of the IR- and Ramanactive frequencies for a phenomenological model by their comparison with the results of ab initio calculations. Numerical values of short-range interaction constants and charges are in agreement with the characteristics of the chemical bond calculated ab initio. These parameters have transparent physical meaning and chemical nature and can further be used for both qualitative estimations of any physical and physico-chemical quantities and quantitative calculations of the phonon spectra of a number of isostructural compounds. The Keating phenomenological model is used to study the genesis of the phonon spectrum from the spectra of sublattices.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neveu, A.
1986-01-01
There exist several string models. In the first lecture, the simplest one, the open bosonic string, which turns out to live most naturally in 26 dimensions will be described in some detail. In the second lecture, the closed bosonic strings, and the open and closed 10-dimensional strings (superstrings) are reviewed. In the third lecture, various compactification schemes which have been proposed to deal with the extra space dimensions, from 4 to 10 or 26 are dealt with; in particular, the Frenkel-Kac construction which builds non-Abelian internal symmetry groups out of the compactified dimensions, and the resulting heterotic string are described. Finally, in the fourth lecture, the important problem of the second quantization of string theories, and of the underlying gauge invariance which is responsible for the possibility of dealing, in a consistent fashion, with interacting high-spin states without negative metric is addressed. 41 references, 8 figures
Unitary-matrix models as exactly solvable string theories
Periwal, Vipul; Shevitz, Danny
1990-01-01
Exact differential equations are presently found for the scaling functions of models of unitary matrices which are solved in a double-scaling limit, using orthogonal polynomials on a circle. For the case of the simplest, k = 1 model, the Painleve II equation with constant 0 is obtained; possible nonperturbative phase transitions exist for these models. Equations are presented for k = 2 and 3, and discussed with a view to asymptotic behavior.
Bianchi Type V magnetized string dust cosmological models with ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Roy and Singh [12] have investigated LRS Bianchi Type V cosmological models filled with matter and radiation. Bali [13] has investigated a magnetized perfect fluid cosmological model in which expansion (θ) is proportional to σ1. 1, the eigenvalue of shear tensor σj i . The large-scale intergalactic magnetic field is spec-.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Metsaev, R.R.; Tseytlin, A.A.
1987-01-01
We prove the on-shell equivalence of the order α' terms in the string effective equations (for the graviton, dilaton and the antisymmetric tensor) to the vanishing of the corresponding (two-loop) terms in the Weyl anomaly coefficients for the general bosonic σ-model. We first determine the α' term in the string effective action starting with the known expression for the 3- and 4-point string amplitudes. Then we compute the two-loop β-function in the general σ-model with the antisymmetric tensor coupling. Special emphasis is made on the renormalization scheme dependence of the β-function. Our result disagrees with the previously known one and cannot be manifestly expressed in terms of the generalized curvature for the connection with torsion. We also prove (to the order α' 2 ) that the parallelizable spaces are solutions of the string equations of motion and establish the complete 3-loop expression for the 'central charge' coefficient. (orig.)
Optimal Packed String Matching
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany
2011-01-01
In the packed string matching problem, each machine word accommodates – characters, thus an n-character text occupies n/– memory words. We extend the Crochemore-Perrin constantspace O(n)-time string matching algorithm to run in optimal O(n/–) time and even in real-time, achieving a factor – speedup...... over traditional algorithms that examine each character individually. Our solution can be efficiently implemented, unlike prior theoretical packed string matching work. We adapt the standard RAM model and only use its AC0 instructions (i.e., no multiplication) plus two specialized AC0 packed string...
Chern-Simons matrix models and unoriented strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halmagyi, Nick; Yasnov, Vadim
2004-01-01
For matrix models with measure on the Lie algebra of SO/Sp, the sub-leading free energy is given by F 1 (S) ±{1/4}({δF 0 (S)}/{δS}). Motivated by the fact that this relationship does not hold for Chern-Simons theory on S 3 , we calculate the sub-leading free energy in the matrix model for this theory, which is a Gaussian matrix model with Haar measure on the group SO/Sp. We derive a quantum loop equation for this matrix model and then find that F 1 is an integral of the leading order resolvent over the spectral curve. We explicitly calculate this integral for quadratic potential and find agreement with previous studies of SO/Sp Chern-Simons theory. (author)
One-loop masses of open-string scalar fields in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitazawa, Noriaki
2008-01-01
In phenomenological models with D-branes, there are in general open-string massless scalar fields, in addition to closed-string massless moduli fields corresponding to the compactification. It is interesting to focus on the fate of such scalar fields in models with broken supersymmetry, because no symmetry forbids their masses. The one-loop effect may give non-zero masses to them, and in some cases mass squared may become negative, which means the radiative gauge symmetry breaking. In this article we investigate and propose a simple method for calculating the one-loop corrections using the boundary state formalism. There are two categories of massless open-string scalar fields. One consists the gauge potential fields corresponding to compactified directions, which can be understood as scalar fields in uncompactified space-time (related with Wilson line degrees of freedom). The other consists 'gauge potential fields' corresponding to transverse directions of D-brane, which emerge as scalar fields in D-brane world-volume (related with brane moduli fields). The D-brane boundary states with constant backgrounds of these scalar fields are constructed, and one-loop scalar masses are calculated in the closed string picture. Explicit calculations are given in the following four concrete models: one D25-brane with a circle compactification in bosonic string theory, one D9-brane with a circle compactification in superstring theory, D3-branes at a supersymmetric C 3 /Z 3 orbifold singularity, and a model of brane supersymmetry breaking with D3-branes and anti-D7-branes at a supersymmetric C 3 /Z 3 orbifold singularity. We show that the sign of the mass squared has a strong correlation with the sign of the related open-string one-loop vacuum amplitude.
Quantum Gravity and Phenomenological Philosophy
Rosen, Steven M.
2008-06-01
The central thesis of this paper is that contemporary theoretical physics is grounded in philosophical presuppositions that make it difficult to effectively address the problems of subject-object interaction and discontinuity inherent to quantum gravity. The core objectivist assumption implicit in relativity theory and quantum mechanics is uncovered and we see that, in string theory, this assumption leads into contradiction. To address this challenge, a new philosophical foundation is proposed based on the phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Martin Heidegger. Then, through the application of qualitative topology and hypernumbers, phenomenological ideas about space, time, and dimension are brought into focus so as to provide specific solutions to the problems of force-field generation and unification. The phenomenological string theory that results speaks to the inconclusiveness of conventional string theory and resolves its core contradiction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan Hongmo.
1987-10-01
The paper traces the development of the String Theory, and was presented at Professor Sir Rudolf Peierls' 80sup(th) Birthday Symposium. The String theory is discussed with respect to the interaction of strings, the inclusion of both gauge theory and gravitation, inconsistencies in the theory, and the role of space-time. The physical principles underlying string theory are also outlined. (U.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghoshal, D.; Sen, A.
1991-01-01
We calculate the partition function of the (ρ, ρ + 1) minimal model, perturbed by the operators φ 1.3 and φ 3.1 , to leading order in 1/ρ, and show that the result agrees with the partition functions of the (ρ-1, ρ) and (ρ+1, ρ+2) minimal models respectively. We also relate the change in the partition function of a conformal field theory under a perturbation to a change in the free energy of appropriate string field theory due to a change in the background. (orig.)
Semilocal and electroweak strings
Achucarro, A; Vachaspati, T
We review a class of non-topological defects in the standard electroweak model, and their implications. Starting with the semilocal string, which provides a counterexample to many well-known properties of topological vortices, we discuss electroweak strings and their stability with and without
String field theory solution for any open string background
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Erler, T.; Maccaferri, Carlo
2014-01-01
Roč. 10, Oct (2014), 1-37 ISSN 1029-8479 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP201/12/G028 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : tachyon condensation * string field theory * conformal field models in string theory * bosonic strings Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 6.111, year: 2014
A Phenomenological Study of Undergraduate Instructors Using the Inverted or Flipped Classroom Model
Brown, Anna F.
2012-01-01
The changing educational needs of undergraduate students have not been addressed with a corresponding development of instructional methods in higher education classrooms. This study used a phenomenological approach to investigate a classroom-based instructional model called the "inverted" or "flipped" classroom. The flipped…
A phenomenological model for pre-stressed piezoelectric ceramic stack actuators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, D H; Zhu, W
2011-01-01
In order to characterize the hysteretic characteristics between the output displacement and applied voltage of pre-stressed piezoelectric ceramic stack actuators (PCSAs), this paper considers that a linear force and a hysteretic force will be generated by a linear extension and a hysteretic extension, respectively, due to the applied voltage to a pre-stressed PCSA and the total force will result in the forced vibration of the single-degree-of-freedom (DOF) system composed of the mass of the pre-stressed PCSA and the equivalent spring and damper of the pre-stressed mechanism, which lets the PCSA be pre-stressed to endure enough tension. On this basis, the phenomenological model to characterize the hysteretic behavior of the pre-stressed PCSA is put forward by using the Bouc–Wen hysteresis operator to model the hysteretic extension. The parameter identification method in a least-squares sense is established by identifying the parameters for the linear and hysteretic components separately with the step and periodic responses of the pre-stressed PCSA, respectively. The performance of the proposed phenomenological model with the corresponding parameter identification method is experimentally verified by the established experimental set-up. The research results show that the phenomenological model for the pre-stressed PCSA with the corresponding parameter identification method can accurately portray the hysteretic characteristics of the pre-stressed PCSA. In addition, the phenomenological model for PCSAs can be deduced from the phenomenological model for pre-stressed PCSAs by removing the terms related to the pre-stressed mechanisms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popov, A.D.
1991-01-01
We introduce hyperbolic strings as closed bosonic strings with the target space R d-1,1 xT q+1,1 which has an additional time-like dimension in the internal space. The Fock spaces of the q-parametric family of standard bosonic, fermionic and heterotic strings with the target spaces of dimension n≤d+q are shown to be embedded into the Fock space of hyperbolic strings. The condition of the absence of anomaly fixes d and q for all three types of strings written in a bosonized form. (orig.)
Regularities in hadron systematics, Regge trajectories and a string quark model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chekanov, S.V.; Levchenko, B.B.
2006-08-01
An empirical principle for the construction of a linear relationship between the total angular momentum and squared-mass of baryons is proposed. In order to examine linearity of the trajectories, a rigorous least-squares regression analysis was performed. Unlike the standard Regge-Chew-Frautschi approach, the constructed trajectories do not have non-linear behaviour. A similar regularity may exist for lowest-mass mesons. The linear baryonic trajectories are well described by a semi-classical picture based on a spinning relativistic string with tension. The obtained numerical solution of this model was used to extract the (di)quark masses. (orig.)
Little strings, quasi-topological sigma model on loop group, and toroidal Lie algebras
Ashwinkumar, Meer; Cao, Jingnan; Luo, Yuan; Tan, Meng-Chwan; Zhao, Qin
2018-03-01
We study the ground states and left-excited states of the Ak-1 N = (2 , 0) little string theory. Via a theorem by Atiyah [1], these sectors can be captured by a supersymmetric nonlinear sigma model on CP1 with target space the based loop group of SU (k). The ground states, described by L2-cohomology classes, form modules over an affine Lie algebra, while the left-excited states, described by chiral differential operators, form modules over a toroidal Lie algebra. We also apply our results to analyze the 1/2 and 1/4 BPS sectors of the M5-brane worldvolume theory.
Little strings, quasi-topological sigma model on loop group, and toroidal Lie algebras
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meer Ashwinkumar
2018-03-01
Full Text Available We study the ground states and left-excited states of the Ak−1 N=(2,0 little string theory. Via a theorem by Atiyah [1], these sectors can be captured by a supersymmetric nonlinear sigma model on CP1 with target space the based loop group of SU(k. The ground states, described by L2-cohomology classes, form modules over an affine Lie algebra, while the left-excited states, described by chiral differential operators, form modules over a toroidal Lie algebra. We also apply our results to analyze the 1/2 and 1/4 BPS sectors of the M5-brane worldvolume theory.
Two-dimensional black hole as a topological coset model of c = 1 string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukhi, S.; Vafa, C.
1993-01-01
We show that a special superconformal coset (with c=3) is equivalent to c=1 matter coupled to two-dimensional gravity. This identification allows a direct computation of the correlation functions of the c=1 non-critical string to all genus, and at nonzero cosmological constant, directly from the continuum approach. The results agree with those of the matrix model. Moreover we connect our coset with a twisted version of a euclidean two-dimensional black hole, in which the ghost and matter systems are mixed. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gernaey, Krist; Flores Alsina, Xavier; Rosen, Christian
2011-01-01
and concentration time series representing realistic wastewater influent dynamics. In this paper, a simple phenomenological modelling approach is proposed as an alternative to generate dynamic influent pollutant disturbance scenarios. The presented set of models is constructed following the principles of parsimony...... block for flow rate generation, 2) model block for pollutants generation (carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus), 3) model block for temperature generation and 4) model block for transport of water and pollutants. The paper is illustrated with the results obtained during the development of the dynamic......: the larger the simulated sewer network, the smoother the simulated diurnal flow rate and concentration variations. In the discussion, it is pointed out how the proposed phenomenological models can be expanded to other applications, for example to represent heavy metal or organic micro-pollutant loads...
A dynamical model of the behaviour of hadronic and fundamental strings at finite densities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lizzi, F.; Senda, I.; Viswanathan, R.R.
1991-12-01
A dynamical model of interacting strings with fixed total energy and finite energy density is studied. Results previously obtained for the case when the kinetic energy is small are extended by means of a fully relativistic analysis. The non-linear dynamical equations of the model are solved numerically and the equilibrium configurations for the case of both fundamental strings and the flux tube model of hadrons are investigated as a function of the energy density. Our results strongly suggest the formation of a resonance dominated phase for sufficiently large energy densities. The model is applied to the study of the evolution of hadronic matter produced in ion collision experiments, where the formation of a resonance dominated phase is noted immediately after the collision. Our results indicate that this non-equilibrium state decays rapidly and relaxes to equilibrium very soon after the collision, with a typical time scale of T ∼ 1/m π ∼ 5x10 -24 s. (author). 31 refs, 17 figs
(1,q=-1) model as a topological description of 2D string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lavi, Yoav; Oz, Yaron; Sonnenschein, Jacob
1994-01-01
We study the (1,q=-1) model coupled to topological gravity as a candidate to describing 2D string theory at the self-dual radius. We define the model by analytical continuation of q>1 topological recursion relations to q=-1. We show that at genus zero the q=-1 recursion relations yield the W 1+∞ Ward identities for tachyon correlators on the sphere. A scheme for computing correlation functions of q=-1 gravitational descendants is proposed and applied for the computation of several correlators. It is suggested that the latter correspond to correlators of discrete states of the c=1 string. In a similar manner to the q>1 models, we show that there exist topological recursion relations for the correlators in the q=-1 theory that consist of only one and two splittings of the Riemann surface. Using a postulated regularized contact, we prove that the genus one q=-1 recursion relations for tachyon correlators coincide with the W 1+∞ Ward identities on the torus. We argue that the structure of these recursion relations coincides with that of the W 1+∞ Ward identities for any genus. ((orig.))
One-loop and D-instanton corrections to the effective action of open string models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Maximilian
2009-07-02
Methods for the calculation of certain corrections to effective actions, which comprehend the low-energy physics of string compactifications with open strings, are explained. First the shape of such actions is describes and some examples for compactifications are presented, especially a type I string model to which a dual model on the base of the heterotic string is known. Then corrections on the gauge coupling constant and on the gauge-kinetic function are discussed. general procedures for their calculation are sketched and applied to some models. The explicitly determinded corrections depend non-holomorphically on the moduli of the compactification manifold. It is explained that this is not in disagreement on the holomorphy of the gauge-kinetic function and how the latter can be extracted from the calculated results. Next D-instantons and their influence on the low-energy action are detailedly analyzed, whereby the zero modes of the instantons and global Abelian symmetries play a central role. A formula for the caclulation of scattering matrix elements in instanton sectors is given. It is to be expected that the considered instantons contribute to the superpotential of the low-energy action. However from the formula it becomes not immediately clear, how far this is possible. The mentioned formula seems to lead to expressions, which are in disagreement to the holomorphy of the superpotential. It is shown that non-holomorphic terms partly simplify, partly are so composed that the result is in accordance with the holomorphy of the superpotential. The D-instanton calculus is then used in order to derive the ADS superpotential, which is known from field theory. That this is possible is to be considered as successful test of the instanton calculus. D-instanton corrections to the gauge-kinetic functions are considered. S duality between the type I and the heterotic string is used in order to determine how the structure of the zero modes of the relevant instantons looks
Physically Inspired Models for the Synthesis of Stiff Strings with Dispersive Waveguides
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Testa I
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We review the derivation and design of digital waveguides from physical models of stiff systems, useful for the synthesis of sounds from strings, rods, and similar objects. A transform method approach is proposed to solve the classic fourth-order equations of stiff systems in order to reduce it to two second-order equations. By introducing scattering boundary matrices, the eigenfrequencies are determined and their dependency is discussed for the clamped, hinged, and intermediate cases. On the basis of the frequency-domain physical model, the numerical discretization is carried out, showing how the insertion of an all-pass delay line generalizes the Karplus-Strong algorithm for the synthesis of ideally flexible vibrating strings. Knowing the physical parameters, the synthesis can proceed using the generalized structure. Another point of view is offered by Laguerre expansions and frequency warping, which are introduced in order to show that a stiff system can be treated as a nonstiff one, provided that the solutions are warped. A method to compute the all-pass chain coefficients and the optimum warping curves from sound samples is discussed. Once the optimum warping characteristic is found, the length of the dispersive delay line to be employed in the simulation is simply determined from the requirement of matching the desired fundamental frequency. The regularization of the dispersion curves by means of optimum unwarping is experimentally evaluated.
de Sitter vacua in no-scale supergravities and Calabi-Yau string models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Covi, L.; Gross, C.; Scrucca, C.A.
2008-04-01
We perform a general analysis on the possibility of obtaining metastable vacua with spontaneously broken N = 1 supersymmetry and non-negative cosmological constant in the moduli sector of string models. More specifically, we study the condition under which the scalar partners of the Goldstino are non-tachyonic, which depends only on the Kaehler potential. This condition is not only necessary but also sufficient, in the sense that all of the other scalar fields can be given arbitrarily large positive square masses if the superpotential is suitably tuned. We consider both heterotic and orientifold string compactifications in the large-volume limit and show that the no-scale property shared by these models severely restricts the allowed values for the 'sGoldstino' masses in the superpotential parameter space. We find that a positive mass term may be achieved only for certain types of compactifications and specific Goldstino directions. Additionally, we show how subleading corrections to the Kaehler potential which break the no-scale property may allow to lift these masses. (orig.)
Bianchi Type-II String Cosmological Model with Magnetic Field in Scalar-tensor Theory of Gravitation
Sharma, N. K.; Singh, J. K.
2015-03-01
The spatially homogeneous and totally anisotropic Bianchi type-II cosmological solutions of massive strings have been investigated in the presence of the magnetic field in the framework of scalar-tensor theory of gravitation formulated by Saez and Ballester (Phys. Lett. A 113:467, 1986). With the help of special law of variation for Hubble's parameter proposed by Berman (Nuovo Cimento B 74:182, 1983) string cosmological model is obtained in this theory. Some physical and kinematical properties of the model are also discussed.
Rossing, Thomas D.; Hanson, Roger J.
In the next eight chapters, we consider some aspects of the science of bowed string instruments, old and new. In this chapter, we present a brief discussion of bowed strings, a subject that will be developed much more thoroughly in Chap. 16. Chapters 13-15 discuss the violin, the cello, and the double bass. Chapter 17 discusses viols and other historic string instruments, and Chap. 18 discusses the Hutchins-Schelleng violin octet.
Phenomenological Models for Landscape Signatures: Review and Recommendations
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Ballard, Jerrell
2004-01-01
... sensors that are commonly applied to the mine detection problem (either surface or buried). The report lists important predictive high-resolution atmospheric, environmental, and geophysical models...
Model of the N-quark potential in SU(N gauge theory using gauge-string duality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oleg Andreev
2016-05-01
Full Text Available We use gauge-string duality to model the N-quark potential in pure Yang–Mills theories. For SU(3, the result agrees remarkably well with lattice simulations. The model smoothly interpolates between almost the Δ-law at short distances and the Y-law at long distances.
String-like solutions and Regge trajectories in a cylindrically deformed quark bag model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shanker, R.; Vasak, D.; Warke, C.S.; Greiner, W.; Mueller, B.
1983-01-01
With the string picture in mind, we study quark bags of a simple fixed geometry: cylindrical. It is shown that the Dirac boundary value problem of the M.I.T. bag model has no solutions, if this quark confinement condition is applied simultaneously on the radial walls as well as on the edges of the cylinder. By introducing a cruder condition, anti psipsi=0, instead, but now only on the side walls, we calculate properties of non-strange baryons. A justification for the use of this cruder condition, anti wpsi=0, on the side walls, instead of the proper M.I.T. condition, is then provided by showing that the M.I.T. ''cylindrical'' bag with smooth rounded corners gives essentially the same results, while being computationally more involved. Notwithstanding this departure from the M.I.T. confinement condition on the side walls, we find the following curious results: for high excitations, this bag attains string-like shapes. The sequence of baryonic states corresponding to pure single quark excitations fall on a linear Regge trajectory with a slope of proportional0.85 GeV - 2 . These trajectories hold at low-angular momenta. (orig.)
Modeling nonlinear problems in the mechanics of strings and rods the role of the balance laws
O'Reilly, Oliver M
2017-01-01
This book presents theories of deformable elastic strings and rods and their application to broad classes of problems. Readers will gain insights into the formulation and analysis of models for mechanical and biological systems. Emphasis is placed on how the balance laws interplay with constitutive relations to form a set of governing equations. For certain classes of problems, it is shown how a balance of material momentum can play a key role in forming the equations of motion. The first half of the book is devoted to the purely mechanical theory of a string and its applications. The second half of the book is devoted to rod theories, including Euler’s theory of the elastica, Kirchhoff ’s theory of an elastic rod, and a range of Cosserat rod theories. A variety of classic and recent applications of these rod theories are examined. Two supplemental chapters, the first on continuum mechanics of three-dimensional continua and the second on methods from variational calculus, are included to provide relevant ...
Modeling theoretical uncertainties in phenomenological analyses for particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Charles, Jerome [CNRS, Aix-Marseille Univ, Universite de Toulon, CPT UMR 7332, Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Descotes-Genon, Sebastien [CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Universite Paris-Saclay, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (UMR 8627), Orsay Cedex (France); Niess, Valentin [CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 6533, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, Aubiere Cedex (France); Silva, Luiz Vale [CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Universite Paris-Saclay, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (UMR 8627), Orsay Cedex (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Groupe de Physique Theorique, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay Cedex (France); J. Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P. O. Box 3000, Ljubljana (Slovenia)
2017-04-15
The determination of the fundamental parameters of the Standard Model (and its extensions) is often limited by the presence of statistical and theoretical uncertainties. We present several models for the latter uncertainties (random, nuisance, external) in the frequentist framework, and we derive the corresponding p values. In the case of the nuisance approach where theoretical uncertainties are modeled as biases, we highlight the important, but arbitrary, issue of the range of variation chosen for the bias parameters. We introduce the concept of adaptive p value, which is obtained by adjusting the range of variation for the bias according to the significance considered, and which allows us to tackle metrology and exclusion tests with a single and well-defined unified tool, which exhibits interesting frequentist properties. We discuss how the determination of fundamental parameters is impacted by the model chosen for theoretical uncertainties, illustrating several issues with examples from quark flavor physics. (orig.)
Phenomenological modeling of long range noncontact friction in micro- and nanoresonators
Gusso, André
2011-09-01
Motivated by the results of an experiment using atomic force microscopy performed by Gotsmann and Fuchs [Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2597 (2001)], where a strong energy loss due to the tip-sample interaction was measured, we investigate the potential implications of this energy loss channel to the quality factor of suspended micro- and nanoresonators. Because the observed tip-sample dissipation remains without a satisfactory theoretical explanation, two phenomenological models are proposed to generalize the experimental observations. In the minimal phenomenological model the range of validity of the power law found experimentally for the damping coefficient is assumed to be valid for larger separations. A more elaborate phenomenological model assumes that the noncontact friction is a consequence of the Casimir force acting between the closely spaced surfaces. Both models provide quantitative results for the noncontact friction between any two objects which are then used to estimate the energy loss for suspended bar micro- and nanoresonators. It is concluded that the energy loss due to the unknown mechanism has the potential to seriously restrict the quality factor of both micro- and nanoresonators.
Numerical/phenomenological model for fatigue life prediction of hybrid laminates
Dadej, Konrad; Surowska, Barbara; Bieniaś, Jarosław
2018-01-01
In this article, the fatigue stress-cycle (S-N) curves of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) were investigated. Experimental fatigue tests were performed on unidirectional specimens and the S-N curves for GFRP and CFRP materials were determined. Obtained S-N curves were next described by phenomenological model (PM) based on mathematical function containing convexity and concavity ranges of stress-cycle curve. Based on the PM and numerical static analyses performed in ABAQUS/Standard on hybrid glass-carbon fiber reinforced polymer, the fatigue S-N curve was predicted for this material. Numerical/phenomenological model predictions were validated by experimental tests, where good agreement was obtained in the field of static tensile strength, shape of S-N curve and infinite fatigue life.
Phenomenological aspects of possible vacua of a neutrino flavor model
Morozumi, Takuya; Okane, Hideaki; Sakamoto, Hiroki; Shimizu, Yusuke; Takagi, Kenta; Umeeda, Hiroyuki
2018-01-01
We discuss a supersymmetric model with discrete flavor symmetry {A}4× {Z}3. The additional scalar fields which contribute masses of leptons in the Yukawa terms are introduced in this model. We analyze their scalar potential and find that they have various vacuum structures. We show the relations among 24 different vacua and classify them into two types. We derive expressions of the lepton mixing angles, Dirac CP violating phase and Majorana phases for the two types. The model parameters which are allowed by the experimental data of the lepton mixing angles are different for each type. We also study the constraints on the model parameters which are related to Majorana phases. The different allowed regions of the model parameters for the two types are shown numerically for a given region of two combinations of the CP violating phases. Supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP17K05418 (T.M.). This work is also supported in part by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research [No. 16J05332 (Y.S.), Nos. 24540272, 26247038, 15H01037, 16H00871, and 16H02189 (H.U.)] from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan. H.O. is also supported by Hiroshima Univ. Alumni Association
Reproducing Phenomenology of Peroxidation Kinetics via Model Optimization
Ruslanov, Anatole D.; Bashylau, Anton V.
2010-06-01
We studied mathematical modeling of lipid peroxidation using a biochemical model system of iron (II)-ascorbate-dependent lipid peroxidation of rat hepatocyte mitochondrial fractions. We found that antioxidants extracted from plants demonstrate a high intensity of peroxidation inhibition. We simplified the system of differential equations that describes the kinetics of the mathematical model to a first order equation, which can be solved analytically. Moreover, we endeavor to algorithmically and heuristically recreate the processes and construct an environment that closely resembles the corresponding natural system. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to theoretically predict both the kinetics of oxidation and the intensity of inhibition without resorting to analytical and biochemical research, which is important for cost-effective discovery and development of medical agents with antioxidant action from the medicinal plants.
Free-fermion descriptions of parafermion chains and string-net models
Meichanetzidis, Konstantinos; Turner, Christopher J.; Farjami, Ashk; Papić, Zlatko; Pachos, Jiannis K.
2018-03-01
Topological phases of matter remain a focus of interest due to their unique properties: fractionalization, ground-state degeneracy, and exotic excitations. While some of these properties can occur in systems of free fermions, their emergence is generally associated with interactions between particles. Here, we quantify the role of interactions in general classes of topological states of matter in one and two spatial dimensions, including parafermion chains and string-net models. Surprisingly, we find that certain topological states can be exactly described by free fermions, while others saturate the maximum possible distance from their optimal free-fermion description [C. J. Turner et al., Nat. Commun. 8, 14926 (2017), 10.1038/ncomms14926]. Our work opens the door to understanding the complexity of topological models by establishing new types of fermionization procedures to describe their low-energy physics, thus making them amenable to experimental realizations.
Anisotropic Bulk Viscous String Cosmological Model in a Scalar-Tensor Theory of Gravitation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. R. K. Reddy
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Spatially homogeneous, anisotropic, and tilted Bianchi type-VI0 model is investigated in a new scalar-tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Saez and Ballester (1986 when the source for energy momentum tensor is a bulk viscous fluid containing one-dimensional cosmic strings. Exact solution of the highly nonlinear field equations is obtained using the following plausible physical conditions: (i scalar expansion of the space-time which is proportional to the shear scalar, (ii the barotropic equations of state for pressure and energy density, and (iii a special law of variation for Hubble’s parameter proposed by Berman (1983. Some physical and kinematical properties of the model are also discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lake, Matthew J. [The Institute for Fundamental Study, ' ' The Tah Poe Academia Institute' ' , Naresuan University, Phitsanulok (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand); Harko, Tiberiu [Department of Physics, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Department of Mathematics, University College London (United Kingdom)
2017-10-15
The discovery of a large number of supermassive black holes (SMBH) at redshifts z > 6, when the Universe was only 900 million years old, raises the question of how such massive compact objects could form in a cosmologically short time interval. Each of the standard scenarios proposed, involving rapid accretion of seed black holes or black hole mergers, faces severe theoretical difficulties in explaining the short-time formation of supermassive objects. In this work we propose an alternative scenario for the formation of SMBH in the early Universe, in which energy transfer from superconducting cosmic strings piercing small seed black holes is the main physical process leading to rapid mass increase. As a toy model, the accretion rate of a seed black hole pierced by two antipodal strings carrying constant current is considered. Using an effective action approach, which phenomenologically incorporates a large class of superconducting string models, we estimate the minimum current required to form SMBH with masses of order M = 2 x 10{sup 9} M {sub CircleDot} by z = 7.085. This corresponds to the mass of the central black hole powering the quasar ULAS J112001.48+064124.3 and is taken as a test case scenario for early-epoch SMBH formation. For GUT scale strings, the required fractional increase in the string energy density, due to the presence of the current, is of order 10{sup -7}, so that their existence remains consistent with current observational bounds on the string tension. In addition, we consider an ''exotic'' scenario, in which an SMBH is generated when a small seed black hole is pierced by a higher-dimensional F-string, predicted by string theory. We find that both topological defect strings and fundamental strings are able to carry currents large enough to generate early-epoch SMBH via our proposed mechanism. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
CERN. Geneva
2007-01-01
In this 3-lecture series I will discuss the basics of string theory, some physical applications, and the outlook for the future. I will begin with the main concepts of the classical theory and the application to the study of cosmic superstrings. Then I will turn to the quantum theory and discuss applications to the investigation of hadronic spectra and the recently discovered quark-gluon plasma. I will conclude with a sketch of string models of particle physics and showing some avenues that may lead to a complete formulation of string theory.
Superconducting cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chudnovsky, E.M.; Field, G.B.; Spergel, D.N.; Vilenkin, A.
1986-01-01
Superconducting loops of string formed in the early Universe, if they are relatively light, can be an important source of relativistic particles in the Galaxy. They can be observed as sources of synchrotron radiation at centimeter wavelengths. We propose a string model for two recently discovered radio sources, the ''thread'' in the galactic center and the source G357.7-0.1, and predict that the filaments in these sources should move at relativistic speeds. We also consider superheavy superconducting strings, and the possibility that they be observed as extragalactic radio sources
Seniority mappings for probing phenomenological nuclear boson models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Kock, E.A.
1988-12-01
The interacting boson model (IBM) and interacting boson-fermion model (IBFM) are discussed. The main ideas of boson mapping of fermion systems are introduced using Holstein-Primakoff and Dyson-Maleev mappings of angular momentum operators. Generalized Dyson-Maleev (GDM) and Holstein-Primakoff (GHP) mappings are included. In fermoin problems, the degrees of freedom of collective motion are described by a collective subalgebra of the complete bifermion subalgebra. GDM mapping of Sp(6) generators, the transformation to collect bosons and truncation to these bosons led to collective sd-boson realization of Sp(6) algebra. This resulted in an IBM-like description of the collective subspace. Non-hermitian and existing hermitian forms are indicated in the assumed structure of an IBM Hamiltonian Boson mapping based on seniority considerations and involving single-j shell approximations of the shell model are examined. One method utilized truncation of a shell model space to a space spanned by monopole (S) and quadrupole (D) pairs. The association between states in truncated fermion and sd-boson spaces constructs boson images of fermion operators by equating boson and fermion matrix elements. To obtain boson images with IBM-like structures, a zero-order approximation was adopted. This approximation retains only N-body terms in the images of N-body fermion operators. A similarity transformation re-expressing GDM images of single-j shell fermion operators in seniority bosons was applied to the GDM image of a general shell model Hamiltonian. Numerical results for the surface-delta interaction show that truncation to s- and d-bosons in the seniority image of a two-body operator is not allowed if N≥2. This transformation was extended to odd fermion systems and applied to the image of the quadrupole pairing interaction. 79 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs
Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.; Nybakken, G. H.
1972-01-01
The string theory was evaluated for predicting lateral tire dynamic properties as obtained from scaled model tests. The experimental data and string theory predictions are in generally good agreement using lateral stiffness and relaxation length values obtained from the static or slowly rolling tire. The results indicate that lateral forces and self-aligning torques are linearly proportional to tire lateral stiffness and to the amplitude of either steer or lateral displacement. In addition, the results show that the ratio of input excitation frequency to road speed is the proper independent variable by which frequency should be measured.
Selected topics in phenomenology of the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roberts, R.G.
1992-01-01
We begin with the structure of the proton which is revealed through deep inelastic scattering of nucleons by electron/muon or neutrino scattering off nucleons. The quark parton model is described which leads on to the interaction of quarks and gluons - quantum chromodynamics (QCD). From this parton distributions can be extracted and then fed into the quark parton description of hadron-hadron collisions. In this way we analyse large p T jet production, prompt photon production and dilepton, W and Z production (Drell-Yan mechanism), ending with a study of heavy quark production. W and Z physics is then discussed. The various definitions at the tree level of sin 2 θ w are listed and then the radiative corrections to these are briefly considered. The data from European Large Electron-Positron storage rings (LEP) then allow limits to be set on the mass of the top quark and the Higgs via these corrections. Standard model predictions for the various Z widths are compared with the latest LEP data. Electroweak effects in e + e - scattering are discussed together with the extraction of the various vector and axial-vector couplings involved. We return to QCD when the production of jets in e + e - is studied. Both the LEP and lower energy data are able to give quantitative estimates of the strong coupling α s and the consistency of the various estimates and those from other QCD processes are discussed. The value of α s (M z ) actually plays an important role in setting the scale of the possible supersymmetry (SUSY) physics beyond the standard model. Finally the subject of quark mixing is addressed. How the the values of the various CKM matrix elements are derived is discussed together with a very brief look at the charge-parity (CP) violation and how the standard model is standing up to the latest measurements of ε'/ε. (Author)
A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF PHENOMENOLOGICAL MODELS UNCERTAINTIES FOR TURBIDITY CURRENTS
Ferreira da Costa, Henrique José; Rochinha, Fernando Alves
2017-01-01
Abstract. Turbidity currents have significantly contributed to the formation of oil reservoirs through massive transport and deposition of sediments in the offshore area during the past geological era. That motivates the seek for understanding these complex flows composed of carrier and disperse phases. In this regard, numerical simulations can be of great help in understanding the complex underlying physics of those turbulent flows. Two-fluid models allow the explicit consideration of both p...
Phenomenological study of in the minimal model at LHC
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
K M Balasubramaniam
2017-10-05
Oct 5, 2017 ... where the terms on the RHS are the scalar, Yang–Mills. (YM)/gauge, fermion and Yukawa parts respectively. 2.2.1 Scalar ... 2.2.2 Yang–Mills/gauge sector. The non-Abelian field strengths of this model are the same as in the ... anomalies of the theory. Therefore, the B−L gauge extension of the SM gauge.
Matrix string theory on pp-waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bonelli, Giulio
2003-06-21
After a brief review on matrix string theory on flat backgrounds, we formulate matrix string models on different pp-wave backgrounds. This will be done both in the cases of constant and variable RR background flux for certain exact string geometries. We exhibit the non-perturbative representation of string interaction and show how the eigenvalue tunnelling drives the WKB expansion to give the usual perturbative string interaction also in supersymmetric pp-wave background cases.
A phenomenological model of the growth of two-species atomic Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pattinson, R W; Parker, N G; Proukakis, N P
2014-01-01
We introduce a phenomenological mean-field model to describe the growth of immiscible two-species atomic Bose-Einstein condensates towards some equilibrium. Our model is based on the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations with the addition of dissipative terms to account for growth. While our model may be applied generally, we take a recent Rb-Cs experiment [McCarron et al., Phys. Rev. A 84 011603(R) (2011)] as a case study. As the condensates grow, they can pass through ranging transient density structures which can be distinct from the equilibrium states, although such a model always predicts the predominance of one condensate species over longer evolution times.
Aspects of Moduli Stabilization in Type IIB String Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shaaban Khalil
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We review moduli stabilization in type IIB string theory compactification with fluxes. We focus on KKLT and Large Volume Scenario (LVS. We show that the predicted soft SUSY breaking terms in KKLT model are not phenomenological viable. In LVS, the following result for scalar mass, gaugino mass, and trilinear term is obtained: m0=m1/2=-A0=m3/2, which may account for Higgs mass limit if m3/2~O(1.5 TeV. However, in this case, the relic abundance of the lightest neutralino cannot be consistent with the measured limits. We also study the cosmological consequences of moduli stabilization in both models. In particular, the associated inflation models such as racetrack inflation and Kähler inflation are analyzed. Finally, the problem of moduli destabilization and the effect of string moduli backreaction on the inflation models are discussed.
Jost, Jürgen
2007-01-01
This book presents a mathematical treatment of Bosonic string theory from the point of view of global geometry. As motivation, Jost presents the theory of point particles and Feynman path integrals. He provides detailed background material, including the geometry of Teichmüller space, the conformal and complex geometry of Riemann surfaces, and the subtleties of boundary regularity questions. The high point is the description of the partition function for Bosonic strings as a finite-dimensional integral over a moduli space of Riemann surfaces. Jost concludes with some topics related to open and closed strings and D-branes. Bosonic Strings is suitable for graduate students and researchers interested in the mathematics underlying string theory.
Cosmological Quantum String Vacua and String-String Duality
Rey, Soo-Jong
1996-01-01
Implications of string-string dualities to cosmological string vacua are discussed. Cosmological vacua of classical string theories comprise of disjoint classses mapped one another by scale-factor T-duality. Each classes are, however, afflicted with initial/final cosmological singularities. It is argued that quantum string theories and string-string dualities dramatically resolve these cosmological singularities out so that disjoint classical cosmological vacua are continuously connected in a...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Senda Ikuo.
1991-05-01
We propose dynamical models of hadrons, the nucleation model and the free-decay model, in which results of string model are used to represent interactions. The dynamical properties of hadrons, which are obtained by string model, are examined and their parameters are fitted by experimental data. The equilibrium properties of hadrons at high density are investigated by the nucleation model and we found a singular behaviour at energy density 3 ∼ 5 GeV/fm 3 , where hadrons coalesce to create highly excited states. We argue that this singular behaviour corresponds to the phase transition to quark-gluon plasma. The possibility to observe the production of high density strongly interacting matter at collider experiments are discussed using the free-decay model, which produces pion distributions as decay products of resonances. We show that our free-decay model recovers features of hadron distributions obtained in hadron collision experiments. Finally the perspectives and extensions are discussed. (author). 34 refs, 19 figs, 2 tabs
CP violation outside the standard model phenomenology for pedestrians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lipkin, H.J.
1993-01-01
So far the only experimental evidence for CP violation is the 1964 discovery of K L →2π where the two mass eigenstates produced by neutral meson mixing both decay into the same CP eigenstate. This result is described by two parameters ε and ε'. Today ε ∼ its 1964 value, ε' data are still inconclusive and there is no new evidence for CP violation. One might expect to observe similar phenomena in other systems and also direct CP violation as charge asymmetries between decays of charge conjugate hadrons H ± → f ± . Why is it so hard to find CP violation? How can B Physics help? Does CP lead beyond the standard model? The author presents a pedestrian symmetry approach which exhibits the difficulties and future possibilities of these two types of CP-violation experiments, neutral meson mixing and direct charge asymmetry: what may work, what doesn't work and why
Models of light singlet fermion and neutrino phenomenology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chun, E.J.; Joshipura, A.S.; Smirnov, A.Yu.
1995-05-01
We suggest that a single fermion S exists beyond the standard see-saw structure. It mixes with light neutrinos via interactions with the right-handed neutrino components, so that ν e → S conversion solves the solar neutrino problem. Supersymmetry endowed with R-symmetry is shown to give a natural framework for existence, mass scale (∼ 3 · 10 -3 eV) and mixing (sin 2 2θ es ∼ (0.1 - 1.5) · 10 -2 ) of such a fermion. Models with an approximate horizontal symmetry are constructed, which embed the fermion S and explain simultaneously solar, atmospheric, hot dark matter problems as well as may predict the oscillation ν-bar μ → ν-bar e in the region of sensitivity of KARMEN and LSND experiments. (author). 24 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kei Ito.
1988-07-01
The vacuum amplitude of heterotic string compactified on a tensor product of nine copies of c=1, N=2 superconformal models is shown to vanish due to a generalized Riemann's theta identity associated with the 12x12 matrix identity t BB=6 2 I 12 , identity B ij =-5(i=j), 1(i≠j). (author). 4 refs
Towards low energy physics from the heterotic string
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanchez, S.N.R.
2008-06-15
We investigate orbifold compactifications of the heterotic string, addressing in detail their construction, classification and phenomenological potential. Based on the insight gained from grand unification theories, we develop a successful strategy to search for models resembling the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model (MSSM) in Z{sub 6}-II orbifold compactifications. We find about 200 MSSM candidates with the gauge group and the exact spectrum of the MSSM, and supersymmetric vacua below the compactification scale. Among them, there are several models with the following realistic features: R-parity, seesaw suppressed neutrino masses, and intermediate scale of supersymmetry breakdown. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenjun Huang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Mechanical extending limit in horizontal drilling means the maximum horizontal extending length of a horizontal well under certain ground and down-hole mechanical constraint conditions. Around this concept, the constrained optimization model of mechanical extending limits is built and simplified analytical results for pick-up and slack-off operations are deduced. The horizontal extending limits for kinds of tubular strings under different drilling parameters are calculated and drawn. To improve extending limits, an optimal design model of drill strings is built and applied to a case study. The results indicate that horizontal extending limits are underestimated a lot when the effects of friction force on critical helical buckling loads are neglected. Horizontal extending limits firstly increase and tend to stable values with vertical depths. Horizontal extending limits increase faster but finally become smaller with the increase of horizontal pushing forces for tubular strings of smaller modulus-weight ratio. Sliding slack-off is the main limit operation and high axial friction is the main constraint factor constraining horizontal extending limits. A sophisticated installation of multiple tubular strings can greatly inhibit helical buckling and increase horizontal extending limits. The optimal design model is called only once to obtain design results, which greatly increases the calculation efficiency.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Toman Rastislav
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The current study evaluates the predictive capabilities of a new phenomenological combustion model, available as a part of the GT-Suite software package. It is comprised of two main sub-models: 0D model of in-cylinder flow and turbulence, and turbulent SI combustion model. The 0D in-cylinder flow model (EngCylFlow uses a combined K-k-ε kinetic energy cascade approach to predict the evolution of the in-cylinder charge motion and turbulence, where K and k are the mean and turbulent kinetic energies, and ε is the turbulent dissipation rate. The subsequent turbulent combustion model (EngCylCombSITurb gives the in-cylinder burn rate; based on the calculation of flame speeds and flame kernel development. This phenomenological approach reduces significantly the overall computational effort compared to the 3D-CFD, thus allowing the computation of full engine operating map and the vehicle driving cycles. Model was calibrated using a full map measurement from a turbocharged natural gas SI engine, with swirl intake ports. Sensitivity studies on different calibration methods, and laminar flame speed sub-models were conducted. Validation process for both the calibration and sensitivity studies was concerning the in-cylinder pressure traces and burn rates for several engine operation points achieving good overall results.
Neutrino Textures in the Light of Super-Kamiokande Data and a Realistic String Model
Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Lola, S; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V
1999-01-01
Motivated by the Super-Kamiokande atmospheric neutrino data, we discuss possible textures for Majorana and Dirac neutrino masses within the see-saw framework. The main purposes of this paper are twofold: first to obtain intuition from a purely phenomenological analysis, and secondly to explore to what extent it may be realized in a specific model. We comment initially on the simplified two-generation case, emphasizing that large mixing is not incompatible with a large hierarchy of mass eigenvalues. We also emphasize that renormalization-group effects may amplify neutrino mixing, presenting semi-analytic expressions for estimating this amplification. Several examples are then given of three-family neutrino mass textures which may also accommodate the persistent solar neutrino deficit, with different assumptions for the neutrino Dirac mass matrices. We comment on a few features of neutrino mass textures arising in models with a U(1) flavour symmetry. Finally, we discuss the possible pattern of neutrino masses i...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fernandez-Ramirez, C. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: cesar@nuc2.fis.ucm.es; Moya de Guerra, E. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Udias, J.M. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)
2008-02-21
We investigate the importance of crossing symmetry in effective field models and the effects of phenomenological nucleon resonance widths on the paradigmatic case of pion photoproduction. We use reaction models containing four star resonances up to 1.8 GeV ({delta}(1232), N(1440), N(1520), N(1535), {delta}(1620), N(1650), {delta}(1700), and N(1720)) with different prescriptions for crossed terms and widths, to fit the latest world database on pion photoproduction. We compare {chi}{sup 2} results from selected multipoles and fits. The {chi}{sup 2} is highly dependent on the fulfillment of crossing symmetry and the inclusion of u channels.
A Phenomenological Model of Star Formation Efficiency in Dark Matter Halos
Finnegan, Daniel; Alsheshakly, Ghadeer; Moustakas, John
2018-01-01
The efficiency of star formation in massive dark matter halos is extraordinarily low, less than 10% in >10^13 Msun sized halos. Although many physical processes have been proposed to explain this low efficiency, such as feedback from supermassive black halos and massive stars, this question remains one of the most important outstanding problems in galaxy evolution. To explore this problem, we build a simple phenomenological model to predict the variations in gas fraction and star formation efficiency as a function of halo mass. We compare our model predictions to central galaxy stellar masses and halo masses drawn from the literature, and discuss plans for our future work.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaves, Max
2006-01-01
The conception of the magnetic string is presented as an infinitely thin bundle of magnetic flux lines. The magnetic strings are surrounded by a film of current that rotates around them, and are a solution of Maxwell's equations. The magnetic potential contains a line singularity, and its stability can be established topologically. A few comments are added on the possibility that they may exist at a cosmological scale as relics of the Big Bang. (author) [es
Wang, Hai Tao; Cho, Sam Young
2015-01-14
In order to investigate the quantum phase transition in the one-dimensional quantum compass model, we numerically calculate non-local string correlations, entanglement entropy and fidelity per lattice site by using the infinite matrix product state representation with the infinite time evolving block decimation method. In the whole range of the interaction parameters, we find that four distinct string orders characterize the four different Haldane phases and the topological quantum phase transition occurs between the Haldane phases. The critical exponents of the string order parameters β = 1/8 and the cental charges c = 1/2 at the critical points show that the topological phase transitions between the phases belong to an Ising type of universality classes. In addition to the string order parameters, the singularities of the second derivative of the ground state energies per site, the continuous and singular behaviors of the Von Neumann entropy and the pinch points of the fidelity per lattice site manifest that the phase transitions between the phases are of the second-order, in contrast to the first-order transition suggested in previous studies.
The social structure of ''experimental'' strings at Fermilab; a physics and detector driven model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bodnarczuk, M.
1990-01-01
Physicists in HEP have been forced to organize large scientific projects without a well defined organizational or sociological model to guide them. In the absence of such models, what structures do experimentalists use to develop social structures in HEP? In this paper, I claim that physicists organize around what they know best, the physics problems they study and the detectors and devices they study them with. After describing the advent of ''management'' in HEP, I use a case study of 4 Fermilab experiments as the base upon which to propose a physics and detector driven model of social structure for experiments. In addition, I show how this model can be extended to describe ''strings'' of experiments, where continuities of physics interests, spectrometer design, and a core group of physicists become a definable sociological unit that can exist for over 15 years. A dominate theme that emerges from my analysis is the conscious attempt on the part of experimenters to remove the uncertainties that are part of the practice of HEP
Introduction to strings and superstrings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Traubenberg, M.R. de.
1988-01-01
We discuss the main features on the formulation of string theory that, in a primitive level, describe the hadronic phenomenon of duality. We also study an extension of the models of closed and strings with spin. Then, by using supersymmetry, it is formulated the theory of superstrings and heterotic strings with the aim of unify the fundamental interactions and matter. (M.W.O.) [pt
Hoseinzadeh, S.; Rezaei-Aghdam, A.
2017-10-01
We introduce a four-dimensional extension of the Poincaré algebra (N) in (1 + 1)-dimensional space-time and obtain a (1 + 1)-dimensional gauge symmetric gravity model using the algebra N. We show that the obtained gravity model is dual (canonically transformed) to the (1 + 1)-dimensional anti de Sitter (AdS) gravity. We also obtain some black hole and Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) solutions by solving its classical equations of motion. Then, we study A4,8A1/⊗A1 gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) model and obtain some exact black hole and cosmological solutions in string theory. We show that some obtained black hole and cosmological metrics in string theory are same as the metrics obtained in solutions of our gauge symmetric gravity model.
Arghavani, J.; Auricchio, F.; Naghdabadi, R.; Reali, A.; Sohrabpour, S.
2010-06-01
Most devices based on shape memory alloys experience both finite deformations and non-proportional loading conditions in engineering applications. This motivates the development of constitutive models considering finite strain as well as martensite variant reorientation. To this end, in the present article, based on the principles of continuum thermodynamics with internal variables, a three-dimensional finite strain phenomenological constitutive model is proposed taking its basis from the recent model in the small strain regime proposed by Panico and Brinson (J Mech Phys Solids 55:2491-2511, 2007). In the finite strain constitutive model derivation, a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into elastic and inelastic parts, together with an additive decomposition of the inelastic strain rate tensor into transformation and reorientation parts is adopted. Moreover, it is shown that, when linearized, the proposed model reduces exactly to the original small strain model.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cherry, John F.; Frandsen, Mads T.; Shoemaker, Ian M.
2015-01-01
We investigate the direct detection phenomenology of a class of dark matter (DM) models in which DM does not directly interact with nuclei, {but rather} the products of its annihilation do. When these annihilation products are very light compared to the DM mass, the scattering in direct detection...... to nuclei, the limit from annihilation to relativistic particles in the Sun can be stronger than that of conventional non-relativistic direct detection by more than three orders of magnitude for masses in a 2-7 GeV window....
Casali, Eduardo; Tourkine, Piotr
2018-03-01
Twistor string models have been known for more than a decade now but have come back under the spotlight recently with the advent of the scattering equation formalism which has greatly generalized the scope of these models. A striking ubiquitous feature of these models has always been that, contrary to usual string theory, they do not admit vibrational modes and thus describe only conventional field theory. In this paper we report on the surprising discovery of a whole new sector of one of these theories which we call "twisted strings," when spacetime has compact directions. We find that the spectrum is enhanced from a finite number of states to an infinite number of interacting higher spin massive states. We describe both bosonic and world sheet supersymmetric models, their spectra and scattering amplitudes. These models have distinctive features of both string and field theory, for example they are invariant under stringy T-duality but have the high energy behavior typical of field theory. Therefore they describe a new kind of field theories in target space, sitting on their own halfway between string and field theory.
Comparing double string theory actions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Angelis, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi “Federico II” di Napoli,Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo ed. 6, via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Gionti, S.J.G. [Specola Vaticana, Vatican City, V-00120, Vatican City State and Vatican Observatory Research Group, Steward Observatory, The University Of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Marotta, R.; Pezzella, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli,Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo ed. 6, via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy)
2014-04-28
Aimed to a deeper comprehension of a manifestly T-dual invariant formulation of string theory, in this paper a detailed comparison between the non-covariant action proposed by Tseytlin and the covariant one proposed by Hull is done. These are obtained by making both the string coordinates and their duals explicitly appear, on the same footing, in the world-sheet action, so “doubling” the string coordinates along the compact dimensions. After a discussion on the nature of the constraints in both the models and the relative quantization, it results that the string coordinates and their duals behave like “non-commuting” phase space coordinates but their expressions in terms of Fourier modes generate the oscillator algebra of the standard bosonic string. A proof of the equivalence of the two formulations is given. Furthermore, open-string solutions are also discussed.
Comparing double string theory actions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Angelis, L.; Gionti, S.J.G.; Marotta, R.; Pezzella, F.
2014-01-01
Aimed to a deeper comprehension of a manifestly T-dual invariant formulation of string theory, in this paper a detailed comparison between the non-covariant action proposed by Tseytlin and the covariant one proposed by Hull is done. These are obtained by making both the string coordinates and their duals explicitly appear, on the same footing, in the world-sheet action, so “doubling” the string coordinates along the compact dimensions. After a discussion on the nature of the constraints in both the models and the relative quantization, it results that the string coordinates and their duals behave like “non-commuting” phase space coordinates but their expressions in terms of Fourier modes generate the oscillator algebra of the standard bosonic string. A proof of the equivalence of the two formulations is given. Furthermore, open-string solutions are also discussed
Bianchi type I string cosmologies
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
sidered to portray early universe reasonably well. Letelier [2] obtained some particular. Bianchi type I string-dust models in which at a certain epoch, strings disappear with a phase transition to an anisotropic fluid. Another Bianchi type I model has been presented by Banerjee et al [3] which obeys Takabayashi's equation of ...
Reddy, D. R. K.; Naidu, R. L.; Sobhan Babu, K.; Dasu Naidu, K.
2014-01-01
In this paper, a spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-V cosmological model is considered in a scalar-tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Saez and Ballester (in Phys. Lett. A 113:467, 1986) when the source for energy momentum tensor is a bulk viscous fluid containing one dimensional cosmic strings. The field equations being highly non-linear, we obtain a determinate solution using the plausible physical conditions (i) the scalar of expansion of the space-time is proportional to shear scalar (ii) the baratropic equation of state for pressure and density and (iii) the bulk viscous pressure is proportional to the energy density. It is interesting to observe that cosmic strings do not survive in this model. Some physical and kinematical properties of the model are also discussed.
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Flood, Anne
2012-01-31
Phenomenology is a philosophic attitude and research approach. Its primary position is that the most basic human truths are accessible only through inner subjectivity, and that the person is integral to the environment. This paper discusses the theoretical perspectives related to phenomenology, and includes a discussion of the methods adopted in phenomenological research.
2014-01-01
A distinguishing characteristic of the biomedical model is its compartmentalized view of man. This way of seeing human beings has its origin in Greek thought; it was stated by Descartes and to this day it still considers humans as beings composed of distinct entities combined into a certain form. Because of this observation, one began to believe that the focus of a health treatment could be exclusively on the affected area of the body, without the need to pay attention to patient’s subjectivity. By seeing pain as a merely sensory response, this model was not capable of encompassing chronic pain, since the latter is a complex process that can occur independently of tissue damage. As of the second half of the twentieth century, when it became impossible to deny the relationship between psyche and soma, the current understanding of chronic pain emerges: that of chronic pain as an individual experience, the result of a sum of physical, psychological, and social factors that, for this reason, cannot be approached separately from the individual who expresses pain. This understanding has allowed a significant improvement in perspective, emphasizing the characteristic of pain as an individual experience. However, the understanding of chronic pain as a sum of factors corresponds to the current way of seeing the process of falling ill, for its conception holds a Cartesian duality and the positivist premise of a single reality. For phenomenology, on the other hand, the individual in his/her unity is more than a simple sum of parts. Phenomenology sees a human being as an intending entity, in which body, mind, and the world are intertwined and constitute each other mutually, thus establishing the human being’s integral functioning. Therefore, a real understanding of the chronic pain process would only be possible from a phenomenological point of view at the experience lived by the individual who expresses and communicates pain. PMID:24410937
Splitting strings on integrable backgrounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vicedo, Benoit
2011-05-01
We use integrability to construct the general classical splitting string solution on R x S 3 . Namely, given any incoming string solution satisfying a necessary self-intersection property at some given instant in time, we use the integrability of the worldsheet σ-model to construct the pair of outgoing strings resulting from a split. The solution for each outgoing string is expressed recursively through a sequence of dressing transformations, the parameters of which are determined by the solutions to Birkhoff factorization problems in an appropriate real form of the loop group of SL 2 (C). (orig.)
Kiritsis, Elias
2007-01-01
This book is the essential new introduction to modern string theory, by one of the world's authorities on the subject. Concise, clearly presented, and up-to-date, String Theory in a Nutshell brings together the best understood and most important aspects of a theory that has been evolving since the early 1980s. A core model of physics that substitutes one-dimensional extended ""strings"" for zero-dimensional point-like particles (as in quantum field theory), string theory has been the leading candidate for a theory that would successfully unify all fundamental forces of nature, includin
Evolution of cosmic string networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albrecht, A.; Turok, N.; Princeton Univ., NJ
1989-06-01
We summarize our new results on cosmic strings. These results include: the application of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics to cosmic string evolution, a simple ''one scale'' model for the long strings which has a great deal of predictive power, results from large scale numerical simulations, and a discussion of the observational consequences of our results. An upper bond on Gμ of approximately 10 -7 emerges from the millisecond pulsar gravity wave bound. We discuss how numerical uncertainties affect this. Any changes which weaken the bound would probably also give the long strings the dominant role in producing observational consequences. 22 refs
Photonic crystal defect mode cavity modelling: a phenomenological dimensional reduction approach
Zhou, Weidong; Qiang, Zexuan; Chen, Li
2007-05-01
A phenomenological dimensional reduction approach (PDRA) for the cavity characteristics in defect mode based photonic crystal (PC) lasers is presented. Based on the fully vectorial three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D FDTD) technique, simultaneous enhancement and suppression in spontaneous emission and absorption were obtained in an absorptive photonic crystal slab (PCS) cavity. Effective index perturbation (EIP) was proposed for fast and accurate determination of the effective index and the dominant resonant cavity frequency in a 3D PCS structure, with two-dimensional (2D) FDTD simulation. Further dimensional reduction from 2D to one-dimensional planar cavity enables phenomenological modelling of lasing characteristics via the effective reflectivity calculation and rate equation analysis. Very fast and accurate results have been achieved with this PDRA approach. A high spontaneous emission factor and cavity quality factor Q were obtained in a single defect cavity, which led to over an order reduction in lasing gain threshold. The model offers a fast and accurate tool for the design and modelling of PC defect mode cavity based devices and aids the research in the proposed novel defect mode based devices such as ultra-compact light sources on Si and spectrally resolved PC infrared photodetectors.
Correspondence between phenomenological and IBM-1 models of even isotopes of Yb
A. Okhunov, A.; I. Sharrad, F.; Anwer, A. Al-Sammarraie; U. Khandaker, M.
2015-08-01
Energy levels and the reduced probability of E2- transitions for ytterbium isotopes with proton number Z = 70 and neutron numbers between 100 and 106 have been calculated through phenomenological (PhM) and interacting boson (IBM-1) models. The predicted low-lying levels (energies, spins and parities) and the reduced probability for E2- transitions results are reasonably consistent with the available experimental data. The predicted low-lying levels (gr-, β1- and γ1- band) produced in the PhM are in good agreement with the experimental data compared with those by IBM-1 for all nuclei of interest. In addition, the phenomenological model was successful in predicting the β2-, β3-, β4-, γ2- and 1+ - band while it was a failure with IBM-1. Also, the 3+- band is predicted by the IBM-1 model for 172Yb and 174Yb nuclei. All calculations are compared with the available experimental data. Supported by Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) of Ministry of Higher Education of Malaysia (FRGS13-074-0315), Islamic Development Bank (IDB) (36/11201905/35/IRQ/D31, 37/IRQ/P30)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
La, R.
1997-01-01
This work deals with the eddy current non-destructive test ing. Its long-term goal is to design an 'inverse model' for evaluating the geometry an d the dimensions of steam generator tube flaws from eddy current signals. The approach we adopted requires the preliminary knowledge of a 'forward model' that estimates the eddy current signal knowing the geometry and the dimensions of the flaws. A quasi-exhaustive study of the existing forward models showed their inadequacy to solve the inverse problem. Hence, we proposed to build a general forward model, appropriate to the inversion. Using a parametric approach, this model is phenomenological, i.e. it is based on observations made from results of a finite element code. For each position of the coil, the proposed forward model fist discretized the eddy current distribution into 'tubes of current'. A parametric description of the shape of these tubes is given according the system constituted of the coil and the tubes of current as a 'multi-transformer', their current signal, can then be deduced. The model was validated in the case of an axisymmetric configuration. Comparisons with both analytical and numerical models showed very good agreements. Then, the proposed model was applied to a three-dimensional configuration. Comparisons with experimental results are sufficiently conclusive to validate the approach to the construction of the phenomenological model. However, before envisaging the inverse problem, the computation time, still too long, ought to be reduced and the parametric description needs to be generalized to other three-dimensional configurations. (author)
Non-material finite element modelling of large vibrations of axially moving strings and beams
Vetyukov, Yury
2018-02-01
We present a new mathematical model for the dynamics of a beam or a string, which moves in a given axial direction across a particular domain. Large in-plane vibrations are coupled with the gross axial motion, and a Lagrangian (material) form of the equations of structural mechanics becomes inefficient. The proposed mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian description features mechanical fields as functions of a spatial coordinate in the axial direction. The material travels across a finite element mesh, and the boundary conditions are applied in fixed nodes. Beginning with the variational equation of virtual work in its material form, we analytically derive the Lagrange's equations of motion of the second kind for the considered case of a discretized non-material control domain and for geometrically exact kinematics. The dynamic analysis is straightforward as soon as the strain and the kinetic energies of the control domain are available. In numerical simulations we demonstrate the rapid mesh convergence of the model, the effect of the bending stiffness and the dynamic instability when the axial velocity gets high. We also show correspondence to the results of fully Lagrangian benchmark solutions.
AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)673023; Blanco Viñuela, Enrique
In each of eight arcs of the 27 km circumference Large Hadron Collider (LHC), 2.5 km long strings of super-conducting magnets are cooled with superfluid Helium II at 1.9 K. The temperature stabilisation is a challenging control problem due to complex non-linear dynamics of the magnets temperature and presence of multiple operational constraints. Strong nonlinearities and variable dead-times of the dynamics originate at strongly heat-flux dependent effective heat conductivity of superfluid that varies three orders of magnitude over the range of possible operational conditions. In order to improve the temperature stabilisation, a proof of concept on-line economic output-feedback Non-linear Model Predictive Controller (NMPC) is presented in this thesis. The controller is based on a novel complex first-principles distributed parameters numerical model of the temperature dynamics over a 214 m long sub-sector of the LHC that is characterized by very low computational cost of simulation needed in real-time optimizat...
Non-hermitian symmetric N = 2 coset models, Poincare polynomials, and string compactification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuchs, J.; Schweigert, C.
1994-01-01
The field identification problem, including fixed point resolution, is solved for the non-hermitian symmetric N = 2 superconformal coset theories. Thereby these models are finally identified as well-defined modular invariant conformal field theories. As an application, the theories are used as subtheories in N = 2 tensor products with c = 9, which in turn are taken as the inner sector of heterotic superstring compactifications. All string theories of this type are classified, and the chiral ring as well as the number of massless generations and anti-generations are computed with the help of the extended Poincare polynomial. Several equivalences between a priori different non-hermitian coset theories show up; in particular there is a level-rank duality for an infinite series of coset theories based on C-type Lie algebras. Further, some general results for generic N = 2 coset theories are proven: a simple formula for the number of identification currents is found, and it is shown that the set of Ramond ground states of any N = 2 coset model is invariant under charge conjugation. (orig.)
String Theory for Pedestrians (1/3)
CERN. Geneva
2009-01-01
This is a non-technical rapid course on string theory. Lecture 1 is an introduction to the basics of the subject: classical and quantum strings, D(irichlet) branes and string-string dualities. In lecture 2 I will discuss string unification of the fundamental forces, covering both its successes and failures. Finally in lecture 3 I will review string models of black hole microstates, the holographic gauge/gravity duality and, if time permits, potential applications to the physics of the strong interactions.
String Theory for Pedestrians (2/3)
CERN. Geneva
2009-01-01
This is a non-technical rapid course on string theory. Lecture 1 is an introduction to the basics of the subject: classical and quantum strings, D(irichlet) branes and string-string dualities. In lecture 2 I will discuss string unification of the fundamental forces, covering both its successes and failures. Finally in lecture 3 I will review string models of black hole microstates, the holographic gauge/gravity duality and, if time permits, potential applications to the physics of the strong interactions.
String Theory for Pedestrians (3/3)
CERN. Geneva
2009-01-01
This is a non-technical rapid course on string theory. Lecture 1 is an introduction to the basics of the subject: classical and quantum strings, D(irichlet) branes and string-string dualities. In lecture 2 I will discuss string unification of the fundamental forces, covering both its successes and failures. Finally in lecture 3 I will review string models of black hole microstates, the holographic gauge/gravity duality and, if time permits, potential applications to the physics of the strong interactions.
Non-static local string in Brans–Dicke theory
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. A recent investigation showed that a local gauge string with a phenomenological energy momentum tensor, as prescribed by Vilenkin, is inconsistent in Brans–Dicke theory. In this work it has been shown that such a string is indeed consistent if one introduces time dependences in the metric. A set of solutions of full ...
Symmetries and Interactions in Matrix String Theory
Hacquebord, F.H.
1999-01-01
This PhD-thesis reviews matrix string theory and recent developments therein. The emphasis is put on symmetries, interactions and scattering processes in the matrix model. We start with an introduction to matrix string theory and a review of the orbifold model that flows out of matrix string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bui, V.A.
1998-01-01
The objective of this work is to address the modeling of the thermal hydrodynamic phenomena and interactions occurring during the progression of reactor severe accidents. Integrated phenomenological models are developed to describe the accident scenarios, which consist of many processes, while mechanistic modeling, including direct numerical simulation, is carried out to describe separate effects and selected physical phenomena of particular importance
Non-commutative analytic geometry and a new model for the field theory of closed bosonic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Awada, M.A.
1986-07-01
We propose a new model for the field theory of interacting closed bosonic strings. The key ingredient in our constructions is based on the assumption that the action is written in terms of two independent states rather than one state. The first state is chiral while the second state is antichiral. The new picture of the corresponding vertex operator is not just an overlap ''δ'' functional
Higgs phenomenology in the minimal S U (3 )L×U (1 )X model
Okada, Hiroshi; Okada, Nobuchika; Orikasa, Yuta; Yagyu, Kei
2016-07-01
We investigate the phenomenology of a model based on the S U (3 )c×S U (3 )L×U (1 )X gauge theory, the so-called 331 model. In particular, we focus on the Higgs sector of the model which is composed of three S U (3 )L triplet Higgs fields and is the minimal form for realizing a phenomenologically acceptable scenario. After the spontaneous symmetry breaking S U (3 )L×U (1 )X→S U (2 )L×U (1 )Y , our Higgs sector effectively becomes that with two S U (2 )L doublet scalar fields, in which the first- and the second-generation quarks couple to a different Higgs doublet from that which couples to the third-generation quarks. This structure causes the flavor-changing neutral current mediated by Higgs bosons at the tree level. By taking an alignment limit of the mass matrix for the C P -even Higgs bosons, which is naturally realized in the case with the breaking scale of S U (3 )L×U (1 )X much larger than that of S U (2 )L×U (1 )Y, we can avoid current constraints from flavor experiments such as the B0-B¯ 0 mixing even for the Higgs bosons masses that are O (100 ) GeV . In this allowed parameter space, we clarify that a characteristic deviation in quark Yukawa couplings of the Standard Model-like Higgs boson is predicted, which has a different pattern from that seen in two Higgs doublet models with a softly broken Z2 symmetry. We also find that the flavor-violating decay modes of the extra Higgs boson, e.g., H /A →t c and H±→t s , can be dominant, and they yield the important signature to distinguish our model from the two Higgs doublet models.
From Type II string theory toward BSM/dark sector physics
Honecker, Gabriele
2016-11-01
Four-dimensional compactifications of string theory provide a controlled set of possible gauge representations accounting for BSM particles and dark sector components. In this review, constraints from perturbative Type II string compactifications in the geometric regime are discussed in detail and then compared to results from heterotic string compactifications and nonperturbative/nongeometric corners. As a prominent example, an open string realization of the QCD axion is presented. The status of deriving the associated low-energy effective action in four dimensions is discussed and open avenues of major phenomenological importance are highlighted. As examples, a mechanism of closed string moduli stabilization by D-brane backreaction as well as one-loop threshold corrections to the gauge couplings and balancing a low string scale Mstring with unisotropic compact dimensions are discussed together with implications on potential future new physics observations. For illustrative purposes, an explicit example of a globally consistent D6-brane model with MSSM-like spectrum on T6/(ℤ 2 × ℤ6 × Ωℛ) is presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marzola, Luca; Racioppi, Antonio; Vaskonen, Ville [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Tallinn (Estonia)
2017-07-15
Thermal corrections in classically conformal models typically induce a strong first-order electroweak phase transition, thereby resulting in a stochastic gravitational background that could be detectable at gravitational wave observatories. After reviewing the basics of classically conformal scenarios, in this paper we investigate the phase transition dynamics in a thermal environment and the related gravitational wave phenomenology within the framework of scalar conformal extensions of the Standard Model. We find that minimal extensions involving only one additional scalar field struggle to reproduce the correct phase transition dynamics once thermal corrections are accounted for. Next-to-minimal models, instead, yield the desired electroweak symmetry breaking and typically result in a very strong gravitational wave signal. (orig.)
Study of creep-fatigue behavior in a 1000 MW rotor using a phenomenological lifetime model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, Nailong; Wang, Weizhe; Jiang, Jishen; Liu, Yingzheng [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai (China)
2017-02-15
In this study, the phenomenological lifetime model was applied to part of an ultra-supercritical steam turbine rotor model to predict its lifetime as a post processing of the finite element method. To validate the accuracy and adaptation of the post processing program, stress strain hysteresis loops of a cylinderal model under service-like load cycle conditions in cycle N = 1 and 300 were constructed, and the comparison of the results with experimental data on the same cylinderal specimen showed them to be satisfactory. The temperature and von Mises stress distributions of the rotor during a startup-running-shutdown-natural cool process were numerically studied using ABAQUS and the damage caused by the interaction of creep and fatigue was subsequently computed and discussed. It was found that the maximum damage appeared at the inlet notch zone, with the blade groove areas and the front notch areas also suffering a large damage amplitude.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amore, Paolo; Fernández, Francisco M.; Garcia, Javier; Gutierrez, German
2014-01-01
We study both analytically and numerically the spectrum of inhomogeneous strings with PT-symmetric density. We discuss an exactly solvable model of PT-symmetric string which is isospectral to the uniform string; for more general strings, we calculate exactly the sum rules Z(p)≡∑ n=1 ∞ 1/E n p , with p=1,2,… and find explicit expressions which can be used to obtain bounds on the lowest eigenvalue. A detailed numerical calculation is carried out for two non-solvable models depending on a parameter, obtaining precise estimates of the critical values where pair of real eigenvalues become complex. -- Highlights: •PT-symmetric Hamiltonians exhibit real eigenvalues when PT symmetry is unbroken. •We study PT-symmetric strings with complex density. •They exhibit regions of unbroken PT symmetry. •We calculate the critical parameters at the boundaries of those regions. •There are exact real sum rules for some particular complex densities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Engquist, J. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University (Netherlands); Sundell, P. [INFN, Pisa (Italy); Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); Tamassia, L. [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)
2007-05-15
The group theoretical structure underlying physics in anti de Sitter (AdS) spacetime is intrinsically different with respect to the flat case, due to the presence of special ultra-short representations, named singletons, that do not admit a flat space limit. The purpose of this collaboration is to exploit this feature in the study of string and brane dynamics in AdS spacetime, in particular while trying to establish a connection between String Theory in AdS backgrounds (in the tensionless limit) and Higher-Spin Gauge Theory. (orig.)
A brief history of string theory. From dual models to M-theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rickles, Dean [Sydney Univ. (Australia). Unit for History and Philosophy of Science
2014-04-01
First monograph devoted to the history of superstring theory. Objective presentation of a controversial area of physics enabling readers to see through the divisive hype and hysteria forming the 'String Wars'. Interweaves conceptual issues with the wider historical development. Reveals string theory's historically close connections with other areas of physics. Self-contained approach brings string theory within the grasp of non-specialists. During its forty year lifespan, string theory has always had the power to divide, being called both a 'theory of everything' and a 'theory of nothing'. Critics have even questioned whether it qualifies as a scientific theory at all. This book adopts an objective stance, standing back from the question of the truth or falsity of string theory and instead focusing on how it came to be and how it came to occupy its present position in physics. An unexpectedly rich history is revealed, with deep connections to our most well-established physical theories. Fully self-contained and written in a lively fashion, the book will appeal to a wide variety of readers from novice to specialist.
A brief history of string theory. From dual models to M-theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rickles, Dean
2014-01-01
First monograph devoted to the history of superstring theory. Objective presentation of a controversial area of physics enabling readers to see through the divisive hype and hysteria forming the 'String Wars'. Interweaves conceptual issues with the wider historical development. Reveals string theory's historically close connections with other areas of physics. Self-contained approach brings string theory within the grasp of non-specialists. During its forty year lifespan, string theory has always had the power to divide, being called both a 'theory of everything' and a 'theory of nothing'. Critics have even questioned whether it qualifies as a scientific theory at all. This book adopts an objective stance, standing back from the question of the truth or falsity of string theory and instead focusing on how it came to be and how it came to occupy its present position in physics. An unexpectedly rich history is revealed, with deep connections to our most well-established physical theories. Fully self-contained and written in a lively fashion, the book will appeal to a wide variety of readers from novice to specialist.
Strings for quantumchromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schomerus, V.
2007-04-01
During the last decade, intriguing dualities between gauge and string theory have been found and explored. they provide a novel window on strongly couplde gauge physics, including QCD-like models. Based on a short historical review of modern string theory, we explain how so-called AdS/CFT dualities emerged at the end of the 1990s. Some of their concrete implications and remarkable recent progress are then illustrated for the simplest example, namely the multicolor limit of N=4 SYM theory in four dimensions. We end with a few comments on existing extensions to more realistic models and applications, in particular to the sQGP. This text is meant as a non-technical introduction to gauge/string dualities for (particle) physicists. (orig.)
Classification of standard-like heterotic-string vacua
Faraggi, Alon E.; Rizos, John; Sonmez, Hasan
2018-02-01
We extend the free fermionic classification methodology to the class of standard-like heterotic-string vacua, in which the SO (10) GUT symmetry is broken at the string level to SU (3) × SU (2) × U(1) 2. The space of GGSO free phase configurations in this case is vastly enlarged compared to the corresponding SO (6) × SO (4) and SU (5) × U (1) vacua. Extracting substantial numbers of phenomenologically viable models therefore requires a modification of the classification methods. This is achieved by identifying conditions on the GGSO projection coefficients, which are satisfied at the SO (10) level by random phase configurations, and that lead to three generation models with the SO (10) symmetry broken to the SU (3) × SU (2) × U(1) 2 subgroup. Around each of these fertile SO (10) configurations, we perform a complete classification of standard-like models, by adding the SO (10) symmetry breaking basis vectors, and scanning all the associated GGSO phases. Following this methodology we are able to generate some 107 three generation Standard-like Models. We present the results of the classification and one exemplary model with distinct phenomenological properties, compared to previous SLM constructions.
Tadpole resummations in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitazawa, Noriaki
2008-01-01
While R-R tadpoles should be canceled for consistency, string models with broken supersymmetry generally have uncanceled NS-NS tadpoles. Their presence signals that the background does not solve the field equations, so that these models are in 'wrong' vacua. In this Letter we investigate, with reference to some prototype examples, whether the true values of physical quantities can be recovered resumming the NS-NS tadpoles, hence by an approach that is related to the analysis based on String Field Theory by open-closed duality. We show that, indeed, the positive classical vacuum energy of a Dp-brane of the bosonic string is exactly canceled by the negative contribution arising from tree-level tadpole resummation, in complete agreement with Sen's conjecture on open-string tachyon condensation and with the consequent analysis based on String Field Theory. We also show that the vanishing classical vacuum energy of the SO(8192) unoriented bosonic open-string theory does not receive any tree-level corrections from the tadpole resummation. This result is consistent with the fact that this (unstable) configuration is free from tadpoles of massless closed-string modes, although there is a tadpole of the closed string tachyon. The application of this method to superstring models with broken supersymmetry is also discussed
Kauranen, P. S.
1993-04-01
In the solid state concept of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), methanol is directly oxidized at the anode of a solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell (SPEFC). Mathematical modelling of the transport and reaction phenomena within the electrodes and the electrolyte membrane is needed in order to get a closer insight into the operation of the fuel cell. In the work, macro-homogenous porous electrode and dilute solution theories are used to derive the phenomenological equations describing the transport and reaction mechanisms in a SPEFC single cell. The equations are first derived for a conventional H2/air SPEFC, and then extended for a DMFC. The basic model is derived in a one dimensional form in which it is assumed that species transport take place only in the direction crossing the cell sandwich. In addition, two dimensional descriptions of the catalyst layer are reviewed.
The issue of supersymmetry breaking in strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Binetruy, P.
1989-12-01
We discuss the central role that supersymmetry plays in string models, both in spacetime and at the level of the string world-sheet. The problems associated with supersymmetry-breaking are reviewed together with some of the attempts to solve them, in the string as well as the field theory approach
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.
Intended primarily for use by instrumental music teachers who do not have a major concentration in strings, this guide provides pertinent basic resources, materials, teaching--learning expectation, and a general overall guide to achievement levels at various stages of development. Discussions are presented of Choosing the Proper Method Book,…
A phenomenological memristor model for short-term/long-term memory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Ling, E-mail: 2006chenling2006@163.com [College of Computer Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Li, Chuandong, E-mail: licd@cqu.edu.cn [College of Computer Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Huang, Tingwen [Texas A and M University at Qatar, Doha, B.O. Box 23874 (Qatar); Ahmad, Hafiz Gulfam [College of Computer Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Chen, Yiran [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)
2014-08-14
Memristor is considered to be a natural electrical synapse because of its distinct memory property and nanoscale. In recent years, more and more similar behaviors are observed between memristors and biological synapse, e.g., short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). The traditional mathematical models are unable to capture the new emerging behaviors. In this article, an updated phenomenological model based on the model of the Hewlett–Packard (HP) Labs has been proposed to capture such new behaviors. The new dynamical memristor model with an improved ion diffusion term can emulate the synapse behavior with forgetting effect, and exhibit the transformation between the STM and the LTM. Further, this model can be used in building new type of neural networks with forgetting ability like biological systems, and it is verified by our experiment with Hopfield neural network. - Highlights: • We take the Fick diffusion and the Soret diffusion into account in the ion drift theory. • We develop a new model based on the old HP model. • The new model can describe the forgetting effect and the spike-rate-dependent property of memristor. • The new model can solve the boundary effect of all window functions discussed in [13]. • A new Hopfield neural network with the forgetting ability is built by the new memristor model.
A phenomenological memristor model for short-term/long-term memory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Ling; Li, Chuandong; Huang, Tingwen; Ahmad, Hafiz Gulfam; Chen, Yiran
2014-01-01
Memristor is considered to be a natural electrical synapse because of its distinct memory property and nanoscale. In recent years, more and more similar behaviors are observed between memristors and biological synapse, e.g., short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). The traditional mathematical models are unable to capture the new emerging behaviors. In this article, an updated phenomenological model based on the model of the Hewlett–Packard (HP) Labs has been proposed to capture such new behaviors. The new dynamical memristor model with an improved ion diffusion term can emulate the synapse behavior with forgetting effect, and exhibit the transformation between the STM and the LTM. Further, this model can be used in building new type of neural networks with forgetting ability like biological systems, and it is verified by our experiment with Hopfield neural network. - Highlights: • We take the Fick diffusion and the Soret diffusion into account in the ion drift theory. • We develop a new model based on the old HP model. • The new model can describe the forgetting effect and the spike-rate-dependent property of memristor. • The new model can solve the boundary effect of all window functions discussed in [13]. • A new Hopfield neural network with the forgetting ability is built by the new memristor model
Some physical aspects of Liouville string dynamics
Ellis, John R.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.
1994-01-01
We discuss some physical aspects of our Liouville approach to non-critical strings, including the emergence of a microscopic arrow of time, effective field theories as classical ``pointer'' states in theory space, CPT violation and the possible apparent non-conservation of angular momentum. We also review the application of a phenomenological parametrization of this formalism to the neutral kaon system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henrot-Versillé, Sophie; Robinet, Florent; Leroy, Nicolas; Plaszczynski, Stéphane; Arnaud, Nicolas; Bizouard, Marie-Anne; Cavalier, Fabien; Christensen, Nelson; Couchot, François; Franco, Samuel; Hello, Patrice; Huet, Dominique; Kasprzack, Marie; Perdereau, Olivier; Spinelli, Marta; Tristram, Matthieu
2015-01-01
The production of a primordial stochastic gravitational-wave (GW) background by processes occuring in the early Universe is expected in a broad range of models. Observing this background would open a unique window onto the Universe's evolutionary history. Probes like the cosmic microwave background (CMB) or the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) can be used to set upper limits on the stochastic GW background energy density Ω GW for frequencies above 10 −15 Hz. We perform a profile likelihood analysis of the Planck CMB temperature anisotropies and gravitational lensing data combined with WMAP low-ℓ polarization, BAO, South Pole Telescope and Atacama Cosmology Telescope data. We find that Ω GW h 0 2 <3.8×10 −6 at a 95% confidence level for adiabatic initial conditions, which improves over the previous limit by a factor 2.3. Assuming that the primordial GW has been produced by a network of cosmic strings, we have derived exclusion limits in the cosmic string parameter space. If the size of the loops is determined by gravitational back-reaction, string tension values greater than ∼4 × 10 −9 are excluded for a reconnection probability of 10 −3 . (paper)
TOPS++FATCAT: fast flexible structural alignment using constraints derived from TOPS+ Strings Model.
Veeramalai, Mallika; Ye, Yuzhen; Godzik, Adam
2008-08-31
Protein structure analysis and comparison are major challenges in structural bioinformatics. Despite the existence of many tools and algorithms, very few of them have managed to capture the intuitive understanding of protein structures developed in structural biology, especially in the context of rapid database searches. Such intuitions could help speed up similarity searches and make it easier to understand the results of such analyses. We developed a TOPS++FATCAT algorithm that uses an intuitive description of the proteins' structures as captured in the popular TOPS diagrams to limit the search space of the aligned fragment pairs (AFPs) in the flexible alignment of protein structures performed by the FATCAT algorithm. The TOPS++FATCAT algorithm is faster than FATCAT by more than an order of magnitude with a minimal cost in classification and alignment accuracy. For beta-rich proteins its accuracy is better than FATCAT, because the TOPS+ strings models contains important information of the parallel and anti-parallel hydrogen-bond patterns between the beta-strand SSEs (Secondary Structural Elements). We show that the TOPS++FATCAT errors, rare as they are, can be clearly linked to oversimplifications of the TOPS diagrams and can be corrected by the development of more precise secondary structure element definitions. The benchmark analysis results and the compressed archive of the TOPS++FATCAT program for Linux platform can be downloaded from the following web site: http://fatcat.burnham.org/TOPS/ CONCLUSION: TOPS++FATCAT provides FATCAT accuracy and insights into protein structural changes at a speed comparable to sequence alignments, opening up a possibility of interactive protein structure similarity searches.
TOPS++FATCAT: Fast flexible structural alignment using constraints derived from TOPS+ Strings Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Godzik Adam
2008-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein structure analysis and comparison are major challenges in structural bioinformatics. Despite the existence of many tools and algorithms, very few of them have managed to capture the intuitive understanding of protein structures developed in structural biology, especially in the context of rapid database searches. Such intuitions could help speed up similarity searches and make it easier to understand the results of such analyses. Results We developed a TOPS++FATCAT algorithm that uses an intuitive description of the proteins' structures as captured in the popular TOPS diagrams to limit the search space of the aligned fragment pairs (AFPs in the flexible alignment of protein structures performed by the FATCAT algorithm. The TOPS++FATCAT algorithm is faster than FATCAT by more than an order of magnitude with a minimal cost in classification and alignment accuracy. For beta-rich proteins its accuracy is better than FATCAT, because the TOPS+ strings models contains important information of the parallel and anti-parallel hydrogen-bond patterns between the beta-strand SSEs (Secondary Structural Elements. We show that the TOPS++FATCAT errors, rare as they are, can be clearly linked to oversimplifications of the TOPS diagrams and can be corrected by the development of more precise secondary structure element definitions. Software Availability The benchmark analysis results and the compressed archive of the TOPS++FATCAT program for Linux platform can be downloaded from the following web site: http://fatcat.burnham.org/TOPS/ Conclusion TOPS++FATCAT provides FATCAT accuracy and insights into protein structural changes at a speed comparable to sequence alignments, opening up a possibility of interactive protein structure similarity searches.
Reuber, Markus; Brown, Richard J
2017-01-01
Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures (PNES) are one of the commonest differential diagnoses of epilepsy. This paper provides a narrative review of what has been learnt in the last 25 years regarding the visible manifestations, physiological features, subjective experiences and interactional aspects of PNES. We then explore how current insights into PNES semiology and phenomenology map onto the Integrative Cognitive Model (ICM), a new account of these phenomena that unifies previous approaches within a single explanatory framework. We discuss to what extent recent psychological and neurophysiological research is consistent with the ICM and indicate how the more detailed analysis of physiological data, connectivity analyses of EEG and functional or structural MRI data may provide greater insights into the biopsychosocial underpinnings of a disabling and under-researched disorder. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A Phenomenological Model For The Spin Stiffness Of A Half-metallic Ferromagnet
Chura, Raul; Bedell, Kevin
By using the Fermi Liquid Theory for Spin Polarized Systems, more specifically, by using the linearized form of Landau Silin Kinetic Equation, and after considering an appropriate approximation, we have obtained the dispersion relationships describing the collective modes for the spin waves in a Half Metallic Ferromagnetic (HMF) material. Our results predict the existence of a gapless mode for the spin dynamics of a HMF, in agreement with experiment. In addition, our calculations allowed us to get a phenomenological formula for the spin stiffness of HMF materials, which being entirely in terms of band theory and Landau interaction parameters, allowed us to test that formula for those HMF materials for which we were able to find, in the available literature, the required data. For these materials our model is consistent with experiment. Work supported by Grant Number CANON-CU-005-2013 at UNSAAC, Cusco, Peru.
On exceptional instanton strings
Del Zotto, M.; Lockhart, G.
According to a recent classification of 6d (1, 0) theories within F-theory there are only six “pure” 6d gauge theories which have a UV superconformal fixed point. The corresponding gauge groups are SU(3), SO(8), F4, E6, E7, and E8. These exceptional models have BPS strings which are also instantons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schäfer, Mirko; Greiner, Martin
Chaotic strings are coupled Tchebyscheff maps on a ring-network. With a well-specified empirical prescription they are able to explain the coupling constants of the standard model of elementary particle physics. This empirical relationship is tested further by introducing a tunable disorder to ch...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schäfer, Mirko; Greiner, Martin
2011-01-01
Chaotic strings are coupled Tchebyscheff maps on a ring-network. With a well-specified empirical prescription they are able to explain the coupling constants of the standard model of elementary particle physics. This empirical relationship is tested further by introducing a tunable disorder to ch...
2007-01-01
"How can the nature of basic particles be defined beyond the mechanisms presiding over their creation? Besides the standard model of particle physics - resulting from the postulations of quantum mechanics - contemporary science has pinned its hopes on the totally new unifying notion provided by the highly mathematical string theory."(2 pages)
Antusch, Stefan; Cefalà, Francesco; Krippendorf, Sven; Muia, Francesco; Orani, Stefano; Quevedo, Fernando
2018-01-01
A generic feature of string compactifications is the presence of many scalar fields, called moduli. Moduli are usually displaced from their post-inflationary minimum during inflation. Their relaxation to the minimum could lead to the production of oscillons: localised, long-lived, non-linear excitations of the scalar fields. Here we discuss under which conditions oscillons can be produced in string cosmology and illustrate their production and potential phenomenology with two explicit examples: the case of an initially displaced volume modulus in the KKLT scenario and the case of a displaced blow-up Kähler modulus in the Large Volume Scenario (LVS). One, in principle, observable consequence of oscillon dynamics is the production of gravitational waves which, contrary to those produced from preheating after high scale inflation, could have lower frequencies, closer to the currently observable range. We also show that, for the considered parameter ranges, oscillating fibre and volume moduli do not develop any significant non-perturbative dynamics. Furthermore, we find that the vacua in the LVS and the KKLT scenario are stable against local overshootings of the field into the decompatification region, which provides an additional check on the longevity of these metastable configurations.
Progress in string theory research
2016-01-01
At the first look, the String Theory seems just an interesting and non-trivial application of the quantum mechanics and the special relativity to vibrating strings. By itself, the quantization of relativistic strings does not call the attention of the particle physicist as a significant paradigm shift. However, when the string quantization is performed by applying the standard rules of the perturbative Quantum Field Theory, one discovers that the strings in certain states have the same physical properties as the gravity in the flat space-time. Chapter one of this book reviews the construction of the thermal bosonic string and D-brane in the framework of the Thermo Field Dynamics (TFD). It briefly recalls the wellknown light-cone quantization of the bosonic string in the conformal gauge in flat space-time, and gives a bird’s eye view of the fundamental concepts of the TFD. Chapter two examines a visual model inspired by string theory, on the system of interacting anyons. Chapter three investigate the late-ti...
String-localized quantum fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mund, Jens; Santos, Jose Amancio dos; Silva, Cristhiano Duarte; Oliveira, Erichardson de
2009-01-01
Full text. The principles of physics admit (unobservable) quantum fields which are localized not on points, but on strings in the sense of Mandelstam: a string emanates from a point in Minkowski space and extends to infinity in some space-like direction. This type of localization might permit the construction of new models, for various reasons: (a) in general, weaker localization implies better UV behaviour. Therefore, the class of renormalizable interactions in the string-localized has a chance to be larger than in the point-localized case; (b) for certain particle types, there are no point-localized (free) quantum fields - for example Anyons in d = 2 + 1, and Wigner's massless 'infinite spin' particles. For the latter, free string-localized quantum fields have been constructed; (c) in contrast to the point-localized case, string-localization admits covariant vector/tensor potentials for fotons and gravitons in a Hilbert space representation with positive energy. We shall present free string-localized quantum fields for various particle types, and some ideas about the perturbative construction of interacting string-localized fields. A central point will be an analogue of gauge theories, completely within a Hilbert space and without ghosts, trading gauge dependence with dependence on the direction of the localization string. In order to discuss renormalizability (item (a)), methods from microlocal analysis (wave front set and scaling degree) are needed. (author)
Pothapragada, Seetha; Zhang, Peng; Sheriff, Jawaad; Livelli, Mark; Slepian, Marvin J; Deng, Yuefan; Bluestein, Danny
2015-03-01
We developed a phenomenological three-dimensional platelet model to characterize the filopodia formation observed during early stage platelet activation. Departing from continuum mechanics based approaches, this coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) particle-based model can deform to emulate the complex shape change and filopodia formation that platelets undergo during activation. The platelet peripheral zone is modeled with a two-layer homogeneous elastic structure represented by spring-connected particles. The structural zone is represented by a cytoskeletal assembly comprising of a filamentous core and filament bundles supporting the platelet's discoid shape, also modeled by spring-connected particles. The interior organelle zone is modeled by homogeneous cytoplasm particles that facilitate the platelet deformation. Nonbonded interactions among the discrete particles of the membrane, the cytoskeletal assembly, and the cytoplasm are described using the Lennard-Jones potential with empirical constants. By exploring the parameter space of this CGMD model, we have successfully simulated the dynamics of varied filopodia formations. Comparative analyses of length and thickness of filopodia show that our numerical simulations are in agreement with experimental measurements of flow-induced activated platelets. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Oh, Ki-Yong; Epureanu, Bogdan I.
2017-10-01
A 1-D phenomenological force model of a Li-ion battery pack is proposed to enhance the control performance of Li-ion battery cells in pack conditions for efficient performance and health management. The force model accounts for multiple swelling sources under the operational environment of electric vehicles to predict swelling-induced forces in pack conditions, i.e. mechanically constrained. The proposed force model not only incorporates structural nonlinearities due to Li-ion intercalation swelling, but also separates the overall range of states of charge into three ranges to account for phase transitions. Moreover, an approach to study cell-to-cell variations in pack conditions is proposed with serial and parallel combinations of linear and nonlinear stiffness, which account for battery cells and other components in the battery pack. The model is shown not only to accurately estimate the reaction force caused by swelling as a function of the state of charge, battery temperature and environmental temperature, but also to account for cell-to-cell variations due to temperature variations, SOC differences, and local degradation in a wide range of operational conditions of electric vehicles. Considering that the force model of Li-ion battery packs can account for many possible situations in actual operation, the proposed approach and model offer potential utility for the enhancement of current battery management systems and power management strategies.
Phenomenological aspects of a left-right model based on SU(3)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doas, Alex G.; Nishi, Celso C.
2011-01-01
Full text: Motivated by the problem of explaining the observed maximal parity violation in the electroweak interactions, we develop a model based on the SU(3) L x SU(3) R x U(1) X gauge symmetry, where anomalies cancellation restricts the number of families is restricted to be a multiple of three. Left-right symmetry is fully realized in the model and the standard model arises in the low energy limit. The fermionic representation content has, besides standard model fields, nine additional neutrinos which could be linked with problems like neutrino oscillation, warm dark matter and baryogenesis; six new quarks which could show up at the TeV; and also new gauge bosons whose production and associated effects observed in colliders shall indicate the parity restoration. Our focus will be mainly on the spontaneous symmetry breakdown patterns leading to a compatible scenario for particle interactions with the well tested standard model. In order to break the symmetries we take into account a set of scalar fields representation content composed by: two sextets and two bi-triplets. These fields are sufficient to implement a successful mass generation mechanisms, furnishing also a consistent mixing among the fermions. We discuss the main phenomenological issues of the model. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Haibin, E-mail: hb-zhang@xjtu.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2BY (United Kingdom); Hewitt, G.F., E-mail: g.hewitt@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2BY (United Kingdom)
2016-08-15
Highlights: • A phenomenological model to predict the CHF for flows in annuli is described. • New correlations of droplet entrainment and deposition are used. • The present model has good predictive capability in predicting CHF in annuli. - Abstract: In this paper, we present a phenomenological model to predict the CHF (critical heat flux) for upward annular flow in heated vertical annuli. In present model, a new set of correlations of droplet deposition and entrainment in annuli was used which were verified by comparison with the data of Moeck (1970) for developing liquid films in adiabatic annuli. In the results presented here, these new correlations have been used to predict 2249 independent data on critical heat flux (CHF) obtained both regarding internal heating of the rod as well as simultaneous heating of the rod and the outer tube in six heated vertical annuli under various mass flow rate, pressure and inlet quality and where the conditions were such that (as is most common) the CHF condition occurred in the annular flow regime. The comparisons between the calculated and measured CHFs showed that the present model has good predictive capability in predicting CHF.
p-adic string theories provide lattice Discretization to the ordinary string worldsheet.
Ghoshal, Debashis
2006-10-13
A class of models called p-adic strings is useful in understanding the tachyonic instability of string theory. These are found to be empirically related to the ordinary strings in the p-->1 limit. We propose that these models provide discretization for the string worldsheet and argue that the limit is naturally thought of as a continuum limit in the sense of the renormalization group.
Phenomenological Model for Phase Transformation Characteristics of Textured Shape Memory Alloys
Chatziathanasiou, Dimitris; Chemisky, Yves; Meraghni, Fodil; Chatzigeorgiou, George; Patoor, Etienne
In the present study, a new transformation criterion that includes the effect of tension-compression asymmetry and texture-induced anisotropy is proposed and combined with a thermodynamical model to describe the thermomechanical behavior of polycrystalline shape memory alloys. An altered Prager criterion has been developed, introducing a general transformation of the axes in the stress space. A convexity analysis of such criterion is included along with an identification strategy aimed at extracting the model parameters related to tension-compression asymmetry and anisotropy. These are identified from a numerical simulation of a SMA polycrystal, using a self-consistent micromechanical model previously developed by Patoor et al. (Patoor, E., Eberhardt, A., Berveiller, M., 1996. Micromechanical Modelling of Superelasticity in Shape Memory Alloys. Journal de Physique IV 6, C1 277) for several loading cases on isotropic, rolled and drawn textures. Transformation surfaces in the stress and transformation strain spaces are obtained and compared with those predicted by the micromechanical model. The good agreement obtained between the macroscopic and the microscopic polycrystalline simulations states that the proposed criterion and transformation strain evolution equation can capture phenomenologically the effects of texture on anisotropy and asymmetry in SMAs.
Hoover, Todd F.
2010-01-01
The "Magic" String is a discrepant event that includes a canister with what appears to be the end of two strings protruding from opposite sides of it. Due to the way the strings are attached inside the canister, it appears as if the strings can magically switch the way they are connected. When one string end is pulled, the observer's expectation…
D-Branes at Singularities A Bottom-Up Approach to the String Embedding of the Standard Model
Aldazabal, G.; Quevedo, F.; Uranga, A.M.
2000-01-01
We propose a bottom-up approach to the building of particle physics models from string theory. Our building blocks are Type II D-branes which we combine appropriately to reproduce desirable features of a particle theory model: 1) Chirality ; 2) Standard Model group ; 3) N=1 or N=0 supersymmetry ; 4) Three quark-lepton generations. We start such a program by studying configurations of D=10, Type IIB D3-branes located at singularities. We study in detail the case of Z_N, N=1,0 supersymmetric orbifold singularities leading to the SM group or some left-right symmetricextension. In general, tadpole cancellation conditions require the presence of additional branes, e.g. D7-branes. For the N=1 supersymmetric case the unique twist leading to three quark-lepton generations is Z_3, predicting $\\sin^2\\theta_W=3/14=0.21$. The models obtained are the simplest semirealistic string models ever built. In the non-supersymmetric case there is a three-generation model for each Z_N, N>4, but the Weinberg angle is in general too ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaikwad, N. P.; Borkar, M. S.; Charjan, S. S.
2011-01-01
We investigate the Bianchi type-I massive string magnetized barotropic perfect fluid cosmological model in Rosen's bimetric theory of gravitation with and without a magnetic field by applying the techniques used by Latelier (1979, 1980) and Stachel (1983). To obtain a deterministic model of the universe, it is assumed that the universe is filled with barotropic perfect fluid distribution. The physical and geometrical significance of the model are discussed. By comparing our model with the model of Bali et al. (2007), it is realized that there are no big-bang and big-crunch singularities in our model and T = 0 is not the time of the big bang, whereas the model of Bali et al. starts with a big bang at T = 0. Further, our model is in agreement with Bali et al. (2007) as time increases in the presence, as well as in the absence, of a magnetic field. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)
On exceptional instanton strings
Del Zotto, Michele; Lockhart, Guglielmo
2017-09-01
According to a recent classification of 6d (1 , 0) theories within F-theory there are only six "pure" 6d gauge theories which have a UV superconformal fixed point. The corresponding gauge groups are SU(3) , SO(8) , F 4 , E 6 , E 7, and E 8. These exceptional models have BPS strings which are also instantons for the corresponding gauge groups. For G simply-laced, we determine the 2d N=(0,4) worldsheet theories of such BPS instanton strings by a simple geometric engineering argument. These are given by a twisted S 2 compactification of the 4d N=2 theories of type H 2 , D 4 , E 6 , E 7 and E 8 (and their higher rank generalizations), where the 6d instanton number is mapped to the rank of the corresponding 4d SCFT. This determines their anomaly polynomials and, via topological strings, establishes an interesting relation among the corresponding T 2 × S 2 partition functions and the Hilbert series for moduli spaces of G instantons. Such relations allow to bootstrap the corresponding elliptic genera by modularity. As an example of such procedure, the elliptic genera for a single instanton string are determined. The same method also fixes the elliptic genus for case of one F 4 instanton. These results unveil a rather surprising relation with the Schur index of the corresponding 4d N=2 models.
Modeling of twisted and coiled polymer (TCP) muscle based on phenomenological approach
Karami, Farzad; Tadesse, Yonas
2017-12-01
Twisted and coiled polymers (TCP) muscles are linear actuators that respond to change in temperature. Exploiting high negative coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and helical geometry give them a significant ability to change length in a limited temperature range. Several applications and experimental data of these materials have been demonstrated in the last few years. To use these actuators in robotics and control system applications, a mathematical model for predicting their behavior is essential. In this work, a practical and accurate phenomenological model for estimating the displacement of TCP muscles, as a function of the load as well as input electrical current, is proposed. The problem is broken down into two parts, i.e. modeling of the electro-thermal and then the thermo-elastic behavior of the muscles. For the first part, a differential equation, with changing electrical resistance term, is derived. Next, by using a temperature-dependent modulus of elasticity and CTE as well as taking the geometry of the muscles into account, an expression for displacement is derived. Experimental data for different loads and actuation current levels are used for verifying the model and investigating its accuracy. The result shows a good agreement between the simulation and experimental results for all loads.
Ultrasensitive string-based temperature sensors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Tom; Schmid, Silvan; Gronberg, L.
2011-01-01
microstrings was measured. The relative change in resonant frequency per temperature change of -1.74 +/- 0.04%/ degrees C of the aluminum strings is more than one order of magnitude higher than of the silicon nitride strings and of comparable state-of-the-art AuPd strings.......Resonant strings are a promising concept for ultra sensitive temperature detection. We present an analytical model for the sensitivity with which we optimize the temperature response of resonant strings by varying geometry and material. The temperature sensitivity of silicon nitride and aluminum...
A brief history of string theory from dual models to M-theory
Rickles, Dean
2014-01-01
During its forty year lifespan, string theory has always had the power to divide, being called both a 'theory of everything' and a 'theory of nothing'. Critics have even questioned whether it qualifies as a scientific theory at all. This book adopts an objective stance, standing back from the question of the truth or falsity of string theory and instead focusing on how it came to be and how it came to occupy its present position in physics. An unexpectedly rich history is revealed, with deep connections to our most well-established physical theories. Fully self-contained and written in a lively fashion, the book will appeal to a wide variety of readers from novice to specialist.
Strings draw theorists together
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, Michael
2000-01-01
has been learned about the non-perturbative extension of string theory now known as ''M theory'' and this has shed light on many previously mysterious aspects of quantum field theory. The range of new and potentially important developments is indeed impressive. One example is the accumulation of results on the role of ''noncommutative geometry'' in string theory. Another major theme of the meeting was the new ideas on how string theory may describe observed physics, such as the forces and particles in nature and their properties. The recent work by Lisa Randall of Princeton University and Raman Sundrum of Boston University is a variant of the ''brane world'' idea that has come to the fore over the past couple of years. According to this idea, which was reviewed by Randall at the conference, our four-dimensional universe can be thought of as a membrane (known as a three-brane) that is embedded inside a higher-dimensional universe. The number of higher dimensions is predicted by the structure of string theory. The possible consequences of this are striking. For example, in such a universe the fundamental energy scale of the theory may be much smaller than the Planck energy of 10 19 GeV. Indeed, the scale could be so small that it will be accessible to direct experimental observation using the next generation of accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider that is currently under construction at CERN. This theme was further developed by Steven Hawking, who conjectured on how such a universe might have evolved from the initial quantum state that preceded the big bang. One of the most exciting developments over the past few years has been in understanding how so-called Yang-Mills gauge theories - the bread and butter of the Standard Model of particle physics - are related to quantum gravity by string theory. Particularly important is the so-called ''Maldacena correspondence'', first developed by Juan Maldacena of Harvard University. This correspondence gives an explicit
Elliptic flow in a hadron-string cascade model at 130 GeV energy
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
is required to set the thermalization time of the order of 1 fm/c in hydrodynamical .... where the average is taken over particles with the condition (ηi,pTi) = (η1,pT1) .... hadron gas [18]. Large spatial eccentricity ε is considered to be a consequence of small pT in the string fragmentation. At the hadronization time, the shift of ...
Bianchi type-III bulk viscous cosmic string model in a scalar-tensor theory of gravitation
Vidyasagar, T.; Purnachandra Rao, C.; Bhuvana Vijaya, R.; Reddy, D. R. K.
2014-01-01
A spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-III space-time is considered in the presence of bulk viscous fluid containing one dimensional cosmic strings in the frame work of a scalar-tensor theory of gravity proposed by Saez and Ballester (in Phys. Lett. A 113:467, 1986). We have obtained a determinate solution of the field equations of this theory, using (i) a barotropic equation of state for the pressure and density and (ii) the bulk viscous pressure is proportional to the energy density. Some physical properties of the model are also discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahn, C.
1989-08-01
We study two aspects of one loop structures in quantum field theories which describe two different areas of particle physics: the one loop unitarity behavior of the Standard Model of electroweak interactions and modular invariance of string model theory. Loop expansion has its importance in that it contains quantum fluctuations due to all physical states in the theory. Therefore, by studying the various models to one loop, we can understand how the contents of the theory can contribute to physically measurable quantities and how the consistency at quantum level restricts the physical states of the theory, as well. In the first half of the thesis, we study one loop corrections to the process {ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup {minus}} {yields} {ital W}{sup +}{ital W}{sup {minus}}. In this process, there is a delicate unitarity-saving cancellation between s-channel and t-channel tree level Feynman diagrams. If the one loop contribution due to heavy particles corrects the channels asymmetrically, the cancellation, hence unitarity, will be delayed up to the mass scale of these heavy particles. We refer to this phenomena as the unitarity delay effect. Due to this effect, cross section below these mass scales can have significant radiative corrections which may provide an appropriate window through which we can see the high energy structure of the Standard Model from relatively low energy experiments. In the second half, we will show how quantum consistency can restrict the physical states in string theory. 53 refs., 13 figs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ashfaque, J. [University of Liverpool, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Delle Rose, L. [University of Southampton, School of Physics and Astronomy, Southampton (United Kingdom); Faraggi, A.E. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Department of Particle Physics, Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom); Marzo, C. [Universita del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica ' ' Ennio De Giorgi' ' , Lecce (Italy); INFN, Lecce (Italy)
2016-10-15
A di-photon excess at the LHC can be explained as a Standard Model singlet that is produced and decays by heavy vector-like colour triplets and electroweak doublets in one-loop diagrams. The characteristics of the required spectrum are well motivated in heterotic-string constructions that allow for a light Z{sup '}. Anomaly cancellation of the U(1){sub Z'} symmetry requires the existence of the Standard Model singlet and vector-like states in the vicinity of the U(1){sub Z'} breaking scale. In this paper we show that the agreement with the gauge coupling data at one-loop is identical to the case of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, owing to cancellations between the additional states. We further show that effects arising from heavy thresholds may push the supersymmetric spectrum beyond the reach of the LHC, while maintaining the agreement with the gauge coupling data. We show that the string-inspired model can indeed produce an observable signal and discuss the feasibility of obtaining viable scalar mass spectrum. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahn, C.
1989-08-01
We study two aspects of one loop structures in quantum field theories which describe two different areas of particle physics: the one loop unitarity behavior of the Standard Model of electroweak interactions and modular invariance of string model theory. Loop expansion has its importance in that it contains quantum fluctuations due to all physical states in the theory. Therefore, by studying the various models to one loop, we can understand how the contents of the theory can contribute to physically measurable quantities and how the consistency at quantum level restricts the physical states of the theory, as well. In the first half of the thesis, we study one loop corrections to the process e + e - → W + W - . In this process, there is a delicate unitarity-saving cancellation between s-channel and t-channel tree level Feynman diagrams. If the one loop contribution due to heavy particles corrects the channels asymmetrically, the cancellation, hence unitarity, will be delayed up to the mass scale of these heavy particles. We refer to this phenomena as the unitarity delay effect. Due to this effect, cross section below these mass scales can have significant radiative corrections which may provide an appropriate window through which we can see the high energy structure of the Standard Model from relatively low energy experiments. In the second half, we will show how quantum consistency can restrict the physical states in string theory. 53 refs., 13 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weinberg, S.
1979-01-01
The author presents an argument that phenomenological Lagrangians can be used not only to reproduce the soft pion results of current algebra, but also to justify these results, without any use of operator algebra, and shows how phenomenological Lagrangians can be used to calculate corrections to the leading soft pion results to any desired order in external momenta. The renormalization group is used to elucidate the structure of these corrections. Corrections due to the finite mass of the pion are treated and speculations are made about another possible application of phenomenological Lagrangians. (Auth.)
Gayen, Kalyan; Venkatesh, K V
2007-05-01
Corynebacterium glutamicum is commonly used for lysine production. In the last decade, several metabolic engineering approaches have been successfully applied to C. glutamicum. However, only few studies have been focused on the kinetics of growth and lysine production. Here, we present a phenomenological model that captures the growth and lysine production during different phases of fermentation at various initial dextrose concentrations. The model invokes control coefficients to capture the dynamics of lysine and trehalose synthesis. The analysis indicated that maximum lysine productivity can be obtained using 72 g/L of initial dextrose concentration in the media, while growth was optimum at 27 g/L of dextrose concentration. The predictive capability was demonstrated through a two-stage fermentation strategy to enhance the productivity of lysine by 1.5 times of the maximum obtained in the batch fermentation. Two-stage fermentation indicated that the kinetic model could be further extended to predict the optimal feeding strategy for fed-batch fermentation.
Phenomenology of MaVaN’s Models in Reactor Neutrino Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. F. Carneiro
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Mass Varying Neutrinos (MaVaN’s mechanisms were proposed to link the neutrino mass scale with the dark energy density, addressing the coincidence problem. In some scenarios, this mass can present a dependence on the baryonic density felt by neutrinos, creating an effective neutrino mass that depends both on the neutrino and baryonic densities. In this work, we study the phenomenological consequence of MaVaN’s scenarios in which the matter density dependence is induced by Yukawa interactions of a light neutral scalar particle which couples to neutrinos and matter. Under the assumption of one mass scale dominance, we perform an analysis of KamLAND neutrino data which depends on 4 parameters: the two standard oscillation parameters, Δm0,212 and tan2θ12, and two new coefficients which parameterize the environment dependence of neutrino mass. We introduce an Earth’s crust model to compute precisely the density in each point along the neutrino trajectory. We show that this new description of density does not affect the analysis with the standard model case. With the MaVaN model, we observe a first order effect in lower density, which leads to an improvement on the data description.
A model of spontaneous CP violation and neutrino phenomenology with approximate LμLτ symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adhikary, Biswajit
2013-01-01
We introduce a model where CP and Z 2 symmetry violate spontaneously. CP and Z 2 violate spontaneously through a singlet complex scalar S which obtains vacuum expectation value with phase S = Ve iα /2 and this is the only source of CP violation in this model. Low energy CP violation in the leptonic sector is connected to the large scale phase by three generations of left and right handed singlet fermions in the inverse see-saw like structure of model. We have considered approximate LμL τ symmetry to study neutrino phenomenology. Considering two mass square differences and three mixing angles including non zero θ 13 to their experimental 3σ limit, we have restricted the Lagrangian parameters for reasonably small value of L μ L τ symmetry breaking parameters. We have predicted the three masses, Dirac phase and two Majorana phases. We also evaluate CP violating parameter J CP , sum-mass and effective mass parameter involved in neutrino less double beta decay. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. I. Bartsev
2015-06-01
Full Text Available A possible method for experimental determination of parameters of the previously proposed continual mathematical model of soil organic matter transformation is theoretically considered in this paper. The previously proposed by the authors continual model of soil organic matter transformation, based on using the rate of matter transformation as a continual scale of its recalcitrance, describes the transformation process phenomenologically without going into detail of microbiological mechanisms of transformation. Thereby simplicity of the model is achieved. The model is represented in form of one differential equation in firstorder partial derivatives, which has an analytical solution in elementary functions. The model equation contains a small number of empirical parameters which generally characterize environmental conditions where the matter transformation process occurs and initial properties of the plant litter. Given the values of these parameters, it is possible to calculate dynamics of soil organic matter stocks and its distribution over transformation rate. In the present study, possible approaches for determination of the model parameters are considered and a simple method of their experimental measurement is proposed. An experiment of an incubation of chemically homogeneous samples in soil and multiple sequential measurement of the sample mass loss with time is proposed. An equation of time dynamics of mass loss of incubated homogeneous sample is derived from the basic assumption of the presented soil organic matter transformation model. Thus, fitting by the least squares method the parameters of sample mass loss curve calculated according the proposed mass loss dynamics equation allows to determine the parameters of the general equation of soil organic transformation model.
Highly excited strings I: Generating function
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dimitri P. Skliros
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This is the first of a series of detailed papers on string amplitudes with highly excited strings (HES. In the present paper we construct a generating function for string amplitudes with generic HES vertex operators using a fixed-loop momentum formalism. We generalise the proof of the chiral splitting theorem of D'Hoker and Phong to string amplitudes with arbitrary HES vertex operators (with generic KK and winding charges, polarisation tensors and oscillators in general toroidal compactifications E=RD−1,1×TDcr−D (with generic constant Kähler and complex structure target space moduli, background Kaluza–Klein (KK gauge fields and torsion. We adopt a novel approach that does not rely on a “reverse engineering” method to make explicit the loop momenta, thus avoiding a certain ambiguity pointed out in a recent paper by Sen, while also keeping the genus of the worldsheet generic. This approach will also be useful in discussions of quantum gravity and in particular in relation to black holes in string theory, non-locality and breakdown of local effective field theory, as well as in discussions of cosmic superstrings and their phenomenological relevance. We also discuss the manifestation of wave/particle (or rather wave/string duality in string theory.
Brandenberger, Robert H.
2008-01-01
String gas cosmology is a string theory-based approach to early universe cosmology which is based on making use of robust features of string theory such as the existence of new states and new symmetries. A first goal of string gas cosmology is to understand how string theory can effect the earliest moments of cosmology before the effective field theory approach which underlies standard and inflationary cosmology becomes valid. String gas cosmology may also provide an alternative to the curren...
Plucked Strings and the Harpsichord
GIORDANO, N.; WINANS, J. P.
1999-07-01
The excitation of a harpsichord string when it is set into motion, i.e., plucked, by a plectrum is studied. We find that the amplitude of the resulting string vibration is approximately independent of the velocity with which the key is depressed. This result is in accord with conventional wisdom, but at odds with a recent theoretical model. A more realistic theoretical treatment of the plucking process is then described, and shown to be consistent with our measurements. The experiments reveal several other interesting aspects of the plectrum-string interaction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liebler, Stefan Rainer
2011-09-01
The standard model of particle physics lacks on some shortcomings from experimental as well as from theoretical point of view: There is no approved mechanism for the generation of masses of the fundamental particles, in particular also not for the light, but massive neutrinos. In addition the standard model does not provide an explanation for the observance of dark matter in the universe. Moreover the gauge couplings of the three forces in the standard model do not unify, implying that a fundamental theory combining all forces can not be formulated. Within this thesis we address supersymmetric models as answers to these various questions, but instead of focusing on the most simple supersymmetrization of the standard model, we consider basic extensions, namely the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM), which contains an additional singlet field, and R-parity violating models. Using lepton number violating terms in the context of bilinear R-parity violation and the μνSSM we are able to explain neutrino physics intrinsically supersymmetric, since those terms induce a mixing between the neutralinos and the neutrinos. This thesis works out the phenomenology of the supersymmetric models under consideration and tries to point out differences to the well-known features of the simplest supersymmetric realization of the standard model. In case of the R-parity violating models the decays of the light neutralinos can result in displaced vertices. In combination with a light singlet state these displaced vertices might offer a rich phenomenology like non-standard Higgs decays into a pair of singlinos decaying with displaced vertices. Within this thesis we present some calculations at next order of perturbation theory, since one-loop corrections provide possibly large contributions to the tree-level masses and decay widths. We are using an on-shell renormalization scheme to calculate the masses of neutralinos and charginos including the neutrinos and leptons in
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liebler, Stefan Rainer
2011-09-15
The standard model of particle physics lacks on some shortcomings from experimental as well as from theoretical point of view: There is no approved mechanism for the generation of masses of the fundamental particles, in particular also not for the light, but massive neutrinos. In addition the standard model does not provide an explanation for the observance of dark matter in the universe. Moreover the gauge couplings of the three forces in the standard model do not unify, implying that a fundamental theory combining all forces can not be formulated. Within this thesis we address supersymmetric models as answers to these various questions, but instead of focusing on the most simple supersymmetrization of the standard model, we consider basic extensions, namely the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM), which contains an additional singlet field, and R-parity violating models. Using lepton number violating terms in the context of bilinear R-parity violation and the {mu}{nu}SSM we are able to explain neutrino physics intrinsically supersymmetric, since those terms induce a mixing between the neutralinos and the neutrinos. This thesis works out the phenomenology of the supersymmetric models under consideration and tries to point out differences to the well-known features of the simplest supersymmetric realization of the standard model. In case of the R-parity violating models the decays of the light neutralinos can result in displaced vertices. In combination with a light singlet state these displaced vertices might offer a rich phenomenology like non-standard Higgs decays into a pair of singlinos decaying with displaced vertices. Within this thesis we present some calculations at next order of perturbation theory, since one-loop corrections provide possibly large contributions to the tree-level masses and decay widths. We are using an on-shell renormalization scheme to calculate the masses of neutralinos and charginos including the neutrinos and
Thick strings, the liquid crystal blue phase, and cosmological large-scale structure
Luo, Xiaochun; Schramm, David N.
1992-01-01
A phenomenological model based on the liquid crystal blue phase is proposed as a model for a late-time cosmological phase transition. Topological defects, in particular thick strings and/or domain walls, are presented as seeds for structure formation. It is shown that the observed large-scale structure, including quasi-periodic wall structure, can be well fitted in the model without violating the microwave background isotropy bound or the limits from induced gravitational waves and the millisecond pulsar timing. Furthermore, such late-time transitions can produce objects such as quasars at high redshifts. The model appears to work with either cold or hot dark matter.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aggerholm, Kenneth; Moltke Martiny, Kristian
Phenomenological research is in traditional terms a matter of going 'back to the things themselves', as Husserl famously stated. But if phenomenology is to renew itself in creative ways and reveal new aspects of human experience it is of value to look for a certain kind of phenomena: exceptions....... Through exceptional cases we can gain a deeper understanding of the ordinary. This was already a guiding thread in Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenological investigations, but this paper will take the idea further by grounding the methodology in ‘hands on’ research in elite sport (football) and pathological cases...... (cerebral palsy). Within this method exceptional phenomena serve as exemplary cases, which can challenge and expand our conception of ”normal” experience. Thus, we will focus on two central aspects of exceptional phenomenology: a) it is grounded in exceptional practice and b) it lets this practical...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strominger, A.
1987-01-01
A gauge invariant cubic action describing bosonic closed string field theory is constructed. The gauge symmetries include local spacetime diffeomorphisms. The conventional closed string spectrum and trilinear couplings are reproduced after spontaneous symmetry breaking. The action S is constructed from the usual ''open string'' field of ghost number minus one half. It is given by the associator of the string field product which is non-vanishing because of associativity anomalies. S does not describe open string propagation because open string states associate and can thereby be shifted away. A field theory of closed and open strings can be obtained by adding to S the cubic open string action. (orig.)
The noncommutative standard model. Construction beyond leading order in θ and collider phenomenology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alboteanu, A.M.
2007-01-01
Within this work we study the phenomenological consequences of a possible realization of QFT on noncommutative space-time. In the first part we performed a phenomenological analysis of the hadronic process pp → Z γ → l + l - γ at the LHC and of electron-positron pair annihilation into a Z boson and a photon at the International Linear Collider (ILC). The noncommutative extension of the SM considered within this work relies on two building blocks: the Moyal-Weyl *-product of functions on ordinary space-time and the Seiberg-Witten maps. A consequence of the noncommutativity of space-time is the violation of rotational invariance with respect to the beam axis. This effect shows up in the azimuthal dependence of cross sections, which is absent in the SM as well as in other models beyond the SM. We have found this dependence to be best suited for deriving the sensitivity bounds on the noncommutative scale NC. By studying pp→Z γ →l + l - γ to first order in the noncommutative parameter θ, we show in the first part of this work that measurements at the LHC are sensitive to noncommutative effects only in certain cases, giving bounds on the noncommutative scale of Λ NC >or similar 1.2 TeV. By means of e + e - → Z γ → l + l - γ to O(θ) we have shown that ILC measurements are complementary to LHC measurements of the noncommutative parameters. In addition, the bounds on Λ NC derived from the ILC are significantly higher and reach Λ NC >or similar 6 TeV. In the second part of this work we expand the neutral current sector of the noncommutative SM to second order in θ. We found that, against the general expectation, the theory must be enlarged by additional parameters. The new parameters enter the theory as ambiguities of the Seiberg-Witten maps. The latter are not uniquely determined and differ by homogeneous solutions of the gauge equivalence equations. The expectation was that the ambiguities correspond to field redefinitions and therefore should
Cherry, John F; Frandsen, Mads T; Shoemaker, Ian M
2015-06-12
We investigate the direct detection phenomenology of a class of dark matter (DM) models in which DM does not directly interact with nuclei, but rather, the products of its annihilation do. When these annihilation products are very light compared to the DM mass, the scattering in direct detection experiments is controlled by relativistic kinematics. This results in a distinctive recoil spectrum, a nonstandard and/or even absent annual modulation, and the ability to probe DM masses as low as a ∼10 MeV. We use current LUX data to show that experimental sensitivity to thermal relic annihilation cross sections has already been reached in a class of models. Moreover, the compatibility of dark matter direct detection experiments can be compared directly in Emin space without making assumptions about DM astrophysics, mass, or scattering form factors. Lastly, when DM has direct couplings to nuclei, the limit from annihilation to relativistic particles in the Sun can be stronger than that of conventional nonrelativistic direct detection by more than 3 orders of magnitude for masses in a 2-7 GeV window.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, A.K.
1977-01-01
A general-purpose constitutive model for the non-elastic deformation of metals and alloys has recently been developed. This model is aimed at improved analysis of high-temperature structures in general and light-water reactor cladding in particular. Accordingly, detailed work has been undertaken to apply the model to the in-reactor behavior of zircaloy, and to verify that the model does, in fact, simulate the deformation of zircaloy in a realistic manner. It is the purpose of this paper to present some of these results, especially as regards strain softening and localized plastic flow. The model is phenomenological in that it is formulated at the macroscopic level and thus predicts the interrelationship of macroscopic variables such as stress, strain rate, temperature, and history but the overall format of the model is based on the microscopic dislocation mechanisms underlying non-elastic deformation. The equations simulate a wide variety of phenomena such as transient and steady-state creep; short-time plasticity; cyclic hardening, softening, and saturation; static and dynamic recovery; dynamic strain aging effects; complex stress, strain rate, and temperature histories; and interactions of all of these. The effects of fluence, cold work, and post-irradiation strain rate have been examined analytically. For annealed material, with increasing fluence (1) the simulated yield strength increases (up to saturation), (2) the magnitude of the stress drop during strain softening increases, and (3) the strain at which the stress goes through a minimum increases. Prior cold work tends to suppress the simulated strain softening in irradiated material. Unirradiated, cold-worked material having a yield strength level equal to that of annealed, irradiated material does not show strain softening in the simulations. With increasing strain rate, the strain-softening portion of the stress-strain curve takes a larger amount of strain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jung, Gun Hyo; Lee, Jin Young; Ahn, Kwng Il; Park, Soo Yong
2009-01-01
Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) technology has been widely used to measure safety levels and identify weak points of nuclear power plants. Since the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400), event tree method has been used. In level 2 PSA, mainly three kinds of considerations are included: phenomenological events, operator actions, and heat removal system operations. It was pointed out that a structuring CET with phenomenological events was difficult and there were large uncertainties due to a lack of data used in an expert judgement and an expert judgement itself. PSA has been playing important roles to identify the weak point of NPPs and derive research topics. However, PSA results themselves, like containment failure probability, have no significant physical meaning. In order to use PSA results to design and improve NPPs and apply to decision making in NPPs, the quality of PSA results should be improved and uncertainties lied in PSA methodologies should be eliminated. Various researches to improve the quality of PSAs are ongoing. Phenomenological uncertainty analysis to reduce level 2 PSA uncertainties using the MELCOR code is off the ground. First of all, MELCOR1.8.6 model for the phenomenological uncertainty analysis has been developed
A novel string field theory solving string theory by liberating left and right movers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nielsen, Holger B.; Ninomiya, Masao
2014-01-01
We put forward ideas to a novel string field theory based on making some “objects” that essentially describe “liberated” left- and right- mover fields X L μ (τ+σ) and X R μ (τ−σ) on the string. Our novel string field theory is completely definitely different from any other string theory in as far as a “null set” of information in the string field theory Fock space has been removed relatively, to the usual string field theories. So our theory is definitely new. The main progress is that we manage to make our novel string field theory provide the correct mass square spectrum for the string. We finally suggest how to obtain the Veneziano amplitude in our model
Testing a phenomenologically extended DGP model with upcoming weak lensing surveys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Camera, Stefano; Diaferio, Antonaldo [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale ' ' A. Avogadro' ' , Università di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Cardone, Vincenzo F., E-mail: camera@ph.unito.it, E-mail: diaferio@ph.unito.it, E-mail: winnyenodrac@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie per l' Ambiente e il Territorio, Università degli Studi del Molise, Contrada Fonte Lappone, 86090 Pesche (Italy)
2011-01-01
A phenomenological extension of the well-known brane-world cosmology of Dvali, Gabadadze and Porrati (eDGP) has recently been proposed. In this model, a cosmological-constant-like term is explicitly present as a non-vanishing tension σ on the brane, and an extra parameter α tunes the cross-over scale r{sub c}, the scale at which higher dimensional gravity effects become non negligible. Since the Hubble parameter in this cosmology reproduces the same ΛCDM expansion history, we study how upcoming weak lensing surveys, such as Euclid and DES (Dark Energy Survey), can confirm or rule out this class of models. We perform Monte Carlo Markov Chain simulations to determine the parameters of the model, using Type Ia Supernovæ, H(z) data, Gamma Ray Bursts and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations. We also fit the power spectrum of the temperature anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background to obtain the correct normalisation for the density perturbation power spectrum. Then, we compute the matter and the cosmic shear power spectra, both in the linear and non-linear régimes. The latter is calculated with the two different approaches of Hu and Sawicki (2007) (HS) and Khoury and Wyman (2009) (KW). With the eDGP parameters coming from the Markov Chains, KW reproduces the ΛCDM matter power spectrum at both linear and non-linear scales and the ΛCDM and eDGP shear signals are degenerate. This result does not hold with the HS prescription. Indeed, Euclid can distinguish the eDGP model from ΛCDM because their expected power spectra roughly differ by the 3σ uncertainty in the angular scale range 700∼
Testing a phenomenologically extended DGP model with upcoming weak lensing surveys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Camera, Stefano; Diaferio, Antonaldo; Cardone, Vincenzo F.
2011-01-01
A phenomenological extension of the well-known brane-world cosmology of Dvali, Gabadadze and Porrati (eDGP) has recently been proposed. In this model, a cosmological-constant-like term is explicitly present as a non-vanishing tension σ on the brane, and an extra parameter α tunes the cross-over scale r c , the scale at which higher dimensional gravity effects become non negligible. Since the Hubble parameter in this cosmology reproduces the same ΛCDM expansion history, we study how upcoming weak lensing surveys, such as Euclid and DES (Dark Energy Survey), can confirm or rule out this class of models. We perform Monte Carlo Markov Chain simulations to determine the parameters of the model, using Type Ia Supernovæ, H(z) data, Gamma Ray Bursts and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations. We also fit the power spectrum of the temperature anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background to obtain the correct normalisation for the density perturbation power spectrum. Then, we compute the matter and the cosmic shear power spectra, both in the linear and non-linear régimes. The latter is calculated with the two different approaches of Hu and Sawicki (2007) (HS) and Khoury and Wyman (2009) (KW). With the eDGP parameters coming from the Markov Chains, KW reproduces the ΛCDM matter power spectrum at both linear and non-linear scales and the ΛCDM and eDGP shear signals are degenerate. This result does not hold with the HS prescription. Indeed, Euclid can distinguish the eDGP model from ΛCDM because their expected power spectra roughly differ by the 3σ uncertainty in the angular scale range 700∼< l∼<3000; on the contrary, the two models differ at most by the 1σ uncertainty over the range 500∼< l∼<3000 in the DES experiment and they are virtually indistinguishable
Kenkmann, Thomas; Hergarten, Stefan; Kuhn, Thomas; Wilk, Jakob
2016-08-01
Several models of shatter cone formation require a heterogeneity at the cone apex of high impedance mismatch to the surrounding bulk rock. This heterogeneity is the source of spherically expanding waves that interact with the planar shock front or the following release wave. While these models are capable of explaining the overall conical shape of shatter cones, they are not capable of explaining the subcone structure and the diverging and branching striations that characterize the surface of shatter cones and lead to the so-called horse-tailing effect. Here, we use the hierarchical arrangement of subcone ridges of shatter cone surfaces as key for understanding their formation. Tracing a single subcone ridge from its apex downward reveals that each ridge branches after some distance into two symmetrically equivalent subcone ridges. This pattern is repeated to form new branches. We propose that subcone ridges represent convex-curved fracture surfaces and their intersection corresponds to the bifurcation axis. The characteristic diverging striations are interpreted as the intersection lineations delimiting each subcone. Multiple symmetric crack branching is the result of rapid fracture propagation that may approach the Raleigh wave speed. We present a phenomenological model that fully constructs the shatter cone geometry to any order. The overall cone geometry including apex angle of the enveloping cone and the degree of concavity (horse-tailing) is largely governed by the convexity of the subcone ridges. Straight cones of various apical angles, constant slope, and constant bifurcation angles form if the subcone convexity is low (30°). Increasing subcone convexity leads to a stronger horse-tailing effect and the bifurcation angles increase with increasing distance from the enveloping cone apex. The model predicts possible triples of enveloping cone angle, bifurcation angle, and subcone angle. Measurements of these quantities on four shatter cones from different
A phenomenological biological dose model for proton therapy based on linear energy transfer spectra.
Rørvik, Eivind; Thörnqvist, Sara; Stokkevåg, Camilla H; Dahle, Tordis J; Fjaera, Lars Fredrik; Ytre-Hauge, Kristian S
2017-06-01
The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of protons varies with the radiation quality, quantified by the linear energy transfer (LET). Most phenomenological models employ a linear dependency of the dose-averaged LET (LET d ) to calculate the biological dose. However, several experiments have indicated a possible non-linear trend. Our aim was to investigate if biological dose models including non-linear LET dependencies should be considered, by introducing a LET spectrum based dose model. The RBE-LET relationship was investigated by fitting of polynomials from 1st to 5th degree to a database of 85 data points from aerobic in vitro experiments. We included both unweighted and weighted regression, the latter taking into account experimental uncertainties. Statistical testing was performed to decide whether higher degree polynomials provided better fits to the data as compared to lower degrees. The newly developed models were compared to three published LET d based models for a simulated spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) scenario. The statistical analysis of the weighted regression analysis favored a non-linear RBE-LET relationship, with the quartic polynomial found to best represent the experimental data (P = 0.010). The results of the unweighted regression analysis were on the borderline of statistical significance for non-linear functions (P = 0.053), and with the current database a linear dependency could not be rejected. For the SOBP scenario, the weighted non-linear model estimated a similar mean RBE value (1.14) compared to the three established models (1.13-1.17). The unweighted model calculated a considerably higher RBE value (1.22). The analysis indicated that non-linear models could give a better representation of the RBE-LET relationship. However, this is not decisive, as inclusion of the experimental uncertainties in the regression analysis had a significant impact on the determination and ranking of the models. As differences between the models were
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Claude Valery Ngayihi Abbe
2016-01-01
Full Text Available To meet more stringent norms and standards concerning engine performances and emissions, engine manufacturers need to develop new technologies enhancing the nonpolluting properties of the fuels. In that sense, the testing and development of alternative fuels such as biodiesel are of great importance. Fuel testing is nowadays a matter of experimental and numerical work. Researches on diesel engine’s fuel involve the use of surrogates, for which the combustion mechanisms are well known and relatively similar to the investigated fuel. Biodiesel, due to its complex molecular configuration, is still the subject of numerous investigations in that area. This study presents the comparison of four biodiesel surrogates, methyl-butanoate, ethyl-butyrate, methyl-decanoate, and methyl-9-decenoate, in a 0D phenomenological combustion model. They were investigated for in-cylinder pressure, thermal efficiency, and NOx emissions. Experiments were performed on a six-cylinder turbocharged DI diesel engine fuelled by methyl ester (MEB and ethyl ester (EEB biodiesel from wasted frying oil. Results showed that, among the four surrogates, methyl butanoate presented better results for all the studied parameters. In-cylinder pressure and thermal efficiency were predicted with good accuracy by the four surrogates. NOx emissions were well predicted for methyl butanoate but for the other three gave approximation errors over 50%.
Measurements and Phenomenological Modeling of Magnetic FluxBuildup in Spheromak Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Romero-Talamas, C A; Hooper, E B; Jayakumar, R; McLean, H S; Wood, R D; Moller, J M
2007-12-14
Internal magnetic field measurements and high-speed imaging at the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) [E. B. Hooper, L. D. Pearlstein, R. H. Bulmer, Nucl. Fusion 39, 863 (1999)] are used to study spheromak formation and field buildup. The measurements are analyzed in the context of a phenomenological model of magnetic helicity based on the topological constraint of minimum helicity in the open flux before reconnecting and linking closed flux. Two stages are analyzed: (1) the initial spheromak formation, i. e. when all flux surfaces are initially open and reconnect to form open and closed flux surfaces, and (2) the stepwise increase of closed flux when operating the gun on a new mode that can apply a train of high-current pulses to the plasma. In the first stage, large kinks in the open flux surfaces are observed in the high-speed images taken shortly after plasma breakdown, and coincide with large magnetic asymmetries recorded in a fixed insertable magnetic probe that spans the flux conserver radius. Closed flux (in the toroidal average sense) appears shortly after this. This stage is also investigated using resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. In the second stage, a time lag in response between open and closed flux surfaces after each current pulse is interpreted as the time for the open flux to build helicity, before transferring it through reconnection to the closed flux. Large asymmetries are seen during these events, which then relax to a slowly decaying spheromak before the next pulse.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Charlotte Desvages
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Recent bowed string sound synthesis has relied on physical modelling techniques; the achievable realism and flexibility of gestural control are appealing, and the heavier computational cost becomes less significant as technology improves. A bowed string sound synthesis algorithm is designed, by simulating two-polarisation string motion, discretising the partial differential equations governing the string’s behaviour with the finite difference method. A globally energy balanced scheme is used, as a guarantee of numerical stability under highly nonlinear conditions. In one polarisation, a nonlinear contact model is used for the normal forces exerted by the dynamic bow hair, left hand fingers, and fingerboard. In the other polarisation, a force-velocity friction curve is used for the resulting tangential forces. The scheme update requires the solution of two nonlinear vector equations. The dynamic input parameters allow for simulating a wide range of gestures; some typical bow and left hand gestures are presented, along with synthetic sound and video demonstrations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwon, Young Min; Lee, Ki Rim; Ha, Kwi Seok; Chang, Won Pyo; Suk, Soo Dong
2009-03-01
The safety aspects of the KALIMER design results from the advanced safety performance characteristics of its ternary alloy metallic fuel. The superior thermal, mechanical, and neutronic performance of the metal-fueled core assures inherent safety response to unprotected and multiple fault accidents which are HCDA initiating events. HCDA has received great attentions because of its significant consequence, leading to substantial core disruption, although its probability of occurrence is very low. The SAS4A code provides an integrated quantitative framework for examining the phenomenological behaviors under HCDA conditions. Various phenomenological models such as prefailure characterization, transient pin response, margins to cladding failure, axial in-pin fuel relocation prior to cladding breach, and molten fuel relocation after cladding breach are required for the HCDA analysis. The important mechanisms which introduce negative reactivity during HCDA are fuel extrusion and in-pin fuel relocation, and structural feedback through thermal-mechanical neutronic effects. This report describes the safety performance characteristics of the metal fuel as observed in ex-pile and in-pile tests, and describes associated theoretical models employed into the SAS4A HCDA analysis code. Most of such tests and experiments, and development of theoretical models have been performed for the IFR program by ANL. This report provides a phenomenological basis for gaining an understanding of the metal fuel performance characteristics that obtained from expile experiments and in-pile tests. This report will provide insight and direction for planning HCDA experiments and developing theoretical models in Korea later
2015-08-01
ER D C TR -1 5- 5 Remote Assessment of Critical Infrastructure Persistent Monitoring of Urban Infrasound Phenomenology Report 1...ERDC TR-15-5 August 2015 Persistent Monitoring of Urban Infrasound Phenomenology Report 1: Modeling an Urban Environment for Acoustical Analyses...From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Persistent Monitoring of Urban Infrasound Phenomenology ; Report 1: Modeling an Urban Environment for
Tong, Xin-Kang; Hamel, Edith
2015-01-01
Cerebrovascular dysfunction seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) is multifaceted and not limited to the amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology. It encompasses structural alterations in the vessel wall, degenerating capillaries (string vessels), vascular fibrosis and calcification, features recapitulated in transgenic mice that overexpress transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF mice). We recently found that simvastatin rescued Aβ-mediated cerebrovascular and cognitive deficits in a transgenic mouse model of AD. However, whether simvastatin can counteract Aβ-independent deficits remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the effects of simvastatin in aged TGF mice on cerebrovascular reactivity and structure, and on cognitive performance. Simvastatin restored baseline levels of nitric oxide (NO), NO-, and KATP channel-mediated dilations and endothelin-1-induced contractions. Simvastatin significantly reduced vasculopathy with arteriogenic remodeling and string vessel pathology in TGF mice. In contrast, simvastatin did not lessen gliosis, and the cerebrovascular levels of pro-fibrotic proteins and calcification markers remained elevated after treatment. The TGF mice displayed subtle cognitive decline that was not affected by simvastatin. Our results show potent benefits of simvastatin on endothelial- and smooth muscle cell-mediated vasomotor responses, endothelial NO synthesis and in preserving capillary integrity. We conclude that simvastatin could be indicated in the treatment of cerebrovascular dysfunction associated with VaD and AD. PMID:25564230
String theory and quantum gravity '92
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harvey, J.; Iengo, R.; Narain, K.S.; Randjbar Daemi, S.; Verlinde, H.
1993-01-01
These proceedings of the 1992 Trieste Spring School and Workshop on String Theory and Quantum Gravity contains introductions and overviews of recent work on the use of two-dimensional string inspired models in the study of black holes, a lecture on gravitational scattering at planckian energies, another on the physical properties of higher-dimensional black holes and black strings in string theory, a discussion on N=2 superconformal field theories, a lecture about the application of matrix model techniques to the study of string theory in two dimensions, and an overview of the current status and developments in string field theory. Connections with models in statistical mechanics are also discussed. These proceedings contain seven lectures and ten contributions. Refs and figs
Cache-oblivious string dictionaries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf
2006-01-01
We present static cache-oblivious dictionary structures for strings which provide analogues of tries and suffix trees in the cache-oblivious model. Our construction takes as input either a set of strings to store, a single string for which all suffixes are to be stored, a trie, a compressed trie......, or a suffix tree, and creates a cache-oblivious data structure which performs prefix queries in O(logB n + |P|/B) I/Os, where n is the number of leaves in the trie, P is the query string, and B is the block size. This query cost is optimal for unbounded alphabets. The data structure uses linear space....
String moduli inflation. An overview
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cicoli, Michele; Quevedo, Fernando
2011-06-01
We present an overview of inflationary models derived from string theory focusing mostly on closed string moduli as inflatons. After a detailed discussion of the η-problem and different approaches to address it, we describe possible ways to obtain a de Sitter vacuum with all closed string moduli stabilised. We then look for inflationary directions and present some of the most promising scenarios where the inflatons are either the real or the imaginary part of Kaehler moduli. We pay particular attention on extracting potential observable implications, showing how most of the scenarios predict negligible gravitational waves and could therefore be ruled out by the Planck satellite. We conclude by briefly mentioning some open challenges in string cosmology beyond deriving just inflation. (orig.)
Matrix strings in weakly curved background fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schiappa, Ricardo
2001-01-01
We investigate further the recent proposal for the form of the Matrix theory action in weak background fields. We perform DVV reduction to the multiple D0-brane action in order to find the Matrix string theory action for multiple fundamental strings in curved but weak NSNS and RR backgrounds. This matrix sigma model gives a definite prescription on how to deal with RR fields with an explicit spacetime dependence in Type II string theory. We do this both via the 9-11 flip and the chain of T and S dualities, and further check on their equivalence explicitly. In order to do so, we also discuss the implementation of S-duality in the operators of the 2-dimensional worldvolume supersymmetric gauge theory describing the Type IIB D-string. We compare the result to the known Green-Schwarz sigma model action (for one string), and use this comparison in order to discuss about possible, non-linear background curvature corrections to the Matrix string action (involving many strings), and therefore to the Matrix theory action. We illustrate the nonabelian character of our action with an example involving multiple fundamental strings in a nontrivial RR flux, where the strings are polarized into a noncommutative configuration. This corresponds to a dielectric type of effect on fundamental strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Riordan, M. [Stanford University and the University of California, Santa Cruz (United States)]. E-mail: mriordan@ucsc.edu
2007-02-15
In the last few decades, however, physical theory has drifted away from the professional norms advocated by Newton and other enlightenment philosophers. A vast outpouring of hypotheses has occurred under the umbrella of what is widely called string theory. But string theory is not really a 'theory' at all - at least not in the strict sense that scientists generally use the term. It is instead a dense, weedy thicket of hypotheses and conjectures badly in need of pruning. That pruning, however, can come only from observation and experiment, to which string theory (a phrase I will grudgingly continue using) is largely inaccessible. String theory was invented in the 1970s in the wake of the Standard Model of particle physics. Encouraged by the success of gauge theories of the strong, weak and electromagnetic forces, theorists tried to extend similar ideas to energy and distance scales that are orders of magnitude beyond what can be readily observed or measured. The normal, healthy intercourse between theory and experiment - which had led to the Standard Model - has broken down, and fundamental physics now finds itself in a state of crisis. So it is refreshing to hear from a theorist - one who was deeply involved with string theory and championed it in his previous book, Three Roads to Quantum Gravity - that all is not well in this closeted realm. Smolin argues from the outset that viable hypotheses must lead to observable consequences by which they can be tested and judged. String theory by its very nature does not allow for such probing, according to Smolin, and therefore it must be considered as an unprovable conjecture. Towards the end of his book, Smolin suggests other directions fundamental physics can take, particularly in the realm of quantum gravity, to resolve its crisis and reconnect with the observable world. From my perspective, he leans a bit too heavily towards highly speculative ideas such as doubly special relativity, modified Newtonian
Felstead, Ian S; Springett, Kate
2016-02-01
Patients' expectations of being cared for by a nurse who is caring, competent, and professional are particularly pertinent in current health and social care practice. The current drive for NHS values-based recruitment serves to strengthen this. How nursing students' development of professionalism is shaped is not fully known, though it is acknowledged that their practice experience strongly shapes behaviour. This study (in 2013-14) explored twelve adult nursing students' lived experiences of role modelling through an interpretive phenomenological analysis approach, aiming to understand the impact on their development as professional practitioners. Clinical nurses influenced student development consistently. Some students reported that their experiences allowed them to learn how not to behave in practice; a productive learning experience despite content. Students also felt senior staff influence on their development to be strong, citing 'leading by example.' The impact of patients on student professional development was also a key finding. Through analysing information gained, identifying and educating practice-based mentors who are ready, willing, and able to role model professional attributes appear crucial to developing professionalism in nursing students. Those involved in nurse education, whether service providers or universities, may wish to acknowledge the influence of clinical nurse behaviour observed by students both independent of and in direct relation to care delivery and the impact on student nurse professional development. A corollary relates to how students should be guided and briefed/debriefed to work with a staff to ensure their exposure to a variety of practice behaviours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Superstring inspired phenomenology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Binetruy, P.
1988-01-01
Recent progress in superstring model building is reviewed with an emphasis on the general features of the models obtained. The problems associated with supersymmetry breaking and intermediate gauge symmetry breaking (M W I GUT ) are described. Finally, the phenomenology of these models is summarized, with a discussion of the role that new experimental results could play to help clearing up the above difficulties
Diaz, Victor Alfonzo; Giusti, Andrea
2018-03-01
The aim of this paper is to present a simple generalization of bosonic string theory in the framework of the theory of fractional variational problems. Specifically, we present a fractional extension of the Polyakov action, for which we compute the general form of the equations of motion and discuss the connection between the new fractional action and a generalization the Nambu-Goto action. Consequently, we analyze the symmetries of the modified Polyakov action and try to fix the gauge, following the classical procedures. Then we solve the equations of motion in a simplified setting. Finally, we present a Hamiltonian description of the classical fractional bosonic string and introduce the fractional light-cone gauge. It is important to remark that, throughout the whole paper, we thoroughly discuss how to recover the known results as an "integer" limit of the presented model.
A Model of Triadic Post-Tonality for a Neoconservative Postmodern String Quartet by Sky Macklay
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zane Gillespie
2017-09-01
Full Text Available This article proposes a non-plural perspective on the analysis of triadic music, offering Sky Macklay’s Many Many Cadences as a case study. Part one is a discussion of the work’s harmony-voice leading nexus, followed by a discussion of the five conditions of correspondence as implied by this string quartet that articulate a single tonal identity. Part three focuses on a strictly kinematic analysis of the work’s harmonic progressions that evinces this identity and establishes its general applicability. In the final section, the data generated by this analysis conveys the inherent possibility of a single, all-encompassing kinematic, thereby pointing beyond the particularities of Many Many Cadences while informing my formal interpretation of the work.
Kenzig, Allison R; Butler, James R; Priddy, Lauren B; Lacy, Kristen R; Elder, Steven H
2017-07-13
Fracture of the ilium is common orthopedic injury that often requires surgical stabilization in canine patients. Of the various methods of surgical stabilization available, application of a lateral bone plate to the ilium is the most common method of fixation. Many plating options are available, each having its own advantages and disadvantages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical properties of a 3.5 mm String-of-Pearls™ plate and a 3.5 mm dynamic compression plate in a cadaveric canine ilial fracture model. Hemipelves were tested in cantilever bending to failure and construct stiffness, yield load, displacement at yield, ultimate load, and mode of failure were compared. The mean stiffness of dynamic compression plate (116 ± 47 N/mm) and String-of-Pearls™ plate (107 ± 18 N/mm) constructs, mean yield load of dynamic compression plate (793 ± 333 N) and String-of-Pearls™ plate (860 ± 207 N) constructs, mean displacement at yield of dynamic compression plate (8.6 ± 3.0 mm) and String-of-Pearls™ plate (10.2 ± 2.8 mm) constructs, and ultimate load at failure of dynamic compression plate (936 ± 320 N) and String-of-Pearls™ plate (939 ± 191 N) constructs were not significantly different. No differences were found between constructs with respect to mode of failure. No significant biomechanical differences were found between String-of-Pearls™ plate and dynamic compression plate constructs in this simplified cadaveric canine ilial fracture model.
Phenomenological modeling and study of a catalytic membrane reactor for water detritiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mascarade, Jeremy
2015-01-01
particle bed but reaches a maximum with the variation of heavy water content in the feed stream. According to these observations, a phenomenological 2D model, describing momentum and mass transfers, was developed. Simulations results are in good agreement with the general behavior observed experimentally. Results show that modeling of the permeation of heteronuclear species should account for crossed-interactions of the hydrogen isotopologues on the mass transfer of one specie. Nevertheless, thanks to the modeling approach used and the similitude rules existing between isotopologues' physical and chemical properties (Graham's law), this model can be easily extrapolated to the processing of tritium containing mixtures. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pang, Kar Mun; Jangi, Mehdi; Bai, Xue-Song
2015-01-01
-empirical soot model in predicting the associated events. Numerical computation is performed using an open-source code and a chemistry coordinate mapping approach is used to expedite the calculation. A library consisting of various phenomenological multi-step soot models is constructed and integrated......, a comprehensive sensitivity analysis is carried out to appraise the existing soot formation and oxidation submodels. It is revealed that the soot formation is captured when the surface growth rate is calculated using a square root function of the soot specific surface area and when a pressure-dependent model...
Allanach, Benjamin C; Dedes, A; Djouadi, Abdelhak; Grosse-Knetter, J; Hetherington, J; Heinemeyer, S; Holt, J; Hutchcroft, D E; Kalinowski, Jan; Kane, G; Kartvelishvili, V G; King, S F; Lola, S; McNulty, R; Parker, M A; Patel, G D; Ross, Graham G; Spira, Michael; Teixeira-Dias, P; Weiglein, Georg; Wilson, G; Womersley, J; Walker, P; Webber, Bryan R; Wyatt, T R
2000-01-01
The Beyond the Standard Model Working Group discussed a variety of topics relating to exotic searches at current and future colliders, and the phenomenology of current models beyond the Standard Model. For example, various supersymmetric (SUSY) and extra dimensions search possibilities and constraints are presented. Fine-tuning implications of SUSY searches are derived. The implications of Higgs (non)-discovery are discussed, as well as the program HDECAY. The individual contributions are included seperately. Much of the enclosed work is original, although some is reviewed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thorlacius, L.
1989-01-01
Open string vacuum configurations are described in terms of a one-dimensional field theory on the worldsheet boundary. The one-dimensional path integral has direct physical interpretation as a source term for closed string fields. This means that the vacuum divergences (Mobius infinities) of the path integral must be renormalized correctly. The author shows that reparametrization invariance Ward identities, apart from specifying the equations of motion of spacetime background gauge fields, also serve to fix the renormalization scheme of the vacuum divergences. He argues that vacuum configurations of open strings correspond to Caldeira-Leggett models of dissipative quantum mechanics (DQM) evaluated at a delocalization critical point. This connection reveals that critical DQM will manifest reparametrization invariance (inherited from the conformal invariance of string theory) rather than just scale invariance. This connection should open up new ways of constructing analytic and approximate solutions of open string theory (in particular, topological solitons such as monopoles and instantons). Type I superstring theory gives rise to a supersymmetric boundary field theory. Bose-Fermi cancellation eliminates vacuum divergences but the one-loop beta function remains the same as in the bosonic theory. Reparametrization invariance Ward identities dictate a boundary state normalization which yields consistent string-loop corrections to spacetime equations of motion, in both the periodic and anti-periodic fermion sectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clark, T.E.; Love, S.T.; Nitta, Muneto; Veldhuis, T. ter; Xiong, C.
2009-01-01
Local oscillations of the brane world are manifested as massive vector fields. Their coupling to the Standard Model can be obtained using the method of nonlinear realizations of the spontaneously broken higher-dimensional space-time symmetries, and to an extent, are model independent. Phenomenological limits on these vector field parameters are obtained using LEP collider data and dark matter constraints
Fekete, Charles-Antoine Collins; Doolan, Paul; Dias, Marta F; Beaulieu, Luc; Seco, Joao
2015-07-07
To develop an accurate phenomenological model of the cubic spline path estimate of the proton path, accounting for the initial proton energy and water equivalent thickness (WET) traversed. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were used to calculate the path of protons crossing various WET (10-30 cm) of different material (LN300, water and CB2-50% CaCO3) for a range of initial energies (180-330 MeV). For each MC trajectory, cubic spline trajectories (CST) were constructed based on the entrance and exit information of the protons and compared with the MC using the root mean square (RMS) metric. The CST path is dependent on the direction vector magnitudes (|P0,1|). First, |P0,1| is set to the proton path length (with factor Λ(Norm)(0,1) = 1.0). Then, two optimal factor Λ(0,1) are introduced in |P0,1|. The factors are varied to minimize the RMS difference with MC paths for every configuration. A set of Λ(opt)(0,1) factors, function of WET/water equivalent path length (WEPL), that minimizes the RMS are presented. MTF analysis is then performed on proton radiographs of a line-pair phantom reconstructed using the CST trajectories. Λ(opt)(0,1) was fitted to the WET/WEPL ratio using a quadratic function (Y = A + BX(2) where A = 1.01,0.99, B = 0.43,- 0.46 respectively for Λ(opt)(0), Λ(opt)(1)). The RMS deviation calculated along the path, between the CST and the MC, increases with the WET. The increase is larger when using Λ(Norm)(0,1) than Λ(opt)(0,1) (difference of 5.0% with WET/WEPL = 0.66). For 230/330 MeV protons, the MTF10% was found to increase by 40/16% respectively for a thin phantom (15 cm) when using the Λ(opt)(0,1) model compared to the Λ(Norm)(0,1) model. Calculation times for Λ(opt)(0,1) are scaled down compared to MLP and RMS deviation are similar within standard deviation.B ased on the results of this study, using CST with the Λ(opt)(0,1) factors reduces the RMS deviation and increases the spatial resolution when reconstructing proton
Recent Trends in Superstring Phenomenology
Bianchi, Massimo
2009-01-01
We review for non-experts possible phenomenological scenari in String Theory. In particular we focus on vacuum configurations with intersecting and/or magnetized unoriented D-branes. We will show how a TeV scale tension may be compatible with the existence of Large Extra Dimensions and how anomalous U(1)'s can give rise to interesting signatures at LHC or in cosmic rays. Finally, we discuss unoriented D-brane instantons as a source of non-perturbative effects that can contribute to moduli stabilization and susy braking in combination with fluxes. We conclude with an outlook and directions for future work.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wands, David
2002-01-01
I discuss cosmological models either derived from, or inspired by, string theory or M-theory. In particular, I discuss solutions in the low-energy effective theory and the role of the dilaton, moduli and antisymmetric form fields in the dimensionally reduced effective action. The pre-big-bang model is an attempt to use cosmological solutions to make observational predictions. I then discuss the effective theory of gravity found in recent braneworld models where we live on a 3-brane embedded in a five-dimensional spacetime and how the study of cosmological perturbations may enable us to test these ideas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, D.J.
1986-01-01
Traditional string theories, either bosonic or supersymmetric, came in two varieties, closed string theories and open string theories. Closed string are neutral objects which describe at low energies gravity or supergravity. Open strings have geometrically invariant ends to which charge can be attached, thereby obtaining, in addition to gravity, Yang-Mills gauge interactions. Recently a new kind of string theory was discovered--the heterotic string, which is a chiral hybrid of the closed superstring and the closed bosonic string, and which produces by an internal dynamical mechanism gauge interactions of a totally specified kind. Although this theory is found in an attempt to produce a superstring theory which would yield a low energy E/sub 8/xE/sub 8/ supersymmetric, anomaly free, gauge theory, as suggested by the anomaly cancellation mechanism of Green and Schwarz, it fits naturally into the general framework of consistent string theories
Linking light scalar modes with a small positive cosmological constant in string theory
Tye, S.-H. Henry; Wong, Sam S. C.
2017-06-01
Based on the studies in Type IIB string theory phenomenology, we conjecture that a good fraction of the meta-stable de Sitter vacua in the cosmic stringy landscape tend to have a very small cosmological constant Λ when compared to either the string scale M S or the Planck scale M P , i.e., Λ ≪ M S 4 ≪ M P 4 . These low lying de Sitter vacua tend to be accompanied by very light scalar bosons/axions. Here we illustrate this phenomenon with the bosonic mass spectra in a set of Type IIB string theory flux compactification models. We conjecture that small Λ with light bosons is generic among de Sitter solutions in string theory; that is, the smallness of Λ and the existence of very light bosons (may be even the Higgs boson) are results of the statistical preference for such vacua in the landscape. We also discuss a scalar field ϕ 3 /ϕ 4 model to illustrate how this statistical preference for a small Λ remains when quantum loop corrections are included, thus bypassing the radiative instability problem.
D-branes from Liouville strings
Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V
1997-01-01
We develop quantization aspects of our Liouville approach to non-critical strings, proposing a path-integral formulation of a second quantization of string theory, that incorporates naturally the couplings of string sources to background fields. Such couplings are characteristic of macroscopic string solutions and/or D-brane theories. Resummation over world-sheet genera in the presence of stringy (\\sigma-model) soliton backgrounds, and recoil effects associated with logarithmic operators on the world sheet, play a crucial r\\^ole in inducing such sources as well-defined renormalization-group counterterms. Using our Liouville renormalization group approach, we derive the appropriate second-order equation of motion for the D brane. We discuss within this approach the appearance of open strings, whose ends carry non-trivial Chan-Paton-like quantum numbers related to the W_\\infty charges of two-dimensional string black holes.
Cosmic R-string in thermal history
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Ohashi, Keisuke [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mathematics and Physics; Ookouchi, Yutaka [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kyoto Univ. (Japan). The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research
2013-03-15
We study stabilization of an unstable cosmic string associated with spontaneously broken U(1){sub R} symmetry, which otherwise causes a dangerous roll-over process. We demonstrate that in a gauge mediation model, messengers can receive enough corrections from the thermal plasma of the supersymmetric standard model particles to stabilize the unstable modes of the string.
Phenomenology of the Higgs at the hadron colliders: from the standard model to supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baglio, J.
2011-10-01
This thesis has been conducted in the context of one of the utmost important searches at current hadron colliders, that is the search for the Higgs boson, the remnant of the electroweak symmetry breaking. We wish to study the phenomenology of the Higgs boson in both the Standard Model (SM) framework and its minimal Supersymmetric extension (MSSM). After a review of the Standard Model in a first part and of the key reasons and ingredients for the supersymmetry in general and the MSSM in particular in a third part, we will present the calculation of the inclusive production cross sections of the Higgs boson in the main channels at the two current hadron colliders that are the Fermilab Tevatron collider and the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), starting by the SM case in the second part and presenting the MSSM results, where we have 5 Higgs bosons and focusing on the two main production channels that are the gluon gluon fusion and the bottom quarks fusion, in the fourth part. The main output of this calculation is the extensive study of the various theoretical uncertainties that affect the predictions: the scale uncertainties which probe our ignorance of the higher-order terms in a fixed order perturbative calculation, the parton distribution functions (PDF) uncertainties and its related uncertainties from the value of the strong coupling constant, and the uncertainties coming from the use of an effective field theory to simplify the hard calculation. We then move on to the study of the Higgs decay branching ratios which are also affected by diverse uncertainties. We will present the combination of the production cross sections and decay branching fractions in some specific cases which will show interesting consequences on the total theoretical uncertainties. We move on to present the results confronted to experiments and show that the theoretical uncertainties have a significant impact on the inferred limits either in the SM search for the Higgs boson or on the MSSM
Closed String Amplitudes from Gauge Fixed String Field Theory
Drukker, Nadav
2002-01-01
Closed string diagrams are derived from cubic open string field theory using a gauge fixed kinetic operator. The basic idea is to use a string propagator that does not generate a boundary to the world sheet. Using this propagator and the closed string vertex, the moduli space of closed string surfaces is covered, so closed string scattering amplitudes should be reproduced. This kinetic operator could be a gauge fixed form of the string field theory action around the closed string vacuum.
Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Kurosu, Shunji; Yamaguchi, Rina; Kawase, Yoshinori
2018-06-01
Zero-valent iron (ZVI) being an inexpensive and eco-friendly catalyst has drawn great attention in removal of heavy metals from wastewaters. However, quantitative understandings of ZVI processes are significantly deficient. To compensate for the lack of quantitative analyses of removal of heavy metals by ZVI, a phenomenological reaction kinetic model was newly developed for removal of Cu chosen as a typical heavy metal from acidic aqueous solutions by ZVI. The novel kinetic model is based on the adsorption of Cu 2+ and H + onto ZVI surface and subsequent Cu 2+ reduction on ZVI surface and Fe 2+ elution from ZVI. Batch experiments were conducted to elucidate effects of pH and Cu loading on Cu removal by ZVI in acidic aqueous solutions and to validate the proposed phenomenological reaction kinetic model. The quick and complete removals of 1.57 mM Cu were established in the rage of pH 2-5. Although the maximum Cu removal rate was obtained at pH 4, effects of pH were insignificant. In the range of Cu loading from 0.393 to 4.72 mM, almost complete Cu removals were obtained at pH 4 within 35 min. The changes in concentrations of Cu 2+ , Fe 2+ , H + and dissolved oxygen were strongly linked with each other. They could be successfully simulated by the proposed model with the average correlation coefficient of 0.979. The capability of the phenomenological reaction kinetic model for dynamic simulation of Cu removal by ZVI under acidic conditions was confirmed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A String-Inspired Model for the Low-$\\ell$ CMB
Kitazawa, N.
2015-07-09
We present a semi--analytic exploration of some low--$\\ell$ angular power spectra inspired by "Brane Supersymmetry Breaking". This mechanism splits Bose and Fermi excitations in String Theory, leaving behind an exponential potential that is just too steep for the inflaton to emerge from the initial singularity while descending it. As a result, the scalar generically bounces against the exponential wall, which typically introduces an infrared depression and a pre--inflationary peak in the power spectrum of scalar perturbations. We elaborate on a possible link between this phenomenon and the low--$\\ell$ CMB. For the first 32 multipoles, combining the hard exponential with a milder one leading to $n_s\\simeq 0.96$ and with a small gaussian bump we have attained a reduction of $\\chi^{\\,2}$ to about 46% of the standard $\\Lambda$CDM setting, with both WMAP9 and PLANCK 2013 data. This result corresponds to a $\\chi^{\\,2}/DOF$ of about 0.45, to be compared with a $\\Lambda$CDM value of about 0.85. The preferred choices ...
Study of theory and phenomenology of some classes of family symmetry and unification models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kane, Gordon L.; King, Steve F.; Peddie, Iain N.R.; Velasco-Sevilla, Liliana
2005-01-01
We review and compare theoretically and phenomenologically a number of possible family symmetries, which when combined with unification, could be important in explaining quark, lepton and neutrino masses and mixings, providing new results in several cases. Theoretical possibilities include abelian or non-abelian, symmetric or non symmetric Yukawa matrices, Grand Unification or not. Our main focus is on anomaly-free U(1) family symmetry combined with SU(5) unification, although we also discuss other possibilities. We provide a detailed phenomenological fit of the fermion masses and mixings for several examples, and discuss the supersymmetric flavour issues in such theories, including a detailed analysis of lepton flavour violation. We show that it is not possible to quantitatively and decisively discriminate between these different theoretical possibilities at the present time
Elastic scattering phenomenology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mackintosh, R.S. [The Open University, School of Physical Sciences, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom)
2017-04-15
We argue that, in many situations, fits to elastic scattering data that were historically, and frequently still are, considered ''good'', are not justifiably so describable. Information about the dynamics of nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus scattering is lost when elastic scattering phenomenology is insufficiently ambitious. It is argued that in many situations, an alternative approach is appropriate for the phenomenology of nuclear elastic scattering of nucleons and other light nuclei. The approach affords an appropriate means of evaluating folding models, one that fully exploits available empirical data. It is particularly applicable for nucleons and other light ions. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cokelaer, T
2007-01-01
Matched filtering is used to search for gravitational waves emitted by inspiralling compact binaries in data from ground-based interferometers. One of the key aspects of the detection process is the deployment of a set of templates, also called a template bank, to cover the astrophysically interesting region of the parameter space. In a companion paper, we described the template bank algorithm used in the analysis of Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) data to search for signals from non-spinning binaries made of neutron star and/or stellar-mass black holes; this template bank is based upon physical template families. In this paper, we describe the phenomenological template bank that was used to search for gravitational waves from non-spinning black hole binaries (from stellar mass formation) in the second, third and fourth LIGO science runs. We briefly explain the design of the bank, whose templates are based on a phenomenological detection template family. We show that this template bank gives matches greater than 95% with the physical template families that are expected to be captured by the phenomenological templates
Collisions of cosmic F- and D-strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, N.
2004-01-01
Recent theoretical advances and upcoming experimental measurements make the testing of generic predictions of string theory models of cosmology feasible. Brane anti-brane models of inflation within superstring theory are promising as string theory descriptions of the physics of the early universe. While varied in their construction, these models can have the generic and observable consequence that cosmic strings will be abundant in the early universe. This leads to possible detectable effects in the cosmic microwave background, gravitational wave physics and gravitational lensing. Detailed calculations of cosmic string interactions within string theory are presented, in order to distinguish these cosmic strings from those in more conventional theories; these interaction probabilities can be very different from conventional 4-dimension strings, providing the possibility of experimental tests of string theory. (authors)
Relativistic classical strings. II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galvao, C.A.P.
1985-01-01
The interactions of strings with electromagnetic and gravitational fields are extensively discussed. Some concepts of differential geometry are reviewed. Strings in Kaluza-Klein manifolds are studied. (L.C.) [pt
Supersymmetry and Superstring Phenomenology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaillard, Mary K; Gaillard, Mary K.; Zumino, Bruno
2008-05-05
We briefly cover the early history of supersymmetry, describe the relation of SUSY quantum field theories to superstring theories and explain why they are considered a likely tool to describe the phenomenology of high energy particle theory beyond the Standard Model.
Towards optimal packed string matching
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany
2014-01-01
In the packed string matching problem, it is assumed that each machine word can accommodate up to α characters, thus an n-character string occupies n/α memory words.(a) We extend the Crochemore–Perrin constant-space O(n)-time string-matching algorithm to run in optimal O(n/α) time and even in real......-time, achieving a factor α speedup over traditional algorithms that examine each character individually. Our macro-level algorithm only uses the standard AC0 instructions of the word-RAM model (i.e. no integer multiplication) plus two specialized micro-level AC0 word-size packed-string instructions. The main word...... matching work.(b) We also consider the complexity of the packed string matching problem in the classical word-RAM model in the absence of the specialized micro-level instructions wssm and wslm. We propose micro-level algorithms for the theoretically efficient emulation using parallel algorithms techniques...
The social structure of experimental'' strings at Fermilab; a physics and detector driven model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bodnarczuk, M.
1990-12-12
Physicists in HEP have been forced to organize large scientific projects without a well defined organizational or sociological model to guide them. In the absence of such models, what structures do experimentalists use to develop social structures in HEP In this paper, I claim that physicists organize around what they know best, the physics problems they study and the detectors and devices they study them with. After describing the advent of management'' in HEP, I use a case study of 4 Fermilab experiments as the base upon which to propose a physics and detector driven model of social structure for experiments. In addition, I show how this model can be extended to describe strings'' of experiments, where continuities of physics interests, spectrometer design, and a core group of physicists become a definable sociological unit that can exist for over 15 years. A dominate theme that emerges from my analysis is the conscious attempt on the part of experimenters to remove the uncertainties that are part of the practice of HEP.
2015-10-01
UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 689 Technical Report ARWSE-TR-14026 STD ::STRING APPEND Tom Nealis...DATES COVERED (From – To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE STD ::STRING APPEND 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...two or more strings together while developing a C++ application is a very common task. For std ::strings, there are two primary ways to achieve the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chudnovsky, E.; Vilenkin, A.
1988-01-01
If light superconducting strings were formed in the early Universe, then it is very likely that now they exist in abundance in the interstellar plasma and in stars. The dynamics of such strings can be dominated by friction, so that they are ''frozen'' into the plasma. Turbulence of the plasma twists and stretches the strings, forming a stochastic string network. Such networks must generate particles and magnetic fields, and may play an important role in the physics of stars and of the Galaxy
Aldrin-Denny, R
1998-01-01
The methodology of formulating spatio-temporal diffusion-migration equations in an applied electric field for two competing diffusion processes is outlined using kinetic Ising model versions with the help of spin-exchange dynamics due to Kawasaki. The two transport processes considered here correspond to bounded displacement of species attached to supramolecular structures and electron hopping between spatially separated electron transfer active centres. The dependence of the diffusion coefficient on number density as well as the microscopic basis underlying phenomenological diffusion-migration equations are pointed out. (author)
Hunting for TeV Scale Strings at the LHC
Bars, Itzhak
2010-01-01
In this paper I review the possibility of TeV scale strings that may be detectable by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). This possibility was investigated extensively in a series of phenomenological papers during 1984-1985 in connection with the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The work was mainly based on a model independent systematic parametrization of scattering amplitudes and cross sections, for Standard Model particles, quarks and leptons, that were assumed to behave like strings, while gluons, photons, $W^{\\pm},Z$ were taken as elementary. By using Veneziano type beta functions consistent with crossing symmetry, duality and Regge behavior, bosonic or fermionic resonances in each channel were included, while the low energy behavior was matched to effective field theory non-renormalizable interactions consistent with the Standard Model SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) gauge symmetry as well as global flavor and family symmetries. The motivation for this approach at that time was the possible compositeness of quarks a...
Pellenq, Roland J-M; Coasne, Benoit; Denoyel, Renaud O; Coussy, O
2009-02-03
A simple phenomenological model that describes capillary condensation and evaporation of pure fluids confined in cylindrical mesopores is presented. Following the work of Celestini (Celestini, F. Phys. Lett. A 1997, 228, 84), the free energy density of the system is derived using interfacial tensions and a corrective term that accounts for the interaction coupling between the vapor/adsorbed liquid and the adsorbed liquid/adsorbent interfaces. This corrective term is shown to be consistent with the Gibbs adsorption isotherm and assessed by standard adsorption tests. This model reveals that capillary condensation and evaporation are metastable and equilibrium processes, respectively, hence exhibiting the existence of a hysteresis loop inadsorption/desorption isotherm that is well-known in experiment. We extend the phenomenological model of Celestini to give a quantitative description of adsorption on the pore wall and hysteresis width evolution with temperature and confinement. Direct quantitative comparison is made with experimental data for confined argon. Used as a characterizing tool, this integrated model allows in a single fit of an experimental adsorption/desorption isotherm assessing essential characterization data such as the specific surface area, pore volume, and mean pore size.
String field representation of the Virasoro algebra
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Mertes, N.; Schnabl, Martin
2016-01-01
Roč. 2016, č. 12 (2016), 1-14, č. článku 151. ISSN 1029-8479 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31689S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : String Held Theory * Conformal Field Models in String Theory Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 6.063, year: 2016
EFFECTIVE ACTIONS FOR HETEROTIC STRING THEORY
SUELMANN, H
Heterotic String Theory is an attempt to construct a description of nature that is more satisfying than the Standard Model. A major problem is that it is very difficult to do explicit calculations in string theory. Therefore, it is useful to construct a 'normal' field theory that approximates HST.
Quantum Geometry of Refined Topological Strings
Aganagic, M.; Cheng, M.C.N.; Dijkgraaf, R.; Kreft, D.; Vafa, C.
2012-01-01
We consider branes in refined topological strings. We argue that their wavefunctions satisfy a Schrödinger equation depending on multiple times and prove this in the case where the topological string has a dual matrix model description. Furthermore, in the limit where one of the equivariant
String loop effect on the BRST charge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, A.; Nishino, H.
1987-07-01
An effective BRST charge Q BRST which incorporates the string one-loop corrections is presented for the closed bosonic string in an arbitrary background. The effective σ-model action which leads to such a Q BRST is obtained and some consequences are discussed. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barendregt, Wolmet; Börjesson, Peter; Eriksson, Eva
2017-01-01
In this paper, we present the forced collaborative interaction game StringForce. StringForce is developed for a special education context to support training of collaboration skills, using readily available technologies and avoiding the creation of a "mobile bubble". In order to play StringForce ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cardona, Biel [Departament d’Estructura i Constituents de la Matèriaand Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB) Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona,Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Gomis, Joaquim [Departament d’Estructura i Constituents de la Matèriaand Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB) Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona,Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University,Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Pons, Josep M. [Departament d’Estructura i Constituents de la Matèriaand Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB) Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona,Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)
2016-07-11
We construct the canonical action of a Carroll string doing the Carroll limit of a canonical relativistic string. We also study the Killing symmetries of the Carroll string, which close under an infinite dimensional algebra. The tensionless limit and the Carroll p-brane action are also discussed.
Bianchi type I string cosmologies
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
By making use of Letelier's form of energy–momentum tensor for a cloud of stringdust we present some classes of solutions of general relativistic ﬁeld equations which describe cosmological string-dust models in Bianchi type I space-time. Some of the classes of models obey Takabayashi's equation of state whereas a class ...
Topological strings and quantum curves
Hollands, L.
2009-01-01
This thesis presents several new insights on the interface between mathematics and theoretical physics, with a central role for Riemann surfaces. First of all, the duality between Vafa-Witten theory and WZW models is embedded in string theory. Secondly, this model is generalized to a web of
Working group report: Beyond the standard model
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Superstring-inspired phenomenology: This included. – models of low-scale quantum gravity with one or more extra dimensions,. – noncommutative geometry and gauge theories,. – string-inspired grand unification. • Models of supersymmetry-breaking: This included. – Supersymmetry-breaking in minimal supergravity ...
New ambitwistor string theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Casali, Eduardo [DAMTP, University of Cambridge,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Geyer, Yvonne; Mason, Lionel; Monteiro, Ricardo [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford,Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Roehrig, Kai A. [DAMTP, University of Cambridge,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)
2015-11-05
We describe new ambitwistor string theories that give rise to the recent amplitude formulae for Einstein-Yang-Mills, (Dirac)-Born-Infeld, Galileons and others introduced by Cachazo, He and Yuan. In the case of the Einstein-Yang-Mills amplitudes, an important role is played by a novel worldsheet conformal field theory that provides the appropriate colour factors precisely without the spurious multitrace terms of earlier models that had to be ignored by hand. This is needed to obtain the correct multitrace terms that arise when Yang-Mills is coupled to gravity.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balanov, A.G.; Janson, N.B. E-mail: n.janson@lancaster.ac.uk; McClintock, P.V.E.; Tucker, R.W.; Wang, C.H.T
2003-01-01
Using techniques from dynamical systems analysis we explore numerically the solution space, under parametric variation, of a neutral differential delay equation that arises naturally in the Cosserat description of torsional waves on a driven drill-string.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balanov, A.G.; Janson, N.B.; McClintock, P.V.E.; Tucker, R.W.; Wang, C.H.T.
2003-01-01
Using techniques from dynamical systems analysis we explore numerically the solution space, under parametric variation, of a neutral differential delay equation that arises naturally in the Cosserat description of torsional waves on a driven drill-string
Topological Strings and Integrable Hierarchies
Aganagic, M; Klemm, A D; Marino, M; Vafa, C; Aganagic, Mina; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Klemm, Albrecht; Marino, Marcos; Vafa, Cumrun
2006-01-01
We consider the topological B-model on local Calabi-Yau geometries. We show how one can solve for the amplitudes by using W-algebra symmetries which encodes the symmetries of holomorphic diffeomorphisms of the Calabi-Yau. In the highly effective fermionic/brane formulation this leads to a free fermion description of the amplitudes. Furthermore we argue that topological strings on Calabi-Yau geometries provide a unifying picture connecting non-critical (super)strings, integrable hierarchies, and various matrix models. In particular we show how the ordinary matrix model, the double scaling limit of matrix models, and Kontsevich-like matrix model are all related and arise from studying branes in specific local Calabi-Yau three-folds. We also show how A-model topological string on P^1 and local toric threefolds (and in particular the topological vertex) can be realized and solved as B-model topological string amplitudes on a Calabi-Yau manifold.
Quarks, Symmetries and Strings - a Symposium in Honor of Bunji Sakita's 60th Birthday
Kaku, M.; Jevicki, A.; Kikkawa, K.
1991-04-01
The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * Evening Banquet Speech * I. Quarks and Phenomenology * From the SU(6) Model to Uniqueness in the Standard Model * A Model for Higgs Mechanism in the Standard Model * Quark Mass Generation in QCD * Neutrino Masses in the Standard Model * Solar Neutrino Puzzle, Horizontal Symmetry of Electroweak Interactions and Fermion Mass Hierarchies * State of Chiral Symmetry Breaking at High Temperatures * Approximate |ΔI| = 1/2 Rule from a Perspective of Light-Cone Frame Physics * Positronium (and Some Other Systems) in a Strong Magnetic Field * Bosonic Technicolor and the Flavor Problem * II. Strings * Supersymmetry in String Theory * Collective Field Theory and Schwinger-Dyson Equations in Matrix Models * Non-Perturbative String Theory * The Structure of Non-Perturbative Quantum Gravity in One and Two Dimensions * Noncritical Virasoro Algebra of d Body Equations for Planar Particles with Arbitrary Spin * Chiral Property of Quarks and Hadron Spectrum in Lattice QCD * Scalar Lattice QCD * Semi-Superconductivity of a Charged Anyon Gas * Two-Fermion Theory of Strongly Correlated Electrons and Charge-Spin Separation * Statistical Mechanics and Error-Correcting Codes * Quantum Statistics
String Resonances at Hadron Colliders
Anchordoqui, Luis A; Dai, De-Chang; Feng, Wan-Zhe; Goldberg, Haim; Huang, Xing; Lust, Dieter; Stojkovic, Dejan; Taylor, Tomasz R
2014-01-01
[Abridged] We consider extensions of the standard model based on open strings ending on D-branes. Assuming that the fundamental string mass scale M_s is in the TeV range and that the theory is weakly coupled, we discuss possible signals of string physics at the upcoming HL-LHC run (3000 fb^{-1}) with \\sqrt{s} = 14 TeV, and at potential future pp colliders, HE-LHC and VLHC, operating at \\sqrt{s} = 33 and 100 TeV, respectively. In such D-brane constructions, the dominant contributions to full-fledged string amplitudes for all the common QCD parton subprocesses leading to dijets and \\gamma + jet are completely independent of the details of compactification, and can be evaluated in a parameter-free manner. We make use of these amplitudes evaluated near the first (n=1) and second (n=2) resonant poles to determine the discovery potential for Regge excitations of the quark, the gluon, and the color singlet living on the QCD stack. We show that for string scales as large as 7.1 TeV (6.1 TeV), lowest massive Regge exc...
Non-perturbative topological strings and conformal blocks
Cheng, M.C.N.; Dijkgraaf, R.; Vafa, C.
2011-01-01
We give a non-perturbative completion of a class of closed topological string theories in terms of building blocks of dual open strings. In the specific case where the open string is given by a matrix model these blocks correspond to a choice of integration contour. We then apply this definition to
Bianchi type-I massive string magnetized barotropic perfect fluid ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
by either a perfect fluid or a cosmic string in bimetric theory of gravitation. Bali and Prad- han [41] have investigated Bianchi type-III string cosmological model with time-dependent bulk viscosity. In view of the importance of Maxwell's electromagnetic field interactions with a perfect fluid or a cosmic string and there is a lot of ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pawloski, G.A.
1999-09-21
Although it is well accepted that underground nuclear explosions modify the in situ geologic media around the explosion point, the details of these changes are neither well understood nor well documented. As part of the engineering and containment process before a nuclear test, the physical environment is characterized to some extent to predict how the explosion will interact with the in situ media. However, a more detailed characterization of the physical environment surrounding an expended site is needed to successfully model radionuclide transport in the groundwater away from the detonation point. It is important to understand how the media have been altered and where the radionuclides are deposited. Once understood, this information on modified geologic media can be incorporated into a phenomenological model that is suitable for input to computer simulations of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. The primary goals of this study are to (1) identify the modification of the media at a pertinent scale, and (2) provide this information to researchers modeling radionuclide transport in groundwater for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Operations Office Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. Results from this study are most applicable at near-field scale (a model domain of about 500 m) and intermediate-field scale (a model domain of about 5 km) for which detailed information can be maximized as it is incorporated in the modeling grids. UGTA collected data on radionuclides in groundwater during recent drilling at the ER-20-5 site, which is near BENHAM and TYBO on Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Computer simulations are being performed to better understand radionuclide transport. The objectives of this modeling effort include: evaluating site-specific information from the BENHAM and TYBO tests on Pahute Mesa; augmenting the above data set with generalized containment data; and developing a phenomenological model suitable for input to
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skenderis, Kostas
2007-01-01
The book 'String Theory in a Nutshell' by Elias Kiritsis provides a comprehensive introduction to modern string theory. String theory is the leading candidate for a theory that successfully unifies all fundamental forces of nature, including gravity. The subject has been continuously developing since the early 1970s, with classic textbooks on the subject being those of Green, Schwarz and Witten (1987) and Polchinski (1998). Since the latter was published there have been substantial developments, in particular in understanding black holes and gravity/gauge theory dualities. A textbook treatment of this important material is clearly needed, both by students and researchers in string theory and by mathematicians and physicists working in related fields. This book has a good selection of material, starting from basics and moving into classic and modern topics. In particular, Kiritsis' presentation of the basic material is complementary to that of the earlier textbooks and he includes a number of topics which are not easily found or covered adequately elsewhere, for example, loop corrections to string effective couplings. Overall the book nicely covers the major advances of the last ten years, including (non-perturbative) string dualities, black hole physics, AdS/CFT and matrix models. It provides a concise but fairly complete introduction to these subjects which can be used both by students and by researchers. Moreover the emphasis is on results that are reasonably established, as is appropriate for a textbook; concise summaries are given for subjects which are still in flux, with references to relevant reviews and papers. A positive feature of the book is that the bibliography sections at the end of each chapter provide a comprehensive guide to the literature. The bibliographies point to reviews and pedagogical papers on subjects covered in this book as well as those that were omitted. It is rare for a textbook to contain such a self-contained and detailed guide to
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skenderis, Kostas [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, NL-1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2007-11-21
The book 'String Theory in a Nutshell' by Elias Kiritsis provides a comprehensive introduction to modern string theory. String theory is the leading candidate for a theory that successfully unifies all fundamental forces of nature, including gravity. The subject has been continuously developing since the early 1970s, with classic textbooks on the subject being those of Green, Schwarz and Witten (1987) and Polchinski (1998). Since the latter was published there have been substantial developments, in particular in understanding black holes and gravity/gauge theory dualities. A textbook treatment of this important material is clearly needed, both by students and researchers in string theory and by mathematicians and physicists working in related fields. This book has a good selection of material, starting from basics and moving into classic and modern topics. In particular, Kiritsis' presentation of the basic material is complementary to that of the earlier textbooks and he includes a number of topics which are not easily found or covered adequately elsewhere, for example, loop corrections to string effective couplings. Overall the book nicely covers the major advances of the last ten years, including (non-perturbative) string dualities, black hole physics, AdS/CFT and matrix models. It provides a concise but fairly complete introduction to these subjects which can be used both by students and by researchers. Moreover the emphasis is on results that are reasonably established, as is appropriate for a textbook; concise summaries are given for subjects which are still in flux, with references to relevant reviews and papers. A positive feature of the book is that the bibliography sections at the end of each chapter provide a comprehensive guide to the literature. The bibliographies point to reviews and pedagogical papers on subjects covered in this book as well as those that were omitted. It is rare for a textbook to contain such a self-contained and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faraggi, A.E.; Pati, J.C.
1997-12-01
Recently a promising mechanism for supersymmetry breaking that utilizes both an anomalous U(1) gauge symmetry and an effective mass term m ∼ 1TeV of certain relevant fields has been proposed. In this paper we examine whether such a mechanism can emerge in superstring derived free fermionic models. We observe that certain three generation string solutions, though not all, lead to an anomalous U(1) which couples universally to all three families. The advantages of this three-family universality of U(1) A , compared to the two-family case, proposed in earlier works, in yielding squark degeneracy, while avoiding radiative breaking of color and charge, are noted. The root cause of the flavor universality of U(1) A is the cyclic permutation symmetry that characterizes the Z 2 x Z 2 orbifold compactification with standard embedding, realized in the free fermionic models by the NAHE set. It is shown that nonrenormalizable terms which contain hidden-sector condensates, generate the required suppression of the relevant mass term m, compared to the Planck scale. While the D-term of the family universal U(1) A leads to squark degeneracy, those of the family dependent U(1)'s, remarkably enough, are found to vanish for the solutions considered, owing to minimization of the potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faraggi, A.E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics; Pati, J.C. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics
1997-12-01
Recently a promising mechanism for supersymmetry breaking that utilizes both an anomalous U(1) gauge symmetry and an effective mass term m {approx} 1TeV of certain relevant fields has been proposed. In this paper we examine whether such a mechanism can emerge in superstring derived free fermionic models. We observe that certain three generation string solutions, though not all, lead to an anomalous U(1) which couples universally to all three families. The advantages of this three-family universality of U(1){sub A}, compared to the two-family case, proposed in earlier works, in yielding squark degeneracy, while avoiding radiative breaking of color and charge, are noted. The root cause of the flavor universality of U(1){sub A} is the cyclic permutation symmetry that characterizes the Z{sub 2} x Z{sub 2} orbifold compactification with standard embedding, realized in the free fermionic models by the NAHE set. It is shown that nonrenormalizable terms which contain hidden-sector condensates, generate the required suppression of the relevant mass term m, compared to the Planck scale. While the D-term of the family universal U(1){sub A} leads to squark degeneracy, those of the family dependent U(1)`s, remarkably enough, are found to vanish for the solutions considered, owing to minimization of the potential.
Vector superconductivity in cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dvali, G.R.; Mahajan, S.M.
1992-03-01
We argue that in most realistic cases, the usual Witten-type bosonic superconductivity of the cosmic string is automatically (independent of the existence of superconducting currents) accompanied by the condensation of charged gauge vector bosons in the core giving rise to a new vector type superconductivity. The value of the charged vector condensate is related with the charged scalar expectation value, and vanishes only if the latter goes to zero. The mechanism for the proposed vector superconductivity, differing fundamentally from those in the literature, is delineated using the simplest realistic example of the two Higgs doublet standard model interacting with the extra cosmic string. It is shown that for a wide range of parameters, for which the string becomes scalarly superconducting, W boson condensates (the sources of vector superconductivity) are necessarily excited. (author). 14 refs
Diffusion of massive particles around an Abelian-Higgs string
Saha, Abhisek; Sanyal, Soma
2018-03-01
We study the diffusion of massive particles in the space time of an Abelian Higgs string. The particles in the early universe plasma execute Brownian motion. This motion of the particles is modeled as a two dimensional random walk in the plane of the Abelian Higgs string. The particles move randomly in the space time of the string according to their geodesic equations. We observe that for certain values of their energy and angular momentum, an overdensity of particles is observed close to the string. We find that the string parameters determine the distribution of the particles. We make an estimate of the density fluctuation generated around the string as a function of the deficit angle. Though the thickness of the string is small, the length is large and the overdensity close to the string may have cosmological consequences in the early universe.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freund, P.G.O.
1988-01-01
According to the author nobody has succeeded as yet in extracting any new numbers from string theory. This paper discusses how if one cannot get new numbers from string theory, maybe one can get new strings out of number theory. Number theory is generally regarded as the purest form of mathematics. So how can it conceivably make contact with physics which aims at describing nature? The author discusses how the connecting link of these two disciplines is provided by the compact Riemann surfaces. These appear as world sheets of interacting strings. For instance, string-string scattering at the three-loop level involves the four external strings attaching themselves to a genus three compact surface
Elliott, Elizabeth C; Walden, Marlene; Young, Anne; Symes, Lene; Fredland, Nina
2017-06-01
The purpose of this study was to describe the lived experiences of nurse practitioners (NPs) practicing within the Transformational Advanced Professional Practice (TAPP) Model, a professional practice model (PPM). A descriptive phenomenological analysis using semistructured interviews of 11 NPs across multiple inpatient and outpatient clinical areas at Texas Children's Hospital. Member checking and theming data occurred using Colaizzi's Method concurrently with Mind Mapping technique. Main themes included: (a) transforming professional practice, (b) cultivating the inner self, and (c) mentoring professional transitions. The findings of this study provide qualitative evidence that the TAPP Model influences role transition and professional development. Transforming NP practice within organizations and within the nursing profession itself will take mindfulness with an intentional approach to design PPMs specifically for NPs. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dartevelle, Sebastian
2007-10-01
Large-scale volcanic eruptions are hazardous events that cannot be described by detailed and accurate in situ measurement: hence, little to no real-time data exists to rigorously validate current computer models of these events. In addition, such phenomenology involves highly complex, nonlinear, and unsteady physical behaviors upon many spatial and time scales. As a result, volcanic explosive phenomenology is poorly understood in terms of its physics, and inadequately constrained in terms of initial, boundary, and inflow conditions. Nevertheless, code verification and validation become even more critical because more and more volcanologists use numerical data for assessment and mitigation of volcanic hazards. In this report, we evaluate the process of model and code development in the context of geophysical multiphase flows. We describe: (1) the conception of a theoretical, multiphase, Navier-Stokes model, (2) its implementation into a numerical code, (3) the verification of the code, and (4) the validation of such a model within the context of turbulent and underexpanded jet physics. Within the validation framework, we suggest focusing on the key physics that control the volcanic clouds—namely, momentum-driven supersonic jet and buoyancy-driven turbulent plume. For instance, we propose to compare numerical results against a set of simple and well-constrained analog experiments, which uniquely and unambiguously represent each of the key-phenomenology. Key
A non-perturbative approach to strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orland, P.
1986-03-01
After briefly reviewing the theory of strings in the light-cone gauge, a lattice regularized path integral for the amplitudes is discussed. The emphasis is put on a toy string model; the U(N) Veneziano model in the limit as N->infinite with g 0 2 N fixed. The lattice methods of Giles and Thorn are used extensively, but are found to require modification beyond perturbation theory. The twenty-six-dimensional toy string model is recast as a two-dimensional spin system. (orig.)
Strings, conformal fields and topology. An introduction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaku, Michio (City Coll., New York (USA). Dept. of Physics)
1991-01-01
String Theory has advanced at an astonishing pace in the last few years, and this book aims to acquaint the reader with the most active topics of research in the field. Building on the foundations laid in his Introduction to Superstrings, Professor Kaku discusses such topics as the classification of conformal string theories, knot theory, the Yang-Baxter relation, quantum groups, the non-polynominal closed string field theory, matrix models, and topological field theory. Several chapters review the fundamentals of string theory, making the presentation of the material self-contained while keeping overlap with the earlier book to a minimum. The book conveys the vitality of current research in string theory and places readers at its forefront. (orig.) With 40 figs. in 50 parts.
Compactifications of the Heterotic string with unitary bundles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weigand, T.
2006-05-23
phenomenological properties of this stringy realisation of flipped SU(5) models, in particular stability of the proton, are discussed. We explicitly construct a couple of supersymmetric string vacua in both setups with precisely the three observed chiral matter generations and without any exotic chiral states. (orig.)
Querying and Mining Strings Made Easy
Sahli, Majed
2017-10-13
With the advent of large string datasets in several scientific and business applications, there is a growing need to perform ad-hoc analysis on strings. Currently, strings are stored, managed, and queried using procedural codes. This limits users to certain operations supported by existing procedural applications and requires manual query planning with limited tuning opportunities. This paper presents StarQL, a generic and declarative query language for strings. StarQL is based on a native string data model that allows StarQL to support a large variety of string operations and provide semantic-based query optimization. String analytic queries are too intricate to be solved on one machine. Therefore, we propose a scalable and efficient data structure that allows StarQL implementations to handle large sets of strings and utilize large computing infrastructures. Our evaluation shows that StarQL is able to express workloads of application-specific tools, such as BLAST and KAT in bioinformatics, and to mine Wikipedia text for interesting patterns using declarative queries. Furthermore, the StarQL query optimizer shows an order of magnitude reduction in query execution time.
Open-closed string correspondence in open string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baumgartl, M.; Sachs, I.
2008-01-01
We address the problem of describing different closed string backgrounds in background independent open string field theory: A shift in the closed string background corresponds to a collective excitation of open strings. As an illustration we apply the formalism to the case where the closed string background is a group manifold. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raquet, O.
1994-01-01
A purely phenomenological study of stress corrosion cracking was performed using the couple Z2CN 18.10 (304L) austenitic stainless steel/boiling MgCl 2 aqueous solution. The exploitation of the morphological information (shape of the cracks and size distribution) available after constant elongation rate tests led to the proposal of an analytical expression of the crack initiation and growth rates. This representation allowed to quantitatively characterize the influence of the applied strain rate as well as the effect of corrosion inhibitors on the crack initiation and propagation phases. It can be used in the search for the stress corrosion cracking mechanisms as a 'riddle' for the determination of the rate controlling steps. As a matter of fact, no mechanistic hypothesis has been used for its development. (author)
Relativistic string dynamics and its connection with hadron physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbashov, B.M.; Nesterenko, V.V.
1976-01-01
Physical reasons for using the relativistic string as a hadron model are briefly discussed. The classical and quantum dynamics of the string which is the first example of a relativistic elongated object are presented. The connection between the string and the dual-resonance models, together with the Born-Infeld field model is indicated. As it turned out from the study of the string behaviour in a constant electromagnetic field, even in the classical theory states with the negative square of the string mass - tachyons - appear. As an illustration, a series of examples of classical motion of a free string and a string in an external electromagnetic field from a given initial state is presented
't Hooft, Gerardus
QCD was proposed as a theory for the strong interactions long before we had any idea as to how it could be that its fundamental constituents, the quarks, are never seen as physical particles. Massless gluons also do not exist as free particles. How can this be explained? The first indication that this question had to be considered in connection with the topological structure of a gauge theory came when Nielsen and Olesen observed the occurrence of stable magnetic vortex structures [1] in the Abelian Higgs model. Expanding on such ideas, the magnetic monopole solution was found [2]. Other roundabout attempts to understand confinement involve instantons. Today, we have better interpretations of these topological structures, including a general picture of the way they do lead to unbound potentials confining quarks. It is clear that these unbound potentials can be ascribed to a string-like structure of the vortices formed by the QCD field lines. Can string theory be used to analyze QCD? Many researchers think so. The leading expert on this is Sacha Polyakov. In his instructive account he adds how he experienced the course of events in Gauge Theory, emphasizing the fact that quite a few discoveries often ascribed to researchers from the West, actually were made independently by scientists from the Soviet Union…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dzhunushaliev, V
2003-01-01
The properties of 5D gravitational flux tubes are considered. With the cross section and fifth dimension in the Planck region, such tubes can be considered as stringlike objects, namely Δ-strings. A model of attachment of Δ-string to a spacetime is offered. It is shown that the attachment point is a model of an electric charge for an observer living in the spacetime. The magnetic charges are forbidden in this model
Zhou, Ke; Zhang, JiangLing; Feng, Dan
2003-04-01
In the view of string controller utilization of fiber channel RAID, this paper builds SPN model of RAID and calculates the utilization of string controller in different parameters. As a conclusion: average utilization of two string controllers is higher than that of three string controllers in distributed data storage system.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
CHEN,KEN S.; EVANS,GREGORY H.; LARSON,RICHARD S.; NOBLE,DAVID R.; HOUF,WILLIAM G.
2000-01-01
A phenomenological model was developed for multicomponent transport of charged species with simultaneous electrochemical reactions in concentrated solutions, and was applied to model processes in a thermal battery cell. A new general framework was formulated and implemented in GOMA (a multidimensional, multiphysics, finite-element computer code developed and being enhanced at Sandia) for modeling multidimensional, multicomponent transport of neutral and charged species in concentrated solutions. The new framework utilizes the Stefan-Maxwell equations that describe multicomponent diffusion of interacting species using composition-insensitive binary diffusion coefficients. The new GOMA capability for modeling multicomponent transport of neutral species was verified and validated using the model problem of ternary gaseous diffusion in a Stefan tube. The new GOMA-based thermal battery computer model was verified using an idealized battery cell in which concentration gradients are absent; the full model was verified by comparing with that of Bernardi and Newman (1987) and validated using limited thermal battery discharge-performance data from the open literature (Dunning 1981) and from Sandia (Guidotti 1996). Moreover, a new Liquid Chemkin Software Package was developed, which allows the user to handle manly aspects of liquid-phase kinetics, thermodynamics, and transport (particularly in terms of computing properties). Lastly, a Lattice-Boltzmann-based capability was developed for modeling pore- or micro-scale phenomena involving convection, diffusion, and simplified chemistry; this capability was demonstrated by modeling phenomena in the cathode region of a thermal battery cell.
String formation beyond leading colour
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Christiansen, Jesper R. [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University,Sölvegatan 14, Lund (Sweden); Theoretical Physics, CERN,CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Skands, Peter Z. [Theoretical Physics, CERN,CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University,VIC-3800 (Australia)
2015-08-03
We present a new model for the hadronisation of multi-parton systems, in which colour correlations beyond leading N{sub C} are allowed to influence the formation of confining potentials (strings). The multiplet structure of SU(3) is combined with a minimisation of the string potential energy, to decide between which partons strings should form, allowing also for “baryonic” configurations (e.g., two colours can combine coherently to form an anticolour). In e{sup +}e{sup −}collisions, modifications to the leading-colour picture are small, suppressed by both colour and kinematics factors. But in pp collisions, multi-parton interactions increase the number of possible subleading connections, counteracting their naive 1/N{sub C}{sup 2} suppression. Moreover, those that reduce the overall string lengths are kinematically favoured. The model, which we have implemented in the PYTHIA 8 generator, is capable of reaching agreement not only with the important 〈p{sub ⊥}〉(n{sub charged}) distribution but also with measured rates (and ratios) of kaons and hyperons, in both ee and pp collisions. Nonetheless, the shape of their p{sub ⊥} spectra remains challenging to explain.
pp wave big bangs: Matrix strings and shrinking fuzzy spheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, Sumit R.; Michelson, Jeremy
2005-01-01
We find pp wave solutions in string theory with null-like linear dilatons. These provide toy models of big bang cosmologies. We formulate matrix string theory in these backgrounds. Near the big bang 'singularity', the string theory becomes strongly coupled but the Yang-Mills description of the matrix string is weakly coupled. The presence of a second length scale allows us to focus on a specific class of non-Abelian configurations, viz. fuzzy cylinders, for a suitable regime of parameters. We show that, for a class of pp waves, fuzzy cylinders which start out big at early times dynamically shrink into usual strings at sufficiently late times
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Copeland, E.J.
1991-01-01
The past decade has seen a developing interplay between elementary particle physics and cosmology. The former has had great success in demonstrating the unification of the weak and electromagnetic forces at energies just above 250 GeV (1016 degrees Kelvin). The 'Standard Model' of particle physics seems to describe accurately the interactions of quarks and leptons at and below these energies, as demonstrated daily in CERN's LEP electron-positron collider
Gauge fields in a string-cigar braneworld
Costa, F. W. V.; Silva, J. E. G.; Veras, D. F. S.; Almeida, C. A. S.
2015-07-01
In this work, we investigate the properties of the Abelian gauge vector field in the background of a string-cigar braneworld. Both the thin and thick brane limits are considered. The string-cigar scenario can be regarded as an interior and exterior string-like solution. The source undergoes a geometric Ricci flow which is related to a variation of the bulk cosmological constant. The Ricci flow changes the width and amplitude of the massless mode at the brane core and recovers the usual string-like behavior at large distances. By means of suitable numerical methods, we attain the Kaluza-Klein (KK) spectrum for the string-like and the string-cigar models. For the string-cigar model, the KK modes are smooth near the brane and their amplitude are enhanced by the brane core. Furthermore, the analogue Schrödinger potential is also regulated by the geometric flow.
Gauge fields in a string-cigar braneworld
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F.W.V. Costa
2015-07-01
Full Text Available In this work, we investigate the properties of the Abelian gauge vector field in the background of a string-cigar braneworld. Both the thin and thick brane limits are considered. The string-cigar scenario can be regarded as an interior and exterior string-like solution. The source undergoes a geometric Ricci flow which is related to a variation of the bulk cosmological constant. The Ricci flow changes the width and amplitude of the massless mode at the brane core and recovers the usual string-like behavior at large distances. By means of suitable numerical methods, we attain the Kaluza–Klein (KK spectrum for the string-like and the string-cigar models. For the string-cigar model, the KK modes are smooth near the brane and their amplitude are enhanced by the brane core. Furthermore, the analogue Schrödinger potential is also regulated by the geometric flow.
Interpolating string field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zwiebach, B.
1992-01-01
This paper reports that a minimal area problem imposing different length conditions on open and closed curves is shown to define a one-parameter family of covariant open-closed quantum string field theories. These interpolate from a recently proposed factorizable open-closed theory up to an extended version of Witten's open string field theory capable of incorporating on shell closed strings. The string diagrams of the latter define a new decomposition of the moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces with punctures and boundaries based on quadratic differentials with both first order and second order poles
Gadde, Abhijit; Haghighat, Babak; Kim, Joonho; Kim, Seok; Lockhart, Guglielmo; Vafa, Cumrun
2018-02-01
We consider bound states of strings which arise in 6d (1,0) SCFTs that are realized in F-theory in terms of linear chains of spheres with negative self-intersections 1,2, and 4. These include the strings associated to N small E 8 instantons, as well as the ones associated to M5 branes probing A and D type singularities in M-theory or D5 branes probing ADE singularities in Type IIB string theory. We find that these bound states of strings admit (0,4) supersymmetric quiver descriptions and show how one can compute their elliptic genera.
Zimmerman Jones, Andrew
2010-01-01
Making Everything Easier!. String Theory for Dummies. Learn:. The basic concepts of this controversial theory;. How string theory builds on physics concepts;. The different viewpoints in the field;. String theory's physical implications. Andrew Zimmerman Jones. Physics Guide, About.com. with Daniel Robbins, PhD in Physics. Your plain-English guide to this complex scientific theory. String theory is one of the most complicated sciences being explored today. Not to worry though! This informative guide clearly explains the basics of this hot topic, discusses the theory's hypotheses and prediction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Krause, Axel
2006-01-01
We show that all three conditions for the cosmological relevance of heterotic cosmic strings, the right tension, stability and a production mechanism at the end of inflation, can be met in the strongly coupled M-theory regime. Whereas cosmic strings generated from weakly coupled heterotic strings have the well-known problems posed by Witten in 1985, we show that strings arising from M5-branes wrapped around 4-cycles (divisors) of a Calabi-Yau in heterotic M-theory compactifications solve these problems in an elegant fashion
Coordinate and Kaehler σ-model anomalies and their cancellation in string effective field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopes Cardoso, G.; Ovrut, B.A.
1993-01-01
We discuss the complete set of one-loop triangle graphs involving the Yang-Mills gauge connection, the Kaehler connection and the σ-model coordinate connection in the effective field theory of (2, 2) symmetric Z N orbifolds. That is, we discuss pure gauge, pure Kaehler and pure σ-model coordinate anomalies as well as the mixed anomalies, such as Kaehler-gauge, some of which have been discussed elsewhere. We propose a mechanism for restoring both Kaehler and σ-model coordinate symmetry based upon the introduction of two types of counterterms. Finally, we enlarge σ-model generalization of the Green-Schwarz mechanism to allow the removal of the universal parts of a wider class of anomalies than those previously discussed. (orig.)
Kachkouch, F; Franklin, H; Tinel, A
2018-07-01
The characteristics of the reflection and transmission by a fluid-loaded double porosity layer are studied. The medium obeys the two-pressure field poroelastic phenomenological model of Berryman and Wang. The open pore hydraulic conditions applied at the interfaces yield factorized expressions for the coefficients exhibiting on the one hand a separation allowing to distinguish between symmetrical and antisymmetrical motions and on the other hand the way each of the three dilatational waves associate with the shear wave. The numerical study done for a layer of Berea sandstone saturated by water shows clearly the role of each of the dilatational waves. There are peculiarities such as the absence of the fundamental antisymmetrical mode (zero order) and a singular behaviour of the symmetrical fundamental mode. The low frequency approximation for this latter is derived from the proposed formulas and compared with the numerical results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samurović S.
2007-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper the problem of the phenomenological modelling of elliptical galaxies using various available observational data is presented. Recently, Tortora, Cardona and Piedipalumbo (2007 suggested a double power law expression for the global cumulative mass-to-light ratio of elliptical galaxies. We tested their expression on a sample of ellipticals for which we have the estimates of the mass-to-light ratio beyond ~ 3 effective radii, a region where dark matter is expected to play an important dynamical role. We found that, for all the galaxies in our sample, we have α + β > 0, but that this does not necessarily mean a high dark matter content. The galaxies with higher mass (and higher dark matter content also have higher value of α+β. It was also shown that there is an indication that the galaxies with higher value of the effective radius also have higher dark matter content. .
Aspects of string theory compactifications. D-brane statistics and generalised geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gmeiner, F.
2006-01-01
In this thesis we investigate two different aspects of string theory compactifications. The first part deals with the issue of the huge amount of possible string vacua, known as the landscape. Concretely we investigate a specific well defined subset of type II orientifold compactifications. We develop the necessary tools to construct a very large set of consistent models and investigate their gauge sector on a statistical basis. In particular we analyse the frequency distributions of gauge groups and the possible amount of chiral matter for compactifications to six and four dimensions. In the phenomenologically relevant case of four-dimensional compactifications, special attention is paid to solutions with gauge groups that include those of the standard model, as well as Pati-Salam, SU(5) and flipped SU(5) models. Additionally we investigate the frequency distribution of coupling constants and correlations between the observables in the gauge sector. These results are compared with a recent study of Gepner models. Moreover, we elaborate on questions concerning the finiteness of the number of solutions and the computational complexity of the algorithm. In the second part of this thesis we consider a new mathematical framework, called generalised geometry, to describe the six-manifolds used in string theory compactifications. In particular, the formulation of T-duality and mirror symmetry for nonlinear topological sigma models is investigated. Therefore we provide a reformulation and extension of the known topological A- and B-models to the generalised framework. The action of mirror symmetry on topological D-branes in this setup is presented and the transformation of the boundary conditions is analysed. To extend the considerations to D-branes in type II string theory, we introduce the notion of generalised calibrations. We show that the known calibration conditions of supersymmetric branes in type IIA and IIB can be obtained as special cases. Finally we investigate
Aspects of string theory compactifications. D-brane statistics and generalised geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gmeiner, F.
2006-05-26
In this thesis we investigate two different aspects of string theory compactifications. The first part deals with the issue of the huge amount of possible string vacua, known as the landscape. Concretely we investigate a specific well defined subset of type II orientifold compactifications. We develop the necessary tools to construct a very large set of consistent models and investigate their gauge sector on a statistical basis. In particular we analyse the frequency distributions of gauge groups and the possible amount of chiral matter for compactifications to six and four dimensions. In the phenomenologically relevant case of four-dimensional compactifications, special attention is paid to solutions with gauge groups that include those of the standard model, as well as Pati-Salam, SU(5) and flipped SU(5) models. Additionally we investigate the frequency distribution of coupling constants and correlations between the observables in the gauge sector. These results are compared with a recent study of Gepner models. Moreover, we elaborate on questions concerning the finiteness of the number of solutions and the computational complexity of the algorithm. In the second part of this thesis we consider a new mathematical framework, called generalised geometry, to describe the six-manifolds used in string theory compactifications. In particular, the formulation of T-duality and mirror symmetry for nonlinear topological sigma models is investigated. Therefore we provide a reformulation and extension of the known topological A- and B-models to the generalised framework. The action of mirror symmetry on topological D-branes in this setup is presented and the transformation of the boundary conditions is analysed. To extend the considerations to D-branes in type II string theory, we introduce the notion of generalised calibrations. We show that the known calibration conditions of supersymmetric branes in type IIA and IIB can be obtained as special cases. Finally we investigate
Moduli backreaction and supersymmetry breaking in string-inspired inflation models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dudas, Emilian; Wieck, Clemens
2015-06-01
We emphasize the importance of effects from heavy fields on supergravity models of inflation. We study, in particular, the backreaction of stabilizer fields and geometric moduli in the presence of supersymmetry breaking. Many effects do not decouple even if those fields are much heavier than the inflaton field. We apply our results to successful models of Starobinsky-like inflation and natural inflation. In most scenarios producing a plateau potential it proves difficult to retain the flatness of the potential after backreactions are taken into account. Some of them are incompatible with non-perturbative moduli stabilization. In natural inflation there exist a number of models which are not constrained by backreactions at all. In those cases the correction terms from heavy fields have the same inflaton-dependence as the uncorrected potential, so that inflation may be possible even for very large gravitino masses.
Phenomenology of Joint Attention
African Journals Online (AJOL)
denise
might be brought against this analysis. Husserlian Phenomenology. As Husserl explains in Ideas Pertaining to Pure. Phenomenology and to a Phenomenological Philo- sophy (1913/1983), phenomenology is a theory of intentional mental states. A mental state is intentional insofar as it is about some object. The perceptual.
String field theory in curved space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kikkawa, Keiji; Maeno, Masahiro; Sawada, Shiro
1988-01-01
The purely cubic action in the string field theory is shown to provide a set of equations of motion for background fields which agree to those obtained by the vanishing condition of β-functions in the non-linear sigma model. Using the sigma model as an auxiliary tool, a systematic method for solving the string field theory in curved space is proposed. (author)
Towards natural inflation in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ben-Dayan, Ido; Pedro, Francisco G.; Westphal, Alexander
2014-07-01
We provide type IIB string embeddings of two axion variants of natural inflation. We use a combination of RR 2 form axions as the inflaton field and have its potential generated by non perturbative effects in the superpotential. Besides giving rise to inflation, the models developed take into account the stabilization of the compact space, both in the KKLT and large volume scenario regimes, an essential condition for any semi-realistic model of string inflation.
Elliptic flow in a hadron-string cascade model at 130 GeV energy
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
On the other hand, this model does not explain 2 at high T or in peripheral collisions and thus generally, it underestimates the elliptic flow at RHIC energy. ... Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan; Nuclear Data Center, Department of Nuclear Energy System, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lipkin, Harry J.
2007-01-01
The basic theoretical milestones were the Sakata SU(3) symmetry, the Goldberg-Ne'eman composite model with SU(3) triplets having baryon number (1/3) and the Nambu color gauge Lagrangian. The transition was led in right and wrong directions by experiments interpreted by phenomenology. A 'good' experiment on p-bar p annihilation at rest showed that the Sakata model predictions disagreed with experiment. A 'bad' experiment prevented the use of the Goldberg-Ne'eman triplet model to predict the existence and masses of the Ξ * and Ω - . More 'good' experiments revealed the existence and mass of the Ξ * and the Ω - and the absence of positive strangeness baryon resonances, thus confirming the 'tenfold way'. Further 'good experiments' revealed the existence of the vector meson nonet, SU(3) breaking with singlet-octet mixing and the suppression of the φ → ρπ decay. These led to the quark triplet model. The paradox of peculiar statistics then arose as the Δ ++ and Ω - contained three identical spin-1/2 fermions coupled symmetrically to spin (3/2). This led to color and the Nambu QCD. The book 'Lie Groups for Pedestrians' used the Sakata model with the name 'sakaton' for the pnΛ triplet to teach the algebra of SU(3) to particle physicists in the U.S. and Europe who knew no group theory. The Sakata model had a renaissance in hypernuclear physics in the 1970's. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lipkin, H. J.
2007-01-01
The basic theoretical milestones were the Sakata SU(3) symmetry, the Goldberg-Ne'eman composite model with SU(3) triplets having baryon number (1/3) and the Nambu color gauge Lagrangian. The transition was led in right and wrong directions by experiments interpreted by phenomenology. A 'good' experiment on (bar p)p annihilation at rest showed that the Sakata model predictions disagreed with experiment. A 'bad' experiment prevented the use of the Goldberg-Ne'eman triplet model to predict the existence and masses of the of the Ξ and (Omega) - . More 'good' experiments revealed the existence and mass of the Ξ* and the (Omega) - and the absence of positive strangeness baryon resonances, thus confirming the 'tenfold way'. Further 'good experiments' revealed the existence of the vector meson nonet, SU(3) breaking with singlet-octet mixing and the suppression of the φ → ρ π decay. These led to the quark triplet model. The paradox of peculiar statistics then arose as the Δ ++ and (Omega) - contained three identical spin-1/2 fermions coupled symmetrically to spin (3/2). This led to color and the Nambu QCD. The book 'Lie Groups for Pedestrians' used the Sakata model with the name 'sakaton' for the Λ triplet to teach the algebra of SU(3) to particle physicists in the U.S. and Europe who knew no group theory. The Sakata model had a renaissance in hypernuclear physics in the 1970's
Resonant diphoton phenomenology simplified
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Panico, Giuliano [IFAE, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Vecchi, Luca [SISSA,via Bonomea 265, 34136, Trieste (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova and INFN - Sezione di Padova,via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Wulzer, Andrea [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova and INFN - Sezione di Padova,via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)
2016-06-30
A framework is proposed to describe resonant diphoton phenomenology at hadron colliders in full generality. It can be employed for a comprehensive model-independent interpretation of the experimental data. Within the general framework, few benchmark scenarios are defined as representative of the various phenomenological options and/or of motivated new physics scenarios. Their usage is illustrated by performing a characterization of the 750 GeV excess, based on a recast of available experimental results. We also perform an assessment of which properties of the resonance could be inferred, after discovery, by a careful experimental study of the diphoton distributions. These include the spin J of the new particle and its dominant production mode. Partial information on its CP-parity can also be obtained, but only for J≥2. The complete determination of the resonance CP properties requires studying the pattern of the initial state radiation that accompanies the resonant diphoton production.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hecht, M. B.; Roberts, C. D.; Schmidt, S. M.
2000-01-01
A perspective on the contemporary application of Dyson-Schwinger equations, focusing on some recent phenomenological applications: a description and unification of light-meson observable using a one-parameter model of the effective quark-quark interaction, and studies of leptonic and nonleptonic nucleon form factors. The theory and phenomenological application of Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSEs) have seen something of a renaissance. For example, they have been applied simultaneously to phenomena as apparently unconnected as low-energy ππ scattering, B (r a rrow) D * decays and the equation of state for a quark gluon plasma, and there are renewed attempts to understand the origin of the infrared enhancement necessary in the kernel of the quark DSE (QCD gap equation) to generate dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DCSB). Also significant is the appreciation that in this approach current algebra's anomalies remain a feature of the global aspects of DCSB
Hofmann, Fabian
2016-01-01
Social phenomenological analysis is presented as a research method for museum and art education. After explaining its methodological background, it is shown how this method has been applied in a study of gallery talks or guided tours in art museums: Analyzing the situation by description and interpretation, a model for understanding gallery talks…
ABCD of Beta Ensembles and Topological Strings
Krefl, Daniel
2012-01-01
We study beta-ensembles with Bn, Cn, and Dn eigenvalue measure and their relation with refined topological strings. Our results generalize the familiar connections between local topological strings and matrix models leading to An measure, and illustrate that all those classical eigenvalue ensembles, and their topological string counterparts, are related one to another via various deformations and specializations, quantum shifts and discrete quotients. We review the solution of the Gaussian models via Macdonald identities, and interpret them as conifold theories. The interpolation between the various models is plainly apparent in this case. For general polynomial potential, we calculate the partition function in the multi-cut phase in a perturbative fashion, beyond tree-level in the large-N limit. The relation to refined topological string orientifolds on the corresponding local geometry is discussed along the way.
Marinelli, Chiara V; Traficante, Daniela; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi
2014-01-01
The locus of the deficit of children with dyslexia in dealing with strings of letters may be a deficit at a pre-lexical graphemic level or an inability to bind orthographic and phonological information. We evaluate these alternative hypotheses in two experiments by examining the role of stimulus pronounceability in a lexical decision task (LDT) and in a forced-choice letter discrimination task (Reicher-Wheeler paradigm). Seventeen fourth grade children with dyslexia and 24 peer control readers participated to two experiments. In the LDT children were presented with high-, low-frequency words, pronounceable pseudowords (such as DASU) and unpronounceable non-words (such as RNGM) of 4-, 5-, or 6- letters. No sign of group by pronounceability interaction was found when over-additivity was taken into account. Children with dyslexia were impaired when they had to process strings, not only of pronounceable stimuli but also of unpronounceable stimuli, a deficit well accounted for by a single global factor. Complementary results were obtained with the Reicher-Wheeler paradigm: both groups of children gained in accuracy in letter discrimination in the context of pronounceable primes (words and pseudowords) compared to unpronounceable primes (non-words). No global factor was detected in this task which requires the discrimination between a target letter and a competitor but does not involve simultaneous letter string processing. Overall, children with dyslexia show a selective difficulty in simultaneously processing a letter string as a whole, independent of its pronounceability; however, when the task involves isolated letter processing, also these children can make use of the ortho-phono-tactic information derived from a previously seen letter string. This pattern of findings is in keeping with the idea that an impairment in pre-lexical graphemic analysis may be a core deficit in developmental dyslexia.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amorim, R.; Barcelos-Neto, J. (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica)
1993-06-01
With the motivation that critical dimensions D[ne]4 might be suggeting that string theories have not been completely formulated, we study more general alternatives. We first consider a direct extension in the world-sheet formulation with N[sub B] bosons and N[sub F] fermions and analyze the conditions for canceling the anomaly in all possible combinations of N[sub B], N[sub F] and D. Later on we incorporate degrees of freedom of antisymmetric tensors to the previous model. The only possibility to cancel the anomaly in this case is with N[sub B]=N[sub F]=1 and the our everyday spacetime dimension D=4. (orig.).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonara, L.; Cotta-Ramusino, P.; Rinaldi, M.
1987-01-01
It is well-known that type I and heterotic superstring theories have a zero mass spectrum which correspond to the field content of N=1 supergravity theory coupled to supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in 10-D. The authors study the field theory ''per se'', in the hope that simple consistency requirements will determine the theory completely once one knows the field content inherited from string theory. The simplest consistency requirements are: N=1 supersymmetry; and absence of chiral anomalies. This is what the authors discuss in this paper here leaving undetermined the question of the range of validity of the resulting field theory. As is known, a model of N=1 supergravity (SUGRA) coupled to supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory was known in the form given by Chapline and Manton. The coupling of SUGRA to SYM was determined by the definition of the ''field strength'' 3-form H in this paper