Open bosonic string in background electromagnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nesterenko, V.V.
1987-01-01
The classical and quantum dynamics of an open string propagating in the D-dimensional space-time in the presence of a background electromagnetic field is investigated. An important point in this consideration is the use of the generalized light-like gauge. There are considered the strings of two types; the neutral strings with charges at their ends obeying the condition q 1 +q 2 =0 and the charged strings having a net charge q 1 +q 2 ≠ 0. The consistency of theory demands that the background electric field does not exceed its critical value. The distance between the mass levels of the neutral open string decreases (1-e 2 ) times in comparison with the free string, where e is the dimensionless strength of the electric field. The magnetic field does not affect this distance. It is shown that at a classical level the squared mass of the neutral open string has a tachyonic contribution due to the motion of the string as a whole in transverse directions. The tachyonic term disappears if one considers, instead of M 2 , the string energy in a special reference frame where the projection of the total canonical momentum of the string onto the electric field vanishes. The contributions due to zero point fluctuations to the energy spectrum of the neutral string and to the Virasoro operators in the theory of charged string are found
String field theory solution for any open string background
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Erler, T.; Maccaferri, Carlo
2014-01-01
Roč. 10, Oct (2014), 1-37 ISSN 1029-8479 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP201/12/G028 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : tachyon condensation * string field theory * conformal field models in string theory * bosonic strings Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 6.111, year: 2014
Heterotic string in an arbitrary background field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sen, A.
1985-01-01
An expression for the light-cone gauge action for the first-quantized heterotic string in the presence of arbitrary background gauge, gravitational, and antisymmetric tensor fields is derived. The result is a two-dimensional local field theory with N = 1/2 supersymmetry. The constraints imposed on the background fields in order to make this theory one-loop finite are derived. These constraints are identical to the equations of motion for the massless fields at the linearized level. Finally, it is shown that if there is no background antisymmetric tensor field, and if the gauge connection is set equal to the spin connection, the effective action is that of an N = 1 supersymmetric nonlinear and N = 2 supersymmetric Georgi-Glashow models the occurrence of the fermion fractionization is the necessity; the ignorance of it results in the inconsistency in the perturbative calculation of the mass splittings among the members of the supermultiplets. The notable feature of our result is that the degeneracy due to the Jackiw-Rebbi zero mode is not independent of the one required by the supersymmetry, suggesting a nontrivial structure in embedding the topology of Higgs fields into supersymmetric gauge theories
Open string in the constant B-field background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jing Jian; Long Zhengwen
2005-01-01
A new method is proposed to quantize open strings in this paper. To illustrate our method, we analyze free open string as well as open string in the D-brane background with a nonvanishing B-field, respectively. The Poisson brackets among Fourier components are obtained firstly then we get the Poisson brackets among open string's coordinates. The noncommutativity of coordinates along the D-brane is reproduced. Some ambiguities in the previous discussions can be avoided
On background-independent open-string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Witten, E.
1992-01-01
A framework for background-independent open-string field theory is proposed. The approach involves using the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism, in a way suggested by recent developments in closed-string field theory, to implicitly define a gauge-invariant Lagrangian in a hypothetical ''space of all open-string world-sheet theories.'' It is built into the formalism that classical solutions of the string field theory are Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin- (BRST-) invariant open-string world-sheet theories and that, when expanding around a classical solution, the infinitesimal gauge transformations are generated by the world-sheet BRST operator
Nonabelian gauge fields in the background of magnetic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wieczorek, E.
1993-01-01
Quantized nonabelian gauge fields are studied in the external classical background of a linear magnetic string. The determination of the gauge field propagator demands a specification of the string by suitable physical limiting procedures. The vacuum energy density is obtained after transforming the background problem into a Casimir problem. (orig.)
On the background independence of string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sen, A.
1990-01-01
Given a solution Ψ cl of the classical equations of motion in either closed or open string field theory formulated around a given conformal field theory background, we can construct a new operator Q B in the corresponding two-dimensional field theory such that (Q B ) 2 =0. It is shown that in the limit when the background field Ψ cl is weak, Q B can be identified with the BRST charge of a new local conformal field theory. This indicates that the string field theories formulated around these two different conformal field theories are actually the same theory, and that these two conformal field theories may be regarded as different classical solutions of this string field theory. (orig.)
Background Independent Open String Field Theory and Constant B-Field
Nemeschansky, D.; Yasnov, V.
2000-01-01
We calculate the background independent action for bosonic and supersymmetric open string field theory in a constant B-field. We also determine the tachyon effective action in the presence of constant B-field.
Closed string emission from unstable D-brane with background electric field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagami, Kenji
2004-01-01
We study the closed string emission from an unstable Dp-brane with constant background electric field in bosonic string theory. The average total number density and the average total energy density of emitted closed strings are explicitly calculated in the presence of electric field. It is explicitly shown that the energy density in the UV region becomes finite whenever the background electric field is switched on. The energy density converted into closed strings in the presence of electric field is negligibly small compared with the D-brane tension in the weak string coupling limit. (author)
Open membranes in a constant C-field background and noncommutative boundary strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawamoto, Shoichi; Sasakura, Naoki
2000-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of open membrane boundaries in a constant C-field background. We follow the analysis for open strings in a B-field background, and take some approximations. We find that open membrane boundaries do show noncommutativity in this case by explicit calculations. Membrane boundaries are one dimensional strings, so we face a new type of noncommutativity, that is, noncommutative strings. (author)
A note on T-duality, open strings in B-field background and canonical transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheikh-Jabbari, M.M.
1999-11-01
In this paper we study T-duality for open strings ending on branes with non-zero B-field on them from the point of view of canonical transformations. For the particular case of type II strings on the two torus we show that the Sl(2, Z) N transformations can be understood as a sub-class of canonical transformations on the open strings in the B-field background. (author)
Null Geodesics and Strong Field Gravitational Lensing in a String Cloud Background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iftikhar, Sehrish; Sharif, M.
2015-01-01
This paper is devoted to studying two interesting issues of a black hole with string cloud background. Firstly, we investigate null geodesics and find unstable orbital motion of particles. Secondly, we calculate deflection angle in strong field limit. We then find positions, magnifications, and observables of relativistic images for supermassive black hole at the galactic center. We conclude that string parameter highly affects the lensing process and results turn out to be quite different from the Schwarzschild black hole
Open-closed string correspondence in open string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baumgartl, M.; Sachs, I.
2008-01-01
We address the problem of describing different closed string backgrounds in background independent open string field theory: A shift in the closed string background corresponds to a collective excitation of open strings. As an illustration we apply the formalism to the case where the closed string background is a group manifold. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strominger, A.
1987-01-01
A gauge invariant cubic action describing bosonic closed string field theory is constructed. The gauge symmetries include local spacetime diffeomorphisms. The conventional closed string spectrum and trilinear couplings are reproduced after spontaneous symmetry breaking. The action S is constructed from the usual ''open string'' field of ghost number minus one half. It is given by the associator of the string field product which is non-vanishing because of associativity anomalies. S does not describe open string propagation because open string states associate and can thereby be shifted away. A field theory of closed and open strings can be obtained by adding to S the cubic open string action. (orig.)
String pair production in non homogeneous backgrounds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bolognesi, S. [Department of Physics “E. Fermi” University of Pisa, and INFN - Sezione di Pisa,Largo Pontecorvo, 3, Ed. C, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Rabinovici, E. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem,91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Tallarita, G. [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales,Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Santiago 7941169 (Chile)
2016-04-28
We consider string pair production in non homogeneous electric backgrounds. We study several particular configurations which can be addressed with the Euclidean world-sheet instanton technique, the analogue of the world-line instanton for particles. In the first case the string is suspended between two D-branes in flat space-time, in the second case the string lives in AdS and terminates on one D-brane (this realizes the holographic Schwinger effect). In some regions of parameter space the result is well approximated by the known analytical formulas, either the particle pair production in non-homogeneous background or the string pair production in homogeneous background. In other cases we see effects which are intrinsically stringy and related to the non-homogeneity of the background. The pair production is enhanced already for particles in time dependent electric field backgrounds. The string nature enhances this even further. For spacial varying electrical background fields the string pair production is less suppressed than the rate of particle pair production. We discuss in some detail how the critical field is affected by the non-homogeneity, for both time and space dependent electric field backgrouds. We also comment on what could be an interesting new prediction for the small field limit. The third case we consider is pair production in holographic confining backgrounds with homogeneous and non-homogeneous fields.
String pair production in non homogeneous backgrounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bolognesi, S.; Rabinovici, E.; Tallarita, G.
2016-01-01
We consider string pair production in non homogeneous electric backgrounds. We study several particular configurations which can be addressed with the Euclidean world-sheet instanton technique, the analogue of the world-line instanton for particles. In the first case the string is suspended between two D-branes in flat space-time, in the second case the string lives in AdS and terminates on one D-brane (this realizes the holographic Schwinger effect). In some regions of parameter space the result is well approximated by the known analytical formulas, either the particle pair production in non-homogeneous background or the string pair production in homogeneous background. In other cases we see effects which are intrinsically stringy and related to the non-homogeneity of the background. The pair production is enhanced already for particles in time dependent electric field backgrounds. The string nature enhances this even further. For spacial varying electrical background fields the string pair production is less suppressed than the rate of particle pair production. We discuss in some detail how the critical field is affected by the non-homogeneity, for both time and space dependent electric field backgrouds. We also comment on what could be an interesting new prediction for the small field limit. The third case we consider is pair production in holographic confining backgrounds with homogeneous and non-homogeneous fields.
Global symmetries of open strings in an electromagnetic background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrer, E.J.; de la Incera, V.
1994-01-01
The global symmetries of open bosonic strings in an electromagnetic background are investigated. The Poincare subalgebra and the mass of the open charged string are derived. These results are useful for computing the background electric field dependence of the one-loop free energy and Hagedorn temperature of a neutral string gas
Non-minimal fields of the pure spinor string in general curved backgrounds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chandia, Osvaldo [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez,Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez,Diagonal Las Torres 2640, Peñalolén, Santiago (Chile); Vallilo, Brenno Carlini [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andrés Bello,República 220, Santiago (Chile)
2015-02-16
We study the coupling of the non-minimal ghost fields of the pure spinor superstring in general curved backgrounds. The coupling is found solving the consistency relations from the nilpotency of the non-minimal BRST charge.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchbinder, I.L.; Lyakhovich, S.L.; Pershin, V.D.; Fradkin, E.S.
1991-01-01
At present, superstring theory is the only candidate to be a unified theory of all fundamental interactions. For this reason, the various aspects of the string theory have been attracting great attention. String theory has a nontrivial gauge symmetry and therefore is an interesting object from the viewpoint of application of general quantization methods. This paper discusses the bosonic string theory. The purpose of this paper is a consistent operator quantization of the theory with the action. The natural basis for it is provided by the method of the generalized canonical quantization
Interpolating string field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zwiebach, B.
1992-01-01
This paper reports that a minimal area problem imposing different length conditions on open and closed curves is shown to define a one-parameter family of covariant open-closed quantum string field theories. These interpolate from a recently proposed factorizable open-closed theory up to an extended version of Witten's open string field theory capable of incorporating on shell closed strings. The string diagrams of the latter define a new decomposition of the moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces with punctures and boundaries based on quadratic differentials with both first order and second order poles
Role(s) of anti-symmetrical background field in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fidanza, St.
2003-11-01
In the first chapter (titled: non-commutative D-branes), we show that the B anti-symmetrical background fields can be embedded in the non-commutativity of branes and can distort gauge theories that branes convey. We know how to describe this transformation in the Abelian case thanks to the Kontsevic quantification formula. Moreover this formula combined to the Seiberg-Witter transformation allows one to compute more rapidly the explicit terms. For the non-Abelian case the situation is less clear. In the chapter 2 (titled: non-Abelian M5-branes), we have tackled the issue of the fields of a packet of N M5-branes. The direct approach based on a 6 dimensional super-symmetric multiplets has led to a stunning dead end, we have not been able to reproduce the expected anomaly in N 3 . We have presented in a unified manner different gauge theories. We have shown that we can get a number of freedom degrees in the magnitude order of N 3 from computations based on geometrical configurations of M2 membranes. In the chapter 3 (titled: systematizing mirror symmetry) we have shown that if the presence of a non-trivial Neveu-Schwarz flux constrains the compactification manifold geometry to shift from the Calabi-Yau case, we can yet specify a mirror symmetry that mixes geometry and background fields. (A.C.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaku, M.
1987-01-01
In this article, the authors summarize the rapid progress in constructing string field theory actions, such as the development of the covariant BRST theory. They also present the newer geometric formulation of string field theory, from which the BRST theory and the older light cone theory can be derived from first principles. This geometric formulation allows us to derive the complete field theory of strings from two geometric principles, in the same way that general relativity and Yang-Mills theory can be derived from two principles based on global and local symmetry. The geometric formalism therefore reduces string field theory to a problem of finding an invariant under a new local gauge group they call the universal string group (USG). Thus, string field theory is the gauge theory of the universal string group in much the same way that Yang-Mills theory is the gauge theory of SU(N). The geometric formulation places superstring theory on the same rigorous group theoretical level as general relativity and gauge theory
On Field Theory of Open Strings, Tachyon Condensation and Closed Strings
Shatashvili, Samson L.
2001-01-01
I review the physical properties of different vacua in the background independent open string field theory. Talk presented at Strings 2001, Mumbai, India, http://theory.theory.tifr.res.in/strings/Proceedings/#sha-s.
Splitting strings on integrable backgrounds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vicedo, Benoit
2011-05-15
We use integrability to construct the general classical splitting string solution on R x S{sup 3}. Namely, given any incoming string solution satisfying a necessary self-intersection property at some given instant in time, we use the integrability of the worldsheet {sigma}-model to construct the pair of outgoing strings resulting from a split. The solution for each outgoing string is expressed recursively through a sequence of dressing transformations, the parameters of which are determined by the solutions to Birkhoff factorization problems in an appropriate real form of the loop group of SL{sub 2}(C). (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramond, P.
1987-01-01
We review the construction of the free equations of motion for open and closed strings in 26 dimensions, using the methods of the Florida Group. Differing from previous treatments, we argue that the constraint L 0 -anti L 0 =0 should not be imposed on all the fields of the closed string in the gauge invariant formalism; we show that it can be incorporated in the gauge invariant formalism at the price of being unable to extract the equations of motion from a Langrangian. We then describe our purely algebraic method to introduce interactions, which works equally well for open and closed strings. Quartic interactions are absent except in the Physical Gauge. Finally, we speculate on the role of the measure of the open string path functional. (orig.)
Two field formulation of closed string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogojevic, A.R.
1990-09-01
A formulation of closed string field theory is presented that is based on a two field action. It represents a generalization of Witten's Chern-Simons formulation of 3d gravity. The action contains only 3 string interactions and no string field truncations, unlike the previous non-polynomial action of Zwiebach. The two field action is found to follow from a purely cubic, background independent action similar to the one for open strings. (orig.)
Open string T-duality in a weakly curved background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davidovic, Ljubica
2016-01-01
We consider a theory of an open string moving in a weakly curved background, composed of a constant metric and a linearly coordinate dependent Kalb-Ramond field with an infinitesimal field strength. We find its T-dual using the generalized Buscher procedure developed for the closed string moving in a weakly curved background, and the fact that solving the boundary conditions, the open string theory transforms to the effective closed string theory. So, T-dualizing the effective theory along all effective directions we obtain its T-dual theory and resume the open string theory which has such an effective theory. In this way we obtain the open string theory T-dual. (orig.)
Canonical differential geometry of string backgrounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schuller, Frederic P.; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R.
2006-01-01
String backgrounds and D-branes do not possess the structure of Lorentzian manifolds, but that of manifolds with area metric. Area metric geometry is a true generalization of metric geometry, which in particular may accommodate a B-field. While an area metric does not determine a connection, we identify the appropriate differential geometric structure which is of relevance for the minimal surface equation in such a generalized geometry. In particular the notion of a derivative action of areas on areas emerges naturally. Area metric geometry provides new tools in differential geometry, which promise to play a role in the description of gravitational dynamics on D-branes
Pre-geometrical field theory of the open string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nojiri, M.M.; Nojiri, Shin'ichi
1988-01-01
We propose a gauge invariant, background independent string action, which contains open and closed string fields and no kinetic terms. The kinetic term is generated through the condensation of the string fields, which is the solution of the equations of motion. We solve the equations and show that the action is classically equivalent to the open string action proposed by Hata et al. (orig.)
Exactly solvable string models of curved space-time backgrounds
Russo, J.G.; Russo, J G; Tseytlin, A A
1995-01-01
We consider a new 3-parameter class of exact 4-dimensional solutions in closed string theory and solve the corresponding string model, determining the physical spectrum and the partition function. The background fields (4-metric, antisymmetric tensor, two Kaluza-Klein vector fields, dilaton and modulus) generically describe axially symmetric stationary rotating (electro)magnetic flux-tube type universes. Backgrounds of this class include both the dilatonic Melvin solution and the uniform magnetic field solution discussed earlier as well as some singular space-times. Solvability of the string sigma model is related to its connection via duality to a much simpler looking model which is a "twisted" product of a flat 2-space and a space dual to 2-plane. We discuss some physical properties of this model as well as a number of generalizations leading to larger classes of exact 4-dimensional string solutions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonara, L.; Cotta-Ramusino, P.; Rinaldi, M.
1987-01-01
It is well-known that type I and heterotic superstring theories have a zero mass spectrum which correspond to the field content of N=1 supergravity theory coupled to supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in 10-D. The authors study the field theory ''per se'', in the hope that simple consistency requirements will determine the theory completely once one knows the field content inherited from string theory. The simplest consistency requirements are: N=1 supersymmetry; and absence of chiral anomalies. This is what the authors discuss in this paper here leaving undetermined the question of the range of validity of the resulting field theory. As is known, a model of N=1 supergravity (SUGRA) coupled to supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory was known in the form given by Chapline and Manton. The coupling of SUGRA to SYM was determined by the definition of the ''field strength'' 3-form H in this paper
String cosmology. Large-field inflation in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Westphal, Alexander
2014-09-01
This is a short review of string cosmology. We wish to connect string-scale physics as closely as possible to observables accessible to current or near-future experiments. Our possible best hope to do so is a description of inflation in string theory. The energy scale of inflation can be as high as that of Grand Unification (GUT). If this is the case, this is the closest we can possibly get in energy scales to string-scale physics. Hence, GUT-scale inflation may be our best candidate phenomenon to preserve traces of string-scale dynamics. Our chance to look for such traces is the primordial gravitational wave, or tensor mode signal produced during inflation. For GUT-scale inflation this is strong enough to be potentially visible as a B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Moreover, a GUT-scale inflation model has a trans-Planckian excursion of the inflaton scalar field during the observable amount of inflation. Such large-field models of inflation have a clear need for symmetry protection against quantum corrections. This makes them ideal candidates for a description in a candidate fundamental theory like string theory. At the same time the need of large-field inflation models for UV completion makes them particularly susceptible to preserve imprints of their string-scale dynamics in the inflationary observables, the spectral index n s and the fractional tensor mode power r. Hence, we focus this review on axion monodromy inflation as a mechanism of large-field inflation in string theory.
String field equation from renormalization group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakai, Kenji.
1988-10-01
We derive an equation of motion for an open bosonic string field which is introduced as a background field in a sigma model. By using the method of Klebanov and Susskind, we obtain the β-function for this background field and investigate its properties. (author)
Rotating strings in confining AdS/CFT backgrounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armoni, Adi; Barbon, Jose L.F.; Petkou, Anastasios C.
2002-01-01
We study semiclassical rotating strings in AdS/CFT backgrounds that exhibit both confinement and finite-size effects. The energy versus spin dispersion relation for short strings is the expected Regge trajectory behaviour, with the same string tension as is measured by the Wilson loop. Long strings probe the interplay between confinement and finite-size effects. In particular, the dispersion relation for long strings shows a characteristic dependence on the string tension and the finite-size scale. (author)
String-localized quantum fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mund, Jens; Santos, Jose Amancio dos; Silva, Cristhiano Duarte; Oliveira, Erichardson de
2009-01-01
Full text. The principles of physics admit (unobservable) quantum fields which are localized not on points, but on strings in the sense of Mandelstam: a string emanates from a point in Minkowski space and extends to infinity in some space-like direction. This type of localization might permit the construction of new models, for various reasons: (a) in general, weaker localization implies better UV behaviour. Therefore, the class of renormalizable interactions in the string-localized has a chance to be larger than in the point-localized case; (b) for certain particle types, there are no point-localized (free) quantum fields - for example Anyons in d = 2 + 1, and Wigner's massless 'infinite spin' particles. For the latter, free string-localized quantum fields have been constructed; (c) in contrast to the point-localized case, string-localization admits covariant vector/tensor potentials for fotons and gravitons in a Hilbert space representation with positive energy. We shall present free string-localized quantum fields for various particle types, and some ideas about the perturbative construction of interacting string-localized fields. A central point will be an analogue of gauge theories, completely within a Hilbert space and without ghosts, trading gauge dependence with dependence on the direction of the localization string. In order to discuss renormalizability (item (a)), methods from microlocal analysis (wave front set and scaling degree) are needed. (author)
Strings, conformal fields and topology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaku, Michio
1991-01-01
String Theory has advanced at an astonishing pace in the last few years, and this book aims to acquaint the reader with the most active topics of research in the field. Building on the foundations laid in his Introduction to Superstrings, Professor Kaku discusses such topics as the classification of conformal string theories, knot theory, the Yang-Baxter relation, quantum groups, the non-polynominal closed string field theory, matrix models, and topological field theory. Several chapters review the fundamentals of string theory, making the presentation of the material self-contained while keeping overlap with the earlier book to a minimum. The book conveys the vitality of current research in string theory and places readers at its forefront. (orig.) With 40 figs. in 50 parts
Gauge invariance of string fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banks, T.; Peskin, M.E.
1985-10-01
Some work done to understand the appearance of gauge bosons and gravitons in string theories is reported. An action has been constructed for free (bosonic) string field theory which is invariant under an infinite set of gauge transformations which include Yang-Mills transformations and general coordinate transformations as special cases. 15 refs., 1 tab
Boundary string field theory and an open string one-loop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Tae Jin; Viswanathan, K. S.; Yang, Yi
2003-01-01
We discuss the open string one-loop partition function in the tachyon condensation background of an unstable D-brane system. We evaluate the partition function by using the boundary-state formulation and find that it is in complete agreement with the result obtained in the boundary string field theory. This suggests that the open string higher loop diagrams may be produced consistently by using a closed string field theory, where the D-brane plays the role of a source for the closed string field
Quantum background independence in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Witten, E.
1994-01-01
Not only in physical string theories, but also in some highly simplified situations, background independence has been difficult to understand. It is argued that the ''holomorphic anomaly'' of Bershadsky, Cecotti, Ooguri and Vafa gives a fundamental explanation of some of the problems. Moreover, their anomaly equation can be interpreted in terms of a rather peculiar quantum version of background independence: in systems afflicted by the anomaly, background independence does not hold order by order in perturbation theory, but the exact partition function as a function of the coupling constants has a background independent interpretation as a state in an auxiliary quantum Hilbert space. The significance of this auxiliary space is otherwise unknown. (author). 23 refs
Quantum field theory of point particles and strings
Hatfield, Brian
1992-01-01
The purpose of this book is to introduce string theory without assuming any background in quantum field theory. Part I of this book follows the development of quantum field theory for point particles, while Part II introduces strings. All of the tools and concepts that are needed to quantize strings are developed first for point particles. Thus, Part I presents the main framework of quantum field theory and provides for a coherent development of the generalization and application of quantum field theory for point particles to strings.Part II emphasizes the quantization of the bosonic string.
String theory or field theory?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marshakov, A.V.
2002-01-01
The status of string theory is reviewed, and major recent developments - especially those in going beyond perturbation theory in the string theory and quantum field theory frameworks - are analyzed. This analysis helps better understand the role and place of experimental phenomena, it is emphasized that there are some insurmountable problems inherent in it - notably the impossibility to formulate the quantum theory of gravity on its basis - which prevent it from being a fundamental physical theory of the world of microscopic distances. It is this task, the creation of such a theory, which string theory, currently far from completion, is expected to solve. In spite of its somewhat vague current form, string theory has already led to a number of serious results and greatly contributed to progress in the understanding of quantum field theory. It is these developments, which are our concern in this review [ru
Duality invariant class of exact string backgrounds
Klimcík, C
1994-01-01
We consider a class of $2+D$ - dimensional string backgrounds with a target space metric having a covariantly constant null Killing vector and flat `transverse' part. The corresponding sigma models are invariant under $D$ abelian isometries and are transformed by $O(D,D)$ duality into models belonging to the same class. The leading-order solutions of the conformal invariance equations (metric, antisymmetric tensor and dilaton), as well as the action of $O(D,D)$ duality transformations on them, are exact, i.e. are not modified by $\\a'$-corrections. This makes a discussion of different space-time representations of the same string solution (related by $O(D,D|Z)$ duality subgroup) rather explicit. We show that the $O(D,D)$ duality may connect curved $2+D$-dimensional backgrounds with solutions having flat metric but, in general, non-trivial antisymmetric tensor and dilaton. We discuss several particular examples including the $2+D=4$ - dimensional background that was recently interpreted in terms of a WZW model.
Exactly solvable string models of curved space-time backgrounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Russo, J.G.
1995-01-01
We consider a new 3-parameter class of exact 4-dimensional solutions in closed string theory and solve the corresponding string model, determining the physical spectrum and the partition function. The background fields (4-metric, antisymmetric tensor, two Kaluza-Klein vector fields, dilaton and modulus) generically describe axially symmetric stationary rotating (electro)magnetic flux-tube type universes. Backgrounds of this class include both the ''dilatonic'' (a=1) and ''Kaluza-Klein'' (a=√(3)) Melvin solutions and the uniform magnetic field solution, as well as some singular space-times. Solvability of the string σ-model is related to its connection via duality to a simpler model which is a ''twisted'' product of a flat 2-space and a space dual to 2-plane. We discuss some physical properties of this model (tachyonic instabilities in the spectrum, gyromagnetic ratio, issue of singularities, etc.). It provides one of the first examples of a consistent solvable conformal string model with explicit D=4 curved space-time interpretation. (orig.)
Conformal field theory and its application to strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verlinde, E.P.
1988-01-01
Conformal field theories on Riemann surfaces are considered and the result is applied to study the loop amplitudes for bosonic strings. It is shown that there is a close resemblance between the loop amplitudes for φ 3 -theory and the expressions for string multi-loop amplitudes. The similarity between φ 3 -amplitudes in curved backgrounds and the analytic structure of string amplitudes in backgrounds described by conformal field theories is also pointed out. 60 refs.; 5 figs.; 200 schemes
Particles, fields, and now strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weinberg, S.
1986-01-01
The author traces the history of the struggle between two views of the world: a world of particles or a world of fields. These positions were crystallised as quantum field theory and S-matrix theory and now by the reintroduction of string theories. (Auth.)
Strings, fields and critical phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ambjoern, J.
1987-07-01
The connection between field theory and critical phenomena is reviewed. Emphasis is put on the use of Monte Carlo methods in the study of non-perturbative aspects of field theory. String theory is then described as a statistical theory of random surfaces and the critical behaviour is analyzed both by analytical and numerical methods. (orig.)
String theory or field theory?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marshakov, Andrei V
2002-01-01
The status of string theory is reviewed, and major recent developments - especially those in going beyond perturbation theory in the string theory and quantum field theory frameworks - are analyzed. This analysis helps better understand the role and place of string theory in the modern picture of the physical world. Even though quantum field theory describes a wide range of experimental phenomena, it is emphasized that there are some insurmountable problems inherent in it - notably the impossibility to formulate the quantum theory of gravity on its basis - which prevent it from being a fundamental physical theory of the world of microscopic distances. It is this task, the creation of such a theory, which string theory, currently far from completion, is expected to solve. In spite of its somewhat vague current form, string theory has already led to a number of serious results and greatly contributed to progress in the understanding of quantum field theory. It is these developments which are our concern in this review. (reviews of topical problems)
Rotating and orbiting strings in Dp-brane background
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biswas, Sagar; Panigrahi, Kamal L. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur,721302, Kharagpur (India)
2015-03-04
We probe the open fundamental strings in Dp-brane (p=1, 3, 5) backgrounds and find new classes of rotating and orbiting string solutions. We show that for various worldsheet embedding ansatz we get solutions of the string equations of motion that correspond to the well known giant magnon and single spikes, in addition to few new solutions corresponding to the orbiting strings. We make a systematic study of both rigidly rotating and orbiting strings in D1, D3 and D5-brane backgrounds.
Purely cubic action for string field theory
Horowitz, G. T.; Lykken, J.; Rohm, R.; Strominger, A.
1986-01-01
It is shown that Witten's (1986) open-bosonic-string field-theory action and a closed-string analog can be written as a purely cubic interaction term. The conventional form of the action arises by expansion around particular solutions of the classical equations of motion. The explicit background dependence of the conventional action via the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin operator is eliminated in the cubic formulation. A closed-form expression is found for the full nonlinear gauge-transformation law.
String field theory. Algebraic structure, deformation properties and superstrings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muenster, Korbinian
2013-01-01
This thesis discusses several aspects of string field theory. The first issue is bosonic open-closed string field theory and its associated algebraic structure - the quantum open-closed homotopy algebra. We describe the quantum open-closed homotopy algebra in the framework of homotopy involutive Lie bialgebras, as a morphism from the loop homotopy Lie algebra of closed string to the involutive Lie bialgebra on the Hochschild complex of open strings. The formulation of the classical/quantum open-closed homotopy algebra in terms of a morphism from the closed string algebra to the open string Hochschild complex reveals deformation properties of closed strings on open string field theory. In particular, we show that inequivalent classical open string field theories are parametrized by closed string backgrounds up to gauge transformations. At the quantum level the correspondence is obstructed, but for other realizations such as the topological string, a non-trivial correspondence persists. Furthermore, we proof the decomposition theorem for the loop homotopy Lie algebra of closed string field theory, which implies uniqueness of closed string field theory on a fixed conformal background. Second, the construction of string field theory can be rephrased in terms of operads. In particular, we show that the formulation of string field theory splits into two parts: The first part is based solely on the moduli space of world sheets and ensures that the perturbative string amplitudes are recovered via Feynman rules. The second part requires a choice of background and determines the real string field theory vertices. Each of these parts can be described equivalently as a morphism between appropriate cyclic and modular operads, at the classical and quantum level respectively. The algebraic structure of string field theory is then encoded in the composition of these two morphisms. Finally, we outline the construction of type II superstring field theory. Specific features of the
Propagators in magnetic string background and the problem of self-adjoint extensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaiser, H.J.
1993-01-01
Ghost and gluon propagators of a non-Abelian gauge theory in the background of a magnetic string are calculated. A simple technique to derive the ghost propagator is presented which makes use of the fact that the presence of a magnetic string of strength β shifts the differential operators ∂/∂φ to ∂/∂φ - iβ. In the case of a gluon propagator in the magnetic string background a difficulty arises from the presence of the magnetic field strength term involving a δ function. Here the ambiguities of a self-adjoint extension of the differential operator must be met. A proper treatment demands the specification of a limiting process starting from a string of finite thickness and well-defined structure and leading to the δ function string. Without this additional structure information about the background string the gauge field propagator is undetermined. (orig.)
String field representation of the Virasoro algebra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mertes, Nicholas [Institute of Physics AS CR,Na Slovance 2, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, University of Miami,Coral Gables, FL (United States); Schnabl, Martin [Institute of Physics AS CR,Na Slovance 2, Prague 8 (Czech Republic)
2016-12-29
We construct a representation of the zero central charge Virasoro algebra using string fields in Witten’s open bosonic string field theory. This construction is used to explore extensions of the KBc algebra and find novel algebraic solutions of open string field theory.
Deriving the four-string and open-closed string interactions from geometric string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaku, M.
1990-01-01
One of the questions concerning the covariant open string field theory is why there are two distinct BRST theories and why the four-string interaction appears in one version but not the other. The authors solve this mystery by showing that both theories are gauge-fixed versions of a higher gauge theory, called the geometric string field theory, with a new field, a string verbein e μσ νρ , which allows us to gauge the string length and σ parametrization. By fixing the gauge, the authors can derive the endpoint gauge (the covariantized light cone gauge), the midpoint gauge of Witten, or the interpolating gauge with arbitrary string length. The authors show explicitly that the four-string interaction is a gauge artifact of the geometric theory (the counterpart of the four-fermion instantaneous Coulomb term of QED). By choosing the interpolating gauge, they produce a new class of four-string interactions which smoothly interpolate between the endpoint gauge and the midpoint gauge (where it vanishes). Similarly, they can extract the closed string as a bound state of the open string, which appears in the endpoint gauge but vanishes in the midpoint gauge. Thus, the four-string and open-closed string interactions do not have to be added to the action as long as the string vierbein is included
Fitting cosmic microwave background data with cosmic strings and inflation.
Bevis, Neil; Hindmarsh, Mark; Kunz, Martin; Urrestilla, Jon
2008-01-18
We perform a multiparameter likelihood analysis to compare measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectra with predictions from models involving cosmic strings. Adding strings to the standard case of a primordial spectrum with power-law tilt ns, we find a 2sigma detection of strings: f10=0.11+/-0.05, where f10 is the fractional contribution made by strings in the temperature power spectrum (at l=10). CMB data give moderate preference to the model ns=1 with cosmic strings over the standard zero-strings model with variable tilt. When additional non-CMB data are incorporated, the two models become on a par. With variable ns and these extra data, we find that f10<0.11, which corresponds to Gmicro<0.7x10(-6) (where micro is the string tension and G is the gravitational constant).
Non-critical Poincare invariant bosonic string backgrounds and closed string tachyons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez, Enrique; Gomez, Cesar; Hernandez, Lorenzo
2001-01-01
A new family of non critical bosonic string backgrounds in arbitrary space-time dimension D and with ISO(1,D-2) Poincare invariance are presented. The metric warping factor and dilaton agree asymptotically with the linear dilaton background. The closed string tachyon equation of motion enjoys, in the linear approximation, an exact solution of 'kink' type interpolating between different expectation values. A renormalization group flow interpretation, based on a closed string tachyon potential of type -T 2 e -T , is suggested
Patterns of the cosmic microwave background from evolving string networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouchet, F.R.; Bennett, D.P.; Stebbins, A.
1988-01-01
A network of cosmic strings generated in the early Universe may still exist today. As the strings move across the sky, they produce, by gravitational lensing, a characteristic pattern of anisotropies in the temperature of the cosmic microwave background. The observed absence of such anisotropies places constraints on theories in which galaxy formation is seeded by strings, but it is anticipated that the next generation of experiments will detect them. (author)
Conformal techniques in string theory and string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giddings, S.B.
1987-01-01
The application of some conformal and Riemann surface techniques to string theory and string field theory is described. First a brief review of Riemann surface techniques and of the Polyakov approach to string theory is presented. This is followed by a discussion of some features of string field theory and of its Feynman rules. Specifically, it is shown that the Feynman diagrams for Witten's string field theory respect modular invariance, and in particular give a triangulation of moduli space. The Polyakov formalism is then used to derive the Feynman rules that should follow from this theory upon gauge-fixing. It should also be possible to apply this derivation to deduce the Feynman rules for other gauge-fixed string field theories. Following this, Riemann surface techniques are turned to the problem of proving the equivalence of the Polyakov and light-cone formalisms. It is first shown that the light-cone diagrams triangulate moduli space. Then the Polyakov measure is worked out for these diagrams, and shown to equal that deduced from the light-cone gauge fixed formalism. Also presented is a short description of the comparison of physical states in the two formalisms. The equivalence of the two formalisms in particular constitutes a proof of the unitarity of the Polyakov framework for the closed bosonic string
General relativity invariance and string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aref'eva, I.Ya.; Volovich, I.V.
1987-04-01
The general covariance principle in the string field theory is considered. The algebraic properties of the string Lie derivative are discussed. The string vielbein and spin connection are introduced and an action invariant under general co-ordinate transformation is proposed. (author). 18 refs
Introduction to field theory of strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kikkawa, K.
1987-01-01
The field theory of bosonic string is reviewed. First, theory is treated in a light-cone gauge. After a brief survey of the first quantized theory of free string, the second quantization is discussed. All possible interactions of strings are introduced based on a smoothness condition of work sheets swept out by strings. Perturbation theory is developed. Finally a possible way to the manifest covariant formalism is discussed
Heterotic string solutions and coset conformal field theories
Giveon, Amit; Tseytlin, Arkady A
1993-01-01
We discuss solutions of the heterotic string theory which are analogous to bosonic and superstring backgrounds related to coset conformal field theories. A class of exact `left-right symmetric' solutions is obtained by supplementing the metric, antisymmetric tensor and dilaton of the superstring solutions by the gauge field background equal to the generalised Lorentz connection with torsion. As in the superstring case, these backgrounds are $\\a'$-independent, i.e. have a `semiclassical' form. The corresponding heterotic string sigma model is obtained from the combination of the (1,0) supersymmetric gauged WZNW action with the action of internal fermions coupled to the target space gauge field. The pure (1,0) supersymmetric gauged WZNW theory is anomalous and does not describe a consistent heterotic string solution. We also find (to the order $\\alpha'^3$) a two-dimensional perturbative heterotic string solution with the trivial gauge field background. To the leading order in $\\alpha'$ it coincides with the kno...
Cosmic microwave background constraints for global strings and global monopoles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopez-Eiguren, Asier; Lizarraga, Joanes; Urrestilla, Jon; Hindmarsh, Mark
2017-01-01
We present the first cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectra from numerical simulations of the global O( N ) linear σ-model, with N =2,3, which have global strings and monopoles as topological defects. In order to compute the CMB power spectra we compute the unequal time correlators (UETCs) of the energy-momentum tensor, showing that they fall off at high wave number faster than naive estimates based on the geometry of the defects, indicating non-trivial (anti-)correlations between the defects and the surrounding Goldstone boson field. We obtain source functions for Einstein-Boltzmann solvers from the UETCs, using a recently developed method that improves the modelling at the radiation-matter transition. We show that the interpolation function that mimics the transition is similar to other defect models, but not identical, confirming the non-universality of the interpolation function. The CMB power spectra for global strings and global monopoles have the same overall shape as those obtained using the non-linear σ-model approximation, which is well captured by a large- N calculation. However, the amplitudes are larger than the large- N calculation would naively predict, and in the case of global strings much larger: a factor of 20 at the peak. Finally we compare the CMB power spectra with the latest CMB data in other to put limits on the allowed contribution to the temperature power spectrum at multipole l = 10 of 1.7% for global strings and 2.4% for global monopoles. These limits correspond to symmetry-breaking scales of 2.9× 10 15 GeV (6.3× 10 14 GeV with the expected logarithmic scaling of the effective string tension between the simulation time and decoupling) and 6.4× 10 15 GeV respectively. The bound on global strings is a significant one for the ultra-light axion scenario with axion masses m a ∼< 10 −28 eV . These upper limits indicate that gravitational waves from global topological defects will not be observable at the gravitational wave
Cosmic microwave background constraints for global strings and global monopoles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez-Eiguren, Asier; Lizarraga, Joanes; Urrestilla, Jon [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Hindmarsh, Mark, E-mail: asier.lopez@ehu.eus, E-mail: joanes.lizarraga@ehu.eus, E-mail: m.b.hindmarsh@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: jon.urrestilla@ehu.eus [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)
2017-07-01
We present the first cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectra from numerical simulations of the global O( N ) linear σ-model, with N =2,3, which have global strings and monopoles as topological defects. In order to compute the CMB power spectra we compute the unequal time correlators (UETCs) of the energy-momentum tensor, showing that they fall off at high wave number faster than naive estimates based on the geometry of the defects, indicating non-trivial (anti-)correlations between the defects and the surrounding Goldstone boson field. We obtain source functions for Einstein-Boltzmann solvers from the UETCs, using a recently developed method that improves the modelling at the radiation-matter transition. We show that the interpolation function that mimics the transition is similar to other defect models, but not identical, confirming the non-universality of the interpolation function. The CMB power spectra for global strings and global monopoles have the same overall shape as those obtained using the non-linear σ-model approximation, which is well captured by a large- N calculation. However, the amplitudes are larger than the large- N calculation would naively predict, and in the case of global strings much larger: a factor of 20 at the peak. Finally we compare the CMB power spectra with the latest CMB data in other to put limits on the allowed contribution to the temperature power spectrum at multipole l = 10 of 1.7% for global strings and 2.4% for global monopoles. These limits correspond to symmetry-breaking scales of 2.9× 10{sup 15} GeV (6.3× 10{sup 14} GeV with the expected logarithmic scaling of the effective string tension between the simulation time and decoupling) and 6.4× 10{sup 15} GeV respectively. The bound on global strings is a significant one for the ultra-light axion scenario with axion masses m {sub a} ∼< 10{sup −28} eV . These upper limits indicate that gravitational waves from global topological defects will not be observable at
Fluctuations from cosmic strings and the microwave background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandenberger, R.H.; Turok, N.
1986-01-01
The spectrum of energy-density perturbations and anisotropies in the microwave background radiation are calculated in models with cosmic strings. The computations are based on a mathematical model of the network of cosmic strings as a combination of a random walk of infinite strings and a distribution of string loops. The energy-density distribution is scale invariant at Hubble radius crossing, but the k dependence of the spectrum is nontrivial and not equal to the result for adiabatic linear perturbations. The anisotropies in the microwave background radiation are smaller than the observational upper bounds on all angular scales for a value μGapprox.2 x 10 -6 obtained from independent astrophysical considerations. We include both the effects due to gravitational lensing from long strings and from local gravitational perturbations due to loops (the Sachs-Wolfe effect)
Stable monopole-antimonopole string background in SU(2) QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, Y.M.; Pak, D.G.
2006-01-01
Motivated by the instability of the Savvidy-Nielsen-Olesen (SNO) vacuum we make a systematic search for a stable magnetic background in pure SU(2) QCD. It is shown that a pair of axially symmetric monopole and antimonopole strings is stable, provided that the distance between the two strings is less than a critical value. The existence of a stable monopole-antimonopole string background strongly supports that a magnetic condensation of monopole-antimonopole pairs can generate a dynamical symmetry breaking, and thus the magnetic confinement of color in QCD
A new class of spatially homogeneous 4D string backgrounds
Batakis, N A
1995-01-01
A new class of spatially homogeneous 4D string backgrounds, the X(d\\rightarrow) according to a recent classification, is presented and shown to contain only five generic types. In contrast to the case of X(d\\uparrow) (which contains as a subclass all possible FRW backgrounds), exact SO(3) isotropy is always broken in the X(d\\rightarrow) class. This is due to the H-field, whose dual is necessarily along a principal direction of anisotropy. Nevertheless, FRW symmetry can be attained asymptotically for Bianchi-types I and VII_0 in a rather appealing physical context. Other aspects of the solutions found for types X=I,II,III,VI_{-1}, and of the VII_0 case are briefly discussed.
Strings - Links between conformal field theory, gauge theory and gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Troost, J.
2009-05-01
String theory is a candidate framework for unifying the gauge theories of interacting elementary particles with a quantum theory of gravity. The last years we have made considerable progress in understanding non-perturbative aspects of string theory, and in bringing string theory closer to experiment, via the search for the Standard Model within string theory, but also via phenomenological models inspired by the physics of strings. Despite these advances, many deep problems remain, amongst which a non-perturbative definition of string theory, a better understanding of holography, and the cosmological constant problem. My research has concentrated on various theoretical aspects of quantum theories of gravity, including holography, black holes physics and cosmology. In this Habilitation thesis I have laid bare many more links between conformal field theory, gauge theory and gravity. Most contributions were motivated by string theory, like the analysis of supersymmetry preserving states in compactified gauge theories and their relation to affine algebras, time-dependent aspects of the holographic map between quantum gravity in anti-de-Sitter space and conformal field theories in the bulk, the direct quantization of strings on black hole backgrounds, the embedding of the no-boundary proposal for a wave-function of the universe in string theory, a non-rational Verlinde formula and the construction of non-geometric solutions to supergravity
Calculations in perturbative string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thorn, C.B.
1987-01-01
The author discusses methods for evaluating the Feynman diagrams of string field theory, with particular emphasis on Witten's version of open string field theory. It is explained in some detail how the rules states by Giddings and Martinec for relating a given diagram to a Polyakov path integral emerge from the Feynman rules
Field theory of relativistic strings: I. Trees
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaku, M.; Kikkawa, K.
1985-01-01
The authors present an entirely new kind of field theory, a field theory quantized not at space-time points, but quantized along an extended set of multilocal points on a string. This represents a significant departure from the usual quantum field theory, whose free theory represents a definite set of elementary particles, because the field theory on relativistic strings can accommodate an infinite set of linearly rising Regge trajectories. In this paper, the authors (1) present canonical quantization and the Green's function of the free string, (2) introduce three-string interactions, (3) resolve the question of multiple counting, (4) complete the counting arguments for all N-point trees, and (5) introduce four-string interactions which yield a Yang-Mills structure when the zero-slope limit is taken
Ambitwistor pure spinor string in a type II supergravity background
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chandia, Osvaldo [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez,Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez,Diagonal Las Torres 2640, Peñalolén, Santiago (Chile); Vallilo, Brenno Carlini [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andres Bello,República 220, Santiago (Chile)
2015-06-30
We construct the ambitwistor pure spinor string in a general type II supergravity background in the semi-classical regime. Almost all supergravity constraints are obtained from nilpotency of the BRST charge and further consistency conditions from additional world-sheet the case of AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} background.
Effective lagrangian from bosonic string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakazawa, Naohito
1987-01-01
We investigate the low-energy effective action from the string field theoretical view point. The low-energy effective lagrangian for the massless mode of bosonic string is determined to the order of α'. We find a term which can not be determined from the S-matrix approach. (author)
String field representation of the Virasoro algebra
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Mertes, N.; Schnabl, Martin
2016-01-01
Roč. 2016, č. 12 (2016), 1-14, č. článku 151. ISSN 1029-8479 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31689S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : String Held Theory * Conformal Field Models in String Theory Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 6.063, year: 2016
Topological defects in open string field theory
Kojita, Toshiko; Maccaferri, Carlo; Masuda, Toru; Schnabl, Martin
2018-04-01
We show how conformal field theory topological defects can relate solutions of open string field theory for different boundary conditions. To this end we generalize the results of Graham and Watts to include the action of defects on boundary condition changing fields. Special care is devoted to the general case when nontrivial multiplicities arise upon defect action. Surprisingly the fusion algebra of defects is realized on open string fields only up to a (star algebra) isomorphism.
Classification of supersymmetric backgrounds of string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gran, U.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.; Roest, D.
2007-01-01
We review the recent progress made towards the classification of supersymmetric solutions in ten and eleven dimensions with emphasis on those of IIB supergravity. In particular, the spinorial geometry method is outlined and adapted to nearly maximally supersymmetric backgrounds. We then demonstrate its effectiveness by classifying the maximally supersymmetric IIB G-backgrounds and by showing that N=31 IIB solutions do not exist. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Gravitational-Wave Stochastic Background from Cosmic Strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siemens, Xavier; Creighton, Jolien; Mandic, Vuk
2007-01-01
We consider the stochastic background of gravitational waves produced by a network of cosmic strings and assess their accessibility to current and planned gravitational wave detectors, as well as to big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), cosmic microwave background (CMB), and pulsar timing constraints. We find that current data from interferometric gravitational wave detectors, such as Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), are sensitive to areas of parameter space of cosmic string models complementary to those accessible to pulsar, BBN, and CMB bounds. Future more sensitive LIGO runs and interferometers such as Advanced LIGO and Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be able to explore substantial parts of the parameter space
Classification of supersymmetric backgrounds of string theory
Gran, Ulf; Gutowski, Jan; Papadopoulos, George; Roest, Diederik
2007-01-01
We review the recent progress made towards the classification of supersymmetric solutions in ten and eleven dimensions with emphasis on those of IIB supergravity. In particular, the spinorial geometry method is outlined and adapted to nearly maximally supersymmetric backgrounds.We then demonstrate
Backreacted axion field ranges in string theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baume, Florent; Palti, Eran [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität, Philosophenweg 19, Heidelberg, 69120 (Germany)
2016-08-05
String theory axions are interesting candidates for fields whose potential might be controllable over super-Planckian field ranges and therefore as possible candidates for inflatons in large field inflation. Axion monodromy scenarios are setups where the axion shift symmetry is broken by some effect such that the axion can traverse a large number of periods potentially leading to super-Planckian excursions. We study such scenarios in type IIA string theory where the axion shift symmetry is broken by background fluxes. In particular we calculate the backreaction of the energy density induced by the axion vacuum expectation value on its own field space metric. We find universal behaviour for all the compactifications studied where up to a certain critical axion value there is only a small backreaction effect. Beyond the critical value the backreaction is strong and implies that the proper field distance as measured by the backreacted metric increases at best logarithmically with the axion vev, thereby placing strong limitations on extending the field distance any further. The critical axion value can be made arbitrarily large by the choice of fluxes. However the backreaction of these fluxes on the axion field space metric ensures a precise cancellation such that the proper field distance up to the critical axion value is flux independent and remains sub-Planckian. We also study an axion alignment scenario for type IIA compactifications on a twisted torus with four fundamental axions mixing to leave an axion with an effective decay constant which is flux dependent. There is a choice of fluxes for which the alignment parameter controlling the effective decay constant is unconstrained by tadpoles and can in principle lead to an arbitrarily large effective decay constant. However we show that these fluxes backreact on the fundamental decay constants so as to precisely cancel any enhancement leaving a sub-Planckian effective decay constant.
Perturbation theory for quantized string fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thorn, C.B.; Florida Univ., Gainesville
1987-01-01
We discuss the problem of gauge fixing in string field theory. We show that BRST invariance requires the gauge-fixed action to contain terms cubic in the ghost... of ghost of ghost fields. The final BRST invariant gauge-fixed action for the gauge b 0 A=0 is extremely simple: with the proper interpretation (as given in this article), it is essentially the one anticipated earlier in the work of Giddings, Martinec, and Witten in their analysis of the BRST invariant world-sheet approach to string theory. We derive the Feynman rules from this action and explain in detail how the sum over sufaces of the BRST first-quantized string is reproduced. This result depends crucially on the correct assignment for the Grassmann character of the string field and its ghost... of ghost of ghost string fields. If all these fields are unified in a single string field Φ containing all ghost numbers, the requirements is that Φ be uniformly Grassmann odd. Finally, we do some sample calculations which provide some simple checks on our general results. (orig.)
One-loop masses of open-string scalar fields in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitazawa, Noriaki
2008-01-01
In phenomenological models with D-branes, there are in general open-string massless scalar fields, in addition to closed-string massless moduli fields corresponding to the compactification. It is interesting to focus on the fate of such scalar fields in models with broken supersymmetry, because no symmetry forbids their masses. The one-loop effect may give non-zero masses to them, and in some cases mass squared may become negative, which means the radiative gauge symmetry breaking. In this article we investigate and propose a simple method for calculating the one-loop corrections using the boundary state formalism. There are two categories of massless open-string scalar fields. One consists the gauge potential fields corresponding to compactified directions, which can be understood as scalar fields in uncompactified space-time (related with Wilson line degrees of freedom). The other consists 'gauge potential fields' corresponding to transverse directions of D-brane, which emerge as scalar fields in D-brane world-volume (related with brane moduli fields). The D-brane boundary states with constant backgrounds of these scalar fields are constructed, and one-loop scalar masses are calculated in the closed string picture. Explicit calculations are given in the following four concrete models: one D25-brane with a circle compactification in bosonic string theory, one D9-brane with a circle compactification in superstring theory, D3-branes at a supersymmetric C 3 /Z 3 orbifold singularity, and a model of brane supersymmetry breaking with D3-branes and anti-D7-branes at a supersymmetric C 3 /Z 3 orbifold singularity. We show that the sign of the mass squared has a strong correlation with the sign of the related open-string one-loop vacuum amplitude.
Background geometries in string and M-theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeschek, C.
2005-01-01
In this thesis we consider background geometries resulting from string theory compactifications. In particular, we investigate supersymmetric vacuum spaces of supergravity theories and topological twisted sigma models by means of classical and generalised G-structures. In the first part we compactify 11d supergravity on seven-dimensional manifolds due to phenomenological reasons. A certain amount of supersymmetry forces the internal background to admit a classical SU(3)- or G 2 -structure. Especially, in the case that the four-dimensional space is maximally symmetric and four form fluxes are present we calculate the relation to the intrinsic torsion. The second and main part is two-fold. Firstly, we realise that generalised geometries on six-dimensional manifolds are a natural framework to study T-duality and mirror symmetry, in particular if the B-field is non-vanishing. An explicit mirror map is given and we apply this idea to the generalised formulation of a topological twisted sigma model. Implications of mirror symmetry are studied, e.g. observables and topological A- and B-branes. Secondly, we show that seven-dimensional NS-NS backgrounds in type II supergravity theories can be described by generalised G 2 -geometries. A compactification on six manifolds leads to a new structure. We call this geometry a generalised SU(3)-structure. We study the relation between generalised SU(3)- and G 2 -structures on six- and seven-manifolds and generalise the Hitchin-flow equations. Finally, we further develop the generalised SU(3)- and G 2 -structures via a constrained variational principle to incorporate also the remaining physical R-R fields. (Orig.)
Effect of a background electric field on the Hagedorn temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrer, E.J.; Incera, V. de la; Fradkin, E.S.
1990-07-01
We compute the one-loop free energy of the open neutral string gas in a constant electromagnetic background. Starting from this result we show that the Hagedorn temperature of this hot string gas depends on the background electric field. The larger the electric field, the lower the Hagedorn temperature is. (author). 13 refs
Large N field theories, string theory and gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maldacena, J [Lyman Laboratory of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge (United States)
2002-05-15
We describe the holographic correspondence between field theories and string/M theory, focusing on the relation between compactifications of string/ M theory on Anti-de Sitter spaces and conformal field theories. We review the background for this correspondence and discuss its motivations and the evidence for its correctness. We describe the main results that have been derived from the correspondence in the regime that the field theory is approximated by classical or semiclassical gravity. We focus on the case of the N = 4 supersymmetric gauge theory in four dimensions. These lecture notes are based on the Review written by O. Aharony, S. Gubser, J. Maldacena, H. Ooguri and Y. Oz. (author)
Butterfly tachyons in vacuum string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matlock, Peter
2003-01-01
We use geometrical conformal field theory methods to investigate tachyon fluctuations about the butterfly projector state in vacuum string field theory. We find that the on-shell condition for the tachyon field is equivalent to the requirement that the quadratic term in the string-field action vanish on shell. This further motivates the interpretation of the butterfly state as a D-brane. We begin a calculation of the tension of the butterfly, and conjecture that this will match the case of the sliver and further strengthen this interpretation
Free bosonic string field theory without supplementary fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Embacher, F.
1987-01-01
A covariant local action for free bosonic string fields is constructed without the use of supplementary fields. The open string case is treated in detail. Up to a mathematical conjecture which is likely to hold it is shown that the Virasoro constraints arise as a special choice of gauge. The kinetic operator turns out to be extremely simple, the gauge transformation law arising rather implicitly. The case of closed strings is briefly discussed. 25 refs. (Author)
String-coupling constant and dilaton vacuum expectation value in string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoneya, Tamiaki
1987-01-01
In the first quantized approaches to strings, it is well known that the string-coupling constant is determined by the vacuum expectation value of the dilaton field. This property, however, has never been demonstrated within the framework of string field theory. An explicit reparametrization of the string field associated with the shifts of the dilaton vacuum expectation value and the string-coupling constant is constructed exhibiting the above property in the light-cone field theory of the closed bosonic string. (orig.)
On topological string theory with Calabi-Yau backgrounds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haghighat, Babak
2010-06-15
String theory represents a unifying framework for quantum field theory as well as for general relativity combining them into a theory of quantum gravity. The topological string is a subsector of the full string theory capturing physical amplitudes which only depend on the topology of the compactification manifold. Starting with a review of the physical applications of topological string theory we go on to give a detailed description of its theoretical framework and mathematical principles. Having this way provided the grounding for concrete calculations we proceed to solve the theory on three major types of Calabi-Yau manifolds, namely Grassmannian Calabi-Yau manifolds, local Calabi-Yau manifolds, and K3 fibrations. Our method of solution is the integration of the holomorphic anomaly equations and fixing the holomorphic ambiguity by physical boundary conditions. We determine the correct parameterization of the ambiguity and new boundary conditions at various singularity loci in moduli space. Among the main results of this thesis are the tables of degeneracies of BPS states in the appendices and the veri cation of the correct microscopic entropy interpretation for five dimensional extremal black holes arising from compactifications on Grassmannian Calabi-Yau manifolds. (orig.)
On topological string theory with Calabi-Yau backgrounds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haghighat, Babak
2009-10-29
String theory represents a unifying framework for quantum field theory as well as for general relativity combining them into a theory of quantum gravity. The topological string is a subsector of the full string theory capturing physical amplitudes which only depend on the topology of the compactification manifold. Starting with a review of the physical applications of topological string theory we go on to give a detailed description of its theoretical framework and mathematical principles. Having this way provided the grounding for concrete calculations we proceed to solve the theory on three major types of Calabi-Yau manifolds, namely Grassmannian Calabi-Yau manifolds, local Calabi-Yau manifolds, and K3 fibrations. Our method of solution is the integration of the holomorphic anomaly equations and fixing the holomorphic ambiguity by physical boundary conditions. We determine the correct parameterization of the ambiguity and new boundary conditions at various singularity loci in moduli space. Among the main results of this thesis are the tables of degeneracies of BPS states in the appendices and the verification of the correct microscopic entropy interpretation for five dimensional extremal black holes arising from compactifications on Grassmannian Calabi-Yau manifolds. (orig.)
On topological string theory with Calabi-Yau backgrounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haghighat, Babak
2009-01-01
String theory represents a unifying framework for quantum field theory as well as for general relativity combining them into a theory of quantum gravity. The topological string is a subsector of the full string theory capturing physical amplitudes which only depend on the topology of the compactification manifold. Starting with a review of the physical applications of topological string theory we go on to give a detailed description of its theoretical framework and mathematical principles. Having this way provided the grounding for concrete calculations we proceed to solve the theory on three major types of Calabi-Yau manifolds, namely Grassmannian Calabi-Yau manifolds, local Calabi-Yau manifolds, and K3 fibrations. Our method of solution is the integration of the holomorphic anomaly equations and fixing the holomorphic ambiguity by physical boundary conditions. We determine the correct parameterization of the ambiguity and new boundary conditions at various singularity loci in moduli space. Among the main results of this thesis are the tables of degeneracies of BPS states in the appendices and the verification of the correct microscopic entropy interpretation for five dimensional extremal black holes arising from compactifications on Grassmannian Calabi-Yau manifolds. (orig.)
On topological string theory with Calabi-Yau backgrounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haghighat, Babak
2010-06-01
String theory represents a unifying framework for quantum field theory as well as for general relativity combining them into a theory of quantum gravity. The topological string is a subsector of the full string theory capturing physical amplitudes which only depend on the topology of the compactification manifold. Starting with a review of the physical applications of topological string theory we go on to give a detailed description of its theoretical framework and mathematical principles. Having this way provided the grounding for concrete calculations we proceed to solve the theory on three major types of Calabi-Yau manifolds, namely Grassmannian Calabi-Yau manifolds, local Calabi-Yau manifolds, and K3 fibrations. Our method of solution is the integration of the holomorphic anomaly equations and fixing the holomorphic ambiguity by physical boundary conditions. We determine the correct parameterization of the ambiguity and new boundary conditions at various singularity loci in moduli space. Among the main results of this thesis are the tables of degeneracies of BPS states in the appendices and the veri cation of the correct microscopic entropy interpretation for five dimensional extremal black holes arising from compactifications on Grassmannian Calabi-Yau manifolds. (orig.)
Algebra of constraints for a string in curved background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wess, J.
1990-01-01
A string field theory with curved background develops anomalies and Schwinger terms in the conformal algebra. It is generally believed that these Schwinger terms and anomalies are expressible in terms of the curvature tensor of the background metric and that, therefore, they are covariant under a change of coordinates in the target space. As far as I know, all the relevant computations have been done in special gauges, i.e. in Riemann normal coordinates. The question remains whether this is true in any gauge. We have tried to investigate this problem in a Hamiltonian formulation of the model. A classical Lagrangian serves to define the canonical variables and the classical constraints. They are expressed in terms of the canonical variables and, classically, they are first class. When quantized, an ordering prescription has to be imposed which leads to anomalies and Schwinger terms. We then try to redefine the constraints in such a way that the Schwinger terms depend on the curvature tensor only. The redefinition of the constraints is limited by the requirement that it should be local and that the energy momentum tensor should be conserved. In our approach, it is natural that the constraints are improved, order by order, in the number of derivatives: We find that, up to third order in the derivatives, Schwinger terms and anomalies are expressible in terms of the curvature tensor. In the fourth order of the derivatives however, we find a contribution to the Schwinger terms that cannot be removed by a redefinition and that cannot be cast in a covariant form. The anomaly on the other hand is fully expressible in terms of the curvature scalar. The energy momentum tensor ceases to be symmetric which indicates a Lorentz anomaly as well. The question remains if the Schwinger terms take a covariant form if we allow Einstein anomalies as well. (orig.)
String fields, higher spins and number theory
Polyakov, Dimitri
2018-01-01
The book aims to analyze and explore deep and profound relations between string field theory, higher spin gauge theories and holography the disciplines that have been on the cutting edge of theoretical high energy physics and other fields. These intriguing relations and connections involve some profound ideas in number theory, which appear to be part of a unifying language to describe these connections.
A novel string field theory solving string theory by liberating left and right movers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nielsen, Holger B.; Ninomiya, Masao
2014-01-01
We put forward ideas to a novel string field theory based on making some “objects” that essentially describe “liberated” left- and right- mover fields X L μ (τ+σ) and X R μ (τ−σ) on the string. Our novel string field theory is completely definitely different from any other string theory in as far as a “null set” of information in the string field theory Fock space has been removed relatively, to the usual string field theories. So our theory is definitely new. The main progress is that we manage to make our novel string field theory provide the correct mass square spectrum for the string. We finally suggest how to obtain the Veneziano amplitude in our model
Exact marginality in open string field theory. A general framework
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiermaier, M.
2007-07-01
We construct analytic solutions of open bosonic string field theory for any exactly marginal deformation in any boundary conformal field theory when properly renormalized operator products of the marginal operator are given. We explicitly provide such renormalized operator products for a class of marginal deformations which include the deformations of flat D-branes in flat backgrounds by constant massless modes of the gauge field and of the scalar fields on the D-branes, the cosine potential for a space-like coordinate, and the hyperbolic cosine potential for the time-like coordinate. In our construction we use integrated vertex operators, which are closely related to finite deformations in boundary conformal field theory, while previous analytic solutions were based on unintegrated vertex operators. We also introduce a modified star product to formulate string field theory around the deformed background. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fidanza, St
2003-11-15
In the first chapter (titled: non-commutative D-branes), we show that the B anti-symmetrical background fields can be embedded in the non-commutativity of branes and can distort gauge theories that branes convey. We know how to describe this transformation in the Abelian case thanks to the Kontsevic quantification formula. Moreover this formula combined to the Seiberg-Witter transformation allows one to compute more rapidly the explicit terms. For the non-Abelian case the situation is less clear. In the chapter 2 (titled: non-Abelian M5-branes), we have tackled the issue of the fields of a packet of N M5-branes. The direct approach based on a 6 dimensional super-symmetric multiplets has led to a stunning dead end, we have not been able to reproduce the expected anomaly in N{sup 3}. We have presented in a unified manner different gauge theories. We have shown that we can get a number of freedom degrees in the magnitude order of N{sup 3} from computations based on geometrical configurations of M2 membranes. In the chapter 3 (titled: systematizing mirror symmetry) we have shown that if the presence of a non-trivial Neveu-Schwarz flux constrains the compactification manifold geometry to shift from the Calabi-Yau case, we can yet specify a mirror symmetry that mixes geometry and background fields. (A.C.)
An introduction to conformal field theory in two dimensions and string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wadia, S.R.
1989-01-01
This paper provides information on The S-Matrix; Elements of conformally invariant field theory in 2-dim.; The Virasoro gauge conditions; Some representations of the Virasoro algebra; The S-matrix of the Bosonic string theory; Super conformal field theory; Superstring; superstring spectrum and GSO projection; The (β,γ) ghost system; BRST formulation; and String propagation in background fields
The sewing technique for strings and conformal field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Di Vecchia, P.
1989-01-01
We discuss recent results obtained from the sewing procedure for strings and conformal field theories. They are summarized by the N Point [String] g loop Vertex V N;g , that is the 'generating functional' of all correlation functions [scattering amplitudes] of the theory on a genus g Riemann surface. We discuss V N;g for free bosonic theory with arbitrary background charge and for fermionic and bosonic bc systems. By saturating those vertices with highest weight states we obtain in a simple way the correlation functions of the corresponding primary fields on genus g Riemann surfaces that reproduce known results including the correlation functions of a bosonic bc system, that present a number of peculiarities. We construct also V N;g for the bosonic and fermionic string. In particular this technique allows one to explicitly construct the measure of integration over the moduli and to study the various pinching limits in order to check the finiteness of superstring theories. (orig.)
String Analysis for Dynamic Field Access
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Magnus; Andreasen, Esben
2014-01-01
domains to reason about dynamic field access in a static analysis tool. A key feature of the domains is that the equal, concatenate and join operations take Ο(1) time. Experimental evaluation on four common JavaScript libraries, including jQuery and Prototype, shows that traditional string domains...
Introduction to string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horowitz, G.T.
1989-01-01
A light cone gauge superstring field theory is constructed. The BRST approach is described discussing generalizations to yield gauge invariant free superstring field theory and interacting theory for superstrings. The interaction term is explicitly expressed in terms of first quantized oscillators. A purily cubic action for superstring field theory is also derived. (author)
String propagation in an exact four-dimensional black hole background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahapatra, S.
1997-01-01
We study string propagation in an exact, stringy, four-dimensional dyonic black hole background. The exact solutions in terms of elliptic functions describing string configurations in the J=0 limit are obtained by solving the string equations of motion and constraints. By using the covariant formalism, we also investigate the propagation of physical perturbations along the string in the given curved background. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Remarks on the relation between different (open) string field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Alwis, S.P.
1987-01-01
It is shown that the different three-string vertices, related by conformal transformations, are in the same BRST cohomology class. We use this result to discuss the relation between different (open) string field theories. (orig.)
Lectures on interacting string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jevicki, A.
1986-09-01
We give a detailed review of the current formulations of interacting string field theory. The historical development of the subject is taken beginning with the old dual resonance model theory. The light cone approach is reviewed in some detail with emphasis on conformal mapping techniques. Witten's covariant approach is presented. The main body of the lectures concentrates on developing the operator formulation of Witten's theory. 38 refs., 22 figs., 5 tabs
On inflation and de Sitter in non-geometric string backgrounds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hassler, Falk; Massai, Stefano [Arnold-Sommerfeld-Center for Theoretical Physics, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Luest, Dieter [Arnold-Sommerfeld-Center for Theoretical Physics, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)
2017-10-15
We study the problem of obtaining de Sitter and inflationary vacua from dimensional reduction of double field theory (DFT) on nongeometric string backgrounds. In this context, we consider a new class of effective potentials that admit Minkowski and de Sitter minima. We then construct a simple model of chaotic inflation arising from T-fold backgrounds and we discuss the possibility of trans-Planckian field range from nongeometric monodromies as well as the conditions required to get slow roll. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
BPS limit of multi- D- and DF-strings in boundary string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Go, Gyungchoon; Ishida, Akira; Kim, Yoonbai
2007-01-01
A BPS limit is systematically derived for straight multi- D- and DF-strings from the D3D-bar3 system in the context of boundary superstring field theory. The BPS limit is obtained in the limit of thin D(F)-strings, where the Bogomolny equation supports singular static multi-D(F)-string solutions. For the BPS multi-string configurations with arbitrary separations, BPS sum rule is fulfilled under a Gaussian type tachyon potential and reproduces exactly the descent relation. For the DF-strings ((p,q)-strings), the distribution of fundamental string charge density coincides with its energy density and the Hamiltonian density takes the BPS formula of square-root form
Deformation of the cubic open string field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Taejin, E-mail: taejin@kangwon.ac.kr
2017-05-10
We study a consistent deformation of the cubic open bosonic string theory in such a way that the non-planar world sheet diagrams of the perturbative string theory are mapped onto their equivalent planar diagrams of the light-cone string field theory with some length parameters fixed. An explicit evaluation of the cubic string vertex in the zero-slope limit yields the correct relationship between the string coupling constant and the Yang–Mills coupling constant. The deformed cubic open string field theory is shown to produce the non-Abelian Yang–Mills action in the zero-slope limit if it is defined on multiple D-branes. Applying the consistent deformation systematically to multi-string world sheet diagrams, we may be able to calculate scattering amplitudes with an arbitrary number of external open strings.
Deformation of the cubic open string field theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taejin Lee
2017-05-01
Full Text Available We study a consistent deformation of the cubic open bosonic string theory in such a way that the non-planar world sheet diagrams of the perturbative string theory are mapped onto their equivalent planar diagrams of the light-cone string field theory with some length parameters fixed. An explicit evaluation of the cubic string vertex in the zero-slope limit yields the correct relationship between the string coupling constant and the Yang–Mills coupling constant. The deformed cubic open string field theory is shown to produce the non-Abelian Yang–Mills action in the zero-slope limit if it is defined on multiple D-branes. Applying the consistent deformation systematically to multi-string world sheet diagrams, we may be able to calculate scattering amplitudes with an arbitrary number of external open strings.
Deformation of the cubic open string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Taejin
2017-01-01
We study a consistent deformation of the cubic open bosonic string theory in such a way that the non-planar world sheet diagrams of the perturbative string theory are mapped onto their equivalent planar diagrams of the light-cone string field theory with some length parameters fixed. An explicit evaluation of the cubic string vertex in the zero-slope limit yields the correct relationship between the string coupling constant and the Yang–Mills coupling constant. The deformed cubic open string field theory is shown to produce the non-Abelian Yang–Mills action in the zero-slope limit if it is defined on multiple D-branes. Applying the consistent deformation systematically to multi-string world sheet diagrams, we may be able to calculate scattering amplitudes with an arbitrary number of external open strings.
Stochastic quantization of gravity and string fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rumpf, H.
1986-01-01
The stochastic quantization method of Parisi and Wu is generalized so as to make it applicable to Einstein's theory of gravitation. The generalization is based on the existence of a preferred metric in field configuration space, involves Ito's calculus, and introduces a complex stochastic process adapted to Lorentzian spacetime. It implies formally the path integral measure of DeWitt, a causual Feynman propagator, and a consistent stochastic perturbation theory. The lineraized version of the theory is also obtained from the stochastic quantization of the free string field theory of Siegel and Zwiebach. (Author)
A matrix model from string field theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Syoji Zeze
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate that a Hermitian matrix model can be derived from level truncated open string field theory with Chan-Paton factors. The Hermitian matrix is coupled with a scalar and U(N vectors which are responsible for the D-brane at the tachyon vacuum. Effective potential for the scalar is evaluated both for finite and large N. Increase of potential height is observed in both cases. The large $N$ matrix integral is identified with a system of N ZZ branes and a ghost FZZT brane.
Hidden gravity in open-string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siegel, W.
1994-01-01
We clarify the nature of the graviton as a bound state in open-string field theory: The flat metric in the action appears as the vacuum value of an open string field. The bound state appears as a composite field in the free field theory
Interaction vertices in reduced string field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Embacher, F.
1989-01-01
In contrast to previous expectations, covariant overlap vertices are not always suitable for gauge-covariant formulations of bosonic string field theory with a reduced supplementary field content. This is demonstrated for the version of the theory suggested by Neveu, Schwarz and West. The method to construct the interaction, as formulated by Neveu and West, fails at one level higher than these authors have considered. The condition for a general vertex to describe formally a local gauge-invariant interaction is derived. The solution for the action functional and the gauge transformation law is exhibited for all fields at once, to the first order in the coupling constant. However, all these vertices seem to be unphysical. 21 refs. (Author)
UV / IR mixing in noncommutative field theory via open string loops
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiem, Youngjai; Lee, Sangmin
2000-01-01
We explicitly evaluate one-loop (annulus) planar and nonplanar open string amplitudes in the presence of the background NS-NS two-form field. In the decoupling limit of Seiberg and Witten, we find that the nonplanar string amplitudes reproduce the UV/IR mixing of noncommutative field theories. In particular, the investigation of the UV regime of the open string amplitudes shows that certain IR closed string degrees of freedom survive the decoupling limit as previously predicted from the noncommutative field theory analysis. These degrees of freedom are responsible for the quadratic, linear and logarithmic IR singularities when the D-branes embedded in space-time have the codimension zero, one and two, respectively. The analysis is given for both bosonic and supersymmetric open strings
Exactly soluble dynamics of (p,q) string near macroscopic fundamental strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bak, Dongsu; Rey, Soojong; Yee, Houng
2004-01-01
We study dynamics of type-IIB bound-state of a Dirichlet string and n fundamental strings in the background of N fundamental strings. Because of supergravity potential, the bound-state string is pulled to the background fundamental strings, whose motion is described by open string rolling radion field. The string coupling can be made controllably weak and, in the limit 1 2 st n 2 st N, the bound-state energy involved is small compared to the string scale. We thus propose rolling dynamics of open string radion in this system as an exactly solvable analog for rolling dynamics of open string tachyon in decaying D-brane. The dynamics bears a novel feature that the worldsheet electric field increases monotonically to the critical value as the bound-state string falls into the background string. Close to the background string, D string constituent inside the bound-state string decouples from fundamental string constituents. (author)
A Yang-Mills structure for string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsousheung Tsun
1990-01-01
String theorists believe that one way to achieve a fully quantized theory of string is through string field theory. The other way is to study conformal field theory on Riemann surfaces of different genera, which is the subject of many of the talks at this Conference. In a way, string field theory is the more conservative approach, since it aims just to replace the spacetime points of conventional quantum field theory by string, which are extended objects. However, from this point of view string theory has one rather unsatisfactory aspect, in the sense that although it has been very well developed and minutely studied, we are still rather unclear about its basic structure. We can contrast this to both general relativity, which is based on the geometry of spacetime, and to gauge theory, which is about the structure of various natural bundles over spacetime. And yet string theory is supposed to embody both these two essentially geometric theories. To paraphrase Witten, in string theory we seem to have to work backwards to get at the still unknown basic structure. Some joint work with Chan Hong-Mo is reported in an attempt to gain some understanding in that general direction. It seems that one could in some sense consider string field theory as a generalized Yang-Mills theory. This idea is explored. (author)
New gauge symmetries in Witten's Ramond string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kugo, Taichiro; Terao, Haruhiko
1988-01-01
Witten's Raymond string field theory is observed to possess new gauge symmetries, which guarantee the consistency and the equivalence of Witten's theory to the other formulation based on the constrained string field. The projection operator into the gauge-invariant sector is explicitly constructed using an operator similar to the picture changing operator. (orig.)
Induced vacuum energy-momentum tensor in the background of a cosmic string
Sitenko, Yu. A.; Vlasii, N. D.
2011-01-01
A massive scalar field is quantized in the background of a cosmic string which is generalized to a static flux-carrying codimension-2 brane in the locally flat multidimensional space-time. We find that the finite energy-momentum tensor is induced in the vacuum. The dependence of the tensor components on the brane flux and tension, as well as on the coupling to the space-time curvature scalar, is comprehensively analyzed. The tensor components are holomorphic functions of space dimension, decr...
(Non-)commutative closed string on T-dual toroidal backgrounds
Andriot, David; Lust, Dieter; Patalong, Peter
2013-01-01
In this paper we investigate the connection between (non-)geometry and (non-)commutativity of the closed string. To this end, we solve the classical string on three T-dual toroidal backgrounds: a torus with H-flux, a twisted torus and a non-geometric background with Q-flux. In all three situations we work under the assumption of a dilute flux and consider quantities to linear order in the flux density. Furthermore, we perform the first steps of a canonical quantization for the twisted torus, to derive commutators of the string expansion modes. We use them as well as T-duality to determine, in the non-geometric background, a commutator of two string coordinates, which turns out to be non-vanishing. We relate this non-commutativity to the closed string boundary conditions, and the non-geometric Q-flux.
Mass corrections in string theory and lattice field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Del Debbio, Luigi; Kerrane, Eoin; Russo, Rodolfo
2009-01-01
Kaluza-Klein (KK) compactifications of higher-dimensional Yang-Mills theories contain a number of 4-dimensional scalars corresponding to the internal components of the gauge field. While at tree level the scalar zero modes are massless, it is well known that quantum corrections make them massive. We compute these radiative corrections at 1 loop in an effective field theory framework, using the background field method and proper Schwinger-time regularization. In order to clarify the proper treatment of the sum over KK modes in the effective field theory approach, we consider the same problem in two different UV completions of Yang-Mills: string theory and lattice field theory. In both cases, when the compactification radius R is much bigger than the scale of the UV completion (R>>√(α ' ), a), we recover a mass renormalization that is independent of the UV scale and agrees with the one derived in the effective field theory approach. These results support the idea that the value of the mass corrections is, in this regime, universal for any UV completion that respects locality and gauge invariance. The string analysis suggests that this property holds also at higher loops. The lattice analysis suggests that the mass of the adjoint scalars appearing in N=2, 4 super Yang-Mills is highly suppressed, even if the lattice regularization breaks all supersymmetries explicitly. This is due to an interplay between the higher-dimensional gauge invariance and the degeneracy of bosonic and fermionic degrees of freedom.
Bounds on Masses of Bulk Fields in String Compactifications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kachru, Shamit; McGreevy, John; Svrcek, Peter; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC
2006-02-13
In string compactification on a manifold X, in addition to the string scale and the normal scales of low-energy particle physics, there is a Kaluza-Klein scale 1/R associated with the size of X. We present an argument that generic string models with low-energy supersymmetry have, after moduli stabilization, bulk fields with masses which are parametrically lighter than 1/R. We discuss the implications of these light states for anomaly mediation and gaugino mediation scenarios.
Naked singularities in four-dimensional string backgrounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohammedi, N.
1993-04-01
It is shown that gauged nonlinear sigma models can be always deformed by terms proportional to the field strength of the gauge fields (nonminimal gauging). These deformations can be interpreted as perturbations, by marginal operators, of conformal coset models. When applied to the SL(2, R)xSU(2)/U(1)xU(1)) WZWN model, a large class of four-dimensional curved spacetime backgrounds are obtained. In particular, a naked singularity may form at a time when the volume of the universe is different from zero. (orig.)
Introduction to conformal field theory. With applications to string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blumenhagen, Ralph; Plauschinn, Erik
2009-01-01
Based on class-tested notes, this text offers an introduction to Conformal Field Theory with a special emphasis on computational techniques of relevance for String Theory. It introduces Conformal Field Theory at a basic level, Kac-Moody algebras, one-loop partition functions, Superconformal Field Theories, Gepner Models and Boundary Conformal Field Theory. Eventually, the concept of orientifold constructions is explained in detail for the example of the bosonic string. In providing many detailed CFT calculations, this book is ideal for students and scientists intending to become acquainted with CFT techniques relevant for string theory but also for students and non-specialists from related fields. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaku, M.
1988-01-01
We present an entirely new approach to closed-string field theory, called Igeometric string field theory R, which avoids the complications found in Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin string field theory (e.g., ghost counting, infinite overcounting of diagrams, midpoints, lack of modular invariance). Following the analogy with general relativity and Yang-Mills theory, we define a new infinite-dimensional local gauge group, called the unified string group, which uniquely specifies the connection fields, the curvature tensor, the measure and tensor calculus, and finally the action itself. Geometric field theory, when gauge fixed, yields an entirely new class of gauges called the interpolating gauge which allows us to smoothly interpolate between the midpoint gauge and the end-point gauge (''covariantized light-cone gauge''). We can show that geometric string field theory reproduces one copy of the Shapiro-Virasoro model. Surprisingly, after the gauge is broken, a new Iclosed four-string interactionR emerges as the counterpart of the instantaneous four-fermion Coulomb term in QED. This term restores modular invariance and precisely fills the missing region of the complex plane
Open BRST algebras, ghost unification and string field theory
Baulieu, Laurent; Bergshoeff, Eric; Sezgin, Ergin
1988-01-01
Geometrical aspects of the BRST quantization of charged antisymmetric tensor fields and string fields are studied within the framework of the Batalin and Vilkovisky method. In both cases, candidate anomalies which obey the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions are given.
The identity string field and the sliver frame level expansion
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Erler, Theodore
2012-01-01
Roč. 2012, č. 11 (2012), s. 1-25 ISSN 1126-6708 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP201/12/G028 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : tachyon condensation, bosonic strings , String Field Theory Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 5.618, year: 2012
Thermodynamic properties of open noncritical string in external electromagnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lichtzier, I.M.; Odintsov, S.D.; Bytsenko, A.A.
1991-01-01
We investigate the thermodynamics of open noncritical string (charged and neutral) in an external constant magnetic field. The free energy and Hagedorn temperature are calculated. It is shown that Hagedorn temperature is the same as in the absence of constant magnetic field. We present also the expressions for the free energy and Hagedorn temperature of the neutral open noncritical string in an external constant electromagnetic field. In this case Hagedorn temperature depends on the external electric field. (author)
String-localized quantum fields and modular localization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mund, J. [Juiz de Fora Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Schroer, B. [FU-Berlin, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Yngvason, J. [Erwin Schroedinger Institute for Mathematical Physics, Vienna (Austria)
2005-12-15
We study free, covariant, quantum (Bose) fields that are associated with irreducible representations of the Poincare group and localized in semi-infinite strings extending to spacelike infinity. Among these are fields that generate the irreducible representations of mass zero and infinite spin that are known to be incompatible with point-like localized fields. For the massive representation and the massless representations of finite helicity, all string-localized free fields can be written as an integral, along the string, of point-localized tensor or spinor fields. As a special case we discuss the string-localized vector fields associated with the point-like electromagnetic field and their relation to the axial gauge condition in the usual setting. (author)
String-localized quantum fields and modular localization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mund, J.
2005-12-01
We study free, covariant, quantum (Bose) fields that are associated with irreducible representations of the Poincare group and localized in semi-infinite strings extending to spacelike infinity. Among these are fields that generate the irreducible representations of mass zero and infinite spin that are known to be incompatible with point-like localized fields. For the massive representation and the massless representations of finite helicity, all string-localized free fields can be written as an integral, along the string, of point-localized tensor or spinor fields. As a special case we discuss the string-localized vector fields associated with the point-like electromagnetic field and their relation to the axial gauge condition in the usual setting. (author)
String Chopping and Time-ordered Products of Linear String-localized Quantum Fields
Cardoso, Lucas T.; Mund, Jens; Várilly, Joseph C.
2018-03-01
For a renormalizability proof of perturbative models in the Epstein-Glaser scheme with string-localized quantum fields, one needs to know what freedom one has in the definition of time-ordered products of the interaction Lagrangian. This paper provides a first step in that direction. The basic issue is the presence of an open set of n-tuples of strings which cannot be chronologically ordered. We resolve it by showing that almost all such string configurations can be dissected into finitely many pieces which can indeed be chronologically ordered. This fixes the time-ordered products of linear field factors outside a nullset of string configurations. (The extension across the nullset, as well as the definition of time-ordered products of Wick monomials, will be discussed elsewhere).
Analytic study of nonperturbative solutions in open string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bars, I.; Kishimoto, I.; Matsuo, Y.
2003-01-01
We propose an analytic framework to study the nonperturbative solutions of Witten's open string field theory. The method is based on the Moyal star formulation where the kinetic term can be split into two parts. The first one describes the spectrum of two identical half strings which are independent from each other. The second one, which we call midpoint correction, shifts the half string spectrum to that of the standard open string. We show that the nonlinear equation of motion of string field theory is exactly solvable at zeroth order in the midpoint correction. An infinite number of solutions are classified in terms of projection operators. Among them, there exists only one stable solution which is identical to the standard butterfly state. We include the effect of the midpoint correction around each exact zeroth order solution as a perturbation expansion which can be formally summed to the complete exact solution
Rybak, I. Yu.; Avgoustidis, A.; Martins, C. J. A. P.
2017-11-01
We study how the presence of world-sheet currents affects the evolution of cosmic string networks, and their impact on predictions for the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies generated by these networks. We provide a general description of string networks with currents and explicitly investigate in detail two physically motivated examples: wiggly and superconducting cosmic string networks. By using a modified version of the CMBact code, we show quantitatively how the relevant network parameters in both of these cases influence the predicted CMB signal. Our analysis suggests that previous studies have overestimated the amplitude of the anisotropies for wiggly strings. For superconducting strings the amplitude of the anisotropies depends on parameters which presently are not well known—but which can be measured in future high-resolution numerical simulations.
Wavelet-Bayesian inference of cosmic strings embedded in the cosmic microwave background
McEwen, J. D.; Feeney, S. M.; Peiris, H. V.; Wiaux, Y.; Ringeval, C.; Bouchet, F. R.
2017-12-01
Cosmic strings are a well-motivated extension to the standard cosmological model and could induce a subdominant component in the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), in addition to the standard inflationary component. The detection of strings, while observationally challenging, would provide a direct probe of physics at very high-energy scales. We develop a framework for cosmic string inference from observations of the CMB made over the celestial sphere, performing a Bayesian analysis in wavelet space where the string-induced CMB component has distinct statistical properties to the standard inflationary component. Our wavelet-Bayesian framework provides a principled approach to compute the posterior distribution of the string tension Gμ and the Bayesian evidence ratio comparing the string model to the standard inflationary model. Furthermore, we present a technique to recover an estimate of any string-induced CMB map embedded in observational data. Using Planck-like simulations, we demonstrate the application of our framework and evaluate its performance. The method is sensitive to Gμ ∼ 5 × 10-7 for Nambu-Goto string simulations that include an integrated Sachs-Wolfe contribution only and do not include any recombination effects, before any parameters of the analysis are optimized. The sensitivity of the method compares favourably with other techniques applied to the same simulations.
Imprints of cosmic strings on the cosmological gravitational wave background
Kleidis, K.; Papadopoulos, D. B.; Verdaguer, E.; Vlahos, L.
2008-07-01
The equation which governs the temporal evolution of a gravitational wave (GW) in curved space-time can be treated as the Schrödinger equation for a particle moving in the presence of an effective potential. When GWs propagate in an expanding universe with constant effective potential, there is a critical value (kc) of the comoving wave number which discriminates the metric perturbations into oscillating (k>kc) and nonoscillating (k
On multibrane solutions in open string field theory
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Murata, Masaki; Schnabl, Martin
2011-01-01
Roč. 2011, č. 188 (2011), s. 50-55 ISSN 0375-9687. [International Conference on String Field Theory and Related Aspects (SFT2010). Kyoto, 18.10.2010-22.10.2010] Grant - others:EUROHORC and ESF(XE) EYI/07/E010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : string field theory * D-branes * open strings Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.063, year: 2011 http://ptp.ipap.jp/link?PTPS/188/50/
Discrete field theories and spatial properties of strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klebanov, I.; Susskind, L.
1988-10-01
We use the ground-state wave function in the light-cone gauge to study the spatial properties of fundamental strings. We find that, as the cut-off in the parameter space is removed, the strings are smooth and have a divergent size. Guided by these properties, we consider a large-N lattice gauge theory which has an unstable phase where the size of strings diverges. We show that this phase exactly describes free fundamental strings. The lattice spacing does not have to be taken to zero for this equivalence to hold. Thus, exact rotation and translation invariance is restored in a discrete space. This suggests that the number of fundamental short-distance degrees of freedom in string theory is much smaller than in a conventional field theory. 11 refs., 4 figs
Light-like tachyon condensation in open string field theory
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hellerman, S.; Schnabl, Martin
2013-01-01
Roč. 2013, č. 4 (2013), s. 1-34 ISSN 1126-6708 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : string field theory * tachyon condensation Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 5.618, year: 2012
Three level constraints on conformal field theories and string models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewellen, D.C.
1989-05-01
Simple tree level constraints for conformal field theories which follow from the requirement of crossing symmetry of four-point amplitudes are presented, and their utility for probing general properties of string models is briefly illustrated and discussed. 9 refs
Induced vacuum energy-momentum tensor in the background of a cosmic string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sitenko, Yu A; Vlasii, N D
2012-01-01
A massive scalar field is quantized in the background of a cosmic string which is generalized to a static flux-carrying codimension-2 brane in the locally flat multidimensional spacetime. We find that the finite energy-momentum tensor is induced in the vacuum. The dependence of the tensor components on the brane flux and tension, as well as on the coupling to the spacetime curvature scalar, is comprehensively analyzed. The tensor components are holomorphic functions of space dimension, decreasing exponentially with the distance from the brane. The case of the massless quantized scalar field is also considered, and the relevance of Bernoulli’s polynomials of even order for this case is discussed. (paper)
Induced vacuum energy-momentum tensor in the background of a cosmic string
Sitenko, Yu A.; Vlasii, N. D.
2012-05-01
A massive scalar field is quantized in the background of a cosmic string which is generalized to a static flux-carrying codimension-2 brane in the locally flat multidimensional spacetime. We find that the finite energy-momentum tensor is induced in the vacuum. The dependence of the tensor components on the brane flux and tension, as well as on the coupling to the spacetime curvature scalar, is comprehensively analyzed. The tensor components are holomorphic functions of space dimension, decreasing exponentially with the distance from the brane. The case of the massless quantized scalar field is also considered, and the relevance of Bernoulli’s polynomials of even order for this case is discussed.
Vacuum fluctuations of twisted fields in the space time of cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsas, G.E.A.
1990-01-01
A twisted scalar field conformally coupled to gravitation is used to calculate the vacuum stress-energy tensor in the background spacetime generated by an infinite straight gauge cosmic string. The result has an absolute numerical value close to the one obtained with a non-twisted conformal scalar field but their signals are opposite. (author) [pt
D-term inflation, cosmic strings, and consistency with cosmic microwave background measurements.
Rocher, Jonathan; Sakellariadou, Mairi
2005-01-14
Standard D-term inflation is studied in the framework of supergravity. D-term inflation produces cosmic strings; however, it can still be compatible with cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements without invoking any new physics. The cosmic strings contribution to the CMB data is not constant, nor dominant, contrary to some previous results. Using current CMB measurements, the free parameters (gauge and superpotential couplings, as well as the Fayet-Iliopoulos term) of D-term inflation are constrained.
String phase transitions in a strong magnetic field
Ferrara, Sergio; Ferrara, Sergio; Porrati, Massimo
1993-01-01
We consider open strings in an external constant magnetic field $H$. For an (infinite) sequence of critical values of $H$ an increasing number of (highest spin component) states lying on the first Regge trajectory becomes tachyonic. In the limit of infinite $H$ all these states are tachyons (with a common tachyonic mass) both in the case of the bosonic string and for the Neveu-Schwarz sector of the fermionic string. This result generalizes to extended object the same instability which occurs in ordinary non-Abelian gauge theories. The Ramond states have always positive square masses as is the case for ordinary QED. The weak field limit of the mass spectrum is the same as for a field theory with gyromagnetic ratio $g_S=2$ for all charged spin states. This behavior suggests a phase transition of the string as it has been argued for the ordinary electroweak theory.
MHV, CSW and BCFW: field theory structures in string theory amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boels, Rutger; Larsen, Kasper Jens; Obers, Niels A.; Vonk, Marcel
2008-01-01
Motivated by recent progress in calculating field theory amplitudes, we study applications of the basic ideas in these developments to the calculation of amplitudes in string theory. We consider in particular both non-Abelian and Abelian open superstring disk amplitudes in a flat space background, focusing mainly on the four-dimensional case. The basic field theory ideas under consideration split into three separate categories. In the first, we argue that the calculation of α'-corrections to MHV open string disk amplitudes reduces to the determination of certain classes of polynomials. This line of reasoning is then used to determine the α' 3 -correction to the MHV amplitude for all multiplicities. A second line of attack concerns the existence of an analog of CSW rules derived from the Abelian Dirac-Born-Infeld action in four dimensions. We show explicitly that the CSW-like perturbation series of this action is surprisingly trivial: only helicity conserving amplitudes are non-zero. Last but not least, we initiate the study of BCFW on-shell recursion relations in string theory. These should appear very naturally as the UV properties of the string theory are excellent. We show that all open four-point string amplitudes in a flat background at the disk level obey BCFW recursion relations. Based on the naturalness of the proof and some explicit results for the five-point gluon amplitude, it is expected that this pattern persists for all higher point amplitudes and for the closed string.
The non-minimal heterotic pure spinor string in a curved background
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chandia, Osvaldo [Facultad de Artes Liberales and Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez,Diagonal Las Torres 2640, Peñalolén, Santiago (Chile)
2014-03-21
We study the non-minimal pure spinor string in a curved background. We find that the minimal BRST invariance implies the existence of a non-trivial stress-energy tensor for the minimal and non-minimal variables in the heterotic curved background. We find constraint equations for the b ghost. We construct the b ghost as a solution of these constraints.
String creation, D-branes and effective field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hung Lingyan
2008-01-01
This paper addresses several unsettled issues associated with string creation in systems of orthogonal Dp-D(8-p) branes. The interaction between the branes can be understood either from the closed string or open string picture. In the closed string picture it has been noted that the DBI action fails to capture an extra RR exchange between the branes. We demonstrate how this problem persists upon lifting to M-theory. These D-brane systems are analysed in the closed string picture by using gauge-fixed boundary states in a non-standard lightcone gauge, in which RR exchange can be analysed precisely. The missing piece in the DBI action also manifests itself in the open string picture as a mismatch between the Coleman-Weinberg potential obtained from the effective field theory and the corresponding open string calculation. We show that this difference can be reconciled by taking into account the superghosts in the (0+1) effective theory of the chiral fermion, that arises from gauge fixing the spontaneously broken world-line local supersymmetries
A covariant open bosonic string field theory including the endpoint and middlepoint interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, B.G.; Northwest Univ., Xian; Chen, Y.X.
1988-01-01
Extending the usual endpoint and midpoint interactions, we introduce numerous kinds of interactions, labelled by a parameter λ and obtain a non-commutative and associative string field algebra by adding up all interactions. With this algebra we develop a covariant open bosonic string field theory, which reduces to Witten's open bosonic string field theory under a special string length choice. (orig.)
Open and Closed String field theory interpreted in classical Algebraic Topology
Sullivan, Dennis
2003-01-01
There is an interpretation of open string field theory in algebraic topology. An interpretation of closed string field theory can be deduced from this open string theory to obtain as well the interpretation of open and closed string field theory combined.
String amplitudes: from field theories to number theory
CERN. Geneva
2017-01-01
In a variety of recent developments, scattering amplitudes hint at new symmetries of and unexpected connections between physical theories which are otherwise invisible in their conventional description via Feynman diagrams or Lagrangians. Yet, many of these hidden structures are conveniently accessible to string theory where gauge interactions and gravity arise as the low-energy excitations of open and closed strings. In this talk, I will give an intuitive picture of gravity as a double copy of gauge interactions and extend the web of relations to scalar field theories including chiral Lagrangians for Goldstone bosons. The string corrections to gauge and gravity amplitudes beyond their point-particle limit exhibit elegant mathematical structures and offer a convenient laboratory to explore modern number-theoretic concepts in a simple context. As a common theme with Feynman integrals, string amplitudes introduce a variety of periods and special functions including multiple zeta values and polylogarithms, orga...
Pair creation of anti-de Sitter black holes on a cosmic string background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dias, Oscar J.C.
2004-01-01
We analyze the quantum process in which a cosmic string breaks in an anti-de Sitter (AdS) background, and a pair of charged or neutral black holes is produced at the ends of the strings. The energy to materialize and accelerate the pair comes from the string tension. In an AdS background this is the only study done on the process of production of a pair of correlated black holes with spherical topology. The acceleration A of the produced black holes is necessarily greater than √(|Λ|/3), where Λ A bh /4 , where A bh is the black hole horizon area. We also conclude that the general behavior of the pair creation rate with the mass and acceleration of the black holes is similar in the AdS, flat and de Sitter cases, and our AdS results reduce to the ones of the flat case when Λ→0
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Landriau, M.; Shellard, E.P.S.
2004-01-01
In this paper, we present results for large-angle cosmic microwave background anisotropies generated from high resolution simulations of cosmic string networks in a range of flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes with a cosmological constant. Using an ensemble of all-sky maps, we compare with the Cosmic Background Explorer data to infer a normalization (or upper bound) on the string linear energy density μ. For a flat matter-dominated model (Ω M =1) we find Gμ/c 2 ≅0.7x10 -6 , which is lower than previous constraints probably because of the more accurate inclusion of string small-scale structure. For a cosmological constant within an observationally acceptable range, we find a relatively weak dependence with Gμ/c 2 less than 10% higher
Twisted tachyon condensation in closed string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okawa, Yuji; Zwiebach, Barton
2004-01-01
We consider twisted tachyons on C/Z N orbifolds of bosonic closed string theory. It has been conjectured that these tachyonic instabilities correspond to decays of the orbifolds into flat space or into orbifolds with smaller deficit angles. We examine this conjecture using closed string field theory, with the string field truncated to low-level tachyons. We compute the tachyon potentials for C/Z 2 and C/Z 3 orbifolds and find critical points at depths that generate about 70% of the expected change in the deficit angle. We find that both twisted fields and untwisted modes localized near the apex of the cone acquire vacuum expectation values and contribute to the potential. (author)
Open BRST algebras, ghost unification and string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baulieu, L.; Bergshoeff, E.; Sezgin, E.
1988-01-01
Geometrical aspects of the BRST quantization of charged antisymmetric tensor fields and string fields are studied within the framework of the Batalin and Vilkovisky method. In both cases, candidate anomalies which obey the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions are given. (author). 18 refs, 1 fig
String field theory-inspired algebraic structures in gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeitlin, Anton M.
2009-01-01
We consider gauge theories in a string field theory-inspired formalism. The constructed algebraic operations lead, in particular, to homotopy algebras of the related Batalin-Vilkovisky theories. We discuss an invariant description of the gauge fixing procedure and special algebraic features of gauge theories coupled to matter fields.
Non-minimally coupled tachyonic inflation in warped string background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chingangbam, Pravabati; Panda, Sudhakar; Deshamukhya, Atri
2005-01-01
We show that the non-minimal coupling of tachyon field to the scalar curvature, as proposed by Piao et al, with the chosen coupling parameter does not produce the effective potential where the tachyon field can roll down from T=0 to large T along the slope of the potential. We find a correct choice of the parameters which ensures this requirement and support slow-roll inflation. However, we find that the cosmological parameter found from the analysis of the theory are not in the range obtained from observations. We then invoke warped compactification and varying dilaton field over the compact manifold, as proposed by Raeymaekers, to show that in such a setup the observed parameter space can be ensured. (author)
Introductory lectures on Conformal Field Theory and Strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Randjbar-Daemi, S.; Strathdee, J.
1990-01-01
The aim of these lectures is to provide an introduction to a first quantized formulation of string theory. This amounts to developing a consistent set of prescriptions for the perturbative computation of on-shell string amplitudes. The principal tool in this development is 2-dimensional conformal field theory on oriented manifolds of finite genus without boundaries (we treat only closed strings). This class of theory is much simpler than 4-dimensional quantum gravity with which it has many similarities. The geometry is not dynamical in this case, and the matter fields are not sensitive to local features of the geometry but only to global properties which can be characterized by a finite set of parameters (moduli). This can be formulated as field theory on a Riemann surface. We specialize mainly to free field theories for which the quantization problem can be completely solved by elementary means. An introduction to the general case will be given in Lectures II and III where the algebraic approach is discussed. The mathematics of Riemann surfaces is a well developed subject whose formalism is reviewed along with some of the principal theorems in Lecture IV. Physical string states are realized in the Hilbert space of a conformal field theory by the action of so-called ''vertex operators'' on the field theory vacuum state. Correlation functions of these vertex operators serve as ingredients for the computation of string amplitudes. They are to be integrated so as to include the contributions of all conformally inequivalent geometries, and a further manipulation (the GSO projection) is to be performed. These steps are to be regarded as part of the string prescription. They are introduced ad hoc to meet invariance and unitarity requirements. However, in these introductory lectures we give a description only of the integration over geometries (Lecture VII). The GSO projection, and related questions of modular invariance and unitarity are beyond the scope of these
Introductory lectures on conformal field theory and strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Randjbar-Daemi, S.; Strathdee, J.
1990-01-01
The aim of these lectures is to provide an introduction to a first quantized formulation of string theory. This amounts to developing a consistent set of prescriptions for the perturbative computation of on-shell string amplitudes. The principal tool in this development is 2-dimensional conformal field theory on oriented manifolds of finite genus without boundaries (we treat only closed strings). This class of theory is much simpler than 4-dimensional quantum gravity with which it has many similarities. The geometry is not dynamical in this case, and the matter fields are not sensitive to local features of the geometry but only to global properties which can be characterized by a finite set of parameters (moduli). This can be formulated as field theory on a Riemann surface. We specialize mainly to free field theories for which the quantization problem can be completely solved by elementary means. An introduction to the general case will be given in Lectures II and III where the algebraic approach is discussed. The mathematics of Riemann surfaces is a well developed subject whose formalism is reviewed along with some of the principal theorems in Lecture IV. Physical string states are realized in the Hilbert space of a conformal field theory by the action of so-called ''vertex operators'' on the field theory vacuum state. Correlation functions of these vertex operators serve as ingredients for the computation of string amplitudes. They are to be integrated so as to include the contributions of all conformally inequivalent geometries, and a further manipulation (the GSO projection) is to be performed. These steps are to be regarded as part of the string prescription. The are introduced ad hoc to meet invariance and unitarity requirements. However, in these introductory lectures we give a description only of the integration over geometries (Lecture VII). The GSO projection, and related questions of modular invariance and unitarity are beyond the scope of these lectures
Cosmology in Gauge Field Theory and String Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia Compean, H
2005-01-01
This new book is intended for students and researchers who want to go into the interplay between cosmology and high-energy physics. It assumes a prior knowledge of these subjects such as some of the topics contained in the previous books by the authors, Introduction to Gauge Field Theory (1993 Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing) and Supersymmetric Gauge Field Theory and String Theory (1994 Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing). However, the book is intended to be self-contained, explaining, from a modern perspective, some background material mainly in standard cosmology, topological defects, baryogenesis, inflationary cosmology and, at the end of the book, some of the basics of string theory. What is distinctively new about this book is that it lies in the interplay between cosmology and high-energy physics typically above 100 GeV (10 15 K). Often these subjects are presented in regular textbooks in a disconnected way, or in research papers, proceedings and review papers but usually not in a pedagogical style. Thus, in this sense, the book is unique and deserves a special place in the recent literature. The book starts by reviewing the standard material of the early universe. The standard model of cosmology from a modern perspective is revised in chapter 1. In chapter 2, phase transitions in different models are discussed, Higgs, electroweak, GUTs, supersymmetric GUTs and supergravity, by using quantum field theory at finite temperature. Chapter 3 is devoted to a general account of topological defects and discusses how they arise as possible remnants of these phase transitions in GUTs. Other relics, such as neutrinos and axions, are introduced in chapter 5 and their impact in cosmology is assessed. In chapter 4, some of the most relevant mechanisms of baryogenesis are discussed in the context of the different GUTs and the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM). Inflation is also discussed in the context of GUTs. In chapter 6, the authors introduce
Introduction to conformal field theory and string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dixon, L.J.
1989-12-01
These lectures are meant to provide a brief introduction to conformal field theory (CFT) and string theory for those with no prior exposure to the subjects. There are many excellent reviews already available, and most of these go in to much more detail than I will be able to here. 52 refs., 11 figs
Large BCFT moduli in open string field theory
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Maccaferri, C.; Schnabl, Martin
2015-01-01
Roč. 2015, č. 8 (2015), s. 149 ISSN 1029-8479 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31689S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : String Field Theory * tachyon condensation * D-branes Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 6.023, year: 2015
Background constraints in the infinite tension limit of the heterotic string
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Azevedo, T.; Lipinski Jusinskas, Renann
2016-01-01
Roč. 2016, č. 8 (2016), s. 1-23, č. článku 133. ISSN 1029-8479 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP201/12/G028 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : conformal field models in string theory * superstrings and heterotic strings Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics (physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 6.063, year: 2016
Correlators of Ramond-Neveu-Schwarz fields in string theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haertl, Daniel
2011-07-15
In this thesis we provide calculational tools in order to calculate scattering amplitudes in string theory at tree- and loop-level. In particular, we discuss the calculation of correlation functions consisting of Ramond-Neveu-Schwarz fields in four, six, eight and ten space-time dimensions and calculate the amplitude involving two gauge fields and four gauginos at tree-level. Multi-parton superstring amplitudes are of considerable theoretical interest in the frame-work of a full-fledged superstring theory and of phenomenological interest in describing corrections to four-dimensional scattering processes. The Neveu-Schwarz fermions and Ramond spin fields enter the scattering amplitudes through vertex operators of bosonic and fermionic string states and determine the Lorentz structure of the total amplitude. Due to their interacting nature their correlators cannot be evaluated using Wick's theorem but must be calculated from first principles. At tree-level such correlation functions can be determined by analyzing their Lorentz and singularity structure. In four space-time dimensions we show how to calculate Ramond- Neveu-Schwarz correlators with any number of fields. This method is based on factorizing the expressions into correlators involving only left- or right-handed spin fields and calculating these functions. This factorization property does not hold in higher dimensions. Nevertheless, we are able to calculate certain classes of correlators with arbitrary many fields. Additionally, in eight dimensions we can profit from SO(8) triality to derive further tree-level correlation functions. Ramond-Neveu-Schwarz correlators at loop-level can be evaluated by re-expressing the fermions and spin fields in terms of SO(2) spin system operators. Using this method we present expressions for all correlators up to six-point level and show in addition results for certain classes of correlators with any number of fields. Our findings hold for string scattering at arbitrary
Correlators of Ramond-Neveu-Schwarz fields in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haertl, Daniel
2011-01-01
In this thesis we provide calculational tools in order to calculate scattering amplitudes in string theory at tree- and loop-level. In particular, we discuss the calculation of correlation functions consisting of Ramond-Neveu-Schwarz fields in four, six, eight and ten space-time dimensions and calculate the amplitude involving two gauge fields and four gauginos at tree-level. Multi-parton superstring amplitudes are of considerable theoretical interest in the frame-work of a full-fledged superstring theory and of phenomenological interest in describing corrections to four-dimensional scattering processes. The Neveu-Schwarz fermions and Ramond spin fields enter the scattering amplitudes through vertex operators of bosonic and fermionic string states and determine the Lorentz structure of the total amplitude. Due to their interacting nature their correlators cannot be evaluated using Wick's theorem but must be calculated from first principles. At tree-level such correlation functions can be determined by analyzing their Lorentz and singularity structure. In four space-time dimensions we show how to calculate Ramond- Neveu-Schwarz correlators with any number of fields. This method is based on factorizing the expressions into correlators involving only left- or right-handed spin fields and calculating these functions. This factorization property does not hold in higher dimensions. Nevertheless, we are able to calculate certain classes of correlators with arbitrary many fields. Additionally, in eight dimensions we can profit from SO(8) triality to derive further tree-level correlation functions. Ramond-Neveu-Schwarz correlators at loop-level can be evaluated by re-expressing the fermions and spin fields in terms of SO(2) spin system operators. Using this method we present expressions for all correlators up to six-point level and show in addition results for certain classes of correlators with any number of fields. Our findings hold for string scattering at arbitrary loop
A proposal for an effective interacting field theory of open and closed strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baulieu, L.; Grossman, B.
1987-01-01
We propose the use of the reggeon-pomeron vertex to obtain an effective field theory for open and closed strings. We suggest that closed string fields are necessary in order to go off-shell in an open string field theory. We then find that the closed string fields satisfy the Virasoro constraints (including equal number of left and right movers) in an appropriate choice of gauge. (orig.)
Open string Regge trajectory and its field theory limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rojas, Francisco; Thorn, Charles B.
2011-01-01
We study the properties of the leading Regge trajectory in open string theory including the open string planar one-loop corrections. With SU(N) Chan-Paton factors, the sum over planar open string multiloop diagrams describes the 't Hooft limit N→∞ with Ng s 2 fixed. Our motivation is to improve the understanding of open string theory at finite α ' as a model of gauge field theories. SU(N) gauge theories in D space-time dimensions are described by requiring open strings to end on a stack of N Dp-branes of space-time dimension D=p+1. The large N leading trajectory α(t)=1+α ' t+Σ(t) can be extracted, through order g 2 , from the s→-∞ limit, at fixed t, of the four open string tree and planar loop diagrams. We analyze the t→0 behavior with the result that Σ(t)∼-Cg 2 (-α ' t) (D-4)/2 /(D-4). This result precisely tracks the 1-loop Reggeized gluon of gauge theory in D>4 space-time dimensions. In particular, for D→4 it reproduces the known infrared divergences of gauge theory in 4 dimensions with a Regge trajectory behaving as -ln(-α ' t). We also study Σ(t) in the limit t→-∞ and show that, when D ' t/(ln(-α ' t)) γ , where γ>0 depends on D and the number of massless scalars. Thus, as long as 4 ' t arbitrarily large. Finally we present the results of numerical calculations of Σ(t) for all negative t.
Charged string solutions with dilaton and modulus fields
Cvetic, M
1994-01-01
We find charged, abelian, spherically symmetric solutions (in flat space-time) corresponding to the effective action of $D=4$ heterotic string theory with scale-dependent dilaton $\\p$ and modulus $\\vp$ fields. We take into account perturbative (genus-one), moduli-dependent `threshold' corrections to the coupling function $f(\\p,\\vp)$ in the gauge field kinetic term $f(\\p,\\vp) F^2_{\\m\
Higher-Spin Triplet Fields and String Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Sorokin
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We review basic properties of reducible higher-spin multiplets, called triplets, and demonstrate how they naturally appear as part of the spectrum of String Field Theory in the tensionless limit. We show how in the frame-like formulation the triplet fields are endowed with the geometrical meaning of being components of higher-spin vielbeins and connections and present actions describing their free dynamics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez, N.; Signore, M.
1990-01-01
From the results of recent measurements we place new constraints on superconducting cosmic strings (SCS) and on their cosmological evolution, independently of numerical simulation results. The absence of distortion in the cosmic microwave background radiation (MBR) spectrum recently reported from the preliminary data of the COBE (Cosmic background explorer) satellite, together with the available MBR angular temperature ΔT/T measurements and the latest fast pulsar timings, allow us to obtain (i) the electromagnetic-to-gravitational radiation ratio released by SCS loops, f -2 , (ii) the chemical potential due to SCS, μ 0SCS -3 , (iii) constraints on the loop evolution parameters which we confront to those given by numerical simulations, and (iv) limits on the string parameter Gμ: those obtained from COBE's data (Gμ -6 ) converge to those given by the latest PSR 1937+21 timing. Both limits on Gμ are reduced by an order of magnitude when taking into account numerical simulation results. (orig.)
Alternative interpretation for the moduli fields of string theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matos, Tonatiuh [Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV, A.P. 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Luevano, Jose-Ruben [Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, UAM-A, C.P. 02200 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Urena-Lopez, L Arturo [Instituto de Fisica, IFUG, A.P. 150, 37150, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Vazquez, J Alberto [Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV, A.P. 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)
2007-11-15
In this work we provide a basis for studying the cosmologies derived from superstring theory. Distinct features of these cosmologies are the presence of an axion field, and the interaction of the dilaton field with all the other matter fields. We make a first study of the equations of motion and write them as an autonomous dynamical system. The fixed points of the equations and their corresponding stability are determined in turn. We then discuss the viability of the string fields as dark energy and dark matter.
[Topics in field theory and string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1990-01-01
In the past year, I have continued to investigate the relations between conformal field theories and lattice statistical mechanical models, and in particular have been studying two dimensional models coupled to quantum gravity. I have continued as well to consider possible extension of these results to higher dimensions and potential applications in other contexts
Pair production in the gravitational field of a cosmic string
Harari, Diego D.; Skarzhinsky, Vladimir D.
1990-04-01
We show that many elementary particle physics processes, such as pair production by a high energy photon, that take place in Minkowski space only if a non-uniform external field provides for momentum non-conservation, do occur in the space-time around a straight cosmic string, even though the space is locally flat and there is no local gravitational potential. We exemplify this mechanism through the evaluation of the cross section per unit length of string for the decay of a massless scalar particle into a pair of massive particles. The cross sections for this kind of processes are typically small. Nevertheless, it is interesting to realize how these reactions occur due to topological properties of space, rather than to the action of a local field. V.S. is grateful to Mario Castagnino for hospitality at the Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio during a visit while this work was done.
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Schroer, Bert; FU-Berlin
2012-02-01
Using recent results of advanced quantum field theory, we confute some of M. Duff's claims about string theory which he wrote as an invited paper to the project 'Forty Years Of String Theory: Reflecting on the Foundations' (author)
Cosmological evolution of a brane Universe in a type 0 string background
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Papantonopoulos, E.; Pappa, I.
2002-01-01
We study the cosmological evolution of a D3-brane Universe in a type 0 string background. We follow the brane universe along the radial coordinate of the background and we calculate the energy density which is induced on the brane because of its motion in the bulk. For constant values of tachyon and dilaton an inflationary phase is appearing. For non constant values of tachyon and dilaton and for a particular range of values of the scale factor of the brane-universe, the effective energy density is dominated by a term proportional to 1/(log α) 4 indicating a slowly varying inflationary phase
$N=2^∗$ (non-)Abelian theory in the $\\Omega$ background from string theory
Samsonyan, Marine; Antoniadis, Ignatios
2018-01-01
We present a D-brane realisation of the Abelian and non-Abelian N = 2 ∗ theory both in five and four dimensions. We compute topological amplitudes in string theory for Ω deformed spacetime first with one and then with two parameters. In the field theory limit we recover the perturbative partition function of the deformed N = 2 ∗ theory in agreement with the existing literature.
Oriented open-closed string theory revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zwiebach, B.
1998-01-01
String theory on D-brane backgrounds is open-closed string theory. Given the relevance of this fact, we give details and elaborate upon our earlier construction of oriented open-closed string field theory. In order to incorporate explicitly closed strings, the classical sector of this theory is open strings with a homotopy associative A ∞ algebraic structure. We build a suitable Batalin-Vilkovisky algebra on moduli spaces of bordered Ricmann surfaces, the construction of which involves a few subtleties arising from the open string punctures and cyclicity conditions. All vertices coupling open and closed strings through disks are described explicitly. Subalgebras of the algebra of surfaces with boundaries are used to discuss symmetries of classical open string theory induced by the closed string sector, and to write classical open string field theory on general closed string backgrounds. We give a preliminary analysis of the ghost-dilaton theorem. copyright 1998 Academic Press, Inc
Exact solutions in string-motivated scalar-field cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oezer, M.; Taha, M.O.
1992-01-01
Two exact cosmological solutions to a scalar-field potential motivated by six-dimensional (6D) Einstein-Maxwell theory are given. The resulting pure scalar-field cosmology is free of singularity and causality problems but conserves entropy. These solutions are then extended into exact cosmological solutions for a decaying scalar field with an approximate two-loop 4D string potential. The resulting cosmology is, for both solutions, free of cosmological problems and close to the standard cosmology of the radiation era
A Chern-Simons-like action for closed-string field theory
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Taylor, C.C.
1989-01-01
A Chern-Simons-like action is proposed for closed-string field theory. The action involves auxiliary fields of arbitrary ghost number and is defined in terms of the closed-string operations ∫, Q and *, analogous to those introduced by Witten in the construction of open-string field theory. The action is an extension of one proposed for free closed strings and bears a formal relationship to 2 + 1 gravity analogous to that between open-string field theory and (2 + 1)-dimensional Yang-Mills theory. (author)
Star democracy in open string field theory
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Maccaferri, Carlo; Mamone, Davide
2003-01-01
We study three types of star products in Saft: the ghosts, the twisted ghosts and the matter. We find that their Neumann coefficients are related to each other in a compact way which includes the Gross-Jevicki relation between matter and ghost sector: we explicitly show that the same relation, with a minus sign, holds for the twisted and non-twisted ghosts (which are different but define the same solution). In agreement with this, we prove that matter and twisted ghost coefficients just differ by a minus sign. As a consistency check, we also compute the spectrum of the twisted ghost vertices from conformal field theory and, using equality of twisted and reduced slivers, we derive the spectrum of the non twisted ghost star. (author)
Chern-Simons couplings for dielectric F-strings in matrix string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brecher, Dominic; Janssen, Bert; Lozano, Yolanda
2002-01-01
We compute the non-abelian couplings in the Chern-Simons action for a set of coinciding fundamental strings in both the type IIA and type IIB Matrix string theories. Starting from Matrix theory in a weakly curved background, we construct the linear couplings of closed string fields to type IIA Matrix strings. Further dualities give a type IIB Matrix string theory and a type IIA theory of Matrix strings with winding. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Antisymmetric tensor Zp gauge symmetries in field theory and string theory
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Berasaluce-González, Mikel; Ramírez, Guillermo; Uranga, Angel M.
2014-01-01
We consider discrete gauge symmetries in D dimensions arising as remnants of broken continuous gauge symmetries carried by general antisymmetric tensor fields, rather than by standard 1-forms. The lagrangian for such a general Z p gauge theory can be described in terms of a r-form gauge field made massive by a (r−1)-form, or other dual realizations, that we also discuss. The theory contains charged topological defects of different dimensionalities, generalizing the familiar charged particles and strings in D=4. We describe realizations in string theory compactifications with torsion cycles, or with background field strength fluxes. We also provide examples of non-abelian discrete groups, for which the group elements are associated with charged objects of different dimensionality
Loop homotopy algebras in closed string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Markl, M.
2001-01-01
Barton Zwiebach (1993) constructed ''string products'' on the Hilbert space of a combined conformal field theory of matter and ghosts, satisfying the ''main identity''. It has been well known that the ''tree level'' of the theory gives an example of a strongly homotopy Lie algebra (though, as we will see later, this is not the whole truth). Strongly homotopy Lie algebras are now well-understood objects. On the one hand, strongly homotopy Lie algebra is given by a square zero coderivation on the cofree cocommutative connected coalgebra on the other hand, strongly homotopy Lie algebras are algebras over the cobar dual of the operad Com for commutative algebras. No such characterization of the structure of string products for arbitrary genera has been available, though there are two series of papers directly pointing towards the requisite characterization. As far as the characterization in terms of (co)derivations is concerned, we need the concept of higher order (co)derivations. For our characterization we need to understand the behavior of these higher (co)derivations on (co)free (co)algebras. The necessary machinery for the operadic approach is that of modular operads. We also indicate how to adapt the loop homotopy structure to the case of open string field theory. (orig.)
Linear b-gauges for open string fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiermaier, Michael; Zwiebach, Barton; Sen, Ashoke
2008-01-01
Motivated by Schnabl's gauge choice, we explore open string perturbation theory in gauges where a linear combination of antighost oscillators annihilates the string field. We find that in these linear b-gauges different gauge conditions are needed at different ghost numbers. We derive the full propagator and prove the formal properties which guarantee that the Feynman diagrams reproduce the correct on-shell amplitudes. We find that these properties can fail due to the need to regularize the propagator, and identify a large class of linear b-gauges for which they hold rigorously. In these gauges the propagator has a non-anomalous Schwinger representation and builds Riemann surfaces by adding strip-like domains. Projector-based gauges, like Schnabl's, are not in this class of gauges but we construct a family of regular linear b-gauges which interpolate between Siegel gauge and Schnabl gauge
Vertex operator construction of superconformal ghosts and string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ezawa, Z.F.; Nakamura, S.; Tezuka, A.
1987-01-01
Superconformal ghosts in string theories are characterized by the SU(1,1) Kac-Moody algebra with central charge -1/2. These ghost fields are constructed as the vertex operators realizing spinor representations of the Kac-Moody algebra. Representations of the canonical commutation relations of the superconformal ghosts are analyzed extensively. All irreducible representations are found to possess only the trivial inner product but for one exceptional case. Consequently, in superstring field theory it is necessary to consider reducible representations in general. Hilbert spaces with a non-trivial inner product are explicitly obtained upon which second quantization of superstring may be carried out. (orig.)
Regularizing cubic open Neveu-Schwarz string field theory
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Berkovits, Nathan; Siegel, Warren
2009-01-01
After introducing non-minimal variables, the midpoint insertion of Y Y-bar in cubic open Neveu-Schwarz string field theory can be replaced with an operator N ρ depending on a constant parameter ρ. As in cubic open superstring field theory using the pure spinor formalism, the operator N ρ is invertible and is equal to 1 up to a BRST-trivial quantity. So unlike the linearized equation of motion Y Y-bar QV = 0 which requires truncation of the Hilbert space in order to imply QV = 0, the linearized equation N ρ QV = 0 directly implies QV = 0.
Supersymmetrical dual string theories and their field theory limits: A review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, M.B.
1985-01-01
This paper outlines the construction and properties of supersymmetric string theories. Such theories, which describe the quantum mechanics of relativistic strings in ten-space time dimensions contain both N=4 Yang-Mills and N=8 supergravity field theories as special limits in which the string tension becomes infinite. Calculations of one-loop S-matrix elements reveal remarkable finiteness properties
Localizing gauge fields on a topological Abelian string and the Coulomb law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torrealba S, Rafael S.
2010-01-01
The confinement of electromagnetic field is studied in axial symmetrical, warped, six-dimensional brane world, using a recently proposed topological Abelian string-vortex solution as background. It was found, that the massless gauge field fluctuations follow four-dimensional Maxwell equations in the Lorenz gauge. The massless zero mode is localized when the thickness of the string vortex is less than 5β/4πe 2 v 2 and there are no other localized massless modes. There is also an infinite of nonlocalized massive Fourier modes, that follow four-dimensional Proca equations with a continuous spectrum. To compute the corrections to the Coulomb potential, a radial cutoff was introduced, in order to achieve a discrete mass spectrum. As a main result, a (R o /βR 2 ) correction was found for the four-dimensional effective Coulomb law; the result is in correspondence with the observed behavior of the Coulomb potential at today's measurable distances.
One loop tadpole in heterotic string field theory
Erler, Theodore; Konopka, Sebastian; Sachs, Ivo
2017-11-01
We compute the off-shell 1-loop tadpole amplitude in heterotic string field theory. With a special choice of cubic vertex, we show that this amplitude can be computed exactly. We obtain explicit and elementary expressions for the Feynman graph decomposition of the moduli space, the local coordinate map at the puncture as a function of the modulus, and the b-ghost insertions needed for the integration measure. Recently developed homotopy algebra methods provide a consistent configuration of picture changing operators. We discuss the consequences of spurious poles for the choice of picture changing operators.
Classical open-string field theory: A∞-algebra, renormalization group and boundary states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakatsu, Toshio
2002-01-01
We investigate classical bosonic open-string field theory from the perspective of the Wilson renormalization group of world-sheet theory. The microscopic action is identified with Witten's covariant cubic action and the short-distance cut-off scale is introduced by length of open-string strip which appears in the Schwinger representation of open-string propagator. Classical open-string field theory in the title means open-string field theory governed by a classical part of the low energy action. It is obtained by integrating out suitable tree interactions of open-strings and is of non-polynomial type. We study this theory by using the BV formalism. It turns out to be deeply related with deformation theory of A ∞ -algebra. We introduce renormalization group equation of this theory and discuss it from several aspects. It is also discussed that this theory is interpreted as a boundary open-string field theory. Closed-string BRST charge and boundary states of closed-string field theory in the presence of open-string field play important roles
Three spin string configuration in γ-Deformed AdS5xS5 background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bobev, N.; Rashkov, R.; Dimov, H.
2006-01-01
The aim of this paper is to investigate semiclassical rotating string configurations in the recently found Lunin-Maldacena background. This background is conjectured to be dual to the Leigh-Strassler β-deformation of N = 4 SYM and therefore a good laboratory for tests of the AdS/CFT correspondence beyond the well explored AdS 5 xS 5 case. We consider different multispin configurations of rotating strings by allowing the strings to move in both the AdS 5 and the deformed S 5 part of the Lunin-Maldacena background. For all of these configurations we compute the string energy in terms of the angular momenta and the string winding numbers and thus provide the possibility of reproducing our results from a computation of the anomalous dimension of the corresponding dilatation operator. This can be achieved by means of the Bethe ansatz techniques for the relevant sectors of the corresponding Yang-Mills theory. We also compare our results to those for multispin rotating strings on AdS 5 xS 5 . (authors)
Ghost sector of vacuum string field theory and the projection equation
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Potting, Robertus; Raeymaekers, Joris
2002-01-01
We study the ghost sector of vacuum string field theory where the BRST operator Q is given by the midpoint insertion proposed by Gaiotto, Rastelli, Sen and Zwiebach. We introduce a convenient basis of half-string modes in terms of which Q takes a particularly simple form. We show that there exists a field redefinition which reduces the ghost sector field equation to a pure projection equation for string fields satisfying the constraint that the ghost number is equally divided over the left- and right halves of the string. When this constraint is imposed, vacuum string field theory can be reformulated as a U(∞) cubic matrix model. Ghost sector solutions can be constructed from projection operators on half-string Hilbert space just as in the matter sector. We construct the ghost sector equivalent of various well-known matter sector projectors such as the sliver, butterfly and nothing states. (author)
Solving Witten's string field theory using the butterfly state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okawa, Yuji
2004-01-01
We solve the equation of motion of Witten's cubic open string field theory in a series expansion using the regulated butterfly state. The expansion parameter is given by the regularization parameter of the butterfly state, which can be taken to be arbitrarily small. Unlike the case of level truncation, the equation of motion can be solved for an arbitrary component of the Fock space up to a positive power of the expansion parameter. The energy density of the solution is well defined and remains finite even in the singular butterfly limit, and it gives approximately 68% of the D25-brane tension for the solution at the leading order. Moreover, it simultaneously solves the equation of motion of vacuum string field theory, providing support for the conjecture at this order. We further improve our ansatz by taking into account next-to-leading terms, and find two numerical solutions which give approximately 88% and 109%, respectively, of the D25-brane tension for the energy density. These values are interestingly close to those by level truncation at level 2 without gauge fixing studied by Rastelli and Zwiebach and by Ellwood and Taylor
Introduction to string field theory. A pedestrian approach to the covariant formulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
West, G.B.
1986-01-01
A relatively elementary account is given of what a string field represents and what is involved in the construction of its covariant action. Emphasis is on drawing a correspondence with similar problems in ordinary field theory and, particularly, using the language and mathematics used in ordinary field theory. Only the free string is discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs
Introduction to string field theory. A pedestrian approach to the covariant formulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
West, G.B.
1986-01-01
A relatively elementary account is given of what a string field represents and what is involved in the construction of its covariant action. Emphasis is on drawing a correspondence with similar problems in ordinary field theory and, particularly, using the language and mathematics used in ordinary field theory. Only the free string is discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs. (LEW)
A simple solvable model of quantum field theory of open strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kazakov, V.A.; AN SSSR, Moscow
1990-01-01
A model of quantum field theory of open strings without any embedding (D=0) is solved. The world sheets of interacting strings are represented by dynamical planar graphs with dynamical holes of arbitrary sizes. The phenomenon of spontaneous tearing of the world sheet is noticed, which gives a singularity at zero coupling constant of string interaction. This phenomenon can be considered as a nonperturbative effect, similar to renormalons in planar field theories and is closely related to the α' → 0 limit of string field theories. (orig.)
Gravitational waves from Abelian gauge fields and cosmic strings at preheating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dufaux, Jean-Francois; Figueroa, Daniel G.; Garcia-Bellido, Juan
2010-01-01
Primordial gravitational waves provide a very important stochastic background that could be detected soon with interferometric gravitational wave antennas or indirectly via the induced patterns in the polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background. The detection of these waves will open a new window into the early Universe, and therefore it is important to characterize in detail all possible sources of primordial gravitational waves. In this paper we develop theoretical and numerical methods to study the production of gravitational waves from out-of-equilibrium gauge fields at preheating. We then consider models of preheating after hybrid inflation, where the symmetry breaking field is charged under a local U(1) symmetry. We analyze in detail the dynamics of the system in both momentum and configuration space. We show that gauge fields leave specific imprints in the resulting gravitational wave spectra, mainly through the appearance of new peaks at characteristic frequencies that are related to the mass scales in the problem. We also show how these new features in the spectra correlate with stringlike spatial configurations in both the Higgs and gauge fields that arise due to the appearance of topological winding numbers of the Higgs around Nielsen-Olesen strings. We study in detail the time evolution of the spectrum of gauge fields and gravitational waves as these strings evolve and decay before entering a turbulent regime where the gravitational wave energy density saturates.
Novel string field theory with also negative energy constituents/objects gives Veneziano amplitude
Nielsen, H. B.; Ninomiya, M.
2018-02-01
We have proposed a new type of string field theory. The main point of the present article is to cure some technical troubles: missing two out three terms in Veneziano amplitude. Our novel string field theory, describes a theory with many strings in terms of "objects", which are not exactly, but close to Charles Thorn's string bits. The new point is that the objects in terms of which the universe states are constructed, and which have an essentially 26-momentum variable called J μ , can have the energy J 0 be also negative as well as positive. We get a long way in deriving in this model the Veneziano model and obtain all the three terms needed for a four point amplitude. This result strongly indicates that our novel string field theory is indeed string theory.
Introduction to the background field method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abbott, L.F.; Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA
1982-01-01
The background field approach to calculations in gauge field theories is presented. Conventional functional techniques are reviewed and the background field method is introduced. Feynman rules and renormalization are discussed and, as an example, the Yang-Mills β function is computed. (author)
Equivalence of different formulations of the free Ramond string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sazdovic, B.
1987-01-01
We analyze the structure of Witten's formulation of the free Ramond string field theory and show that it is equivalent to other formulations. We establish explicit connections between their string fields. It is shown that the established connections eliminate all terms with mixed mass levels. (orig.)
On the interplay between string theory and field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunner, I.
1998-01-01
In this thesis, we have discussed various aspects of branes in string theory and M-theory. In chapter 2 we were able to construct six-dimensional chiral interacting eld theories from Hanany-Witten like brane setups. The field theory requirement that the anomalies cancel was reproduced by RR-charge conservation in the brane setup. The data of the Hanany-Witten setup, which consists of brane positions, was mapped to instanton data. The orbifold construction can be extended to D and E type singularities. In chapter 3 we discussed a matrix conjecture, which claims that M-theory in the light cone gauge is described by the quantum mechanics of D0 branes. Toroidal compactifications of M-theory have a description in terms of super Yang-Mills theory an the dual torus. For more than three compactified dimensions, more degrees of freedom have to be added. In some sense, the philosophy in this chapter is orthogonal to the previous chapter: Here, we want to get M-theory results from eld theory considerations, whereas in the previous chapter we obtained eld theory results by embedding the theories in string theory. Our main focus was on the compactification on T 6 , which leads to complications. Here, the Matrix model is again given by an eleven dimensional theory, not by a lower dimensional field theory. Other problems and possible resolutions of Matrix theory are discussed at the end of chapter 3. In the last chapter we considered M- and F-theory compactifications on Calabi-Yau fourfolds. After explaining some basics of fourfolds, we showed that the web of fourfolds is connected by singular transitions. The two manifolds which are connected by the transition are different resolutions of the same singular manifold. The resolution of the singularities can lead to a certain type of divisors, which lead to non-perturbative superpotentials, when branes wrap them. The vacua connected by the transitions can be physically very different. (orig.)
Decoupling of degenerate positive-norm states in Witten's string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kao, Hsien-Chung; Lee, Jen-Chi
2003-01-01
We show that the degenerate positive-norm physical propagating fields of the open bosonic string can be gauged to the higher rank fields at the same mass level. As a result, their scattering amplitudes can be determined from those of the higher spin fields. This phenomenon arises from the existence of two types of zero-norm states with the same Young representations as those of the degenerate positive-norm states in the old covariant first quantized (OCFQ) spectrum. This is demonstrated by using the lowest order gauge transformation of Witten's string field theory (WSFT) up to the fourth massive level (spin-five), and is found to be consistent with conformal field theory calculation based on the first quantized generalized sigma-model approach. In particular, on-shell conditions of zero-norm states in the OCFQ stringy gauge transformation are found to correspond, in a one-to-one manner, to the background ghost fields in off-shell gauge transformation of WSFT. The implication of decoupling of scalar modes on Sen's conjectures is also briefly discussed
Cosmic Strings and Their Induced Non-Gaussianities in the Cosmic Microwave Background
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christophe Ringeval
2010-01-01
small fraction of the CMB angular power spectrum, cosmic strings could actually be the main source of its non-Gaussianities. In this paper, after having reviewed the basic cosmological properties of a string network, we present the signatures Nambu-Goto cosmic strings would induce in various observables ranging from the one-point function of the temperature anisotropies to the bispectrum and trispectrum. It is shown that string imprints are significantly different than those expected from the primordial type of non-Gaussianity and could therefore be easily distinguished.
Gravitational effects of global strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aryal, M.; Everett, A.E.
1986-01-01
We have obtained the gravitational field, in the weak-field approximation, of cosmic strings formed in a phase transition in which a global symmetry is broken (global strings). The effect of this field on light rays passing a global string is found, and the resulting formation of double images and production of discontinuities in the microwave background temperature compared with the corresponding results for gauge strings. There are some differences in the case of global strings, reflecting the fact that the space surrounding such strings is not purely conical. However, the differences between gauge and global strings with masses suitable to explain galaxy formation are small, and the task of distinguishing them observationally appears difficult at best
A universal nonlinear relation among boundary states in closed string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kishimoto, Isao; Matsuo, Yutaka; Watanabe, Eitoku
2004-01-01
We show that the boundary states satisfy a nonlinear relation (the idempotency equation) with respect to the star product of closed string field theory. This relation is universal in the sense that various D-branes, including the infinitesimally deformed ones, satisfy the same equation, including the coefficient. This paper generalizes our analysis [hep-th/0306189] in the following senses. (1) We present a background-independent formulation based on conformal field theory. It illuminates the geometric nature of the relation and allows us to more systematically analyze the variations around the D-brane background. (2) We show that the Witten-type star product satisfies a similar relation but with a more divergent coefficient. (3) We determine the coefficient of the relation analytically. The result shows that the α parameter can be formally factored out, and the relation becomes universal. We present a conjecture on vacuum theory based on this computation. (author)
Spinor Field Realizations of the half-integer $W_{2,s}$ Strings
Wei, Shao-Wen; Liu, Yu-Xiao; Zhang, Li-Jie; Ren, Ji-Rong
2008-01-01
The grading Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) method gives a way to construct the integer $W_{2,s}$ strings, where the BRST charge is written as $Q_B=Q_0+Q_1$. Using this method, we reconstruct the nilpotent BRST charges $Q_{0}$ for the integer $W_{2,s}$ strings and the half-integer $W_{2,s}$ strings. Then we construct the exact grading BRST charge with spinor fields and give the new realizations of the half-integer $W_{2,s}$ strings for the cases of $s=3/2$, 5/2, and 7/2.
Non-perturbative background field calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stephens, C.R.; Department of Physics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112)
1988-01-01
New methods are developed for calculating one loop functional determinants in quantum field theory. Instead of relying on a calculation of all the eigenvalues of the small fluctuation equation, these techniques exploit the ability of the proper time formalism to reformulate an infinite dimensional field theoretic problem into a finite dimensional covariant quantum mechanical analog, thereby allowing powerful tools such as the method of Jacobi fields to be used advantageously in a field theory setting. More generally the methods developed herein should be extremely valuable when calculating quantum processes in non-constant background fields, offering a utilitarian alternative to the two standard methods of calculation: perturbation theory in the background field or taking the background field into account exactly. The formalism developed also allows for the approximate calculation of covariances of partial differential equations from a knowledge of the solutions of a homogeneous ordinary differential equation. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc
Non-perturbative background field calculations
Stephens, C. R.
1988-01-01
New methods are developed for calculating one loop functional determinants in quantum field theory. Instead of relying on a calculation of all the eigenvalues of the small fluctuation equation, these techniques exploit the ability of the proper time formalism to reformulate an infinite dimensional field theoretic problem into a finite dimensional covariant quantum mechanical analog, thereby allowing powerful tools such as the method of Jacobi fields to be used advantageously in a field theory setting. More generally the methods developed herein should be extremely valuable when calculating quantum processes in non-constant background fields, offering a utilitarian alternative to the two standard methods of calculation—perturbation theory in the background field or taking the background field into account exactly. The formalism developed also allows for the approximate calculation of covariances of partial differential equations from a knowledge of the solutions of a homogeneous ordinary differential equation.
Energy momentum tensor and marginal deformations in open string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sen, Ashoke
2004-01-01
Marginal boundary deformations in a two dimensional conformal field theory correspond to a family of classical solutions of the equations of motion of open string field theory. In this paper we develop a systematic method for relating the parameter labelling the marginal boundary deformation in the conformal field theory to the parameter labelling the classical solution in open string field theory. This is done by first constructing the energy-momentum tensor associated with the classical solution in open string field theory using Noether method, and then comparing this to the answer obtained in the conformal field theory by analysing the boundary state. We also use this method to demonstrate that in open string field theory the tachyon lump solution on a circle of radius larger than one has vanishing pressure along the circle direction, as is expected for a co-dimension one D-brane. (author)
On the interplay between string theory and field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brunner, I.
1998-07-08
In this thesis, we have discussed various aspects of branes in string theory and M-theory. In chapter 2 we were able to construct six-dimensional chiral interacting eld theories from Hanany-Witten like brane setups. The field theory requirement that the anomalies cancel was reproduced by RR-charge conservation in the brane setup. The data of the Hanany-Witten setup, which consists of brane positions, was mapped to instanton data. The orbifold construction can be extended to D and E type singularities. In chapter 3 we discussed a matrix conjecture, which claims that M-theory in the light cone gauge is described by the quantum mechanics of D0 branes. Toroidal compactifications of M-theory have a description in terms of super Yang-Mills theory an the dual torus. For more than three compactified dimensions, more degrees of freedom have to be added. In some sense, the philosophy in this chapter is orthogonal to the previous chapter: Here, we want to get M-theory results from eld theory considerations, whereas in the previous chapter we obtained eld theory results by embedding the theories in string theory. Our main focus was on the compactification on T{sup 6}, which leads to complications. Here, the Matrix model is again given by an eleven dimensional theory, not by a lower dimensional field theory. Other problems and possible resolutions of Matrix theory are discussed at the end of chapter 3. In the last chapter we considered M- and F-theory compactifications on Calabi-Yau fourfolds. After explaining some basics of fourfolds, we showed that the web of fourfolds is connected by singular transitions. The two manifolds which are connected by the transition are different resolutions of the same singular manifold. The resolution of the singularities can lead to a certain type of divisors, which lead to non-perturbative superpotentials, when branes wrap them. The vacua connected by the transitions can be physically very different. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hansen, Tobias
2015-07-01
This thesis covers two main topics: the tensorial structure of quantum field theory correlators in general spacetime dimensions and a method for computing string theory scattering amplitudes directly in target space. In the first part tensor structures in generic bosonic CFT correlators and scattering amplitudes are studied. To this end arbitrary irreducible tensor representations of SO(d) (traceless mixed-symmetry tensors) are encoded in group invariant polynomials, by contracting with sets of commuting and anticommuting polarization vectors which implement the index symmetries of the tensors. The tensor structures appearing in CFT d correlators can then be inferred by studying these polynomials in a d + 2 dimensional embedding space. It is shown with an example how these correlators can be used to compute general conformal blocks describing the exchange of mixed-symmetry tensors in four-point functions, which are crucial for advancing the conformal bootstrap program to correlators of operators with spin. Bosonic string theory lends itself as an ideal example for applying the same methods to scattering amplitudes, due to its particle spectrum of arbitrary mixed-symmetry tensors. This allows in principle the definition of on-shell recursion relations for string theory amplitudes. A further chapter introduces a different target space definition of string scattering amplitudes. As in the case of on-shell recursion relations, the amplitudes are expressed in terms of their residues via BCFW shifts. The new idea here is that the residues are determined by use of the monodromy relations for open string theory, avoiding the infinite sums over the spectrum arising in on-shell recursion relations. Several checks of the method are presented, including a derivation of the Koba-Nielsen amplitude in the bosonic string. It is argued that this method provides a target space definition of the complete S-matrix of string theory at tree-level in a at background in terms of a small
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Peter; Ooguri, Hirosi.; Park, Jongwon; Tannenhauser, Jonathan
2001-01-01
We study the spectrum of open strings on AdS 2 branes in AdS 3 in an NS-NS background, using the SL(2,R) WZW model. When the brane carries no fundamental string charge, the open string spectrum is the holomorphic square root of the spectrum of closed strings in AdS 3 . It contains short and long strings, and is invariant under spectral flow. When the brane carries fundamental string charge, the open string spectrum again contains short and long strings in all winding sectors. However, branes with fundamental string charge break half the spectral flow symmetry. This has different implications for short and long strings. As the fundamental string charge increases, the brane approaches the boundary of AdS 3 . In this limit, the induced electric field on the worldvolume reaches its critical value, producing noncommutative open string theory on AdS 2
Coset space compactification of the field theory limit of a heterotic string
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Foda, O.; Helayel-Neto, J.A.
1986-07-01
The D = 10 - E/sub 8/xE/sub 8/ field theory limit of the heterotic string is compactified on the non-symmetric coset space Sp(4)/SU(2) xU(1) that is known in the limit of decoupled gravity to give three standard fermion generations, with SU(5)xSU(3)sub(F)xU(1)sub(F) as a gauge group in D = 4. Allowing for non-vanishing fermion bilinear condensates, and assuming the conventional form of the supersymmetry transformations, the presence of a family of N = 1 supersymmetric background field configurations is proved. This requires the non-compact space to be flat: (Minkowski)/sup 4/, while the 3-form Hsub(MNP) is non-vanishing and proportional to the torsion on the internal manifold. All equations of motion, including that of the dilation, are satisfied.
A coset space compactification of the field theory limit of a heterotic string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foda, O.; Helayel-Neto, J.A.
1986-01-01
The D = 10 - E 8 xE 8 field theory limit of the heterotic string is compactified on the non-symmetric coset space Sp(4)/SU(2) xU(1) that is known in the limit of decoupled gravity to give three standard fermion generations, with SU(5)xSU(3)sub(F)xU(1)sub(F) as a gauge group in D = 4. Allowing for non-vanishing fermion bilinear condensates, and assuming the conventional form of the supersymmetry transformations, the presence of a family of N = 1 supersymmetric background field configurations is proved. This requires the non-compact space to be flat: (Minkowski) 4 , while the 3-form Hsub(MNP) is non-vanishing and proportional to the torsion on the internal manifold. All equations of motion, including that of the dilation, are satisfied. (author)
A coset-space compactification of the field-theory limit of a heterotic string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foda, O.; Helayel-Neto, J.A.
1985-06-01
The D=10-E 8 xE 8 field-theory limit of the heterotic string is compactified on the non-symmetric coset-space Sp(4)/SU(2)xU(1), that is known - in the limit of decoupled gravity - to give 3 standard fermion generations, with SU(5)xSU(3)sub(F)xU(1)sub(F) as a gauge group in D=4. Allowing for non-vanishing fermion-bilinear condensates, and assuming the conventional form of the supersymmetry transformations, we prove the presence of a family of N=1 supersymmetric background field configurations. This requires the non-compact space to be flat: (Minkowski) 4 , while the 3-form Hsub(MNP) is non-vanishing, and proportional to the torsion on the internal manifold. All equations of motion - including that of the dilaton - are satisfied. (author)
Improved Off-Shell Scattering Amplitudes in String Field Theory and New Computational Methods
Park, I Y; Bars, Itzhak
2004-01-01
We report on new results in Witten's cubic string field theory for the off-shell factor in the 4-tachyon amplitude that was not fully obtained explicitly before. This is achieved by completing the derivation of the Veneziano formula in the Moyal star formulation of Witten's string field theory (MSFT). We also demonstrate detailed agreement of MSFT with a number of on-shell and off-shell computations in other approaches to Witten's string field theory. We extend the techniques of computation in MSFT, and show that the j=0 representation of SL(2,R) generated by the Virasoro operators $L_{0},L_{\\pm1}$ is a key structure in practical computations for generating numbers. We provide more insight into the Moyal structure that simplifies string field theory, and develop techniques that could be applied more generally, including nonperturbative processes.
Multiphoton amplitude in a constant background field
Ahmad, Aftab; Ahmadiniaz, Naser; Corradini, Olindo; Kim, Sang Pyo; Schubert, Christian
2018-01-01
In this contribution, we present our recent compact master formulas for the multiphoton amplitudes of a scalar propagator in a constant background field using the worldline fomulation of quantum field theory. The constant field has been included nonperturbatively, which is crucial for strong external fields. A possible application is the scattering of photons by electrons in a strong magnetic field, a process that has been a subject of great interest since the discovery of astrophysical objects like radio pulsars, which provide evidence that magnetic fields of the order of 1012G are present in nature. The presence of a strong external field leads to a strong deviation from the classical scattering amplitudes. We explicitly work out the Compton scattering amplitude in a magnetic field, which is a process of potential relevance for astrophysics. Our final result is compact and suitable for numerical integration.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Espriu, D.
2003-01-01
QCD can be described in a certain kinematical regime by an effective string theory. This string must couple to background chiral fields in a chirally invariant manner, thus taking into account the true chirally non-invariant QCD vacuum. By requiring conformal symmetry of the string and the unitarity constraint on chiral fields we reconstruct the equations of motion for the latter ones. These provide a consistent background for the propagation of the string. By further requiring locality of the effective action we recover the Lagrangian of non-linear sigma model of pion interactions. The prediction is unambiguous and parameter-free. The estimated chiral structural constants of Gasser and Leutwyler fit very well the phenomenological values. (author)
String dynamics, spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry, and dual scalar field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Luxin
2009-01-01
The dynamics of a vortex string, which describes the Nambu-Goldstone modes of the spontaneous breakdown of the target space D=4, N=1 supersymmetry and internal U(1) R symmetry to the world sheet ISO(1,1) symmetry, is constructed by using the approach of nonlinear realization. The resulting action describing the low energy oscillations of the string into the covolume (super)space is found to have an invariant synthesis form of the Akulov-Volkov and Nambu-Goto actions. Its dual scalar field action is obtained by means of introducing two vectorial Lagrangian multipliers into the action of the string.
Quantum field theory at finite coupling through the holographic string
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
the Hydrogen atom in Chemistry. We will review new techniques that are motivated by the dual string description and are based on Integrability and Holography. These techniques allow for the first time exact computation of dynamical quantities at any strength of the interaction. We will focus on the computation of scattering amplit...
Superconformal quantum field theories in string. Gauge theory dualities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wiegandt, Konstantin
2012-08-14
In this thesis aspects of superconformal field theories that are of interest in the so-called AdS/CFT correspondence are investigated. The AdS/CFT correspondence states a duality between string theories living on Anti-de Sitter space and superconformal quantum field theories in Minkowski space. In the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence the so-called Wilson loop/amplitude duality was discovered, stating the equality of the finite parts of n-gluon MHV amplitudes and n-sided lightlike polygonal Wilson loops in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. It is the subject of the first part of this thesis to investigate the Wilson loop side of a possible similar duality in N=6 superconformal Chern-Simons matter (ABJM) theory. The main result is, that the expectation value of n-sided lightlike polygonal Wilson loops vanishes at one-loop order and at two-loop order is identical in its functional form to the Wilson loop in N=4 SYM theory at one-loop order. Furthermore, an anomalous conformal Ward identity for Wilson loops in Chern-Simons theory is derived. Related developments and symmetries of amplitudes and correlators in ABJM theory are discussed as well. In the second part of this thesis we calculate three-point functions of two protected operators and one twist-two operator with arbitrary even spin j in N=4 SYM theory. In order to carry out the calculations, the indices of the spin j operator are projected to the light-cone and the correlator is evaluated in a soft-limit where the momentum coming in at the spin j operator becomes zero. This limit largely simplifies the perturbative calculation, since all three-point diagrams effectively reduce to two-point diagrams and the dependence on the one-loop mixing matrix drops out completely. The result is in agreement with the analysis of the operator product expansion of four-point functions of half-BPS operators by Dolan and Osborn in 2004.
Superconformal quantum field theories in string. Gauge theory dualities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wiegandt, Konstantin
2012-01-01
In this thesis aspects of superconformal field theories that are of interest in the so-called AdS/CFT correspondence are investigated. The AdS/CFT correspondence states a duality between string theories living on Anti-de Sitter space and superconformal quantum field theories in Minkowski space. In the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence the so-called Wilson loop/amplitude duality was discovered, stating the equality of the finite parts of n-gluon MHV amplitudes and n-sided lightlike polygonal Wilson loops in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. It is the subject of the first part of this thesis to investigate the Wilson loop side of a possible similar duality in N=6 superconformal Chern-Simons matter (ABJM) theory. The main result is, that the expectation value of n-sided lightlike polygonal Wilson loops vanishes at one-loop order and at two-loop order is identical in its functional form to the Wilson loop in N=4 SYM theory at one-loop order. Furthermore, an anomalous conformal Ward identity for Wilson loops in Chern-Simons theory is derived. Related developments and symmetries of amplitudes and correlators in ABJM theory are discussed as well. In the second part of this thesis we calculate three-point functions of two protected operators and one twist-two operator with arbitrary even spin j in N=4 SYM theory. In order to carry out the calculations, the indices of the spin j operator are projected to the light-cone and the correlator is evaluated in a soft-limit where the momentum coming in at the spin j operator becomes zero. This limit largely simplifies the perturbative calculation, since all three-point diagrams effectively reduce to two-point diagrams and the dependence on the one-loop mixing matrix drops out completely. The result is in agreement with the analysis of the operator product expansion of four-point functions of half-BPS operators by Dolan and Osborn in 2004.
Quantum field theory II introductions to quantum gravity, supersymmetry and string theory
Manoukian, Edouard B
2016-01-01
This book takes a pedagogical approach to explaining quantum gravity, supersymmetry and string theory in a coherent way. It is aimed at graduate students and researchers in quantum field theory and high-energy physics. The first part of the book introduces quantum gravity, without requiring previous knowledge of general relativity (GR). The necessary geometrical aspects are derived afresh leading to explicit general Lagrangians for gravity, including that of general relativity. The quantum aspect of gravitation, as described by the graviton, is introduced and perturbative quantum GR is discussed. The Schwinger-DeWitt formalism is developed to compute the one-loop contribution to the theory and renormalizability aspects of the perturbative theory are also discussed. This follows by introducing only the very basics of a non-perturbative, background-independent, formulation of quantum gravity, referred to as “loop quantum gravity”, which gives rise to a quantization of space. In the second part the author in...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vieira, H.S., E-mail: horacio.santana.vieira@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Centro de Ciências, Tecnologia e Saúde, Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, CEP 58233-000, Araruna, PB (Brazil); Bezerra, V.B., E-mail: valdir@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Silva, G.V., E-mail: gislainevs@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil)
2015-11-15
Charged massive scalar fields are considered in the gravitational and electromagnetic field produced by a dyonic black hole with a cosmic string along its axis of symmetry. Exact solutions of both angular and radial parts of the covariant Klein–Gordon equation in this background are obtained, and are given in terms of the confluent Heun functions. The role of the presence of the cosmic string in these solutions is showed up. From the radial solution, we obtain the exact wave solutions near the exterior horizon of the black hole, and discuss the Hawking radiation spectrum and the energy flux. -- Highlights: •A cosmic string is introduced along the axis of symmetry of the dyonic black hole. •The covariant Klein–Gordon equation for a charged massive scalar field in this background is analyzed. •Both angular and radial parts are transformed to a confluent Heun equation. •The resulting Hawking radiation spectrum and the energy flux are obtained.
Physical states at the tachyonic vacuum of open string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giusto, S.; Imbimbo, C.
2004-01-01
We illustrate a method for computing the number of physical states of open string theory at the stable tachyonic vacuum in level truncation approximation. The method is based on the analysis of the gauge-fixed open string field theory quadratic action that includes Fadeev-Popov ghost string fields. Computations up to level 9 in the scalar sector are consistent with Sen's conjecture about the absence of physical open string states at the tachyonic vacuum. We also derive a long exact cohomology sequence that relates relative and absolute cohomologies of the BRS operator at the non-perturbative vacuum. We use this exact result in conjunction with our numerical findings to conclude that the higher ghost number non-perturbative BRS cohomologies are non-empty
Super string field theory and the Wess-Zumino-Witten action
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Erler, Theodore
2017-01-01
Roč. 2017, č. 10 (2017), s. 1-63, č. článku 057. ISSN 1029-8479 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_003/0000437 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : string field theory * superstrings and heterotic strings Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics (physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 6.063, year: 2016
An introduction to string theory
West, Peter C
1989-01-01
These notes are based on lectures given by Michael Green during Part III of the Mathematics Tripos (the Certificate for Advanced Study in Mathematics) in the Spring of 2003. The course provided an introduction to string theory, focussing on the Bosonic string, but treating the superstring as well. A background in quantum field theory and general relativity is assumed. Some background in particle physics, group theory and conformal field theory is useful, though not essential. A number of appe...
Scattering and bound states for the Hulthen potential in a cosmic string background
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hosseinpour, Mansoureh; Hassanabadi, Hassan [Shahrood University of Technology, Physics Department, P. O. Box: 3619995161-316, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Andrade, Fabiano M. [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Departamento de Matematica e Estatistica, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Silva, Edilberto O. [Universidade Federal do Maranhao, Departamento de Fisica, Sao Luis, MA (Brazil)
2017-05-15
In this work we study the Dirac equation with vector and scalar potentials in the spacetime generated by a cosmic string. Using an approximation for the centrifugal term, a solution for the radial differential equation is obtained. We consider the scattering states under the Hulthen potential and obtain the phase shifts. From the poles of the scattering S-matrix the states energies are determined as well. (orig.)
Chameleon scalar fields in relativistic gravitational backgrounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsujikawa, Shinji; Tamaki, Takashi; Tavakol, Reza
2009-01-01
We study the field profile of a scalar field φ that couples to a matter fluid (dubbed a chameleon field) in the relativistic gravitational background of a spherically symmetric spacetime. Employing a linear expansion in terms of the gravitational potential Φ c at the surface of a compact object with a constant density, we derive the thin-shell field profile both inside and outside the object, as well as the resulting effective coupling with matter, analytically. We also carry out numerical simulations for the class of inverse power-law potentials V(φ) = M 4+n φ −n by employing the information provided by our analytical solutions to set the boundary conditions around the centre of the object and show that thin-shell solutions in fact exist if the gravitational potential Φ c is smaller than 0.3, which marginally covers the case of neutron stars. Thus the chameleon mechanism is present in the relativistic gravitational backgrounds, capable of reducing the effective coupling. Since thin-shell solutions are sensitive to the choice of boundary conditions, our analytic field profile is very helpful to provide appropriate boundary conditions for Φ c ∼< O(0.1)
Chameleon scalar fields in relativistic gravitational backgrounds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsujikawa, Shinji [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3, Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Tamaki, Takashi [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Okubo 3-4-1, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Tavakol, Reza, E-mail: shinji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp, E-mail: tamaki@gravity.phys.waseda.ac.jp, E-mail: r.tavakol@qmul.ac.uk [Astronomy Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)
2009-05-15
We study the field profile of a scalar field {phi} that couples to a matter fluid (dubbed a chameleon field) in the relativistic gravitational background of a spherically symmetric spacetime. Employing a linear expansion in terms of the gravitational potential {Phi}{sub c} at the surface of a compact object with a constant density, we derive the thin-shell field profile both inside and outside the object, as well as the resulting effective coupling with matter, analytically. We also carry out numerical simulations for the class of inverse power-law potentials V({phi}) = M{sup 4+n}{phi}{sup -n} by employing the information provided by our analytical solutions to set the boundary conditions around the centre of the object and show that thin-shell solutions in fact exist if the gravitational potential {Phi}{sub c} is smaller than 0.3, which marginally covers the case of neutron stars. Thus the chameleon mechanism is present in the relativistic gravitational backgrounds, capable of reducing the effective coupling. Since thin-shell solutions are sensitive to the choice of boundary conditions, our analytic field profile is very helpful to provide appropriate boundary conditions for {Phi}{sub c}{approx}
Closed string field theory: Quantum action and the Batalin-Vilkovsky master equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zwiebach, B.
1993-01-01
The complete quantum theory of covariant closed strings is constructed in detail. The nonpolynomial action is defined by elementary vertices satisfying recursion relations that give rise to Jacobi-like identities for an infinite chain of string field products. The genus zero string field algebra is the homotopy Lie algebra L ∞ encoding the gauge symmetry of the classical theory. The higher genus algebraic structure implies the Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) master equation and thus consistent BRST quantization of the quantum action. From the L ∞ algebra, and the BV equation on the off-shell state space we derive the L ∞ algebra, and the BV equation on physical states that were recently constructed in d=2 string theory. The string diagrams are surfaces with minimal area metrics, foliated by closed geodesics of length 2π. These metrics generalize quadratic differentials in that foliation bands can cross. The string vertices are succinctly characterized; they include the surfaces whose foliation bands are all of height smaller than 2π. (orig.)
Charged Hadron Properties in Background Electric Fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Detmold, William; Tiburzi, Brian C.; Walker-Loud, Andre
2010-01-01
We report on a lattice calculation demonstrating a novel new method to extract the electric polarizability of charged pseudo-scalar mesons by analyzing two point correlation functions computed in classical background electric fields. A staple component of any electrodynamics or quantum mechanics course is the electric polarizability. Neutral material immersed in a weak external field polarizes, internally setting up an electric dipole moment, aligned so as to minimize the energy. At the atomic level, the electron clouds are distorted creating these microscopic dipole moments. The same process occurs at the hadronic level but the polarization effects are now constrained by the strong force. Polarizabilities of these bound QCD states can be viewed as a distortion of the charged pion cloud of a given hadron. One can use lattice QCD to non-perturbatively compute the quark and gluon interactions in the presence of background electric (or magnetic) fields. For sufficiently weak background fields, the low energy properties of the hadrons can be rigorously computed using effective field theory. With this treatment, a picture of hadrons emerges from chiral dynamics: that of a hadronic core surrounded by a pseudoscalar meson cloud. As some pseudoscalar mesons are charged, polarizabilities of hadrons encode the stiffness of the charged meson cloud (as well as that of the core). The form of pseudoscalar meson polarizabilities is consequently strongly constrained by chiral dynamics. However, beyond the leading order, the results depend upon essentially unknown low-energy constants, which must currently be estimated in a model-dependent fashion. In the case of the charged pion, the experimental measurement of the polarizability has proven difficult, both in the original measurement as well as the most recent published result. Currently, there is a 2-3 sigma discrepancy between the two-loop cPT prediction and the measured charged pion polarizability. New results with higher
The space-time operator product expansion in string theory duals of field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aharony, Ofer; Komargodski, Zohar
2008-01-01
We study the operator product expansion (OPE) limit of correlation functions in field theories which possess string theory duals, from the point of view of the string worldsheet. We show how the interesting ('single-trace') terms in the OPE of the field theory arise in this limit from the OPE of the worldsheet theory of the string dual, using a dominant saddle point which appears in computations of worldsheet correlation functions in the space-time OPE limit. The worldsheet OPE generically contains only non-physical operators, but all the non-physical contributions are resummed by the saddle point to a contribution similar to that of a physical operator, which exactly matches the field theory expectations. We verify that the OPE limit of the worldsheet theory does not have any other contributions to the OPE limit of space-time correlation functions. Our discussion is completely general and applies to any local field theory (conformal at high energies) that has a weakly coupled string theory dual (with arbitrary curvature). As a first application, we compare our results to a proposal of R. Gopakumar for the string theory dual of free gauge theories
Predictions for PP-wave string amplitudes from perturbative SYM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gursoy, Umut
2003-01-01
The role of general two-impurity multi-trace operators in the BMN correspondence is explored. Surprisingly, the anomalous dimensions of all two-impurity multi-trace BMN operators to order g 2 2 λ' are completely determined in terms of single-trace anomalous dimensions. This is due to suppression of connected field theory diagrams in the BMN limit and this fact has important implications for some string theory processes on the PP-wave background. We also make gauge theory predictions for the matrix elements of the light-cone string field theory Hamiltonian in the two string-two string and one string-three string sectors. (author)
Rivera, Susana
Throughout the last century, since the last decades of the XIX century, until present day, there had been many attempts to achieve the unification of the Forces of Nature. First unification was done by James Clerk Maxwell, with his Electromagnetic Theory. Then Max Plank developed his Quantum Theory. In 1905, Albert Einstein gave birth to the Special Relativity Theory, and in 1916 he came out with his General Relativity Theory. He noticed that there was an evident parallelism between the Gravitational Force, and the Electromagnetic Force. So, he tried to unify these forces of Nature. But Quantum Theory interposed on his way. On the 1940’s it had been developed the Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), and with it, the unified field theory had an arise interest. On the 60’s and 70’s there was developed the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). Along with these theories came the discovery of the strong interaction force and weak interaction force. And though there had been many attempts to unify all these forces of the nature, it could only be achieved the Unification of strong interaction, weak interaction and Electromagnetic Force. On the late 80”s and throughout the last two decades, theories such as “super-string theory”, “or the “M-theory”, among others, groups of Scientists, had been doing grand efforts and finally they came out with the unification of the forces of nature, being the only limitation the use of more than 11 dimensions. Using an ingenious mathematical tool known as the super symmetries, based on the Kaluza - Klein work, they achieve this goal. The strings of these theories are in the rank of 10-33 m. Which make them undetectable. There are many other string theories. The GEUFT theory is based on the existence of concentrated energy lines, which vibrates, expands and contracts, submitting and absorbing energy, matter and antimatter, and which yields a determined geometry, that gives as a result the formation of stars, galaxies, nebulae, clusters
Greybody factor of scalar fields from black strings
Ahmed, Jamil; Saifullah, K.
2017-12-01
The greybody factor of massless, uncharged scalar fields is studied in the background of cylindrically symmetric spacetimes, in the low-energy approximation. We discuss two cases. In the first case we derive analytical expression for the absorption probability when the spacetime is kinetically coupled with the Einstein tensor. In the second case we do the analysis in the absence of the coupling constant. For this purpose we analyze the wave equation which is obtained from Klein-Gordon equation. The radial part of the wave equation is solved in the form of the hypergeometric function in the near horizon region, whereas in the far region the solution is of the form of Bessel's function. Finally, considering continuity of the wave function we smoothly match the two solutions in the low-energy approximation to get the formula for the absorption probability.
Greybody factor of scalar fields from black strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahmed, Jamil [Quaid-i-Azam University, Department of Mathematics, Islamabad (Pakistan); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Saifullah, K. [Quaid-i-Azam University, Department of Mathematics, Islamabad (Pakistan); Harvard University, Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature, Cambridge, MA (United States)
2017-12-15
The greybody factor of massless, uncharged scalar fields is studied in the background of cylindrically symmetric spacetimes, in the low-energy approximation. We discuss two cases. In the first case we derive analytical expression for the absorption probability when the spacetime is kinetically coupled with the Einstein tensor. In the second case we do the analysis in the absence of the coupling constant. For this purpose we analyze the wave equation which is obtained from Klein-Gordon equation. The radial part of the wave equation is solved in the form of the hypergeometric function in the near horizon region, whereas in the far region the solution is of the form of Bessel's function. Finally, considering continuity of the wave function we smoothly match the two solutions in the low-energy approximation to get the formula for the absorption probability. (orig.)
Renormalization using the background-field method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ichinose, S.; Omote, M.
1982-01-01
Renormalization using the background-field method is examined in detail. The subtraction mechanism of subdivergences is described with reference to multi-loop diagrams and one- and two-loop counter-term formulae are explicitly given. The original one-loop counter-term formula of 't Hooft is thereby improved. The present method of renormalization is far easier to manage than the usual one owing to the fact only gauge-invariant quantities are to be considered when worked in an appropriate gauge. Gravity and Yang-Mills theories are studied as examples. (orig.)
Maximilien Brice
2008-01-01
STRING 2008 hold at CERN -- the largest and most important conference on String Theory with the mostly active researchers in the field. The main purpose of the conference is to review the latest developments for experts.
String-theoretic breakdown of effective field theory near black hole horizons
Dodelson, Matthew; Silverstein, Eva
2017-09-01
We investigate the validity of the equivalence principle near horizons in string theory, analyzing the breakdown of effective field theory caused by longitudinal string spreading effects. An experiment is set up where a detector is thrown into a black hole a long time after an early infalling string. Light cone gauge calculations, taken at face value, indicate a detectable level of root-mean-square longitudinal spreading of the initial string as measured by the late infaller. This results from the large relative boost between the string and detector in the near-horizon region, which develops automatically despite their modest initial energies outside the black hole and the weak curvature in the geometry. We subject this scenario to basic consistency checks, using these to obtain a relatively conservative criterion for its detectability. In a companion paper, we exhibit longitudinal nonlocality in well-defined gauge-invariant S-matrix calculations, obtaining results consistent with the predicted spreading albeit not in a direct analog of the black hole process. We discuss applications of this effect to the firewall paradox, and estimate the time and distance scales it predicts for new physics near black hole and cosmological horizons.
Remark on the gravitational field produced by an infinite straight string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Francisco, G.; Matsas, G.E.A.
1989-01-01
The results predicted by Newtonian gravity and general relativity are compared regarding the field produced by an infinite gauge string with constant density λ. A simple gedankenexperiment is suggested to stress the remarkable differences between these two theories. The existence of the usual Newtonian limit is discussed in this case
Algebraic solutions in open string field theory – a lightning review
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Schnabl, Martin
2010-01-01
Roč. 50, č. 3 (2010), s. 102-108 ISSN 1210-2709 Grant - others:EUROHORC(XE) EYI/07/E010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : string field theory * tachyon condensation Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics https://ojs.cvut.cz/ojs/index.php/ap/article/download/1213/1045
A global and stochastic analysis approach to bosonic strings and associated quantum fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albeverio, S.; Hoeegh-Krohn, R.; Paycha, S.; Scarlatti, S.
1989-01-01
We construct a probability measure giving a mathematical realization of Polyakov's heuristic measure for bosonic strings in space-time dimensions 3 << d << 13, having as world sheet compact Riemann surfaces Λ of arbitrary genus. The measure involves the path space measures for scalar fields with exponential interaction on Λ and a measure on Teichmueller space. (orig.)
A global and stochastic analysis approach to bosonic strings and associated quantum fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Albeverio, S.; Hoeegh-Krohn, R.; Paycha, S.; Scarlatti, S.
1989-01-01
We construct a probability measure giving a mathematical realization of Polyakov's heuristic measure for bosonic strings in space-time dimensions 3 << d << 13, having as world sheet compact Riemann surfaces /Lambda/ of arbitrary genus. The measure involves the path space measures for scalar fields with exponential interaction on /Lambda/ and a measure on Teichmueller space. (orig.).
A global and stochastic analysis approach to bosonic strings and associated quantum fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albeverio, S.; Hoeegh-Krohn, R.; Paycha, S.; Scarlatti, S.
1989-01-01
We construct a probability measure giving a mathematical realization of Polyakov's heuristic measure for bosonic strings in space-time dimensions 3 ≤ d ≤ 13, having as world sheet compact Riemann surfaces Λ of arbitrary genus. The measure involves the path space measures for scalar fields with exponential interaction on Λ and a measure on Teichmueller space. (orig.)
Field redefinitions and Chern-Simons terms in the heterotic string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bern, Z.; Shimada, T.
1987-07-01
Field redefinitions in the low energy effective action of the heterotic string are discussed. A field redefinition is constructed which generates the local counterterm that transforms the Lorentz into the gravitational form of the anomaly. We also discuss the field redefinition which torsionizes the Lorentz Chern-Simons term and its relation to an amplitude matching study of the compatibility of torsion with the Gauss-Bonnet combination. (orig.)
Brandenberger, Robert H.
2008-01-01
String gas cosmology is a string theory-based approach to early universe cosmology which is based on making use of robust features of string theory such as the existence of new states and new symmetries. A first goal of string gas cosmology is to understand how string theory can effect the earliest moments of cosmology before the effective field theory approach which underlies standard and inflationary cosmology becomes valid. String gas cosmology may also provide an alternative to the curren...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sikivie, P.
1991-01-01
The topics are: global strings; the gravitational field of a straight global string; how do global strings behave?; the axion cosmological energy density; computer simulations of the motion and decay of global strings; electromagnetic radiation from the conversion of Nambu-Goldstone bosons in astrophysical magnetic fields. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halter, Sebastian
2012-01-01
This thesis is concerned with aspects of inflation both from a field theory and a string theory perspective. It aims at exploring new approaches to address the problem of moduli destabilization and the η-problem and to realize inflation in the matter sector. The first part is devoted to studying models of inflation in the framework of four-dimensional N=1 supergravity. We begin with investigating a new proposal to solve the problem of moduli destabilization, which seems to force us to choose between low-energy supersymmetry and high-scale inflation. This new approach is based on a particular way to couple the modulus to the F-term driving inflation. Using chaotic inflation with a shift symmetry as an example, we show that we can successfully combine low-energy supersymmetry and high-scale inflation. We construct a class of inflation models in N=1 supergravity where the inflaton resides in gauge non-singlet matter fields. These are extensions of a special class of hybrid inflation models, so-called tribrid inflation, where the η-problem can be solved by a Heisenberg symmetry. Compared to previously studied models, we have generalized our models with some inspiration from string theory. We investigate moduli stabilization during inflation and identify situations in which the inflaton slope is dominated by radiative corrections. We outline under which conditions this class of matter inflation models could be embedded into heterotic orbifold compactifications. In doing so, we suggest a new mechanism to stabilize some Kaehler moduli by F-terms for matter fields. In the second part, we consider models of warped D-brane inflation on a family of ten-dimensional supergravity backgrounds. We consider inflation along the radial direction near the tip of the warped throat and show that generically an inflection point arises for the inflaton potential, which is related to an inflection point of the dilaton profile. A universal scaling behaviour with the parameters of the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Halter, Sebastian
2012-07-09
This thesis is concerned with aspects of inflation both from a field theory and a string theory perspective. It aims at exploring new approaches to address the problem of moduli destabilization and the η-problem and to realize inflation in the matter sector. The first part is devoted to studying models of inflation in the framework of four-dimensional N=1 supergravity. We begin with investigating a new proposal to solve the problem of moduli destabilization, which seems to force us to choose between low-energy supersymmetry and high-scale inflation. This new approach is based on a particular way to couple the modulus to the F-term driving inflation. Using chaotic inflation with a shift symmetry as an example, we show that we can successfully combine low-energy supersymmetry and high-scale inflation. We construct a class of inflation models in N=1 supergravity where the inflaton resides in gauge non-singlet matter fields. These are extensions of a special class of hybrid inflation models, so-called tribrid inflation, where the η-problem can be solved by a Heisenberg symmetry. Compared to previously studied models, we have generalized our models with some inspiration from string theory. We investigate moduli stabilization during inflation and identify situations in which the inflaton slope is dominated by radiative corrections. We outline under which conditions this class of matter inflation models could be embedded into heterotic orbifold compactifications. In doing so, we suggest a new mechanism to stabilize some Kaehler moduli by F-terms for matter fields. In the second part, we consider models of warped D-brane inflation on a family of ten-dimensional supergravity backgrounds. We consider inflation along the radial direction near the tip of the warped throat and show that generically an inflection point arises for the inflaton potential, which is related to an inflection point of the dilaton profile. A universal scaling behaviour with the parameters of the
Tadpole resummations in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitazawa, Noriaki
2008-01-01
While R-R tadpoles should be canceled for consistency, string models with broken supersymmetry generally have uncanceled NS-NS tadpoles. Their presence signals that the background does not solve the field equations, so that these models are in 'wrong' vacua. In this Letter we investigate, with reference to some prototype examples, whether the true values of physical quantities can be recovered resumming the NS-NS tadpoles, hence by an approach that is related to the analysis based on String Field Theory by open-closed duality. We show that, indeed, the positive classical vacuum energy of a Dp-brane of the bosonic string is exactly canceled by the negative contribution arising from tree-level tadpole resummation, in complete agreement with Sen's conjecture on open-string tachyon condensation and with the consequent analysis based on String Field Theory. We also show that the vanishing classical vacuum energy of the SO(8192) unoriented bosonic open-string theory does not receive any tree-level corrections from the tadpole resummation. This result is consistent with the fact that this (unstable) configuration is free from tadpoles of massless closed-string modes, although there is a tadpole of the closed string tachyon. The application of this method to superstring models with broken supersymmetry is also discussed
Jost, Jürgen
2007-01-01
This book presents a mathematical treatment of Bosonic string theory from the point of view of global geometry. As motivation, Jost presents the theory of point particles and Feynman path integrals. He provides detailed background material, including the geometry of Teichmüller space, the conformal and complex geometry of Riemann surfaces, and the subtleties of boundary regularity questions. The high point is the description of the partition function for Bosonic strings as a finite-dimensional integral over a moduli space of Riemann surfaces. Jost concludes with some topics related to open and closed strings and D-branes. Bosonic Strings is suitable for graduate students and researchers interested in the mathematics underlying string theory.
5D Black Holes and Matrix Strings
Dijkgraaf, R; Verlinde, Herman L
1997-01-01
We derive the world-volume theory, the (non)-extremal entropy and background geometry of black holes and black strings constructed out of the NS IIA fivebrane within the framework of matrix theory. The CFT description of strings propagating in the black hole geometry arises as an effective field theory.
String states, loops and effective actions in noncommutative field theory and matrix models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Harold C. Steinacker
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Refining previous work by Iso, Kawai and Kitazawa, we discuss bi-local string states as a tool for loop computations in noncommutative field theory and matrix models. Defined in terms of coherent states, they exhibit the stringy features of noncommutative field theory. This leads to a closed form for the 1-loop effective action in position space, capturing the long-range non-local UV/IR mixing for scalar fields. The formalism applies to generic fuzzy spaces. The non-locality is tamed in the maximally supersymmetric IKKT or IIB model, where it gives rise to supergravity. The linearized supergravity interactions are obtained directly in position space at one loop using string states on generic noncommutative branes.
String states, loops and effective actions in noncommutative field theory and matrix models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steinacker, Harold C., E-mail: harold.steinacker@univie.ac.at
2016-09-15
Refining previous work by Iso, Kawai and Kitazawa, we discuss bi-local string states as a tool for loop computations in noncommutative field theory and matrix models. Defined in terms of coherent states, they exhibit the stringy features of noncommutative field theory. This leads to a closed form for the 1-loop effective action in position space, capturing the long-range non-local UV/IR mixing for scalar fields. The formalism applies to generic fuzzy spaces. The non-locality is tamed in the maximally supersymmetric IKKT or IIB model, where it gives rise to supergravity. The linearized supergravity interactions are obtained directly in position space at one loop using string states on generic noncommutative branes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pope, C.N.; Stelle, K.S.
1991-08-01
We study the spectrum of W 3 strings. In particular, we show that for appropriately chosen space-time signature, one of the scalar fields is singled out be the spin-3 constraint and is ''frozen'': no creation operators from it can appear in physical states and the corresponding momentum must assume a specific fixed value. The remaining theory is unitary and resembles an ordinary string theory in d contains 26 with anomalies cancelled by appropriate background charges. (author). 8 refs
Differentiating G-inflation from string gas cosmology using the effective field theory approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
He, Minxi; Liu, Junyu; Lu, Shiyun; Cai, Yi-Fu [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhou, Siyi; Wang, Yi [Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Brandenberger, Robert, E-mail: hmxz0@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: jliu2@caltech.edu, E-mail: shiyun@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: zhousiyi1@gmail.com, E-mail: yifucai@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: phyw@ust.hk, E-mail: rhb@physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montréal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada)
2016-12-01
A characteristic signature of String Gas Cosmology is primordial power spectra for scalar and tensor modes which are almost scale-invariant but with a red tilt for scalar modes but a blue tilt for tensor modes. This feature, however, can also be realized in the so-called G-inflation model, in which Horndeski operators are introduced which leads to a blue tensor tilt by softly breaking the Null Energy Condition. In this article we search for potential observational differences between these two cosmologies by performing detailed perturbation analyses based on the Effective Field Theory approach. Our results show that, although both two models produce blue tilted tensor perturbations, they behave differently in three aspects. Firstly, String Gas Cosmology predicts a specific consistency relation between the index of the scalar modes n {sub s} and that of tensor ones n {sub t} , which is hard to be reproduced by G-inflation. Secondly, String Gas Cosmology typically predicts non-Gaussianities which are highly suppressed on observable scales, while G-inflation gives rise to observationally large non-Gaussianities because the kinetic terms in the action become important during inflation. However, after finely tuning the model parameters of G-inflation it is possible to obtain a blue tensor spectrum and negligible non-Gaussianities with a degeneracy between the two models. This degeneracy can be broken by a third observable, namely the scale dependence of the nonlinearity parameter, which vanishes for G-inflation but has a blue tilt in the case of String Gas Cosmology. Therefore, we conclude that String Gas Cosmology is in principle observationally distinguishable from the single field inflationary cosmology, even allowing for modifications such as G-inflation.
Quantum field theory in gravitational background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narnhofer, H.
1986-01-01
The author suggests ignoring the influence of the quantum field on the gravitation as the first step to combine quantum field theory and gravitation theory, but to consider the gravitational field as fixed and thus study quantum field theory on a manifold. This subject evoked interest when thermal radiation of a black hole was predicted. The author concentrates on the free quantum field and can split the problem into two steps: the Weyl-algebra of the free field and the Wightman functional on the tangent space
Fermions on the electroweak string
Moreno, J M; Quirós, Mariano; Moreno, J M; Oaknin, D H; Quiros, M
1995-01-01
We construct a simple class of exact solutions of the electroweak theory including the naked Z--string and fermion fields. It consists in the Z--string configuration (\\phi,Z_\\theta), the {\\it time} and z components of the neutral gauge bosons (Z_{0,3},A_{0,3}) and a fermion condensate (lepton or quark) zero mode. The Z--string is not altered (no feed back from the rest of fields on the Z--string) while fermion condensates are zero modes of the Dirac equation in the presence of the Z--string background (no feed back from the {\\it time} and z components of the neutral gauge bosons on the fermion fields). For the case of the n--vortex Z--string the number of zero modes found for charged leptons and quarks is (according to previous results by Jackiw and Rossi) equal to |n|, while for (massless) neutrinos is |n|-1. The presence of fermion fields in its core make the obtained configuration a superconducting string, but their presence (as well as that of Z_{0,3},A_{0,3}) does not enhance the stability of the Z--stri...
Some exact computations on the twisted butterfly state in string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okawa, Yuji
2004-01-01
The twisted butterfly state solves the equation of motion of vacuum string field theory in the singular limit. The finiteness of the energy density of the solution is an important issue, but possible conformal anomaly resulting from the twisting has prevented us from addressing this problem. We present a description of the twisted regulated butterfly state in terms of a conformal field theory with a vanishing central charge which consists of the ordinary bc ghosts and a matter system with c=26. Various quantities relevant to vacuum string field theory are computed exactly using this description. We find that the energy density of the solution can be finite in the limit, but the finiteness depends on the sub leading structure of vacuum string field theory. We further argue, contrary to our previous expectation, that contributions from sub leading terms in the kinetic term to the energy density can be of the same order as the contribution from the leading term which consists of the midpoint ghost insertion. (author)
The Journey from Maxwell to Faraday (From Fields to Strings)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2010-07-02
Jul 2, 2010 ... markets!). Signature of its robustness and versatility. Basically it is tailor-made for describing systems with infinitely many interacting degrees of freedom. ... QED is a successful theory of quantum fields. Faraday's picture is not quantitatively useful. What are the equations governing the diffuse lines of flux?
Strings, gauge fields, and the geometry behind the legacy of Maximilian Kreuzer
Katzarkov, Ludmil; Knapp, Johanna; Rashkov, Radoslav; Scheidegger, Emanuel
2012-01-01
This book contains exclusively invited contributions from collaborators of Maximilian Kreuzer, giving accounts of his scientific legacy and original articles from renowned theoretical physicists and mathematicians, including Victor Batyrev, Philip Candelas, Michael Douglas, Alexei Morozov, Joseph Polchinski, Peter van Nieuwenhuizen, and Peter West. Besides a collection of review and research articles from high-profile researchers in string theory and related fields of mathematics (in particular, algebraic geometry) which discuss recent progress in the exploration of string theory vacua and corresponding mathematical developments, this book contains a pedagogical account of the important work of Brandt, Dragon, and Kreuzer on classification of anomalies in gauge theories. This highly cited work, which is also quoted in the textbook of Steven Weinberg on quantum field theory, has not yet been presented in full detail except in private lecture notes by Norbert Dragon. Similarly, the software package PALP (Packag...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Randjbar-Daemi, S.
1987-01-01
The propagation of closed bosonic strings interacting with background gravitational and dilaton fields is reviewed. The string is treated as a quantum field theory on a compact 2-dimensional manifold. The question is posed as to how the conditions for the vanishing trace anomaly and the ensuing background field equations may depend on global features of the manifold. It is shown that to the leading order in σ-model perturbation theory the string loop effects do not modify the gravitational and the dilaton field equations. However for the purely bosonic strings new terms involving the modular parameter of the world sheet are induced by quantum effects which can be absorbed into a re-definition of the background fields. The authors also discuss some aspects of several regularization schemes such as dimensional, Pauli-Villars and the proper-time cut off in an appendix
Topics in Covariant Closed String Field Theory and Two-Dimensional Quantum Gravity
Saadi, Maha
1991-01-01
The closed string field theory based on the Witten vertex is found to be nonpolynomial in order to reproduce all tree amplitudes correctly. The interactions have a geometrical pattern of overlaps, which can be thought as the edges of a spherical polyhedron with face-perimeters equal to 2pi. At each vertex of the polyhedron there are three faces, thus all elementary interactions are cubic in the sense that at most three strings can coincide at a point. The quantum action is constructed by substracting counterterms which cancel the overcounting of moduli space, and by adding loop vertices in such a way no possible surfaces are missed. A counterterm that gives the correct one-string one-loop amplitude is formulated. The lowest order loop vertices are analyzed in the cases of genus one and two. Also, a one-loop two -string counterterm that restores BRST invariance to the respective scattering amplitude is constructed. An attempt to understand the formulation of two -dimensional pure gravity from the discrete representation of a two-dimensional surface is made. This is considered as a toy model of string theory. A well-defined mathematical model is used. Its continuum limit cannot be naively interpreted as pure gravity because each term of the sum over surfaces is not positive definite. The model, however, could be considered as an analytic continuation of the standard matrix model formulation of gravity. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.).
Background field coils for the High Field Test Facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zbasnik, J.P.; Cornish, D.N.; Scanlan, R.M.; Jewell, A.M.; Leber, R.L.; Rosdahl, A.R.; Chaplin, M.R.
1980-01-01
The High Field Test Facility (HFTF), presently under construction at LLNL, is a set of superconducting coils that will be used to test 1-m-o.d. coils of prototype conductors for fusion magnets in fields up to 12 T. The facility consists of two concentric sets of coils; the outer set is a stack of Nb-Ti solenoids, and the inner set is a pair of solenoids made of cryogenically-stabilized, multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn superconductor, developed for use in mirror-fusion magnets. The HFTF system is designed to be parted along the midplane to allow high-field conductors, under development for Tokamak fusion machines, to be inserted and tested. The background field coils were wound pancake-fashion, with cold-welded joints at both the inner and outer diameters. Turn-to-turn insulation was fabricated at LLNL from epoxy-fiberglass strip. The coils were assembled and tested in our 2-m-diam cryostat to verify their operation
The supergravity fields for a D-brane with a travelling wave from string amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Black, William; Russo, Rodolfo; Turton, David
2010-01-01
We calculate the supergravity fields sourced by a D-brane with a null travelling wave from disk amplitudes in type IIB string theory compactified on T 4 xS 1 . The amplitudes reproduce all the non-trivial features of the previously known two-charge supergravity solutions in the D-brane/momentum duality frame, providing a direct link between the microscopic bound states and their macroscopic descriptions.
Connecting solutions in open string field theory with singular gauge transformations
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Erler, Theodore; Maccaferri, C.
2012-01-01
Roč. 2012, č. 4 (2012), 1-40 ISSN 1126-6708 Grant - others:EUROHORC and ESF(XE) EYI/07/E010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : tachyon condensation * string field theory Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 5.618, year: 2012 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FJHEP04%282012%29107
Global and stochastic analysis approach to bosonic strings and associated quantum fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Albeverio, S.; Hoeegh-Krohn, R.; Paycha, S.; Scarlatti, S.
1989-01-01
We construct a probability measure giving a mathematical realization of Polyakov's heuristic measure for bosonic strings in space-time dimensions 3 less than or equal to d less than or equal to 13, having as world sheet compact Riemann surfaces ..lambda.. of arbitrary genus. The measure involves the path space measures for scalar fields with exponential interaction on ..lambda.. and a measure on Teichmueller space.
A Gauged Open 2-Brane String in the p-Brane Background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monemzadeh, Majid; Sarvi, Fahimeh; Abarghouei Nejad, Salman
2016-01-01
We make a gauge theory from the Open p-brane system and map it into the Open 2-Brane one. Due to the presence of second-class constraints in this model, we encounter some problems during the procedure of quantization. In this regard, considering boundary conditions as Dirac conditions, one can drive the constrained structure of the model at first. Then, with the help of BFT formalism of constraint systems, the Open 2-Brane model is embedded into an extended phase space. For this purpose, we introduce some tensor fields to convert ungauged theory into the gauged one. This is the novel part of our research, while mostly scalar and vector fields are used to convert second-class constraints into first ones.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tseytlin, A.A.
1993-01-01
We consider a two-dimensional sigma model with a (2+N)-dimensional Minkowski signature target space metric having a covariantly constant null Killing vector. We study solutions of the conformal invariance conditions in 2+N dimensions and find that generic solutions can be represented in terms of the RG flow in N-dimensional 'transverse space' theory. The resulting conformal invariant sigma model is interpreted as a quantum action of the two-dimensional scalar ('dilaton') quantum gravity model coupled to a (non-conformal) 'transverse' sigma model. The conformal factor of the two-dimensional metric is identified with a light-cone coordinate of the (2+N)-dimensional sigma model. We also discuss the case when the transverse theory is conformal (with or without the antisymmetric tensor background) and reproduce in a systematic way the solutions with flat transverse space known before. (orig.)
LRS Bianchi Type II Massive String Cosmological Models with Magnetic Field in Lyra's Geometry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raj Bali
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Bianchi type II massive string cosmological models with magnetic field and time dependent gauge function ( in the frame work of Lyra's geometry are investigated. The magnetic field is in -plane. To get the deterministic solution, we have assumed that the shear ( is proportional to the expansion (. This leads to , where and are metric potentials and is a constant. We find that the models start with a big bang at initial singularity and expansion decreases due to lapse of time. The anisotropy is maintained throughout but the model isotropizes when . The physical and geometrical aspects of the model in the presence and absence of magnetic field are also discussed.
Little string theory from double-scaling limits of field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ling, Henry; Shieh, H.-H.; Anders, Greg van
2007-01-01
We show that little string theory on S 5 can be obtained as double-scaling limits of the maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories on R x S 2 and R x S 3 /Z k . By matching the gauge theory parameters with those in the dual supergravity solutions found by Lin and Maldacena, we determine the limits in the gauge theories that correspond to decoupling of NS5-brane degrees of freedom. We find that for the theory on R x S 2 , the 't Hooft coupling must be scaled like ln 3 N, and on R x S 3 /Z k , like ln 2 N. Accordingly, taking these limits in these field theories gives Lagrangian definitions of little string theory on S 5
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bennett, D.P.
1988-07-01
Cosmic strings are linear topological defects that are predicted by some grand unified theories to form during a spontaneous symmetry breaking phase transition in the early universe. They are the basis for the only theories of galaxy formation aside from quantum fluctuations from inflation that are based on fundamental physics. In contrast to inflation, they can also be observed directly through gravitational lensing and their characteristic microwave background anistropy. It has recently been discovered by F. Bouchet and myself that details of cosmic string evolution are very different from the so-called ''standard model'' that has been assumed in most of the string induced galaxy formation calculations. Therefore, the details of galaxy formation in the cosmic string models are currently very uncertain. 29 refs., 9 figs
On quantum field theory in gravitational background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haag, R.; Narnhofer, H.; Stein, U.
1984-02-01
We discuss Quantum Fields on Riemannian space-time. A principle of local definitness is introduced which is needed beyond equations of motion and commutation relations to fix the theory uniquely. It also allows to formulate local stability. In application to a region with a time-like Killing vector field and horizons it yields the value of the Hawking temperature. The concept of vacuum and particles in a non stationary metric is treated in the example of the Robertson-Walker metric and some remarks on detectors in non inertial motion are added. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bakke, Knut; Furtado, C.
2010-01-01
We study geometric quantum phases in the relativistic and non-relativistic quantum dynamics of a neutral particle with a permanent magnetic dipole moment interacting with two distinct field configurations in a cosmic string spacetime. We consider the local reference frames of the observers are transported via Fermi-Walker transport and study the influence of the non-inertial effects on the phase shift of the wave function of the neutral particle due to the choice of this local frame. We show that the wave function of the neutral particle acquires non-dispersive relativistic and non-relativistic quantum geometric phases due to the topology of the spacetime, the interaction between the magnetic dipole moment with external fields and the spin-rotation coupling. However, due to the Fermi-Walker reference frame, no phase shift associated to the Sagnac effect appears in the quantum dynamics of a neutral particle. We show that in the absence of topological defect, the contribution to the quantum phase due to the spin-rotation coupling is equivalent to the Mashhoon effect in non-relativistic dynamics. (orig.)
Time-localized projectors in string field theory with an E-field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maccaferri, C.; Scherer Santos, R.J.; Tolla, D.D.
2005-01-01
We extend the analysis of Bonora et al. [hep-th/0409063] to the case of a constant electric field turned on the world volume and on a transverse direction of a D-brane. We show that time localization is still obtained by inverting the discrete eigenvalues of the lump solution. The lifetime of the unstable soliton is shown to depend on two free parameters: the b parameter and the value of the electric field. As a by-product, we construct the normalized diagonal basis of the star algebra in the B μν -field background
Quantum field theory on brane backgrounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flachi, A.
2001-11-01
The development of higher dimensional quantum field theories is reviewed from the older Kaluza-Klein theory to the new brane models, emphasising their relevance in modern particle physics. The issue of spontaneous symmetry breaking in the Randall-Sundrum model is considered. The role of the coupling between bulk fields and the curvature is investigated and a model in favour of bulk symmetry breaking is presented. The lowest order quantum corrections arising from a quantized scalar field in the Randall-Sundrum spacetime are computed. A careful discussion of the boundary conditions as well as the renormalization is provided. The massless case is also discussed and a proof of the vanishing of the conformal anomaly in this model is given. An analysis of the self-consistency is presented and the radius stabilization problem studied. It is shown that quantum effects may provide a stabilization of the radius, nevertheless, when the hierarchy problem is simultaneously solved, fine tuning of the brane tensions is necessary. The previous results are extended in order to include the contribution to the one-loop effective action from fermions. The boundary conditions are discussed and their relation with gauge invariance accurately examined. The possibility of breaking the gauge symmetries by using Wilson-loops is investigated. The analysis of the self- consistency is extended when the contribution of fermions is included, and it is shown that also in this case it is not possible to stabilize the radius and simultaneously solving the hierarchy problem, unless the brane tensions are fine tuned to a high degree. (author)
Non-linear σ-models and string theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sen, A.
1986-10-01
The connection between σ-models and string theories is discussed, as well as how the σ-models can be used as tools to prove various results in string theories. Closed bosonic string theory in the light cone gauge is very briefly introduced. Then, closed bosonic string theory in the presence of massless background fields is discussed. The light cone gauge is used, and it is shown that in order to obtain a Lorentz invariant theory, the string theory in the presence of background fields must be described by a two-dimensional conformally invariant theory. The resulting constraints on the background fields are found to be the equations of motion of the string theory. The analysis is extended to the case of the heterotic string theory and the superstring theory in the presence of the massless background fields. It is then shown how to use these results to obtain nontrivial solutions to the string field equations. Another application of these results is shown, namely to prove that the effective cosmological constant after compactification vanishes as a consequence of the classical equations of motion of the string theory. 34 refs
On the field/string theory approach to theta dependence in large N Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gabadadze, Gregory
1999-01-01
The theta dependence of the vacuum energy in large N Yang-Mills theory has been studied some time ago by Witten using a duality of large N gauge theories with the string theory compactified on a certain space-time. We show that within the field theory context vacuum fluctuations of the topological charge give rise to the vacuum energy consistent with the string theory computation. Furthermore, we calculate 1/N suppressed corrections to the string theory result. The reconciliation of the string and field theory approaches is based on the fact that the gauge theory instantons carry zerobrane charge in the corresponding D-brane construction of Yang-Mills theory. Given the formula for the vacuum energy we study certain aspects of stability of the false vacua of the model for different realizations of the initial conditions. The vacuum structure appears to be different depending on whether N is infinite or, alternatively, large but finite
Poltis, Robert; Stojkovic, Dejan
2010-10-15
The decay of nontopological electroweak strings may leave an observable imprint in the Universe today in the form of primordial magnetic fields. Protogalaxies preferentially tend to form with their axis of rotation parallel to an external magnetic field, and, moreover, an external magnetic field produces torque which tends to align the galaxy axis with the magnetic field. We demonstrate that the shape of a magnetic field left over from two looped electroweak strings can explain the observed nontrivial alignment of quasar polarization vectors and make predictions for future observations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thorlacius, L.
1989-01-01
Open string vacuum configurations are described in terms of a one-dimensional field theory on the worldsheet boundary. The one-dimensional path integral has direct physical interpretation as a source term for closed string fields. This means that the vacuum divergences (Mobius infinities) of the path integral must be renormalized correctly. The author shows that reparametrization invariance Ward identities, apart from specifying the equations of motion of spacetime background gauge fields, also serve to fix the renormalization scheme of the vacuum divergences. He argues that vacuum configurations of open strings correspond to Caldeira-Leggett models of dissipative quantum mechanics (DQM) evaluated at a delocalization critical point. This connection reveals that critical DQM will manifest reparametrization invariance (inherited from the conformal invariance of string theory) rather than just scale invariance. This connection should open up new ways of constructing analytic and approximate solutions of open string theory (in particular, topological solitons such as monopoles and instantons). Type I superstring theory gives rise to a supersymmetric boundary field theory. Bose-Fermi cancellation eliminates vacuum divergences but the one-loop beta function remains the same as in the bosonic theory. Reparametrization invariance Ward identities dictate a boundary state normalization which yields consistent string-loop corrections to spacetime equations of motion, in both the periodic and anti-periodic fermion sectors
Nonlocal String Theories on AdS3 x S3 and Stable Non-Supersymmetric Backgrounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silverstein, Eva M
2002-01-01
We exhibit a simple class of exactly marginal ''double-trace'' deformations of two dimensional CFTs which have AdS 3 duals, in which the deformation is given by a product of left and right-moving U(1) currents. In this special case the deformation on AdS 3 is generated by a local boundary term in three dimensions, which changes the physics also in the bulk via bulk-boundary propagators. However, the deformation is non-local in six dimensions and on the string worldsheet, like generic non-local string theories (NLSTs). Due to the simplicity of the deformation we can explicitly make computations in the non-local string theory and compare them to CFT computations, and we obtain precise agreement. We discuss the effect of the deformation on closed strings and on D-branes. The examples we analyze include a supersymmetry-breaking but exactly marginal ''double-trace'' deformation, which is dual to a string theory in which no destabilizing tadpoles are generated for moduli nonperturbatively in all couplings, despite the absence of supersymmetry. We explain how this cancellation works on the gravity side in string perturbation theory, and also non-perturbatively at leading order in the deformation parameter. We also discuss possible flat space limits of our construction
The Background-Field Method and Noninvariant Renormalization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avdeev, L.V.; Kazakov, D.I.; Kalmykov, M.Yu.
1994-01-01
We investigate the consistency of the background-field formalism when applying various regularizations and renormalization schemes. By an example of a two-dimensional σ model it is demonstrated that the background-field method gives incorrect results when the regularization (and/or renormalization) is noninvariant. In particular, it is found that the cut-off regularization and the differential renormalization belong to this class and are incompatible with the background-field method in theories with nonlinear symmetries. 17 refs
Relativistic classical strings. II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galvao, C.A.P.
1985-01-01
The interactions of strings with electromagnetic and gravitational fields are extensively discussed. Some concepts of differential geometry are reviewed. Strings in Kaluza-Klein manifolds are studied. (L.C.) [pt
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Günaydin, Murat [Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, Physics Department,Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Lüst, Dieter [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Department für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Theresienstraße 37, 80333 München (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Malek, Emanuel [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Department für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Theresienstraße 37, 80333 München (Germany)
2016-11-07
We propose a non-associative phase space algebra for M-theory backgrounds with locally non-geometric fluxes based on the non-associative algebra of octonions. Our proposal is based on the observation that the non-associative algebra of the non-geometric R-flux background in string theory can be obtained by a proper contraction of the simple Malcev algebra generated by imaginary octonions. Furthermore, by studying a toy model of a four-dimensional locally non-geometric M-theory background which is dual to a twisted torus, we show that the non-geometric background is “missing” a momentum mode. The resulting seven-dimensional phase space can thus be naturally identified with the imaginary octonions. This allows us to interpret the full uncontracted algebra of imaginary octonions as the uplift of the string theory R-flux algebra to M-theory, with the contraction parameter playing the role of the string coupling constant g{sub s}.
Dark matter cosmic string in the gravitational field of a black hole
Nakonieczny, Łukasz; Nakonieczna, Anna; Rogatko, Marek
2018-03-01
We examined analytically and proposed a numerical model of an Abelian Higgs dark matter vortex in the spacetime of a stationary axisymmetric Kerr black hole. In analytical calculations the dark matter sector was modeled by an addition of a U(1)-gauge field coupled to the visible sector. The backreaction analysis revealed that the impact of the dark vortex presence is far more complicated than causing only a deficit angle. The vortex causes an ergosphere shift and the event horizon velocity is also influenced by its presence. These phenomena are more significant than in the case of a visible vortex sector. The area of the event horizon of a black hole is diminished and this decline is larger in comparison to the Kerr black hole with an Abelian Higgs vortex case. After analyzing the gravitational properties for the general setup, we focused on the subset of models that are motivated by particle physics. We retained the Abelian Higgs model as a description of the dark matter sector (this sector contained a heavy dark photon and an additional complex scalar) and added a real scalar representing the real component of the Higgs doublet in the unitary gauge, as well as an additional U(1)-gauge field representing an ordinary electromagnetic field. Moreover, we considered two coupling channels between the visible and dark sectors, which were the kinetic mixing between the gauge fields and a quartic coupling between the scalar fields. After solving the equations of motion for the matter fields numerically we analyzed properties of the cosmic string in the dark matter sector and its influence on the visible sector fields that are directly coupled to it. We found out that the presence of the cosmic string induced spatial variation in the vacuum expectation value of the Higgs field and a nonzero electromagnetic field around the black hole.
Suraci, A; Balle, C; Blanco-Viñuela, E; Casas-Cubillos, J; Gomes, P; Pelletier, S; Serio, L; Vauthier, N; Balle, Ch.
2001-01-01
CERN is now setting up String 2, a full-size prototype of a regular cell of the LHC arc. It is composed of two quadrupole, six dipole magnets, and a separate cryogenic distribution line (QRL) for the supply and recovery of the cryogen. An electrical feed box (DFB), with up to 38 High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) leads, powers the magnets. About 700 sensors and actuators are distributed along four Profibus DP and two Profibus PA field buses. The process automation is handled by two controllers, running 126 Closed Control Loops (CCL). This paper describes the cryogenic control system, associated instrumentation, and their commissioning.
One-loop Pfaffians and large-field inflation in string theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruehle, Fabian, E-mail: fabian.ruehle@physics.ox.ac.uk [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, Oxford University, 1 Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Wieck, Clemens, E-mail: clemens.wieck@uam.es [Departamento de Física Teórica and Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)
2017-06-10
We study the consistency of large-field inflation in low-energy effective field theories of string theory. In particular, we focus on the stability of Kähler moduli in the particularly interesting case where the non-perturbative superpotential of the Kähler sector explicitly depends on the inflaton field. This situation arises generically due to one-loop corrections to the instanton action. The field dependence of the modulus potential feeds back into the inflationary dynamics, potentially impairing slow roll. We distinguish between world-sheet instantons from Euclidean D-branes, which typically yield polynomial one-loop Pfaffians, and gaugino condensates, which can yield exponential or periodic corrections. In all scenarios successful slow-roll inflation imposes bounds on the magnitude of the one-loop correction, corresponding to constraints on possible compactifications. While we put a certain emphasis on Type IIB constructions with mobile D7-branes, our results seem to apply more generally.
Spontaneous symmetry breaking, and strings defects in hypercomplex gauge field theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cartas-Fuentevilla, R. [Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Instituto de Fisica, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Meza-Aldama, O. [Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)
2016-02-15
Inspired by the appearance of split-complex structures in the dimensional reduction of string theory, and in the theories emerging as byproducts, we study the hypercomplex formulation of Abelian gauge field theories by incorporating a new complex unit to the usual complex one. The hypercomplex version of the traditional Mexican hat potential associated with the U(1) gauge field theory, corresponds to a hybrid potential with two real components, and with U(1) x SO(1,1) as symmetry group. Each component corresponds to a deformation of the hat potential, with the appearance of a new degenerate vacuum. Hypercomplex electrodynamics will show novel properties, such as spontaneous symmetry breaking scenarios with running masses for the vectorial and scalar Higgs fields, and such as Aharonov-Bohm type strings defects as exact solutions; these topological defects may be detected only by quantum interference of charged particles through gauge invariant loop integrals. In a particular limit, the hyperbolic electrodynamics does not admit topological defects associated with continuous symmetries. (orig.)
Quantum string test of nonconformal holography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen-Lin, Xinyi; Medina-Rincon, Daniel; Zarembo, Konstantin [Nordita, Stockholm University and KTH Royal Institute of Technology,Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University,SE-751 08 Uppsala (Sweden)
2017-04-18
We compute Lüscher corrections to the effective string tension in the Pilch-Warner background, holographically dual to N=2{sup ∗} supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The same quantity can be calculated directly from field theory by solving the localization matrix model at large-N. We find complete agreement between the field-theory predictions and explicit string-theory calculation at strong coupling.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Engquist, J.; Sundell, P.; Tamassia, L.
2007-01-01
The group theoretical structure underlying physics in anti de Sitter (AdS) spacetime is intrinsically different with respect to the flat case, due to the presence of special ultra-short representations, named singletons, that do not admit a flat space limit. The purpose of this collaboration is to exploit this feature in the study of string and brane dynamics in AdS spacetime, in particular while trying to establish a connection between String Theory in AdS backgrounds (in the tensionless limit) and Higher-Spin Gauge Theory. (orig.)
Hermiticity and CPT in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sonoda, Hidenori
1989-01-01
In the application of conformal field theory to string theory S-matrix elements are obtained from correlation functions of vertex operators. By studying the relation between the vertex operators for the incoming states and those for the outgoing states we obtain two results: First we show that hermiticity of the string vertices is equivalent to the CPT invariance of the corresponding conformal field theory. Secondly we prove that the S-matrix elements in any string theory in flat space-time background are invariant under CPT. (orig.)
Heat kernel expansion in the background field formalism
Barvinsky, Andrei
2015-01-01
Heat kernel expansion and background field formalism represent the combination of two calculational methods within the functional approach to quantum field theory. This approach implies construction of generating functionals for matrix elements and expectation values of physical observables. These are functionals of arbitrary external sources or the mean field of a generic configuration -- the background field. Exact calculation of quantum effects on a generic background is impossible. However, a special integral (proper time) representation for the Green's function of the wave operator -- the propagator of the theory -- and its expansion in the ultraviolet and infrared limits of respectively short and late proper time parameter allow one to construct approximations which are valid on generic background fields. Current progress of quantum field theory, its renormalization properties, model building in unification of fundamental physical interactions and QFT applications in high energy physics, gravitation and...
Heterotic strings on homogeneous spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Israel, D.; Kounnas, C.; Orlando, D.; Petropoulos, P.M.
2005-01-01
We construct heterotic string backgrounds corresponding to families of homogeneous spaces as exact conformal field theories. They contain left cosets of compact groups by their maximal tori supported by NS-NS 2-forms and gauge field fluxes. We give the general formalism and modular-invariant partition functions, then we consider some examples such as SU(2)/U(1)∝S 2 (already described in a previous paper) and the SU(3)/U(1) 2 flag space. As an application we construct new supersymmetric string vacua with magnetic fluxes and a linear dilaton. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Friedan, D.H.; Martinec, E.J.; Shenker, S.H.
1988-12-01
The present contract supported work by Daniel H. Frieden, Emil J, Martinec and Stephen H. Shenker (principal investigators), Research Associates, and graduate students in theoretical physics at the University of Chicago. Research has been conducted in areas of string theory and two dimensional conformal and superconformal field theory. The ultimate objectives have been: to expose the fundamental structure of string theory so as to eventually make possible effective nonperturbative calculations and thus a comparison of sting theory with experiment, the complete classification of all two dimensional conformal and superconformal field theories thus giving a complete description of all classical ground states of string and of all possible two (and 1 + 1) dimensional critical phenomena, and the development of methods to describe, construct and solve two dimensional field theories. Work has also been done on skyrmion and strong interaction physics
The series of String-Math conferences has developed into a central event on the interface between mathematics and physics related to string theory, quantum field theory and neighboring subjects. The conference will take place from July 24-28 in the main building of Hamburg university. The String-Math conference is organised by the University of Hamburg jointly with DESY Hamburg.
An exact bosonization rule for c = 1 noncritical string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishibashi, Nobuyuki; Yamaguchi, Atsushi
2007-01-01
We construct a string field theory for c = 1 noncritical strings using the loop variables as the string field. We show how one can express the nonrelativistic free fermions which describes the theory, in terms of these string fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anaguano, L.
2005-07-01
According to the theory of Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) the vacuum state will change in the presence of very strong electromagnetic fields. If the external field (in the simplest case purely electrostatic) exceeds a certain critical value the creation of electron-positron pairs will ensue, resulting the the formation of a charged vacuum. This process is characterized by the emergence of electron states with a binding energy larger than twice the electron rest mass. The effect up to now usually was studied for spherically symmetric systems, in particular for the Coulomb potential of a heavy nucleus. In the present thesis we investigate, how this phenomenon changes when passing from spherical to cylindrical geometry. For this, we derive the solutions of the Dirac equation for electrons in the electrostatic potential of a long, thin charged cylinder (a ''charged string'') and study the ensuing supercritical effects. Since the logarithmic potential of an infinitely long string rises indefinitely with growing distance, all electron states should be supercritical (i.e., electrons should be able to tunnel through the particle-antiparticle gap of the Dirac equation). Therefore on may expect that the central charge will surround itself with an oppositely charged sheath of vacuum electrons, leading to neutralization of the string. To develop a quantitative description of this process, we investigate the solutions of the Poisson equation and the Dirac equation in cylindrical symmetry. In the first step a series expansion of the electrostatic potential in the central plane of a homogeneously charge cylinder of finite length and finite radius is derived. Subsequently, we employ the tetrad (vierbein) formalism to separate the Dirac equation in cylindrical coordinates. The resulting radial Dirac equation is transformed to Schroedinger type. The bound states are evaluated using the method of uniform approximation (a version of the WKB approximation). We study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chudnovsky, E.; Vilenkin, A.
1988-01-01
If light superconducting strings were formed in the early Universe, then it is very likely that now they exist in abundance in the interstellar plasma and in stars. The dynamics of such strings can be dominated by friction, so that they are ''frozen'' into the plasma. Turbulence of the plasma twists and stretches the strings, forming a stochastic string network. Such networks must generate particles and magnetic fields, and may play an important role in the physics of stars and of the Galaxy
Nonperturbative quantum electrodynamics in a photon-condensate background field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kikuchi, Y.; Ng, Y.J.
1988-01-01
Analyses of the Schwinger-Dyson (SD) equation for the fermion self-energy have revealed the existence of a QED ultraviolet nonperturbative fixed point which separates a strong-coupling regime from a weak-coupling regime. Here we study the SD equation in the presence of a weak constant photon-condensate background field. This background field does not seem to affect the fixed point. Better approximations or some more realistic background fields may change the result. The investigation is partly motivated by recent heavy-ion experiments
Venkateswarlu, R.; Sreenivas, K.
2014-06-01
The LRS Bianchi type-I and type-II string cosmological models are studied when the source for the energy momentum tensor is a bulk viscous stiff fluid containing one dimensional strings together with zero-mass scalar field. We have obtained the solutions of the field equations assuming a functional relationship between metric coefficients when the metric is Bianchi type-I and constant deceleration parameter in case of Bianchi type-II metric. The physical and kinematical properties of the models are discussed in each case. The effects of Viscosity on the physical and kinematical properties are also studied.
Ibáñez, Luis E
2015-01-01
This chapter reviews a number of topics in the field of string phenomenology, focusing on orientifold/F-theory models yielding semirealistic low-energy physics. The emphasis is on the extraction of the low-energy effective action and possible tests of specific models at the LHC.
Notes on entanglement entropy in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, Song; Numasawa, Tokiro; Takayanagi, Tadashi; Watanabe, Kento
2015-01-01
In this paper, we study the conical entropy in string theory in the simplest setup of dividing the nine dimensional space into two halves. This corresponds to the leading quantum correction to the horizon entropy in string theory on the Rindler space. This entropy is also called the conical entropy and includes surface term contributions. We first derive a new simple formula of the conical entropy for any free higher spin fields. Then we apply this formula to computations of conical entropy in open and closed superstring. In our analysis of closed string, we study the twisted conical entropy defined by making use of string theory on Melvin backgrounds. This quantity is easier to calculate owing to the folding trick. Our analysis shows that the conical entropy in closed superstring is UV finite owing to the string scale cutoff.
Two exercises in supersymmetry: a low-energy supergravity model and free string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Preitschopf, C.R.
1986-09-01
The new features of a supersymmetric standard model in the presence of heavy families are studied. The minimal set of Higgs fields, the desert between the electroweak and the grand unification scale and perturbative values of the dimensionless parameters throughout this region are assumed. Using the numerical as well as the approximate analytic solution of the renormalization group equations, the evolution of all the parameters of the theory are studied in the case of large Yukawa couplings for the fourth family. The desired spontaneous symmetry breaking of the electroweak symmetry takes place only for a rather unnatural choice of the initial values of certain mass parameters at the grand unification scale. If it is gravitino mass smaller than 200 GeV the vacuum expectation values of the Higgs fields emerge necessarily in an interplay of the tree level Higgs potential and its quantum corrections and are approximately equal. The qurak masses of the fourth family are roughly 135 GeV, while the mass of the fourth charged lepton has an upper bound of 90 GeV. Further characteristic features of this scenario are one light neutral Higgs field of mass 50 GeV and gluino masses below 75 GeV. If the gravitino mass is higher than 200 GeV one obtains a scaled up version of the well-known three family, heavy top scenario with quark masses between 40 and 205 GeV and all superparticle masses heavier than 150 GeV except the photino, gluino, one chargino and one neutralino. The gauge-invariant theory of the free bosonic open string is generalized to treat closed strings and superstrings. All of these theories can be written as theories of string differential forms defined on suitable spaces. All of the bosonic theories have exactly the same structure; the Ramond theory takes an analogous first-order form. We show explicitly, how to gauge-fix each action to the light-cone gauge and to the Feynman-Siegel gauge
Duality relation between charged elastic strings and superconducting cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carter, B.
1989-01-01
The mechanical properties of macroscopic electromagnetically coupled string models in a flat or curved background are treated using a covariant formalism allowing the construction of a duality transformation that relates the category of uniform ''electric'' string models, constructed as the (nonconducting) charged generalisation of ordinary uncoupled (violin type) elastic strings, to a category of ''magnetic'' string models comprising recently discussed varieties of ''superconducting cosmic strings''. (orig.)
Illuminating the hidden sector of string theory by shining light through a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abel, S.A.; Khoze, V.V.
2006-08-01
It has recently been shown that the observation by the PVLAS collaboration of an anomalously large rotation of the polarization plane of light in the presence of a magnetic field in vacuum may originate from pair production of light, m f ∝0.1 eV, millicharged, Q f ∝3 x 10 -6 e, fermions. Such millicharges arise generically from kinetic-mixing in theories containing at least two U(1) gauge factors. In this letter, we point out that the required multiple U(1) factors, the size of kinetic-mixing, and suitable matter representations to explain the PVLAS data occur very naturally in the context of realistic extensions of the Standard Model (SM) of elementary particle physics based on string theory. (orig.)
Vacuum background fields in QCD as a source of confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simonov, Yu.A.
1987-01-01
Large distance behaviour of quark and gluon Green functions is studied in vacuum background fields. Periodic and bounded stochastic fields do not ensure confinement. New stochastic vacuum configurations are suggested, which generate a superlocalization regime, i.e. a large distance decay of Green functions faster than the exponential one. This latter regime corresponds to the confinement
Wilson loop, Regge trajectory and hadron masses in a Yang-Mills theory from semiclassical strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bigazzi, F.; Cotrone, A.L.; Martucci, L.; Pando Zayas, L.A.
2004-07-01
We compute the one-loop string corrections to the Wilson loop, glueball Regge trajectory and stringy hadron masses in the Witten model of non supersymmetric, large-N Yang-Mills theory. The classical string configurations corresponding to the above field theory objects are respectively: open straight strings, folded closed spinning strings, and strings orbiting in the internal part of the supergravity background. For the rectangular Wilson loop we show that besides the standard Luscher term, string corrections provide a rescaling of the field theory string tension. The one-loop corrections to the linear glueball Regge trajectories render them nonlinear with a positive intercept, as in the experimental soft Pomeron trajectory. Strings orbiting in the internal space predict a spectrum of hadronic-like states charged under global flavor symmetries which falls in the same universality class of other confining models. (author)
Lepton-photon interactions in external background fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akal, Ibrahim [Theory Group, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid [II. Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany)
2016-07-01
We investigate lepton-photon interactions in a class of generalized external background fields with periodic plane-wave character. Considering the full interaction with the background, S-matrix elements are calculated exactly. We apply those general expressions to interaction schemes like Compton scattering in specific field configurations, as for instance provided in modern laser facilities, or in high intense regions of future linear colliders. Results are extended to the case of frontal colliding high-energy field photons with leptons such that new insights beyond the usual soft terms become accessible.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lawrence, Albion
2001-07-25
We study the physics of open strings in bosonic and type II string theories in the presence of unstable D-branes. When the potential energy of the open string tachyon is at its minimum, Sen has argued that only closed strings remain in the perturbative spectrum. We explore the scenario of Yi and of Bergman, Hori and Yi, who argue that the open string degrees of freedom are strongly coupled and disappear through confinement. We discuss arguments using open string field theory and worldsheet boundary RG flows, which seem to indicate otherwise. We then describe a solitonic excitation of the open string tachyon and gauge field with the charge and tension of a fundamental closed string. This requires a double scaling limit where the tachyon is taken to its minimal value and the electric field is taken to its maximum value. The resulting flux tube has an unconstrained spatial profile; and for large fundamental string charge, it appears to have light, weakly coupled open strings living in the core. We argue that the flux tube acquires a size or order {alpha}' through sigma model and string coupling effects; and we argue that confinement effects make the light degrees of freedom heavy and strongly interacting.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lawrence, Albion
2001-01-01
We study the physics of open strings in bosonic and type II string theories in the presence of unstable D-branes. When the potential energy of the open string tachyon is at its minimum, Sen has argued that only closed strings remain in the perturbative spectrum. We explore the scenario of Yi and of Bergman, Hori and Yi, who argue that the open string degrees of freedom are strongly coupled and disappear through confinement. We discuss arguments using open string field theory and worldsheet boundary RG flows, which seem to indicate otherwise. We then describe a solitonic excitation of the open string tachyon and gauge field with the charge and tension of a fundamental closed string. This requires a double scaling limit where the tachyon is taken to its minimal value and the electric field is taken to its maximum value. The resulting flux tube has an unconstrained spatial profile; and for large fundamental string charge, it appears to have light, weakly coupled open strings living in the core. We argue that the flux tube acquires a size or order α' through sigma model and string coupling effects; and we argue that confinement effects make the light degrees of freedom heavy and strongly interacting
Constraints on four dimensional effective field theories from string and F-theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baume, Florent
2017-06-21
This thesis is a study of string theory compactifications to four dimensions and the constraints the Effective Field theories must exhibit, exploring both the closed and open sectors. In the former case, we focus on axion monodromy scenarios and the impact the backreaction of the energy density induced by the vev of an axion has on its field excursions. For all the cases studied, we find that the backreaction is small up to a critical value, and the proper field distance is flux independent and at most logarithmic in the axion vev. We then move to the open sector, where we use the framework of F-theory. We first explore the relation between the spectra arising from F-theory GUTs and those coming from a decomposition of the adjoint of E{sub 8} to SU(5) x U(1){sup n}. We find that extending the latter spectrum with new SU(5)-singlet fields, and classifying all possible ways of breaking the Abelian factors, all the spectra coming from smooth elliptic fibration constructed in the literature fit in our classification. We then explore generic properties of the spectra arising when breaking SU(5) to the Standard Model gauge group while retaining some anomaly properties. We finish by a study of F-theory compactications on a singular elliptic fibration via Matrix Factorisation, and find the charged spectrum of two non-Abelian examples.
Constraints on four dimensional effective field theories from string and F-theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baume, Florent
2017-01-01
This thesis is a study of string theory compactifications to four dimensions and the constraints the Effective Field theories must exhibit, exploring both the closed and open sectors. In the former case, we focus on axion monodromy scenarios and the impact the backreaction of the energy density induced by the vev of an axion has on its field excursions. For all the cases studied, we find that the backreaction is small up to a critical value, and the proper field distance is flux independent and at most logarithmic in the axion vev. We then move to the open sector, where we use the framework of F-theory. We first explore the relation between the spectra arising from F-theory GUTs and those coming from a decomposition of the adjoint of E 8 to SU(5) x U(1) n . We find that extending the latter spectrum with new SU(5)-singlet fields, and classifying all possible ways of breaking the Abelian factors, all the spectra coming from smooth elliptic fibration constructed in the literature fit in our classification. We then explore generic properties of the spectra arising when breaking SU(5) to the Standard Model gauge group while retaining some anomaly properties. We finish by a study of F-theory compactications on a singular elliptic fibration via Matrix Factorisation, and find the charged spectrum of two non-Abelian examples.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vishniac, E.T.
1987-01-01
We examine the compatibility of inflation with the cosmic string theory for galaxy formation. There is a general conflict between having sufficient string tension to effect galaxy formation, and reheating after inflation to a high enough temperature that strings may form in a thermal phase transition. To escape this conflict, we propose a class of models where the inflation is coupled to the string-producing field. The strings are formed late in inflation as the inflaton rolls towards its zero-temperature value. A large subset of these models have a novel large-scale distribution of galaxies that is fractal, displays biasing without dynamics or feedback mechanisms, and contains voids. (orig.)
New Supersymmetric String Compactifications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kachru, Shamit
2002-11-25
We describe a new class of supersymmetric string compactifications to 4d Minkowski space. These solutions involve type II strings propagating on (orientifolds of) non Calabi-Yau spaces in the presence of background NS and RR fluxes. The simplest examples have descriptions as cosets, generalizing the three-dimensional nilmanifold. They can also be thought of as twisted tori. We derive a formula for the (super)potential governing the light fields, which is generated by the fluxes and certain ''twists'' in the geometry. Detailed consideration of an example also gives strong evidence that in some cases, these exotic geometries are related by smooth transitions to standard Calabi-Yau or G2 compactifications of M-theory.
Open Wilson lines as states of closed string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murakami, Koichi; Nakatsu, Toshio
2003-01-01
A system of a D-brane in bosonic string theory on a constant B field background is studied in order to obtain further insight into the bulk-boundary duality. Boundary states which describe arbitrary numbers of open-string tachyons and gluons are given. The UV behavior of field theories on the non-commutative world-volume is investigated by using these states. We take the zero-slope limits of the generating functions of one-loop amplitudes of gluons (and open-string tachyons) in which the region of the small open-string proper time is magnified. The existence of a B field allows the limits to be slightly different from the standard field theory limits of a closed-string. These limits enable us to obtained world-volume theories at a trans-string scale. In this limit the generating functions are shown to be factorized into two curved open Wilson lines (and their analogues) and become integrals on the space of paths with a Gaussian distribution around straight lines. These facts indicate the possibility that field theories on the non-commutative world-volume are topological at such a trans-string scale. We also give a proof of the Dhar-Kitazawa conjecture by determining an explicit correspondence between the closed-string states and the paths. Momentum eigenstates of closed-string or momentum loops also play an important role in these analyses. (author)
Magnetic Measurements of the Background Field in the Undulator Hall
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fisher, Andrew
2010-01-01
The steel present in the construction of the undulator hall facility has the potential for changing the ambient fields present in the undulator hall. This note describes a measurement done to make a comparison between the fields in the hall and in the Magnetic Measurement Facility. In order for the undulators to have the proper tuning, the background magnetic field in the Undulator Hall should agree with the background field in the Magnetic Measurements Facility within .5 gauss. In order to verify that this was the case measurements were taken along the length of the undulator hall, and the point measurements were compared to the mean field which was measured on the MMF test bench.
International conference on string theory
2017-01-01
The Strings 2017 conference is part of the "Strings" series of annual conferences, that bring the entire string theory community together. It will include reviews of major developments in the field, and specialized talks on specific topics. There will also be several public lectures given by conference participants, a pre-Strings school at the Technion, and a post-Strings workshop at the Weizmann Institute.
Leader propagation in uniform background fields in SF6
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seeger, M; Niemeyer, L; Bujotzek, M
2009-01-01
The breakdown mechanism of compressed SF 6 in gas insulation is known to be controlled by stepped leader propagation. This process is still not well understood in uniform and weakly non-uniform background fields with small electrode protrusions, such as particles or surface roughness. In a previous publication an investigation of partial discharges and breakdown in uniform background fields that focused on streamer and leader inception mechanisms was presented (Seeger et al 2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 185204). In this paper we present for the first time a physical leader propagation model that consistently describes the observed phenomena in uniform background fields in SF 6 . The model explains two different types of leader breakdown; these can be associated with the precursor and the stem mechanisms. It also yields the parameters of stepped leader propagation, which include step lengths, associated step charges, step times and fields and temperatures in the leader channel. Further, it explains the features of arrested leaders in uniform background fields. The model predicts the range of parameters under which arrested and breakdown leaders occur in good agreement with the experimental data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aldazabal, G.; Ibanez, L.E.; Uranga, A.M.
1995-01-01
Standard SUSY-GUTs such as those based on SU(5) or SO(10) lead to predictions for the values of α s and sin 2 θ W in amazing agreement with experiment. In this article we investigate how these models may be obtained from string theory, thus bringing them into the only known consistent framework for quantum gravity. String models with matter in standard GUT representations require the realization of affine Lie algebras at higher levels. We start by describing some methods to build level k=2 symmetric orbifold string models with gauge groups SU(5) or SO(10). We present several examples and identify generic features of the type of models constructed. Chiral fields appropriate to break the symmetry down to the standard model generically appear in the massless spectrum. However, unlike in standard SUSY-GUTs, they often behave as string moduli, i.e., they do not have self-couplings. We also discuss briefly the doublet-triplet Higgs splitting. We find that, in some models, built-in sliding-singlet type of couplings exist. (orig.)
Semiclassical strings and non-Abelian T-duality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Zacarías
2014-10-01
Full Text Available We study semiclassical strings in the Klebanov–Witten and in the non-Abelian T-dual Klebanov–Witten backgrounds. We show that both backgrounds share a subsector of equivalent states up to conditions on the T-dual coordinates. We also analyse string configurations where the strings are stretched along the T-dual coordinates. This semiclassical analysis predicts the existence of (almost chiral primary operators for the dual superconformal field theory whose (anomalous bare dimensions depend on the T-dual coordinates. We briefly discuss the Penrose limit of the dualised background.
Probing the string winding sector
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Aldazabal, Gerardo; Mayo, Martín [G. Física CAB-CNEA and CONICET, Centro Atómico Bariloche,Av. Bustillo 9500, Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro, Centro Atómico Bariloche,Av. Bustillo 9500, Bariloche (Argentina); Nuñez, Carmen [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA),C.C. 67 - Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Física, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires,C.C. 67 - Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2017-03-17
We probe a slice of the massive winding sector of bosonic string theory from toroidal compactifications of Double Field Theory (DFT). This string subsector corresponds to states containing one left and one right moving oscillators. We perform a generalized Kaluza Klein compactification of DFT on generic 2n-dimensional toroidal constant backgrounds and show that, up to third order in fluctuations, the theory coincides with the corresponding effective theory of the bosonic string compactified on n-dimensional toroidal constant backgrounds, obtained from three-point amplitudes. The comparison between both theories is facilitated by noticing that generalized diffeomorphisms in DFT allow to fix generalized harmonic gauge conditions that help in identifying the physical degrees of freedom. These conditions manifest as conformal anomaly cancellation requirements on the string theory side. The explicit expression for the gauge invariant effective action containing the physical massless sector (gravity+antisymmetric+gauge+ scalar fields) coupled to towers of generalized Kaluza Klein massive states (corresponding to compact momentum and winding modes) is found. The action acquires a very compact form when written in terms of fields carrying O(n,n) indices, and is explicitly T-duality invariant. The global algebra associated to the generalized Kaluza Klein compactification is discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalashnikova, Yu.S.; Nefediev, A.V.
1997-01-01
The QCD-motivated constituent string model is extended to consider the baryon. The system of three quarks propagating in the confining background field is studied in the Wilson loop approach, and the effective action is obtained. The resulting Lagrangian at large interquark distances corresponds to the Mercedes Benz string configuration. Assuming the quarks to be heavy enough to allow the adiabatic separation of quark and string junction motion and using the hyperspherical expansion for the quark subsystem we write out and solve the classical equation of motion for the junction. We quantize the motion of the junction and demonstrate that the account of these modes leads to the effective swelling of baryon in comparison with standard potential picture. The effects of finite gluonic correlation length which do not affect the excited states but appear to be substantial for the baryonic ground state, reducing the swelling considerably is discussed
BPS ZN string tensions, sine law and Casimir scaling, and integrable field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kneipp, Marco A. C.
2007-01-01
We consider a Yang-Mills-Higgs theory with spontaneous symmetry breaking of the gauge group G→U(1) r →C G , with C G being the center of G. We study two vacua solutions of the theory which produce this symmetry breaking. We show that for one of these vacua, the theory in the Coulomb phase has the mass spectrum of particles and monopoles which is exactly the same as the mass spectrum of particles and solitons of two-dimensional affine Toda field theory, for suitable coupling constants. That result holds also for N=4 super Yang-Mills theories. On the other hand, in the Higgs phase, we show that for each of the two vacua the ratio of the tensions of the BPS Z N strings satisfy either the Casimir scaling or the sine law scaling for G=SU(N). These results are extended to other gauge groups: for the Casimir scaling, the ratios of the tensions are equal to the ratios of the quadratic Casimir constant of specific representations; for the sine law scaling, the tensions are proportional to the components of the left Perron-Frobenius eigenvector of Cartan matrix K ij and the ratios of tensions are equal to the ratios of the soliton masses of affine Toda field theories
Subquantum nonlocal correlations induced by the background random field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khrennikov, Andrei, E-mail: Andrei.Khrennikov@lnu.s [International Center for Mathematical Modelling in Physics and Cognitive Sciences, Linnaeus University, Vaexjoe (Sweden); Institute of Information Security, Russian State University for Humanities, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2011-10-15
We developed a purely field model of microphenomena-prequantum classical statistical field theory (PCSFT). This model not only reproduces important probabilistic predictions of quantum mechanics (QM) including correlations for entangled systems, but also gives a possibility to go beyond QM, i.e. to make predictions of phenomena that could be observed at the subquantum level. In this paper, we discuss one such prediction-the existence of nonlocal correlations between prequantum random fields corresponding to all quantum systems. (And by PCSFT, quantum systems are represented by classical Gaussian random fields and quantum observables by quadratic forms of these fields.) The source of these correlations is the common background field. Thus all prequantum random fields are 'entangled', but in the sense of classical signal theory. On the one hand, PCSFT demystifies quantum nonlocality by reducing it to nonlocal classical correlations based on the common random background. On the other hand, it demonstrates total generality of such correlations. They exist even for distinguishable quantum systems in factorizable states (by PCSFT terminology-for Gaussian random fields with covariance operators corresponding to factorizable quantum states).
Subquantum nonlocal correlations induced by the background random field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khrennikov, Andrei
2011-01-01
We developed a purely field model of microphenomena-prequantum classical statistical field theory (PCSFT). This model not only reproduces important probabilistic predictions of quantum mechanics (QM) including correlations for entangled systems, but also gives a possibility to go beyond QM, i.e. to make predictions of phenomena that could be observed at the subquantum level. In this paper, we discuss one such prediction-the existence of nonlocal correlations between prequantum random fields corresponding to all quantum systems. (And by PCSFT, quantum systems are represented by classical Gaussian random fields and quantum observables by quadratic forms of these fields.) The source of these correlations is the common background field. Thus all prequantum random fields are 'entangled', but in the sense of classical signal theory. On the one hand, PCSFT demystifies quantum nonlocality by reducing it to nonlocal classical correlations based on the common random background. On the other hand, it demonstrates total generality of such correlations. They exist even for distinguishable quantum systems in factorizable states (by PCSFT terminology-for Gaussian random fields with covariance operators corresponding to factorizable quantum states).
Two-time physics with gravitational and gauge field backgrounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bars, Itzhak
2000-01-01
It is shown that all possible gravitational, gauge and other interactions experienced by particles in ordinary d dimensions (one time) can be described in the language of two-time physics in a spacetime with d+2 dimensions. This is obtained by generalizing the world line formulation of two-time physics by including background fields. A given two-time model, with a fixed set of background fields, can be gauged fixed from d+2 dimensions to (d-1)+1 dimensions to produce diverse one-time dynamical models, all of which are dually related to each other under the underlying gauge symmetry of the unified two-time theory. To satisfy the gauge symmetry of the two-time theory the background fields must obey certain coupled differential equations that are generally covariant and gauge invariant in the target (d+2)-dimensional spacetime. The gravitational background obeys a closed homothety condition while the gauge field obeys a differential equation that generalizes a similar equation derived by Dirac in 1936. Explicit solutions to these coupled equations show that the usual gravitational, gauge, and other interactions in d dimensions may be viewed as embedded in the higher (d+2)-dimensional space, thus displaying higher spacetime symmetries that otherwise remain hidden
Strings, texture, and inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hodges, H.M.; Primack, J.R.
1991-01-01
We examine mechanisms, several of which are proposed here, to generate structure formation, or to just add large-scale features, through either gauged or global cosmic strings or global texture, within the framework of inflation. We first explore the possibility that strings or texture form if there is no coupling between the topological theory and the inflaton or spacetime curvature, via (1) quantum creation, and (2) a sufficiently high reheat temperature. In addition, we examine the prospects for the inflaton field itself to generate strings or texture. Then, models with the string/texture field coupled to the curvature, and an equivalent model with coupling to the inflaton field, are considered in detail. The requirement that inflationary density fluctuations are not so large as to conflict with observations leads to a number of constraints on model parameters. We find that strings of relevance for structure formation can form in the absence of coupling to the inflaton or curvature through the process of quantum creation, but only if the strings are strongly type I, or if they are global strings. If formed after reheating, naturalness suggests that gauged cosmic strings correspond to a type-I superconductor. Similarly, gauged strings formed during inflation via conformal coupling ξ=1/6 to the spacetime curvature (in a model suggested by Yokoyama in order to evade the millisecond pulsar constraint on cosmic strings) are expected to be strongly type I
Highly excited strings I: Generating function
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dimitri P. Skliros
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This is the first of a series of detailed papers on string amplitudes with highly excited strings (HES. In the present paper we construct a generating function for string amplitudes with generic HES vertex operators using a fixed-loop momentum formalism. We generalise the proof of the chiral splitting theorem of D'Hoker and Phong to string amplitudes with arbitrary HES vertex operators (with generic KK and winding charges, polarisation tensors and oscillators in general toroidal compactifications E=RD−1,1×TDcr−D (with generic constant Kähler and complex structure target space moduli, background Kaluza–Klein (KK gauge fields and torsion. We adopt a novel approach that does not rely on a “reverse engineering” method to make explicit the loop momenta, thus avoiding a certain ambiguity pointed out in a recent paper by Sen, while also keeping the genus of the worldsheet generic. This approach will also be useful in discussions of quantum gravity and in particular in relation to black holes in string theory, non-locality and breakdown of local effective field theory, as well as in discussions of cosmic superstrings and their phenomenological relevance. We also discuss the manifestation of wave/particle (or rather wave/string duality in string theory.
Scalar field vacuum expectation value induced by gravitational wave background
Jones, Preston; McDougall, Patrick; Ragsdale, Michael; Singleton, Douglas
2018-06-01
We show that a massless scalar field in a gravitational wave background can develop a non-zero vacuum expectation value. We draw comparisons to the generation of a non-zero vacuum expectation value for a scalar field in the Higgs mechanism and with the dynamical Casimir vacuum. We propose that this vacuum expectation value, generated by a gravitational wave, can be connected with particle production from gravitational waves and may have consequences for the early Universe where scalar fields are thought to play an important role.
Lattice worldline representation of correlators in a background field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Epelbaum, Thomas; Gelis, François; Wu, Bin
2015-01-01
We use a discrete worldline representation in order to study the continuum limit of the one-loop expectation value of dimension two and four local operators in a background field. We illustrate this technique in the case of a scalar field coupled to a non-Abelian background gauge field. The first two coefficients of the expansion in powers of the lattice spacing can be expressed as sums over random walks on a d-dimensional cubic lattice. Using combinatorial identities for the distribution of the areas of closed random walks on a lattice, these coefficients can be turned into simple integrals. Our results are valid for an anisotropic lattice, with arbitrary lattice spacings in each direction.
Tensorial spacetime geometries and background-independent quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raetzel, Dennis
2012-01-01
Famously, Einstein read off the geometry of spacetime from Maxwell's equations. Today, we take this geometry that serious that our fundamental theory of matter, the standard model of particle physics, is based on it. However, it seems that there is a gap in our understanding if it comes to the physics outside of the solar system. Independent surveys show that we need concepts like dark matter and dark energy to make our models fit with the observations. But these concepts do not fit in the standard model of particle physics. To overcome this problem, at least, we have to be open to matter fields with kinematics and dynamics beyond the standard model. But these matter fields might then very well correspond to different spacetime geometries. This is the basis of this thesis: it studies the underlying spacetime geometries and ventures into the quantization of those matter fields independently of any background geometry. In the first part of this thesis, conditions are identified that a general tensorial geometry must fulfill to serve as a viable spacetime structure. Kinematics of massless and massive point particles on such geometries are introduced and the physical implications are investigated. Additionally, field equations for massive matter fields are constructed like for example a modified Dirac equation. In the second part, a background independent formulation of quantum field theory, the general boundary formulation, is reviewed. The general boundary formulation is then applied to the Unruh effect as a testing ground and first attempts are made to quantize massive matter fields on tensorial spacetimes.
Quantum field theory with infinite component local fields as an alternative to the string theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krasnikov, N.V.
1987-05-01
We show that the introduction of the infinite component local fields with higher order derivatives in the interaction makes the theory completely ultraviolet finite. For the γ 5 -anomalous theories the introduction of the infinite component field makes the theory renormalizable or superrenormalizable. (orig.)
Non-singular string-cosmologies from exact conformal field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vega, H.J. de; Larsen, A.L.; Sanchez, N.
2001-01-01
Non-singular two and three dimensional string cosmologies are constructed using the exact conformal field theories corresponding to SO(2,1)/SO(1,1) and SO(2,2)/SO(2,1). All semi-classical curvature singularities are canceled in the exact theories for both of these cosets, but some new quantum curvature singularities emerge. However, considering different patches of the global manifolds, allows the construction of non-singular space-times with cosmological interpretation. In both two and three dimensions, we construct non-singular oscillating cosmologies, non-singular expanding and inflationary cosmologies including a de Sitter (exponential) stage with positive scalar curvature as well as non-singular contracting and deflationary cosmologies. Similarities between the two and three dimensional cases suggest a general picture for higher dimensional coset cosmologies: Anisotropy seems to be a generic unavoidable feature, cosmological singularities are generically avoided and it is possible to construct non-singular cosmologies where some spatial dimensions are experiencing inflation while the others experience deflation
T-duality transformation and universal structure of noncritical string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asatani, T.; Kuroki, T.; Okawa, Y.; Sugino, F.; Yoneya, T.
1997-01-01
We discuss a T-duality transformation for the c=1/2 matrix model for the purpose of studying duality transformations in a possible toy example of nonperturbative frameworks of string theory. Our approach is to first investigate the scaling limit of the Schwinger-Dyson equations and the stochastic Hamiltonian in terms of the dual variables and then compare the results with those using the original spin variables. It is shown that the c=1/2 model in the scaling limit is T-duality symmetric in the sphere approximation. In the case of the standard two-matrix model, however, the duality symmetry is violated when the higher-genus effects are taken into account, due to the nonsymmetrical appearence of global Z 2 vector fields corresponding to nontrivial homology cycles. Some universal properties of the stochastic Hamiltonians which play an important role in discussing the scaling limit and have been discussed in a previous work by Sugino and Yoneya are refined in both the original and dual formulations. We also report a number of new explicit results for various amplitudes containing macroscopic loop operators. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Cosmic microwave background observables of small field models of inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ben-Dayan, Ido; Brustein, Ram
2010-01-01
We construct a class of single small field models of inflation that can predict, contrary to popular wisdom, an observable gravitational wave signal in the cosmic microwave background anisotropies. The spectral index, its running, the tensor to scalar ratio and the number of e-folds can cover all the parameter space currently allowed by cosmological observations. A unique feature of models in this class is their ability to predict a negative spectral index running in accordance with recent cosmic microwave background observations. We discuss the new class of models from an effective field theory perspective and show that if the dimensionless trilinear coupling is small, as required for consistency, then the observed spectral index running implies a high scale of inflation and hence an observable gravitational wave signal. All the models share a distinct prediction of higher power at smaller scales, making them easy targets for detection
Gravitational effects of cosmic strings in Friedmann universes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veeraraghavan, S.
1988-01-01
Cosmic strings have been invoked recently as a possible source of the primordial density fluctuations in matter which gave rise to large-scale structure by the process of gravitational collapse. If cosmic strings did indeed seed structure formation then they would also leave an observable imprint upon the microwave and gravitational wave backgrounds, and upon structure on the very largest scales. In this work, the energy-momentum tensor appropriate to a cosmic string configuration in the flat Friedmann universe is first obtained and then used in the linearized Einstein equations to obtain the perturbations of the background space-time and the ambient matter. The calculation is full self-consistent to linear order because it takes into account compensation, or the response of the ambient matter density field to the presence of the string configuration, and is valid for an arbitrarily curved and moving configuration everywhere except very close to a string segment. The single constraint is that the dimensionless string tension Gμ/c 2 must be small compared to unity, but this condition is satisfied in any theory that leads to strings of cosmological relevance. The gravitational wave spectrum and the microwave background temperature fluctuations from a single infinite straight and static string are calculated. The statistically expected fluctuations from an ensemble of such strings with a mean density equal to that found in computer simulations of the evolution of string networks is also calculated. These fluctuations are compared with the observational data on the microwave background to constrain Gμ. Lastly, the role of infinite strings in the formation of the large-scale structure on scales of tens of Megaparsecs observed in deep redshift surveys is examined
Vacuum fluctuations of the supersymmetric field in curved background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bilić, Neven; Domazet, Silvije; Guberina, Branko
2012-01-01
We study a supersymmetric model in curved background spacetime. We calculate the effective action and the vacuum expectation value of the energy momentum tensor using a covariant regularization procedure. A soft supersymmetry breaking induces a nonzero contribution to the vacuum energy density and pressure. Assuming the presence of a cosmic fluid in addition to the vacuum fluctuations of the supersymmetric field an effective equation of state is derived in a self-consistent approach at one loop order. The net effect of the vacuum fluctuations of the supersymmetric fields in the leading adiabatic order is a renormalization of the Newton and cosmological constants.
Vacuum fluctuations of the supersymmetric field in curved background
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bilic, Neven, E-mail: bilic@thphys.irb.hr [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, POB 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Domazet, Silvije, E-mail: sdomazet@irb.hr [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, POB 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Guberina, Branko, E-mail: guberina@thphys.irb.hr [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, POB 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)
2012-01-16
We study a supersymmetric model in curved background spacetime. We calculate the effective action and the vacuum expectation value of the energy momentum tensor using a covariant regularization procedure. A soft supersymmetry breaking induces a nonzero contribution to the vacuum energy density and pressure. Assuming the presence of a cosmic fluid in addition to the vacuum fluctuations of the supersymmetric field an effective equation of state is derived in a self-consistent approach at one loop order. The net effect of the vacuum fluctuations of the supersymmetric fields in the leading adiabatic order is a renormalization of the Newton and cosmological constants.
Cosmic microwave background polarization signals from tangled magnetic fields.
Seshadri, T R; Subramanian, K
2001-09-03
Tangled, primordial cosmic magnetic fields create small rotational velocity perturbations on the last scattering surface of the cosmic microwave background radiation. For fields which redshift to a present value of B0 = 3 x 10(-9) G, these vector modes are shown to generate polarization anisotropies of order 0.1-4 microK on small angular scales (500
On non-perturbative effects of background fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hosoda, Masataka; Yamakoshi, Hitoshi; Shimizu, Tadayoshi.
1986-01-01
APS-index of the Abelian Higgs model is at first obtained in a bounded domain of a disk with radius R. It is shown that the APS-index depends strongly on the behavior of the background fields and becomes integer when boundary effects are taken into account. Next, the electric charge of the vacuum is reconsidered in the momopole field coupled to a massive Dirac particle. It is reconfirmed that the monopole ground state has an electric charge θ/π which changes discontinuously to zero when the fermion mass is zero. (author)
Non-commutative analytic geometry and a new model for the field theory of closed bosonic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Awada, M.A.
1986-07-01
We propose a new model for the field theory of interacting closed bosonic strings. The key ingredient in our constructions is based on the assumption that the action is written in terms of two independent states rather than one state. The first state is chiral while the second state is antichiral. The new picture of the corresponding vertex operator is not just an overlap ''δ'' functional
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anchordoqui, Luis; Nawata, Satoshi; Goldberg, Haim; Nunez, Carlos
2007-01-01
We explore the cosmological content of Salam-Sezgin six-dimensional supergravity, and find a solution to the field equations in qualitative agreement with observation of distant supernovae, primordial nucleosynthesis abundances, and recent measurements of the cosmic microwave background. The carrier of the acceleration in the present de Sitter epoch is a quintessence field slowly rolling down its exponential potential. Intrinsic to this model is a second modulus which is automatically stabilized and acts as a source of cold dark matter, with a mass proportional to an exponential function of the quintessence field (hence realizing varying mass particle models within a string context). However, any attempt to saturate the present cold dark matter component in this manner leads to unacceptable deviations from cosmological data--a numerical study reveals that this source can account for up to about 7% of the total cold dark matter budget. We also show that (1) the model will support a de Sitter energy in agreement with observation at the expense of a miniscule breaking of supersymmetry in the compact space; (2) variations in the fine structure constant are controlled by the stabilized modulus and are negligible; (3) ''fifth'' forces are carried by the stabilized modulus and are short range; (4) the long time behavior of the model in four dimensions is that of a Robertson-Walker universe with a constant expansion rate (w=-1/3). Finally, we present a string theory background by lifting our six-dimensional cosmological solution to ten dimensions
Quantum field theory with infinite component local fields as an alternative to the string theories
Krasnikov, N. V.
1987-09-01
We show that the introduction of the infinite component local fields with higher-order derivatives in the interaction makes the theory completely ultraviolet finite. For the γ5-anomalous theories the introduction of the infinite component field makes the theory renormalizable or even superrenormalizable. I am indebted to J. Ambjōrn, P. Di Vecchia, H.B. Nielsen and L. Rozhansky for useful discussions. It is a pleasure to thank the Niels Bohr Institute (Copenhagen) where this work was completed for kind hospitality.
Keersmaekers, Lissa; Keustermans, William; De Greef, Daniël; Dirckx, Joris J. J.
2016-06-01
We developed a setup in which the strings of the violin are driven electromagnetically, and the resulting vibration of the instrument is measured with digital stroboscopic holography. A 250mW single mode green laser beam is chopped using an acousto-optic modulator, generating illumination pulses of 2% of the vibration period. The phase of the illumination pulse is controlled by a programmable function generator so that digital holograms can be recorded on a number of subsequent time positions within the vibration phase. From these recordings, the out of plane motion as a function of time is reconstructed in full field. We show results of full-field vibration amplitude and vibration phase maps, and time resolved full-field deformations of the violin back plane. Time resolved measurements show in detail how the deformation of the violin plane changes as a function of time at different frequencies. We found very different behavior under acoustic stimulation of the instrument and when using electromagnetic stimulation of a string. The aim of the work it to gather data which can be used in power flow calculations to study how the energy of the strings is conducted to the body of the violin and eventually is radiated as sound.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keersmaekers, Lissa; Keustermans, William; De Greef, Daniël; Dirckx, Joris J. J.
2016-01-01
We developed a setup in which the strings of the violin are driven electromagnetically, and the resulting vibration of the instrument is measured with digital stroboscopic holography. A 250 mW single mode green laser beam is chopped using an acousto-optic modulator, generating illumination pulses of 2% of the vibration period. The phase of the illumination pulse is controlled by a programmable function generator so that digital holograms can be recorded on a number of subsequent time positions within the vibration phase. From these recordings, the out of plane motion as a function of time is reconstructed in full field. We show results of full-field vibration amplitude and vibration phase maps, and time resolved full-field deformations of the violin back plane. Time resolved measurements show in detail how the deformation of the violin plane changes as a function of time at different frequencies. We found very different behavior under acoustic stimulation of the instrument and when using electromagnetic stimulation of a string. The aim of the work it to gather data which can be used in power flow calculations to study how the energy of the strings is conducted to the body of the violin and eventually is radiated as sound.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keersmaekers, Lissa; Keustermans, William, E-mail: william.keustermans@uantwerpen.be; De Greef, Daniël; Dirckx, Joris J. J. [University of Antwerp, Laboratory of Biophysics and Biomedical Physics, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)
2016-06-28
We developed a setup in which the strings of the violin are driven electromagnetically, and the resulting vibration of the instrument is measured with digital stroboscopic holography. A 250 mW single mode green laser beam is chopped using an acousto-optic modulator, generating illumination pulses of 2% of the vibration period. The phase of the illumination pulse is controlled by a programmable function generator so that digital holograms can be recorded on a number of subsequent time positions within the vibration phase. From these recordings, the out of plane motion as a function of time is reconstructed in full field. We show results of full-field vibration amplitude and vibration phase maps, and time resolved full-field deformations of the violin back plane. Time resolved measurements show in detail how the deformation of the violin plane changes as a function of time at different frequencies. We found very different behavior under acoustic stimulation of the instrument and when using electromagnetic stimulation of a string. The aim of the work it to gather data which can be used in power flow calculations to study how the energy of the strings is conducted to the body of the violin and eventually is radiated as sound.
Derendinger, J.-P.; Scrucca, C. A.; Uranga, A.
2007-11-01
This special issue is devoted to the proceedings of the conference 'Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Theories', which took place at CERN, the European Centre for Nuclear Research, in Geneva, Switzerland, from the 15 to the 19 of January 2007. This event was organized in the framework of the European Mobility Research and Training Network entitled 'Constituents, Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of the Universe'. It is part of a yearly series of scientific schools, which represents what is by now a well established tradition. The previous conferences have been held at SISSA, in Trieste, Italy, in February 2005 and at CERN in January 2006. The next will again take place at CERN, in January 2008. The school was primarily meant for young doctoral students and postdoctoral researchers working in the area of string theory. It consisted of several general lectures of four hours each, the notes of which are published in the present proceedings, and seven working group discussion sessions, focused on specific topics of the network research program. It was attended by approximatively 250 participants. The topics of the lectures were chosen to provide an introduction to some of the areas of recent progress, and to the open problems, in string theory. String theory is a compelling candidate for a theory of all interactions. A basic challenge in this field is therefore to explore the connection of string theory models and the laws of physics in different realms, like high-energy particle physics, early cosmology, or physics of strongly coupled gauge theories. Concerning the exploration of string theory compactifications leading to realistic models of particle physics, one of the main obstacles in this direction is the proper understanding of supersymmetry breaking. The lecture notes by Nathan Seiberg review the realization of spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry in field theory, including recent developments via the use of meta-stable long-lived vacua. It is
The DKP oscillator with a linear interaction in the cosmic string space-time
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hosseinpour, Mansoureh; Hassanabadi, Hassan [Shahrood University of Technology, Faculty of Physics, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Andrade, Fabiano M. [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Departamento de Matematica e Estatistica, Ponta Grossa, Parana (Brazil)
2018-02-15
We study the relativistic quantum dynamics of a DKP oscillator field subject to a linear interaction in cosmic string space-time in order to better understand the effects of gravitational fields produced by topological defects on the scalar field. We obtain the solution of DKP oscillator in the cosmic string background. Also, we solve it with an ansatz in the presence of a linear interaction. We obtain the wave functions and the energy levels of the relativistic field in that background. (orig.)
Nonassociativity, Malcev algebras and string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guenaydin, M.; Minic, D.
2013-01-01
Nonassociative structures have appeared in the study of D-branes in curved backgrounds. In recent work, string theory backgrounds involving three-form fluxes, where such structures show up, have been studied in more detail. We point out that under certain assumptions these nonassociative structures coincide with nonassociative Malcev algebras which had appeared in the quantum mechanics of systems with non-vanishing three-cocycles, such as a point particle moving in the field of a magnetic charge. We generalize the corresponding Malcev algebras to include electric as well as magnetic charges. These structures find their classical counterpart in the theory of Poisson-Malcev algebras and their generalizations. We also study their connection to Stueckelberg's generalized Poisson brackets that do not obey the Jacobi identity and point out that nonassociative string theory with a fundamental length corresponds to a realization of his goal to find a non-linear extension of quantum mechanics with a fundamental length. Similar nonassociative structures are also known to appear in the cubic formulation of closed string field theory in terms of open string fields, leading us to conjecture a natural string-field theoretic generalization of the AdS/CFT-like (holographic) duality. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Thermodynamics of quantum strings
Morgan, M J
1994-01-01
A statistical mechanical analysis of an ideal gas of non-relativistic quantum strings is presented, in which the thermodynamic properties of the string gas are calculated from a canonical partition function. This toy model enables students to gain insight into the thermodynamics of a simple 'quantum field' theory, and provides a useful pedagogical introduction to the more complicated relativistic string theories. A review is also given of the thermodynamics of the open bosonic string gas and the type I (open) superstring gas. (author)
Instanton strings and hyper-Kaehler geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dijkgraaf, Robbert
1999-01-01
We discuss two-dimensional sigma models on moduli spaces of instantons on K3 surfaces. These N = (4, 4) superconformal field theories describe the near-horizon dynamics of the D1-D5-brane system and are dual to string theory on AdS 3 . We derive a precise map relating the moduli of the K3 type 1113 string compactification to the moduli of these conformal field theories and the corresponding classical hyper-Kahler geometry. We conclude that in the absence of background gauge fields, the metric on the instanton moduli spaces degenerates exactly to the orbifold symmetric product of K3. Turning on a self-dual NS B-field deforms this symmetric product to a manifold that is diffeomorphic to the Hilbert scheme. We also comment on the mathematical applications of string duality to the global issues of deformations of hyper-Kaehler manifolds
String theory of Calabi-Yau compactifications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luetken, C.A.
1989-01-01
The conformal field theory description of Calabi-Yau compactifications of the heterotic superstring from 10 to 4 dimensions is outlined. The basic ideas of ordinary (bosonic) conformal field theory are explained before describing the exactly solvable N=2 superconformal minimal models which are needed in the tensor construction of certain particularly simple string vacua. Using a simple sigma-model construction of algebraic varieties and drawing on insight gained from the Landau-Ginzburg description of critical phenomena, it is explained how the critical behaviour of these 2-dimensional solvable quantum field theories with complex supersymmetry may be regarded as string compactification on a Calabi-Yau background. The virtue of this is to provide a tool for computing exact (tree level) results for strings in these highly non-trivial vacua, including all the Yukawa couplings needed in the construction of the low-energy effective field theory. (orig.)
D-string fluid in conifold, I: Topological gauge model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahl Laamara, R.; Drissi, L.B.; Saidi, E.H.
2006-01-01
Motivated by similarities between quantum Hall systems a la Susskind and aspects of topological string theory on conifold as well as results obtained in [E.H. Saidi, Topological SL(2) gauge theory on conifold and noncommutative geometry, hep-th/0601020], we study the dynamics of D-string fluids running in deformed conifold in presence of a strong and constant RR background B-field. We first introduce the basis of D-string system in fluid approximation and then derive the holomorphic noncommutative gauge invariant field action describing its dynamics in conifold. This study may be also viewed as embedding Susskind description for Laughlin liquid in type IIB string theory. FQH systems on real manifolds RxS 2 and S 3 are shown to be recovered by restricting conifold to its Lagrangian sub-manifolds. Aspects of quantum behaviour of the string fluid are discussed. ring fluid are discussed
Energy spectrum of tearing mode turbulence in sheared background field
Hu, Di; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Huang, Yi-Min
2018-06-01
The energy spectrum of tearing mode turbulence in a sheared background magnetic field is studied in this work. We consider the scenario where the nonlinear interaction of overlapping large-scale modes excites a broad spectrum of small-scale modes, generating tearing mode turbulence. The spectrum of such turbulence is of interest since it is relevant to the small-scale back-reaction on the large-scale field. The turbulence we discuss here differs from traditional MHD turbulence mainly in two aspects. One is the existence of many linearly stable small-scale modes which cause an effective damping during the energy cascade. The other is the scale-independent anisotropy induced by the large-scale modes tilting the sheared background field, as opposed to the scale-dependent anisotropy frequently encountered in traditional critically balanced turbulence theories. Due to these two differences, the energy spectrum deviates from a simple power law and takes the form of a power law multiplied by an exponential falloff. Numerical simulations are carried out using visco-resistive MHD equations to verify our theoretical predictions, and a reasonable agreement is found between the numerical results and our model.
Cosmic microwave background trispectrum and primordial magnetic field limits.
Trivedi, Pranjal; Seshadri, T R; Subramanian, Kandaswamy
2012-06-08
Primordial magnetic fields will generate non-gaussian signals in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as magnetic stresses and the temperature anisotropy they induce depend quadratically on the magnetic field. We compute a new measure of magnetic non-gaussianity, the CMB trispectrum, on large angular scales, sourced via the Sachs-Wolfe effect. The trispectra induced by magnetic energy density and by magnetic scalar anisotropic stress are found to have typical magnitudes of approximately a few times 10(-29) and 10(-19), respectively. Observational limits on CMB non-gaussianity from WMAP data allow us to conservatively set upper limits of a nG, and plausibly sub-nG, on the present value of the primordial cosmic magnetic field. This represents the tightest limit so far on the strength of primordial magnetic fields, on Mpc scales, and is better than limits from the CMB bispectrum and all modes in the CMB power spectrum. Thus, the CMB trispectrum is a new and more sensitive probe of primordial magnetic fields on large scales.
de Boer, J.
2000-01-01
In these notes we discuss various aspects of string theory in AdS spaces. We briefly review the formulation in terms of Green-Schwarz, NSR, and Berkovits variables, as well as the construction of exact conformal field theories with AdS backgrounds. Based on lectures given at the Kyoto YITP Workshop
A disintegrating cosmic string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Griffiths, J B; Docherty, P
2002-01-01
We present a simple sandwich gravitational wave of the Robinson-Trautman family. This is interpreted as representing a shock wave with a spherical wavefront which propagates into a Minkowski background minus a wedge (i.e. the background contains a cosmic string). The deficit angle (the tension) of the string decreases through the gravitational wave, which then ceases. This leaves an expanding spherical region of Minkowski space behind it. The decay of the cosmic string over a finite interval of retarded time may be considered to generate the gravitational wave. (letter to the editor)
Quantum field theory in a gravitational shock wave background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klimcik, C.
1988-01-01
A scalar massless non-interacting quantum field theory on an arbitrary gravitational shock wave background is exactly solved. S-matrix and expectation values of the energy-momentum tensor are computed for an arbitrarily polarized sourceless gravitational shock wave and for a homogeneous infinite planar shell shock wave, all performed in any number of space-time dimensions. Expectation values of the energy density in scattering states exhibit a singularity which lies exactly at the location of the curvature singularity found in the infinite shell collision. (orig.)
A novel background field removal method for MRI using projection onto dipole fields (PDF).
Liu, Tian; Khalidov, Ildar; de Rochefort, Ludovic; Spincemaille, Pascal; Liu, Jing; Tsiouris, A John; Wang, Yi
2011-11-01
For optimal image quality in susceptibility-weighted imaging and accurate quantification of susceptibility, it is necessary to isolate the local field generated by local magnetic sources (such as iron) from the background field that arises from imperfect shimming and variations in magnetic susceptibility of surrounding tissues (including air). Previous background removal techniques have limited effectiveness depending on the accuracy of model assumptions or information input. In this article, we report an observation that the magnetic field for a dipole outside a given region of interest (ROI) is approximately orthogonal to the magnetic field of a dipole inside the ROI. Accordingly, we propose a nonparametric background field removal technique based on projection onto dipole fields (PDF). In this PDF technique, the background field inside an ROI is decomposed into a field originating from dipoles outside the ROI using the projection theorem in Hilbert space. This novel PDF background removal technique was validated on a numerical simulation and a phantom experiment and was applied in human brain imaging, demonstrating substantial improvement in background field removal compared with the commonly used high-pass filtering method. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Dynamics of Strings in Noncommutative Gauge Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, David J.; Nekrasov, Nikia A.
2000-01-01
We continue our study of solitons in noncommutative gauge theories and present an extremely simple BPS solution of N=4 U(1) noncommutative gauge theory in 4 dimensions, which describes N infinite D1 strings that pierce a D3 brane at various points, in the presence of a background B-field in the Seiberg-Witten limit. We call this solution the N-fluxon. For N=1 we calculate the complete spectrum of small fluctuations about the fluxon and find three kinds of modes: the fluctuations of the superstring in 10 dimensions arising from fundamental strings attached to the D1 strings, the ordinary particles of the gauge theory in 4 dimensions and a set of states with discrete spectrum, localized at the intersection point - corresponding to fundamental strings stretched between the D1 string and the D3 brane. We discuss the fluctuations about the N-fluxon as well and derive explicit expressions for the amplitudes of interactions between these various modes. We show that translations in noncommutative gauge theories are equivalent to gauge transformations (plus a constant shift of the gauge field) and discuss the implications for the translational zeromodes of our solitons. We also find the dyonic versions of N-fluxon, as well as of our previous string-monopole solution. (author)
Developing the covariant Batalin-Vilkovisky approach to string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hata, H.; Zwiebach, B.
1994-01-01
In this work the authors investigate the variation of the string field action under changes of the string field vertices giving rise to different decompositions of the moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces. The authors establish that any such change in the string action arises from a field transformation canonical with respect to the Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) antibracket and find the explicit form of the generator of the infinitesimal transformations. Two theories using different decompositions of moduli space are shown to yield the same gauge-fixed action upon use of different gauge-fixing conditions. The authors also elaborate on recent work on the covariant BV formalism, and emphasize the necessity of a measure in the space of two-dimensional field theories in order to extend a recent analysis of background independence to quantum string field theory. 22 refs., 2 figs
Spinor Field Realizations of Non-critical $W_{2,s}$ Strings
Duan, Yi-Shi; Liu, Yu-Xiao; Zhang, Li-Jie
2005-01-01
In this paper, we construct the nilpotent Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin($BRST$) charges of spinor non-critical $W_{2,s}$ strings. The cases of $s=3,4$ are discussed in detail, and spinor realization for $s=4$ is given explicitly. The $BRST$ charges are graded.
Spinor field realizations of non-critical W2,s strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duan, Y.S.; Liu, Y.X.; Zhang, L.J.
2004-01-01
In this paper, we construct the nilpotent Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) charges of spinor non-critical W2,s strings. The cases of s=3,4 are discussed in detail, and spinor realization for s=4 is given explicitly. The BRST charges are graded
String theory and quark confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polyakov, A.M.
1998-01-01
This article is based on a talk given at the ''Strings '97'' conference. It discusses the search for the universality class of confining strings. The key ingredients include the loop equations, the zigzag symmetry, the non-linear renormalization group. Some new tests for the equivalence between gauge fields and strings are proposed. (orig.)
String theory in four dimensions
1988-01-01
``String Theory in Four Dimensions'' contains a representative collection of papers dealing with various aspects of string phenomenology, including compactifications on smooth manifolds and more general conformal field theories. Together with the lucid introduction by M. Dine, this material gives the reader a good working knowledge of our present ideas for connecting string theory to nature.
Racetrack inflation and cosmic strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brax, P. [CEA-Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France). CEA/DSM/SPhT, Unite de Recherche Associee au CNRS, Service de Physique Theorique; Bruck, C. van de [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Mathematics; Davis, A.C.; Davis, S.C. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences; Jeannerot, R. [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Leiden (Netherlands); Postma, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2008-05-15
We consider the coupling of racetrack inflation to matter fields as realised in the D3/D7 brane system. In particular, we investigate the possibility of cosmic string formation in this system. We find that string formation before or at the onset of racetrack inflation is possible, but they are then inflated away. Furthermore, string formation at the end of inflation is prevented by the presence of the moduli sector. As a consequence, no strings survive racetrack inflation. (orig.)
Racetrack inflation and cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brax, P.; Postma, M.
2008-05-01
We consider the coupling of racetrack inflation to matter fields as realised in the D3/D7 brane system. In particular, we investigate the possibility of cosmic string formation in this system. We find that string formation before or at the onset of racetrack inflation is possible, but they are then inflated away. Furthermore, string formation at the end of inflation is prevented by the presence of the moduli sector. As a consequence, no strings survive racetrack inflation. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishibashi, Nobuyuki; Onogi, Tetsuya
1989-01-01
Consistency conditions of open string theories, which can be a powerful tool in open string model building, are proposed. By making use of these conditions and assuming a simple prescription for the Chan-Paton factors, open string theories in several backgrounds are studied. We show that 1. there exist a large number of consistent bosonic open string theories on Z 2 orbifolds, 2. SO(32) type I superstring is the unique consistent model among fermionic string theories on the ten-dimensional flat Minkowski space, and 3. with our prescription for the Chan-Paton factors, there exist no consistent open superstring theories on (six-dimensional Minkowski space-time) x (Z 2 orbifold). (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berkovits, Nathan [ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research,Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista,Rua Dr. Bento T. Ferraz 271, 01140-070, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2016-06-21
The pure spinor formalism for the superstring can be formulated as a twisted N=2 worldsheet theory with fermionic generators j{sub BRST} and composite b ghost. After untwisting the formalism to an N=1 worldsheet theory with fermionic stress tensor j{sub BRST}+b, the worldsheet variables combine into N=1 worldsheet superfields X{sup m} and Θ{sup α} together with a superfield constraint relating DX{sup m} and DΘ{sup α}. The constraint implies that the worldsheet superpartner of θ{sup α} is a bosonic twistor variable, and different solutions of the constraint give rise to the pure spinor or extended RNS formalisms, as well as a new twistor-string formalism with manifest N=1 worldsheet supersymmetry. These N=1 worldsheet methods generalize in curved Ramond-Ramond backgrounds, and a manifestly N=1 worldsheet supersymmetric action is proposed for the superstring in an AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} background in terms of the twistor superfields. This AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} worldsheet action is a remarkably simple fermionic coset model with manifest PSU(2,2|4) symmetry and might be useful for computing AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} superstring scattering amplitudes.
Lectures on strings and dualities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vafa, C.
1997-01-01
In this set of lectures I review recent developments in string theory emphasizing their non-perturbative aspects and their recently discovered duality symmetries. The goal of the lectures is to make the recent exciting developments in string theory accessible to those with no previous background in string theory who wish to join the research effort in this area. Topics covered include a brief review of string theory, its compactifications, solitons and D-branes, black hole entropy and wed of string dualities. (author)
Cosmic Microwave Background Mapmaking with a Messenger Field
Huffenberger, Kevin M.; Næss, Sigurd K.
2018-01-01
We apply a messenger field method to solve the linear minimum-variance mapmaking equation in the context of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations. In simulations, the method produces sky maps that converge significantly faster than those from a conjugate gradient descent algorithm with a diagonal preconditioner, even though the computational cost per iteration is similar. The messenger method recovers large scales in the map better than conjugate gradient descent, and yields a lower overall χ2. In the single, pencil beam approximation, each iteration of the messenger mapmaking procedure produces an unbiased map, and the iterations become more optimal as they proceed. A variant of the method can handle differential data or perform deconvolution mapmaking. The messenger method requires no preconditioner, but a high-quality solution needs a cooling parameter to control the convergence. We study the convergence properties of this new method and discuss how the algorithm is feasible for the large data sets of current and future CMB experiments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan Hongmo.
1987-10-01
The paper traces the development of the String Theory, and was presented at Professor Sir Rudolf Peierls' 80sup(th) Birthday Symposium. The String theory is discussed with respect to the interaction of strings, the inclusion of both gauge theory and gravitation, inconsistencies in the theory, and the role of space-time. The physical principles underlying string theory are also outlined. (U.K.)
Gorbatov, Elie
In the first part of the dissertation we study noncommutative field theories at finite temperature. We find evidence for winding states and observe the existence of a transition to a new phase where there is a reduction of the degrees of freedom in the non-planar sector of the theory. We emphasize that such a transition is generic and insensitive to the particulars of the UV definition of the theory. In the second part we investigate some aspects of M-theory compactifications on orbifolds. The heterotic E8 x E 8 string compactified on T4/ ZN has gauge group G x G˜ with massless states in the twisted sector charged under both factors. In the dual M-theory description on T4/ ZN x S1/Z 2 the two groups do not communicate with each other since they reside on the boundary of the eleven dimensional spacetime. This leads to a conundrum for the twisted states of the perturbative heterotic string for there does not seem to be local degrees of freedom which carry charges under both G and G˜. We propose a resolution of this apparent paradox by nonperturbative states in M-theory. In support of our argument we review the consideration of six-dimensional gauge couplings and verify the local anomaly cancellation. In order to understand the dynamical properties of these states we deform the orbifold geometry, find an equivalent string theory background, and brane engineer the low energy six-dimensional field theories. In the process we encounter many exotic and surprising phenomena which are intrinsically M-theoretic and completely invisible to the perturbative observer.
Cosmic strings and galaxy formation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertschinger, E.
1989-01-01
Cosmic strings have become increasingly popular candidates as seeds for the formation of structure in the universe. This scenario, remains a serious cosmogonical model despite close scrutiny. In constrast, magnetic monopoles and domain walls - relic topological defects as are cosmic strings - are disastrous for cosmology if they are left over from the early universe. The production of heavy cosmic strings is speculative, as it depends on the details of ultrahigh energy physics. Fortunately, speculation about cosmic strings is not entirely idle because, if they exist and are heavy enough to seed galaxy formation, cosmic strings can be detected astronomically. Failure to detect cosmic strings would impose some constraints on grand unified theories (GUTs); their discovery would have exciting consequences for high energy physics and cosmology. This article reviews the basic physics of nonsuperconducting cosmic strings, highlighting the field theory aspects, and provides a progress report on calculations of structure formation with cosmic strings
Non-relativistic fermions, coadjoint orbits of W∞ and string field theory at c=1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dhar, A.; Mandal, G.; Wadia, S.R.
1992-01-01
In this paper, the authors apply the method of coadjoint orbits of W ∞ -algebra to the problem of non-relativistic fermions in one dimension. This leads to a geometric formulation of the quantum theory in terms of the quantum phase space distribution of the Fermi fluid. The action has an infinite series of expansion in the string coupling, which to leading order reduces to the previously discussed geometric action for the classical Fermi fluid based on the group w ∞ of area-preserving diffeomorphisms. The authors briefly discuss the strong coupling limit of the string theory which, unlike the weak coupling regime, does not seem to admit a two-dimensional space-time picture. The authors' methods are equally applicable to interacting fermions in one dimension
Proper acceleration, the geometric tachyon and the dynamics of a fundamental string near Dp branes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, Ashok; Panda, Sudhakar; Roy, Shibaji
2009-01-01
We present a detailed analysis of our recent observation that the origin of the geometric tachyon, which arises when a Dp brane propagates in the vicinity of a stack of coincident NS5 branes, is due to the proper acceleration generated by the background dilaton field. We show that when a fundamental string (F-string), described by the Nambu-Goto action, is moving in the background of a stack of coincident Dp branes, the geometric tachyon mode can also appear since the overall conformal mode of the induced metric for the string can act as a source for proper acceleration. We also studied the detailed dynamics of the F-string as well as the instability by mapping the Nambu-Goto action of the F-string to the tachyon effective action of the non-BPS D-string. We qualitatively argue that the condensation of the geometric tachyon is responsible for the (F,Dp) bound state formation.
Ghost field realizations of the spinor $W_{2,s}$ strings based on the linear W(1,2,s) algebras
Liu, Yu-Xiao; Zhang, Li-Jie; Ren, Ji-Rong
2005-01-01
It has been shown that certain W algebras can be linearized by the inclusion of a spin-1 current. This Provides a way of obtaining new realizations of the W algebras. In this paper, we investigate the new ghost field realizations of the W(2,s)(s=3,4) algebras, making use of the fact that these two algebras can be linearized. We then construct the nilpotent BRST charges of the spinor non-critical W(2,s) strings with these new realizations.
Ghost field realizations of the spinor W2,s strings based on the linear W1,2,s algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Yuxiao; Ren Jirong; Zhang Lijie
2005-01-01
It has been shown that certain W algebras can be linearized by the inclusion of a spin-1 current. This provides a way of obtaining new realizations of the W algebras. In this paper, we investigate the new ghost field realizations of the W 2,s (s=3,4) algebras, making use of the fact that these two algebras can be linearized. We then construct the nilpotent BRST charges of the spinor non-critical W 2,s strings with these new realizations. (author)
Environmental CPT Violation in an Expanding Universe in String Theory
Ellis, John; Sarkar, Sarben
2013-01-01
We consider a model of an expanding Universe in string theory that yields `environmental' CPT violation for fermions, in the sense of different dispersion relations for fermions and antifermions. These are induced by a cosmological background with constant torsion provided by the Kalb-Ramond antisymmetric tensor field (axion) of the string gravitational multiplet. This effect induces different densities of neutrinos and antineutrinos while in chemical equilibrium, offering new scenarios for leptogenesis and baryogenesis even in the absence of CP violation.
Cosmic strings in an expanding spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stein-Schabes, J.A.; Burd, A.B.
1987-04-01
We investigate the stability of a static, infinitely long and straight vacuum string solution under inhomogeneous axisymmetric time-dependent perturbations. We find it to be perturbatively stable. We further extend our work by finding a string solutions in an expanding Universe. The back reaction of the string on the gravitational field has been ignored. The background is assumed to be a Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology. By numerically integrating the field equations in a radiation and matter dominated models, we discover oscillatory solutions. The possible damping of these oscillations is discussed. For late times the solution becomes identical to the static one studied in the first part of the paper. 19 refs., 8 figs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barendregt, Wolmet; Börjesson, Peter; Eriksson, Eva
2017-01-01
In this paper, we present the forced collaborative interaction game StringForce. StringForce is developed for a special education context to support training of collaboration skills, using readily available technologies and avoiding the creation of a "mobile bubble". In order to play String......Force two or four physically collocated tablets are required. These tablets are connected to form one large shared game area. The game can only be played by collaborating. StringForce extends previous work, both technologically and regarding social-emotional training. We believe String......Force to be an interesting demo for the IDC community, as it intertwines several relevant research fields, such as mobile interaction and collaborative gaming in the special education context....
2015-01-01
Welcome to String-Math 2015 at Sanya. The conference will be opened in December 31, 2015- January 4, 2016. String theory plays a central role in theoretical physics as a candidate for the quantum theory unifying gravity with other interactions. It has profound connections with broad branches of modern mathematics ever since the birth. In the last decades, the prosperous interaction, built upon the joint efforts from both mathematicians and physicists, has given rise to marvelous deep results in supersymmetric gauge theory, topological string, M-theory and duality on the physics side as well as in algebraic geometry, differential geometry, algebraic topology, representation theory and number theory on the mathematics side. The interplay is two-fold. The mathematics has provided powerful tools to fulfill the physical interconnection of ideas and clarify physical structures to understand the nature of string theory. On the other hand, ideas from string theory and quantum field theory have been a source of sign...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popov, A.D.
1991-01-01
We introduce hyperbolic strings as closed bosonic strings with the target space R d-1,1 xT q+1,1 which has an additional time-like dimension in the internal space. The Fock spaces of the q-parametric family of standard bosonic, fermionic and heterotic strings with the target spaces of dimension n≤d+q are shown to be embedded into the Fock space of hyperbolic strings. The condition of the absence of anomaly fixes d and q for all three types of strings written in a bosonized form. (orig.)
String necklaces and primordial black holes from type IIB strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lake, Matthew; Thomas, Steve; Ward, John
2009-01-01
We consider a model of static cosmic string loops in type IIB string theory, where the strings wrap cycles within the internal space. The strings are not topologically stabilised, however the presence of a lifting potential traps the windings giving rise to kinky cycloops. We find that PBH formation occurs at early times in a small window, whilst at late times we observe the formation of dark matter relics in the scaling regime. This is in stark contrast to previous predictions based on field theoretic models. We also consider the PBH contribution to the mass density of the universe, and use the experimental data to impose bounds on the string theory parameters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayasaka, Kiyoshi; Nakayama, Ryuichi
2002-01-01
We point out that when a D-brane is placed in an NS-NS B field background with nonvanishing field strength (H=dB) along the D-brane worldvolume, the coordinate of one end of the open string does not commute with that of the other in the low energy limit. The degrees of the freedom associated with both ends are not decoupled and accordingly, the effective action must be quite different from that of the ordinary noncommutative gauge theory for a constant B background. We construct an associative and noncommutative product * which operates on the coordinates of both ends of the string and propose a new type of noncommutative gauge action for the low energy effective theory of a Dp-brane. This effective theory is bi-local and lives in twice as large dimensions (2D=2(p+1)) as in the H=0 case. When viewed as a theory in the D-dimensional space, this theory is nonlocal and we must force the two ends of the string to coincide. We will then propose a prescription for reducing this bi-local effective action to that in D dimensions and obtaining a local effective action
Katz, Sheldon; Klemm, Albrecht; Morrison, David R
2015-01-01
This volume contains the proceedings of the conference String-Math 2012, which was held July 16-21, 2012, at the Hausdorff Center for Mathematics, Universitat Bonn. This was the second in a series of annual large meetings devoted to the interface of mathematics and string theory. These meetings have rapidly become the flagship conferences in the field. Topics include super Riemann surfaces and their super moduli, generalized moonshine and K3 surfaces, the latest developments in supersymmetric and topological field theory, localization techniques, applications to knot theory, and many more. The contributors include many leaders in the field, such as Sergio Cecotti, Matthias Gaberdiel, Rahul Pandharipande, Albert Schwarz, Anne Taormina, Johannes Walcher, Katrin Wendland, and Edward Witten. This book will be essential reading for researchers and students in this area and for all mathematicians and string theorists who want to update themselves on developments in the math-string interface.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souza Alves, Marcelo de.
1990-03-01
Some general aspects on field theories in curved space-time and a introduction to conformal symmetry are presented.The behavior of the physical systems under Weyl transformations is discussed. The quantization of such systems are performed through the functional integration method. The regularization in curved space-time is also discussed. An application of this analysis in String theories is made. 42 refs
Prequantum classical statistical field theory: background field as a source of everything?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khrennikov, Andrei
2011-01-01
Prequantum classical statistical field theory (PCSFT) is a new attempt to consider quantum mechanics (QM) as an emergent phenomenon, cf. with De Broglie's 'double solution' approach, Bohmian mechanics, stochastic electrodynamics (SED), Nelson's stochastic QM and its generalization by Davidson, 't Hooft's models and their development by Elze. PCSFT is a comeback to a purely wave viewpoint on QM, cf. with early Schrodinger. There is no quantum particles at all, only waves. In particular, photons are simply wave-pulses of the classical electromagnetic field, cf. SED. Moreover, even massive particles are special 'prequantum fields': the electron field, the neutron field, and so on. PCSFT claims that (sooner or later) people will be able to measure components of these fields: components of the 'photonic field' (the classical electromagnetic field of low intensity), electronic field, neutronic field, and so on. At the moment we are able to produce quantum correlations as correlations of classical Gaussian random fields. In this paper we are interested in mathematical and physical reasons of usage of Gaussian fields. We consider prequantum signals (corresponding to quantum systems) as composed of a huge number of wave-pulses (on very fine prequantum time scale). We speculate that the prequantum background field (the field of 'vacuum fluctuations') might play the role of a source of such pulses, i.e., the source of everything.
String beta function equations from c=1 matrix model
Dhar, A; Wadia, S R; Dhar, Avinash; Mandal, Gautam; Wadia, Spenta R
1995-01-01
We derive the \\sigma-model tachyon \\beta-function equation of 2-dimensional string theory, in the background of flat space and linear dilaton, working entirely within the c=1 matrix model. The tachyon \\beta-function equation is satisfied by a \\underbar{nonlocal} and \\underbar{nonlinear} combination of the (massless) scalar field of the matrix model. We discuss the possibility of describing the `discrete states' as well as other possible gravitational and higher tensor backgrounds of 2-dimensional string theory within the c=1 matrix model. We also comment on the realization of the W-infinity symmetry of the matrix model in the string theory. The present work reinforces the viewpoint that a nonlocal (and nonlinear) transform is required to extract the space-time physics of 2-dimensional string theory from the c=1 matrix model.
Supergravity duals of matrix string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morales, Jose F.; Samtleben, Henning
2002-01-01
We study holographic duals of type II and heterotic matrix string theories described by warped AdS 3 supergravities. By explicitly solving the linearized equations of motion around near horizon D-string geometries, we determine the spectrum of Kaluza-Klein primaries for type I, II supergravities on warped AdS 3 xS 7 . The results match those coming from the dual two-dimensional gauge theories living on the D-string worldvolumes. We briefly discuss the connections with the N=(8,8), N=(8,0) orbifold superconformal field theories to which type IIB/heterotic matrix strings flow in the infrared. In particular, we associate the dimension (h,h-bar) (32,32) twisted operator which brings the matrix string theories out from the conformal point (R; 8 ) N /S N with the dilaton profile in the supergravity background. The familiar dictionary between masses and 'scaling' dimensions of field and operators are modified by the presence of non-trivial warp factors and running dilatons. These modifications are worked out for the general case of domain wall/QFT correspondences between supergravities on warped AdS d+1 xS q geometries and super Yang-Mills theories with 16 supercharges. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Witten, Edward
2015-10-21
The Strings 2014 meeting was held at Princeton University June 23-27, 2014, co-sponsored by Princeton University and the Institute for Advanced Study. The goal of the meeting was to provide a stimulating and up-to-date overview of research in string theory and its relations to other areas of physics and mathematics, ranging from geometry to quantum field theory, condensed matter physics, and more. This brief report lists committee members and speakers but contains no scientific information. Note that the talks at Strings 2014 were videotaped and are available on the conference website: http://physics.princeton.edustrings2014/Talk_titles.shtml.
Quantum backreaction in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evnin, O.
2012-01-01
There are situations in string theory when a finite number of string quanta induce a significant backreaction upon the background and render the perturbation theory infrared-divergent. The simplest example is D0-brane recoil under an impact by closed strings. A more physically interesting case is backreaction on the evolution of a totally compact universe due to closed string gas. Such situations necessitate qualitative amendments to the traditional formulation of string theory in a fixed classical background. In this contribution to the proceedings of the XVII European Workshop on String Theory in Padua, I review solved problems and current investigations in relation to this kind of quantum backreaction effects. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations around a cosmic string in de Sitter spacetime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saharian, A.A.; Saharyan, N.A. [Yerevan State University, Department of Physics, Yerevan (Armenia); Manukyan, V.F. [Gyumri State Pedagogical Institute, Department of Physics and Mathematics, Gyumri (Armenia)
2017-07-15
The electromagnetic field correlators are evaluated around a cosmic string in background of (D + 1)-dimensional dS spacetime assuming that the field is prepared in the Bunch-Davies vacuum state. The correlators are presented in the decomposed form where the string-induced topological parts are explicitly extracted. With this decomposition, the renormalization of the local vacuum expectation values (VEVs) in the coincidence limit is reduced to the one for dS spacetime in the absence of the cosmic string. The VEVs of the squared electric and magnetic fields, and of the vacuum energy density are investigated. Near the string they are dominated by the topological contributions and the effects induced by the background gravitational field are small. In this region, the leading terms in the topological contributions are obtained from the corresponding VEVs for a string on the Minkowski bulk multiplying by the conformal factor. At distances from the string larger than the curvature radius of the background geometry, the pure dS parts in the VEVs dominate. In this region, for spatial dimensions D > 3, the influence of the gravitational field on the topological contributions is crucial and the corresponding behavior is essentially different from that for a cosmic string on the Minkowski bulk. There are well-motivated inflationary models which produce cosmic strings. We argue that, as a consequence of the quantum-to-classical transition of super-Hubble electromagnetic fluctuations during inflation, in the post-inflationary era these strings will be surrounded by large-scale stochastic magnetic fields. These fields could be among the distinctive features of the cosmic strings produced during the inflation and also of the corresponding inflationary models. (orig.)
Schomerus, Volker
2017-01-01
Since its conception in the 1960s, string theory has been hailed as one of the most promising routes we have to unify quantum mechanics and general relativity. This book provides a concise introduction to string theory explaining central concepts, mathematical tools and covering recent developments in physics including compactifications and gauge/string dualities. With string theory being a multidisciplinary field interfacing with high energy physics, mathematics and quantum field theory, this book is ideal for both students with no previous knowledge of the field and scholars from other disciplines who are looking for an introduction to basic concepts.
Rossing, Thomas D.; Hanson, Roger J.
In the next eight chapters, we consider some aspects of the science of bowed string instruments, old and new. In this chapter, we present a brief discussion of bowed strings, a subject that will be developed much more thoroughly in Chap. 16. Chapters 13-15 discuss the violin, the cello, and the double bass. Chapter 17 discusses viols and other historic string instruments, and Chap. 18 discusses the Hutchins-Schelleng violin octet.
Functional integral approach to string theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakita, B.
1987-01-01
Fermionic string theory can be made supersymmetric: the superstring. It contains among others mass zero gauge fields of spin 1 and 2. The recent revival of interests in string field theories is due to the recognition of the compactified superstring theory as a viable theory of grandunification of all interactions, especially after Green and Schwarz's discovery of the gauge and gravitational anomaly cancellation in 0(32) superstring theory. New developments include string phenomenology, general discussions of compactification, new models, especially the heterotic string. These are either applications or extensions of string field theories. Although these are very exciting developments, the author limits his attention to the basics of the bosonic string theory
On tadpoles and vacuum redefinitions in String Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dudas, E.; Nicolosi, M.; Pradisi, G.; Sagnotti, A.
2005-01-01
Tadpoles accompany, in one form or another, all attempts to realize supersymmetry breaking in String Theory, making the present constructions at best incomplete. Whereas these tadpoles are typically large, a closer look at the problem from a perturbative viewpoint has the potential of illuminating at least some of its qualitative features in String Theory. A possible scheme to this effect was proposed long ago by Fischler and Susskind, but incorporating background redefinitions in string amplitudes in a systematic fashion has long proved very difficult. In the first part of this paper, drawing from field theory examples, we thus begin to explore what one can learn by working perturbatively in a 'wrong' vacuum. While unnatural in Field Theory, this procedure presents evident advantages in String Theory, whose definition in curved backgrounds is mostly beyond reach at the present time. At the field theory level, we also identify and characterize some special choices of vacua where tadpole resummations terminate after a few contributions. In the second part we present a notable example where vacuum redefinitions can be dealt with to some extent at the full string level, providing some evidence for a new link between IIB and 0B orientifolds. We finally show that NS-NS tadpoles do not manifest themselves to lowest order in certain classes of string constructions with broken supersymmetry and parallel branes, including brane-antibrane pairs and brane supersymmetry breaking models, that therefore have UV-finite threshold corrections at one loop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thorn, C.B.
1988-01-01
Several topics are discussed in string theory presented as three lectures to the Spring School on Superstrings at the ICTP at Trieste, Italy, in April, 1988. The first lecture is devoted to some general aspects of conformal invariance and duality. The second sketches methods for carrying out perturbative calculations in string field theory. The final lecture presents an alternative lattice approach to a nonperturbative formulation of the sum over world surfaces. 35 refs., 12 figs
Optimal Background Attenuation for Fielded Radiation Detection Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, Sean M.; Kaye, William R.; Schweppe, John E.; Siciliano, Edward R.
2006-01-01
Radiation detectors are often placed in positions difficult to shield from the effects of terrestrial background. This is particularly true in the case of Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) systems, as their wide viewing angle and outdoor installations make them susceptible to terrestrial background from the surrounding area. A low background is desired in most cases, especially when the background noise is of comparable strength to the signal of interest. The problem of shielding a generalized RPM from terrestrial background is considered. Various detector and shielding scenarios are modeled with the Monte-Carlo N Particle (MCNP) computer code. Amounts of nominal-density shielding needed to attenuate the terrestrial background to varying degrees are given, along with optimal shielding geometry to be used in areas where natural shielding is limited, and where radiation detection must occur in the presence of natural background. Common shielding solutions such as steel plating are evaluated based on the signal to noise ratio and the benefits are weighed against the incremental cost.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco A.C. Kneipp
2016-12-01
Full Text Available We consider a Yang–Mills–Higgs theory with the gauge group SU(3 broken to its center Z3 by two scalar fields in the adjoint representation and obtain new Z3 strings asymptotic configurations with the gauge field and magnetic field in the direction of the step operators.
Topology of microwave background fluctuations - Theory
Gott, J. Richard, III; Park, Changbom; Bies, William E.; Bennett, David P.; Juszkiewicz, Roman
1990-01-01
Topological measures are used to characterize the microwave background temperature fluctuations produced by 'standard' scenarios (Gaussian) and by cosmic strings (non-Gaussian). Three topological quantities: total area of the excursion regions, total length, and total curvature (genus) of the isotemperature contours, are studied for simulated Gaussian microwave background anisotropy maps and then compared with those of the non-Gaussian anisotropy pattern produced by cosmic strings. In general, the temperature gradient field shows the non-Gaussian behavior of the string map more distinctively than the temperature field for all topology measures. The total contour length and the genus are found to be more sensitive to the existence of a stringy pattern than the usual temperature histogram. Situations when instrumental noise is superposed on the map, are considered to find the critical signal-to-noise ratio for which strings can be detected.
Position sensitive detection of neutrons in high radiation background field.
Vavrik, D; Jakubek, J; Pospisil, S; Vacik, J
2014-01-01
We present the development of a high-resolution position sensitive device for detection of slow neutrons in the environment of extremely high γ and e(-) radiation background. We make use of a planar silicon pixelated (pixel size: 55 × 55 μm(2)) spectroscopic Timepix detector adapted for neutron detection utilizing very thin (10)B converter placed onto detector surface. We demonstrate that electromagnetic radiation background can be discriminated from the neutron signal utilizing the fact that each particle type produces characteristic ionization tracks in the pixelated detector. Particular tracks can be distinguished by their 2D shape (in the detector plane) and spectroscopic response using single event analysis. A Cd sheet served as thermal neutron stopper as well as intensive source of gamma rays and energetic electrons. Highly efficient discrimination was successful even at very low neutron to electromagnetic background ratio about 10(-4).
The theta-structure in string theories - 1: bosonic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Miao.
1985-09-01
We explored the theta-structures in bosonic string theories which are similar to those in gauge field theories. The theta-structure of string is due to the multiply connected spatial compact subspace of space-time. The work of this paper shows that there is an energy band E(theta) in the string theory and one may move the tachyon out in theory by choosing some proper theta parameters. (author)
Klein-Gordon oscillator with position-dependent mass in the rotating cosmic string spacetime
Wang, Bing-Qian; Long, Zheng-Wen; Long, Chao-Yun; Wu, Shu-Rui
2018-02-01
A spinless particle coupled covariantly to a uniform magnetic field parallel to the string in the background of the rotating cosmic string is studied. The energy levels of the electrically charged particle subject to the Klein-Gordon oscillator are analyzed. Afterwards, we consider the case of the position-dependent mass and show how these energy levels depend on the parameters in the problem. Remarkably, it shows that for the special case, the Klein-Gordon oscillator coupled covariantly to a homogeneous magnetic field with the position-dependent mass in the rotating cosmic string background has the similar behaviors to the Klein-Gordon equation with a Coulomb-type configuration in a rotating cosmic string background in the presence of an external magnetic field.
From fractals to wormholes via string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Felce, A.G.
1992-01-01
The thesis is in two parts. The first part is devoted to a study of the definition of mass for soliton solutions in string theory. In the context of the low-energy effective field theory, there are three distinct quantities from which one can extract the mass of a soliton: the ADM mass, the static action and the kinetic energy. The three corresponding masses are carefully defined and shown to be equal for a representative class of string solitons, the so-called 'black fivebranes'. Along the way a potential confusion in the definition of the action is cleared up, and it is shown that the kinetic energy of a moving soliton is given in terms of a surface integral at spacelike infinity. This result for the kinetic energy is used to motivate a conjecture about the exact value of soliton masses in string theory: That in conformal field theory the kinetic mass is realized as the norm of the (1,1) deformation induced by the collective coordinate. Such deformations are usually treated as unphysical because they appear to be pure gauge and have zero norm. In a soliton conformal field theory, a finite number of these gauge transformations become physical because of a subtlety involving the boundary at spatial infinity. Some proposals for concrete exploration of this phenomenon are discussed. The second part of the thesis concerns the connection between string theory and an important problem in condensed matter physics. It has recently been shown that the dissipative Hofstadter model (dissipative quantum mechanics of an electron subject to uniform magnetic field and periodic potential in two dimensions) exhibit critical behavior on a network of lines in the dissipation/magnetic field plane. Apart from their obvious condensed matter interest, the corresponding critical theories represent non-trivial solutions of open string field theory containing a tachyon and gauge field background. A detailed account of their properties would be interesting from several points of view
Nature of the Background Ultraviolet Radiation Field at High Redshifts
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
tribpo
J. Astrophys. Astr. (2000) 21, 19-27 .... to know the shape of the ionizing radiation to determine the ionization parameter from the C II to C IV ratio. ... different shapes of the background radiation spectrum as explained in the text. The solid lines.
Casali, Eduardo; Tourkine, Piotr
2018-03-01
Twistor string models have been known for more than a decade now but have come back under the spotlight recently with the advent of the scattering equation formalism which has greatly generalized the scope of these models. A striking ubiquitous feature of these models has always been that, contrary to usual string theory, they do not admit vibrational modes and thus describe only conventional field theory. In this paper we report on the surprising discovery of a whole new sector of one of these theories which we call "twisted strings," when spacetime has compact directions. We find that the spectrum is enhanced from a finite number of states to an infinite number of interacting higher spin massive states. We describe both bosonic and world sheet supersymmetric models, their spectra and scattering amplitudes. These models have distinctive features of both string and field theory, for example they are invariant under stringy T-duality but have the high energy behavior typical of field theory. Therefore they describe a new kind of field theories in target space, sitting on their own halfway between string and field theory.
The Gravity of Dark Vortices: Effective Field Theory for Branes and Strings Carrying Localized Flux
Burgess, C P; Williams, M
2015-01-01
A Nielsen-Olesen vortex usually sits in an environment that expels the flux that is confined to the vortex, so flux is not present both inside and outside. We construct vortices for which this is not true, where the flux carried by the vortex also permeates the `bulk' far from the vortex. The idea is to mix the vortex's internal gauge flux with an external flux using off-diagonal kinetic mixing. Such `dark' vortices could play a phenomenological role in models with both cosmic strings and a dark gauge sector. When coupled to gravity they also provide explicit ultra-violet completions for codimension-two brane-localized flux, which arises in extra-dimensional models when the same flux that stabilizes extra-dimensional size is also localized on space-filling branes situated around the extra dimensions. We derive simple formulae for observables such as defect angle, tension, localized flux and on-vortex curvature when coupled to gravity, and show how all of these are insensitive to much of the microscopic detail...
String duality and novel theories without gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kachru, Shamit
1998-01-01
We describe some of the novel 6d quantum field theories which have been discovered in studies of string duality. The role these theories (and their 4d descendants) may play in alleviating the vacuum degeneracy problem in string theory is reviewed. The DLCQ of these field theories is presented as one concrete way of formulating them, independent of string theory
Virasoro conformal blocks and thermality from classical background fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fitzpatrick, A. Liam [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University,Via Pueblo, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory,Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Kaplan, Jared [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University,Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Walters, Matthew T. [Department of Physics, Boston University,Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)
2015-11-30
We show that in 2d CFTs at large central charge, the coupling of the stress tensor to heavy operators can be re-absorbed by placing the CFT in a non-trivial background metric. This leads to a more precise computation of the Virasoro conformal blocks between heavy and light operators, which are shown to be equivalent to global conformal blocks evaluated in the new background. We also generalize to the case where the operators carry U(1) charges. The refined Virasoro blocks can be used as the seed for a new Virasoro block recursion relation expanded in the heavy-light limit. We comment on the implications of our results for the universality of black hole thermality in AdS{sub 3}, or equivalently, the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis for CFT{sub 2} at large central charge.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borlaf, J.
1997-01-01
We study T-duality for open strings in arbitrary background fields including the abelian electromagnetic one. We focus in the mapping of the boundary conditions in the disk and the crosscap topologies and we discuss in detail the consistency of the gauging procedure for the bosonic and the N = 1 supersymmetric theories. A brief account is made on the dilaton transformation and global issues in higher genus. (orig.)
Strings and fundamental physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baumgartl, Marco; Brunner, Ilka; Haack, Michael
2012-01-01
The basic idea, simple and revolutionary at the same time, to replace the concept of a point particle with a one-dimensional string, has opened up a whole new field of research. Even today, four decades later, its multifaceted consequences are still not fully conceivable. Up to now string theory has offered a new way to view particles as different excitations of the same fundamental object. It has celebrated success in discovering the graviton in its spectrum, and it has naturally led scientists to posit space-times with more than four dimensions - which in turn has triggered numerous interesting developments in fields as varied as condensed matter physics and pure mathematics. This book collects pedagogical lectures by leading experts in string theory, introducing the non-specialist reader to some of the newest developments in the field. The carefully selected topics are at the cutting edge of research in string theory and include new developments in topological strings, AdS/CFT dualities, as well as newly emerging subfields such as doubled field theory and holography in the hydrodynamic regime. The contributions to this book have been selected and arranged in such a way as to form a self-contained, graduate level textbook. (orig.)
Strings and fundamental physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baumgartl, Marco [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Brunner, Ilka; Haack, Michael (eds.) [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik
2012-07-01
The basic idea, simple and revolutionary at the same time, to replace the concept of a point particle with a one-dimensional string, has opened up a whole new field of research. Even today, four decades later, its multifaceted consequences are still not fully conceivable. Up to now string theory has offered a new way to view particles as different excitations of the same fundamental object. It has celebrated success in discovering the graviton in its spectrum, and it has naturally led scientists to posit space-times with more than four dimensions - which in turn has triggered numerous interesting developments in fields as varied as condensed matter physics and pure mathematics. This book collects pedagogical lectures by leading experts in string theory, introducing the non-specialist reader to some of the newest developments in the field. The carefully selected topics are at the cutting edge of research in string theory and include new developments in topological strings, AdS/CFT dualities, as well as newly emerging subfields such as doubled field theory and holography in the hydrodynamic regime. The contributions to this book have been selected and arranged in such a way as to form a self-contained, graduate level textbook. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, F.; Chun, W.
1985-01-01
The use of basis states described as hadronic (or hadron-hadron) or hidden-colour (or colour-colour) for a system of quarks does not necessarily imply that connected exotic multiquark hadrons do exist. Antisymmetrization of quark wave functions tends to make these descriptions ill defined. It appears necessary to have stable collective structures called strings or bags to provide the physical connections required by quark confinement. The masses of multiquark hadrons can then be estimated by using semplified string, bag and NR potential models. The results turn out to be qualitatively similar in all these models. The stability problem for multiquark strings is briefly discussed
Optimal Background Attenuation for Fielded Spectroscopic Detection Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, Sean M.; Ashbaker, Eric D.; Schweppe, John E.; Siciliano, Edward R.
2007-01-01
Radiation detectors are often placed in positions difficult to shield from the effects of terrestrial background gamma radiation. This is particularly true in the case of Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) systems, as their wide viewing angle and outdoor installations make them susceptible to radiation from the surrounding area. Reducing this source of background can improve gross-count detection capabilities in the current generation of non-spectroscopic RPM's as well as source identification capabilities in the next generation of spectroscopic RPM's. To provide guidance for designing such systems, the problem of shielding a general spectroscopic-capable RPM system from terrestrial gamma radiation is considered. This analysis is carried out by template matching algorithms, to determine and isolate a set of non-threat isotopes typically present in the commerce stream. Various model detector and shielding scenarios are calculated using the Monte-Carlo N Particle (MCNP) computer code. Amounts of nominal-density shielding needed to increase the probability of detection for an ensemble of illicit sources are given. Common shielding solutions such as steel plating are evaluated based on the probability of detection for 3 particular illicit sources of interest, and the benefits are weighed against the incremental cost of shielding. Previous work has provided optimal shielding scenarios for RPMs based on gross-counting measurements, and those same solutions (shielding the internal detector cavity, direct shielding of the ground between the detectors, and the addition of collimators) are examined with respect to their utility to improving spectroscopic detection
Winding strings and AdS3 black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Troost, Jan
2002-01-01
We start a systematic study of string theory in AdS 3 black hole backgrounds. Firstly, we analyse in detail the geodesic structure of the BTZ black hole, including spacelike geodesics. Secondly, we study the spectrum for massive and massless scalar fields, paying particular attention to the connection between Sl(2,R) subgroups, the theory of special functions and global properties of the BTZ black holes. We construct classical strings that wind the black holes. Finally, we apply the general formalism to the vacuum black hole background, and formulate the boundary spacetime Virasoro algebra in terms of worldsheet operators. We moreover establish the link between a proposal for a ghost free spectrum for Sl(2,R) string propagation and the massless black hole background, thereby claryfing aspects of the AdS 3 /CFT correspondence. (author)
Kiritsis, Elias
2007-01-01
This book is the essential new introduction to modern string theory, by one of the world's authorities on the subject. Concise, clearly presented, and up-to-date, String Theory in a Nutshell brings together the best understood and most important aspects of a theory that has been evolving since the early 1980s. A core model of physics that substitutes one-dimensional extended ""strings"" for zero-dimensional point-like particles (as in quantum field theory), string theory has been the leading candidate for a theory that would successfully unify all fundamental forces of nature, includin
Updated constraints on the cosmic string tension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Battye, Richard; Moss, Adam
2010-01-01
We reexamine the constraints on the cosmic string tension from cosmic microwave background (CMB) and matter power spectra, and also from limits on a stochastic background of gravitational waves provided by pulsar timing. We discuss the different approaches to modeling string evolution and radiation. In particular, we show that the unconnected segment model can describe CMB spectra expected from thin string (Nambu) and field theory (Abelian-Higgs) simulations using the computed values for the correlation length, rms string velocity and small-scale structure relevant to each variety of simulation. Applying the computed spectra in a fit to CMB and SDSS data we find that Gμ/c 2 -7 (2σ) if the Nambu simulations are correct and Gμ/c 2 -7 in the Abelian-Higgs case. The degeneracy between Gμ/c 2 and the power spectrum slope n S is substantially reduced from previous work. Inclusion of constraints on the baryon density from big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) imply that n S 2 and loop production size, α, we find that Gμ/c 2 -7 for αc 2 /(ΓGμ) 2 -11 /α for αc 2 /(ΓGμ)>>1.
Background independent quantizations-the scalar field: II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaminski, Wojciech; Lewandowski, Jerzy; Okolow, Andrzej
2006-01-01
We are concerned with the issue of the quantization of a scalar field in a diffeomorphism invariant manner. We apply the method used in loop quantum gravity. It relies on the specific choice of scalar field variables referred to as the polymer variables. The quantization, in our formulation, amounts to introducing the 'quantum' polymer *-star algebra and looking for positive linear functionals, called states. As assumed in our paper, homeomorphism invariance allows us to derive the complete class of the states. They are determined by the homeomorphism invariant states defined on the CW-complex *-algebra. The corresponding GNS representations of the polymer *-algebra and their self-adjoint extensions are derived, the equivalence classes are found, and invariant subspaces characterized. In part I we outlined those results. Here, we present the technical details
Brane inflation: A field theory approach in background supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choudhury, Sayantan; Pal, Supratik
2012-01-01
We propose a model of inflation in the framework of brane cosmology driven by background supergravity. Starting from bulk supergravity we construct the inflaton potential on the brane and employ it to investigate for the consequences to inflationary paradigm. To this end, we derive the expressions for the important parameters in brane inflation, which are somewhat different from their counterparts in standard cosmology, using the one loop radiative corrected potential. We further estimate the observable parameters and find them to fit well with recent observational data. We have studied extensively reheating phenomenology, which explains the thermal history of the universe and leptogenesis through the production of thermal gravitino pertaining to the particle physics phenomenology of the early universe.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaves, Max
2006-01-01
The conception of the magnetic string is presented as an infinitely thin bundle of magnetic flux lines. The magnetic strings are surrounded by a film of current that rotates around them, and are a solution of Maxwell's equations. The magnetic potential contains a line singularity, and its stability can be established topologically. A few comments are added on the possibility that they may exist at a cosmological scale as relics of the Big Bang. (author) [es
An equivalence between momentum and charge in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horne, J.H.; Horowitz, G.T.; Steif, A.R.
1992-01-01
It is shown that for a translationally invariant solution to string theory, spacetime duality interchanges the momentum in the symmetry direction and the axion charge per unit length. As one application, we show explicitly that charged black strings are equivalent to boosted (uncharged) black strings. The extremal black strings (which correspond to the field outside of a fundamental macroscopic string) are equivalent to plane-fronted waves describing strings moving at the speed of light
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thorn, C.B.
1988-01-01
The possibility of studying non-perturbative effects in string theory using a world sheet lattice is discussed. The light-cone lattice string model of Giles and Thorn is studied numerically to assess the accuracy of ''coarse lattice'' approximations. For free strings a 5 by 15 lattice seems sufficient to obtain better than 10% accuracy for the bosonic string tachyon mass squared. In addition a crude lattice model simulating string like interactions is studied to find out how easily a coarse lattice calculation can pick out effects such as bound states which would qualitatively alter the spectrum of the free theory. The role of the critical dimension in obtaining a finite continuum limit is discussed. Instead of the ''gaussian'' lattice model one could use one of the vertex models, whose continuum limit is the same as a gaussian model on a torus of any radius. Indeed, any critical 2 dimensional statistical system will have a stringy continuum limit in the absence of string interactions. 8 refs., 1 fig. , 9 tabs
Quarkonia in the Bethe--Salpeter formalism with background fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mathur, Y.K.; Mitra, A.N.
1989-01-01
A QCD-oriented Bethe--Salpeter (BS) equation for a q bar q system is formulated in which the quark 4-momenta p μ are modified as p μ →p μ -gA μ (x) in the inverse propagators therein, and a Fock--Schwinger (FS) gauge expansion is employed for the gluon fields A μ (x). The first term (∼x μ ) of the FS representation yields a harmonic kernel when the BS equation is reduced to a 3-dimensional level via the null-plane ansatz (NPA). It also generates a spin-dependent interaction proportional to (j 1 +s 1 )·(j 2 +s 2 ), in close parallel to a J·S term generated by a vector-like (γ (1) gamma(2)) harmonic model for the q bar q interaction proposed earlier by the Delhi Group. A possible mechanism for confinement in an asymptotically linear scene is proposed within the BS framework, taking cue partly from the suggestions of multiple correlation effects (Shifman), and partly from the postulation of stochastic fields (Simonov)
Differential formulation in string theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guzzo, M.M.
1987-01-01
The equations of gauge invariance motion for theories of boson open strings and Neveu-Schwarz and Ramond superstring are derived. A construction for string theories using differential formalism, is introduced. The importance of BRST charge for constructing such theories and the necessity of introduction of auxiliary fields are verified. (M.C.K.) [pt
Superhorizon electromagnetic field background from Higgs loops in inflation
Kaya, Ali
2018-03-01
If Higgs is a spectator scalar, i.e. if it is not directly coupled to the inflaton, superhorizon Higgs modes must have been exited during inflation. Since Higgs is unstable its decay into photons is expected to seed superhorizon photon modes. We use in-in perturbation theory to show that this naive physical expectation is indeed fulfilled via loop effects. Specifically, we calculate the first order Higgs loop correction to the magnetic field power spectrum evaluated at some late time after inflation. It turns out that this loop correction becomes much larger than the tree-level power spectrum at the superhorizon scales. This suggests a mechanism to generate cosmologically interesting superhorizon vector modes by scalar-vector interactions.
String loop divergences and effective lagrangians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fischler, W.; Klebanov, I.; Susskind, L.
1988-01-01
We isolate logarithmic divergences from bosonic string amplitudes on a disc. These divergences are compared with 'tadpole' divergences in the effective field theory, with a covariant cosmological term implied by the counting of string coupling constants. We find an inconsistency between the two. This might be a problem in eliminating divergences from the bosonic string. (orig.)
The issue of supersymmetry breaking in strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Binetruy, P.
1989-12-01
We discuss the central role that supersymmetry plays in string models, both in spacetime and at the level of the string world-sheet. The problems associated with supersymmetry-breaking are reviewed together with some of the attempts to solve them, in the string as well as the field theory approach
Exotic configurations for gauge theory strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yajnik, U.A.
1987-01-01
This paper discusses a class of string configurations occuring in nonabelian gauge theories, which are such that a component of the charged scalar field responsible for the string has a nonvanishing expectation value in the core of the string. A systematic procedure is given for setting up the ansatz for such configurations. (orig.)
String cosmology modern string theory concepts from the cosmic structure
2009-01-01
The field of string cosmology has matured considerably over the past few years, attracting many new adherents to this multidisciplinary Field. This book fills a critical gap by bringing together strains of current research into one single volume. The resulting collection of selected articles presents the latest, ongoing results from renowned experts currently working in the field. This offers the possibility for practitioners to become conversant with many different aspects of string cosmology
sigma model approach to the heterotic string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sen, A.
1985-09-01
Relation between the equations of motion for the massless fields in the heterotic string theory, and the conformal invariance of the sigma model describing the propagation of the heterotic string in arbitrary background massless fields is discussed. It is emphasized that this sigma model contains complete information about the string theory. Finally, we discuss the extension of the Hull-Witten proof of local gauge and Lorentz invariance of the sigma-model to higher order in α', and the modification of the transformation laws of the antisymmetric tensor field under these symmetries. Presence of anomaly in the naive N = 1/2 supersymmetry transformation is also pointed out in this context. 12 refs
A string theory which isn't about strings
Lee, Kanghoon; Rey, Soo-Jong; Rosabal, J. A.
2017-11-01
Quantization of closed string proceeds with a suitable choice of worldsheet vacuum. A priori, the vacuum may be chosen independently for left-moving and right-moving sectors. We construct ab initio quantized bosonic string theory with left-right asymmetric worldsheet vacuum and explore its consequences and implications. We critically examine the validity of new vacuum and carry out first-quantization using standard operator formalism. Remarkably, the string spectrum consists only of a finite number of degrees of freedom: string gravity (massless spin-two, Kalb-Ramond and dilaton fields) and two massive spin-two Fierz-Pauli fields. The massive spin-two fields have negative norm, opposite mass-squared, and provides a Lee-Wick type extension of string gravity. We compute two physical observables: tree-level scattering amplitudes and one-loop cosmological constant. Scattering amplitude of four dilatons is shown to be a rational function of kinematic invariants, and in D = 26 factorizes into contributions of massless spin-two and a pair of massive spin-two fields. The string one loop partition function is shown to perfectly agree with one loop Feynman diagram of string gravity and two massive spin-two fields. In particular, it does not exhibit modular invariance. We critically compare our construction with recent studies and contrast differences.
Drill string corrosion problems at Pilar field; Corrosao na coluna de perfuracao no Campo de Pilar
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guimaraes, Antimio Santos [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Distrito de Perfuracao do Nordeste. Setor de Fluidos de Perfuracao
1988-12-31
Drilling column failures and washout problems are described as experienced in the Sergipe-Alagoas Basin`s Pilar field. Statistical data presented indicate the extent of this problem. A discussion is offered on causes detected and solutions adopted. (author) 3 refs., 16 figs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Randjbar-Daemi, S.; Strathdee, J.
1987-10-01
These notes are based on a set of six introductory lectures given jointly by the authors. After developing the canonical methods we discuss the covariant quantization of the bosonic as well as the fermionic string. Conformal field theory methods are also introduced and used to calculate the anomaly coefficient, c, as well as the critical dimensions for bosonic and superstrings. We briefly sketch the BRS quantization and then offer an elementary derivation of the anomaly in the ghost number current. Finally, we address the one-loop partition function of the bosonic string and the question of SL(2,Z) invariance. (author). 15 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akama, Keiichi
1988-01-01
Starting with the space-time action of the transversally extended string, we derive its world-sheet action, which is that of a gravitational and gauge theory with matter fields on the world-sheet, with additional effects of the second fundamental quantity. (author)
Progress in string theory research
2016-01-01
At the first look, the String Theory seems just an interesting and non-trivial application of the quantum mechanics and the special relativity to vibrating strings. By itself, the quantization of relativistic strings does not call the attention of the particle physicist as a significant paradigm shift. However, when the string quantization is performed by applying the standard rules of the perturbative Quantum Field Theory, one discovers that the strings in certain states have the same physical properties as the gravity in the flat space-time. Chapter one of this book reviews the construction of the thermal bosonic string and D-brane in the framework of the Thermo Field Dynamics (TFD). It briefly recalls the wellknown light-cone quantization of the bosonic string in the conformal gauge in flat space-time, and gives a bird’s eye view of the fundamental concepts of the TFD. Chapter two examines a visual model inspired by string theory, on the system of interacting anyons. Chapter three investigate the late-ti...
Interacting bosonic strings in subcritical dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwang, S.; Marnelius, R.
1988-01-01
Interaction theory for relativistic bosonic string in spacetime dimensions below the critical value 26 is formulated using BRST techniques with an extra scalar field. One-loop zero-point amplitudes for closed strings are modular invariant. For a free scalar field, vertex operators are constructed leading to, e.g., the old dual N-tachyon tree amplitudes in D < 26. The N-tachyon one-loop expressions contain closed string poles for open strings, and are modular invariant for closed strings. However, the threshold cuts are wrong in D < 25. Only for D=25 to the considered vertex operators lead to consistency. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iyer, Ramakrishnan; Johnson, Clifford V; Pennington, Jeffrey S
2011-01-01
We uncover a remarkable role that an infinite hierarchy of nonlinear differential equations plays in organizing and connecting certain c-hat <1 string theories non-perturbatively. We are able to embed the type 0A and 0B (A, A) minimal string theories into this single framework. The string theories arise as special limits of a rich system of equations underpinned by an integrable system known as the dispersive water wave hierarchy. We observe that there are several other string-like limits of the system, and conjecture that some of them are type IIA and IIB (A, D) minimal string backgrounds. We explain how these and several string-like special points arise and are connected. In some cases, the framework endows the theories with a non-perturbative definition for the first time. Notably, we discover that the Painleve IV equation plays a key role in organizing the string theory physics, joining its siblings, Painleve I and II, whose roles have previously been identified in this minimal string context.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Danilov, G.S.
1995-01-01
It is shown that, in the theory of free noncritical strings, there are no modular-invariant partition functions on surfaces of higher genus. This is due to the fact that the vacuum expectation value of the stress-energy tensor is singular in the fundamental region on the complex plane in which Riemann surfaces are mapped. The above singularity is associated with a nonzero vacuum expectation value of the 2D-gravity field. 15 refs
Null strings and complex Einstein-Maxwell fields with cosmological constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia, A.; Plebanski, J.F.; Robinson, I.
1977-01-01
Previous results of Plebanski and Robinson (Phys. Rev. Lett.; 37:493 (1976)) concerning left-degenerate Einstein-flat complex space-times and preliminary results concerning the electromagnetic field, are here generalized and worked out in some detail for the system of Einstein-Maxwell equations with a cosmological constant. On the assumption that there exists a congruence of totally null surfaces, the system is reduced to a pair of equations for the two unknown functions. (author)
Sun, Anbang; Teunissen, Jannis; Ebert, Ute
2014-11-01
We investigate discharge inception in air, in uniform background electric fields above and below the breakdown threshold. We perform 3D particle simulations that include a natural level of background ionization in the form of positive and \\text{O}2- ions. In background fields below breakdown, we use a strongly ionized seed of electrons and positive ions to enhance the field locally. In the region of enhanced field, we observe the growth of positive streamers, as in previous simulations with 2D plasma fluid models. The inclusion of background ionization has little effect in this case. When the background field is above the breakdown threshold, the situation is very different. Electrons can then detach from \\text{O}2- and start ionization avalanches in the whole volume. These avalanches together create one extended discharge, in contrast to the ‘double-headed’ streamers found in many fluid simulations.
Basic Concepts of String Theory
Blumenhagen, Ralph; Theisen, Stefan
2013-01-01
The purpose of this book is to thoroughly prepare the reader for research in string theory. It is intended as a textbook in the sense that, starting from the basics, the material is presented in a pedagogical and self-contained fashion. The emphasis is on the world-sheet perspective of closed strings and of open strings ending on D-branes, where two-dimensional conformal field theory is the main tool. Compactifications of string theory, with and without fluxes, and string dualities are also discussed from the space-time point of view, i.e. in geometric language. End-of-chapter references have been added to guide the reader intending to pursue further studies or to start research in the topics covered by this book.
Basic concepts of string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blumenhagen, Ralph
2013-01-01
The purpose of this book is to thoroughly prepare the reader for research in string theory. It is intended as a textbook in the sense that, starting from the basics, the material is presented in a pedagogical and self-contained fashion. The emphasis is on the world-sheet perspective of closed strings and of open strings ending on D-branes, where two-dimensional conformal field theory is the main tool. Compactifications of string theory, with and without fluxes, and string dualities are also discussed from the space-time point of view, i.e. in geometric language. End-of-chapter references have been added to guide the reader intending to pursue further studies or to start research in the topics covered by this book.
Brane/Flux Annihilation and the String Dual of a Non-Supersymmetric Field Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kachru, Shamit
2002-01-01
We consider the dynamics of p anti-D3 branes inside the Klebanov-Strassler geometry, the deformed conifold with M units of RR 3-form flux around the S 3 . We find that for p << M the system relaxes to a nonsupersymmetric NS 5-brane ''giant graviton'' configuration, which is classically stable, but quantum mechanically can tunnel to a nearby supersymmetric vacuum with M - p D3 branes. This decay mode is exponentially suppressed and proceeds via the nucleation of an NS 5-brane bubble wall. They propose a dual field theory interpretation of the decay as the transition between a nonsupersymmetric baryonic branch and a supersymmetric mesonic branch of the corresponding SU(2M-p) x SU(M-p) low energy gauge theory. The NS 5-brane tunneling process also provides a simple visualization of the geometric transition by which D3-branes can dissolve into 3-form flux
Coordinate and Kaehler σ-model anomalies and their cancellation in string effective field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopes Cardoso, G.; Ovrut, B.A.
1993-01-01
We discuss the complete set of one-loop triangle graphs involving the Yang-Mills gauge connection, the Kaehler connection and the σ-model coordinate connection in the effective field theory of (2, 2) symmetric Z N orbifolds. That is, we discuss pure gauge, pure Kaehler and pure σ-model coordinate anomalies as well as the mixed anomalies, such as Kaehler-gauge, some of which have been discussed elsewhere. We propose a mechanism for restoring both Kaehler and σ-model coordinate symmetry based upon the introduction of two types of counterterms. Finally, we enlarge σ-model generalization of the Green-Schwarz mechanism to allow the removal of the universal parts of a wider class of anomalies than those previously discussed. (orig.)
String cosmology in Bianchi type-VI 0 dusty Universe with ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper, the effect of electromagnetic field in the string Bianchi type-VI0 Universe is investigated. Einstein's field equations have been solved exactly with suitable physical assumptions for two types of strings: (i) massive strings and (ii) Nambu strings. It is found that when the Universe is dominated by massive strings, ...
Mason, B. S.; Pearson, T. J.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Shepherd, M. C.; Sievers, J.; Udomprasert, P. S.; Cartwright, J. K.; Farmer, A. J.; Padin, S.; Myers, S. T.;
2002-01-01
We report measurements of anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation over the multipole range l approximately 200 (right arrow) 3500 with the Cosmic Background Imager based on deep observations of three fields. These results confirm the drop in power with increasing l first reported in earlier measurements with this instrument, and extend the observations of this decline in power out to l approximately 2000. The decline in power is consistent with the predicted damping of primary anisotropies. At larger multipoles, l = 2000-3500, the power is 3.1 sigma greater than standard models for intrinsic microwave background anisotropy in this multipole range, and 3.5 sigma greater than zero. This excess power is not consistent with expected levels of residual radio source contamination but, for sigma 8 is approximately greater than 1, is consistent with predicted levels due to a secondary Sunyaev-Zeldovich anisotropy. Further observations are necessary to confirm the level of this excess and, if confirmed, determine its origin.
Observational tests of open strings in braneworld scenarios
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freese, Katherine; Lewis, Matthew J.; Schaar, Jan Pieter van der
2003-01-01
We consider some consequences of describing the gauge and matter degrees of freedom in our universe by open strings, as suggested by the braneworld scenario. We focus on changes in causal structure described by the open string metric and investigate their observational implications. The causal structure is described not by the usual metric g μν , but instead by the open string metric, that incorporates the electromagnetic background and the NS-NS two-form, G μν = g μν -(2 π α') 2 (F 2 ) μν. The speed of light on the brane is now slower when propagating along directions transverse to electromagnetic fields or NS-NS two-forms, so that Lorentz invariance is explicitly broken. We describe experiments designed to detect the predicted variations in the open string causal structure on the brane: interferometric laboratory based experiments, experiments exploiting astrophysical electromagnetic fields, and experiments that rely on modification to special relativity. We show that current technology cannot probe beyond open string lengths of 10 -13 cm, corresponding to MeV string scales. We also point out that in a braneworld scenario, constraints on large scale electromagnetic fields together with a modest phenomenological bound on the NS-NS two-form naturally lead to a bound on the scale of canonical noncommutativity that is two orders of magnitude below the string length. We show that theoretical constraints on the NS-NS two-form bound the scale of noncommutativity to be well below the Planck length, (vertical barθvertical bar max )(1/2) -35 cm x (TeV/stringscale) 2 . (author)
Remarks on entanglement entropy in string theory
Balasubramanian, Vijay; Parrikar, Onkar
2018-03-01
Entanglement entropy for spatial subregions is difficult to define in string theory because of the extended nature of strings. Here we propose a definition for bosonic open strings using the framework of string field theory. The key difference (compared to ordinary quantum field theory) is that the subregion is chosen inside a Cauchy surface in the "space of open string configurations." We first present a simple calculation of this entanglement entropy in free light-cone string field theory, ignoring subtleties related to the factorization of the Hilbert space. We reproduce the answer expected from an effective field theory point of view, namely a sum over the one-loop entanglement entropies corresponding to all the particle-excitations of the string, and further show that the full string theory regulates ultraviolet divergences in the entanglement entropy. We then revisit the question of factorization of the Hilbert space by analyzing the covariant phase-space associated with a subregion in Witten's covariant string field theory. We show that the pure gauge (i.e., BRST exact) modes in the string field become dynamical at the entanglement cut. Thus, a proper definition of the entropy must involve an extended Hilbert space, with new stringy edge modes localized at the entanglement cut.
Cavity quantum chromodynamics in the presence of a classical background field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gavin, E.J.O.; Viollier, R.D.
1988-01-01
The QCD (quantum chromodynamics) Lagrange density is constructed in which the gluon field has a classical part, using the background field gauge. The conserved currents deriving from the symmetries of this theory are given and used to define boundary conditions on the field operators on the surface of a spherical, static cavity. The field operators are expanded in terms of a complete set of cavity modes that satisfy the boundary conditions and the field equations in the Dirac picture. 13 refs
Strings, vortex rings, and modes of instability
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steven S. Gubser
2015-03-01
Full Text Available We treat string propagation and interaction in the presence of a background Neveu–Schwarz three-form field strength, suitable for describing vortex rings in a superfluid or low-viscosity normal fluid. A circular vortex ring exhibits instabilities which have been recognized for many years, but whose precise boundaries we determine for the first time analytically in the small core limit. Two circular vortices colliding head-on exhibit stronger instabilities which cause splitting into many small vortices at late times. We provide an approximate analytic treatment of these instabilities and show that the most unstable wavelength is parametrically larger than a dynamically generated length scale which in many hydrodynamic systems is close to the cutoff. We also summarize how the string construction we discuss can be derived from the Gross–Pitaevskii Lagrangian, and also how it compares to the action for giant gravitons.
Semiclassical spinning strings and confining gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bigazzi, F.; Cotrone, A.L.; Martucci, L.
2004-03-01
We study multi-charged rotating string states on Type II B regular backgrounds dual to confining SU(N) gauge theories with (softly broken) N=1 supersymmetry, in the infra red regime. After exhibiting the classical energy/charge relations for the folded and circular two-charge strings, we compute in the latter case the one loop sigma-model quantum correction. The classical relation has an expansion in positive powers of the analogous of the BMN effective coupling, while the quantum corrections are non perturbative in nature and are not subleading in the limit of infinite charge. We comment about the dual field theory multi-charged hadrons and the implications of our computation for the AdS/N=4 duality. (author)
Some global issues in string perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atick, J.J.; Moore, G.; Sen, Ashoke
1988-01-01
Calculations of type II string vacuum amplitude using the picture changing prescription have been shown to lead, in general, to a positive cosmological constant. We show that there is a global obstruction to the choices of gauge slice for super-Teichmueller space that lead to such measures. We discuss the general restrictions on gauge slices appropriate for use in explicit fermionic string calculations. We also discuss the relation of the functional determinant and conformal field theory versions of the path integral measure, and show that, at arbitrary genus and in arbitrary backgrounds preserving tree level N=1 supersymmetry, the measure is an exact differential. We evaluate the boundary integrals of this total derivative at genus two in two ways for target space R 10 to show that the integrals are zero. Finally, we use the factorization hypothesis to show that in appropriate compactified spacetimes the boundary integrals continue to vanish. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finelli, Fabio; Paci, Francesco; Paoletti, Daniela
2008-01-01
We study the impact of a stochastic background of primordial magnetic fields on the scalar contribution of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and on the matter power spectrum. We give the correct initial conditions for cosmological perturbations and the exact expressions for the energy density and Lorentz force associated to the stochastic background of primordial magnetic fields, given a power-law for their spectra cut at a damping scale. The dependence of the CMB temperature and polarization spectra on the relevant parameters of the primordial magnetic fields is illustrated.
Aspects of some dualities in string theory
Kim, Bom Soo
AdS/CFT correspondence in string theory has changed landscape of the theoretical physics. Through this celebrated duality between gravity theory and field theory, one can investigate analytically strongly coupled gauge theories such as Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) in terms of weakly coupled string theory such as supergravity theory and vice versa. In the first part of this thesis we used this duality to construct a new type of nonlocal field theory, called Puff Field Theory, in terms of D3 branes in type IIB string theory with a geometric twist. In addition to the strong-weak duality of AdS/CFT, there also exists a weak-weak duality, called Twistor String Theory. Twistor technique is successfully used to calculate the SYM scattering amplitude in an elegant fashion. Yet, the progress in the string theory side was hindered by a non-unitary conformal gravity. We extend the Twistor string theory by introducing mass terms, in the second part of the thesis. A chiral mass term is identified as a vacuum expectation value of a conformal supergravity field and is tied with the breaking of the conformal symmetry of gravity. As a prime candidate for a quantum theory of gravity, string theory revealed many promising successes such as counting the number of microstates in supersymmetric Black Holes thermodynamics and resolution of timelike and null singularities, to name a few. Yet, the fundamental string and M-theroy formulations are not yet available. Various string theories without gravity, such as Non-Commutative Open String (NCOS) and Open Membrane (OM) theories, are very nice playground to investigate the fundamental structure of string and M-theory without the complication of gravity. In the last part of the thesis, simpler Non-Relativistic String Theories are constructed and investigated. One important motivation for those theories is related to the connection between Non-Relativistic String Theories and Non-critical String Theories through the bosonization of betagamma
Entropy of a rotating and charged black string to all orders in the Planck length
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ren, Zhao; Yue-Qin, Wu; Li-Chun, Zhang
2009-01-01
By using the entanglement entropy method, this paper calculates the statistical entropy of the Bose and Fermi fields in thin films, and derives the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy and its correction term on the background of a rotating and charged black string. Here, the quantum field is entangled with quantum states in the black string and thin film to the event horizon from outside the rotating and charged black string. Taking into account the effect of the generalized uncertainty principle on quantum state density, it removes the difficulty of the divergence of state density near the event horizon in the brick-wall model. These calculations and discussions imply that high density quantum states near the event horizon of a black string are strongly correlated with the quantum states in a black string and that black string entropy is a quantum effect. The ultraviolet cut-off in the brick-wall model is not reasonable. The generalized uncertainty principle should be considered in the high energy quantum field near the event horizon. From the viewpoint of quantum statistical mechanics, the correction value of Bekenstein–Hawking entropy is obtained. This allows the fundamental recognition of the correction value of black string entropy at nonspherical coordinates
Strings draw theorists together
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, Michael
2000-01-01
Theorists are confident that they are closer than ever to finding a quantum theory that unites gravity with the three other fundamental forces in nature. Many of the leading figures in the world of string theory met at the California Institute of Technology in January to discuss recent progress in the field and to reflect on the state of the theory. The enthusiastic mood of the gathering was based on the fact that string theory provides an elegant framework for a unified theory of all the forces and particles in nature, and also gives a consistent quantum-mechanical description of general relativity. String theory, and more precisely superstring theory, describes the assortment of elementary particles such as quarks and leptons, and the gauge bosons responsible for mediating forces in a unified manner as different modes of vibration of a single extended string. This version of the theory also embodies supersymmetry a conjectured symmetry that unifies fermions and bosons. Furthermore, the fact that the string has a fundamental length scale - the ''string length'' - apparently cures the short-distance problems of uniting general relativity with quantum theory. The main problem with the early formulations of superstring theory was that they emphasized the ''perturbative'' point of view, an approximation that describes string-like quantum-mechanical particles moving through classical (that is non quantum-mechanical) space-time. However, very general arguments require that any quantum theory of gravity should also describe space-time geometry in a quantum-mechanical manner. The classical geometry of space-time should then emerge as an approximate description at distance scales much larger than the so-called Planck scale of 10 -33 m. This requires an understanding of the theory beyond the perturbative approximation. It is the quest for this more fundamental description of string theory that has provided the main challenge for string theorists over the past decade. Much
Higher-dimensional string theory in Lyra geometry
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Cosmic strings as source of gravitational field in general relativity was discussed by ... tensor theory of gravitation and constructed an analog of Einstein field ... As string concept is useful before the particle creation and can explain galaxy for-.
Reheating for closed string inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cicoli, Michele [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Mazumdar, Anupam [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Physics Dept.; Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Niels Bohr Institute
2010-05-15
We point out some of the outstanding challenges for embedding inflationary cosmology within string theory studying the process of reheating for models where the inflaton is a closed string mode parameterising the size of an internal cycle of the compactification manifold. A realistic model of inflation must explain the tiny perturbations in the cosmic microwave background radiation and also how to excite the ordinary matter degrees of freedom after inflation, required for the success of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. We study these issues focusing on two promising inflationary models embedded in LARGE volume type IIB flux compactifications. We show that phenomenological requirements and consistency of the effective field theory treatment imply the presence at low energies of a hidden sector together with a visible sector, where the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model fields are residing. A detailed calculation of the inflaton coupling to the fields of the hidden sector, visible sector, and moduli sector, reveals that the inflaton fails to excite primarily the visible sector fields, instead hidden sector fields are excited copiously after the end of inflation. This sets severe constraints on hidden sector model building where the most promising scenario emerges as a pure N=1 SYM theory, forbidding the kinematical decay of the inflaton to the hidden sector. In this case it is possible to reheat the Universe with the visible degrees of freedom even though in some cases we discover a new tension between TeV scale SUSY and reheating on top of the well-known tension between TeV scale SUSY and inflation. (orig.)
Reheating for closed string inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cicoli, Michele; Mazumdar, Anupam; Copenhagen Univ.
2010-05-01
We point out some of the outstanding challenges for embedding inflationary cosmology within string theory studying the process of reheating for models where the inflaton is a closed string mode parameterising the size of an internal cycle of the compactification manifold. A realistic model of inflation must explain the tiny perturbations in the cosmic microwave background radiation and also how to excite the ordinary matter degrees of freedom after inflation, required for the success of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. We study these issues focusing on two promising inflationary models embedded in LARGE volume type IIB flux compactifications. We show that phenomenological requirements and consistency of the effective field theory treatment imply the presence at low energies of a hidden sector together with a visible sector, where the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model fields are residing. A detailed calculation of the inflaton coupling to the fields of the hidden sector, visible sector, and moduli sector, reveals that the inflaton fails to excite primarily the visible sector fields, instead hidden sector fields are excited copiously after the end of inflation. This sets severe constraints on hidden sector model building where the most promising scenario emerges as a pure N=1 SYM theory, forbidding the kinematical decay of the inflaton to the hidden sector. In this case it is possible to reheat the Universe with the visible degrees of freedom even though in some cases we discover a new tension between TeV scale SUSY and reheating on top of the well-known tension between TeV scale SUSY and inflation. (orig.)
Minimal string theories and integrable hierarchies
Iyer, Ramakrishnan
Well-defined, non-perturbative formulations of the physics of string theories in specific minimal or superminimal model backgrounds can be obtained by solving matrix models in the double scaling limit. They provide us with the first examples of completely solvable string theories. Despite being relatively simple compared to higher dimensional critical string theories, they furnish non-perturbative descriptions of interesting physical phenomena such as geometrical transitions between D-branes and fluxes, tachyon condensation and holography. The physics of these theories in the minimal model backgrounds is succinctly encoded in a non-linear differential equation known as the string equation, along with an associated hierarchy of integrable partial differential equations (PDEs). The bosonic string in (2,2m-1) conformal minimal model backgrounds and the type 0A string in (2,4 m) superconformal minimal model backgrounds have the Korteweg-de Vries system, while type 0B in (2,4m) backgrounds has the Zakharov-Shabat system. The integrable PDE hierarchy governs flows between backgrounds with different m. In this thesis, we explore this interesting connection between minimal string theories and integrable hierarchies further. We uncover the remarkable role that an infinite hierarchy of non-linear differential equations plays in organizing and connecting certain minimal string theories non-perturbatively. We are able to embed the type 0A and 0B (A,A) minimal string theories into this single framework. The string theories arise as special limits of a rich system of equations underpinned by an integrable system known as the dispersive water wave hierarchy. We find that there are several other string-like limits of the system, and conjecture that some of them are type IIA and IIB (A,D) minimal string backgrounds. We explain how these and several other string-like special points arise and are connected. In some cases, the framework endows the theories with a non
A global string with an event horizon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harari, D.; Polychronakos, A.P.
1990-01-01
An idealized infinite straight global string in flat space-time has a logarithmically divergent energy per unit length. With gravity included, the standard field theoretical model for a straight global string has been shown to give rise to a repulsive gravitational field, and to develop a curvature singularity at a finite proper distance off the string core. Here we point out that alternative (although probably unrealistic) equations of state for the core of the global string produce a non-singular cylindrically symmetric metric with an event horizon at a finite proper distance off the core, such that timelike observers beyond the horizon are bound to move away from the string. The same geometric structure applies to the standard field theoretical model for a vortex in (2+1)-dimensional gravity. Thermal effects in a quantum field theory around the string due to the presence of the horizon are also calculated. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Di Vecchia, P.; Sciuto, S.; Nakayama, R.; Petersen, J.L.; Sidenius, J.R.
1986-11-01
The BRST-invariant N-Reggeon vertex (for the bosonic string) previously given by us in the operator formulation is considered in more detail. In particular we present a direct derivation from the string path integral. Several crucial symmetry properties found a posteriori before, become a priori clearer in this formulation. A number of delicate points related to zero modes, cut off procedures and normal ordering prescriptions are treated in some detail. The old technique of letting the string field acquire a small dimension ε/2 → 0 + is found especially elegant. (orig.)
Algebraic renormalization of Yang-Mills theory with background field method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grassi, P.A.
1996-01-01
In this paper the renormalizability of Yang-Mills theory in the background gauge fixing is studied. By means of Ward identities of background gauge invariance and Slavnov-Taylor identities, in a regularization-independent way, the stability of the model under radiative corrections is proved and its renormalizability is verified. In particular, it is shown that the splitting between background and quantum field is stable under radiative corrections and this splitting does not introduce any new anomalies. (orig.)
Higgs boson decay into two photons in an electromagnetic background field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, N. K.
2014-01-01
The amplitude for Higgs boson decay into two photons in a homogeneous and time-independent magnetic field is investigated by proper-time regularization in a gauge-invariant manner and is found to be singular at large field values. The singularity is caused by the component of the charged vector...... boson field that is tachyonic in a strong magnetic field. Also, tools for the computation of the amplitude in a more general electromagnetic background are developed....
Castellani, Elena; Colomo, Filippo; Di Vecchia, Paolo
2012-01-01
String theory is currently the best candidate for a unified theory of all forces and all forms of matter in nature. As such, it has become a focal point for physical and philosophical discussions. This unique book explores the history of the theory's early stages of development, as told by its main protagonists. The book journeys from the first version of the theory (the so-called dual resonance model) in the late sixties, as an attempt to describe the physics of strong interactions outside the framework of quantum field theory, to its reinterpretation around the mid-seventies as a quantum theory of gravity unified with the other forces, and its successive developments up to the superstring revolution in 1984. Providing important background information to current debates on the theory, this book is essential reading for students and researchers in physics, as well as historians and philosophers of science.
Big bang and big crunch in matrix string theory
Bedford, J; Papageorgakis, C; Rodríguez-Gómez, D; Ward, J
2007-01-01
Following the holographic description of linear dilaton null Cosmologies with a Big Bang in terms of Matrix String Theory put forward by Craps, Sethi and Verlinde, we propose an extended background describing a Universe including both Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities. This belongs to a class of exact string backgrounds and is perturbative in the string coupling far away from the singularities, both of which can be resolved using Matrix String Theory. We provide a simple theory capable of...
The Gribov problem in presence of background field for SU(2) Yang–Mills theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Canfora, Fabrizio, E-mail: canfora@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECS), Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile); Hidalgo, Diego, E-mail: dhidalgo@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECS), Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160, Concepción (Chile); Pais, Pablo, E-mail: pais@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECS), Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile); Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Univérsite de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, Campus Plaine C.P. 231, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)
2016-12-10
The Gribov problem in the presence of a background field is analyzed: in particular, we study the Gribov copies equation in the Landau–De Witt gauge as well as the semi-classical Gribov gap equation. As background field, we choose the simplest non-trivial one which corresponds to a constant gauge potential with non-vanishing component along the Euclidean time direction. This kind of constant non-Abelian background fields is very relevant in relation with (the computation of) the Polyakov loop but it also appears when one considers the non-Abelian Schwinger effect. We show that the Gribov copies equation is affected directly by the presence of the background field, constructing an explicit example. The analysis of the Gribov gap equation shows that the larger the background field, the smaller the Gribov mass parameter. These results strongly suggest that the relevance of the Gribov copies (from the path integral point of view) decreases as the size of the background field increases.
Spin chains and string theory.
Kruczenski, Martin
2004-10-15
Recently, an important test of the anti de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence has been done using rotating strings with two angular momenta. We show that such a test can be described more generally as the agreement between two actions: one a low energy description of a spin chain appearing in the field theory side, and the other a limit of the string action in AdS5xS5. This gives a map between the mean value of the spin in the boundary theory and the position of the string in the bulk, and shows how a string action can emerge from a gauge theory in the large-N limit.
Cosmological string theory with thermal energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shiraishi, Kiyoshi.
1988-09-01
An attempt to construct a cosmological scenario directly from string theory is made. Cosmological string theory was presented by Antoniadis, Bachas, Ellis and Nanopoulos. They also expect loop effects on cosmological string theory. In this paper, we point out the other importance of the one-loop effect, the finite temperature effect. The equations of motion for background geometry at finite temperature is given. We address a problem on derivation of the effective action at non-zero temperature. (author)
String theory as a Lilliputian world
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ambjørn, J.; Makeenko, Y.
2016-01-01
Lattice regularizations of the bosonic string do not allow us to probe the tachyon. This has often been viewed as the reason why these theories have never managed to make any contact to standard continuum string theories when the dimension of spacetime is larger than two. We study the continuum string theory in large spacetime dimensions where simple mean field theory is reliable. By keeping carefully the cutoff we show that precisely the existence of a tachyon makes it possible to take a scaling limit which reproduces the lattice-string results. We compare this scaling limit with another scaling limit which reproduces standard continuum-string results. If the people working with lattice regularizations of string theories are akin to Gulliver they will view the standard string-world as a Lilliputian world no larger than a few lattice spacings.
String theory as a Lilliputian world
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ambjørn, J., E-mail: ambjorn@nbi.dk [The Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); IMAPP, Radboud University, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Makeenko, Y., E-mail: makeenko@nbi.dk [The Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2016-05-10
Lattice regularizations of the bosonic string do not allow us to probe the tachyon. This has often been viewed as the reason why these theories have never managed to make any contact to standard continuum string theories when the dimension of spacetime is larger than two. We study the continuum string theory in large spacetime dimensions where simple mean field theory is reliable. By keeping carefully the cutoff we show that precisely the existence of a tachyon makes it possible to take a scaling limit which reproduces the lattice-string results. We compare this scaling limit with another scaling limit which reproduces standard continuum-string results. If the people working with lattice regularizations of string theories are akin to Gulliver they will view the standard string-world as a Lilliputian world no larger than a few lattice spacings.
Exact Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation for gravitational waves and magnetic field background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goncalves, Bruno; Obukhov, Yuri N.; Shapiro, Ilya L.
2007-01-01
We consider an exact Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation for the Dirac spinor field on the combined background of a gravitational wave and constant uniform magnetic field. By taking the classical limit of the spinor field Hamiltonian, we arrive at the equations of motion for the nonrelativistic spinning particle. Two different kinds of gravitational fields are considered and in both cases the effect of the gravitational wave on the spinor field and on the corresponding spinning particle may be enforced by a sufficiently strong magnetic field. This result can be relevant for astrophysical applications and, in principle, useful for creating the gravitational wave detectors based on atomic physics and precise interferometry
String model of elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kikkawa, Keiji
1975-01-01
Recent development of the models of elementary particles is described. The principal features of elementary particle physics can be expressed by quark model, mass spectrum, the Regge behavior of scattering amplitude, and duality. Venezians showed in 1968 that the B function can express these features. From the analysis of mass spectrum, the string model was introduced. The quantization of the string is performed with the same procedure as the ordinary quantum mechanics. The motion of the string is determined by the Nambu-Goto action integral, and the Schroedinger equation is obtained. Mass spectrum from the string model was same as that from the duality model such as Veneziano model. The interaction between strings can be introduced, and the Lagrangian can be formulated. The relation between the string model and the duality model has been studied. The string model is the first theory of non-local field, and the further development is attractive. The relation between this model and the quark model is still not clear. (Kato, T.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, D.J.
1985-01-01
String theories offer a way of realizing the potential of supersymmetry, Kaluza-Klein and much more. They represent a radical departure from ordinary quantum field theory, but in the direction of increased symmetry and structure. They are based on an enormous increase in the number of degrees of freedom, since in addition to fermionic coordinates and extra dimensions, the basic entities are extended one dimensional objects instead of points. Correspondingly the symmetry group is greatly enlarged, in a way that we are only beginning to comprehend. At the very least this extended symmetry contains the largest group of symmetries that can be contemplated within the framework of point field theories-those of ten-dimensional supergravity and super Yang-Mills theory. Types of string theories and the phenomenology to be expected from them are reviewed
Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Schwarz, John H.
String theory is one of the most exciting and challenging areas of modern theoretical physics. This book guides the reader from the basics of string theory to recent developments. It introduces the basics of perturbative string theory, world-sheet supersymmetry, space-time supersymmetry, conformal field theory and the heterotic string, before describing modern developments, including D-branes, string dualities and M-theory. It then covers string geometry and flux compactifications, applications to cosmology and particle physics, black holes in string theory and M-theory, and the microscopic origin of black-hole entropy. It concludes with Matrix theory, the AdS/CFT duality and its generalizations. This book is ideal for graduate students and researchers in modern string theory, and will make an excellent textbook for a one-year course on string theory. It contains over 120 exercises with solutions, and over 200 homework problems with solutions available on a password protected website for lecturers at www.cambridge.org/9780521860697. Comprehensive coverage of topics from basics of string theory to recent developments Ideal textbook for a one-year course in string theory Includes over 100 exercises with solutions Contains over 200 homework problems with solutions available to lecturers on-line
The Uncertainty of Local Background Magnetic Field Orientation in Anisotropic Plasma Turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gerick, F.; Saur, J.; Papen, M. von, E-mail: felix.gerick@uni-koeln.de [Institute of Geophysics and Meteorology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany)
2017-07-01
In order to resolve and characterize anisotropy in turbulent plasma flows, a proper estimation of the background magnetic field is crucially important. Various approaches to calculating the background magnetic field, ranging from local to globally averaged fields, are commonly used in the analysis of turbulent data. We investigate how the uncertainty in the orientation of a scale-dependent background magnetic field influences the ability to resolve anisotropy. Therefore, we introduce a quantitative measure, the angle uncertainty, that characterizes the uncertainty of the orientation of the background magnetic field that turbulent structures are exposed to. The angle uncertainty can be used as a condition to estimate the ability to resolve anisotropy with certain accuracy. We apply our description to resolve the spectral anisotropy in fast solar wind data. We show that, if the angle uncertainty grows too large, the power of the turbulent fluctuations is attributed to false local magnetic field angles, which may lead to an incorrect estimation of the spectral indices. In our results, an apparent robustness of the spectral anisotropy to false local magnetic field angles is observed, which can be explained by a stronger increase of power for lower frequencies when the scale of the local magnetic field is increased. The frequency-dependent angle uncertainty is a measure that can be applied to any turbulent system.
The Uncertainty of Local Background Magnetic Field Orientation in Anisotropic Plasma Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerick, F.; Saur, J.; Papen, M. von
2017-01-01
In order to resolve and characterize anisotropy in turbulent plasma flows, a proper estimation of the background magnetic field is crucially important. Various approaches to calculating the background magnetic field, ranging from local to globally averaged fields, are commonly used in the analysis of turbulent data. We investigate how the uncertainty in the orientation of a scale-dependent background magnetic field influences the ability to resolve anisotropy. Therefore, we introduce a quantitative measure, the angle uncertainty, that characterizes the uncertainty of the orientation of the background magnetic field that turbulent structures are exposed to. The angle uncertainty can be used as a condition to estimate the ability to resolve anisotropy with certain accuracy. We apply our description to resolve the spectral anisotropy in fast solar wind data. We show that, if the angle uncertainty grows too large, the power of the turbulent fluctuations is attributed to false local magnetic field angles, which may lead to an incorrect estimation of the spectral indices. In our results, an apparent robustness of the spectral anisotropy to false local magnetic field angles is observed, which can be explained by a stronger increase of power for lower frequencies when the scale of the local magnetic field is increased. The frequency-dependent angle uncertainty is a measure that can be applied to any turbulent system.
Experimental observation of Bethe strings
Wang, Zhe; Wu, Jianda; Yang, Wang; Bera, Anup Kumar; Kamenskyi, Dmytro; Islam, A. T. M. Nazmul; Xu, Shenglong; Law, Joseph Matthew; Lake, Bella; Wu, Congjun; Loidl, Alois
2018-02-01
Almost a century ago, string states—complex bound states of magnetic excitations—were predicted to exist in one-dimensional quantum magnets. However, despite many theoretical studies, the experimental realization and identification of string states in a condensed-matter system have yet to be achieved. Here we use high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy to resolve string states in the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg-Ising chain SrCo2V2O8 in strong longitudinal magnetic fields. In the field-induced quantum-critical regime, we identify strings and fractional magnetic excitations that are accurately described by the Bethe ansatz. Close to quantum criticality, the string excitations govern the quantum spin dynamics, whereas the fractional excitations, which are dominant at low energies, reflect the antiferromagnetic quantum fluctuations. Today, Bethe’s result is important not only in the field of quantum magnetism but also more broadly, including in the study of cold atoms and in string theory; hence, we anticipate that our work will shed light on the study of complex many-body systems in general.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volovich, I.V.
1987-01-01
The hypothesis of the possible p-adic structure of spacetime is considered. The p-adic Veneziano amplitude is proposed and the main properties of the p-adic string theory are discussed. The analogous questions on the Galois field are also discussed. In this case the Jacobi sum plays the role of the Veneziano amplitude which can be expressed by means of the I-adic cohomology of the Fermat curves. The corresponding vertex operator is given. (author)
The holographic RG flow in a field theory on a curved background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cardoso, Gabriel Lopes; Luest, Dieter
2002-01-01
As shown by Freedman, Gubser, Pilch and Warner, the RG flow in N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory broken to an N=1 theory by the addition of a mass term can be described in terms of a supersymmetric domain wall solution in five-dimensional N=8 gauged supergravity. The FGPW flow is an example of a holographic RG flow in a field theory on a flat background. Here we put the field theory studied by Freedman, Gubser, Pilch and Warner on a curved AdS 4 background, and we construct the supersymmetric domain wall solution which describes the RG flow in this field theory. This solution is a curved (non-Ricci flat) domain wall solution. This example demonstrates that holographic RG flows in supersymmetric field theories on a curved AdS 4 background can be described in terms of curved supersymmetric domain wall solutions. (author)
Strings draw theorists together
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Green, Michael [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)
2000-03-01
Theorists are confident that they are closer than ever to finding a quantum theory that unites gravity with the three other fundamental forces in nature. Many of the leading figures in the world of string theory met at the California Institute of Technology in January to discuss recent progress in the field and to reflect on the state of the theory. The enthusiastic mood of the gathering was based on the fact that string theory provides an elegant framework for a unified theory of all the forces and particles in nature, and also gives a consistent quantum-mechanical description of general relativity. String theory, and more precisely superstring theory, describes the assortment of elementary particles such as quarks and leptons, and the gauge bosons responsible for mediating forces in a unified manner as different modes of vibration of a single extended string. This version of the theory also embodies supersymmetry a conjectured symmetry that unifies fermions and bosons. Furthermore, the fact that the string has a fundamental length scale - the ''string length'' - apparently cures the short-distance problems of uniting general relativity with quantum theory. The main problem with the early formulations of superstring theory was that they emphasized the ''perturbative'' point of view, an approximation that describes string-like quantum-mechanical particles moving through classical (that is non quantum-mechanical) space-time. However, very general arguments require that any quantum theory of gravity should also describe space-time geometry in a quantum-mechanical manner. The classical geometry of space-time should then emerge as an approximate description at distance scales much larger than the so-called Planck scale of 10{sup -33} m. This requires an understanding of the theory beyond the perturbative approximation. It is the quest for this more fundamental description of string theory that has provided the main challenge for
Scaling laws for nonintercommuting cosmic string networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martins, C.J.A.P.
2004-01-01
We study the evolution of noninteracting and entangled cosmic string networks in the context of the velocity-dependent one-scale model. Such networks may be formed in several contexts, including brane inflation. We show that the frozen network solution L∝a, although generic, is only a transient one, and that the asymptotic solution is still L∝t as in the case of ordinary (intercommuting) strings, although in the present context the universe will usually be string dominated. Thus the behavior of two strings when they cross does not seem to affect their scaling laws, but only their densities relative to the background
Extremal black holes as exact string solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horowitz, G.T.; Tseytlin, A.A.
1994-01-01
We show that the leading order solution describing an extremal electrically charged black hole in string theory is, in fact, an exact solution to all orders in α' when interpreted in a Kaluza-Klein fashion. This follows from the observation that it can be obtained via dimensional reduction from a five-dimensional background which is proved to be an exact string solution
String loop effect on the BRST charge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, A.; Nishino, H.
1987-07-01
An effective BRST charge Q BRST which incorporates the string one-loop corrections is presented for the closed bosonic string in an arbitrary background. The effective σ-model action which leads to such a Q BRST is obtained and some consequences are discussed. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carlip, S [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)
2006-10-21
, it could easily be missed-but these are minor drawbacks. Readers will find clear answers to many 'frequently asked questions.' Are D-branes really necessary? Polchinski begins with T-duality for the closed string, and shows that the extension to open strings requires the existence of D-branes. How does string theory incorporate gravity? The two standard answers are that string theory contains a massless spin two 'graviton' and that consistent string propagation in a curved background requires that the background metric satisfy the Einstein field equations; Polchinski links the two, showing that the background metric can be viewed as a coherent state of the spin two excitations. Volume II, Superstring Theory and Beyond, extends Volume I to superstring theory, and then proceeds to treat a range of more advanced subjects: effective actions for branes, dualities and equivalences among string theories, M theory, stringy black holes, compactifications and four-dimensional field theories, and the like. The tone of this volume changes a bit-it is not as self-contained, and reads less like a textbook and more like an extended review article. I suspect, for example, that few students without a strong background in field theory will follow the discussion of anomalies in chapter 12. The change can be largely attributed to the content: the superstring is inherently more difficult than the bosonic string, and the newer material is not as deeply understood. But there are a few weaknesses in presentation as well: for instance, a discussion in chapter 11 of the relationship between symmetries and constraints omits any explanation of how one decides whether a transformation generates a symmetry or a constraint. Any two-volume book on string theory is necessarily incomplete. In his introduction, Polchinski cites the lack of a more thorough treatment of compactifications on curved manifolds. I would personally have liked to see more about noncritical strings and
String theory and quantum gravity '92
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harvey, J.; Iengo, R.; Narain, K.S.; Randjbar Daemi, S.; Verlinde, H.
1993-01-01
These proceedings of the 1992 Trieste Spring School and Workshop on String Theory and Quantum Gravity contains introductions and overviews of recent work on the use of two-dimensional string inspired models in the study of black holes, a lecture on gravitational scattering at planckian energies, another on the physical properties of higher-dimensional black holes and black strings in string theory, a discussion on N=2 superconformal field theories, a lecture about the application of matrix model techniques to the study of string theory in two dimensions, and an overview of the current status and developments in string field theory. Connections with models in statistical mechanics are also discussed. These proceedings contain seven lectures and ten contributions. Refs and figs
Jejjala, Vishnumohan
2002-01-01
This Thesis explores aspects of superstring theory on orbifold spaces and applies some of the intuition gleaned from the study of the non-commutative geometry of space-time to understanding the fractional quantum Hall effect. The moduli space of vacua of marginal and relevant deformations of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills gauge theory in four dimensions is interpreted in terms of non-commutative geometry. A formalism for thinking about the algebraic geometry of the moduli space is developed. Within this framework, the representation theory of the algebras studied provides a natural exposition of D-brane fractionation. The non-commutative moduli space of deformations preserving N = 1 supersymmetry is examined in detail through various examples. In string theory, by the AdS/CFT correspondence, deformations of the N = 4 field theory are dual to the near-horizon geometries of D-branes on orbifolds of AdS5 x S 5. The physics of D-branes on the dual AdS backgrounds is explored. Quivers encapsulate the matter content of supersymmetric field theories on the worldvolumes of D-branes at orbifold singularities. New techniques for constructing quivers are presented here. When N is a normal subgroup of a finite group G, the quiver corresponding to fixed points of the orbifold M/G is computed from a G/N action on the quiver corresponding to M/G . These techniques prove useful for constructing non-Abelian quivers and for examining discrete torsion orbifolds. Quivers obtained through our constructions contain interesting low-energy phenomenology. The matter content on a brane at an isolated singularity of the Delta27 orbifold embeds the Standard Model. The symmetries of the quiver require exactly three generations of fields in the particle spectrum. Lepton masses are suppressed relative to quark masses because lepton Yukawa couplings do not appear in the superpotential. Lepton masses are generated through the Kahler potential and are related to the supersymmetry breaking scale. The model
Dynamics of Plasma Jets and Bubbles Launched into a Transverse Background Magnetic Field
Zhang, Yue
2017-10-01
A coaxial magnetized plasma gun has been utilized to launch both plasma jets (open B-field) and plasma bubbles (closed B-field) into a transverse background magnetic field in the HelCat (Helicon-Cathode) linear device at the University of New Mexico. These situations may have bearing on fusion plasmas (e.g. plasma injection for tokamak fueling, ELM pacing, or disruption mitigation) and astrophysical settings (e.g. astrophysical jet stability, coronal mass ejections, etc.). The magnetic Reynolds number of the gun plasma is 100 , so that magnetic advection dominates over magnetic diffusion. The gun plasma ram pressure, ρjetVjet2 >B02 / 2μ0 , the background magnetic pressure, so that the jet or bubble can easily penetrate the background B-field, B0. When the gun axial B-field is weak compared to the gun azimuthal field, a current-driven jet is formed with a global helical magnetic configuration. Applying the transverse background magnetic field, it is observed that the n = 1 kink mode is stabilized, while magnetic probe measurements show contrarily that the safety factor q(a) drops below unity. At the same time, a sheared axial jet velocity is measured. We conclude that the tension force arising from increasing curvature of the background magnetic field induces the measured sheared flow gradient above the theoretical kink-stabilization threshold, resulting in the emergent kink stabilization of the injected plasma jet. In the case of injected bubbles, spheromak-like plasma formation is verified. However, when the spheromak plasma propagates into the transverse background magnetic field, the typical self-closed global symmetry magnetic configuration does not hold any more. In the region where the bubble toroidal field opposed the background B-field, the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability has been observed. Details of the experiment setup, diagnostics, experimental results and theoretical analysis will be presented. Supported by the National Science Foundation
E(lementary) Strings in Six-Dimensional Heterotic F-Theory
Choi, Kang-Sin; Rey, Soo-Jong
2017-01-01
Using E-strings, we can analyze not only six-dimensional superconformal field theories but also probe vacua of non-perturabative heterotic string. We study strings made of D3-branes wrapped on various two-cycles in the global F-theory setup. We claim that E-strings are elementary in the sense that various combinations of E-strings can form M-strings as well as heterotic strings and new kind of strings, called G-strings. Using them, we show that emissions and combinations of heterotic small in...
Lynn, Alan G.; Zhang, Yue; Gilmore, Mark; Hsu, Scott
2014-10-01
We discuss the dynamics of plasma ``bubbles'' as they propagate through a variety of background media. These bubbles are formed by a pulsed coaxial gun with an externally applied magnetic field. Bubble parameters are typically ne ~1020 m-3, Te ~ 5 - 10 eV, and Ti ~ 10 - 15 eV. The structure of the bubbles can range from unmagnetized jet-like structures to spheromak-like structures with complex magnetic flux surfaces. Some of the background media the bubbles interact with are vacuum, vacuum with magnetic field, and other magnetized plasmas. These bubbles exhibit different qualitative behavior depending on coaxial gun parameters such as gas species, gun current, and gun bias magnetic field. Their behavior also depends on the parameters of the background they propagate through. Multi-frame fast camera imaging and magnetic probe data are used to characterize the bubble evolution under various conditions.
Zhang, Yue; Gilmore, Mark; Hsu, Scott C.; Fisher, Dustin M.; Lynn, Alan G.
2017-11-01
We report experimental results on the injection of a magnetized plasma jet into a transverse background magnetic field in the HelCat linear plasma device at the University of New Mexico [M. Gilmore et al., J. Plasma Phys. 81(1), 345810104 (2015)]. After the plasma jet leaves the plasma-gun muzzle, a tension force arising from an increasing curvature of the background magnetic field induces in the jet a sheared axial-flow gradient above the theoretical kink-stabilization threshold. We observe that this emergent sheared axial flow stabilizes the n = 1 kink mode in the jet, whereas a kink instability is observed in the jet when there is no background magnetic field present.
Anisotropic effects of background fields on Born-Infeld electromagnetic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aiello, Matias; Bengochea, Gabriel R.; Ferraro, Rafael
2007-01-01
We show exact solutions of the Born-Infeld theory for electromagnetic plane waves propagating in the presence of static background fields. The non-linear character of the Born-Infeld equations generates an interaction between the background and the wave that changes the speed of propagation and adds a longitudinal component to the wave. As a consequence, in a magnetic background the ray direction differs from the propagation direction-a behavior resembling the one of a wave in an anisotropic medium. This feature could open up a way to experimental tests of the Born-Infeld theory
Anisotropic effects of background fields on Born-Infeld electromagnetic waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aiello, Matias [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina) and Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: aiello@iafe.uba.ar; Bengochea, Gabriel R. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina) and Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: gabriel@iafe.uba.ar; Ferraro, Rafael [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina) and Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: ferraro@iafe.uba.ar
2007-01-22
We show exact solutions of the Born-Infeld theory for electromagnetic plane waves propagating in the presence of static background fields. The non-linear character of the Born-Infeld equations generates an interaction between the background and the wave that changes the speed of propagation and adds a longitudinal component to the wave. As a consequence, in a magnetic background the ray direction differs from the propagation direction-a behavior resembling the one of a wave in an anisotropic medium. This feature could open up a way to experimental tests of the Born-Infeld theory.
Multi-scale MHD analysis of heliotron plasma in change of background field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ichiguchi, K.; Sakakibara, S.; Ohdachi, S.; Carreras, B.A.
2012-11-01
A partial collapse observed in the Large Helical Device (LHD) experiments shifting the magnetic axis inwardly with a real time control of the background field is analyzed with a magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) numerical simulation. The simulation is carried out with a multi-scale simulation scheme. In the simulation, the equilibrium also evolves including the change of the pressure and the rotational transform due to the perturbation dynamics. The simulation result agrees with the experiments qualitatively, which shows that the mechanism is attributed to the destabilization of an infernal-like mode. The destabilization is caused by the change of the background field through the enhancement of the magnetic hill. (author)
Defect branes as Alice strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okada, Takashi; Sakatani, Yuho
2015-01-01
There exist various defect-brane backgrounds in supergravity theories which arise as the low energy limit of string theories. These backgrounds typically have non-trivial monodromies, and if we move a charged probe around the center of a defect, its charge will be changed by the action of the monodromy. During the process, the charge conservation law seems to be violated. In this paper, to resolve this puzzle, we examine a dynamics of the charge changing process and show that the missing charge of the probe is transferred to the background. We then explicitly construct the resultant background after the charge transfer process by utilizing dualities. This background has the same monodromy as the original defect brane, but has an additional charge which does not have any localized source. In the literature, such a charge without localized source is known to appear in the presence of Alice strings. We argue that defect branes can in fact be regarded as a realization of Alice strings in string theory and examine the charge transfer process from that perspective.
Defect branes as Alice strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Okada, Takashi [Theoretical Biology Laboratory, RIKEN,Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Sakatani, Yuho [Department of Physics and Astronomy,Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-03-25
There exist various defect-brane backgrounds in supergravity theories which arise as the low energy limit of string theories. These backgrounds typically have non-trivial monodromies, and if we move a charged probe around the center of a defect, its charge will be changed by the action of the monodromy. During the process, the charge conservation law seems to be violated. In this paper, to resolve this puzzle, we examine a dynamics of the charge changing process and show that the missing charge of the probe is transferred to the background. We then explicitly construct the resultant background after the charge transfer process by utilizing dualities. This background has the same monodromy as the original defect brane, but has an additional charge which does not have any localized source. In the literature, such a charge without localized source is known to appear in the presence of Alice strings. We argue that defect branes can in fact be regarded as a realization of Alice strings in string theory and examine the charge transfer process from that perspective.
Evidence for string substructure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergman, O.
1996-06-01
The author argues that the behavior of string theory at high temperature and high longitudinal boosts, combined with the emergence of p-branes as necessary ingredients in various string dualities, point to a possible reformulation of strings, as well as p-branes, as composites of bits. He reviews the string-bit models, and suggests generalizations to incorporate p-branes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kachru, Shamit; McAllister, Liam; Sundrum, Raman
2007-01-01
We study sequestering, a prerequisite for flavor-blind supersymmetry breaking in several high-scale mediation mechanisms, in compactifications of type IIB string theory. We find that although sequestering is typically absent in unwarped backgrounds, strongly warped compactifications do readily sequester. The AdS/CFT dual description in terms of conformal sequestering plays an important role in our analysis, and we establish how sequestering works both on the gravity side and on the gauge theory side. We pay special attention to subtle compactification effects that can disrupt sequestering. Our result is a step toward realizing an appealing pattern of soft terms in a KKLT compactification
Conservation laws and stress-energy-momentum tensors for systems with background fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gratus, Jonathan, E-mail: j.gratus@lancaster.ac.uk [Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Obukhov, Yuri N., E-mail: yo@thp.uni-koeln.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Cologne, 50923 Koeln (Germany); Tucker, Robin W., E-mail: r.tucker@lancaster.ac.uk [Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)
2012-10-15
This article attempts to delineate the roles played by non-dynamical background structures and Killing symmetries in the construction of stress-energy-momentum tensors generated from a diffeomorphism invariant action density. An intrinsic coordinate independent approach puts into perspective a number of spurious arguments that have historically lead to the main contenders, viz the Belinfante-Rosenfeld stress-energy-momentum tensor derived from a Noether current and the Einstein-Hilbert stress-energy-momentum tensor derived in the context of Einstein's theory of general relativity. Emphasis is placed on the role played by non-dynamical background (phenomenological) structures that discriminate between properties of these tensors particularly in the context of electrodynamics in media. These tensors are used to construct conservation laws in the presence of Killing Lie-symmetric background fields. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The role of background fields in diffeomorphism invariant actions is demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interrelations between different stress-energy-momentum tensors are emphasised. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Abraham and Minkowski electromagnetic tensors are discussed in this context. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conservation laws in the presence of nondynamic background fields are formulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The discussion is facilitated by the development of a new variational calculus.
Fang, Jinsheng; Bao, Lijun; Li, Xu; van Zijl, Peter C. M.; Chen, Zhong
2017-08-01
Background field removal is an important MR phase preprocessing step for quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). It separates the local field induced by tissue magnetic susceptibility sources from the background field generated by sources outside a region of interest, e.g. brain, such as air-tissue interface. In the vicinity of air-tissue boundary, e.g. skull and paranasal sinuses, where large susceptibility variations exist, present background field removal methods are usually insufficient and these regions often need to be excluded by brain mask erosion at the expense of losing information of local field and thus susceptibility measures in these regions. In this paper, we propose an extension to the variable-kernel sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data (V-SHARP) background field removal method using a region adaptive kernel (R-SHARP), in which a scalable spherical Gaussian kernel (SGK) is employed with its kernel radius and weights adjustable according to an energy "functional" reflecting the magnitude of field variation. Such an energy functional is defined in terms of a contour and two fitting functions incorporating regularization terms, from which a curve evolution model in level set formation is derived for energy minimization. We utilize it to detect regions of with a large field gradient caused by strong susceptibility variation. In such regions, the SGK will have a small radius and high weight at the sphere center in a manner adaptive to the voxel energy of the field perturbation. Using the proposed method, the background field generated from external sources can be effectively removed to get a more accurate estimation of the local field and thus of the QSM dipole inversion to map local tissue susceptibility sources. Numerical simulation, phantom and in vivo human brain data demonstrate improved performance of R-SHARP compared to V-SHARP and RESHARP (regularization enabled SHARP) methods, even when the whole paranasal sinus regions
Fang, Jinsheng; Bao, Lijun; Li, Xu; van Zijl, Peter C M; Chen, Zhong
2017-08-01
Background field removal is an important MR phase preprocessing step for quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). It separates the local field induced by tissue magnetic susceptibility sources from the background field generated by sources outside a region of interest, e.g. brain, such as air-tissue interface. In the vicinity of air-tissue boundary, e.g. skull and paranasal sinuses, where large susceptibility variations exist, present background field removal methods are usually insufficient and these regions often need to be excluded by brain mask erosion at the expense of losing information of local field and thus susceptibility measures in these regions. In this paper, we propose an extension to the variable-kernel sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data (V-SHARP) background field removal method using a region adaptive kernel (R-SHARP), in which a scalable spherical Gaussian kernel (SGK) is employed with its kernel radius and weights adjustable according to an energy "functional" reflecting the magnitude of field variation. Such an energy functional is defined in terms of a contour and two fitting functions incorporating regularization terms, from which a curve evolution model in level set formation is derived for energy minimization. We utilize it to detect regions of with a large field gradient caused by strong susceptibility variation. In such regions, the SGK will have a small radius and high weight at the sphere center in a manner adaptive to the voxel energy of the field perturbation. Using the proposed method, the background field generated from external sources can be effectively removed to get a more accurate estimation of the local field and thus of the QSM dipole inversion to map local tissue susceptibility sources. Numerical simulation, phantom and in vivo human brain data demonstrate improved performance of R-SHARP compared to V-SHARP and RESHARP (regularization enabled SHARP) methods, even when the whole paranasal sinus regions
Hawking radiation in string theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakai, N.
1986-01-01
String theories in a uniform gravitational field are studied to examine the Hawking radiation. An upper limit is found for the strength of the possible gravitational field: the corresponding Hawking temperature cannot be larger than the Hagedorn limiting temperature divided by π
Flavor-singlet axial-vector current in quark model within background field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Kun; Yan Mulin
1993-01-01
The flavor-singlet axial-vector current is calculated in a quark model within pseudoscalar background-field through the Seeley-DeWitt coefficients. This current is responsible for the quark spin content of proton and is of O(1) in the large-N e expansion
Unified field theories, the early big bang, and the microwave background paradox
Stecker, F. W.
1979-01-01
It is suggested that a superunified field theory incorporating gravity and possessing asymptotic freedom could provide a solution to the paradox of the isotropy of the universal 3K background radiation. Thermal equilibrium could be established in this context through interactions occurring in a temporally indefinite preplanckian era.