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Sample records for strikingly reduced allergic

  1. Reducing Environmental Allergic Triggers: Policy Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Stuart L

    The implementation of policies to reduce environmental allergic triggers can be an important adjunct to optimal patient care for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Policies at the local level in schools and other public as well as private buildings can make an impact on disease morbidity. Occupational exposures for allergens have not yet been met with the same rigorous policy standards applied for exposures to toxicants by Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Further benefit may be obtained through policies by local, county, state, and national governments, and possibly through international cooperative agreements. The reduction of allergenic exposures can and should be affected by policies with strong scientific, evidence-based derivation. However, a judicious application of the precautionary principle may be needed in circumstances where the health effect of inaction could lead to more serious threats to vulnerable populations with allergic disease. This commentary covers the scientific basis, current implementation, knowledge gaps, and pro/con views on policy issues in reducing environmental allergic triggers. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reducing allergic symptoms through eliminating subgingival plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Utomo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elimination of subgingival plaque for prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases through scaling is a routine procedure. It is also well-known that periodontal disease is related to systemic diseases. Nevertheless, the idea how scaling procedures also able to reduce allergic symptoms i.e. eczema and asthma, is not easily accepted, because it is contradictory to the “hygiene hypothesis”. However, since allergic symptoms also depend on variable factors such as genetic, environmental and infection factors; every possible effort to eliminate or avoid from these factors had to be considered. Subgingival plaque is a source of infection, especially the Gram-negative bacteria that produced endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides, LPS, a potential stimulator of immunocompetent cells, which may also related to allergy, such as mast cells and basophils. In addition, it also triggers the “neurogenic switching” mechanism which may be initiated from chronic gingivitis. Objective: This case report may explain the possible connection between subgingival plaque and allergy based on evidence-based cases. Case: Two adult siblings who suffered from chronic gingivitis also showed different manifestations of allergy that were allergic dermatitis and asthma for years. They were also undergone unsuccessful medical treatment for years. Oral and topical corticosteroids were taken for dermatitis and inhalation for asthma. Case Management: Patients were conducted deep scaling procedures, allergic symptoms gradually diminished in days even though without usual medications. Conclusion: Concerning to the effectiveness of scaling procedures which concomitantly eliminate subgingival plaque in allergic patients, it concluded that this concept is logical. Nevertheless, further verification and collaborated study with allergic expert should be done.

  3. Beta-escin has potent anti-allergic efficacy and reduces allergic airway inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unger Hermann

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type I hypersensitivity is characterized by the overreaction of the immune system against otherwise innocuous substances. It manifests as allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, allergic asthma or atopic dermatitis if mast cells are activated in the respective organs. In case of systemic mast cell activation, life-threatening anaphylaxis may occur. Currently, type I hypersensitivities are treated either with glucocorticoids, anti-histamines, or mast cell stabilizers. Although these drugs exert a strong anti-allergic effect, their long-term use may be problematic due to their side-effects. Results In the course of a routine in vitro screening process, we identified beta-escin as a potentially anti-allergic compound. Here we tested beta-escin in two mouse models to confirm this anti-allergic effect in vivo. In a model of the early phase of allergic reactions, the murine passive cutaneous anaphylaxis model, beta-escin inhibited the effects of mast cell activation and degranulation in the skin and dose-dependently prevented the extravasation of fluids into the tissue. Beta-escin also significantly inhibited the late response after antigen challenge in a lung allergy model with ovalbumin-sensitized mice. Allergic airway inflammation was suppressed, which was exemplified by the reduction of leucocytes, eosinophils, IL-5 and IL-13 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Histopathological examinations further confirmed the reduced inflammation of the lung tissue. In both models, the inhibitory effect of beta-escin was comparable to the benchmark dexamethasone. Conclusions We demonstrated in two independent murine models of type I hypersensitivity that beta-escin has potent anti-allergic properties. These results and the excellent safety profile of beta-escin suggest a therapeutic potential of this compound for a novel treatment of allergic diseases.

  4. Beta-escin has potent anti-allergic efficacy and reduces allergic airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Ines; Meier, Christiane; Url, Angelika; Unger, Hermann; Grassauer, Andreas; Prieschl-Grassauer, Eva; Doerfler, Petra

    2010-05-21

    Type I hypersensitivity is characterized by the overreaction of the immune system against otherwise innocuous substances. It manifests as allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, allergic asthma or atopic dermatitis if mast cells are activated in the respective organs. In case of systemic mast cell activation, life-threatening anaphylaxis may occur. Currently, type I hypersensitivities are treated either with glucocorticoids, anti-histamines, or mast cell stabilizers. Although these drugs exert a strong anti-allergic effect, their long-term use may be problematic due to their side-effects. In the course of a routine in vitro screening process, we identified beta-escin as a potentially anti-allergic compound. Here we tested beta-escin in two mouse models to confirm this anti-allergic effect in vivo. In a model of the early phase of allergic reactions, the murine passive cutaneous anaphylaxis model, beta-escin inhibited the effects of mast cell activation and degranulation in the skin and dose-dependently prevented the extravasation of fluids into the tissue. Beta-escin also significantly inhibited the late response after antigen challenge in a lung allergy model with ovalbumin-sensitized mice. Allergic airway inflammation was suppressed, which was exemplified by the reduction of leucocytes, eosinophils, IL-5 and IL-13 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Histopathological examinations further confirmed the reduced inflammation of the lung tissue. In both models, the inhibitory effect of beta-escin was comparable to the benchmark dexamethasone. We demonstrated in two independent murine models of type I hypersensitivity that beta-escin has potent anti-allergic properties. These results and the excellent safety profile of beta-escin suggest a therapeutic potential of this compound for a novel treatment of allergic diseases.

  5. Intralymphatic treatment of flagellin-ovalbumin mixture reduced allergic inflammation in murine model of allergic rhinitis.

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    Kim, E H; Kim, J H; Samivel, R; Bae, J-S; Chung, Y-J; Chung, P-S; Lee, S E; Mo, J-H

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial flagellin, a Toll-like receptor 5 agonist, is used as an adjuvant for immunomodulation. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect and its mechanism following intralymphatic administration of OVA-flagellin (FlaB) mixture in the mouse model of allergic rhinitis. BALB/c mice were sensitized with OVA and treated with an OVA-FlaB mixture via intranasal, sublingual, and intralymphatic routes to evaluate the effect of each treatment. Several parameters for allergic inflammation and its underlying mechanisms were then evaluated. Intralymphatic injection of the OVA-FlaB mixture reduced symptom scores, eosinophil infiltration in the nasal mucosa, and total and OVA-specific IgE levels more significantly than intranasal and sublingual administration. Systemic cytokine (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-17, and IFN-γ) production and local cytokine (IL-4 and IL-5) production were also reduced significantly after intralymphatic injection with OVA-FlaB. Double intralymphatic injection of the mixture was more effective than single injection. Moreover, the expression of innate cytokines such as IL-25 and IL-33 in nasal epithelial cells was reduced, and the expression of chemokines such as CCL24 (eotaxin-2), CXCL1, and CXCL2 was decreased in the nasal mucosa, suggesting the underlying mechanism for intralymphatic administration of the OVA-FlaB mixture. Intralymphatic administration of an OVA-FlaB mixture was more effective in alleviating allergic inflammation than intranasal and sublingual administration in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis. This effect may be attributed to the reduced expression of innate cytokines and chemokines. This treatment modality can be considered as a new therapeutic method and agent. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Using a Sound Field to Reduce the Risks of Bird-Strike: An Experimental Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaddle, John P; Ingrassia, Nicole M

    2017-07-01

    Each year, billions of birds collide with large human-made structures, such as building, towers, and turbines, causing substantial mortality. Such bird-strike, which is projected to increase, poses risks to populations of birds and causes significant economic costs to many industries. Mitigation technologies have been deployed in an attempt to reduce bird-strike, but have been met with limited success. One reason for bird-strike may be that birds fail to pay adequate attention to the space directly in front of them when in level, cruising flight. A warning signal projected in front of a potential strike surface might attract visual attention and reduce the risks of collision. We tested this idea in captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) that were trained to fly down a long corridor and through an open wooden frame. Once birds were trained, they each experienced three treatments at unpredictable times and in a randomized order: a loud sound field projected immediately in front of the open wooden frame; a mist net (i.e., a benign strike surface) placed inside the wooden frame; and both the loud sound and the mist net. We found that birds slowed their flight approximately 20% more when the sound field was projected in front of the mist net compared with when the mist net was presented alone. This reduction in velocity would equate to a substantial reduction in the force of any collision. In addition to slowing down, birds increased the angle of attack of their body and tail, potentially allowing for more maneuverable flight. Concomitantly, the only cases where birds avoided the mist net occurred in the sound-augmented treatment. Interestingly, the sound field by itself did not demonstrably alter flight. Although our study was conducted in a limited setting, the alterations of flight associated with our sound field has implications for reducing bird-strike in nature and we encourage researchers to test our ideas in field trials. © The Author 2017. Published by

  7. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 Alleviates Food Allergic Manifestations in Sensitized Mice by Reducing IL-13 Expression Specifically in the Ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian W. Zuercher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Utilizing a food allergy murine model, we have investigated the intrinsic antiallergic potential of the Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 strain. Methods. BALB/c mice were sensitized at weekly intervals with ovalbumin (OVA plus cholera toxin (CT by the oral route for 7 weeks. In this model, an oral challenge with a high dose of OVA at the end of the sensitization period leads to clinical symptoms. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 was given to mice via the drinking water during sensitization (prevention phase or after sensitization (management phase. Results. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 administration to sensitized mice strikingly reduced allergic manifestations in the management phase upon challenge, when compared to control mice. No preventive effect was observed with the strain. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 significantly decreased relative expression levels of the Th-2 cytokine, IL-13, and associated chemokines CCL11 (eotaxin-1 and CCL17 (TARC in the ileum. No effect was observed in the jejunum. Conclusion/Significance. These results taken together designate Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 as a candidate probiotic strain appropriate in the management of allergic symptoms.

  8. Eating fish and farm life reduce allergic rhinitis at the age of twelve.

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    Vasileiadou, Styliana; Wennergren, Göran; Strömberg Celind, Frida; Åberg, Nils; Pettersson, Rolf; Alm, Bernt; Goksör, Emma

    2018-02-15

    The prevalence of allergic rhinitis has increased, but the cause of this rise is partly unknown. Our aim was to analyse the prevalence, risk factors and protective factors for allergic rhinitis in 12-year-old Swedish children. Data were collected from a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of children born in western Sweden in 2003. The parents answered questionnaires when the children were six months to 12 years. The response rate at 12 years was 76% (3,637/4,777) of the questionnaires distributed. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis at 12 years was 22% and 57% were boys. Mean age at onset was 7.8 years and 55% reported their first symptoms after eight years. The most common trigger factors were pollen (85%), furry animals (34%) and mites (17%). A multivariate analysis showed that the adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the independent risk factors for allergic rhinitis at 12 were: parental allergic rhinitis (2.32, 1.94-2.77), doctor-diagnosed food allergy in the first year (1.75, 1.21-2.52), eczema in the first year (1.61, 1.31-1.97) and male gender (1.25, 1.06-1.47). Eating fish once a month or more at age 12 months reduced the risk of allergic rhinitis at 12 years (0.70, 0.50-0.98) as did living on a farm with farm animals at four years (0.51, 0.32-0.84). Continuous farm living from age 4 to 12 seemed to drive the association. Allergic rhinitis affected more than 20% of 12-year-olds, but was lower in children who ate fish at 12 months or grew up with farm animals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Running quietly reduces ground reaction force and vertical loading rate and alters foot strike technique.

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    Phan, Xuan; Grisbrook, Tiffany L; Wernli, Kevin; Stearne, Sarah M; Davey, Paul; Ng, Leo

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to determine if a quantifiable relationship exists between the peak sound amplitude and peak vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) and vertical loading rate during running. It also investigated whether differences in peak sound amplitude, contact time, lower limb kinematics, kinetics and foot strike technique existed when participants were verbally instructed to run quietly compared to their normal running. A total of 26 males completed running trials for two sound conditions: normal running and quiet running. Simple linear regressions revealed no significant relationships between impact sound and peak vGRF in the normal and quiet conditions and vertical loading rate in the normal condition. t-Tests revealed significant within-subject decreases in peak sound, peak vGRF and vertical loading rate during the quiet compared to the normal running condition. During the normal running condition, 15.4% of participants utilised a non-rearfoot strike technique compared to 76.9% in the quiet condition, which was corroborated by an increased ankle plantarflexion angle at initial contact. This study demonstrated that quieter impact sound is not directly associated with a lower peak vGRF or vertical loading rate. However, given the instructions to run quietly, participants effectively reduced peak impact sound, peak vGRF and vertical loading rate.

  10. Gait training reduces ankle joint stiffness and facilitates heel strike in children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willerslev-Olsen, Maria; Lorentzen, Jakob; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2014-01-01

    Foot drop and toe walking are frequent concerns in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Increased stiffness of the ankle joint muscles may contribute to these problems. Does four weeks of daily home based treadmill training with incline reduce ankle joint stiffness and facilitate heel strike in children with CP? Seventeen children with CP (4-14 years) were recruited. Muscle stiffness and gait ability were measured twice before and twice after training with an interval of one month. Passive and reflex-mediated stiffness were measured by a dynamometer which applied stretches below and above reflex threshold. Gait kinematics were recorded by 3-D video-analysis during treadmill walking. Foot pressure was measured by force-sensitive foot soles during treadmill and over-ground walking. Children with increased passive stiffness showed a significant reduction in stiffness following training (P = 0.01). Toe lift in the swing phase (P = 0.014) and heel impact (P = 0.003) increased significantly following the training during both treadmill and over-ground walking. Daily intensive gait training may influence the elastic properties of ankle joint muscles and facilitate toe lift and heel strike in children with CP. Intensive gait training may be beneficial in preventing contractures and maintain gait ability in children with CP.

  11. Proton pump inhibitors exert anti-allergic effects by reducing TCTP secretion.

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    Sunghee Choi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extracellular translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP is known to play a role in human allergic responses. TCTP has been identified outside of macrophages, in activated mononuclear cells, and in biological fluids from allergic patients. Even TCTP devoid of signal sequences, is secreted to extracellular environment by an yet undefined mechanism. This study is aimed at understanding the mechanism of TCTP release and its regulation. A secondary goal is to see if inhibitors of TCTP release can serve as potential anti-allergic asthmatic drugs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using Western blotting assay in HEK293 and U937 cells, we found that TCTP secretion is reduced by omeprazole and pantoprazole, both of which are proton pump inhibitors. We then transfected HEK293 cells with proton pump expression vectors to search for the effects of exogeneously overexpressed H(+/K(+-ATPase on the TCTP secretion. Based on these in vitro data we checked the in vivo effects of pantoprazole in a murine model of ovalbumin-induced allergy. Omeprazole and pantoprazole reduced TCTP secretion from HEK293 and U937 cells in a concentration-dependent fashion and the secretion of TCTP from HEK293 cells increased when they over-expressed H(+/K(+-ATPase. In a murine model of ovalbumin-induced allergy, pretreatment with pantoprazole reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells, increased goblet cells, and increased TCTP secretion induced by OVA challenge. CONCLUSION: Since Omeprazole and pantoprazole decrease the secretion of TCTP which is associated with the development of allergic reaction, they may have the potential to serve as anti-allergic (asthmatic drugs.

  12. A forward-striking technique for reducing fracture gaps during intramedullary nailing: A technical note with clinical results.

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    Lim, Seung-Jae; So, Sang-Yeon; Yoon, Yong-Cheol; Cho, Won-Tae; Oh, Jong-Keon

    2015-12-01

    A residual postoperative fracture gap between major bone fragments following intramedullary nailing of long-bone fractures is recognised as one of the major risk factors for delayed union and non-union. The most common method for reducing a fracture gap after nail insertion is through application of the backstroke technique. We introduce forward-striking as a new and simple technique that can be used to reduce fracture gaps during cephalomedullary or intramedullary nailing. The forward-striking technique was used in 20 patients with subtrochanteric or femoral shaft fractures and three patients with tibial shaft fractures who underwent cephalomedullary or intramedullary nailing at two university teaching hospitals between February 2013 and March 2014. Bone union was achieved in all cases, with a mean time of 5.7 months (range, 3-9 months). No major complications, including, non-union, implant failure, or infection, were encountered during the follow-up period. A forward-striking technique is simple, convenient, and highly efficient in terms of reducing fracture gaps during cephalomedullary or intramedullary nailing. The advantage of this technique is that it carries no risk of deforming the proximal interlocking screw, prevents excessive protrusion of the nail, and enables the lag screw to be placed into the optimal lag screw position relative to the femoral head at the time of cephalomedullary nailing. The forward-striking technique is particularly useful if no compression screw system is available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Anti-Interleukin-1 Beta/Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha IgY Antibodies Reduce Pathological Allergic Responses in Guinea Pigs with Allergic Rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei-Xu, Hu; Wen-Yun, Zhou; Xi-Ling, Zhu; Zhu, Wen; Li-Hua, Wu; Xiao-Mu, Wu; Hui-Ping, Wei; Wen-Ding, Wang; Dan, He; Qin, Xiang; Guo-Zhu, Hu

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether the combined blockade of IL-1β and TNF-α can alleviate the pathological allergic inflammatory reaction in the nasal mucosa and lung tissues in allergic rhinitis (AR) guinea pigs. Healthy guinea pigs treated with saline were used as the healthy controls. The AR guinea pigs were randomly divided into (1) the AR model group treated with intranasal saline; (2) the 0.1% nonspecific IgY treatment group; (3) the 0.1% anti-TNF-α IgY treatment group; (4) the 0.1% anti-IL-1β IgY treatment group; (5) the 0.1% combined anti-IL-1β and TNF-α IgY treatment group; and (6) the fluticasone propionate treatment group. The inflammatory cells were evaluated using Wright's staining. Histopathology was examined using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The results showed that the number of eosinophils was significantly decreased in the peripheral blood, nasal lavage fluid, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (P guinea pigs. The data suggest that topical blockade of IL-1β and TNF-α could reduce pathological allergic inflammation in the nasal mucosa and lung tissues in AR guinea pigs.

  14. Sublingual immunotherapy reduces allergic symptoms in a mouse model of rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimnes, J; Kildsgaard, J; Jacobi, H; Lund, K

    2007-04-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is a clinically effective treatment in both pollen and house dust mite-induced rhinitis and asthma. However, the mechanisms by which this is accomplished are not clear. The objective of the current study was to establish a mouse model of rhinitis in order to study the effect and mechanisms of SLIT. Mice were sensitized by intraperitoneal injections of alum-adsorbed Phleum pratense extract. Sensitized mice were SLIT-treated and subsequently challenged intranasally and analysed for clinical symptoms, antibody levels, eosinophilia and T cell response. Intranasal challenge of sensitized mice led to the development of rhinitis characterized by significantly increased sneezing and influx of eosinophils into the nose. Levels of specific IgE were fivefold increased in nasopharyngeal lavage (NAL) fluid and more than doubled in serum. Furthermore, a T-helper type 2 (Th2) like T cell response was observed in local draining lymph nodes. SLIT treatment of sensitized mice reduced sneezing, eosinophilia and IgE levels in the NAL by more than 50%. Moreover, serum levels of IgE and IgG1 as well as T cell response in the draining lymph nodes were also significantly reduced. Treatment for a shorter time or with a lower dose only led to minor reductions of the clinical and immunological parameters, indicating that the effect of SLIT is time and dose dependent. In the present study, we have established a mouse model displaying the hallmarks of allergic rhinitis using a clinically relevant allergen. Using this model, we have demonstrated that SLIT treatment is able to reduce allergic symptoms in a time- and dose-dependent manner.

  15. Allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Alexander N; Hellings, Peter W; Rotiroti, Guiseppina; Scadding, Glenis K

    2011-12-17

    Allergic rhinitis is a very common disorder that affects people of all ages, peaking in the teenage years. It is frequently ignored, underdiagnosed, misdiagnosed, and mistreated, which not only is detrimental to health but also has societal costs. Although allergic rhinitis is not a serious illness, it is clinically relevant because it underlies many complications, is a major risk factor for poor asthma control, and affects quality of life and productivity at work or school. Management of allergic rhinitis is best when directed by guidelines. A diagnostic trial of a pharmacotherapeutic agent could be started in people with clinically identified allergic rhinitis; however, to confirm the diagnosis, specific IgE reactivity needs to be recorded. Documented IgE reactivity has the added benefit of guiding implementation of environmental controls, which could substantially ameliorate symptoms of allergic rhinitis and might prevent development of asthma, especially in an occupational setting. Many classes of drug are available, effective, and safe. In meta-analyses, intranasal corticosteroids are superior to other treatments, have a good safety profile, and treat all symptoms of allergic rhinitis effectively. First-generation antihistamines are associated with sedation, psychomotor retardation, and reduced academic performance. Only immunotherapy with individually targeted allergens has the potential to alter the natural history of allergic rhinitis. Patients' education is a vital component of treatment. Even with the best pharmacotherapy, one in five affected individuals remains highly symptomatic, and further research is needed in this area. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Gait training reduces ankle joint stiffness and facilitates heel strike in children with Cerebral Palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev-Olsen, Maria; Lorentzen, Jakob; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Foot drop and toe walking are frequent concerns in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Increased stiffness of the ankle joint muscles may contribute to these problems. OBJECTIVE: Does four weeks of daily home based treadmill training with incline reduce ankle joint stiffness...... in stiffness following training (P = 0.01). Toe lift in the swing phase (P = 0.014) and heel impact (P = 0.003) increased significantly following the training during both treadmill and over-ground walking. CONCLUSIONS: Daily intensive gait training may influence the elastic properties of ankle joint muscles...

  17. Striking multiple synergies created by combining reduced graphene oxides and carbon nanotubes for polymer nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Ping’an; Liu Lina; Fu Shenyuan; Yu Youming; Jin Chunde; Wu Qiang; Zhang Yan; Li Qian

    2013-01-01

    The extraordinary properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene stimulate the development of advanced composites. Recently, several studies have reported significant synergies in the mechanical, electrical and thermal conductivity properties of polymer nanocomposites by incorporating their nanohybrids. In this work, we created polypropylene nanocomposites with homogeneous dispersion of CNTs and reduced graphene oxides via a facile polymer-latex-coating plus melt-mixing strategy, and investigated their synergistic effects in their viscoelastic, gas barrier, and flammability properties. Interestingly, the results show remarkable synergies, enhancing their melt modulus and viscosity, O 2 barrier, and flame retardancy properties and respectively exhibiting a synergy percentage of 15.9%, 45.3%, and 20.3%. As previously reported, we also observed remarkable synergistic effects in their tensile strength (14.3%) and Young’s modulus (27.1%), electrical conductivity (32.3%) and thermal conductivity (34.6%). These impressive results clearly point towards a new strategy to create advanced materials by adding binary combinations of different types of nanofillers. (paper)

  18. Management of Allergic Rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sausen, Verra O.; Marks, Katherine E.; Sausen, Kenneth P.; Self, Timothy H.

    2005-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is the most common chronic childhood disease. Reduced quality of life is frequently caused by this IgE-mediated disease, including sleep disturbance with subsequent decreased school performance. Asthma and exercise-induced bronchospasm are commonly seen concurrently with allergic rhinitis, and poorly controlled allergic rhinitis negatively affects asthma outcomes. Nonsedating antihistamines or intranasal azelastine are effective agents to manage allergic rhinitis, often in c...

  19. Specific immunotherapy can greatly reduce the need for systemic steroids in allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasbjerg, Kristian; Torp-Pedersen, C; Backer, V

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, more than 400 million individuals have allergic rhinitis, which has a significant impact on the individual's general health. Most patients self-medicate with over-the-counter drugs, but severe cases need treatment with topical corticosteroids and/or immunotherapy (SCIT). Although the A...... the ARIA guidelines discourage the use of systemic corticosteroids, this treatment is often used by general practitioners....

  20. Soy Biodiesel Emissions Have Reduced Inflammatory Effects Compared to Diesel Emissions in Healthy and Allergic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxicity of exhaust from combustion of petroleum diesel (BO), soy-based biodiesel (B100), or a 20% biodiesel/80% petrodiesel mix (B20) was compared in healthy and house dust mite (HDM)-allergic mice. Fuel emissions were diluted to target fine particulate matter (PM2.5) conrentrat...

  1. Should doctors strike?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, John J; Murray, Scott A

    2014-05-01

    Last year in June, British doctors went on strike for the first time since 1975. Amidst a global economic downturn and with many health systems struggling with reduced finances, around the world the issue of public health workers going on strike is a very real one. Almost all doctors will agree that we should always follow the law, but often the law is unclear or does not cover a particular case. Here we must appeal to ethical discussion. The General Medical Council, in its key guidance document for practising doctors, Good Medical Practice, claims that 'Good doctors make the care of their patients their first concern'. Is this true? And if so, how is this relevant to the issue of striking? One year on since the events, we carefully reflect and argue whether it was right for doctors to pursue strike action, and call for greater discussion of ethical issues such as the recent strikes, particularly among younger members of the profession.

  2. Developing an acoustic method for reducing North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) ship strike mortality along the United States eastern seaboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Kaitlyn Allen

    North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis ) are among the world's most endangered cetaceans. Although protected from commercial whaling since 1949, North Atlantic right whales exhibit little to no population growth. Ship strike mortality is the leading known cause of North Atlantic right whale mortality. North Atlantic right whales exhibit developed auditory systems, and vocalize in the frequency range that dominates ship acoustic signatures. With no behavioral audiogram published, current literature assumes these whales should be able to acoustically detect signals in the same frequencies they vocalize. Recorded ship acoustic signatures occur at intensities that are similar or higher to those recorded by vocalizing North Atlantic right whales. If North Atlantic right whales are capable of acoustically detecting oncoming ship, why are they susceptible to ship strike mortality? This thesis models potential acoustic impediments to North Atlantic right whale detection of oncoming ships, and concludes the presence of modeled and observed bow null effect acoustic shadow zones, located directly ahead of oncoming ships, are likely to impair the ability of North Atlantic right whales to detect and/or localize oncoming shipping traffic. This lack of detection and/or localization likely leads to a lack of ship strike avoidance, and thus contributes to the observed high rates of North Atlantic right whale ship strike mortality. I propose that North Atlantic right whale ship strike mortality reduction is possible via reducing and/or eliminating the presence of bow null effect acoustic shadow zones. This thesis develops and tests one method for bow null effect acoustic shadow zone reduction on five ships. Finally, I review current United States policy towards North Atlantic right whale ship strike mortality in an effort to determine if the bow null effect acoustic shadow zone reduction method developed is a viable method for reducing North Atlantic right whale ship

  3. The Ethanol Extract of Osmanthus fragrans Flowers Reduces Oxidative Stress and Allergic Airway Inflammation in an Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ya Hung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Osmanthus fragrans flower, a popular herb in Eastern countries, contains several antioxidant compounds. Ben Cao Gang Mu, traditional Chinese medical literature, describes the usefulness of these flowers for phlegm and stasis reduction, arrest of dysentery with blood in the bowel, and stomachache and diarrhea treatment. However, modern evidence regarding the therapeutic efficacy of these flowers is limited. This study was aimed at assessing the antioxidative effects of the ethanol extract of O. fragrans flowers (OFE in vivo and evaluating its antioxidant maintenance and therapeutic effect on an allergic airway inflammation in mice. After OFE’s oral administration to mice, the values obtained in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay as well as the glutathione concentration in the lungs and spleens of mice increased while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances decreased significantly, indicating OFE’s significant in vivo antioxidant activity. OFE was also therapeutically efficacious in a mouse model of ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation. Orally administered OFE suppressed ovalbumin-specific IgE production and inflammatory cell infiltration in the lung. Moreover, the antioxidative state of the mice improved. Thus, our findings confirm the ability of the O. fragrans flowers to reduce phlegm and suggest that OFE may be useful as an antiallergic agent.

  4. Therapy with omalizumab for patients with severe allergic asthma improves asthma control and reduces overall healthcare costs.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Costello, R W

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with asthma who have persistent symptoms despite treatment with inhaled steroids and long-acting beta agonists are considered to have severe asthma. Omalizumab is a monoclonal antibody directed against IgE, which is used as an add-on treatment for patients who have severe persistent allergic asthma. AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical benefit and healthcare utilisation of patients who responded to omalizumab therapy and to establish an overall cost implication. METHODS: This was an observational retrospective cohort study designed to investigate the effect of omalizumab on exacerbations of asthma before and after 6 months of treatment in Irish patients. RESULTS: Centres who had treated patients with severe allergic asthma for the 6 months prior and post omalizumab treatment were audited with a standardised assessment tool. Sixty-three (32 male) patients were studied. In the 6 months prior to omalizumab 41 of 63 (66%) had been hospitalised, and this fell to 15 of 63 (24%), p < 0.0001 in the 6 months after treatment was started. Hospital admissions reduced from 2.4 +\\/- 0.41 to 0.8 +\\/- 0.37 and the mean number of bed days occupied was reduced from 16.6 +\\/- 2.94 to 5.3 +\\/- 2.57 days, p < 0.001. The number of oral corticosteroid doses used fell from 3.1 +\\/- 0.27 to 1.2 +\\/- 0.17, p < 0.001. The overall cost saving per omalizumab responder patients for 6 months was 834. CONCLUSIONS: Six months therapy with omalizumab reduced the number of bed days, the number of hospitalisations and the use of oral corticosteroids compared to the 6 months prior to commencement. Despite the cost of the additional therapy there were overall savings in health costs.

  5. Therapy with omalizumab for patients with severe allergic asthma improves asthma control and reduces overall healthcare costs.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Costello, R W

    2011-05-11

    BACKGROUND: Patients with asthma who have persistent symptoms despite treatment with inhaled steroids and long-acting beta agonists are considered to have severe asthma. Omalizumab is a monoclonal antibody directed against IgE, which is used as an add-on treatment for patients who have severe persistent allergic asthma. AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical benefit and healthcare utilisation of patients who responded to omalizumab therapy and to establish an overall cost implication. METHODS: This was an observational retrospective cohort study designed to investigate the effect of omalizumab on exacerbations of asthma before and after 6 months of treatment in Irish patients. RESULTS: Centres who had treated patients with severe allergic asthma for the 6 months prior and post omalizumab treatment were audited with a standardised assessment tool. Sixty-three (32 male) patients were studied. In the 6 months prior to omalizumab 41 of 63 (66%) had been hospitalised, and this fell to 15 of 63 (24%), p < 0.0001 in the 6 months after treatment was started. Hospital admissions reduced from 2.4 ± 0.41 to 0.8 ± 0.37 and the mean number of bed days occupied was reduced from 16.6 ± 2.94 to 5.3 ± 2.57 days, p < 0.001. The number of oral corticosteroid doses used fell from 3.1 ± 0.27 to 1.2 ± 0.17, p < 0.001. The overall cost saving per omalizumab responder patients for 6 months was 834. CONCLUSIONS: Six months therapy with omalizumab reduced the number of bed days, the number of hospitalisations and the use of oral corticosteroids compared to the 6 months prior to commencement. Despite the cost of the additional therapy there were overall savings in health costs.

  6. Lipoxin A4 stable analogs reduce allergic airway responses via mechanisms distinct from CysLT1 receptor antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Bruce D; Lukacs, Nicholas W; Berlin, Aaron A; Schmidt, Birgitta; Guilford, William J; Serhan, Charles N; Parkinson, John F

    2007-12-01

    Cellular recruitment during inflammatory/immune responses is tightly regulated. The ability to dampen inflammation is imperative for prevention of chronic immune responses, as in asthma. Here we investigated the ability of lipoxin A4 (LXA4) stable analogs to regulate airway responses in two allergen-driven models of inflammation. A 15-epi-LXA4 analog (ATLa) and a 3-oxa-15-epi-LXA4 analog (ZK-994) prevented excessive eosinophil and T lymphocyte accumulation and activation after mice were sensitized and aerosol-challenged with ovalbumin. At 50% and to a greater extent than equivalent doses of the CysLT1 receptor antagonist montelukast. Distinct from montelukast, ATLa treatment led to marked reductions in cysteinyl leukotrienes, interleukin-4 (IL-4), and IL-10, and both ATLa and ZK-994 inhibited levels of IL-13. In cockroach allergen-induced airway responses, both intraperitoneal and oral administration of ZK-994 significantly reduced parameters of airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness in a dose-dependent manner. ZK-994 also significantly changed the balance of Th1/Th2-specific cytokine levels. Thus, the ATLa/LXA4 analog actions are distinct from CysLT1 antagonism and potently block both allergic airway inflammation and hyper-reactivity. Moreover, these results demonstrate these analogs' therapeutic potential as new agonists for the resolution of inflammation.

  7. Reduced work/academic performance and quality of life in patients with allergic rhinitis and impact of allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, A; Arcalá Campillo, E; Torres, M C; Millan, C; Jáuregui, I; Mohedano, E; Liñan, S; Verdu, P; Rubira, N; Santaolalla, M; González, P; Orovitg, A; Villarrubia, E

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is characterised by burdensome nasal and/or ocular symptoms. This inflammatory disease can be debilitating and thus result in considerable health-related and economic consequences. In a cross-sectional study, adult subjects with AR (N = 683) completed three allergy-specific questionnaires that assessed the impact of AR on the work/academic performance, daily activities, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and satisfaction with allergen immunotherapy (AIT). Regression analyses were used to examine the associations between several clinical variables and the patient-reported outcomes. Total loss of productivity was 21.0 and 21.2 % for employed and student patients, respectively, whereas the impairment of daily activities was 22.0 %. The mean overall HRQOL score was 1.94 ± 1.29 (on the scale of 0-6 points). Global score for satisfaction with AIT was 65.5 ± 24.8 (on a 0-100 scale). Simple regression analysis found statistically significant associations between loss of work and academic productivity, impairment of daily activities and the type and severity of AR. AIT was a protective factor. The persistent and more severe types of AR and lack of AIT contributed to the worsening of HRQOL. AR (the persistent and more severe form of the disease) has an impact on functional characteristics of adult patients in Spain. AIT might reduce the effect of this disease on the work/academic performance and HRQOL. Trial registration Retrospectively registered.

  8. Maternal supplementation with LGG reduces vaccine-specific immune responses in infants at high-risk of developing allergic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul V Licciardi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are defined as live micro-organisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Among their pleiotropic effects, inhibition of pathogen colonisation at the mucosal surface as well as modulation of immune responses are widely recognised as the principal biological activities of probiotic bacteria. In recent times, the immune effects of probiotics have led to their application as vaccine adjuvants, offering a novel strategy for enhancing the efficacy of current vaccines. Such an approach is particularly relevant in regions where infectious disease burden is greatest and where access to complete vaccination programs is limited. In this study, we report the effects of the probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG on immune responses to tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib and pneumococcal conjugate (PCV7 vaccines in infants. This study was conducted as part of a larger clinical trial assessing the impact of maternal LGG supplementation in preventing the development of atopic eczema in infants at high-risk for developing allergic disease. Maternal LGG supplementation was associated with reduced antibody responses against tetanus, Hib and pneumococcal serotypes contained in PCV7 (N=31 compared to placebo-treatment (N=30 but not total IgG levels. Maternal LGG supplementation was also associated with a trend to increased number of tetanus toxoid-specific Treg in the peripheral blood compared to placebo-treated infants. These findings suggest that maternal LGG supplementation may not be beneficial in terms of improving vaccine-specific immunity in infants. Further clinical studies are needed to confirm these findings. As probiotic immune effects can be species/strain specific, our findings do not exclude the potential use of other probiotic bacteria to modulate infant immune responses to vaccines.

  9. Post-sensitization administration of non-digestible oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V reduces allergic symptoms in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esch, Betty C A M; Abbring, Suzanne; Diks, Mara A P; Dingjan, Gemma M; Harthoorn, Lucien F; Vos, A Paul; Garssen, Johan

    To support dietary management of severe cow's milk allergic infants, a synbiotic mixture of non-digestible oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V (B. breve) was designed from source materials that are completely cow's milk-free. It was investigated whether this specific synbiotic concept

  10. Alcoholic monoterpenes found in essential oil of aromatic spices reduce allergic inflammation by the modulation of inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Lícia T S; Ferro, Jamylle N S; Rabelo, Thallita K; Oliveira, Marlange A; Scotti, Luciana; Scotti, Marcus Tullius; Walker, Cristiani Isabel Bandero; Barreto, Emiliano O; Quintans Júnior, Lucindo J; Guimarães, Adriana G

    2018-02-02

    Allergic inflammation is a response of the body against pathogens by cytokine release and leucocyte recruitment. Recently, there was an increase in morbimortality associated with allergic inflammation, especially asthma. The treatment has many adverse effects, requiring the search for new therapies. Monoterpenes are natural products with anti-inflammatory activity demonstrated in several studies and can be an option to inflammation management. Thus, we investigated the effects of citronellol, α-terpineol and carvacrol on allergic inflammation. The model of asthma was established by OVA induction in male Swiss mice. The monoterpenes were administered (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h before induction. After 24hs, the animals were sacrificed to leucocytes and TNF-α quantification. Monoterpenes significantly decrease leucocyte migration and TNF-α levels, possibly by modulation of COX, PGE 2 and H1 receptor, as demonstrated by molecular docking. These findings indicate that alcoholic monoterpenes can be an alternative for treatment of allergic inflammation and asthma.

  11. Allergic rhinitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greiner, Alexander N.; Hellings, Peter W.; Rotiroti, Guiseppina; Scadding, Glenis K.

    2011-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a very common disorder that affects people of all ages, peaking in the teenage years. It is frequently ignored, underdiagnosed, misdiagnosed, and mistreated, which not only is detrimental to health but also has societal costs. Although allergic rhinitis is not a serious illness,

  12. Allergic sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ree, Ronald; Hummelshøj, Lone; Plantinga, Maud

    2014-01-01

    Allergic sensitization is the outcome of a complex interplay between the allergen and the host in a given environmental context. The first barrier encountered by an allergen on its way to sensitization is the mucosal epithelial layer. Allergic inflammatory diseases are accompanied by increased pe...

  13. Blocking antibodies induced by immunization with a hypoallergenic parvalbumin mutant reduce allergic symptoms in a mouse model of fish allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidl, Raphaela; Gstoettner, Antonia; Baranyi, Ulrike; Swoboda, Ines; Stolz, Frank; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Wekerle, Thomas; van Ree, Ronald; Valenta, Rudolf; Linhart, Birgit

    2017-06-01

    Fish is a frequent elicitor of severe IgE-mediated allergic reactions. Beside avoidance, there is currently no allergen-specific therapy available. Hypoallergenic variants of the major fish allergen, parvalbumin, for specific immunotherapy based on mutation of the 2 calcium-binding sites have been developed. This study sought to establish a mouse model of fish allergy resembling human disease and to investigate whether mouse and rabbit IgG antibodies induced by immunization with a hypoallergenic mutant of the major carp allergen protect against allergic symptoms in sensitized mice. C3H/HeJ mice were sensitized with recombinant wildtype Cyp c 1 or carp extract by intragastric gavage. Antibody, cellular immune responses, and epitope specificity in sensitized mice were investigated by ELISA, rat basophil leukemia assay, T-cell proliferation experiments using recombinant wildtype Cyp c 1, and overlapping peptides spanning the Cyp c 1 sequence. Anti-hypoallergenic Cyp c 1 mutant mouse and rabbit sera were tested for their ability to inhibit IgE recognition of Cyp c 1, Cyp c 1-specific basophil degranulation, and Cyp c 1-induced allergic symptoms in the mouse model. A mouse model of fish allergy mimicking human disease regarding IgE epitope recognition and symptoms as close as possible was established. Administration of antisera generated in mice and rabbits by immunization with a hypoallergenic Cyp c 1 mutant inhibited IgE binding to Cyp c 1, Cyp c 1-induced basophil degranulation, and allergic symptoms caused by allergen challenge in sensitized mice. Antibodies induced by immunization with a hypoallergenic Cyp c 1 mutant protect against allergic reactions in a murine model of fish allergy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Blocking antibodies induced by immunization with a hypoallergenic parvalbumin mutant reduce allergic symptoms in a mouse model of fish allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Freidl, Raphaela; Gstoettner, Antonia; Baranyi, Ulrike; Swoboda, Ines; Stolz, Frank; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Wekerle, Thomas; van Ree, Ronald; Valenta, Rudolf; Linhart, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Background Fish is a frequent elicitor of severe IgE-mediated allergic reactions. Beside avoidance, there is currently no allergen-specific therapy available. Hypoallergenic variants of the major fish allergen, parvalbumin, for specific immunotherapy based on mutation of the 2 calcium-binding sites have been developed. Objectives This study sought to establish a mouse model of fish allergy resembling human disease and to investigate whether mouse and rabbit IgG antibodies induced by immunizat...

  15. Allergic Rhinitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dust mites, are in dust. Dust mites are tiny living creatures found in bedding, mattresses, carpeting, and upholstered furniture. They live on dead skin cells and other things found in house dust. How is allergic rhinitis diagnosed? If your ...

  16. Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG producing IL-18 reduces IL-5 production and bronchoalveolar eosinophilia induced by an allergic reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biet, F; Duez, C; Kremer, L; Marquillies, P; Amniai, L; Tonnel, A-B; Locht, C; Pestel, J

    2005-08-01

    Allergic reactions occur through the exacerbated induction of a Th2 cell type expression profile and can be prevented by agents favoring a Th1 profile. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is able to induce high IFN-gamma levels and has been shown to decrease experimentally induced allergy. The induction of IFN-gamma is mediated by interleukin (IL)-12 known to be secreted upon mycobacterial infections and can be enhanced by IL-18 acting in synergy with IL-12. We evaluated the ability of a recombinant BCG strain producing IL-18 (rBCG) to modify the Th2 type responses in a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-dependent allergic reaction. Mice were injected intraperitoneally or intranasally with OVA at days 0 and 15 and exposed to an OVA aerosol challenge at days 29, 30, 31 and 34. At days 0 and 15, two additional groups of mice received OVA together with 5 x 10(6) colony forming units of either rBCG or nonrecombinant BCG. A time-course analysis of OVA-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E, IgG1 and IgG2a levels indicated no significant difference between the three groups of mice. However, following in vitro stimulation with OVA, lymph node cells from rBCG-treated mice produced less IL-5 and more IFN-gamma than those of mice injected with nonrecombinant BCG. In addition, 48 h after the last OVA challenge, a strong reduction of bronchoalveolar eosinophilia was found in the rBCG-injected mice compared to the nontreated or nonrecombinant BCG-treated groups. These results indicate that the production of IL-18 by rBCG may enhance the immunomodulatory properties of BCG that suppress pulmonary Th2 responses and, in particular, decrease airway eosinophilia.

  17. Allergic reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that don't bother most people (such as venom from bee stings and certain foods, medicines, and pollens) can ... person. If the allergic reaction is from a bee sting, scrape the ... more venom. If the person has emergency allergy medicine on ...

  18. Lightning Often Strikes Twice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Contrary to popular misconception, lightning often strikes the same place twice. Certain conditions are just ripe for a bolt of electricity to come zapping down; and a lightning strike is powerful enough to do a lot of damage wherever it hits. NASA created the Accurate Location of Lightning Strikes technology to determine the ground strike point of lightning and prevent electrical damage in the immediate vicinity of the Space Shuttle launch pads at Kennedy Space Center. The area surrounding the launch pads is enmeshed in a network of electrical wires and components, and electronic equipment is highly susceptible to lightning strike damage. The accurate knowledge of the striking point is important so that crews can determine which equipment or system needs to be retested following a strike. Accurate to within a few yards, this technology can locate a lightning strike in the perimeter of the launch pad. As an added bonus, the engineers, then knowing where the lightning struck, can adjust the variables that may be attracting the lightning, to create a zone that will be less susceptible to future strikes.

  19. Options with Extreme Strikes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjiong Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this short paper, we study the asymptotics for the price of call options for very large strikes and put options for very small strikes. The stock price is assumed to follow the Black–Scholes models. We analyze European, Asian, American, Parisian and perpetual options and conclude that the tail asymptotics for these option types fall into four scenarios.

  20. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Tracy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA, a progressive fungal allergic lung disease, is a common complication of asthma or cystic fibrosis. Although ABPA has been recognized since the 1950s, recent research has underscored the importance of Th2 immune deviation and granulocyte activation in its pathogenesis. There is also strong evidence of widespread under-diagnosis due to the complexity and lack of standardization of diagnostic criteria. Treatment has long focused on downregulation of the inflammatory response with prolonged courses of oral glucocorticosteroids, but more recently concerns with steroid toxicity and availability of new treatment modalities has led to trials of oral azoles, inhaled amphotericin, pulse intravenous steroids, and subcutaneously-injected anti-IgE monoclonal antibody omalizumab, all of which show evidence of efficacy and reduced toxicity.

  1. A right to strike?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, K; Western, G

    1997-07-01

    During 1995, there was a major shift in the United Kingdom in the debate of whether it is right for nurses to strike. The Royal College of Nursing, the former advocate of a non-industrial action policy, moved towards the UNISON position that industrial action is ethical in some circumstances, as well as the necessary thing to do. The authors, both nurses and UNISON officials, look at the reasons for this change and why UNISON's historical position sees industrial action as an effective weapon in defending services, as well as wages and jobs. It can be right to strike.

  2. Japanese guidelines for allergic rhinitis 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Kimihiro; Kurono, Yuichi; Ichimura, Keiichi; Enomoto, Tadao; Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Kawauchi, Hideyuki; Suzaki, Harumi; Fujieda, Shigeharu; Masuyama, Keisuke

    2017-04-01

    Like asthma and atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis is an allergic disease, but of the three, it is the only type I allergic disease. Allergic rhinitis includes pollinosis, which is intractable and reduces quality of life (QOL) when it becomes severe. A guideline is needed to understand allergic rhinitis and to use this knowledge to develop a treatment plan. In Japan, the first guideline was prepared after a symposium held by the Japanese Society of Allergology in 1993. The current 8th edition was published in 2016, and is widely used today. To incorporate evidence based medicine (EBM) introduced from abroad, the most recent collection of evidence/literature was supplemented to the Practical Guideline for the Management of Allergic Rhinitis in Japan 2016. The revised guideline includes assessment of diagnosis/treatment and prescriptions for children and pregnant women, for broad clinical applications. An evidence-based step-by-step strategy for treatment is also described. In addition, the QOL concept and cost benefit analyses are also addressed. Along with Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact of Asthma (ARIA), this guideline is widely used for various clinical purposes, such as measures for patients with sinusitis, childhood allergic rhinitis, oral allergy syndrome, and anaphylaxis and for pregnant women. A Q&A section regarding allergic rhinitis in Japan was added to the end of this guideline. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Algab õppus "Saber Strike"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Täna algab Eestis, Lätis ja Leedus Ameerika Ühendriikide Euroopa väekoondise õppus "Saber Strike", mille eesmärk on maaväeüksuste koostöö harjutamine. Õppusest võtab osa üle 2000 kaitseväelase Baltimaadest, USAst, Ühendkuningriigist, Taanist, Norrast, Soomest ja Saksamaalt. Eestist osaleb õppusel ligi 400 kaitseväelast

  4. Macular damage following lightning strikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, A J; Koch, F; Böker, T

    1995-07-01

    Two men with recent history of lightining strike were referred to our hospital. Both patients complained of metamorphosia in one eye and reduced visual acuity. Funduscopy revealed target-like alterations at the fovea. Fluorescein angiography showed window defects of the central retinal pigment epithelium in both patients. One patient developed an anterior subcapsular cataract. If the eye is part of the current-circuit, the melanin granules of the iris, pigment epithelium, and choroid might act as a resistor. The resulting accumulation of heat may lead to damage of the surrounding tissues.

  5. Low-Dose Oral Immunotherapy Using Low-Egg-Allergen Cookies for Severe Egg-Allergic Children Reduces Allergy Severity and Affects Allergen-Specific Antibodies in Serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeta, Akihiro; Matsushima, Marin; Muraki, Nozomi; Asano, Mariko; Takaoka, Yuri; Kameda, Makoto; Takahashi, Kyoko

    2018-01-01

    We evaluated the safety and efficacy of low-egg-allergen cookies (LAC) as low-dose oral immunotherapy (OIT) in children with severe egg allergy. We also examined the relationship between mild desensitization by low-dose OIT and serum biomarkers of allergy. We enrolled 13 children with egg allergy who could not receive OIT with hard-boiled egg white (EW). For 11 participants, OIT was carried out using LAC for 3-4 months. Open food challenges with hard-boiled EW and blood samplings were performed before and after OIT. Participants were divided into 2 groups: high effect (H-E) and no/low effect (N/L-E). Serum levels of total IgE and egg yolk-, EW-, and ovomucoid (OM)-specific IgE, ovalbumin (OVA)- and OM-specific IgG4, IgA1, and IgA2, and the percentage of CD 203c+ were measured. Allergic severity was reduced in 7 patients, who were assigned to the H-E group. Moreover, no study participants were taken off the intake of LAC during OIT. In the H-E group, OVA-specific IgA2 levels after OIT were significantly higher than before OIT. The ratios of OM-specific IgG4/OM-specific IgE and OM-specific IgA2/OM-specific IgE in the H-E group after OIT were significantly higher than before OIT. Our findings suggest that low-dose OIT using LAC is an effective and safe treatment for patients with severe egg allergy. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Global strike hypersonic weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Mark J.

    2017-11-01

    Beginning in the 1940's, the United States has pursued the development of hypersonic technologies, enabling atmospheric flight in excess of five times the speed of sound. Hypersonic flight has application to a range of military and civilian applications, including commercial transport, space access, and various weapons and sensing platforms. A number of flight tests of hypersonic vehicles have been conducted by countries around the world, including the United States, Russia, and China, that could lead the way to future hypersonic global strike weapon systems. These weapons would be especially effective at penetrating conventional defenses, and could pose a significant risk to national security.

  7. Extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reduces the occurrence of other allergic manifestations in children with cow's milk allergy: 3-year randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Di Costanzo, Margherita; Bedogni, Giorgio; Amoroso, Antonio; Cosenza, Linda; Di Scala, Carmen; Granata, Viviana; Nocerino, Rita

    2017-06-01

    Children with cow's milk allergy (CMA) have an increased risk of other allergic manifestations (AMs). We performed a parallel-arm randomized controlled trial to test whether administration of an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (EHCF) containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) can reduce the occurrence of other AMs in children with CMA. Children with IgE-mediated CMA were randomly allocated to the EHCF or EHCF+LGG groups and followed for 36 months. The main outcome was occurrence of at least 1 AM (eczema, urticaria, asthma, and rhinoconjunctivitis). The secondary outcome was tolerance acquisition, which was defined as the negativization of a double-blind food challenge results at 12, 24, and 36 months. AMs were diagnosed according to standardized criteria. Tolerance acquisition was evaluated every 12 months. A total of 220 children (147 boys [67%]) with a median age of 5.0 months (interquartile range, 3.0-8.0 months) were randomized; 110 children were placed in the EHCF group, and 110 children were placed in the EHCF+LGG group. In the complete case analysis the absolute risk difference for the occurrence of at least 1 AM over 36 months was -0.23 (95% CI, -0.36 to -0.10; P < .001), and the absolute risk difference for the acquisition of cow's milk tolerance was 0.20 (95% CI, 0.05-0.35; P < .01) at 12 months, 0.24 (95% CI, 0.08-0.41; P < .01) at 24 months, and 0.27 (95% CI, 0.11-0.43; P < .001) at 36 months. In the sensitivity analysis the effect size of the main outcome was virtually unchanged when the occurrence of AMs was assigned to all 27 missing children. EHCF+LGG reduces the incidence of other AMs and hastens the development of oral tolerance in children with IgE-mediated CMA. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The allergic scholar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    children. Allergic rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis is a condition which occurs due to inflammation of the epithelial lining of the nasal mucosa. This inflammatory process is ... is TNF-α. TNF-α levels increase dramatically approximately. Figure 2: Common atopic diseases in childhood. Anaphylaxis. Allergic rhinitis. Asthma. Atopic.

  9. Allergic rhinosinusitis in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    sent in persistent allergic rhinitis will eventually occur in the mucous mem- branes of the ostiomeatal units in the middle meati leading ultimately to allergic inflammation of the sinuses. The other important factor is that sinusi- tis may also occur as a result of viral infections in these allergic children as it does in normal children.

  10. Impulse of a Kendo Strike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Abe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An expert swordsman struck a target with a kendo sword. The velocity and force of the strike were measured. The relationship between the strike velocity, impact force and effective mass of the sword was investigated. It was shown that the effective mass of the sword remains constant for typical strike velocities.

  11. Allergic conjunctivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avoid secondhand smoke. Take over-the-counter oral antihistamines. These medicines can offer more relief, but they ... for treatments such as eye drops that contain antihistamines or eye drops that reduce swelling. Mild eye ...

  12. Gait Retraining From Rearfoot Strike to Forefoot Strike does not change Running Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Jenevieve Lynn; Doerfler, Deborah; Kravitz, Len; Dufek, Janet S; Mermier, Christine

    2017-12-01

    Gait retraining is a method for management of patellofemoral pain, which is a common ailment among recreational runners. The present study investigated the effects of gait retraining from rearfoot strike to forefoot strike on running economy, heart rate, and respiratory exchange ratio immediately post-retraining and one-month post-retraining in recreational runners with patellofemoral pain. Knee pain was also measured. Sixteen participants (n=16) were randomly placed in the control (n=8) or experimental (n=8) group. A 10-minute treadmill RE test was performed by all subjects. The experimental group performed eight gait retraining running sessions where foot strike pattern was switched from rearfoot strike to forefoot strike, while the control group received no intervention. There were no significant differences for running economy (p=0.26), respiratory exchange ratio (p=0.258), or heart rate (p=0.248) between the groups. Knee pain reported on a visual analog scale was also significantly reduced (p<0.05) as a result of retraining. The present study demonstrates that retraining from rearfoot strike to forefoot strike did not affect running economy up to one-month post-retraining while reducing running-related patellofemoral pain. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Precision Strike Annual Programs Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-11

    Damage Area*• GPS / INS Navigation + SAL Terminal • Precise əm CEP • Low Probability of Collateral Damage • GPS Extends Glide Range to 10+km • Agile...Page 311 Mar 09 Unclassified Unclassified Viper Strike Lineage Viper Strike SAL Seeker Proof of Principle Demos I & II Hunter-Viper Strike Quick...Information Management • CCA - Clinger Cohen Act • RIT- Rapid Improvement Team • BMMP – Business Management Modernization Program • BTA/ERAM – Business

  14. Cutaneous Hypersensitivity Dermatoses in the Feline Patient: A Review of Allergic Skin Disease in Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Diesel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Feline allergic skin disease presents a unique set of challenges to the veterinary practitioner. Although there is some similarity to what is seen in the allergic canine patient, cutaneous hypersensitivity dermatoses in cats can manifest with strikingly different clinical signs, treatment options and outcomes, and secondary complications/disease entities. Additionally, less is known about the pathogenesis of feline allergic skin diseases, particularly “feline atopic syndrome” when compared to dogs or people. This article aims to review what is currently known in regards to allergic skin disease in the feline patient, with focus on non-flea, non-food hypersensitivity dermatitis.

  15. Cutaneous Hypersensitivity Dermatoses in the Feline Patient: A Review of Allergic Skin Disease in Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel, Alison

    2017-05-09

    Feline allergic skin disease presents a unique set of challenges to the veterinary practitioner. Although there is some similarity to what is seen in the allergic canine patient, cutaneous hypersensitivity dermatoses in cats can manifest with strikingly different clinical signs, treatment options and outcomes, and secondary complications/disease entities. Additionally, less is known about the pathogenesis of feline allergic skin diseases, particularly "feline atopic syndrome" when compared to dogs or people. This article aims to review what is currently known in regards to allergic skin disease in the feline patient, with focus on non-flea, non-food hypersensitivity dermatitis.

  16. Immunopathogenesis of allergic rhinitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    markers such as the vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. Chemoattractants including eotaxin,. IL-5, and RANTES lead to the characteristic infiltration by eosinophils, basophils, Th2 lymphocytes, and mast cells in chronic allergic rhinitis.15. Figure 2. Cell and mediator pathways underlying the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis.

  17. Allergic rhinosinusitis in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    inflammatory oede- ma present in persis- tent allergic rhinitis will eventually occur in the mucous mem- branes of the ostiomeatal units in the middle meati leading ultimately to allergic ... most children over the age of 6 months. These are excellent tests .... flax oil or fatty fish is of a high omega 3 and essential amino acid.

  18. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ABPA most commonly affects people with asthma or cystic fibrosis. Many people with ABPA also suffer from allergic conditions such as atopic dermatitis (eczema), urticaria (hives) , allergic rhinitis (hay fever) and sinusitis . Symptoms & Diagnosis Symptoms If you have asthma, the first noticeable ...

  19. The allergic march

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several studies have demonstrated the allergic march from atopic eczema to the development of asthma and allergic rhinitis. Rhodes et al.2 studied 100 infants from atopic families over a 22-year period in the UK. The prevalence of atopic eczema reached a peak in 20% of children at 1 year of age and then declined to just ...

  20. Epigenomics and allergic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockett, Gabrielle A; Patil, Veeresh K; Soto-Ramírez, Nelís; Ziyab, Ali H; Holloway, John W; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    Allergic disease development is affected by both genes and the environment, and epigenetic mechanisms are hypothesized to mediate these environmental effects. In this article, we discuss the link between the environment, DNA methylation and allergic disease, as well as questions of causality inherent to analyses of DNA methylation. From the practical side, we describe characteristics of allergic phenotypes and contrast different epidemiologic study designs used in epigenetic research. We examine methodological considerations, how best to conduct preprocessing and analysis of DNA methylation data sets, and the latest methods, technologies and discoveries in this rapidly advancing field. DNA methylation and other epigenetic marks are firmly entwined with allergic disease, a link that may hold the basis for future allergic disease diagnosis and treatment.

  1. The link between allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Henrik Nielsen, N; Frølund, L

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma are manifestations of the same disease entity. We aimed to investigate the relationship between allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. METHODS: Participants in a population-based study of 15-69-year-olds in 1990 were ...

  2. Continental United States Hurricane Strikes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Continental U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster is our most popular poster which is updated annually. The poster includes all hurricanes that affected the U.S. since...

  3. [Allergic rhinitis in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Darko

    2011-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is the most prevalent form of chronic rhinitis in children. It is driven by allergic inflammation and is commonly associated with other atopic diseases such as asthma and atopic eczema. The main allergens are primarily aeroallergens: house dust mite, and tree, grass and weed pollen. It is, however, not exceptional to experience symptoms of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in conjunction with food allergy and oral food allergy syndrome, especially in infants and toddlers. Allergic rhinitis is often associated with allergic asthma, either preceding it, or developing later and making it more difficult to treat. The mainstay of treatment is exposure prophylaxis, antihistamines, leukotriene antagonists and intranasal corticosteroids. Allergic rhinitis is one of the prime indications for specific allergen immunotherapy, which may have a preventive effect on the development of asthma. Allergic rhinitis associated with intermittent or mild persistent asthma may be a good indication for concomitant combination treatment with antihistamines and leukotriene antagonists. Intranasal corticosteroids should not be withheld in more severe forms. Shortterm (up to 3 months) use of intranasal corticosteroids has not been associated with any significant local or systemic side effects.

  4. Trichuris suis ova therapy for allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Peter; Arnved, John; Rønborg, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic helminth infections can protect against allergic airway inflammation in experimental models and have been associated with a reduced risk of atopy and a reduced course of asthma in some observational studies. Although no clinical evidence exists to support the use of helminth therapy for...

  5. Allergic laryngitis: unraveling the myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachler, Robert J; Dworkin-Valenti, James P

    2017-06-01

    This article provides a thorough review of the literature highlighting the articles that have advanced our knowledge about the sensitivity of the larynx to allergens in the air or ones consumed. This area of inquiry requires continued interest and investigation. As the field of clinical laryngology changes, and more information is discovered about the possible causal association between allergy and vocal pathologies, practicing otolaryngologists, allergists, and other medical professionals may discover more comprehensive methods to evaluate and treat their allergic patients, particularly those who present with complaints of dysphonia, dysphagia, laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR), and/or dyspnea. There continues to be epidemiological studies designed to describe the relationship of allergy to vocal symptoms and signs. Both population and smaller studies have recently attempted to link these two conditions. Unfortunately, the patient with chronic laryngeal complaints is often tagged by default with the diagnosis of LPR and treated with proton pump inhibitors, which are not always beneficial. The endoscopic assessment may not be as reliable to make the diagnosis of LPR as the examination is subjective and the inter-rater reliability is low. It has been demonstrated by direct laryngeal provocation studies that sticky-viscous endo-laryngeal mucous is the only reliable finding consistently associated with allergy potential allergic tissue reactivity. The interrelationship of allergic sensitivity and chronic laryngitis in certain individuals is becoming clearer because our knowledge of inquiry has increased and the available routine technology to diagnose these conditions has remarkably improved. Notwithstanding these advancements, much more research is needed on this subject to reduce the frequency of mis-diagnoses and mis-management of allergic patients.

  6. Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) and mangiferin reduce the airway inflammation and Th2 cytokines in murine model of allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Dagmar García; Hernández, Ivones; Merino, Nelson; Luque, Yilian; Álvarez, Alina; Martín, Yanet; Amador, Aylin; Nuevas, Lauro; Delgado, René

    2011-10-01

    The aim was to study the effects of Mangifera indica extract and its major component mangiferin on lung inflammation response and Th2 cytokine production using a murine experimental model of allergic asthma. BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally sensitized with 10 µg of ovoalbumin (OVA) adsorbed on aluminium hydroxide on days 0, 7 and 14. Seven days after the last injection, the mice were challenged with 2% aerosolized OVA inhalation for 30 min beginning on day 21 and continuing until day 24. To evaluate the protective effect, mice were orally treated with M. indica extract (50, 100 or 250 mg/kg) or mangiferin (50 mg/kg) from days 0 to 24. Anti-OVA immunoglobulin E, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 were determined by ELISA and lungs were analysed by histology. M. indica extract and mangiferin produced a marked reduction of airway inflammation around vessels and bronchi, inhibition of IL-4 and IL-5 cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lymphocyte culture supernatant, IgE levels and lymphocyte proliferation. This is the first pre-clinical report of the anti-inflammatory properties of M. indica extract and mangiferin in experimental asthma and it could be an important part of pre-clinical requirement necessary for its use to complement the treatment of this complex disease. © 2011 The Authors. JPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  7. Allergic Rhinitis Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the best strategy for managing allergic rhinitis? Avoidance Antihistamines or nasal corticosteroid sprays Immunotherapy (allergy shots) It ... pollen or pet dander isn't always feasible. Antihistamines often help for short-term relief of symptoms. ...

  8. Pediatric allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharpe, Chet A; Kemp, Stephen F

    2015-02-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a common pediatric problem with significant comorbidities and potential complications. This article is an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and current therapeutic strategies. Allergic rhinitis management in a specific child is age dependent and influenced by the severity and frequency of the symptoms and the presence of any concurrent conditions. Current strategies permit symptomatic control and improved quality of life for most patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. EDITORIAL: Dearing strikes again!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson Honorary Editor, Ken

    1996-05-01

    for such a wide variety of intended learners. A sheer increase in content would be a primitive and profoundly unsmart response. A fourth recommendation is that the number of physics syllabuses should be reduced. Challenge 4: design criteria for the selection of syllabuses thought worthy to survive. There are in fact quite a few other interesting recommendations, in particular dealing with mathematics and mathematics for physics, and a whole set of recommendations for a new national award system, recognizing achievement at all levels from sub-GCSE to A-level/GNVQ/NVQ Level 3. It's all very interesting and might indeed be very good. But can the bureaucrats manage it? ...Report ISBN 1 85838 1029, SCAA Publications, PO Box 235, Hayes, Middlesex UB3 1HF.

  10. [Physicians' strikes--ethical considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Shimon; Schwarzfuchs, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Strikes in general represent a solution based on a form of coercion. Historically, the striker caused direct damage to his employer, who was responsible for the perceived unfair treatment of the employee. In the case of strikes in the public sector, the employer is generally not harmed, but innocent citizens suffer in order to pressure the government agencies, a questionable practice from an ethical viewpoint. Physicians' strikes have more serious ethical problems. They cause suffering and death to innocent citizens. They violate the ethical codes to which physicians have committed themselves as professionals, and they seriously impair the trust of the public in physicians. Better and more ethical ways to provide fair compensation for physicians must be employed, perhaps like those used for judges and members of the IDF.

  11. Allergic reactions to hyaluronidase in pain management -A report of three cases-

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tae Wan; Lee, Jae Hoon; Yoon, Kyung Bong; Yoon, Duck Mi

    2011-01-01

    Hyaluronidase has been gaining interest because it reduces tissue edema and fibrosis. Although rare, hyaluronidase has been shown to cause allergic reactions. A few cases of allergic reactions following hyaluronidase administration have been reported. Most of the described patients presented allergic reactions after peribulbar anesthesia for eye surgery. In this report, we describe three patients who experienced with allergic reactions to hyaluronidase following pain management. Two of the pa...

  12. Prevention of allergic disease in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne

    2004-01-01

    manifestations e.g. CMA and atopic dermatitis can be reduced significantly by simple dietary measures for the first4 months of life. In all infants breastfeeding should beencouraged for at least 4-6 months, and exposure to tobacco smoke should be avoided during pregnancy and early childhood. In HR infants...... for this review was to evaluate possible preventive measures as regards prevention of development of allergic disease in childhood--primary prevention--and also some aspects of the effect of specific allergy treatment as regards secondary prevention in children with allergic asthma and allergic......) and/or hydrolyzed cow's milk-based formula the first 4-6 months as regards: (i) the allergy preventive effect of BM/extensively hydrolysed formula (eHF) compared with ordinary cow's milk-based formula, (ii) the effect of two different eHFs, a whey (Profylac) and a casein-based (Nutramigen) formula...

  13. [Allergic fungal sinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, J R; Lafarga, J; Ronda, J M; Trigueros, M; Sancho, M; Aracil, A

    2000-10-01

    Allergic fungal sinusitis is a recently described clinical entity that has gained increased attention as a cause of chronic sinusitis. Consist in a benign noninvasive sinus disease related to a hypersensitivity reaction to fungal antigens. It should be suspected in any atopic patient with refractory nasal polyps. Computed tomography (CT) findings are characteristics, but not diagnostic. Diagnosis requires show allergic mucin in the histopathologic examination and hiphae in special fungal stains. The suitable treatment includes the allergic mucin removal and sinus aeration accomplished endoscopically, perioperative systemic steroids and immunotherapy with fungal antigens. We present a case of this kind of chronic sinusitis describing the characteristic histopathologic and radiologic findings, the pathogenic theories and recent advances in immunotherapy.

  14. Medications for Allergic Rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roditi, Rachel E; Ishman, Stacey; Lee, Stella; Lin, Sandra; Shin, Jennifer J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Adherence to the allergic rhinitis clinical practice guideline is being considered as a potential focus for national performance metrics. To help inform this discussion, we assessed patient- and clinician-reported medication administration among nationally representative populations of patients with allergic rhinitis. Study Design Cross-sectional analyses. Setting and Subjects Home health assessments, ambulatory visits. Methods Participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey / National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey were assessed. The primary outcomes were the percentage of patients reporting receipt of antihistamines and/or nasal steroids among those with allergy-related symptoms and the percentage for whom a clinician administered these medications when diagnosing allergic rhinitis. Secondary outcomes included assessments of those with worse quality of life, confirmatory allergy testing, and leukotriene receptor antagonist use. Results Within the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, an estimated 29.2 million patients were diagnosed with "hay fever," while 92.2 million were diagnosed with "allergies." Patients with symptoms of allergic rhinitis reported that antihistamines or nasal steroids were prescribed in 21.1% to 24.0% of cases. Leukotriene receptor antagonists were given to 1.7% of those without asthma or use of other allergy medications. Within the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey / National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, observations representing 149.5 million visits for allergic rhinitis demonstrated that nasal steroids were administered in 29.6% of cases, while nonsedating and sedating antihistamines were given in 22.4% and 17.2%, respectively. Conclusions Despite a high prevalence of allergic rhinitis, per patient report and clinician entry, a substantial number of affected patients do not receive antihistamines and nasal steroids.

  15. Allergic reactions in anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigaard, M; Garvey, L H; Menné, T

    2005-01-01

    match, the right substance being suspected, but investigations showed an additional allergen or several substances, including the right substance being suspected. CONCLUSIONS: An informed guess is not a reliable way of determining the cause of a supposed allergic reaction during anaesthesia and may put...... a significant number of patients at unnecessary risk. Some patients may be labelled with a wrong allergy, leading to unnecessary warnings against harmless substances, and some patients may be put at risk of subsequent re-exposure to the real allergen. Patients with suspected allergic reactions during...

  16. Protection of rats from experimental allergic encephalomyelitis with antiserum to guinea-pig spinal cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, R. A. C.

    1974-01-01

    Inbred AS rats were immunized with guinea-pig spinal cord. The severity of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) was studied in groups treated with antiserum to guinea-pig spinal cord and control groups treated with antiserum to other guinea-pig tissue. Prolonged treatment throughout the experiment strikingly reduced the severity of the clinical disease. Early treatment for the first 8 days after immunization had a similar protective effect. Late treatment starting on the 10th day after immunization did not produce significant protection. Protection was produced by antiserum from both EAE-resistant and EAE-susceptible strains. The protective effect of the serum did not correlate with the presence of haemagglutinating antibodies to basic protein or the titre of complement-fixing antibodies to galactocerebroside. These results suggest that antiserum to undefined central nervous system antigens contains an `enhancing' antibody which inhibits a relatively early stage of the immune response causing EAE. PMID:4212280

  17. Respecting the right to strike

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Since two years the representatives of the employers in the ILO, a tripartite multilateral body responsible for guaranteeing the correct application of an international labour code, try to weaken the global work regulations. On the occasion of the Global Day of Action for the right to strike at the invitation of the Geneva community of Union action (Communauté genevoise d’action syndicale) and the Swiss Trade Union Association (Union syndicale suisse) around noon on Wednesday 18th February some fifty staff representatives of international organizations gathered on the place des Nations in Geneva to reaffirm the importance of this fundamental right, too often flouted. A delegation of the CERN Staff Association was also present. In a short speech, the Staff Association said that, while being one of the fundamental human rights, to be efficient the right to strike must be used intelligently. It must be implemented taking into account the sensitivities of the professional environment and r...

  18. Sublingual immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulovic, Suzana; Calderon, Moises A; Wilson, Duncan; Durham, Stephen

    2010-12-08

    This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in The Cochrane Library in Issue 2, 2003.Allergic rhinitis is a common condition which can significantly impair quality of life. Immunotherapy by injection can significantly reduce symptoms and medication use but its use is limited by the possibility of severe systemic adverse reactions. Immunotherapy by the sublingual route is therefore of considerable interest. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of sublingual immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis in adults and children. We searched the Cochrane ENT Group Trials Register; CENTRAL (2010, Issue 3); PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; BIOSIS Previews; Cambridge Scientific Abstracts; mRCT and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the most recent search was 14 August 2009. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of sublingual immunotherapy in adults or children. Primary outcome measures were symptom and medication scores. We also collected adverse event data. Two independent authors selected studies and assessed risk of bias. One author extracted data which was rechecked by two other authors. We used the standardised mean difference (SMD) with a random-effects model to combine data. We included a total of 60 randomised controlled trials in the review. Forty-nine were suitable for pooling in meta-analyses (2333 SLIT, 2256 placebo participants). Overall, we found a significant reduction in symptoms (SMD -0.49; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.64 to -0.34, P sublingual immunotherapy compared to placebo. None of the trials included in this review reported severe systemic reactions or anaphylaxis, and none of the systemic reactions reported required the use of adrenaline. This updated review reinforces the conclusion of the original 2003 Cochrane Review that sublingual immunotherapy is effective for allergic rhinitis and has been proven to be a safe route of administration.

  19. Wogonin Induces Eosinophil Apoptosis and Attenuates Allergic Airway Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorward, David A.; Sharma, Sidharth; Rennie, Jillian; Felton, Jennifer M.; Alessandri, Ana L.; Duffin, Rodger; Schwarze, Jurgen; Haslett, Christopher; Rossi, Adriano G.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Eosinophils are key effector cells in allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, eczema, and asthma. Their tissue presence is regulated by both recruitment and increased longevity at inflamed sites. Objectives: To investigate the ability of the flavone wogonin to induce eosinophil apoptosis in vitro and attenuate eosinophil-dominant allergic inflammation in vivo in mice. Methods: Human and mouse eosinophil apoptosis in response to wogonin was investigated by cellular morphology, flow cytometry, mitochondrial membrane permeability, and pharmacological caspase inhibition. Allergic lung inflammation was modeled in mice sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung tissue were examined for inflammation, mucus production, and inflammatory mediator production. Airway hyperresponsiveness to aerosolized methacholine was measured. Measurements and Main Results: Wogonin induced time- and concentration-dependent human and mouse eosinophil apoptosis in vitro. Wogonin-induced eosinophil apoptosis occurred with activation of caspase-3 and was inhibited by pharmacological caspase inhibition. Wogonin administration attenuated allergic airway inflammation in vivo with reductions in BAL and interstitial eosinophil numbers, increased eosinophil apoptosis, reduced airway mucus production, and attenuated airway hyperresponsiveness. This wogonin-induced reduction in allergic airway inflammation was prevented by concurrent caspase inhibition in vivo. Conclusions: Wogonin induces eosinophil apoptosis and attenuates allergic airway inflammation, suggesting that it has therapeutic potential for the treatment of allergic inflammation in humans. PMID:25629436

  20. Allergic rhinitis in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and is also associated with co-morbidities such as sinusitis, otitis media ... nose, chronic infective sinusitis and nasal polyps may mimic the signs .... fungal spores. Gauteng. Add: tree pollen (cypress). Farming areas. Add: Zea mays, horse, Blomia tropicalis. Table ii. Effect of medications on symptoms of allergic rhinitis.

  1. Aetiology of allergic rhinitis in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W.K. Lam

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In a 1993 survey, allergic rhinitis was identified as the most common allergic disease in Hong Kong, affecting 29.1% of schoolchildren. Recently (1995, the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC also reported 44.5% current rhinitis among Hong Kong teenagers. Our objective was to study the aetiology of allergic rhinitis in Hong Kong using serological tests of allergen sensitization. In 57 allergic rhinitis patients and in the same number of age- and sex-matched controls the following were measured: serum total IgE, mixed aeroallergen IgE (Phadiatop™ and specific IgE versus house dust mite (HDM, cockroach, cat and dog dander, mould mixture (Penicillium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Alternaria species and four local pollens (Bermuda grass, Timothy, ragweed and mugwort. Compared with controls, allergic rhinitis patients (26 males, 31 females; mean (± SD age 25 ±11 years had a significantly elevated serum total IgE concentration (mean ± SEM: 496 ± 88 vs 179 ± 38 kU/L and an increased proportion of positive Phadiatop (95 vs 33% and specific IgE tests versus HDM (90 vs 44% and cockroach (42 vs 9%; Mann-Whitney U-test and χ2 tests all P < 0.005. There was no significant difference in sensitization to other allergens tested. House dust mite and cockroach are ubiquitous in Hong Kong with a warm, humid climate and crowded living conditions. Their identification as aetiological agents of allergic rhinitis should help in the development of environmental strategies for reducing the inhalant allergen load to prevent and control this prevalent and costly health problem in our community.

  2. ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisna Yuliharti Tersinanda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Allergic contact dermatitis is an immunologic reaction that tends to involve the surrounding skin and may even spread beyond affected sites. This skin disease is one of the more frequent, and costly dermatologic problems. Recent data from United Kingdom and United States suggest that the percentage of occupational contact dermatitis due to allergy may be much higher, thus raising the economic impact of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. There is not enough data about the epidemiology of allergic contact dermatitis in Indonesia, however based on research that include beautician in Denpasar, about 27,6 percent had side effect of cosmetics, which is 25,4 percent of it manifested as allergic contact dermatitis. Diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis is based on anamnesis, physical examination, patch test, and this disease should be distinguished from other eczematous skin disease. The management is prevention of allergen exposure, symptomatic treatment, and physicochemical barrier /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  3. Sibship Characteristics and Risk of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Tine; Rostgaard, Klaus; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2005-01-01

    asthma; birth order; hypersensitivity; rhinitis; allergic; perennial; rhinitis; allergic; seasonal; risk factors; siblings......asthma; birth order; hypersensitivity; rhinitis; allergic; perennial; rhinitis; allergic; seasonal; risk factors; siblings...

  4. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Ho [Department of Anatomy, Medical School, Institute for Medical Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Guang Yu [Department of Radiology, Yanbian University Hospital, YanJi 133002 (China); Guo, Hui Shu [Centralab, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116011 (China); Piao, Hong Mei [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Yanbian University Hospital, YanJi 133000 (China); Li, Liang chang; Li, Guang Zhao [Department of Anatomy and Histology and Embryology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, 977 Gongyuan Road, YanJi 133002, Jilin (China); Lin, Zhen Hua [Department of Pathology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, YanJi 133000 (China); Yan, Guang Hai, E-mail: ghyan@ybu.edu.cn [Department of Anatomy and Histology and Embryology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, 977 Gongyuan Road, YanJi 133002, Jilin (China)

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin suppresses NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. Because NF-{kappa}B activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-{kappa}B activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-{kappa}B activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.

  5. Mesenchymal stromal cells ameliorate acute allergic rhinitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunlei; Fu, Yanxia; Wang, Yinyin; Kong, Yanhua; Li, Mengdi; Ma, Danhui; Zhai, Wanli; Wang, Hao; Lin, Yuting; Liu, Sihan; Ren, Fangli; Li, Jun; Wang, Yi

    2017-10-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been extensively investigated as a potential antiinflammatory treatment in many inflammatory-related diseases; however, it remains unclear whether MSCs could be used to treat acute allergic rhinitis. A rat model of allergic rhinitis was treated with MSCs. The effect of MSCs on the inflammation of allergic rhinitis was evaluated by sneezing, nose rubbing, the pathology of the nasal mucosa, and the expression of interleukin 4, tumour necrosis factor alpha, and immunoglobulin E in the serum of rats. Also, the population of MSCs isolated from umbilical cords of humans was evaluated to determine if they could inhibit the symptoms and inflammation of acute allergic rhinitis in a rat model. We observed that this population of cells inhibited sneezing, nose rubbing, and changes in the pathology of the nasal mucosa. Intriguingly, we observed that MSCs reduced the expression of interleukin 4, tumour necrosis factor alpha, and immunoglobulin E in the serum. Furthermore, MSCs reduced the expression of histamine and the recruitment of macrophages in the nasal mucosa of allergic rhinitis rats. We reasoned that the effect of MSCs on allergic rhinitis might be through its regulation of the secretion of related cytokines from macrophages during the process of acute allergic rhinitis. This work suggested that MSCs from the umbilical cords of humans could be used as a positive clinical therapy for the human disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors Cell Biochemistry & Function Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Women, transition and strikes in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Novaković, Nada G.

    2014-01-01

    The author, in a sociological way, describes and analyzes the concepts of transition, privatization and strikes in Serbia, particularly the place of women in it. It examines the most important economic and social causes and consequences of these phenomena. The main hypothesis is: women's strikes in the Serbian transition are less efficient than strikes and public protests of women in the developed world and the second Yugoslavia. A strike is a class conflict, in which the workers are fighting...

  7. Local Allergic Rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Paloma; Salas, María; Blanca-López, Natalia; Rondón, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    This review focuses on local allergic rhinitis, a new phenotype of allergic rhinitis, commonly misdiagnosed as nonallergic rhinitis. It has gained attention over last decade and can affect patients from all countries, ethnic groups and ages, impairing their quality of life, and is frequently associated with conjunctivitis and asthma. Diagnosis is based on clinical history, the demonstration of a positive response to nasal allergen provocation test and/or the detection of nasal sIgE. A positive basophil activation test may support the diagnosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that allergen immunotherapy is an effective immune-modifying treatment, highlighting the importance of early diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Epidemiology of allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, James W

    2014-09-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the archetypal allergic disease otolaryngologists encounter. Epidemiologic studies inform providers of the association of rhinitis symptoms and allergy test results in the broader population. Understanding the epidemiological characteristics of AR is important for interpreting both rhinitis symptoms and allergy tests. Articles were selected based on literature review through PubMed and personal knowledge of the author. The largest and highest-quality studies were included. The search selection was not standardized. Epidemiological studies demonstrate marked variability globally in the prevalence of both rhinitis symptoms and allergy tests. Self-reported seasonal or perennial rhinitis symptoms significantly overestimate the prevalence of AR defined by a positive history and positive allergy tests. Positive allergy tests are also common in those without self-reported rhinitis symptoms. Interpreting rhinitis symptoms and allergy testing is enhanced by an understanding of the epidemiology of AR. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  9. Immunotherapy in Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Anil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis is an immunologic disorder that develops in individuals who have produced allergen-specific immunoglobulin E in response to environmental exposures (most commonly to pollens, animal dander, insect debris, and molds. For patients with a severe allergy that is not responsive to environmental controls and pharmacotherapy or for those who do not wish to use medication for a lifetime, immunotherapy may be offered. Specific immunotherapy as practiced since hundred years in Western Europe and the USA. Different routes for specific immunotherapy have been evaluated, such as the subcutaneous, sublingual, oral, nasal, bronchial, and intra-lymphatic, the first 2 of these routes being the most commonly used today in clinical practice. In this article, subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis is reviewed.

  10. 14 CFR 35.38 - Lightning strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lightning strike. 35.38 Section 35.38... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.38 Lightning strike. The applicant must demonstrate, by... lightning strike without causing a major or hazardous propeller effect. The limit to which the propeller has...

  11. Immunotherapy in Allergic Rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Hulya Anil; Koray Harmanci

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is an immunologic disorder that develops in individuals who have produced allergen-specific immunoglobulin E in response to environmental exposures (most commonly to pollens, animal dander, insect debris, and molds). For patients with a severe allergy that is not responsive to environmental controls and pharmacotherapy or for those who do not wish to use medication for a lifetime, immunotherapy may be offered. Specific immunotherapy as practiced since hundred years in Wester...

  12. Diagnosing Allergic Rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scadding, Glenis K; Scadding, Guy W

    2016-05-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common immunologic disease in industrialized societies and has a significant impact on quality of life. Most asthmatics also have rhinitis. AR may present with comorbidities, including chronic otitis media with effusion, cough, and pollen-food cross-reactivity. AR may occur in isolation or be part of a mixed rhinitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A comparison of intranasal corticosteroid, leukotriene receptor antagonist, and topical antihistamine in reducing symptoms of perennial allergic rhinitis as assessed through the Rhinitis Severity Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardana, Niti; Santos, Carah; Lehman, Erik; Craig, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Rhinitis symptom complex consists of rhinorrhea, congestion, itchy mucosa, itchy eyes, and sneezing. Available medications vary in their benefit for each of these symptoms. It was the purpose of this article to compare symptom reduction with three different classes of medications. Montelukast, azelastine, and budesonide were compared to determine the effect on individual, as well as total, symptom scores using the Rhinitis Severity Score (RSS). All three medications were compared with placebo and showed efficacy in prior studies using Balaam's crossover design. The inclusion and exclusion criteria and all procedures were identical for all three studies. In analyzing the data from the RSS questionnaire, we used the procedure PROC MIXED in SAS specific for Balaam's crossover design (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC). Although all three medications were effective compared with placebo, montelukast had the greatest effect of the three medications on reduction of ocular itching and throat and palate itching. Azelastine's effect was greater than budesonide and montelukast for reduction of rhinorrhea. Systemic medication, montelukast, as expected, provided better relief for symptoms distant from the nasal cavity, and the antihistamine, azelastine, reduced rhinorrhea, more than either montelukast or budesonide.

  14. Bruxism in allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, M B

    1980-01-01

    A study of bruxism (tooth grinding) was conducted at the University of Miami School of Medicine, at Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, Florida, and at the Sleep Disorders Center, Mount Sinai MEdical Center, Miami Beach, Florida. A threefold incidence of this pernicious oral habit in allergic children was disclosed as compared to nonallergic children. Dental literature stresses psychogenic factors, occlusal maladjustments, systemic conditions, and occupational pursuits which do not pertain to most children. Allergy is rarely considered. Nocturnal bruxism may be initiated reflexly by increased negative pressures in the tympanic cavities from intermittent allergic edema of the mucosa of the Eustachian tubes. Embryologic, anatomic, and neurological relationships between the muscles of the eardrum, Eustachian tubes, and jaws have a primordial, common ancestry. Chronic middle ear disturbances may promote reflex action to the jaws by stimulating the trigeminal nuclei in the brain. Sleep studies at Mount Sinai Medical Center on allergic, bruxing children have produced some interesting but incomplete results. We are attempting to develop sophisticated devices for monitoring abnormal tubal function which may be the crux of the bruxism problem.

  15. DHA-Rich Tuna Oil Effectively Suppresses Allergic Symptoms in Mice Allergic to Whey or Peanut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Elsen, Lieke Wj; Bol-Schoenmakers, Marianne; van Esch, Betty Cam; Hofman, Gerard A; van de Heijning, Bert Jm; Pieters, Raymond H; Smit, Joost J; Garssen, Johan; Willemsen, Linette Em

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Supplementation with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) has been found to reduce the development of allergic disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of fish oil diets rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid

  16. [Specific immunotherapy in allergic asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, K-Ch

    2003-02-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways considered as the result of a deregulated immune response, with a pivotal role played the TH2 cytokine phenotype. The treatment of allergic asthma is based on allergen avoidance, pharmacotherapy, allergen-specific immunotherapy, and patient education. Specific immunotherapy is able to normalize the upraised TH2 cytokine phenotype and indicated for patients who have demonstrable evidence of IgE-mediated clinically relevant sensitisation to pollens, house-dust mites and cat or dog allergens. The exposure to the allergens must be related to the appearance of symptoms. Randomised controlled trials in asthma have found that immunotherapy was effective (evidence 1a, strength of recommendation A) in reducing specific and non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity, asthmatic symptoms, and medication requirements. Patient selection is important and efficacy must be balanced against the risk of side effects. Immunotherapy should be used by pneumologists with a training in allergology in patients with mild asthma.

  17. Food-induced Allergic Rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hasan Bemanian; Saba Arshi; Mohammad Nabavi

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy is estimated about 8% in children. The relationship between food and manifestation of allergy symptoms and its confirmation for accurate diagnosis is very important. Allergic rhinitis is a common disease with a prevalence of 40% among different societies. The prevalence of food-induced allergic rhinitis appears to be less than 1 percent. Food reactions often lead to rhinitis symptoms at a no immunologic nature. Although the role of food and fruits in developing allergic rhinitis ...

  18. Local avian density influences risk of mortality from window strikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Ann M.; Hagemeyer, Natasha D.G.; Lahey, Ally S.

    2016-01-01

    Up to a billion birds die per year in North America as a result of striking windows. Both transparent and reflective glass panes are a cause for concern, misleading birds by either acting as invisible, impenetrable barriers to desired resources, or reflecting those resources over a large surface area. A high number of window strikes occur during migration, but little is known about the factors of susceptibility, or whether particular avian taxa are more vulnerable than others. We report on a study of window strikes and mist-netting data at the Virginia Zoological Park (Norfolk, Virginia, USA), conducted in the autumn of 2013 and 2014. We focused on three factors likely to contribute to an individual’s predisposition to collide with windows: (i) taxonomic classification, (ii) age, and (iii) migrant vs. resident status. Thrushes, dominated by the partial migrant American Robin (Turdus migratorius), were significantly less likely to strike glass than be sampled in mist nets (χ2 = 9.21, p = 0.002), while wood-warblers (Parulidae) were more likely to strike than expected (χ2 = 13.55, p windows (45.4%) was not significantly different (χ2 = 0.05, p = 0.827) than the population of juvenile birds naturally occurring at the zoo (48.8%). Migrants, however, were significantly more susceptible to window strikes than residents (χ2 = 6.35, p = 0.012). Our results suggest that resident birds are able to learn to avoid and thus reduce their likelihood of striking windows; this intrinsic risk factor may help explain the apparent susceptibility of certain taxa to window strikes. PMID:27366656

  19. Strikes in Serbia since 2000 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Nada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article author deals with main characteristics of strikes in Serbia within the period 2000–2005. Analysis starts with thesis that strike is open class conflict within class divided society. Therefore strike is radical form of trade union struggle for workers rights. Main questions in the analysis were: on social structure as a background of strikes, on organizations and trade unions included in it, on effects of strikes in Serbia in the given period. Main thesis of the article is that every power dislike strikes and is ready to do everything to diminish them. Main reason lies in the class nature of social conflict that underlie them. Main processes that underlie strike phenomena in Serbia since 2000. are the processes of originally capital accumulation. These bring about the formation of new capitalist class and proletariat of all professions. Author gives a brief analysis of privatization process, as well as of restructuring of public sector and deregulation of economy trying to show the role of all of it in origins of strikes. Main conclusion is that there are large number of strikes in all parts of society, that are well organized, with support of one or more trade unions. For these in power they are factor of obstacle on the way of successful transition. As for the reasons and outcomes these strikes are akin to the strikes at the beginning of 19th century.

  20. Third-party support for strike action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelloway, E Kevin; Francis, Lori; Catano, Victor M; Dupré, Kathryne E

    2008-07-01

    Labor strikes are often seen as battles for public support. Members of the public are asked to show respect for a strike by refusing to cross the picket line or by joining strikers on the picket line. Such public support may affect the morale of strikers and influence the strike's duration. Despite the perceived importance of the public in labor disputes, members of third parties have not been considered in previous strike research. In 2 studies, the authors show that a new measure of third-party strike support is unidimensional and highly reliable. In both cases, union attitudes and perceptions of distributive justice were significant predictors of support for strike action. Those who are more supportive of unions in general and believe that the contract offered to the strikers was unfair were more likely to support the strike by engaging in such actions as conversing with strikers, writing letters, and refusing to cross the picket line.

  1. Lifetime allergic rhinitis prevalence among US primary farm operators: findings from the 2011 Farm and Ranch Safety survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Jacek M; Henneberger, Paul K

    2017-08-01

    Allergic rhinitis is associated with decreased quality of life, and reduced workplace performance and productivity. This study investigated the prevalence of lifetime allergic rhinitis and factors associated with allergic rhinitis among US primary farm operators. The 2011 Farm and Ranch Safety Survey data collected from 11,210 active farm operators were analyzed. Survey respondents were determined to have lifetime allergic rhinitis based on a "yes" response to the question: "Have you ever been told by a doctor, nurse, or other health professional that you had hay fever, seasonal allergies, or allergic rhinitis?" Data were weighted to produce nationally representative estimates. An estimated 30.8% of the 2.1 million active farm operators had lifetime allergic rhinitis in 2011. The allergic rhinitis prevalence varied by demographic and farm characteristics. Farm operators with allergic rhinitis were 1.38 (95% CI 1.22-1.56) times more likely to be exposed to pesticides compared with operators with no allergic rhinitis. The association with pesticide exposure for allergic rhinitis and current asthma, and allergic rhinitis alone was statistically significant and greater than that for current asthma alone. Certain groups of farm operators may be at increased risk of allergic rhinitis. Studies should further investigate the association of allergic rhinitis with specific pesticide exposure.

  2. Emerging drugs for the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licari, Amelia; Castagnoli, Riccardo; Bottino, Chiara; Marseglia, Alessia; Marseglia, GianLuigi; Ciprandi, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a worldwide health problem, currently affecting up to 40% of the general population, and characterized by the following symptoms in a variable degree of severity and duration: nasal congestion/obstruction, rhinorrhea, itchy nose and/or eyes, and/or sneezing. General symptoms like fatigue, reduced quality of sleep, impaired concentration and reduced productivity, if left untreated, may significantly affect quality of life. In addition, of being associated to various comorbidities, allergic rhinitis is also an independent risk factor for the development and worsening of asthma. Perennial allergic rhinitis is caused by allergens present around the year. Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) guidelines currently recommend a stepwise therapeutic approach that combines patient education with specific allergen avoidance, symptomatic pharmacotherapy and allergen immunotherapy. The available treatment strategies provide suboptimal symptom relief in patients with moderate-to-severe disease who continue to experience symptoms while treated, even on multiple therapies. New insights into current therapy have been provided with the development of new symptomatic drugs with improved pharmacokinetics and safety. However, the ultimate research goal is beyond symptomatic treatment, and is mainly directed at modifying the immune response to allergens and prevent the progression of allergic rhinitis towards asthma. In this direction, promising advances are expected in the fields of allergen immunotherapy and biological drugs, such as omalizumab. Finally, significant research efforts are also focused on the growing number of new specific molecular targets involved in the Th2 pathway inflammation of allergic diseases.

  3. TREATMENT OF CHILDREN'S ALLERGIC CONJUNCTIVITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Ksenzova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic conjunctivitis is a widely spread disease, which is often accompanied with an allergic rhinitis. According to the up to date recommendations, the treatment of the allergic rhino conjunctivitis is based on 3 key principles: elimination of the allergen, conducting an allergen targeted immunotherapy and pharmacotherapy. The medication treatment of the allergic rhino conjunctivitis should include antihistamines of the 2nd generation and/or intranasal corticosteroids. Their effectiveness was proven with the findings of numerous place controlled surveys; in most cases they are safe. The usage experience of the intranasal formulation of mometasone furoate (Nasonex shows that with a minimal biological availability of the medication and the absence of its influence upon the «hypothalamus–hypophysis–adrenal glands» system and growth of children, mometasone can be a medication of choice to treat children's rhino conjunctivitis.Key words: children, allergic conjunctivitis, treatment.

  4. [Allergic rhinitis and food allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwionka-Szaflarska, Mieczysława; Brazowski, Jerzy

    2006-01-01

    Atopic diseases are a serious problem of current medicine due to epidemiological range. It also concerns allergic rhinitis and food allergy. Associations between allergic rhinitis and food allergy is still a developing subject and literature concerning its relationship is not to numerous. A short literature review of studies and reviews concerning the above subject was performed. Differences of epidemiological data concerning the association between allergic rhinitis and food allergy were presented and pathophysiology of this correlation is not precisely known. Nevertheless conclusion can be made that in cases of allergic rhinitis with diagnostic difficulties, food allergens can be taken into consideration as possible etiologic factors. Problem of correlation between allergic rhinitis and food allergy is an open subject and there is a need for further studies.

  5. Efficacy comparison of cetirizine and loratadine for allergic rhinitis in children

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana; Rita Evalina; Lily Irsa; M. Sjabaroeddin Loebis

    2012-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis represents a global health problem affecting 10% to more than 40% of the population worldwide. Several studies in recent years have described the efficacy of second-generation antihistamines in younger children. It is not well established whether cetirizine is more effective than loratadine in reducing symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Objective The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of loratadine with cetirizine for treatment of allergic rhiniti...

  6. Allergic Fungal Airway Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, E M; Woolnough, K; Pashley, C H; Wardlaw, A J

    Fungi are ubiquitous and form their own kingdom. Up to 80 genera of fungi have been linked to type I allergic disease, and yet, commercial reagents to test for sensitization are available for relatively few species. In terms of asthma, it is important to distinguish between species unable to grow at body temperature and those that can (thermotolerant) and thereby have the potential to colonize the respiratory tract. The former, which include the commonly studied Alternaria and Cladosporium genera, can act as aeroallergens whose clinical effects are predictably related to exposure levels. In contrast, thermotolerant species, which include fungi from the Candida, Aspergillus, and Penicillium genera, can cause a persistent allergenic stimulus independent of their airborne concentrations. Moreover, their ability to germinate in the airways provides a more diverse allergenic stimulus, and may result in noninvasive infection, which enhances inflammation. The close association between IgE sensitization to thermotolerant filamentous fungi and fixed airflow obstruction, bronchiectasis, and lung fibrosis suggests a much more tissue-damaging process than that seen with aeroallergens. This review provides an overview of fungal allergens and the patterns of clinical disease associated with exposure. It clarifies the various terminologies associated with fungal allergy in asthma and makes the case for a new term (allergic fungal airway disease) to include all people with asthma at risk of developing lung damage as a result of their fungal allergy. Lastly, it discusses the management of fungirelated asthma.

  7. [Allergic reactions during anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escolano, F; Sierra, P

    1996-01-01

    Anaphylactic reaction during anesthesia is a constant source of concern for anesthesiologists, given that the rates of death and serious complications are high and predicting which patients will be susceptible is impossible. All substances used in the perioperative period carry a certain risk of releasing histamine and triggering an allergic reaction, though muscle relaxants are the drugs usually implicated. The incidence of serious anaphylaxis ranges between 1:4,000 and 1:23,000 anesthetic procedures, with mortality set at 3-9% and morbidity 10 times higher. Clinical signs vary from mild symptoms to anaphylactic shock and cardiac arrest. The diagnostic procedure to follow upon observing an allergic reaction is to first identify the responsible mechanism and later the responsible agent, as well as drugs that can be used safely. Prophylaxis is based mainly on recognizing predisposed patients before surgery and following recommendations and pharmacological protocols based on better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms that cause anaphylactic reaction and on experience in managing them.

  8. Intranasal administration of IL-35 inhibits allergic responses and symptoms in mice with allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Motohiko; Yokota, Makoto; Nakamura, Yoshihisa; Ozaki, Shinya; Murakami, Shingo

    2017-04-01

    IL-35 was recently identified as an anti-inflammatory cytokine. We previously reported that recombinant fusion protein of murine IL-35 and human IgG1 Fc fragment (rIL-35) reduced Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5) in vitro. However, it is unclear whether IL-35 can attenuate nasal allergic responses and symptoms of allergic rhinitis in vivo. To investigate the in vivo effect of IL-35 on allergic rhinitis in mice, mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA). Intranasal administration of rIL-35 and intranasal challenge of OVA were then performed. Nasal symptoms were estimated after the last nasal challenge. Nasal tissue and cervical lymph nodes (CLN) were collected. OVA-specific IgE in sera, OVA-specific T cell response, and the production of cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10) stimulated by the OVA antigen were measured. The transcription level of Foxp3 and the frequency of CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T cells were also measured. rIL-35 significantly inhibited the number of sneezes and nasal rubbing movements. It also reduced the number of eosinophils in the nasal mucosa and significantly decreased the level of OVA-specific IgE, the OVA-specific T cell proliferation, and the production of IL-4 and IL-5. Furthermore, rIL-35 significantly increased the production of IL-10, the transcription level of Foxp3, and the frequency of CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T cells. This study showed for the first time that rIL-35 inhibits nasal allergic responses and symptoms in mice, and that rIL-35 increases IL-10, Foxp3, and CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T cells in CLN. This study also suggests that intranasal administration of IL-35 can attenuate allergic rhinitis. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. 14 CFR 29.631 - Bird strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bird strike. 29.631 Section 29.631... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.631 Bird strike. The... safe landing (for Category B) after impact with a 2.2-lb (1.0 kg) bird when the velocity of the...

  10. Limonene and its ozone-initiated reaction products attenuate allergic lung inflammation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jitka S; Nørgaard, Asger W; Koponen, Ismo K

    2016-01-01

    and pulmonary irritation was investigated in addition to ovalbumin-specific antibodies, inflammatory cells, total protein and surfactant protein D in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and hemeoxygenase-1 and cytokines in lung tissue. Overall, airway allergy was not exacerbated by any of the exposures. In contrast...... or the reaction mixture can exacerbate allergic lung inflammation and whether airway irritation is enhanced in allergic BALB/cJ mice. Naïve and allergic (ovalbumin sensitized) mice were exposed via inhalation for three consecutive days to clean air, ozone, limonene or an ozone-limonene reaction mixture. Sensory......, it was found that limonene and the ozone-limonene reaction mixture reduced allergic inflammation possibly due to antioxidant properties. Ozone induced sensory irritation in both naïve and allergic mice. However, allergic but not naïve mice were protected from pulmonary irritation induced by ozone. This study...

  11. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  12. Allergic granulomatous angiitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunović Gordana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic granulomatous angiitis (AGA - Churg-Strauss syndrome, is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by three distinct clinical phases prodromal, eosinophilic, and vasculitic, and most of respiratory symptoms and signs begin in the first two phases of the disease. Two female patients of different age, who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for AGA, and were in different phases and with the different duration of the disease are presented. The first patient (24 years of age was admitted to the hospital due to aggravation of asthma, heart failure, and polyneuropathy. The second one (45 years of age was also hospitalized due to the worsening of asthma polyneuropathy, and fever. Both were treated continuously with glucocorticoids. The older patient also received a total of six pulse doses of cyclophosphamide. Satisfactory response to such a treatment was achieved in both cases.

  13. Allergic reactions during anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, J H

    1988-01-01

    Any drug or blood product administered in the perioperative period has the potential to produce a life-threatening allergic (immune reaction) called anaphylaxis. Anaphylactic reactions represent adverse reactions mediated by immunospecific antibodies (IgE and IgG) that interact with mast cells, basophils, or the complement system to liberate vasoactive mediators and recruit other inflammatory cells. Activation of humoral and cellular pathways produces characteristic responses in the respiratory (bronchospasm and upper airway edema), cardiovascular (vasodilation and increased capillary permeability), and cutaneous systems (wheal and flare). Other predictable adverse drug reactions may mimic anaphylaxis to produce similar physiologic consequences independent of allergy (immune responses). Rapid and timely cardiopulmonary intervention with airway maintenance, epinephrine, and volume expansion is essential to avoid an adverse outcome. Severe reactions may be protracted, especially during anesthesia, requiring even larger doses of catecholamines and intensive care observation.

  14. Food-induced Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Bemanian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is estimated about 8% in children. The relationship between food and manifestation of allergy symptoms and its confirmation for accurate diagnosis is very important. Allergic rhinitis is a common disease with a prevalence of 40% among different societies. The prevalence of food-induced allergic rhinitis appears to be less than 1 percent. Food reactions often lead to rhinitis symptoms at a no immunologic nature. Although the role of food and fruits in developing allergic rhinitis is not clearly identified, in a very small percentage of patients, rhinitis is the clinical manifestation of food allergy.

  15. The role of heparanase in pulmonary cell recruitment in response to an allergic but not non-allergic stimulus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Morris

    Full Text Available Heparanase is an endo-β-glucuronidase that specifically cleaves heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix. Expression of this enzyme is increased in several pathological conditions including inflammation. We have investigated the role of heparanase in pulmonary inflammation in the context of allergic and non-allergic pulmonary cell recruitment using heparanase knockout (Hpa-/- mice as a model. Following local delivery of LPS or zymosan, no significant difference was found in the recruitment of neutrophils to the lung between Hpa-/- and wild type (WT control. Similarly neutrophil recruitment was not inhibited in WT mice treated with a heparanase inhibitor. However, in allergic inflammatory models, Hpa-/- mice displayed a significantly reduced eosinophil (but not neutrophil recruitment to the airways and this was also associated with a reduction in allergen-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness, indicating that heparanase expression is associated with allergic reactions. This was further demonstrated by pharmacological treatment with a heparanase inhibitor in the WT allergic mice. Examination of lung specimens from patients with different severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD found increased heparanase expression. Thus, it is established that heparanase contributes to allergen-induced eosinophil recruitment to the lung and could provide a novel therapeutic target for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of asthma and other allergic diseases.

  16. Allergic rhinitis - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay fever - self-care; Seasonal rhinitis - self-care; Allergies - allergic rhinitis - self-care ... in a row. Talk to your child's health care provider before giving your child decongestants. Nasal corticosteroid ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: allergic asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathing difficulty. These episodes, sometimes referred to as asthma attacks, are triggered by irritation of the inflamed airways. ... tobacco smoke, in people with allergic asthma . An asthma attack is characterized by tightening of the muscles around ...

  18. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Dhami, Sangeeta; Arasi, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Background: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is developing Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). To inform the development of recommendations, we sought to critically assess the systematic review evidence on the effective...

  19. Allergic diseases and air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suh-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2013-07-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing rapidly, especially in developing countries. Various adverse health outcomes such as allergic disease can be attributed to rapidly increasing air pollution levels. Rapid urbanization and increased energy consumption worldwide have exposed the human body to not only increased quantities of ambient air pollution, but also a greater variety of pollutants. Many studies clearly demonstrate that air pollutants potently trigger asthma exacerbation. Evidence that transportation-related pollutants contribute to the development of allergies is also emerging. Moreover, exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide contributes to the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. This article focuses on the current understanding of the detrimental effects of air pollutants on allergic disease including exacerbation to the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema as well as epigenetic regulation.

  20. The Early Efficacy of Topical Levocabastine in Patients with Allergic Conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Fujishima

    2006-01-01

    Conclusions: Although artificial tears had a positive effect in reducing symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis, by the washing out of allergens, levocabastine was more effective than artificial tears in controlling acute symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis, demonstrating that the selective H1 histamine-receptor antagonist action of levocabastine is rapidly effective in a clinical setting.

  1. [Non-allergic chronic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacre Hazouri, José Antonio

    2010-01-01

    To review the existent literature regarding non-allergic rhinitis. PubMed search was performed using the key words: non-allergic rhinitis, vasomotor rhinitis, irritant rhinitis, idiopathic rhinitis, chronic rhinopathy, nociceptive dysfunction, capsaicin, entopy. Articles were selected based on their relevance to this review. Chronic rhinitis affects up to 20% of the general population. The term rhinitis (inflammation of the nasal mucosal membrane) is used in daily practice for nasal dysfunction causing symptoms like nasal itching, sneezing, rhinorrhea, and or nasal blockage. When allergy, mechanical obstruction, and infections have been excluded as the cause of rhinitis, a number of poorly defined nasal conditions of partly unknown etiology and pathophysiology remain. The differential diagnosis of non-allergic noninfectious rhinitis is extensive. If the pathophysiology is unknown, the term idiopathic rhinitis is used as well as vasomotor rhinitis. This term has been recently questioned and the term non-allergic rhinopathy has been proposed with the subsequent definition and inclusion criteria delineated; other forms include irritative-toxic (occupational) rhinitis, hormonal rhinitis, drug-induced rhinitis, non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophilia syndrome, rhinitis due to physical and chemical factors, food-induced rhinitis, emotion-induced rhinitis, atrophic rhinitis. The number of patients with non-allergic, non-infectious rhinitis as a known cause or precipitant factor has increased in the last years. Nevertheless, 50% of the patients have to be classified as non-allergic rhinitis, known today as non-allergic rhinopathy. It's important for this group of patients to be evaluated by an expert in Rhinology and Allergy to determine the best possible treatment.

  2. Retinoic Acid Negatively Impacts Proliferation and MCTC Specific Attributes of Human Skin Derived Mast Cells, but Reinforces Allergic Stimulability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Babina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Vitamin-A-metabolite retinoic acid (RA acts as a master regulator of cellular programs. Mast cells (MCs are primary effector cells of type-I-allergic reactions. We recently uncovered that human cutaneous MCs are enriched with RA network components over other skin cells. Yet, direct experimental evidence on the significance of the RA-MC axis is limited. Here, skin-derived cultured MCs were exposed to RA for seven days and investigated by flow-cytometry (BrdU incorporation, Annexin/PI, FcεRI, microscopy, RT-qPCR, histamine quantitation, protease activity, and degranulation assays. We found that while MC size and granularity remained unchanged, RA potently interfered with MC proliferation. Conversely, a modest survival-promoting effect from RA was noted. The granule constituents, histamine and tryptase, remained unaffected, while RA had a striking impact on MC chymase, whose expression dropped by gene and by peptidase activity. The newly uncovered MRGPRX2 performed similarly to chymase. Intriguingly, RA fostered allergic MC degranulation, in a way completely uncoupled from FcεRI expression, but it simultaneously restricted MRGPRX2-triggered histamine release in agreement with the reduced receptor expression. Vitamin-A-derived hormones thus re-shape skin-derived MCs numerically, phenotypically, and functionally. A general theme emerges, implying RA to skew MCs towards processes associated with (allergic inflammation, while driving them away from the skin-imprinted MCTC (“MCs containing tryptase and chymase” signature (chymase, MRGPRX2. Collectively, MCs are substantial targets of the skin retinoid network.

  3. Effect of public transport strikes on air pollution levels in Barcelona (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basagaña, Xavier; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Agis, David; Pérez, Noemí; Reche, Cristina; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    Public transport strikes can lead to an increase of the number of private vehicle trips, which in turn can increase air pollution levels. We aimed to estimate the change in air pollution concentrations during public transport strikes in the city of Barcelona (Spain). Data on strikes of the metro, train or bus systems were collected from government records (2005-2016). We collected daily concentrations of NOx; particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10μm (PM10), 2.5μm (PM2.5), and 1μm (PM1); particle number concentration (N); black carbon (BC) and CO from research and official monitoring stations. We fitted linear regression models for each pollutant with the strike indicator as an independent variable, and models were adjusted for day of the week, month, year, and holiday periods. During the study period, there were 208days affected by a strike of the metro (28), train (106) or bus (91) systems. Half of the strikes were partial, most of them were single-day strikes, there was little overlap between strikes of the different transport systems, and all strikes had to comply with mandatory minimal services. When pooling all types of strikes, NOx and BC showed higher levels during strike days in comparison with non-strike days (increase between 4.1% and 7.7%, with higher increases for NO). The increases in these concentrations were more evident during full day and multiday metro strikes. In conclusion, alterations in public transport have consequences on air quality. This highlights the importance of public transport in reducing air pollution concentrations in cities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Lightning Strike in Pregnancy With Fetal Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galster, Kellen; Hodnick, Ryan; Berkeley, Ross P

    2016-06-01

    Injuries from lightning strikes are an infrequent occurrence, and are only rarely noted to involve pregnant victims. Only 13 cases of lightning strike in pregnancy have been previously described in the medical literature, along with 7 additional cases discovered within news media reports. This case report presents a novel case of lightning-associated injury in a patient in the third trimester of pregnancy, resulting in fetal ischemic brain injury and long-term morbidity, and reviews the mechanics of lightning strikes along with common injury patterns of which emergency providers should be aware. Copyright © 2016 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhibition of allergic inflammation by supplementation with 5-hydroxytryptophan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Berdnikovs, Sergejs; McCary, Christine A; Urick, Daniela; Mahadevia, Riti; Marchese, Michelle E; Swartz, Kelsey; Wright, Lakiea; Mutlu, Gökhan M; Cook-Mills, Joan M

    2012-10-15

    Clinical reports indicate that patients with allergy/asthma commonly have associated symptoms of anxiety/depression. Anxiety/depression can be reduced by 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) supplementation. However, it is not known whether 5-HTP reduces allergic inflammation. Therefore, we determined whether 5-HTP supplementation reduces allergic inflammation. We also determined whether 5-HTP decreases passage of leukocytes through the endothelial barrier by regulating endothelial cell function. For these studies, C57BL/6 mice were supplemented with 5-HTP, treated with ovalbumin fraction V (OVA), house dust mite (HDM) extract, or IL-4, and examined for allergic lung inflammation and OVA-induced airway responsiveness. To determine whether 5-HTP reduces leukocyte or eosinophil transendothelial migration, endothelial cells were pretreated with 5-HTP, washed and then used in an in vitro transendothelial migration assay under laminar flow. Interestingly, 5-HTP reduced allergic lung inflammation by 70-90% and reduced antigen-induced airway responsiveness without affecting body weight, blood eosinophils, cytokines, or chemokines. 5-HTP reduced allergen-induced transglutaminase 2 (TG2) expression and serotonylation (serotonin conjugation to proteins) in lung endothelial cells. Consistent with the regulation of endothelial serotonylation in vivo, in vitro pretreatment of endothelial cells with 5-HTP reduced TNF-α-induced endothelial cell serotonylation and reduced leukocyte transendothelial migration. Furthermore, eosinophil and leukocyte transendothelial migration was reduced by inhibitors of transglutaminase and by inhibition of endothelial cell serotonin synthesis, suggesting that endothelial cell serotonylation is key for leukocyte transendothelial migration. In summary, 5-HTP supplementation inhibits endothelial serotonylation, leukocyte recruitment, and allergic inflammation. These data identify novel potential targets for intervention in allergy/asthma.

  6. A rapid assessment of species-specific bird strike risk at the Kotoka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rapid assessment of species-specific bird strike risk at the Kotoka International Airport in Accra, Ghana. ... We conclude that wildlife management to avert the risk of bird strikes could be successfully achieved by adopting both proactive and reactive measures to reduce the presence of problem species at the aerodrome.

  7. Expeditionary Strike Group: Command Structure Design Support

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hutchins, Susan G; Kemple, William G; Kleinman, David L; Hocevar, Susan P

    2005-01-01

    An Expeditionary Strike Group (ESG) is a new capability mix that combines the combat power of three surface combatants and one submarine with an Amphibious Readiness Group/ Marine Expeditionary Unit...

  8. The Chicago Teachers Strike and Its Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuffelton, Amy B.

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the 2012 Chicago Teachers Strike in light of John Dewey's "The Public and Its Problems." It engages Dewey's conceptualization of practical reason to challenge the educational reform movement's commitment to technocratic decision-making.

  9. Allergic Aspergillus Rhinosinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Kaur, Harsimran

    2016-01-01

    Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) is a unique variety of chronic polypoid rhinosinusitis usually in atopic individuals, characterized by presence of eosinophilic mucin and fungal hyphae in paranasal sinuses without invasion into surrounding mucosa. It has emerged as an important disease involving a large population across the world with geographic variation in incidence and epidemiology. The disease is surrounded by controversies regarding its definition and etiopathogenesis. A working group on “Fungal Sinusitis” under the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM) addressed some of those issues, but many questions remain unanswered. The descriptions of “eosinophilic fungal rhinosinusitis” (EFRS), “eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis” (EMRS) and mucosal invasion by hyphae in few patients have increased the problem to delineate the disease. Various hypotheses exist for etiopathogenesis of AFRS with considerable overlap, though recent extensive studies have made certain in depth understanding. The diagnosis of AFRS is a multi-disciplinary approach including the imaging, histopathology, mycology and immunological investigations. Though there is no uniform management protocol for AFRS, surgical clearing of the sinuses with steroid therapy are commonly practiced. The role of antifungal agents, leukotriene antagonists and immunomodulators is still questionable. The present review covers the controversies, recent advances in pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of AFRS. PMID:29376948

  10. Allergic Aspergillus Rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunaloke Chakrabarti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS is a unique variety of chronic polypoid rhinosinusitis usually in atopic individuals, characterized by presence of eosinophilic mucin and fungal hyphae in paranasal sinuses without invasion into surrounding mucosa. It has emerged as an important disease involving a large population across the world with geographic variation in incidence and epidemiology. The disease is surrounded by controversies regarding its definition and etiopathogenesis. A working group on “Fungal Sinusitis” under the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM addressed some of those issues, but many questions remain unanswered. The descriptions of “eosinophilic fungal rhinosinusitis” (EFRS, “eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis” (EMRS and mucosal invasion by hyphae in few patients have increased the problem to delineate the disease. Various hypotheses exist for etiopathogenesis of AFRS with considerable overlap, though recent extensive studies have made certain in depth understanding. The diagnosis of AFRS is a multi-disciplinary approach including the imaging, histopathology, mycology and immunological investigations. Though there is no uniform management protocol for AFRS, surgical clearing of the sinuses with steroid therapy are commonly practiced. The role of antifungal agents, leukotriene antagonists and immunomodulators is still questionable. The present review covers the controversies, recent advances in pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of AFRS.

  11. Remission of allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Linneberg, Allan

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis (AR) and sensitization are considered chronic conditions. However, few studies have reported remission rates in adults. OBJECTIVE: We sought to estimate the incidence of remission of AR during an 8-year period. METHODS: Participants in a population-based study of 15......- to 69-year-old patients in 1990 were invited to a follow-up in 1998. Questionnaires on respiratory symptoms and serum for specific IgE (s-IgE) analyses were collected at both visits in 734 subjects (69% of those invited). Pollen AR was defined as rhinitis symptoms on pollen exposure within the last 12...... months and s-IgE levels of class 2 or greater against pollen (birch, grass, or mugwort). This was similar for AR to animals (cat or dog) or house dust mites (HDMs). Remission of AR was defined as AR at baseline but no rhinitis symptoms at follow-up and sensitization (s-IgE level class > or =2 at baseline...

  12. Strikes in the public sector in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen; Ibsen, Flemming; Høgedahl, Laust

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at strikes by employees in the public sector, discusses the theoretical background to these conflicts and shows – based on a case study of three strikes in the Danish public sector – how different union strategies lead to very different outcomes in terms of economic gains......, while public sector unions trying to move up the wage hierarchy cannot expect much help from fellow public sector unions, often quite the reverse....

  13. Short Communication Reduced seabird night strikes and mortality in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birds killed were broad-billed prions Pachyptila vittata (41%), common diving petrels Pelecanoides urinatrix (23%), and storm petrels (Pelagodroma marina and Fregetta grallaria/tropica 36%). All these species are listed as Least Concern globally, and the numbers killed per year are <0.1% of the island populations.

  14. Effects of Hyeonggaeyeongyo-tang in ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Se Hyang; Kim, Soon Re; Choi, Han-Seok; Ku, Jin Mo; Seo, Hye Sook; Shin, Yong Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an allergic inflammation of the nasal airways. The prevalence of AR is increasing worldwide. We investigated whether Hyeonggaeyeongyo-tang (HYT) is effective to suppress the progression of AR induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Male BALB/c mice were used for this study. Allergic rhinitis was induced by OVA. Treatment with HYT was assessed to study the effect of HYT on allergic rhinitis in mice. Histological analysis, immunohistochemistry, multiplex cytokine assay, blood analysis, and cell viability assay were performed to verify inhibitory effect of HYT on allergic rhinitis. HYT did not show any toxicity maintaining body weight. Food intake was steady without variation in mice. HYT reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells and mast cells into nasal cavity. HYT reduced the levels of cytokines and leukocytes in the blood. HYT decreased the splenocyte cell viability. Antihistamines and steroids are the most common medications used to treat allergic rhinitis. However, long-term use of drug generates resistance or side effects requiring the development of new drug. Our present study clearly demonstrates that HYT suppresses the progression of allergic rhinitis induced by OVA. This suggests that HYT might be a useful drug for the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

  15. Effects of Hyeonggaeyeongyo-Tang in Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Rhinitis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Hyang Hong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis (AR is an allergic inflammation of the nasal airways. The prevalence of AR is increasing worldwide. We investigated whether Hyeonggaeyeongyo-tang (HYT is effective to suppress the progression of AR induced by ovalbumin (OVA. Male BALB/c mice were used for this study. Allergic rhinitis was induced by OVA. Treatment with HYT was assessed to study the effect of HYT on allergic rhinitis in mice. Histological analysis, immunohistochemistry, multiplex cytokine assay, blood analysis, and cell viability assay were performed to verify inhibitory effect of HYT on allergic rhinitis. HYT did not show any toxicity maintaining body weight. Food intake was steady without variation in mice. HYT reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells and mast cells into nasal cavity. HYT reduced the levels of cytokines and leukocytes in the blood. HYT decreased the splenocyte cell viability. Antihistamines and steroids are the most common medications used to treat allergic rhinitis. However, long-term use of drug generates resistance or side effects requiring the development of new drug. Our present study clearly demonstrates that HYT suppresses the progression of allergic rhinitis induced by OVA. This suggests that HYT might be a useful drug for the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

  16. Women, transition and strikes in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Nada G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author, in a sociological way, describes and analyzes the concepts of transition, privatization and strikes in Serbia, particularly the place of women in it. It examines the most important economic and social causes and consequences of these phenomena. The main hypothesis is: women's strikes in the Serbian transition are less efficient than strikes and public protests of women in the developed world and the second Yugoslavia. A strike is a class conflict, in which the workers are fighting for their social and economic rights, threatened by the capitalist class. Elites in government and state authorities protect the interests of big capital at the detriment of the interests of the majority of workers. Exploring women's strikes in transition reveals the nature of the social and political system. Their strikes in enterprises, the blocking of public spaces and public protests are systemic, ie. class determined. As the transition was very fast, the resistance of the strikers was inefficient, and the protests of women became an expression of desperation against the loss of jobs and basic resources for lifehood. In short, this research is about the main causes, the organizational forms and the consequences of strikes in which the majority were women. For this purpose, the author chose to describe an array of strikes in the industries and the companies where women are most employed. The choice of strikes in the economic sector is not accidental, but a consequence of the fact that the women there were the most vulnerable. Women in public institutions and companies had much higher financial and social position. They are less likely to strike and publicly protested. After 2000, these strikes were more successful than worker's strikes in textile, food processing, manufacturing and trade. Relationship between the government and the public towards them was tainted by self-interest and selective. The main criterion for the selection of companies and

  17. Trichuris suis ova therapy for allergic rhinitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Peter; Arnved, John; Rønborg, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic helminth infections can protect against allergic airway inflammation in experimental models and have been associated with a reduced risk of atopy and a reduced course of asthma in some observational studies. Although no clinical evidence exists to support the use of helminth therapy...... for allergic disease, the helminth Trichuris suis has demonstrated efficacy in treatment of inflammatory bowel disease....

  18. Nutrition and the allergic athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, L K

    1984-05-01

    Nutritional management of the allergic athlete centers around providing a diet adequate to meet the increased needs of the athlete at the same time that it is modified by the exclusion of any problematic foods. The athlete has an increased need for water, total energy, carbohydrate, B vitamins, and perhaps protein, the last two of which are usually met when the diet fulfills the energy requirements of the athlete. Requirements for electrolytes are minimally increased, and the need for additional iron is unclear in light of "sports anemia." There is no evidence to support the use of vitamins C and E as ergogenic aids; however, the findings relating vitamin C to bronchospasm and bronchial hyperreactivity are interesting. Caffeine and bee pollen, often believed to increase performance, may be harmful for the allergic athlete. An approach for determining the problematic foods for the allergic athlete and necessary supplementation when they are avoided is given.

  19. Active and recent strike-slip tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, Amos; Boccaletti, Mario

    An international workshop cosponsored by the Department of Geology, University of Florence, Italy and the Department of Geophysics, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., was held in Florence, Italy, April 18-20, 1989,on the topic of active and recent strike-slip tectonics in the continental crust. Workshop participants from Turkey, Ethiopia, Israel, Greece, and various universities in Italy, Spain, West Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Brazil, and the United States reported on a broad range of studies involving strike-slip faulting in continental crustal setting. As it turned out, much of the work reported on involved aspects of strike-slip faulting that are only poorly understood, especially crustal deformation, which is distributed over a multiplicity of faults, or even fault domains.One of the rewarding aspects of this workshop was the diversity of geographic areas and geological settings covered by the reporters. The north and east Anatolian faults, the Dead Sea transform zone, western Turkey, north and central Greece, Malta, Sicily, southern Italy, the bethic Cordillera in southern Spain, Tunisia, Tibet and southwest China, offshore Brazil, Alaska, Nevada, and California. A recurring observation reported for all those areas was mixed mode faulting, i.e., the coterminous or sequential occurrence of strike-slip and normal faulting, or strike-slip and thrust, and in many instances also strikeslip, normal and thrust faulting in a single tectonic setting.

  20. The allergic march | Weinberg | Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The allergic march is sometimes referred to as the 'atopic march'. The former term is preferred as it is easier to understand by parents and patients when used during consultations in allergy practice. The common atopic conditions such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema are allergic conditions that occur in families and ...

  1. Allergic Conjunctivitis | Vally | South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allergic conjunctivitis is a condition characterized by conjunctival inflammation caused by airborne allergens. The symptoms include: itching, excessive lacrimation, discharge, and conjunctival hyperaemia (pink eye). The disease usually affects young adults and is associated with other allergic conditions like allergic rhinitis, ...

  2. Role of leukotriene antagonists and antihistamines in the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobanoğlu, Bengü; Toskala, Elina; Ural, Ahmet; Cingi, Cemal

    2013-04-01

    Allergic rhinitis is the most common atopic disorder seen in ENT clinics. It is diagnosed by history, physical exam and objective testing. Patient education, environmental control measures, pharmacotherapy, and allergen-specific immunotherapy are the cornerstones of allergic rhinitis treatment and can significantly reduce the burden of disease. Current treatment guidelines include antihistamines, intranasal corticosteroids, oral and intranasal decongestants, intranasal anticholinergics, intranasal cromolyn, and leukotriene receptor antagonists. In the mechanism of allergic rhinitis, histamine is responsible for major allergic rhinitis symptoms such as rhinorrhea, nasal itching and sneezing. Its effect on nasal congestion is less evident. In contrast, leukotrienes result in increase in nasal airway resistance and vascular permeability. Antihistamines and leukotriene receptor antagonists are commonly used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. The published literature about combined antihistamines and leukotriene antagonists in mono- or combination therapy is reviewed and presented.

  3. ELMs, strike point jumps and SOL currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano, Emilia R.; Jachmich, S.; Villone, F.; Hawkes, N.; Guenther, K.; Korotkov, A.; Stamp, M.; Andrew, P.; Conboy, J.; Mattews, G.F.; Corre, Y.; Loarte, A.; Pitts, R.A.; Cenedese, A.; Kempenaars, M.; Bolzonella, T.; Rachlew, E.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma equilibria before and after ELMs in JET are investigated. ELMs could be associated with fragile equilibria and separatrix instabilities: previously closed field lines would open up, releasing plasma current and leading to the formation of a new, smaller separatrix. This model could explain experimental observations of sudden jumps and shifts in strike point positions. Novel instability mechanisms are discussed to explain the large transient jumps observed in the strike point position: positive X-point instability, due to positive toroidal current density at the X-point and diamagnetic instability, due to negative inboard toroidal current density. (author)

  4. Strikes, solidarity and scabs. Union members participation norms and williengness to participate in strikes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, A.; Born, M.; Torenvlied, R.

    2013-01-01

    This article studies how participation norms affect workers' willingness to strike. A factor analysis on the responses of 468 Dutch union members about appropriate behavior during a strike produces two factors. The first factor reflects a "solidarity norm" favoring group solidarity; the second

  5. Tyrosol Suppresses Allergic Inflammation by Inhibiting the Activation of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase in Mast Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Gyu Je

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis, rhinitis, asthma, and anaphylaxis are attractive research areas. Tyrosol (2-(4-hydroxyphenylethanol is a polyphenolic compound with diverse biological activities. In this study, we investigated whether tyrosol has anti-allergic inflammatory effects. Ovalbumin-induced active systemic anaphylaxis and immunoglobulin E-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis models were used for the immediate-type allergic responses. Oral administration of tyrosol reduced the allergic symptoms of hypothermia and pigmentation in both animal models. Mast cells that secrete allergic mediators are key regulators on allergic inflammation. Tyrosol dose-dependently decreased mast cell degranulation and expression of inflammatory cytokines. Intracellular calcium levels and activation of inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK regulate cytokine expression and degranulation. Tyrosol blocked calcium influx and phosphorylation of the IKK complex. To define the molecular target for tyrosol, various signaling proteins involved in mast cell activation such as Lyn, Syk, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K, and Akt were examined. Our results showed that PI3K could be a molecular target for tyrosol in mast cells. Taken together, these findings indicated that tyrosol has anti-allergic inflammatory effects by inhibiting the degranulation of mast cells and expression of inflammatory cytokines; these effects are mediated via PI3K. Therefore, we expect tyrosol become a potential therapeutic candidate for allergic inflammatory disorders.

  6. Allergic diseases among children: nutritional prevention and intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendaus MA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed A Hendaus,1,2 Fatima A Jomha,3 Mohammad Ehlayel2,4 1Department of Pediatrics, Section of Academic General Pediatrics, Hamad Medical Corporation, 2Weill Cornell Medical College, Doha, Qatar; 3School of Pharmacy, Lebanese International University, Khiara, Lebanon; 4Department of Pediatrics, Section of Pediatric Allergy-Immunology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Abstract: Allergic diseases comprise a genetically heterogeneous group of chronic, immunomediated diseases. It has been clearly reported that the prevalence of these diseases has been on the rise for the last few decades, but at different rates, in various areas of the world. This paper discusses the epidemiology of allergic diseases among children and their negative impact on affected patients, their families, and societies. These effects include the adverse effects on quality of life and economic costs. Medical interest has shifted from tertiary or secondary prevention to primary prevention of these chronic diseases among high-risk infants in early life. Being simple, practical, and cost-effective are mandatory features for any candidate methods delivering these strategies. Dietary therapy fits this model well, as it is simple, practical, and cost-effective, and involves diverse methods. The highest priority strategy is feeding these infants breast milk. For those who are not breast-fed, there should be a strategy to maintain beneficial gut flora that positively influences intestinal immunity. We review the current use of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics, and safety and adverse effects. Other dietary modalities of possible potential in achieving this primary prevention, such as a Mediterranean diet, use of milk formula with modified (hydrolyzed proteins, and the role of micronutrients, are also explored. Breast-feeding is effective in reducing the risk of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic eczema among children. In addition, breast milk constitutes a major source

  7. Rhinophototherapy in persistent allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, Zsolt; Kiricsi, Ágnes; Viharosné, Éva Dósa-Rácz; Dallos, Attila; Perényi, Ádám; Kiss, Mária; Koreck, Andrea; Kemény, Lajos; Jóri, József; Rovó, László; Kadocsa, Edit

    2017-03-01

    Previous published results have revealed that Rhinolight ® intranasal phototherapy is safe and effective in intermittent allergic rhinitis. The present objective was to assess whether phototherapy is also safe and effective in persistent allergic rhinitis. Thirty-four patients with persistent allergic rhinitis were randomized into two groups; twenty-five subjects completed the study. The Rhinolight ® group was treated with a combination of UV-B, UV-A, and high-intensity visible light, while the placebo group received low-intensity visible white light intranasal phototherapy on a total of 13 occasions in 6 weeks. The assessment was based on the diary of symptoms, nasal inspiratory peak flow, quantitative smell threshold, mucociliary transport function, and ICAM-1 expression of the epithelial cells. All nasal symptom scores and nasal inspiratory peak flow measurements improved significantly in the Rhinolight ® group relative to the placebo group and this finding persisted after 4 weeks of follow-up. The smell and mucociliary functions did not change significantly in either group. The number of ICAM-1 positive cells decreased non-significantly in the Rhinolight ® group. No severe side-effects were reported during the treatment period. These results suggest that Rhinolight ® treatment is safe and effective in persistent allergic rhinitis.

  8. Arginine homeostasis in allergic asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarsingh, Harm; Zaagsma, Johan; Meurs, Herman

    2008-01-01

    Allergic asthma is a chronic disease characterized by early and late asthmatic reactions, airway hyperresponsiveness, airway inflammation and airway remodelling. Changes in L-arginine homeostasis may contribute to all these features of asthma by decreased nitric oxide (NO) production and increased

  9. DIAGNOSIS & MANAGEMENT OF ALLERGIC FUNGAL SINUSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syam Manohar Gadhamsetty

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic sinusitis is one of the common diagnosis in ENT practice. Allergic fungal sinusitis is a clinical entity with characteristic clinical, radiographic and histopathological findings. Allergic fungal sinusitis and eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis can easily be misdiagnosed. AIM OF STUDY A prospective clinical study of allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis to use diagnostic criteria to confirm the disease with Radiological, Pathological & Microbiological investigations and their management. MATERIALS & METHODS A prospective study of allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis in 2 years from November 2011 to October 2013. Among the patients who attended the ENT OPD during this period, 21 patients with symptoms and signs suggestive of Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis are selected.

  10. Anthropogenic Climate Change and Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hueiwang Anna Jeng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to have an impact on various aspects of health, including mucosal areas involved in allergic inflammatory disorders that include asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis and anaphylaxis. The evidence that links climate change to the exacerbation and the development of allergic disease is increasing and appears to be linked to changes in pollen seasons (duration, onset and intensity and changes in allergen content of plants and their pollen as it relates to increased sensitization, allergenicity and exacerbations of allergic airway disease. This has significant implications for air quality and for the global food supply.

  11. Simulating the Risk of Bird Strikes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, I.C.; Ellerbroek, J.; Muhlhausen, Thorsten; Kügler, D.; Hoekstra, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a fast-time simulation environment for assessing the risk of bird strikes in aviation. An existing air traffic simulator was enhanced in order to simulate air and bird traffic simultaneously and to recognize collisions between birds and aircraft. Furthermore, a method was

  12. The Front Line: No Strikes, Just Balls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unks, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Recent actions of British teachers suggest an alternative to the teacher strike. Those teachers dramatically demonstrated their grievances by withholding the voluntary extra services they customarily perform. American teachers could accomplish the same end by collectively refusing to perform extraneous administrative services: collecting money,…

  13. When Lightning Strikes a Second Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kent

    2017-01-01

    The chances of lightning striking twice are infinitesimal, at best. What are the odds, in middle age, of being struck with a jarring bolt of figurative lightning, then a few months later being an eyewitness as the same sizzle in the sky jolts a group of students--those decision-makers of tomorrow? The author describes two experiences that proved…

  14. Impact of lightning strikes on hospital functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortelmans, Luc J M; Van Springel, Gert L J; Van Boxstael, Sam; Herrijgers, Jan; Hoflacks, Stefaan

    2009-01-01

    Two regional hospitals were struck by lightning during a one-month period. The first hospital, which had 236 beds, suffered a direct strike to the building. This resulted in a direct spread of the power peak and temporary failure of the standard power supply. The principle problems, after restoring standard power supply, were with the fire alarm system and peripheral network connections in the digital radiology systems. No direct impact on the hardware could be found. Restarting the servers resolved all problems. The second hospital, which had 436 beds, had a lightning strike on the premises and mainly experienced problems due to induction. All affected installations had a cable connection from outside in one way or another. The power supplies never were endangered. The main problem was the failure of different communication systems (telephone, radio, intercom, fire alarm system). Also, the electronic entrance control went out. During the days after the lightening strike, multiple software problems became apparent, as well as failures of the network connections controlling the technical support systems. There are very few ways to prepare for induction problems. The use of fiber-optic networks can limit damage. To the knowledge of the authors, these are the first cases of lightning striking hospitals in medical literature.

  15. Clinical practice guideline: Allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Michael D; Gurgel, Richard K; Lin, Sandra Y; Schwartz, Seth R; Baroody, Fuad M; Bonner, James R; Dawson, Douglas E; Dykewicz, Mark S; Hackell, Jesse M; Han, Joseph K; Ishman, Stacey L; Krouse, Helene J; Malekzadeh, Sonya; Mims, James Whit W; Omole, Folashade S; Reddy, William D; Wallace, Dana V; Walsh, Sandra A; Warren, Barbara E; Wilson, Meghan N; Nnacheta, Lorraine C

    2015-02-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is one of the most common diseases affecting adults. It is the most common chronic disease in children in the United States today and the fifth most common chronic disease in the United States overall. AR is estimated to affect nearly 1 in every 6 Americans and generates $2 to $5 billion in direct health expenditures annually. It can impair quality of life and, through loss of work and school attendance, is responsible for as much as $2 to $4 billion in lost productivity annually. Not surprisingly, myriad diagnostic tests and treatments are used in managing this disorder, yet there is considerable variation in their use. This clinical practice guideline was undertaken to optimize the care of patients with AR by addressing quality improvement opportunities through an evaluation of the available evidence and an assessment of the harm-benefit balance of various diagnostic and management options. The primary purpose of this guideline is to address quality improvement opportunities for all clinicians, in any setting, who are likely to manage patients with AR as well as to optimize patient care, promote effective diagnosis and therapy, and reduce harmful or unnecessary variations in care. The guideline is intended to be applicable for both pediatric and adult patients with AR. Children under the age of 2 years were excluded from the clinical practice guideline because rhinitis in this population may be different than in older patients and is not informed by the same evidence base. The guideline is intended to focus on a limited number of quality improvement opportunities deemed most important by the working group and is not intended to be a comprehensive reference for diagnosing and managing AR. The recommendations outlined in the guideline are not intended to represent the standard of care for patient management, nor are the recommendations intended to limit treatment or care provided to individual patients. The development group made a strong

  16. [Management of the hunger strike in prison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayeulle, Stéphanie; Renou, Frédéric; Protais, Emmanuel; Hédouin, Valéry; Wartel, Guillaume; Yvin, Jean-Luc

    2010-10-01

    Entering prison can feed pre-existent behavior of demands or generate them. Several means of expression are then used. Hunger strike is an average privileged act. It belongs to prison culture. Estimate how practitioners working in prison take care of the hunger strikers. The study, realised in 2008, was led with all the Units of Consultations and Ambulatory Care in France. It is a declarative investigation where a medical testimony by unit was asked. From 174 "maisons d'arrêt" and establishments for punishment in France, 95 answers were obtained. This situation was already seen by 98,8% of the doctors. The motives for hunger strike were mainly judicial for "maisons d'arrêt" (70,1%) and prison motives for detention centers (68,7%). Mainly, doctors opted for a neutral attitude (63% of the cases). The hunger strikes were mostly brief (less than a week in 85% of the cases). Only 5,5% of the doctors proposed written information concerning the risks incurred during a fast. A doctor in 4 approximately (23%) was already witness to complications due to fasting. The fact that a patient may refuse care makes the medical approach difficult. Faced with such a situation, 45% of the doctors privileged their duty of care, 28% respected the patient's wishes, and 27% did not pronounce. From a therapeutic point of view, the place of treatment using vitamins was rarely recognized (32,7%). Hunger strike is rarely severe, but it is rather frequent in prison so that every doctor working there will be confronted with it. The refeeding syndrome seems often ignored. The coverage of hunger strike is governed by the law, but ethical questions stay in the appreciation of every doctor. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Pets and the development of allergic sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Angela; Custovic, Adnan

    2005-05-01

    Sensitization to pets remains a risk factor for asthma and rhinitis, and can occur in people who have never lived with a pet. Several reports have indicated that living with a pet reduces the risk for becoming sensitized to that pet. Having a pet in the home gives exposure to more than just allergens. In areas with high frequency of pet ownership, community exposure to pet allergens is almost certainly sufficient to induce sensitization among non-pet owners. In this review, we examine the results of recent studies that have investigated the relationship between pet ownership, specific sensitization to that pet, and allergic sensitization in general. For cat ownership, the results are inconsistent between studies of similar design, with some studies suggesting an increase in risk and others a decrease among cat owners. For dogs, results are more consistent, generally suggesting that owning a dog has no effect or indeed may be protective against the development of specific sensitization to dog and allergic sensitization in general.

  18. Prenatal, perinatal, and childhood vitamin D exposure and their association with childhood allergic rhinitis and allergic sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyavanich, Supinda; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Platts-Mills, Thomas A; Workman, Lisa; Sordillo, Joanne E; Camargo, Carlos A; Gillman, Matthew W; Gold, Diane R; Litonjua, Augusto A

    2016-04-01

    The role of early-life vitamin D in childhood allergy is controversial. We sought to assess vitamin D exposure in early life by multiple modalities and ascertain its association with childhood allergic rhinitis and allergic sensitization. One thousand two hundred forty-eight mother-child pairs from a US prebirth cohort unselected for any disease were studied. Vitamin D exposure was assessed by measures of maternal intake during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels in mothers during pregnancy, cord blood, and children at school age (median age, 7.7 years; interquartile range, 1.0 years). Tests for associations between vitamin D exposure with ever allergic rhinitis, serum total IgE level, and allergen sensitization at school age were conducted. The correlations between maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy and serum 25(OH)D levels in pregnant mothers, cord blood, and children at school age were weak to moderate (r = -0.03 to 0.53). Each 100 IU/d of food-based vitamin D intake during the first and second trimesters (equivalent to the amount of vitamin D in an 8-ounce serving of milk) was associated with 21% and 20% reduced odds of ever allergic rhinitis at school age (odds ratios of 0.79 [95% CI, 0.67-0.92] and 0.80 [95% CI, 0.68-0.93]), respectively. There were no associations between maternal supplemental vitamin D intake or serum 25(OH)D levels at any time point with ever allergic rhinitis. There were no associations between any vitamin D exposure and serum total IgE level or allergen sensitization at school age. Inclusion of foods containing vitamin D in maternal diets during pregnancy may have beneficial effects on childhood allergic rhinitis. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Anti-allergic properties of the bromeliaceae Nidularium procerum: inhibition of eosinophil activation and influx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-de-Abreu, Adriana; Amendoeira, Fábio C; Gomes, Gleice S; Zanon, Cristiane; Chedier, Luciana M; Figueiredo, Maria Raquel; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C; Frutuoso, Válber S; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo C; Weller, Peter F; Bandeira-Melo, Christianne; Bozza, Patrícia T

    2005-12-01

    New therapeutic approaches for the treatment of allergic diseases can be aided by the development of agents capable of regulating eosinophilic leukocytes. Here, we evaluated the anti-allergic properties of a crude extract of the Brazilian bromeliaceae Nidularium procerum, focusing on its effects on allergic eosinophilia. By studying allergic pleurisy in actively sensitized C57Bl/6 mice, we observed that pretreatment with N. procerum (2 mg/kg; i.p.) reduced pleural eosinophil influx triggered by allergen challenge. N. procerum was also able to reduce lipid body numbers found within infiltrating eosinophils, indicating that N. procerum in vivo is able to affect both migration and activation of eosinophils. Consistently, pretreatment with N. procerum blocked pleural eosinophil influx triggered by PAF or eotaxin, key mediators of the development of allergic pleural eosinophilia. The effect of N. procerum was not restricted to eosinophils, since N. procerum also inhibited pleural neutrophil and mononuclear cell influx. Of note, N. procerum failed to alter the acute allergic reaction, characterized by mast cell degranulation, oedema, and cysteinyl leukotriene release. N. procerum also had direct effects on murine eosinophils, since it inhibited both PAF- and eotaxin-induced eosinophil chemotaxis on an in vitro chemotactic assay. Therefore, N. procerum may be a promising anti-allergic therapy, inasmuch as it presents potent anti-eosinophil activity.

  20. Sulfatide-activated type II NKT cells prevent allergic airway inflammation by inhibiting type I NKT cell function in a mouse model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guqin; Nie, Hanxiang; Yang, Jiong; Ding, Xuhong; Huang, Yi; Yu, Hongying; Li, Ruyou; Yuan, Zhuqing; Hu, Suping

    2011-12-01

    Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory disease involving many different cell types. Recently, type I natural killer T (NKT) cells have been demonstrated to play a crucial role in the development of asthma. However, the roles of type II NKT cells in asthma have not been investigated before. Interestingly, type I and type II NKT cells have been shown to have opposing roles in antitumor immunity, antiparasite immunity, and autoimmunity. We hypothesized that sulfatide-activated type II NKT cells could prevent allergic airway inflammation by inhibiting type I NKT cell function in asthma. Strikingly, in our mouse model, activation of type II NKT cells by sulfatide administration and adoptive transfer of sulfatide-activated type II NKT cells result in reduced-inflammation cell infiltration in the lung and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, decreased levels of IL-4 and IL-5 in the BALF; and decreased serum levels of ovalbumin-specific IgE and IgG1. Furthermore, it is found that the activation of sulfatide-reactive type II NKT cells leads to the functional inactivation of type I NKT cells, including the proliferation and cytokine secretion. Our data reveal that type II NKT cells activated by glycolipids, such as sulfatide, may serve as a novel approach to treat allergic diseases and other disorders characterized by inappropriate type I NKT cell activation.

  1. Japanese Guideline for Allergic Conjunctival Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuko Takamura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The definition, classification, pathogenesis, test methods, clinical findings, criteria for diagnosis, and therapies of allergic conjunctival disease are summarized based on the Guidelines for Clinical Management of Allergic Conjunctival Disease (Second Edition revised in 2010. Allergic conjunctival disease is defined as “a conjunctival inflammatory disease associated with a Type I allergy accompanied by some subjective or objective symptoms.” Allergic conjunctival disease is classified into allergic conjunctivitis, atopic keratoconjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and giant papillary conjunctivitis. Representative subjective symptoms include ocular itching, hyperemia, and lacrimation, whereas objective symptoms include conjunctival hyperemia, swelling, folliculosis, and papillae. Patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis, which is characterized by conjunctival proliferative changes called giant papilla accompanied by varying extents of corneal lesion, such as corneal erosion and shield ulcer, complain of foreign body sensation, ocular pain, and photophobia. In the diagnosis of allergic conjunctival diseases, it is required that type I allergic diathesis is present, along with subjective and objective symptoms accompanying allergic inflammation. The diagnosis is ensured by proving a type I allergic reaction in the conjunctiva. Given that the first-line drug for the treatment of allergic conjunctival disease is an antiallergic eye drop, a steroid eye drop will be selected in accordance with the severity. In the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis, an immunosuppressive eye drop will be concomitantly used with the abovementioned drugs.

  2. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent impaired social behaviour and prefrontal dopamine metabolism in food allergic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Theije, C.G.M.; Van Den Elsen, L.W.J.; Willemsen, L.E.M.; Milosevic, V.; Lopes Da Silva, S.; Olivier, B.; Garssen, J.; Korte, S.M.; Kraneveld, A.D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is suggested that allergic immune activation, combined with a genetic predisposition, may contribute to the expression of aberrant social behaviour relevant to autism. We have previously shown that a food allergic response reduced social behaviour in mice, which was associated with

  3. Nasal saline or intranasal corticosteroids to treat allergic rhinitis in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Stefani; Brown, Elizabeth Aubrey; Franklin, Rachel; Wickersham, Elizabeth A.; McCarthy, Laine H.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical Question In pediatric populations, is nasal saline irrigation as effective as intranasal corticosteroids at relieving allergic rhinitis symptoms? Answer No. Intranasal steroids are more effective than nasal saline alone to reduce symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR) in children. Combination therapy further improves symptom reduction. Level of Evidence for the Answer B Search Terms Allergic Rhinitis, Nasal Saline, Nasal corticosteroids, children younger than age 18. Date Search Was Conducted August and September 2014, October 2015. Inclusion Criteria Meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, cohort studies, nasal spray, hypertonic saline solution, nasal lavage, rhinitis, intranasal administration, nasal saline, human, English language. Exclusion Criteria Antihistamines, Adults, Articles older than 2008 PMID:27328556

  4. Clinical Question: Nasal saline or intranasal corticosteroids to treat allergic rhinitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Stefani; Brown, Elizabeth Aubrey; Franklin, Rachel; Wickersham, Elizabeth A; McCarthy, Laine H

    2016-01-01

    In pediatric populations, is nasal saline irrigation as effective as intranasal corticosteroids at relieving allergic rhinitis symptoms? No. Intranasal steroids are more effective than nasal saline alone to reduce symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR) in children. Combination therapy further improves symptom reduction. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE FOR THE ANSWER: B SEARCH TERMS: Allergic Rhinitis, Nasal Saline, Nasal corticosteroids, children younger than age 18. DATE SEARCH WAS CONDUCTED: August and September 2014, October 2015. Meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, cohort studies, nasal spray, hypertonic saline solution, nasal lavage, rhinitis, intranasal administration, nasal saline, human, English language. Antihistamines, Adults, Articles older than 2008.

  5. ["Bell-striking" Saying of Acupuncture Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-Sheng

    2017-04-25

    As an analogy, a prototype of "bell-striking" is proposed in the present paper for exploring the basic properties, major elements, and potential mechanisms of acupuncture stimulation. On the strength of analysis on the physiological basis of acupuncture effect, several fundamental aspects of acupuncture are summarized as a) the body-surface stimulating characters, b) general and local effects, and c) triggering the auto-regulative function of the organism, which mimics the "bell-striking" response. Namely, when stroke, bell will chime, otherwise, chiming will not be heard. During analyzing special contents of acupuncture theory, its formative background should not be separated, and it is improper to take, modern medical theory of the human body as the guiding thinking way for researching the ancient Chinese medical literature.

  6. Central hyperadrenergic state after lightning strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsaik, Ajay K; Ahlskog, J Eric; Singer, Wolfgang; Gelfman, Russell; Sheldon, Seth H; Seime, Richard J; Craft, Jennifer M; Staab, Jeffrey P; Kantor, Birgit; Low, Phillip A

    2013-08-01

    To describe and review autonomic complications of lightning strike. Case report and laboratory data including autonomic function tests in a subject who was struck by lightning. A 24-year-old man was struck by lightning. Following that, he developed dysautonomia, with persistent inappropriate sinus tachycardia and autonomic storms, as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and functional neurologic problems. The combination of persistent sinus tachycardia and episodic exacerbations associated with hypertension, diaphoresis, and agitation was highly suggestive of a central hyperadrenergic state with superimposed autonomic storms. Whether the additional PTSD and functional neurologic deficits were due to a direct effect of the lightning strike on the central nervous system or a secondary response is open to speculation.

  7. Allergic and non-allergic rhinitis: relationship with nasal polyposis, asthma and family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelardi, M; Iannuzzi, L; Tafuri, S; Passalacqua, G; Quaranta, N

    2014-02-01

    Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis (with/without polyposis), either allergic or non-allergic, represent a major medical problem. Their associated comorbidities and relationship with family history have so far been poorly investigated. We assessed these aspects in a large population of patients suffering from rhinosinusal diseases. Clinical history, nasal cytology, allergy testing and direct nasal examination were performed in all patients referred for rhinitis/rhinosinusitis. Fibre optic nasal endoscopy, CT scan and nasal challenge were used for diagnosis, when indicated. A total of 455 patients (60.7% male, age range 4-84 years) were studied; 108 (23.7%) had allergic rhinitis, 128 (28.1%) rhinosinusitis with polyposis, 107 (23.5%) non-allergic rhinitis (negative skin test); 112 patients had associated allergic and non-allergic rhinitis, the majority with eosinophilia. There was a significant association between non-allergic rhinitis and family history of nasal polyposis (OR = 4.45; 95%CI = 1.70-11.61; p = 0.0019), whereas this association was no longer present when allergic rhinitis was also included. Asthma was equally frequent in non-allergic and allergic rhinitis, but more frequent in patients with polyposis. Aspirin sensitivity was more frequent in nasal polyposis, independent of the allergic (p = 0.03) or non-allergic (p = 0.01) nature of rhinitis. Nasal polyposis is significantly associated with asthma and positive family history of asthma, partially independent of the allergic aetiology of rhinitis.

  8. Improving work conditions through strike: Examination of nurses' attitudes through perceptions of two physician strikes in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafni-Lachter, Liat; Admi, Hanna; Eilon, Yael; Lachter, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    Strikes are means to influence policies related to working conditions, yet raise ethical dilemmas for healthcare workers. Nurse strikes have become more prominent around the world. To assess the change in Israeli nurses' attitudes towards strikes in light of two physician strikes that have preceded a nursing strike. An anonymous survey was administered once in 2000 (N = 106) and again in 2011 (n = 175) following 110 days of a physician strike, to assess nurses' attitudes towards the strike and resulting ethical issues. A statistically significant change (p working conditions related to professional and public health agendas.

  9. Allergic reactions in red tattoos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutton Carlsen, K; Køcks, M; Sepehri, M

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of Raman spectroscopy as a screening technique for chemical characterisation of tattoo pigments in pathologic reacting tattoos and tattoo ink stock products to depict unsafe pigments and metabolites of pigments. MATERIALS/METHODS: Twelve...... to be feasible for chemical analysis of red pigments in allergic reactions. Raman spectroscopy has a major potential for fingerprint screening of problematic tattoo pigments in situ in skin, ex vivo in skin biopsies and in tattoo ink stock products, thus, to eliminate unsafe ink products from markets....... dermatome shave biopsies from allergic reactions in red tattoos were analysed with Raman spectroscopy (A 785-nm 300 mW diode laser). These were referenced to samples of 10 different standard tattoo ink stock products, three of these identified as the culprit inks used by the tattooist and thus by history...

  10. Stress distribution of metatarsals during forefoot strike versus rearfoot strike: A finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shudong; Zhang, Yan; Gu, Yaodong; Ren, James

    2017-12-01

    Due to the limitations of experimental approaches, comparison of the internal deformation and stresses of the human man foot between forefoot and rearfoot landing is not fully established. The objective of this work is to develop an effective FE modelling approach to comparatively study the stresses and energy in the foot during forefoot strike (FS) and rearfoot strike (RS). The stress level and rate of stress increase in the Metatarsals are established and the injury risk between these two landing styles is evaluated and discussed. A detailed subject specific FE foot model is developed and validated. A hexahedral dominated meshing scheme was applied on the surface of the foot bones and skin. An explicit solver (Abaqus/Explicit) was used to stimulate the transient landing process. The deformation and internal energy of the foot and stresses in the metatarsals are comparatively investigated. The results for forefoot strike tests showed an overall higher average stress level in the metatarsals during the entire landing cycle than that for rearfoot strike. The increase rate of the metatarsal stress from the 0.5 body weight (BW) to 2 BW load point is 30.76% for forefoot strike and 21.39% for rearfoot strike. The maximum rate of stress increase among the five metatarsals is observed on the 1st metatarsal in both landing modes. The results indicate that high stress level during forefoot landing phase may increase potential of metatarsal injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Allergic Respiratory Inflammation and Remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Kawa

    2015-01-01

    Asthma and rhinitis are inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract. Respiratory inflammation of the adaptive and innate immune system is the focus of this review, and chronic inflammation is not limited to the respiratory tissue. The inflammatory response, which consists of phagocytes, eosinophils, mast cells, and lymphocytes, spreads along the respiratory tract, leading to tissue damage. Mast cells and eosinophils are commonly recognized for their detrimental role in allergic reactions o...

  12. Tartrazine exclusion for allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardern, K D; Ram, F S

    2001-01-01

    Tartrazine is the best known and one of the most commonly used food additives. Food colorants are also used in many medications as well as foods. There has been conflicting evidence as to whether tartrazine causes exacerbations of asthma with some studies finding a positive association especially in individuals with cross-sensitivity to aspirin. To assess the overall effect of tartrazine (exclusion or challenge) in the management of asthma. A search was carried out using the Cochrane Airways Group specialised register. Bibliographies of each RCT was searched for additional papers. Authors of identified RCTs were contacted for further information for their trials and details of other studies. RCTs of oral administration of tartrazine (as a challenge) versus placebo or dietary avoidance of tartrazine versus normal diet were considered. Studies which focused upon allergic asthma, were also included. Studies of tartrazine exclusion for other allergic conditions such as hay fever, allergic rhinitis and eczema were only considered if the results for subjects with asthma were separately identified. Trials could be in either adults or children with asthma or allergic asthma (e.g. sensitivity to aspirin or food items known to contain tartrazine). Study quality was assessed and data abstracted by two reviewers independently. Outcomes were analysed using RevMan 4.1.1. Ninety abstracts were found, of which 18 were potentially relevant. Six met the inclusion criteria, but only three presented results in a format that permitted analysis and none could be combined in a meta-analysis. In none of the studies did tartrazine challenge or avoidance in diet significantly alter asthma outcomes. Due to the paucity of available evidence, it is not possible to provide firm conclusions as to the effects of tartrazine on asthma control. However, the six RCTs that could be included in this review all arrived at the same conclusion. Routine tartrazine exclusion may not benefit most patients

  13. Tryptophan Metabolism in Allergic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostner, Johanna M.; Becker, Katrin; Kofler, Heinz; Strasser, Barbara; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2017-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis, as well the early phase of atopic dermatitis, are characterized by a Th2-skewed immune environment. Th2-type cytokines are upregulated in allergic inflammation, whereas there is downregulation of the Th1-type immune response and related cytokines, such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ). The latter is a strong inducer of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1), which degrades the essential amino acid tryptophan, as part of an antiproliferative strategy of immunocompetent cells to halt the growth of infected and malignant cells, and also of T cells – an immunoregulatory intervention to avoid overactivation of the immune system. Raised serum tryptophan concentrations have been reported in patients with pollen allergy compared to healthy blood donors. Moreover, higher baseline tryptophan concentrations have been associated with a poor response to specific immunotherapy. It has been shown that the increase in tryptophan concentrations in patients with pollen allergy only exists outside the pollen season, and not during the season. Interestingly, there is only a minor alteration of the kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (Kyn/Trp, an index of tryptophan breakdown). The reason for the higher tryptophan concentrations in patients with pollen allergy outside the season remains a matter of discussion. To this regard, the specific interaction of nitric oxide (NO˙) with the tryptophan-degrading enzyme IDO-1 could be important, because an enhanced formation of NO˙ has been reported in patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis. Importantly, NO˙ suppresses the activity of the heme enzyme IDO-1, which could explain the higher tryptophan levels. Thus, inhibitors of inducible NO˙ synthase should be reconsidered as candidates for antiallergic therapy out of season that may abrogate the arrest of IDO-1 by decreasing the production of NO˙. Considering its association with the pathophysiology of atopic disease, tryptophan metabolism may play a

  14. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Roberts, Graham

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the Management of Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AI...... appraised using established instruments. Data will be descriptively and, if possible and appropriate, quantitatively synthesised. CONCLUSION: The findings from this review will be used to inform the development of recommendations for EAACI's Guidelines on AIT....

  15. Early protective and risk factors for allergic rhinitis at age 4½ yr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Bernt; Goksör, Emma; Thengilsdottir, Hrefna; Pettersson, Rolf; Möllborg, Per; Norvenius, Gunnar; Erdes, Laslo; Aberg, Nils; Wennergren, Göran

    2011-06-01

    Allergic heredity plays a major role in the development of allergic rhinitis. In addition the introduction of food may influence the risk of subsequent allergic disease. The aim of this study was to analyse early risk factors and protective factors for allergic rhinitis at preschool age. Data were obtained from a prospective, longitudinal study of a cohort of children born in the region of western Sweden in 2003 and 8,176 families (50% of the birth cohort) were randomly selected. The parents answered questionnaires at 6 and 12 months and at 4½ yr of age. The response rate at 4½ yr was 4,496, i.e. 83% of the 5,398 questionnaires distributed at 4½ yr. At 4½ yr of age, 5.5% reported symptoms of allergic rhinitis during the last year. In the multivariate analysis, independent risk factors for allergic rhinitis were: allergic sensitisation to food allergens at 4½ yr (OR 10.21; 95% confidence interval 4.22-24.73), recurrent wheeze at 4½ yr (3.33; 1.56-7.10), doctor-diagnosed eczema at 4½ yr (2.72; 1.62-4.55), parental rhinitis (2.21; 1.39-3.53), eczema first year (1.97; 1.19-3.26) and male gender (1.82; 1.13-2.94). The risk was reduced with fish introduction before 9 months (0.49; 0.29-0.82). In conclusion, we found that previous and present allergic disease, heredity and male gender increased the risk of allergic rhinitis at 4½ yr of age. The introduction of fish before the age of 9 months reduced the risk. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Modern opportunities of therapeutic treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Maychuk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available H1‑receptor antagonists are drugs of choice to treat allergy. They work very fast as their therapeutic effect develops within 10‑15 min, have good tolerability and almost no adverse side-effects, and require no frequent instillations. Levocabastine quickly inhibits allergic reaction caused by specific allergen or histamine. Levocabastine while being a highly-selective H1‑receptor antagonist is the most perspective topical mono-drug used to treat acute allergic conjunctivitis. Levocabastine applied on a spot produces instant effect which persists for a long time so that instillations twice a day (BID are enough. Levocabastine is more effective than other 15 antihistamines. In contrast to previous antihistamines, levocabastine blocks vasodilatation and reduces vascular permeability increase. Levocabastine eye drops have good tolerability comparable with cromoglicic acid eye drops and placebo. Levocabas tine is successfully used in allergic conjunctivitis (pollinosis, perennial, vernal, rhinoconjunctivitis treatment in children. Its efficacy is the same or even higher than that of cromoglycate and azelastine. 20 clinical studies (more than 1200 patients revealed that levocabastine eye drops are effective, work quickly and have good tolerability. This drug is efficient in allergic conjunctivitis treatment and acute infectious conjunctivitis complex therapy. 

  17. Immunotherapy of allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2011-08-01

    The term 'immunotherapy' refers to treating diseases by inducing, enhancing or suppressing immune responses. As allergy is an excessive, detrimental immune reaction to otherwise harmless environmental substances, immunotherapy of allergic disease is aimed at the induction of tolerance toward sensitizing antigens. This article focuses on the historical developments, present state and future outlook for immunotherapy with haptens as a therapeutic modality for allergic contact dermatitis. Inspired by the effectiveness of immunotherapy in respiratory allergies, attempts were undertaken at curing allergic contact dermatitis by means of controlled administration of the sensitizing haptens. Animal and human experiments confirmed that tolerance to haptens can be induced most effectively when the induction of tolerance precedes attempted sensitization. In real life, however, therapy is sought by people who are already sensitized and an effective reversal of hypersensitivity seems more difficult to achieve. Decades of research on Rhus hypersensitivity led to a conclusion that immunotherapy can suppress Rhus dermatitis, however, only to a limited degree, for a short period of time, and at a high risk of side effects, which makes this method therapeutically unprofitable. Methodological problems with most available studies of immunotherapy of contact allergy to nickel make any definite conclusions impossible at this stage.

  18. Indoor air and allergic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunkel, G.; Rudolph, R.; Muckelmann, R.

    1982-01-01

    Allergies may be the source of a variety of clinical symptoms. With regard to indoor air, however, the subject will be limited to inhalative allergies. These are diseases which are caused and supported by allergens entering the human organism via the respiratory pathway. The fundamentals of the origin of inhalative allergies are briefly discussed as well as the antigen-antibody reaction and the differentiation between different allergic reactions (Types I and II). In addition, the importance of repetitive infections of the upper respiratory tract for the occurrence of allergies of the respiratory system is pointed out. The most common allergies develop at the mucosae of the nose (allergic rhinitis) and of the bronchiale (allergic asthma bronchiale). Their symptomatology is discussed. Out of the allergologically interesting components of indoor air the following are to be considered primarily: house dust, components of house dust (house dust mite, trogoderma angustum, tenebrio molitor), epithelia of animals, animal feeds, mildew and occupational substances. Unspecific irritants (chemico-physical irritations) which are not acting as allergens, have to be clearly separated from these most frequent allergens. As a possibility of treatment for the therapeutist and the patient, there is the allergen prophylaxis, i.e. an extensive sanitation of the patient's environment including elimination of the allergens and, in addition, an amelioration of the quality of the air with regard to unspecific irritants. To conclude, some socio-medical aspects of respiratory diseases are discussed.

  19. Antinuclear antibodies in autoimmune and allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygiel-Górniak, Bogna; Rogacka, Natalia; Rogacki, Michał; Puszczewicz, Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are primarily significant in the diagnosis of systemic connective tissue diseases. The relationship between their occurrence in allergic diseases is poorly documented. However, the mechanism of allergic and autoimmune diseases has a common thread. In both cases, an increased production of IgE antibodies and presence of ANA in selected disease entities is observed. Equally important is the activation of basophils secreting proinflammatory factors and affecting the differentiation of TH17 lymphocytes. Both autoimmune and allergic diseases have complex multi-pathogenesis and often occur in genetically predisposed individuals. The presence of antinuclear antibodies was confirmed in many systemic connective tissue diseases and some allergic diseases. Examples include atopic dermatitis, non-allergic asthma, and pollen allergy. Co-occurring allergic and autoimmune disorders induce further search for mechanisms involved in the aetiopathogenesis of both groups of diseases.

  20. TOXICO-ALLERGIC DERMATITIS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Mel'nikova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available 15% of children in the world have allergic diseases (who data. The rate of allergic diseases in citizens of megapolices in Russia is 30–60%. The number of visits to the doctors increased on 18% in last 3 years. Generalized allergic reactions have leading place: anaphylactic shock and toxico-allergic dermatitis (steven johnson and lyell's syndromes. These diseases are characterized as pathology with fulminant course and frequently negative outcome. Literature data about this problem was analyzed in this article. The results of own researches in the field of urgent medical care on pre admission stage in children with generalized allergic reactions were presented.Key words: children generalized allergic reactions, urgent care.

  1. Severe allergic reactions to guinea pig

    OpenAIRE

    Zacharisen, Michael C; Levy, Michael B; Shaw, Jeffrey L; Kurup, Viswanath P

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Allergic sensitization and reactions to guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) have been well documented in laboratory animal handlers, primarily manifesting as rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma. Severe allergic reactions, however, are rare. Methods We report two patients with severe allergic reactions following non-occupational exposure to guinea pigs. The first patient, an 11-year-old female, developed ocular, nasal, skin and laryngeal edema symptoms immediately after handling ...

  2. Gingival immunologic defense index: a new indicator for evaluating dental plaque infection risk in allergic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seno Pradopo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a possible relationship between dental plaque and children allergic diseases. According to literatures, gingivitis suffered mostly by allergic children than control. Case reports also revealed that dental plaque control therapy was able to reduce, even eliminate rhinosinusitis and asthmatic symptoms without additional medications. However, the exact method for confirming the gingivitis-related allergy is still uncertain. Allergic diseases have multifactorial etiologies and dental plaque had been proposed as a new trigger of allergic symptoms. Nevertheless, since not every child with gingivitis suffered from allergy or vice versa, this uncertain phenomenon may lead to patients or other clinician disbelief. The objective of the present study was to propose a new method, which involving the Gingival immunologic defense index (GIDI to evaluate the susceptibility to allergic diseases. GIDI is an index that had been developed earlier for evaluating gingival immunologic defense with respect to immunoglobulin A (IgA levels. This index based on the simple count of the inflamed gingival surfaces of a child plus the measurement of salivary IgA content. It provides clinicians with important information about the immunologic defense potential of each subject. Interestingly, most allergic children also had inherited IgA deficiency, thus this concept is likely. Based on literatures, GIDI could be a potential index for evaluating the risk of allergic diseases through gingival health assessment. However, prior investigation to the value of Indonesian GIDI index which related to allergy should be conducted.

  3. Efficacy comparison of cetirizine and loratadine for allergic rhinitis in children

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Juliana; Rita Evalina; Lily Irsa; M. Sjabaroeddin Loebis

    2012-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis represents a global health problem affecting 10% to more than 40% of the population worldwide. Several studies in recent years have described the efficacy of second-generation antihistamines in younger children. It is not well established whether cetirizine is more effective than loratadine in reducing symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Objective The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of loratadine with cetirizine for treatment of...

  4. Cerebellar white matter inflammation and demyelination in chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, B.; Sørensen, P. S.; Juhler, M.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, demyelination, inflammation, immunology, neuropathology......Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, demyelination, inflammation, immunology, neuropathology...

  5. An ovine tracheal explant culture model for allergic airway inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeynaike Latasha

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The airway epithelium is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthmatic disease. However, much of our understanding of airway epithelial cell function in asthma has been derived from in vitro studies that may not accurately reflect the interactive cellular and molecular pathways active between different tissue constituents in vivo. Methods Using a sheep model of allergic asthma, tracheal explants from normal sheep and allergic sheep exposed to house dust mite (HDM allergen were established to investigate airway mucosal responses ex vivo. Explants were cultured for up to 48 h and tissues were stained to identify apoptotic cells, goblet cells, mast cells and eosinophils. The release of cytokines (IL-1α, IL-6 and TNF-α by cultured tracheal explants, was assessed by ELISA. Results The general morphology and epithelial structure of the tracheal explants was well maintained in culture although evidence of advanced apoptosis within the mucosal layer was noted after culture for 48 h. The number of alcian blue/PAS positive mucus-secreting cells within the epithelial layer was reduced in all cultured explants compared with pre-cultured (0 h explants, but the loss of staining was most evident in allergic tissues. Mast cell and eosinophil numbers were elevated in the allergic tracheal tissues compared to naïve controls, and in the allergic tissues there was a significant decline in mast cells after 24 h culture in the presence or absence of HDM allergen. IL-6 was released by allergic tracheal explants in culture but was undetected in cultured control explants. Conclusions Sheep tracheal explants maintain characteristics of the airway mucosa that may not be replicated when studying isolated cell populations in vitro. There were key differences identified in explants from allergic compared to control airways and in their responses in culture for 24 h. Importantly, this study establishes the potential for the

  6. Report of Common Aeroallergens among Allergic Patients in Northeastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghoub Mahboubi Oskouei

    2017-03-01

    diagnosis and management of allergic disorders. Understanding the prevalence of the most common aeroallergens such as Russian thistle in 50.2% of people or other common aeroallergens can help patients and specialists to more easily identify suspected allergens, reduce costs, and support immunotherapy of allergic patients in this area. Moreover, it is helpful in avoiding pollens or cross-reactions.

  7. Acute transient hemiparesis induced by lightning strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Seyed Hesam; Faridaalaee, Gholamreza; Jahangard, Samira

    2015-07-01

    According to data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,in the years from 1959 to 1994, lightning was responsible for more than 3000 deaths and nearly 10,000 casualties. The most important characteristic features of lightning injuries are multisystem involvement and widely variable severity. Lightning strikes are primarily a neurologic injury that affects all 3 components of the nervous system: central, autonomic,and peripheral. Neurologic complications of lightning strikes vary from transient benign symptoms to permanent disability. Many patients experience a temporary paralysis called keraunoparalysis. Here we reported a 22-year-old mountaineer man with complaining of left sided hemiparesis after being hit by a lightning strike in the mountain 3 hours ago. There was no loss of consciousness at hitting time. On arrival the patient was alert, awake and hemodynamically stable. In neurologic examination cranial nerves were intact, left sided upper and lower extremity muscle force was I/V with a combination of complete sensory loss, and right-sided muscle force and sensory examination were normal. There is not any evidence of significant vascular impairment in the affected extremities. Brain MRI and CT scan and cervical MRI were normal. During 2 days of admission, with intravenous hydration, heparin 5000 unit SC q12hr and physical therapy of the affected limbs, motor and sensory function improved and was normal except mild paresthesia. He was discharged 1 day later for outpatient follow up while vitamin B1 100mg orally was prescribed.Paresthesia improved after 3 days without further sequels.

  8. Lightning strike-induced brachial plexopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita N Bhargava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient who presented with a history of lightning strike injury. Following the injury, he sustained acute right upper limb weakness with pain. Clinically, the lesion was located to the upper and middle trunk of the right brachial plexus, and the same confirmed with electrophysiological studies. Nerve damage due to lightning injuries is considered very rare, and a plexus damage has been described infrequently, if ever. Thus, the proposed hypothesis that lightning rarely causes neuropathy, as against high-voltage electric current, due to its shorter duration of exposure not causing severe burns which lead to nerve damage, needs to be reconsidered.

  9. Identification of polymorphisms in the Toll-like receptor gene and the association with allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Inhong; Oh, Yeon-Kyun; Lee, Sang Heon; Jung, Ha Min; Chae, Soo-Cheon; Lee, Jae Hoon

    2010-03-01

    The TLRs gene encodes the principal innate immunity receptor in humans. The TLR2 Arg753Gln and Arg677Trp polymorphisms have been associated with a reduced response of monocytes and cell lines to challenge with mycobacteria. The TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms have been associated with a reduction in the inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide in humans. It has been suggested that TLR2 and TLR4 polymorphisms may be associated with allergic responses; thus, we hypothesized that TLR2 and TLR4 polymorphisms may modify the relative risk for development of allergic rhinitis. The Taqman assay and high-resolution melt (HRM) were used for genotyping. We analyzed two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; 597T>C and 1350T>C) in the TLR2 gene and 1 SNP (4216G>C) in the TLR4 gene. We compared the genotype of these SNPs in patients with allergic rhinitis and controls without allergic rhinitis. We also estimated the haplotype frequencies between the two groups. The genotype and allele frequencies of the 597T>C and 1350T>C SNPs in the TLR2 gene were not significantly different between the patients with allergic rhinitis and controls (P > 0.05). The genotype and allele frequencies of 4216G>C in the TLR4 gene were not significantly different between the patients with allergic rhinitis and controls (P > 0.05). Haplotype analysis of the following two different (597)-(1350) major haplotypes (frequency >0.05) were present in the TLR2 gene: T-C and C-C. The C-C haplotype was positively associated with allergic rhinitis (P = 0.048). Our study suggests that the TLR2 gene polymorphisms might be susceptible to the development of allergic rhinitis. Further functional studies of TLR2 genetics in light of the associations with allergic rhinitis inflammation would help clarify the role of TLR2 genetics in clinical evaluations.

  10. Upper and lower airway pathology in young children with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo

    2011-01-01

    understood and there is a paucity of data objectivizing this association in young children. The aim of this thesis was to describe pathology in the upper and lower airways in young children from the COPSAC birth cohort with investigator-diagnosed allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis. Nasal congestion is a key...... nasal eosinophilia albeit less than children with allergic rhinitis. These findings suggest different pathology in allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis which may have important clinical implications for early pharmacological treatment of rhinitis in young children. In paper II, we utilized the nasal...

  11. Analysis of Simulated Aircraft Lightning Strikes and Their Electromagnetic Effects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gruden, James

    2001-01-01

    To survive the intense electromagnetic fields associated with a lightning strike, proper design of aircraft electrical control systems requires knowledge of the transient current pulse associated with a lightning strike...

  12. Comparison of Loratadine and Cetirizine in Perennial Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eftekharian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allergic rhinitis (AR represents a global health problem, affecting 5-50% of the population worldwide and numerous classes of pharmacological agents are available for its treatment. Two more popular of these drugs are Loratadine and Cetirizine. There are few direct comparator studies between these two drugs with inconsistent results.Materials and Methods: A randomized, double-blind study for comparison the therapeutic effects of Loratadine and Cetirizine was conducted in an otolaryngologic clinic of a general hospital. Eighty patients with perennial allergic rhinitis were divided into two equal groups. One group received Loratadine 10 mg daily for two weeks and the other group Cetirizine 10 mg daily also for two weeks. Alterations of the allergic rhinitis symptoms including rhinorrhea, sneezing, nasal itching and nasal obstruction were compared between the two groups.Results: Severity of all four studied symptoms was reduced by both drugs. Although Cetirizine had a little more efficacy, their difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05. These two medications were most effective in reducing the sneezing and least effective on the nasal obstruction.Conclusion: Loratadine and Cetirizine can reduce symptoms of the perennialallergic rhinitis but their difference is not statistically significant.

  13. Strike-slip tectonics during rift linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagli, C.; Yun, S. H.; Ebinger, C.; Keir, D.; Wang, H.

    2017-12-01

    The kinematics of triple junction linkage and the initiation of transforms in magmatic rifts remain debated. Strain patterns from the Afar triple junction provide tests of current models of how rifts grow to link in area of incipient oceanic spreading. Here we present a combined analysis of seismicity, InSAR and GPS derived strain rate maps to reveal that the plate boundary deformation in Afar is accommodated primarily by extensional tectonics in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifts, and does not require large rotations about vertical axes (bookshelf faulting). Additionally, models of stress changes and seismicity induced by recent dykes in one sector of the Afar triple junction provide poor fit to the observed strike-slip earthquakes. Instead we explain these patterns as rift-perpendicular shearing at the tips of spreading rifts where extensional strains terminate against less stretched lithosphere. Our results demonstrate that rift-perpendicular strike-slip faulting between rift segments achieves plate boundary linkage during incipient seafloor spreading.

  14. Genetic variations in IL28B and allergic disease in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Gaudieri

    Full Text Available Environmental changes affecting the relationship between the developing immune system and microbial exposure have been implicated in the epidemic rise of allergic disease in developed countries. While early developmental differences in T cell function are well-recognised, there is now emerging evidence that this is related to developmental differences in innate immune function. In this study we sought to examine if differences associated with innate immunity contribute to the altered immune programming recognised in allergic children. Here, we describe for the first time, the association of carriage of the T allele of the tagging single nucleotide polymorphism rs12979860 3 kb upstream of IL28B, encoding the potent innate immune modulator type III interferon lambda (IFN-λ3, and allergy in children (p = 0.004; OR 4.56. Strikingly, the association between rs12979860 genotype and allergic disease is enhanced in girls. Furthermore, carriage of the T allele at rs12979860 correlates with differences in the pro-inflammatory profile during the first five years of life suggesting this contributes to the key differences in subsequent innate immune development in children who develop allergic disease. In the context of rising rates of disease, these immunologic differences already present at birth imply very early interaction between genetic predisposition and prenatal environmental influences.

  15. Differential skin test reactivity to pollens in pollen food allergy syndrome versus allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Von; Scott, David R; Chin, William K; Wineinger, Nathan E; Kelso, John M; White, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    Pollen food allergy syndrome (PFAS), also called oral allergy syndrome, is a form of food allergy in which uncooked foods cause allergic symptoms generally limited to the oral mucosa. It occurs in a subset of patients with pollen allergy, although not all patients have prominent rhinitis symptoms. PFAS is related to antigenic similarity between the pollen and food allergen. The size of skin test reactions in a group of subjects with pollen sensitivity with PFAS was compared with a group of subjects who were pollen sensitive and without PFAS. Self-reported rhinitis symptoms between the two groups were compared to identify if symptom severity differed. Twenty subjects with PFAS and 20 subjects with seasonal allergic rhinitis without PFAS were enrolled in the study. All the subjects underwent standard skin-prick testing to a panel of common allergens, including select fresh fruits and vegetables. The subjects completed a Mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire as part of their clinical evaluation. The subjects with PFAS and those without PFAS were compared statistically. The subjects with PFAS had significantly larger-sized skin-prick test results specific to pollens (p allergic rhinitis and PFAS reported milder nasal symptoms in relation to pollen skin test result size when compared with allergic rhinitis controls without PFAS. Our study outlined basic differences between two seemingly similar patient groups with a particularly striking discordance between skin test result sizes and rhinitis symptoms. This discordance should be explored further to increase mechanistic understanding of allergen cross-reactivity in PFAS.

  16. [Toxic, allergic, and inflamatory edema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Yuko; Yoshida, Shunji

    2005-01-01

    Edema is defined as the condition in which intraluminal lymph fluid components leak into the tissues and the interstitium fluid is abnormally increased. At the site of edema, toxication, allergy or inflammation occasionally occurs. This paper will focus on local skin and mucosal edema. Toxic edema is locally caused by intake of industrial goods or medical products (pharmaceuticals). Like urticaria, allergic edema is attributed to the increased vascular permeability caused by a chemical mediator. Inflammatory edema is the state in which increased inflammatory reaction in local skin causes increases in osmotic pressure of the tissues and metabolism and then inflammatory effusion accumulate there. It includes burn and cellulites.

  17. Current management of allergic rhinitis in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgalas, Christos; Terreehorst, Ingrid; Fokkens, Wytske

    2010-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, there has been significant progress in our understanding of the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis, including the discovery of new inflammatory mediators, the link between asthma and allergic rhinitis ('one airway-one disease' concept) and the introduction of novel

  18. Bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis and cholecystectomy: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gallbladder has not been associated with any allergic condition what so ever. However, certain patients with bronchial asthma and cholelithiasis have reported to the author improvement in their asthmatic attack after cholecystectomy. Methods: This was an observational study on 22 bronchial asthma or allergic ...

  19. Nasobronchial interaction in allergic rhinitis and asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. Braunstahl (Gert-Jan)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe key to the diagnosis lies in taking a good medical history. This rule especially applies to allergic rhinitis and asthma. Both diseases have in common that they are often underdiagnosedl and lack proper treatment. Allergic rhinitis and asthma frequently occur together. Almost 40 % of

  20. Evidence-based treatment of allergic rhinitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawankar, R.; Fokkens, W.

    2001-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is an extremely common disease worldwide, affecting 10% to 50% of the population. An increasing prevalence of allergic rhinitis over the past decades and its frequent association with asthma have raised concerns about treating the disease appropriately. New knowledge of the

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis to plastic banknotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, M; Delaney, T A; Horton, J J

    1999-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to ultraviolet (UV) cured acrylates occurs predominantly in occupationally exposed workers. Two men presented with dermatitis coinciding with the location of banknotes in their pockets. Patch testing confirmed allergic contact dermatitis to multiple acrylates and Australian plastic banknotes. This is the first report of contact allergy to acrylates present in Australian plastic banknotes.

  2. Sublingual immunotherapy in children with allergic rhinitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Röder (Esther)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAllergic rhinitis is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in Europe. Besides nose symptoms such as sneezing and a blocked nose, patients also suffer from general complaints like fatigue, sleeping problems and difficulty concentrating. Allergic rhinitis can have a serious impact on

  3. Bird strike incidence at Addis Ababa Bole International Airport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The time and rate of bird strike incidences, species composition and number of birds involved in strikes, and the behaviour of birds were recorded at Bole International Airport from December 1994 to December 1995. The gut contents of the birds struck by aircraft were analyzed. A total of 33 bird strikes were recorded during ...

  4. Evaluating the Effects of a Bird Strike Advisory System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, I.C.; Mühlhausen, T; Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Bird strikes have operational impacts and cause economic loss to the aviation industry. In the worst case, the damages resulting from bird strikes lead to crashes. The highest risk for bird strikes lies in the area below 3000 ft and thus mainly in airport environments. Despite intense efforts from

  5. effects of strike cost on economic development in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    productivity as in most cases strike cost (wages and salaries as well as other unavoidable payments) are paid during the .... Many times the Nigeria Labour Congress (NLC) and students have had to strike against ... the direct compensation package and other conditions of service. This is the most popular cause of strike in ...

  6. Human Schistosome Infection and Allergic Sensitisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Rujeni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several field studies have reported an inverse relationship between the prevalence of helminth infections and that of allergic sensitisation/atopy. Recent studies show that immune responses induced by helminth parasites are, to an extent, comparable to allergic sensitisation. However, helminth products induce regulatory responses capable of inhibiting not only antiparasite immune responses, but also allergic sensitisation. The relative effects of this immunomodulation on the development of protective schistosome-specific responses in humans has yet to be demonstrated at population level, and the clinical significance of immunomodulation of allergic disease is still controversial. Nonetheless, similarities in immune responses against helminths and allergens pose interesting mechanistic and evolutionary questions. This paper examines the epidemiology, biology and immunology of allergic sensitisation/atopy, and schistosome infection in human populations.

  7. Air pollution and allergic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haejin; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2009-03-01

    Over the past several decades, there has been increased awareness of the health effects of air pollution and much debate regarding the role of global warming. The prevalence of asthma and allergic disease has risen in industrialized countries, and most epidemiologic studies focus on possible causalities between air pollution and these conditions. This review examines salient articles and summarizes findings important to the interaction between allergies and air pollution, specifically volatile organic compounds, global warming, particulate pollutants, atopic risk, indoor air pollution, and prenatal exposure. Further work is necessary to determine whether patients predisposed to developing allergic disease may be more susceptible to the health effects of air pollutants due to the direct interaction between IgE-mediated disease and air pollutants. Until we have more definitive answers, patient education about the importance of good indoor air quality in the home and workplace is essential. Health care providers and the general community should also support public policy designed to improve outdoor air quality by developing programs that provide incentives for industry to comply with controlling pollution emissions.

  8. Pictorial essay: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Agarwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA is the best-known allergic manifestation of Aspergillus-related hypersensitivity pulmonary disorders. Most patients present with poorly controlled asthma, and the diagnosis can be made on the basis of a combination of clinical, immunological, and radiological findings. The chest radiographic findings are generally nonspecific, although the manifestations of mucoid impaction of the bronchi suggest a diagnosis of ABPA. High-resolution CT scan (HRCT of the chest has replaced bronchography as the initial investigation of choice in ABPA. HRCT of the chest can be normal in almost one-third of the patients, and at this stage it is referred to as serologic ABPA (ABPA-S. The importance of central bronchiectasis (CB as a specific finding in ABPA is debatable, as almost 40% of the lobes are involved by peripheral bronchiectasis. High-attenuation mucus (HAM, encountered in 20% of patients with ABPA, is pathognomonic of ABPA. ABPA should be classified based on the presence or absence of HAM as ABPA-S (mild, ABPA-CB (moderate, and ABPA-CB-HAM (severe, as this classification not only reflects immunological severity but also predicts the risk of recurrent relapses.

  9. Animal Models of Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Santoro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases have great impact on the quality of life of both people and domestic animals. They are increasing in prevalence in both animals and humans, possibly due to the changed lifestyle conditions and the decreased exposure to beneficial microorganisms. Dogs, in particular, suffer from environmental skin allergies and develop a clinical presentation which is very similar to the one of children with eczema. Thus, dogs are a very useful species to improve our understanding on the mechanisms involved in people’s allergies and a natural model to study eczema. Animal models are frequently used to elucidate mechanisms of disease and to control for confounding factors which are present in studies with patients with spontaneously occurring disease and to test new therapies that can be beneficial in both species. It has been found that drugs useful in one species can also have benefits in other species highlighting the importance of a comprehensive understanding of diseases across species and the value of comparative studies. The purpose of the current article is to review allergic diseases across species and to focus on how these diseases compare to the counterpart in people.

  10. Forward to the Past: Strikes and Striking as Dialogue by other ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, from the colonial period to the present, the employment of strikes and protests by nationalists, Nigerian workers and civil society groups has been established as one of the potent means of conveying viewpoints, positions as well as the demand for equality, fairness, social justice and reforms. It has been used as ...

  11. The Effectiveness of Levocetirizine in Comparison with Loratadine in Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis —A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Mösges

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The results of this meta-analysis illustrate greater effectiveness for treatment with the active substance levocetirizine as monotherapy in reducing allergic symptoms when compared to treatment with loratadine.

  12. Strike Point Control for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolemen, E.; Gates, D.A.; Rowley, C.W.; Kasdin, N.J.; Kallman, J.; Gerhardt, S.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Mueller, D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the first control algorithm for the inner and outer strike point position for a Spherical Torus (ST) fusion experiment and the performance analysis of the controller. A liquid lithium divertor (LLD) will be installed on NSTX which is believed to provide better pumping than lithium coatings on carbon PFCs. The shape of the plasma dictates the pumping rate of the lithium by channeling the plasma to LLD, where strike point location is the most important shape parameter. Simulations show that the density reduction depends on the proximity of strike point to LLD. Experiments were performed to study the dynamics of the strike point, design a new controller to change the location of the strike point to desired location and stabilize it. The most effective PF coils in changing inner and outer strike points were identified using equilibrium code. The PF coil inputs were changed in a step fashion between various set points and the step response of the strike point position was obtained. From the analysis of the step responses, PID controllers for the strike points were obtained and the controller was tuned experimentally for better performance. The strike controller was extended to include the outer-strike point on the inner plate to accommodate the desired low outer-strike points for the experiment with the aim of achieving 'snowflake' divertor configuration in NSTX.

  13. The link between allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma: a prospective population-based study. The Copenhagen Allergy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linneberg, A; Henrik Nielsen, N; Frølund, L; Madsen, F; Dirksen, A; Jørgensen, T

    2002-11-01

    It has been hypothesized that allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma are manifestations of the same disease entity. We aimed to investigate the relationship between allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Participants in a population-based study of 15-69-year-olds in 1990 were invited to a follow-up in 1998. A total of 734 subjects were examined on two occasions eight years apart. Allergic rhinitis to pollen was defined as a history of nasal symptoms on exposure to pollens and IgE specific to pollen. Allergic asthma to pollen was defined as a history of lower airway symptoms on exposure to pollens and IgE specific to pollen. Similarly, diagnoses of allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma to animals or mite were defined. At follow-up, all subjects with allergic asthma to pollen (n = 52) had in addition allergic rhinitis to pollen. In the longitudinal analysis, there were a total of 28 new (incident) cases of allergic asthma to pollen. They all had allergic rhinitis to pollen at baseline, or had developed allergic rhinitis to pollen at follow-up. Accordingly, allergic rhinitis to animals and mite were ubiquitous in subjects with allergic asthma to animals and mite, respectively. The results support the hypothesis that allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma are manifestations of the same disease entity.

  14. Effects of omalizumab therapy on allergic rhinitis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masieri, S; Cavaliere, C; Begvarfaj, E; Rosati, D; Minni, A

    2016-12-01

    The use of omalizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody able to binding Ig-E, is currently authorized only for treatment of severe bronchial asthma. The use of omalizumab in other Ig-E related diseases is off-label, although some studies have provided promising results about it. The aim of this study was to evaluate if therapy with omalizumab in patients affected by asthma and allergic rhinitis has an impact also on allergic rhinitis-related symptoms. A longitudinal study was conducted on 11 patients affected by severe asthma and a periodic allergic rhinitis. Patients were treated with omalizumab for 24 weeks with a monthly subcutaneous administration at the dosage recommended by the current guidelines. We observed at the start and at the end of treatment: rhinitis symptoms using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS); the state of nasal mucosa with fiberoptic nasal endoscopy; airways inflammation by measuring the Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO); asthmatic symptomatology by means of the Asthma Control Test; the amount of total Ig-E in a blood sample; and the use of symptomatic drugs before and after treatment. VAS scores to measure general symptomatology and symptoms including nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, itching and sneezing were significantly reduced. Turbinate hypertrophy was resolved in six of nine patients. Furthermore, eight patients (73%) reduced or eliminated the use of symptomatic drugs. Our data confirm the efficacy of omalizumab in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Controlled studies will now have to be carried out to confirm these preliminary data and will specify indications for a very efficacious but still significantly expensive therapy.

  15. Allergic rhinitis and CXCR3 chemokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzi, V; Fallahi, P

    2017-01-01

    The underlying mechanism of allergic rhinitis involves IgE antibodies attaching to the allergen and causing the release of inflammatory chemicals such as histamine from mast cells. Cytokines are very important in this process. Many data suggest a systemic shift to more intensely type 1-dominated immune responses in non-allergic individuals and, conversely, to more type 2-dominated responses in allergic individuals upon natural re-exposure to grass pollen. However other studies have found that chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)10/ interferon (IFN)-γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10) and CXCL9/monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG) concentrations are elevated in nasal lavages from allergic patients suggesting that these chemokines may play a role in chronic allergic inflammation. Several studies have also evaluated the effect of different immune-modulating drugs in allergic rhinitis showing local and peripheral increase of IFN-γ and IP-10, associated with a reduction of symptoms. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of T helper (Th)1 chemokines in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis, and to evaluate their role as biomarkers of disease and of response to treatments.

  16. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic manifestations...

  17. Evaluation of olfactory function in children with allergic rhinitis and nonallergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlug, Seyhan; Gunbey, Emre; Sogut, Ayhan; Celiksoy, Mehmet Halil; Kardas, Semsettin; Yildirim, Ugur; Karli, Rifat; Murat, Naci; Sancak, Recep

    2016-07-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) occurs when the symptoms of rhinitis arise as a result of allergen-induced nasal mucosal inflammation. In the presence of rhinitis symptoms without infection or an allergic reaction in the nose, non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) is considered. Adults with these diseases have increased frequency of olfactory dysfunction. The aim of the present study is to assess olfactory function in children with AR and NAR. A total of 77 children (aged six to 18 years) with AR and NAR were included in the study. The control group consisted of 45 healthy children. Sniffin' Sticks test was applied to both groups. The association between odor scores and demographic, clinical, and laboratory results was investigated. Forty two patients had allergic rhinitis. No significant difference was observed between patients with rhinitis and healthy controls with respect to odor scores. No association was observed between odor scores and the severity of rhinitis and the laboratory results of the patient groups. Odor identification and total odor scores of the patients with rhinitis lasting for longer than three years were significantly lower than those in the patient group with rhinitis lasting for one to three years. In the AR and control groups, the odor scores were found to increase with age. When compared with healthy children, children with allergic rhinitis and non-allergic rhinitis were not found to have reduced olfactory function. The duration of rhinitis may be associated with the olfactory dysfunction in children with rhinitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Allergen specific sublingual immunotherapy in children with asthma and allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đurić-Filipović, Ivana; Caminati, Marco; Kostić, Gordana; Filipović, Đorđe; Živković, Zorica

    2016-08-01

    The incidence of asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR) is significantly increased, especially in younger children. Current treatment for children with asthma and allergic rhinitis include allergen avoidance, standard pharmacotherapy, and immunotherapy. Since standard pharmacotherapy is prescribed for symptoms, immunotherapy at present plays an important role in the treatment of allergic diseases. This article presents insights into the up-to-date understanding of immunotherapy in the treatment of children with allergic rhinitis and asthma. PubMed articles published from 1990 to 2014 were reviewed using the MeSH terms "asthma", "allergic rhinitis", "children", and "immune therapy". Additional articles were identified by hand searching of the references in the initial search. Numerous studies have shown that sublingual application of allergen specific immunotherapy (SLIT) is an adequate, safe and efficient substitution to subcutaneous route of allergens administration (SCIT) in the treatment of IgE-mediated respiratory tract allergies in children. According to the literature, better clinical efficacy is connected with the duration of treatment and mono sensitized patients. At least 3 years of treatment and stable asthma before the immunotherapy are positive predictors of good clinical efficacy and tolerability of SLIT. SLIT reduces the symptoms of allergic diseases and the use of medicaments, and improves the quality of life of children with the diseases.

  19. Effect of allergic rhinitis and asthma on the quality of life in young Thai adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sritipsukho, Paskorn; Satdhabudha, Araya; Nanthapisal, Sira

    2015-09-01

    Despite an increasing recognition that both asthma and allergic rhinitis are serious health disorders in Thailand, their combined effects on patients' quality of life in the Thai population has not been reported. The study aimed to evaluate the impacts of allergic rhinitis and asthma on the quality of life of young adolescents in Thailand. A total of 1,440 pupils, aged 12-14 years, were randomly recruited from 4 schools located in Bangkok and Pathum Thani Province. Allergic rhinitis and asthmatic symptoms were identified by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) written questionnaire. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) questionnaire was used to evaluate their quality of life. There were 1,230 completed questionnaires for analysis. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis alone, asthma alone and diseases co-occurrence was 32.8%, 7.2%, and 12.7% respectively. Pupils with respiratory allergy had significantly lower PedsQL mean scores than healthy pupils, for all dimensions (p < 0.006). The greatest reduction of the PedsQL mean score was for emotional functioning. Among pupils with allergic rhinitis, those who were also affected with asthma had significantly lower mean scores, for all quality of life domains (all p < 0.001). Compared to allergic rhinitis, asthma significantly reduced PedsQL mean scores in almost all domains (p < 0.001), except for physical health. Allergic rhinitis and asthma have a significant influence on the quality of life in young Thai adolescents, in particular regarding emotional functioning. Asthma has stronger negative effects on life quality than allergic rhinitis, especially regarding psychosocial health.

  20. Limonene and its ozone-initiated reaction products attenuate allergic lung inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jitka S; Nørgaard, Asger W; Koponen, Ismo K; Sørli, Jorid B; Paidi, Maya D; Hansen, Søren W K; Clausen, Per Axel; Nielsen, Gunnar D; Wolkoff, Peder; Larsen, Søren Thor

    2016-11-01

    Inhalation of indoor air pollutants may cause airway irritation and inflammation and is suspected to worsen allergic reactions. Inflammation may be due to mucosal damage, upper (sensory) and lower (pulmonary) airway irritation due to activation of the trigeminal and vagal nerves, respectively, and to neurogenic inflammation. The terpene, d-limonene, is used as a fragrance in numerous consumer products. When limonene reacts with the pulmonary irritant ozone, a complex mixture of gas and particle phase products is formed, which causes sensory irritation. This study investigated whether limonene, ozone or the reaction mixture can exacerbate allergic lung inflammation and whether airway irritation is enhanced in allergic BALB/cJ mice. Naïve and allergic (ovalbumin sensitized) mice were exposed via inhalation for three consecutive days to clean air, ozone, limonene or an ozone-limonene reaction mixture. Sensory and pulmonary irritation was investigated in addition to ovalbumin-specific antibodies, inflammatory cells, total protein and surfactant protein D in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and hemeoxygenase-1 and cytokines in lung tissue. Overall, airway allergy was not exacerbated by any of the exposures. In contrast, it was found that limonene and the ozone-limonene reaction mixture reduced allergic inflammation possibly due to antioxidant properties. Ozone induced sensory irritation in both naïve and allergic mice. However, allergic but not naïve mice were protected from pulmonary irritation induced by ozone. This study showed that irritation responses might be modulated by airway allergy. However, aggravation of allergic symptoms was observed by neither exposure to ozone nor exposure to ozone-initiated limonene reaction products. In contrast, anti-inflammatory properties of the tested limonene-containing pollutants might attenuate airway allergy.

  1. Safe foods for allergic people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørhede, Pia; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Bennett, L.

    food companies avoid being a part of such a tragic story? The EuroPrevall project has developed a new website on the management of food allergens, www.foodallergens.info, which is aimed at the food industry. Content on the new website about food allergy: • Basal knowledge about food allergy such as how...... the commonly eaten foods such as milk, egg and hazelnut as well as the more exotic foods such as frogs. You may for example use the database to get an idea about how common a specific food allergy is. • Access to the Food Allergy Portal, which is a collection of links to more than 100 websites about food...... allergy in 10 different European languages. Conclusion: If the company behind the pineapple & coconut fruit juice had asked an allergy expert for advice or had thought about allergic people themselves during the development of their product, the tragic story probably could have been avoided. An expert...

  2. Air pollution and allergic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, J.

    1987-03-13

    In the discussion on possible adverse effects of air pollution upon human health one has to distinguish between out-door and in-door environment. The most frequent pollutants in out-door air over industrialized areas are particulate substances, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide, carbonmonoxide, ozone and lead. Most of these substances have direct irritating effects on mucous surfaces. Hypersensitivity reactions have been described against sulfur dioxide and sulfites occurring as asthma, urticaria or anaphylactoid reactions. In-door air pollution is of much greater practical importance for a variety of diseases. Apart from physio-chemical irritants and microbial organisms leading to infections, organic allergens (e.g. house dust mites, moulds, animal epithelia) can induce a variety of allergic diseases via different pathomechanisms.

  3. Allergic contact stomatitis from colophony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Paul R

    2006-09-01

    Colophony is an ubiquitous contact sensitizer which may be present in dental materials, such as periodontal dressings, impression materials, cements, fix adhesives and varnishes. Exposure to a sensitizer in a hypersensitive person may initiate an allergic contact dermatitis/stomatitis. This usually occurs after direct skin/mucosa contact with the sensitizer. This paper reports the case of a colophony hypersensitive male who developed contact stomatitis after dental treatment with a colophony-containing product. Sensitizing colophony is present in Duraphat 2.26%F varnish, a fluoride varnish used all over the world. A case of hypersensitivity to Duraphat 2.26%F varnish is presented in a patient who, at the initial visit, indicated only an allergy to sticking plasters.

  4. Allergic rhinitis caused by food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cingi, Cemal; Demirbas, Duygu; Songu, Murat

    2010-09-01

    Food allergies occur in 1-2% of adults and in 8% of children under 6 years of age. Food-induced allergies are immunological reactions that cause a variety of symptoms affecting the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory tract. The reactions are mediated by both IgE- and non-IgE-dependent (cellular) mechanisms. Isolated food-induced allergic rhinitis is not common as it frequently occurs together with other food allergy symptoms such as asthma, eczema, oral allergic manifestations, urticaria, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The present paper provides an overview of food allergies and food-induced allergic rhinitis.

  5. [Definition and clinic of the allergic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielhaupter, Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    The allergic rhinitis is the most common immune disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 24% and one of the most common chronic diseases at all--with tendency to rise. It occurs in childhood and influences the patients' social life, school performance and labour productivity. Furthermore the allergic rhinitis is accompanied by a lot of comorbidities, including conjunctivitis, asthma bronchiale, food allergy, neurodermatitis and sinusitis. For example the risk for asthma is 3.2-fold higher for adults with allergic rhinitis than for healthy people.

  6. Inhibitory effect of putranjivain A on allergic inflammation through suppression of mast cell activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hui-Hun; Park, Seung-Bin; Lee, Soyoung [CMRI, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Taeg Kyu [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Tae-Yong [College of Pharmacy, Woosuk University, Jeonju 565-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Pil-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Ho [College of Pharmacy, Youngnam University, Kyungsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Hyun, E-mail: shkim72@knu.ac.kr [CMRI, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    A great number of people are suffering from allergic inflammatory disease such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and sinusitis. Therefore discovery of drugs for the treatment of these diseases is an important subject in human health. Putranjivain A (PJA), member of ellagitannin, is known to possess beneficial effects including anti-cancer and anti-viral activities. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether PJA modulates the allergic inflammatory reaction and to study its possible mechanisms of action using mast cell-based in vitro and in vivo models. The study was performed in anaphylaxis mouse model and cultured mast cells. PJA inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in immunoglobulin E-stimulated mast cells. PJA reduced this expression by inhibiting nuclear factor (NF)-κB and nuclear factor of activated T cell. The oral administration of PJA reduced systemic and cutaneous anaphylaxis, the release of serum histamine, and the expression of the histamine H{sub 1} receptor. In addition, PJA attenuated the activation of mast cells. PJA inhibited the release of histamine from various types of mast cells by the suppression of intracellular calcium. The inhibitory activity of PJA on the allergic reaction was similar to that of disodium cromoglycate, a known anti-allergic drug. These results suggest that PJA can facilitate the prevention or treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases mediated by mast cells. - Highlights: • PJA reduced the degranulation of mast cells. • PJA inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines. • The effect of PJA on allergic reaction was comparable to the DSCG. • PJA might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases.

  7. Allergic sensitisation in tuberculosis patients at the time of diagnosis and following chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brokstad Karl A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is still a matter of debate whether there is an association between infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis and allergy. Previously, we have shown higher levels of specific IgE to different inhalant allergens and total IgE in tuberculosis (TB patients compared to controls. The objectives of this study were to evaluate a possible change in allergic sensitisation after successful TB treatment and to confirm the finding of our previous study of enhanced allergic sensitisation in TB patients compared to controls in a more controlled setting. Additionally, we wanted to determine the cytokine profile in the same groups and finally to evaluate the association between the presence of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination (BCG scar and allergic sensitisation among the controls. Methods Sera were analysed for specific IgE to inhalant allergens (Phadiatop and total IgE by the use of ImmunoCAP 1000 (Pharmacia Diagnostics. Thirteen different cytokines were also analysed in the sera by multiplex bead immunoassay (Luminex 100, Luminex Corporation, and clinical symptoms of allergy and BCG scar were reported in a questionnaire. Results A reduction in levels of specific and total IgE were observed after successful TB treatment. TB patients also had higher levels of specific and total IgE compared to healthy controls. Both interleukin (IL-6 and interferon (IFNγ were higher in TB patients compared to healthy controls. The levels of IL-6 were reduced after successful TB treatment. The presence of a BCG scar was associated with a reduced risk of developing allergic sensitisation. Conclusion We observed a reduced level of allergic sensitisation after successful TB treatment. TB patients seem to be more allergically sensitised than healthy controls, confirming our previous finding. Furthermore, we observed an inverse association between allergic sensitisation and visible BCG scar, which adds additional support to the hygiene

  8. Psychosomatic treatment for allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Kazufumi

    2015-01-01

    Many reports have been published concerning how psychosocial stress influences the occurrence and progression of allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma and atopic dermatitis. As for asthma, a typical allergic disease often accompanied by psychosomatic related problems, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA), international medical guidelines for asthma, describes psychosocial problems as causative factors of poor asthma control and as risk factors for asthma exacerbation, even if symptoms are well controlled. However, because there is little high quality evidence for effective treatments for asthma patients with psychosocial problems, concrete assessments and treatments for such problems is scarcely described in GINA. Therefore, psychosomatic intervention for asthma patients is not effectively conducted on a worldwide scale. In contrast, the "Japanese Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Psychosomatic Diseases" describe the assessment and treatment of psychosomatic disorders in detail. In the guidelines, psychosocial factors are classified into five categories; 1) Relation between stress and asthma occurrence or progression, 2) Relation between emotion and asthma symptoms, 3) Problems related to a patient's character and behaviors, 4) Problems of daily life and Quality of Life (QOL), and 5) Problems related to family relationships and life history. The employment of a self-administered questionnaire, the "Psychosomatic Questionnaire related to Asthmatic Occurrence and Progression", is useful for clarifying psychosocial factors and for setting up treatment strategies according to the problems identified. The Japanese guidelines have been proven to be useful, but empirical evidence for their effectiveness is still relatively limited. It will be necessary in the future to accumulate high-quality evidence and to revise the psychosomatic approaches in the guidelines that are universally valid.

  9. Influence of strike object grounding on close lightning electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Yoshihiro; Rakov, Vladimir A.

    2008-06-01

    ground plane. The source of opposite polarity Ez is the potential rise at the object base (at the air/ground interface) relative to the reference ground plane. For a given grounding electrode geometry, the strength of this source increases with decreasing σ, provided that the grounding impedance is linear. Potential rises at the strike object base for σ = 1 and 0.1 mS/m are some hundreds of kilovolts, which is sufficient to produce electrical breakdown from relatively sharp edges of the basement over a distance of several meters (or more) along the ground surface. The resultant ground surface arcs will serve to reduce the equivalent grounding impedance and, hence, potential rise. Therefore, the polarity change of Ez near the Peissenberg tower, for which σ is probably about 1 mS/m, should be a rare phenomenon, if it occurs at all. The equivalent transient grounding impedance of the cylindrical basement is similar to that of a hemispherical grounding electrode of the same radius. For the 160-m tower and for hemispherical grounding electrode, the transient grounding impedance is higher than its dc grounding resistance for σ = 10 and 1 mS/m, but lower for σ = 0.1 mS/m. For the 553-m tower, the transient grounding impedance of hemispherical electrode is equal to or larger than its dc resistance for all values of σ considered.

  10. Number of siblings and allergic rhinitis in children

    OpenAIRE

    Soewira Sastra; Lily Irsa; Mohammad Sjabaroeddin Loebis; Rita Evalina

    2016-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis is one of the most common chronic diseases of childhood. Recent studies have suggested that having fewer siblings was associated with allergic rhinitis and atopic diseases in children. Previous studies also indicated that older siblings was associated with higher incidence of allergic rhinitis. Objectives To assess for a possible association between number of siblings and allergic rhinitis and to assess for an effect of birth order on allergic rhinitis in chil...

  11. Number of siblings and allergic rhinitis in children

    OpenAIRE

    Soewira Sastra; Lily Irsa; Muhammad Sjabaroeddin Loebis; Rita Evalina

    2016-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis is one of the most common chronic diseases of childhood. Recent studies have suggested that having fewer siblings was associated with allergic rhinitis and atopic diseases in children. Previous studies also indicated that older siblings was associated with higher incidence of allergic rhinitis. Objectives To assess for a possible association between number of siblings and allergic rhinitis and to assess for an effect of birth order on allergic rhinitis in child...

  12. The potential protective role of taurine against experimental allergic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sun-Young; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2017-09-01

    Taurine has been widely evaluated as a potential therapeutic agent in chronic inflammatory disorders and various infections. However, the potential role of taurine in regulating allergic inflammatory responses is currently unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro effects of taurine on the levels of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and other pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of caspase-1 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB as well as the phosphorylations of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-triggered human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells. Furthermore, we assessed the therapeutic effects of taurine on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis (AR) animal models. Here, the obtained results showed that taurine dose-dependently inhibited the production and mRNA expression of TSLP and pro-inflammatory cytokines in HMC-1 cells exposed to PMACI. Taurine attenuated the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 in activated HMC-1 cells. Moreover, taurine brought a significant inhibition of the activities of NF-κB and caspase-1. In an OVA-induced AR animal model, the increased levels of nose rubbing, histamine, immunoglobulin E, TSLP, and interleukin IL-1β were dramatically reduced by the administration of taurine. In summary, taurine could serve as potential novel remedy of allergic inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rutin suppresses atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2013-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common allergic inflammatory skin disease caused by a combination of eczematous, scratching, pruritus and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. The aim of our study was to examine whether rutin, a predominant flavonoid having anti-inflammatory and antioxidative potential, modulates AD and ACD symptoms. We established an atopic dermatitis model in BALB/c mice by repeated local exposure of house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae) extract (DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to the ears. In addition, 2,4-dinitroflourobenzene-sensitized a local lymph node assay was used for the ACD model. Repeated alternative treatment of DFE/DNCB caused AD symptoms. Topical application of rutin reduced AD based on ear thickness and histopathological analysis, in addition to serum IgE levels. Rutin inhibited mast cell infiltration into the ear and serum histamine level. Rutin suppressed DFE/DNCB-induced expression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-31, IL-32 and interferon (INF)-γ in the tissue. In addition, rutin suppressed ACD based on ear thickness and lymphocyte proliferation, serum IgG2a levels, and expression of INF-γ, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-17 and tumour necrosis factor-α in ACD ears. This study demonstrates that rutin inhibits AD and ACD, suggesting that rutin might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic skin diseases.

  14. Geological Effects on Lightning Strike Distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Berdahl, J. Scott

    2016-05-16

    Recent advances in lightning detection networks allow for detailed mapping of lightning flash locations. Longstanding rumors of geological influence on cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning distribution and recent commercial claims based on such influence can now be tested empirically. If present, such influence could represent a new, cheap and efficient geophysical tool with applications in mineral, hydrothermal and oil exploration, regional geological mapping, and infrastructure planning. This project applies statistical analysis to lightning data collected by the United States National Lightning Detection Network from 2006 through 2015 in order to assess whether the huge range in electrical conductivities of geological materials plays a role in the spatial distribution of CG lightning. CG flash densities are mapped for twelve areas in the contiguous United States and compared to elevation and geology, as well as to the locations of faults, railroads and tall towers including wind turbines. Overall spatial randomness is assessed, along with spatial correlation of attributes. Negative and positive polarity lightning are considered separately and together. Topography and tower locations show a strong influence on CG distribution patterns. Geology, faults and railroads do not. This suggests that ground conductivity is not an important factor in determining lightning strike location on scales larger than current flash location accuracies, which are generally several hundred meters. Once a lightning channel is established, however, ground properties at the contact point may play a role in determining properties of the subsequent stroke.

  15. Collective bargaining and strikes among physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, S N

    1984-11-01

    UNLIKE EMPLOYEES IN OTHER SECTORS OF THE ECONOMY, HEALTH CARE WORKERS ARE DIRECTED TOWARD ONE ULTIMATE GOAL: making people well and keeping them healthy. The development of collective bargaining and union activities during this century has had a great impact on all industries in the United States and the western world. However, only in recent years have workers in the health care sector been affected by the organized labor movement. The history of collective bargaining and strikes among physicians, the key decision-makers in the health care sector, is even more recent. Because of their central position, physicians' collective activity has had and will continue to have tremendous implications for the viability of the present health care system and the quality of patient care. Even though most physicians continue to function as individual, entrepreneurial service providers and "professionals," physicians as a group are more frequently being seen as members of a utility like industry. Their importance to individuals and society as a whole, it can be argued, is second to none; if physicians refuse to work there can be no worse set of outcomes. To estimate the potential future impact of growing collective action on the part of physicians, this article explores the general historical developments.

  16. World Allergy Organization-McMaster University Guidelines for Allergic Disease Prevention (GLAD-P): Vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes-Nuñez, Juan José; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Pawankar, Ruby; Cuello-Garcia, Carlos A; Zhang, Yuan; Morgano, Gian Paolo; Ahn, Kangmo; Al-Hammadi, Suleiman; Agarwal, Arnav; Gandhi, Shreyas; Beyer, Kirsten; Burks, Wesley; Canonica, Giorgio W; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Kamenwa, Rose; Lee, Bee Wah; Li, Haiqi; Prescott, Susan; Riva, John J; Rosenwasser, Lanny; Sampson, Hugh; Spigler, Michael; Terracciano, Luigi; Vereda, Andrea; Waserman, Susan; Schünemann, Holger J; Brożek, Jan L

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases is approximately 10 % in infants whose parents and siblings do not have allergic diseases and 20-30 % in those with an allergic first-degree relative. Vitamin D is involved in the regulation of the immune system and it may play a role in the development, severity and course of asthma and other allergic diseases. The World Allergy Organization (WAO) convened a guideline panel to develop evidence-based recommendations addressing the use of vitamin D in primary prevention of allergic diseases. Our WAO guideline panel identified the most relevant clinical questions and performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and non-randomized studies (NRS), specifically cohort and case-control studies, of vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of allergic diseases. We also reviewed the evidence about values and preferences, and resource requirements (up to January 2015, with an update on January 30, 2016). We followed the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to develop recommendations. Having reviewed the currently available evidence, the WAO guideline panel found no support for the hypothesis that vitamin D supplementation reduces the risk of developing allergic diseases in children. The WAO guideline panel suggest not using vitamin D in pregnant women, breastfeeding mothers, or healthy term infants as a means of preventing the development of allergic diseases. This recommendation does not apply to those mothers and infants who have other indications for prophylactic or therapeutic use of vitamin D. The panel's recommendations are conditional and supported by very low certainty evidence. WAO recommendations about vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of allergic diseases support parents, clinicians and other health care professionals in their decisions whether or not to use vitamin D in preventing allergic diseases in healthy, term infants.

  17. [Allergic inflamation of the lower airways in patients with allergic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanović, Lj; Balaban, J; Stosović, R; Mitrović, N; Djurasinović, M; Tanurdzić, S

    1994-01-01

    Reporting two of our cases we wanted to point to a great dilemma related to the final diagnosis. Recently, such cases have been more frewuently seen, since in all patients with allergic rhinitis conditions of the lower airways is examined before the administration of the specific immunotherapy. Therefore, we may see patients who are still free of pulmonary sings, despite of positive specific and/or non specific bronchoprovocative tests. The presented cases with evidenced allergic rhinitis are probably in the phase of development of allergic bronchial asthma, the phase of "allergic inflammation" of the lower airways, not clinically manifested yet.

  18. Management of Allergic Rhinitis: A Review for the Community Pharmacist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J Russell; Dolen, William K

    2017-12-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a highly prevalent disease affecting the quality of life of millions of North Americans. The management of allergic rhinitis includes allergen avoidance, pharmacotherapy, and immunotherapy. Current pharmacologic options include oral and intranasal antihistamines, intranasal corticosteroids, oral and intranasal decongestants, oral and intranasal anticholinergics, and leukotriene receptor antagonists. Second-generation oral antihistamines and intranasal corticosteroids are the mainstays of treatment, with practice guidelines recommending intranasal corticosteroids as first-line treatment for moderate to severe allergic rhinitis. Clinical trials studying a widely used intranasal corticosteroid, fluticasone propionate, in comparison with second-generation oral antihistamines, cetirizine, loratadine, or montelukast, were selected to support the comparative review of the efficacy and tolerability of these 2 classes of medications. Studies evaluating the combination of fluticasone propionate with an oral antihistamine were also included to review the efficacy and tolerability of combination therapy to treat allergic rhinitis. Studies comparing fluticasone propionate with cetirizine had mixed findings; fluticasone propionate was found to have equal or greater efficacy in reducing nasal symptom scores. Combination therapy of fluticasone propionate and the oral antihistamine, loratadine, was found to have efficacy comparable with that of intranasal corticosteroid alone. Many of these medications are available over the counter in the pharmacy, and the community pharmacist plays an important role as part of the patient's health care team in managing this disease. Pharmacotherapy is patient-specific, based on type, duration, and severity of symptoms, comorbidities, prior treatment, and patient preference. This article aims to provide an overview of the pathophysiology, available treatment options, guideline recommendations, and role of the pharmacist for

  19. Concussion in professional football: biomechanics of the striking player--part 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viano, David C; Pellman, Elliot J

    2005-02-01

    Concussive impacts in professional football were simulated in laboratory tests to determine the collision mechanics resulting in injury to the struck player and the biomechanics of the striking players, who were not concussed or neck-injured in the tackle. Twenty-seven helmet-to-helmet collisions were reconstructed in laboratory tests using Hybrid III dummies. The head impact velocity, direction, and kinematics matched game video. Translational and rotational head accelerations and six-axis upper neck loads and moments were used to evaluate how the striking player delivered the concussive blow. The neck injury criterion, Nij, was calculated to assess neck injury risks in the striking player. The time-averaged impact force reached 6372 +/- 2486 N at 7.2 milliseconds because of 46.8 +/- 21.7 g head acceleration and 3624 +/- 1729 N neck compression force in the striking player. Fifty-seven percent of the load was contributed by neck compression. The striking players had their heads down and lined up the impact axis through their necks and torsos. This allowed momentum transfer with minimal neck bending and increased the effective mass of the striking player to 1.67 times that of the struck player at peak load. The impact caused 94.3 +/- 27.5 g head acceleration in the concussed players and 67.9 +/- 14.5 g without concussion (t = 2.06, df = 25, P = 0.025). The striking player's Nij was greater than tolerance in 9 of 27 cases by exceeding the 4000 N neck compression limit. For these cases, the average neck compression force was 6631 +/- 977 N (range, 5210-8194 N). Nij was 1.25 +/- 0.16 for eight cases above the tolerance Nij = 1.0. In the NFL, striking players line up their heads, necks, and torsos to deliver maximum force to the other player in helmet-to-helmet impacts. The concussive force is from acceleration of the striking player's head and torso load through the neck. Even though neck responses exceeded tolerances, no striking player experienced neck injury or

  20. Component resolved testing for allergic sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, Kirsten; Poulsen, Lars K

    2010-01-01

    Component resolved diagnostics introduces new possibilities regarding diagnosis of allergic diseases and individualized, allergen-specific treatment. Furthermore, refinement of IgE-based testing may help elucidate the correlation or lack of correlation between allergenic sensitization and allergi...

  1. The role of Probiotics in allergic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail Sonia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergic disorders are very common in the pediatric age group. While the exact etiology is unclear, evidence is mounting to incriminate environmental factors and an aberrant gut microbiota with a shift of the Th1/Th2 balance towards a Th2 response. Probiotics have been shown to modulate the immune system back to a Th1 response. Several in vitro studies suggest a role for probiotics in treating allergic disorders. Human trials demonstrate a limited benefit for the use of probiotics in atopic dermatitis in a preventive as well as a therapeutic capacity. Data supporting their use in allergic rhinitis are less robust. Currently, there is no role for probiotic therapy in the treatment of bronchial asthma. Future studies will be critical in determining the exact role of probiotics in allergic disorders.

  2. National prevalence of respiratory allergic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahl, R; Andersen, PS; Chivato, T; Valovirta, E; De Monchy, J

    Background: Many epidemiological studies have assessed the prevalence of respiratory allergic disorders in confined geographical locations. However, no study has yet established nationally prevalence data in a uniform manner representing whole countries and, thus, enabling cross-national

  3. Japanese guidelines for allergic rhinitis 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihiro Okubo

    2017-04-01

    To incorporate evidence based medicine (EBM introduced from abroad, the most recent collection of evidence/literature was supplemented to the Practical Guideline for the Management of Allergic Rhinitis in Japan 2016. The revised guideline includes assessment of diagnosis/treatment and prescriptions for children and pregnant women, for broad clinical applications. An evidence-based step-by-step strategy for treatment is also described. In addition, the QOL concept and cost benefit analyses are also addressed. Along with Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact of Asthma (ARIA, this guideline is widely used for various clinical purposes, such as measures for patients with sinusitis, childhood allergic rhinitis, oral allergy syndrome, and anaphylaxis and for pregnant women. A Q&A section regarding allergic rhinitis in Japan was added to the end of this guideline.

  4. [Allergic reaction during anesthesia: two case reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Shinji; Futagawa, Koichi; Sugiura, Junko; Uchida, Tomohisa; Okuda, Takahiko; Koga, Yoshihisa

    2009-10-01

    We experienced two cases of serious and potentially life-threatening allergic reactions. The first patient was a 28-year-old male patient scheduled for surgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations and another patient was a 66-year-old male patient scheduled for hepatic resection. After uneventful anesthetic induction, anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane, air and oxygen. Both patients developed allergic reactions characterized by cardiovascular failure during anesthesia. Resuscitative treatment included rapid fluid infusion, administration of adrenaline and steroid. Both patients were successfully resuscitated without any lasting sequelae. The causative agent in one of these cases was probably a prophylactically used antibiotic, while that of the other case was a reaction to latex. Both patients showed elevated histamine and tryptase concentrations in blood samples. Recently, the incidence of allergic reactions to antibiotics and latex during anesthesia is increasing. Anesthesiologists should, therefore, be aware of the possibility of allergic reactions to all drugs and substances, especially to latex, during the perioperative period.

  5. Evaluating a novel endophytic grass for suppressing invertebrates that contribute to bird strike risk at airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Tall fescue containing a selected strain of the fungal endophyte Epichlöe coenophiala purported to express high levels of bioactive alkaloids (Avanex®) was recently commercialized for reducing airport bird strike hazard. We compared bioactivity of Avanex and KY 31, a ubiquitous cultivar...

  6. Desloratadine and levocetirizine improve nasal symptoms, airflow, and allergic inflammation in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciprandi, Giorgio; Cirillo, Ignazio; Vizzaccaro, Andrea; Civardi, Elisa; Barberi, Salvatore; Allen, Michela; Marseglia, Gian Luigi

    2005-12-01

    Nasal obstruction is the main symptom in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis. Some new antihistamines have been demonstrated to be capable of improving this symptom. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate nasal symptoms, nasal airflow, eosinophils, and IL-4 in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis, before and after treatment with two new antihistamines: desloratadine and levocetirizine. Thirty patients with perennial allergic rhinitis were evaluated, 26 males and 4 females (mean age 26+/-7.1 years). All of them received either desloratadine (5 mg/daily) or levocetirizine (5 mg/daily) or placebo for 4 weeks. The study was double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, and randomized. Total symptom score (including: rhinorrhea, nasal itching, sneezing, and nasal obstruction) was assessed before and after treatment. Rhinomanometry and decongestion test, nasal lavage, and nasal scraping were performed in all subjects before and after treatment. Eosinophils were counted by conventional staining; IL-4 was measured by immunoassay of fluids recovered from nasal lavage. Desloratadine and levocetirizine treatment induced significant symptom relief and significant reduction of IL-4. Both antihistamines significantly affected all parameters in comparison with placebo. This pilot study demonstrates the effectiveness of antihistaminic treatment in: i) relieving nasal symptoms, including obstruction, ii) improving nasal airflow, iii) exerting decongestant activity, iv) reducing eosinophil infiltration, and v) diminishing IL-4 levels.

  7. Children on hunger strike: child abuse or legitimate protest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, A.; Nelson, E. A.; Murphy, J.; Hampson, A.; Hendriks, J. H.

    1996-01-01

    The issue of children on hunger strike (voluntary total fasting) has not been reported before. The World Medical Association Declaration of Tokyo 1975 and the Declaration of Malta 1991 (revised 1992) provide clinicians with guidelines for the management of adult patients on hunger strike but do not mention children. We report the management of 14 Vietnamese children, aged 1 to 12 years, who took part in a hunger strike at a refugee detention centre in Hong Kong. PMID:8597690

  8. Children on hunger strike: child abuse or legitimate protest?

    OpenAIRE

    Mok, A.; Nelson, E. A.; Murphy, J.; Hampson, A.; Hendriks, J. H.

    1996-01-01

    The issue of children on hunger strike (voluntary total fasting) has not been reported before. The World Medical Association Declaration of Tokyo 1975 and the Declaration of Malta 1991 (revised 1992) provide clinicians with guidelines for the management of adult patients on hunger strike but do not mention children. We report the management of 14 Vietnamese children, aged 1 to 12 years, who took part in a hunger strike at a refugee detention centre in Hong Kong.

  9. The effect of hand dominance on martial arts strikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Silva, Jansen Henrique; Marzullo, Ana Carolina de Miranda; Bolander, Richard P; Bir, Cynthia A

    2012-08-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare dominant and non-dominant martial arts palm strikes under different circumstances that usually happen during martial arts and combative sports applications. Seven highly experienced (10±5 years) right hand dominant Kung Fu practitioners performed strikes with both hands, stances with left or right lead legs, and with the possibility or not of stepping towards the target (moving stance). Peak force was greater for the dominant hand strikes (1593.76±703.45 N vs. 1042.28±374.16 N; p<.001), whereas no difference was found in accuracy between the hands (p=.141). Additionally, peak force was greater for the strikes with moving stance (1448.75±686.01 N vs. 1201.80±547.98 N; p=.002) and left lead leg stance (1378.06±705.48 N vs. 1269.96±547.08 N). Furthermore, the difference in peak force between strikes with moving and stationary stances was statistically significant only for the strikes performed with a left lead leg stance (p=.007). Hand speed was higher for the dominant hand strikes (5.82±1.08 m/s vs. 5.24±0.78 m/s; p=.001) and for the strikes with moving stance (5.79±1.01 m/s vs. 5.29±0.90 m/s; p<.001). The difference in hand speed between right and left hand strikes was only significant for strikes with moving stance. In summary, our results suggest that the stronger palm strike for a right-handed practitioner is a right hand strike on a left lead leg stance moving towards the target. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Nasal hyperreactivity and inflammation in allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Garrelds

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of allergic disease goes back to 1819, when Bostock described his own ‘periodical affection of the eyes and chest’, which he called ‘summer catarrh’. Since they thought it was produced by the effluvium of new hay, this condition was also called hay fever. Later, in 1873, Blackley established that pollen played an important role in the causation of hay fever. Nowadays, the definition of allergy is ‘An untoward physiologic event mediated by a variety of different immunologic reactions’. In this review, the term allergy will be restricted to the IgE-dependent reactions. The most important clinical manifestations of IgE-dependent reactions are allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma and atopic dermatitis. However, this review will be restricted to allergic rhinitis. The histopathological features of allergic inflammation involve an increase in blood flow and vascular permeability, leading to plasma exudation and the formation of oedema. In addition, a cascade of events occurs which involves a variety of inflammatory cells. These inflammatory cells migrate under the influence of chemotactic agents to the site of injury and induce the process of repair. Several types of inflammatory cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. After specific or nonspecific stimuli, inflammatory mediators are generated from cells normally found in the nose, such as mast cells, antigen-presenting cells and epithelial cells (primary effector cells and from cells recruited into the nose, such as basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, platelets and neutrophils (secondary effector cells. This review describes the identification of each of the inflammatory cells and their mediators which play a role in the perennial allergic processes in the nose of rhinitis patients.

  11. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis: A Perplexing Clinical Entity

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Ashok; Panjabi, Chandramani

    2016-01-01

    In susceptible individuals, inhalation of Aspergillus spores can affect the respiratory tract in many ways. These spores get trapped in the viscid sputum of asthmatic subjects which triggers a cascade of inflammatory reactions that can result in Aspergillus-induced asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), and allergic Aspergillus sinusitis (AAS). An immunologically mediated disease, ABPA, occurs predominantly in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF). A set of criteria, ...

  12. Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis - Outcomes of Multimodality Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Baisakhi Bakat; Subhendu Chowdhury; Amitabha Roy Chowdhury; Soumitra Ghosh; Barin Kumar Roychaudhuri

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective : To evaluate the treatment outcomes of multimodality therapy for allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. Study Design: Prospective Observational Study. Materials&methods : This study was carried out in the department of ENT & Head neck Surgery, Vivekananda Institute of Medical Sciences, Ramakrishna Mission Seva Pratishthan, Kolkata from January 2010 to July 2011. During this study period of one & half years, 20 subjects having Allergic Fungal Sinusitis were selected fr...

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by dorzolamide eyedrops

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung-Jun; Kim, Moosang

    2015-01-01

    Seung-Jun Lee, Moosang KimDepartment of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, KoreaAbstract: The side effects of topical dorzolamide hydrochloride, such as conjunctivitis, eyelid edema, and eye lid irritation, are well known. However, allergic contact dermatitis due to dorzolamide is rare, although the product has been commonly used worldwide in patients with glaucoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of allergic contact dermatitis ca...

  14. Study of Allergic Rhinitis in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Balatsouras, Dimitrios G.; Koukoutsis, George; Ganelis, Panayotis; Fassolis, Alexandros; Korres, George S.; Kaberos, Antonis

    2011-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is common among children and quite often represents a stage of the atopic march. Although sensitization to food and airborne allergens may appear in infancy and early childhood, symptoms of the disease are usually present after age 3. The aim of this study was to determine the most frequent food and indoor and outdoor respiratory allergens involved in allergic rhinitis in children in the region of Piraeus. The study was performed in the outpatient clinic of otolaryngologic a...

  15. Role of ROCK2 in CD4+cells in allergic airways responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, D I; Mathews, J A; Ninin, F M C; Wurmbrand, A P; Liao, J K; Shore, S A

    2017-02-01

    Rho kinases (ROCKs) contribute to allergic airways disease. ROCKs also play a role in lymphocyte proliferation and migration. To determine the role of ROCK2 acting within CD4 + cells in allergic airways responses. ROCK2-haploinsufficient (ROCK2 +/- ) and wild-type mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA). ROCK2 +/- mice then received either CD4 + cells from ROCK2-sufficient OVA TCR transgenic (OT-II) mice or saline i.v. 48 h before challenge with aerosolized OVA. Wild-type mice received saline before challenge. Allergic airways responses were measured 48 h after the last challenge. Allergic airways responses were also assessed in mice lacking ROCK2 only in CD4 + cells (ROCK2 CD 4Cre mice) vs. control (CD4-Cre and ROCK2 flox/flox ) mice. OVA-induced increases in bronchoalveolar lavage lymphocytes, eosinophils, IL-13, IL-5, and eotaxin were reduced in ROCK2 +/- vs. wild-type mice, as were airway hyperresponsiveness and mucous hypersecretion. In ROCK2 +/- mice, adoptive transfer with CD4 + cells from OT-II mice restored effects of OVA on lymphocytes, eosinophils, IL-13, IL-5, and mucous hypersecretion to wild-type levels, whereas eotaxin and airway hyperresponsiveness were not affected. ROCK2 inhibitors reduced IL-13-induced release of eotaxin from airway smooth muscle (ASM), similar to effects of these inhibitors on ASM contractility. Despite the ability of adoptive transfer to restore allergic airways inflammation in ROCK2-insufficient mice, allergic inflammation was not different in ROCK2 CD 4Cre vs. control mice. ROCK2 contributes to allergic airways responses likely via effects within ASM cells and within non-lymphocyte cells involved in lymphocyte activation and migration into the airways. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Debunking the viper's strike: harmless snakes kill a common assumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, David A; Sawvel, Baxter; Moon, Brad R

    2016-03-01

    To survive, organisms must avoid predation and acquire nutrients and energy. Sensory systems must correctly differentiate between potential predators and prey, and elicit behaviours that adjust distances accordingly. For snakes, strikes can serve both purposes. Vipers are thought to have the fastest strikes among snakes. However, strike performance has been measured in very few species, especially non-vipers. We measured defensive strike performance in harmless Texas ratsnakes and two species of vipers, western cottonmouths and western diamond-backed rattlesnakes, using high-speed video recordings. We show that ratsnake strike performance matches or exceeds that of vipers. In contrast with the literature over the past century, vipers do not represent the pinnacle of strike performance in snakes. Both harmless and venomous snakes can strike with very high accelerations that have two key consequences: the accelerations exceed values that can cause loss of consciousness in other animals, such as the accelerations experienced by jet pilots during extreme manoeuvres, and they make the strikes faster than the sensory and motor responses of mammalian prey and predators. Both harmless and venomous snakes can strike faster than the blink of an eye and often reach a target before it can move. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Spinal motoneurone distress during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, L; Giuliani, A; Fernandez, M; Calzà, L

    2004-10-01

    The main pathophysiological feature characterizing multiple sclerosis (MS) is demyelination. However, the possibility of neural damage has recently been proposed as a mechanism in chronic disease. Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the most widely used experimental model for MS. We investigated occurrences of microglial activation and astrocytosis in the spinal cord, choline acetyl-transferase (ChAT) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) mRNA regulation in spinal motoneurones during EAE. EAE was induced in female Lewis rats by injecting guinea pig spinal cord tissue in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) to which heat-inactivated Mycobacterium had been added. Rats injected with CFA and uninjected rats were used as controls. ChAT and CGRP mRNAs were studied by in situ hybridization in the lumbar spinal cord and a computerized grain counting procedure was used for quantification. No differences in ChAT mRNA level were found between control and CFA-injected rats. ChAT mRNA level was strongly reduced in EAE 14 days after immunization and then recovered (29 days after immunization). CGRP mRNA increased 14 days after immunization, and then recovered to control level. Extensive long-lasting gliosis developed in the spinal cord and around motoneurones and a transient expression of p75LNGFR in motoneurones was also found. These data suggest that during EAE, gliosis induces distress in spinal cord neurones involving the synthesis enzyme for the main transmitter.

  18. Prevention of allergic reactions in anesthetized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarelli, C; Stringari, G; Miraglia Del Giudice, M; Crisafulli, G; Cardinale, F; Peroni, D G; Bernardini, R

    2011-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions during perioperative period are increasing and may be potentially life-threatening. Therefore, major emphasis is given to prevention. We perform a review to examine which measures should be taken to prevent reactions to products used in elective and emergency surgery. Any patient with a history of previous anaphylaxis or severe reaction during anaesthesia should be referred to allergist for detection of the offending compound. However, the identification of the triggering agent is not always feasible because of the low accuracy of diagnostic tests. In these cases and when emergency surgery is required, it should be considered to replace all drugs administered before the onset of the reaction with alternatives. Furthermore, any cross-reacting agent and latex, especially in patients belonging to populations at-risk for latex allergy should be avoided. In susceptible patients, premedication with antihistamines and corticosteroids might reduce the severity of reaction to drugs or contrast material while it is unclear whether pre-treatment decreases incidence of anaphylactic reactions. There is no evidence that premedication prevents allergic reactions to latex. Overall, physicians should not rely on the efficacy of premedication.

  19. Strong Algerian Earthquake Strikes Near Capital City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, A.; Maouche, S.; Harbi, A.; Meghraoui, M.; Beldjoudi, H.; Oussadou, F.; Mahsas, A.; Benouar, D.; Heddar, A.; Rouchiche, Y.; Kherroubi, A.; Frogneux, M.; Lammali, K.; Benhamouda, F.; Sebaï, A.; Bourouis, S.; Alasset, P. J.; Aoudia, A.; Cakir, Z.; Merahi, M.; Nouar, O.; Yelles, A.; Bellik, A.; Briole, P.; Charade, O.; Thouvenot, F.; Semane, F.; Ferkoul, A.; Deramchi, A.; Haned, S. A.

    On 21 May 2003, a damaging earthquake of Mw 6.8 struck the region of Boumerdes 40 km east of Algiers in northern Algeria (Figure 1). The mainshock, which lasted ~ 36-40 s, had devastating effects and claimed about 2300 victims, caused more than 11,450 injuries, and left about 200,000 people homeless. It destroyed and seriously damaged around 180,000 housing units and 6000 public buildings with losses estimated at $5 billion. The mainshock was widely felt within a radius of ~ 400 km in Algeria. To the north, the earthquake was felt in southeastern Spain, including the Balearic Islands, and also in Sardinia and in southern France. The mainshock location, which was calculated at 36.91°N, 3.58°E (15 km offshore of Zemmouri; Figure 1), and the local magnitude (Md 6.4) are from seismic records of local stations. International seismological centers obtained Mw 6.8 (NEIC) with a thrust focal mechanism solution and 1.83 × 1026 dyne.cm for the seismic moment. A sequence of aftershocks affected the epicentral area with two strong shocks reaching Mw 5.8 on 27 and 29 May 2003. Field investigations allowed us to assign a maximum intensity X (European Macroseismic Scale 98) and to report rockfalls, minor surface cracks, and liquefaction phenomena. The mainshock was not associated with inland surface faulting, but one of the most striking coseismic effects is the coastal uplift and the backwash along the littoral of the Mitidja basin.

  20. Practice Makes Perfect?: The Changing Civilian Toll of CIA Drone Strikes in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery Plaw

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available U.S. officials have recently claimed that the CIA has sharply reduced the number of civilian casualties resulting from covert Predator and Reaper drone strikes in the Taliban-controlled agencies of Northwest Pakistan. Critics, especially in Pakistan, along with human rights NGOs have, however, questioned these claims. This article examines independent databases tracking the drone strikes and finds that there is significant support for the U.S. officials’ claims, or at least for their more moderate assertions. It also briefly reviews the explanations that have been offered for the declining civilian death toll from drone strikes. It shows that there is reason to believe that this development is the deliberate result of adjustments to CIA targeting procedures and improvements in spy networks and technology, and thus is likely to prove broadly sustainable at least for the immediate future.

  1. A decade of U.S. Air Force bat strikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peurach, Suzanne C.; Dove, Carla J.; Stepko, Laura

    2009-01-01

    From 1997 through 2007, 821 bat strikes were reported to the U.S. Air Force (USAF) Safety Center by aircraft personnel or ground crew and sent to the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, for identification. Many samples were identified by macroscopic and or microscopic comparisons with bat specimens housed in the museum and augmented during the last 2 years by DNA analysis. Bat remains from USAF strikes during this period were received at the museum from 40 states in the United States and from 20 countries. We confirmed that 46% of the strikes were caused by bats, but we did not identify them further; we identified 5% only to the family or genus level, and 49% to the species level. Fifty-five of the 101 bat-strike samples submitted for DNA analysis have been identified to the species level. Twenty-five bat species have been recorded striking USAF planes worldwide. The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis; n = 173) is the species most commonly identified in USAF strike impacts, followed by the red bat (Lasiurus borealis; n = 83). Bat strikes peak during the spring and fall, with >57% occurring from August through October; 82% of the reports that included time of strike were recorded between 2100 and 0900 hours. More than 12% of the bat strikes were reported at >300 m above ground level (AGL). Although $825,000 and >50% of this sum was attributable to 5 bat-strike incidents. Only 5 bats from the 10 most damaging bat strikes were identified to the species level, either because we did not receive remains with the reports or the sample was insufficient for identification.

  2. The Anti-Allergic Rhinitis Effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Shenqi by Regulating Mast Cell Degranulation and Th1/Th2 Cytokine Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yang-Yang; Zhou, Yi-Ming; Hu, Min; Li, Jin-Ze; Chen, Cheng-Juan; Wang, Yong-Jiang; Shi, Xiao-Yun; Wang, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Tian-Tai

    2017-03-22

    Shenqi is a traditional Chinese polyherbal medicine has been widely used for the treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR). The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-allergic rhinitis activity of Shenqi and explore its underlying molecular mechanism. Ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis rat model was used to evaluate the anti-allergic rhinitis effect of Shenqi. The effect of Shenqi on IgE-mediated degranulation was measured using rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. Primary spleen lymphocytes were isolated to investigate the anti-allergic mechanism of Shenqi by detecting the expression of transcription factors via Western blot and the level of cytokines (IL-4 and IFN-γ) via ELISA. In OVA-induced AR rat models, Shenqi relieved the allergic rhinitis symptoms, inhibited the histopathological changes of nasal mucosa, and reduced the levels of IL-4 and IgE. The results from the in vitro study certified that Shenqi inhibited mast cell degranulation. Furthermore, the results of GATA3, T-bet, p-STAT6, and SOCS1 expression and production of IFN-γ and IL-4 demonstrated that Shenqi balanced the ratio of Th1/Th2 (IFN-γ/IL-4) in OVA-stimulated spleen lymphocytes. In conclusion, these results suggest that Shenqi exhibits an obvious anti-allergic effect by suppressing the mast cell-mediated allergic response and by improving the imbalance of Th1/Th2 ratio in allergic rhinitis.

  3. Absolute probability estimates of lethal vessel strikes to North Atlantic right whales in Roseway Basin, Scotian Shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoop, Julie M; Vanderlaan, Angelia S M; Taggart, Christopher T

    2012-10-01

    Vessel strikes are the primary source of known mortality for the endangered North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis). Multi-institutional efforts to reduce mortality associated with vessel strikes include vessel-routing amendments such as the International Maritime Organization voluntary "area to be avoided" (ATBA) in the Roseway Basin right whale feeding habitat on the southwestern Scotian Shelf. Though relative probabilities of lethal vessel strikes have been estimated and published, absolute probabilities remain unknown. We used a modeling approach to determine the regional effect of the ATBA, by estimating reductions in the expected number of lethal vessel strikes. This analysis differs from others in that it explicitly includes a spatiotemporal analysis of real-time transits of vessels through a population of simulated, swimming right whales. Combining automatic identification system (AIS) vessel navigation data and an observationally based whale movement model allowed us to determine the spatial and temporal intersection of vessels and whales, from which various probability estimates of lethal vessel strikes are derived. We estimate one lethal vessel strike every 0.775-2.07 years prior to ATBA implementation, consistent with and more constrained than previous estimates of every 2-16 years. Following implementation, a lethal vessel strike is expected every 41 years. When whale abundance is held constant across years, we estimate that voluntary vessel compliance with the ATBA results in an 82% reduction in the per capita rate of lethal strikes; very similar to a previously published estimate of 82% reduction in the relative risk of a lethal vessel strike. The models we developed can inform decision-making and policy design, based on their ability to provide absolute, population-corrected, time-varying estimates of lethal vessel strikes, and they are easily transported to other regions and situations.

  4. Up-date on neuro-immune mechanisms involved in allergic and non-allergic rhinitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gerven, L.; Boeckxstaens, G.; Hellings, P.

    2012-01-01

    Non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) is a common disorder, which can be defined as chronic nasal inflammation, independent of systemic IgE-mediated mechanisms. Symptoms of NAR patients mimic those of allergic rhinitis (AR) patients. However, AR patients can easily be diagnosed with skin prick test or

  5. The burden of allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Although formerly regarded as a nuisance disease, allergic rhinitis (AR) has a considerable effect on quality of life and can have significant consequences if left untreated. The total burden of this disease lies not only in impaired physical and social functioning but also in a financial burden made greater when considering evidence that AR is a possible causal factor in comorbid diseases such as asthma or sinusitis. Compared with matched controls, patients with AR have an approximate twofold increase in medication costs and 1.8-fold the number of visits to health practitioners. Hidden direct costs include the treatment of comorbid asthma, chronic sinusitis, otitis media, upper respiratory infection, and nasal polyposis. Nasal congestion, the most prominent symptom in AR, is associated with sleep-disordered breathing, a condition that can have a profound effect on mental health, including increased psychiatric disorders, depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse. Furthermore, sleep-disordered breathing in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased disorders of learning performance, behavior, and attention. In the United States, AR results in 3.5 million lost workdays and 2 million lost schooldays annually. Patients struggle to alleviate their misery, frequently self-adjusting their treatment regimen of over-the-counter and prescription medications because of lack of efficacy, deterioration of efficacy, lack of 24-hour relief, and bothersome side effects. Ironically, health care providers overestimate patient satisfaction with therapy. Therefore, improvement in patient-practitioner communication may enhance patient adherence with prescribed regimens.

  6. Upper and lower airway pathology in young children with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo Lk

    2011-01-01

    Allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis are very common diseases in childhood in industrialized countries. Although these conditions are widely trivialized by both parents and physicians they induce a major impact on quality of life for the affected children and a substantial drainage of health care...... resources. Unfortunately, diagnostic specificity is hampered by nonspecific symptom history and lack of reliable diagnostic tests which may explain why the pathology behind such diagnoses is poorly understood. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology of allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis in young...... children may contribute to the discovery of new mechanisms involved in pathogenesis and help direct future research to develop correctly timed preventive measures as well as adequate monitoring and treatment of children with rhinitis. Asthma is a common comorbidity in subjects with allergic rhinitis...

  7. Reporting the Great Railroad Strike: How Ideology Shaped the News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, John

    The Great Railroad Strike of 1877, a national catastrophe and the major news story of the year, was the first national labor strike in U.S. history. Because of the ideological bias of the press, specifically its implicit commitment to capitalism and to objectivity (itself a "myth" of social order), newspapers of the period could be…

  8. The public's attitude towards strike action by healthcare workers and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The strength of the associations was determined by Cramer's V. Results. Results revealed strong opinions among the population regarding strikes, numerous misapprehensions when it comes to striking and rights, a poor awareness of other healthcare-related rights and the perception of poor treatment at public hospitals.

  9. Teaching Striking Skills in Elementary Physical Education Using Woodball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Seung Ho; Lee, Jihyun

    2017-01-01

    Object control (OC) skills are a part of fundamental motor skills and basic functional skills, which work as a prerequisite to becoming a skilled performer in many sports. Of various OC skills, striking is one of the most difficult to master due to a variety of interrelated movement components. A form of vertical or underarm striking is a more…

  10. LAW AND ETHICS OF STRIKES IN THE NIGERIAN HEALTH SYSTEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-06

    Oct 6, 2014 ... employment. Kidnapping has been affecting virtually every sector of the Nigerian economy. Thus it is not the right of any health worker to embark on strike. Rather the right to strike can be derived from the principle of collective bargaining, which according to Ahmed (2014) is an essential principle. Workers ...

  11. Ban on right to strike by police challenged

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünell, M.

    2008-01-01

    After months of negotiation between the police force and the minister of the interior on the renewal of the collective agreement, the police trade unions began threatening industrial action and strikes in December 2007. The courts were divided on the issue, with some ruling out strikes as a means of

  12. Martial arts striking hand peak acceleration, accuracy and consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Marzullo, Ana Carolina De Miranda; Bolander, Richard P; Bir, Cynthia A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to investigate the possible trade-off between peak hand acceleration and accuracy and consistency of hand strikes performed by martial artists of different training experiences. Ten male martial artists with training experience ranging from one to nine years volunteered to participate in the experiment. Each participant performed 12 maximum effort goal-directed strikes. Hand acceleration during the strikes was obtained using a tri-axial accelerometer block. A pressure sensor matrix was used to determine the accuracy and consistency of the strikes. Accuracy was estimated by the radial distance between the centroid of each subject's 12 strikes and the target, whereas consistency was estimated by the square root of the 12 strikes mean squared distance from their centroid. We found that training experience was significantly correlated to hand peak acceleration prior to impact (r(2)=0.456, p =0.032) and accuracy (r(2)=0. 621, p=0.012). These correlations suggest that more experienced participants exhibited higher hand peak accelerations and at the same time were more accurate. Training experience, however, was not correlated to consistency (r(2)=0.085, p=0.413). Overall, our results suggest that martial arts training may lead practitioners to achieve higher striking hand accelerations with better accuracy and no change in striking consistency.

  13. Select injury-related variables are affected by stride length and foot strike style during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Elizabeth R; Derrick, Timothy R

    2015-09-01

    Some frontal plane and transverse plane variables have been associated with running injury, but it is not known if they differ with foot strike style or as stride length is shortened. To identify if step width, iliotibial band strain and strain rate, positive and negative free moment, pelvic drop, hip adduction, knee internal rotation, and rearfoot eversion differ between habitual rearfoot and habitual mid-/forefoot strikers when running with both a rearfoot strike (RFS) and a mid-/forefoot strike (FFS) at 3 stride lengths. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 42 healthy runners (21 habitual rearfoot, 21 habitual mid-/forefoot) ran overground at 3.35 m/s with both a RFS and a FFS at their preferred stride lengths and 5% and 10% shorter. Variables did not differ between habitual groups. Step width was 1.5 cm narrower for FFS, widening to 0.8 cm as stride length shortened. Iliotibial band strain and strain rate did not differ between foot strikes but decreased as stride length shortened (0.3% and 1.8%/s, respectively). Pelvic drop was reduced 0.7° for FFS compared with RFS, and both pelvic drop and hip adduction decreased as stride length shortened (0.8° and 1.5°, respectively). Peak knee internal rotation was not affected by foot strike or stride length. Peak rearfoot eversion was not different between foot strikes but decreased 0.6° as stride length shortened. Peak positive free moment (normalized to body weight [BW] and height [h]) was not affected by foot strike or stride length. Peak negative free moment was -0.0038 BW·m/h greater for FFS and decreased -0.0004 BW·m/h as stride length shortened. The small decreases in most variables as stride length shortened were likely associated with the concomitant wider step width. RFS had slightly greater pelvic drop, while FFS had slightly narrower step width and greater negative free moment. Shortening one's stride length may decrease or at least not increase propensity for running injuries based on the variables

  14. Risk Considerations of Bird Strikes to Space Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Christy; Ring, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Within seconds after liftoff of the Space Shuttle during mission STS-114, a turkey vulture impacted the vehicle's external tank. The contact caused no apparent damage to the Shuttle, but the incident led NASA to consider the potential consequences of bird strikes during a Shuttle launch. The environment at Kennedy Space Center provides unique bird strike challenges due to the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge and the Atlantic Flyway bird migration routes. NASA is currently refining risk assessment estimates for the probability of bird strike to space launch vehicles. This paper presents an approach for analyzing the risks of bird strikes to space launch vehicles and presents an example. The migration routes, types of birds present, altitudes of those birds, exposed area of the launch vehicle, and its capability to withstand impacts affect the risk due to bird strike. A summary of significant risk contributors is discussed.

  15. Power electromagnetic strike machine for engineering-geological surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usanov, K. M.; Volgin, A. V.; Chetverikov, E. A.; Kargin, V. A.; Moiseev, A. P.; Ivanova, Z. I.

    2017-10-01

    When implementing the processes of dynamic sensing of soils and pulsed nonexplosive seismic exploration, the most common and effective method is the strike one, which is provided by a variety of structure and parameters of pneumatic, hydraulic, electrical machines of strike action. The creation of compact portable strike machines which do not require transportation and use of mechanized means is important. A promising direction in the development of strike machines is the use of pulsed electromagnetic actuator characterized by relatively low energy consumption, relatively high specific performance and efficiency, and providing direct conversion of electrical energy into mechanical work of strike mass with linear movement trajectory. The results of these studies allowed establishing on the basis of linear electromagnetic motors the electromagnetic pulse machines with portable performance for dynamic sensing of soils and land seismic pulse of small depths.

  16. Wavelet transform analysis of electromyography kung fu strikes data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Marzullo, Ana Carolina de Miranda

    2009-11-01

    In martial arts and contact sports strikes are performed at near maximum speeds. For that reason, electromyography (EMG) analysis of such movements is non-trivial. This paper has three main goals: firstly, to investigate the differences in the EMG activity of muscles during strikes performed with and without impacts; secondly, to assess the advantages of using Sum of Significant Power (SSP) values instead of root mean square (rms) values when analyzing EMG data; and lastly to introduce a new method of calculating median frequency values using wavelet transforms (WMDF). EMG data of the deltoid anterior (DA), triceps brachii (TB) and brachioradialis (BR) muscles were collected from eight Kung Fu practitioners during strikes performed with and without impacts. SSP results indicated significant higher muscle activity (p = 0.023) for the strikes with impact. WMDF results, on the other hand, indicated significant lower values (p = 0. 007) for the strikes with impact. SSP results presented higher sensitivity than rms to quantify important signal differences and, at the same time, presented lower inter-subject coefficient of variations. The result of increase in SSP values and decrease in WMDF may suggest better synchronization of motor units for the strikes with impact performed by the experienced Kung Fu practitioners. Key PointsThe results show higher muscle activity and lower electromyography median frequencies for strikes with impact compared to strikes without.SSP results presented higher sensitivity and lower inter-subject coefficient of variations than rms results.Kung Fu palm strikes with impact may present better motor units' synchronization than strikes without.

  17. Efficacy of topical application of 0.03% tacrolimus eye ointment in the management of allergic conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Ajit Kumar; Singh, Prodip Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis is commonly observed eye diseases in Sikkim, India due to the abundance of seasonal pollens, environmental pollutants, and house dust. We evaluated the efficacy of topical 0.03% tacrolimus eye ointment in the management of simple allergic conjunctivitis. A prospective observational study was designed consisting of 41 patients with refractory simple allergic conjunctivitis, whose condition responded very poorly to conventional anti-allergic eye drops (azelastine, olopatadine, chlorpheniramine maleate, sodium chromoglycate). Simple allergic conjunctivitis cases were diagnosed and followed up evaluating both subjective and objective findings (itching, photophobia, tearing, chemosis, conjunctival congestion, tarsal papilla, and eyelid edema). Existing ocular treatment was discontinued at enrolment and 0.03% tacrolimus ointment was applied into the conjunctival sac of the affected eyes twice daily for 4 weeks followed by a 2 weeks washout period. Patients were followed up at the end of 1(st) week, 4(th) week, and at 7(th) week (2 weeks washout period). Symptoms of simple allergic conjunctivitis (itching, tearing and photophobia) were significantly reduced at the end of 1(st) week. Signs such as conjunctival chemosis, congestion, tarsal papillae, and eyelid edema were effectively treated in all cases at the end of 1(st) week. At the end of 4(th) week, all cases were fully cured and none of the patient had any recurrences up to 7(th) week. Mean score at 1(st) day (9.6 ± 3.27) was significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced by 7(th) day (1.35 ± 1.19) of treatment. Topical application of tacrolimus ointment is an excellent alternative to anti-allergic and steroids eye drops for the treatment of simple allergic conjunctivitis as it significantly reduces recurrences.

  18. Paracetamol suppository induced allergic contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangaraj Murugaiyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol, a para-aminophenol derivative given systemically can produce allergic reactions and has been reported so far, but allergic reaction due to suppositories is very rare. A 4 month old male child brought by his mother with complaints of raised dark coloured skin lesions over the perianal region for the past 3 days. The child had history of (H/o of fever for 4 days back for which paracetamol suppository was prescribed following which the child developed the lesion over the perianal region On examination a well defined hyperpigmented plaque of size 5*3 cms extending from anal verge posteriorly and anteriorly upto the beginning of scrotum with lateral extensions from the centre to the gluteals. In our case, the paracetamol suppository used caused an allergic reaction which made the child very irritable and the child developed an allergic contact dermatitis in the site where the suppository was kept and the surrounding area. We report this case because paracetamol suppository as such without preservative causing allergic contact dermatitis has not been reported so far and the treating doctor should keep in mind such type of reactions that might occur when used.

  19. Can curcumin modulate allergic rhinitis in rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, M; Muluk, N Bayar; Yigitaslan, S; Cengiz, B P; Shojaolsadati, P; Karimkhani, H; Ada, S; Berkoz, M; Cingi, C

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of curcumin on experimental allergic rhinitis in rats. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups: a control group; a group in which allergic rhinitis was induced and no treatment given; a group in which allergic rhinitis was induced followed by treatment with azelastine hydrochloride on days 21-28; and a group in which allergic rhinitis was induced followed by treatment with curcumin on days 21-28. Allergy symptoms and histopathological features of the nasal mucosa were examined. The sneezing and nasal congestion scores were higher in the azelastine and curcumin treatment groups than in the control group. Histopathological examination showed focal goblet cell metaplasia on the epithelial surface in the azelastine group. In the curcumin group, there was a decrease in goblet cell metaplasia in the epithelium, decreased inflammatory cell infiltration and vascular proliferation in the lamina propria. Curcumin is an effective treatment for experimentally induced allergic rhinitis in rats.

  20. Allergic reactions seen in orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Görücü Coşkuner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergy can be defined as inappropriate and harmful response to harmless and ordinary materials. Allergic reactions, like in other fields of dentistry, can also be seen in the field of orthodontics. The reactions that occur against orthodontic materials can be seen as irritant or hypersensitivity reactions. The main reason of the irritant reactions is friction between soft tissues and orthodontic appliances. However, the reason of the hypersensitivity reactions is usually the antigenicity of the materials. Hypersensitivity reactions are usually seen as allergic contact dermatitis on face and neck; the occurrence of mucosal-gingival reactions and dermal and systemic reactions are rare. Latex, metal and acrylic resins are the most common allergens in orthodontics. Apart from these materials, allergic reactions can occur against bonding materials, extraoral appliances, disinfectants and antimicrobial agents. The reactions that occur against extraoral appliances usually result from metallic and elastic parts of the appliances or the appliance parts that are in contact with skin. Orthodontists should be aware of the allergic reactions to protect their patients’ health. The aim of this review was to evaluate the allergic reactions seen in orthodontic patients and discuss the cautions that orthodontists can take.

  1. Clinical verification in homeopathy and allergic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wassenhoven, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The literature on clinical research in allergic conditions treated with homeopathy includes a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT) for hay fever with positive conclusions and two positive RCTs in asthma. Cohort surveys using validated Quality of Life questionnaires have shown improvement in asthma in children, general allergic conditions and skin diseases. Economic surveys have shown positive results in eczema, allergy, seasonal allergic rhinitis, asthma, food allergy and chronic allergic rhinitis. This paper reports clinical verification of homeopathic symptoms in all patients and especially in various allergic conditions in my own primary care practice. For preventive treatments in hay fever patients, Arsenicum album was the most effective homeopathic medicine followed by Nux vomica, Pulsatilla pratensis, Gelsemium, Sarsaparilla, Silicea and Natrum muriaticum. For asthma patients, Arsenicum iodatum appeared most effective, followed by Lachesis, Calcarea arsenicosa, Carbo vegetabilis and Silicea. For eczema and urticaria, Mezereum was most effective, followed by Lycopodium, Sepia, Arsenicum iodatum, Calcarea carbonica and Psorinum. The choice of homeopathic medicine depends on the presence of other associated symptoms and 'constitutional' features. Repertories should be updated by including results of such clinical verifications of homeopathic prescribing symptoms. Copyright © 2012 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Allergic colitis: a mimic of Hirschsprung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, D.A. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Radiological Institute, Columbus Children`s Hospital, OH (United States); Buonomo, C. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Fishman, S.J. [Department of Surgery, Children`s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Furuta, G.; Nurko, S. [Department of Gastroenterology, Children`s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Background. Allergy to cow milk protein is a common cause of gastrointestinal symptoms in infancy. Milk allergy is usually a clinical diagnosis, and thus there have been few reports of the radiographic findings. Objective. To describe the barium enema findings of allergic colitis and differentiate them from Hirschsprung disease. Materials and methods. Four infants (age range 7 days-5 weeks) with constipation underwent barium enema to exclude Hirschsprung disease. Radiographic findings were correlated with the pathologic specimens from suction rectal biopsy. Results. All enemas revealed irregular narrowing of the rectum and a transition zone. Rectal biopsies in each case demonstrated ganglion cells and evidence of an allergic colitis, with inflammatory infiltrates in the lamina propria. A diagnosis of milk allergy colitis was made and symptoms resolved after removal of milk from the diet. Conclusions. Milk allergy is common in infancy. The rectum is a primary target organ, with allergic colitis often diagnosed on clinical grounds alone. However, a child with allergic colitis may be referred to radiology for barium enema, especially if constipation is present. The radiologist should be aware of the unique imaging findings of allergic colitis, so as to avoid confusion with Hirschsprung disease and perhaps an unnecessary rectal biopsy. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab., 17 refs.

  3. Allergic colitis: a mimic of Hirschsprung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, D.A.; Buonomo, C.; Fishman, S.J.; Furuta, G.; Nurko, S.

    1999-01-01

    Background. Allergy to cow milk protein is a common cause of gastrointestinal symptoms in infancy. Milk allergy is usually a clinical diagnosis, and thus there have been few reports of the radiographic findings. Objective. To describe the barium enema findings of allergic colitis and differentiate them from Hirschsprung disease. Materials and methods. Four infants (age range 7 days-5 weeks) with constipation underwent barium enema to exclude Hirschsprung disease. Radiographic findings were correlated with the pathologic specimens from suction rectal biopsy. Results. All enemas revealed irregular narrowing of the rectum and a transition zone. Rectal biopsies in each case demonstrated ganglion cells and evidence of an allergic colitis, with inflammatory infiltrates in the lamina propria. A diagnosis of milk allergy colitis was made and symptoms resolved after removal of milk from the diet. Conclusions. Milk allergy is common in infancy. The rectum is a primary target organ, with allergic colitis often diagnosed on clinical grounds alone. However, a child with allergic colitis may be referred to radiology for barium enema, especially if constipation is present. The radiologist should be aware of the unique imaging findings of allergic colitis, so as to avoid confusion with Hirschsprung disease and perhaps an unnecessary rectal biopsy. (orig.)

  4. Upper and lower airway pathology in young children with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawes, Bo L K

    2011-05-01

    Allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis are very common diseases in childhood in industrialized countries. Although these conditions are widely trivialized by both parents and physicians they induce a major impact on quality of life for the affected children and a substantial drainage of health care resources. Unfortunately, diagnostic specificity is hampered by nonspecific symptom history and lack of reliable diagnostic tests which may explain why the pathology behind such diagnoses is poorly understood. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology of allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis in young children may contribute to the discovery of new mechanisms involved in pathogenesis and help direct future research to develop correctly timed preventive measures as well as adequate monitoring and treatment of children with rhinitis. Asthma is a common comorbidity in subjects with allergic rhinitis and epidemiological surveys have suggested a close connection between upper and lower airway diseases expressed as the "united airways concept". Furthermore, an association between upper and lower airway diseases also seems to exist in non-atopic individuals. Nevertheless, the nature of this association is poorly understood and there is a paucity of data objectivizing this association in young children. The aim of this thesis was to describe pathology in the upper and lower airways in young children from the COPSAC birth cohort with investigator-diagnosed allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis. Nasal congestion is a key symptom in both allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis, and eosinophilic inflammation is a hallmark of the allergic diseases. In paper I, we studied nasal eosinophilia and nasal airway patency assessed by acoustic rhinometry in children with allergic rhinitis, non-allergic rhinitis and healthy controls. Allergic rhinitis was significantly associated with nasal eosinophilia and irreversible nasal airway obstruction suggesting chronic inflammation and structural remodeling

  5. Ankle and knee kinetics between strike patterns at common training speeds in competitive male runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhman, Daniel; Melcher, Daniel; Paquette, Max R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction of foot strike and common speeds on sagittal plane ankle and knee joint kinetics in competitive rear foot strike (RFS) runners when running with a RFS pattern and an imposed forefoot strike (FFS) pattern. Sixteen competitive habitual male RFS runners ran at two different speeds (i.e. 8 and 6 min mile(-1)) using their habitual RFS and an imposed FFS pattern. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess a potential interaction between strike pattern and speed for selected ground reaction force (GRF) variables and, sagittal plane ankle and knee kinematic and kinetic variables. No foot strike and speed interaction was observed for any of the kinetic variables. Habitual RFS yielded a greater loading rate of the vertical GRF, peak ankle dorsiflexor moment, peak knee extensor moment, peak knee eccentric extensor power, peak dorsiflexion and sagittal plane knee range of motion compared to imposed FFS. Imposed FFS yielded greater maximum vertical GRF, peak ankle plantarflexor moment, peak ankle eccentric plantarflexor power and sagittal plane ankle ROM compared to habitual RFS. Consistent with previous literature, imposed FFS in habitual RFS reduces eccentric knee extensor and ankle dorsiflexor involvement but produce greater eccentric ankle plantarflexor action compared to RFS. These acute differences between strike patterns were independent of running speeds equivalent to typical easy and hard training runs in competitive male runners. Current findings along with previous literature suggest differences in lower extremity kinetics between habitual RFS and imposed FFS running are consistent among a variety of runner populations.

  6. The active contribution of Toll-like receptors to allergic airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Keqiang; Xiang, Yi; Yao, Xiaohong; Liu, Ying; Gong, Wanghua; Yoshimura, Teizo; Wang, Ji Ming

    2011-10-01

    Epithelia lining the respiratory tract represent a major portal of entry for microorganisms and allergens and are equipped with innate and adaptive immune signaling receptors for host protection. These include Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that recognize microbial components and evoke diverse responses in cells of the respiratory system. TLR stimulation by microorganism-derived molecules activates antigen presenting cells, control T helper (Th) 1, Th2, and Th17 immune cell differentiation, cytokine production by mast cells, and activation of eosinophils. It is clear that TLR are involved in the pathophysiology of allergic airway diseases such as asthma. Dendritic cells (DCs), a kind of antigen presenting cells, which play a key role in the induction of allergic airway inflammation, are privileged targets for pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). During the allergic responses, engagement of TLRs on DCs determines the Th2 polarization of the T cells. TLR signaling in mast cells increases the release of IL-5, and TLR activation of airway epithelial cells forces the generation of proallergic Th2 type of cytokines. Although these responses aim to protect the host, they may also result in inflammatory tissue damage in the airway. Under certain conditions, stimulation of TLRs, in particular, TLR9, may reduce Th2-dependent allergic inflammation by induction of Th1 responses. Therefore, understanding the complex regulatory roles of TLRs in the pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation should facilitate the development of preventive and therapeutic measures for asthmatic patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficacy and safety of azelastine nasal spray for the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, S J; Craig, T J

    1999-07-01

    Azelastine hydrochloride is a nasally administered antihistamine that is effective and safe for the treatment of perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis. In addition to acting as a histamine H1-receptor antagonist, azelastine also inhibits the production or release of many chemical mediators of the allergic response such as leukotrienes, free radicals, and cytokines. After nasal administration, azelastine is systemically absorbed with a bioavailability of about 40%. The side effects of azelastine are drowsiness, headache, and bitter taste. Azelastine has a rapid onset of action with a benefit in about 2 hours and a prolonged duration of activity (12 to 24 hours). Studies have shown azelastine to be more effective than placebo in terms of reduction of the major and total symptom complexes of allergic rhinitis. Comparison studies have demonstrated that azelastine is as effective as ebastine, loratadine, cetirizine hydrochloride, and terfenadine at symptom reduction, with varying results when compared with the corticosteroids budesonide and beclomethasone. Although there are conflicting studies, some have demonstrated that azelastine reduces the nasal congestion of allergic rhinitis. This feature that distinguishes it from oral antihistamines is of great interest because corticosteroids are known to be quite effective for the relief of nasal congestion, whereas the antihistamines are effective for the sneezing, itchy eyes, itchy nose, and watery eyes, but not the congestion. Azelastine nasal spray seems to be an efficacious treatment for allergic rhinitis with a rapid onset and long duration of activity, but without the systemic adverse effects of traditional sedating antihistamines.

  8. Effect of the external nasal dilator on adolescent athleteswith and without allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinardi, Ricardo Reis; de Andrade, Cláudia Ribeiro; da Cunha Ibiapina, Cássio

    2017-06-01

    The ability to effectively breathe through the nose is an important component of physical exercise. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of the external nasal dilator (END) on healthy adolescent athletes and those with allergic rhinitis. Clinical trial, double-blind, crossover, in which we evaluated healthy adolescent athletes with allergic rhinitis, using experimental and placebo ENDs, submitted to a maximum cardio-respiratory test in randomized order. Predicted values for peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF%) and nasal resistance (NR) were obtained, and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was also assessed after the race test. 65 adolescents participated in the study, 30 of whom had allergic rhinitis. The use of experimental ENDs demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in peak nasal inspiratory flow values (predicted %), nasal resistance, maximal oxygen uptake value (VO 2 Max.) and rating of perceived exertion, both in the healthy group and the one with allergic rhinitis. Results suggested that END reduces nasal resistance, improves maximal oxygen uptake and rating of perceived exertion after a maximum cardio-respiratory test on healthy adolescents and those with allergic rhinitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Role of the Early-Life Environment in the Development of Allergic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegienka, Ganesa; Zoratti, Edward; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS A consensus has been reached that the development of incident allergic disorders are likely strongly influenced by early life exposures. An overview of several prenatal and early life factors that have been investigated for their associations with development of childhood allergy is presented. Delivery mode, the gut microbiome, Vitamin D, folate, breastfeeding, pets, antibiotics, environmental tobacco smoke and airborne traffic pollutants are discussed. Despite a large proportion of the studies suggesting an effect, overall no risk factors clearly increase or reduce the risk of allergic outcomes. PMID:25459574

  10. The Link between Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma: A Role for Antileukotrienes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Kim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis and asthma are both chronic heterogeneous disorders, with an overlapping epidemiology of prevalence, health care costs and social costs in quality of life. Both are inflammatory disorders with a similar pathophysiology, and both share some treatment approaches. However, each disorder has an array of treatments used separately in controlling these atopic disorders, from inhaled corticosteroids, beta2-agonists and antihistamines to newer monoclonal antibody-based treatments. The present article reviews the shared components of allergic rhinitis and asthma, and examines recent evidence supporting antileukotrienes as effective agents in reducing the symptoms of both diseases.

  11. Role of breast feeding in primary prevention of asthma and allergic diseases in a traditional society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, A; Ehlayel, M S; Alsowaidi, S; Sabbah, A

    2007-12-01

    The fact that breastfeeding may protect against allergic diseases remains controversial, with hardly any reports from developing countries. Prolonged breastfeeding was shown to reduce the risk of allergic and respiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between breastfeeding and the development of childhood asthma and allergic diseases in Qatari children at age 0-5 years. Additionally, this study investigated the effect of prolonged breastfeeding on the allergic diseases in a developing country. This is a cross sectional survey. Well baby clinics and Pediatric clinics in the 11 Primary Health Care Centers and Hamad General Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, State of Qatar. A multistage sampling design was used and a representative sample of 1500 Qatari infants and pre-school children with age range of 0-5 years and mothers aged between 18 to 47 years were surveyed during the period from October 2006 to September 2007 in Qatar. Out of the 1500 mothers of children, 1278 mothers agreed to participate in this study with the response rate of 85.2%. A confidential, anonymous questionnaire was completed by the selected subjects assessing breastfeeding and allergic diseases. Questionnaires were administered to women who were attending Primary Health Centers for child immunization. Questionnaire included allergic rhinitis, wheezing, eczema, and additional questions included mode and duration of breastfeeding, tobacco smoke exposure, number of siblings, family income, level of maternal education, parental history of allergies. Univariate and multivariate statistical methods were performed for statistical analysis. More than half of the infants (59.3%) were exclusively breastfed, followed by infants with partial breastfeeding (28.3%) and artificial fed (12.4%). There was a significant difference found across these three categories of infants in terms of their age groups, smoking status of father, socio-economic status and parental consanguinity

  12. Strikes by physicians: a historical perspective toward an ethical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen L; Salmon, J Warren

    2006-01-01

    Current conditions surrounding the house of medicine-including corporate and government cost-containment strategies, increasing market-penetration schemes in health care, along with clinical scrutiny and the administrative control imposed under privatization by managed care firms, insurance companies, and governments-have spurred an upsurge in physician unionization, which requires a revisiting of the issue of physician strikes. Strikes by physicians have been relatively rare events in medical history. When they have occurred, they have aroused intense debate over their ethical justification among professionals and the public alike, notwithstanding what caused the strikes. As physicians and other health care providers increasingly find employment within organizations as wage-contract employees and their work becomes more highly rationalized, more physicians will join labor organizations to protect both their economic and their professional interests. As a result, these physicians will have to come to terms with the use of the strike weapon. On the surface, many health care strikes may not ever seem justifiable, but in certain defined situations a strike would be not only permissible but an ethical imperative. With an exacerbation of labor strife in the health sector in many nations, it is crucial to explore the question of what constitutes an ethical physician strike.

  13. Determine the Foot Strike Pattern Using Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzyy-Yuang Shiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From biomechanical point of view, strike pattern plays an important role in preventing potential injury risk in running. Traditionally, strike pattern determination was conducted by using 3D motion analysis system with cameras. However, the procedure is costly and not convenient. With the rapid development of technology, sensors have been applied in sport science field lately. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the algorithm that can identify landing strategies with a wearable sensor. Six healthy male participants were recruited to perform heel and forefoot strike strategies at 7, 10, and 13 km/h speeds. The kinematic data were collected by Vicon 3D motion analysis system and 2 inertial measurement units (IMU attached on the dorsal side of both shoes. The data of each foot strike were gathered for pitch angle and strike index analysis. Comparing the strike index from IMU with the pitch angle from Vicon system, our results showed that both signals exhibited highly correlated changes between different strike patterns in the sagittal plane (r=0.98. Based on the findings, the IMU sensors showed potential capabilities and could be extended beyond the context of sport science to other fields, including clinical applications.

  14. Allergen-specific subcutaneous immunotherapy in allergic asthma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    term effect via modifying the natural course of allergy by interfering with the underlying immunological mechanisms. However, although SIT is effective in allergic rhinitis and insect venom allergy, in allergic asthma it seldom results in complete ...

  15. Allergic rhinitis is associated with otitis media with effusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner-Møller, E; Chawes, B L K; Thomasen, Per Caye

    2012-01-01

    Childhood otitis media with effusion is a common disease and a link to allergic diseases has been suggested.......Childhood otitis media with effusion is a common disease and a link to allergic diseases has been suggested....

  16. Serum periostin level is not associated with allergic rhinitis or allergic sensitization in Korean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Jeong Hong; Lee, Keun-Hwa; Hong, Seong-Chul; Lee, Hye-Sook; Kang, Ju Wan

    2017-02-01

    Periostin is a matricellular protein, synthesized in the airway epithelium and induced by interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13. The significance of periostin as a biomarker of T helper type 2 cell (Th2)-induced airway inflammation, and as a measure of the response to Th2-targeted therapy, has recently been highlighted. We explored the relationship between serum periostin and allergic rhinitis in Korean children. Data for fifth and sixth grade children from six randomly selected elementary schools located in Jeju and Seogwipo City, Korea, were investigated. Serum periostin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sex, school grade, body mass index, and presence of allergic nasal symptoms were obtained via a self-reported survey and skin prick testing was performed. There were no significant differences between groups, when stratification was applied according to sex, grade, presence of atopy, and presence of allergic nasal symptoms. Sex and body mass index were significantly associated with serum periostin levels in multivariate linear regression analysis. However, allergic rhinitis was not associated with serum periostin levels. Allergic rhinitis or allergic sensitization in Korean children did not influence serum periostin levels. Further studies are required to investigate the significance of serum periostin levels in pediatric allergic rhinitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Population-based Clinical Study of Allergic and Non-allergic Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, T.B.; Thomsen, S.F.; Nolte, H.

    2009-01-01

    to have AHR, OR = 0.40, (0.24-0.66), p 0.001, food allergy, OR = 0.28, (0.11-0.73), p = 0.009, and symptoms of rhinitis, OR = 0.08 (0.05-0.14) compared with subjects with allergic asthma. Subjects with non-allergic asthma had had persistent symptoms within the last 4 weeks more often than subjects......Background. The aim of this study was to describe differences between allergic and non-allergic asthma in a large community-based sample of Danish adolescents and adults. Methods. A total of 1,186 subjects, 14 to 44 years of age, who in a screening questionnaire had reported a history of airway...... individuals had clinical asthma of whom 61% had allergic asthma, whereas 39% had non-allergic asthma. Subjects with non-allergic asthma were more likely to be females, OR = 2.24 (1.32-3.72), p = 0.003, and to have cough as the predominant symptom, OR = 1.96, (1.19-3.23), p = 0.008, but were less likely...

  18. Pulmonary function tests and work-related respiratory and allergic symptoms in Iranian bakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hosein; Taheri, Ehsan; Ahmadi, Sina; Ebrahimi, Kolsoumeh; Soudaneh, Malihe; Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Sabourhasanzadeh, Alireza

    2009-06-01

    Bakers are frequently exposed to various irritant chemicals during work which can induce respiratory problems. In this study, pulmonary function tests and self-reported respiratory and allergic symptoms in bakers were compared with matched control subjects. The frequency of respiratory and allergic symptoms was evaluated in a sample of 58 Iranian bakers and 58 control subjects using a questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) were also measured in all participants. All respiratory symptoms were significantly higher in bakers than control croup (pbakers were also significantly greater than control group (pbakers compared to rest period (pbakers than control subjects (pbakers have a higher frequency of work related respiratory symptoms and to a lesser extend allergic symptoms particularly during the work period. PFT values were also significantly reduced among bakers.

  19. Pesticides are Associated with Allergic and Non-Allergic Wheeze among Male Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppin, Jane A; Umbach, David M; Long, Stuart; London, Stephanie J; Henneberger, Paul K; Blair, Aaron; Alavanja, Michael; Freeman, Laura E Beane; Sandler, Dale P

    2017-04-01

    Growing evidence suggests that pesticide use may contribute to respiratory symptoms. We evaluated the association of currently used pesticides with allergic and non-allergic wheeze among male farmers. Using the 2005-2010 interview data of the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective study of farmers in North Carolina and Iowa, we evaluated the association between allergic and non-allergic wheeze and self-reported use of 78 specific pesticides, reported by ≥ 1% of the 22,134 men interviewed. We used polytomous regression models adjusted for age, BMI, state, smoking, and current asthma, as well as for days applying pesticides and days driving diesel tractors. We defined allergic wheeze as reporting both wheeze and doctor-diagnosed hay fever ( n = 1,310, 6%) and non-allergic wheeze as reporting wheeze but not hay fever ( n = 3,939, 18%); men without wheeze were the referent. In models evaluating current use of specific pesticides, 19 pesticides were significantly associated ( p pesticides with non-allergic wheeze (19 positive, 2 negative); 11 pesticides were associated with both. Seven pesticides (herbicides: 2,4-D and simazine; insecticides: carbaryl, dimethoate, disulfoton, and zeta-cypermethrin; and fungicide pyraclostrobin) had significantly different associations for allergic and non-allergic wheeze. In exposure-response models with up to five exposure categories, we saw evidence of an exposure-response relationship for several pesticides including the commonly used herbicides 2,4-D and glyphosate, the insecticides permethrin and carbaryl, and the rodenticide warfarin. These results for farmers implicate several pesticides that are commonly used in agricultural and residential settings with adverse respiratory effects.

  20. Prevalence of Aeroallergens in Allergic Rhinitis in Shiraz

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Kashef; Mohammad Amin Kashef; Fardin Eghtedari

    2003-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is an extremely common disease worldwide. Aeroallergens are very often involved in allergic rhinitis and their prevalence may vary in differ¬ent regions. The causative allergens of allergic rhinitis in our area are unknown.The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of skin reactivity to different aeroallergens in patients with allergic rhinitis in the city of Shiraz, Iran.A total of 212 patients who were referred to Motahari Allergy Clinic with chronic rhi...

  1. Prevalence and comorbidity of allergic diseases in preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyeong Yun; Kwon, Eun Byul; Baek, Ji Hyeon; Shin, Youn Ho; Yum, Hye Yung; Jee, Hye Mi; Yoon, Jung Won; Han, Man Yong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Allergic disease and its comorbidities significantly influence the quality of life. Although the comorbidities of allergic diseases are well described in adult populations, little is known about them in preschool children. In the present study, we aimed to assess the prevalence and comorbidity of allergic diseases in Korean preschool children. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study comprising 615 Korean children (age, 3 to 6 years). Symptoms of allergic diseases were assessed us...

  2. Strike action by nurses in South Africa: A value clarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Muller

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The Labour Relations Act (South Africa, 1991 made provision for protected strike action by employees, subject to certain conditions, procedures and negotiated agreements. This led to the removal of the strike clause in the Nursing Act (South Africa, 1992. The labour rights of all citizens are entrenched in the Constitution of the country (South Africa, 1996. Participation in strike action by the nurse/ midwife, regardless of the legal requirements and specifications, does, however, pose an ethical question. It is therefore necessary to conduct a value clarification on strike action by nurses in South Africa. The purpose of this research is to explore and describe the perceived values of participants from an accessible population on this phenomenon. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive research design was deployed. The perceived values of nurses on strike action were collected by means of an openended questionnaire/sketch. Over a period of three years a purposive and convenient sampling method was used, involving all the enrolled post basic nursing/midwifery students/ learners at a particular Nursing Education Institution. The justification of the sample was further enhanced by also collecting data on the participants’ age and provincial distribution location. Although a 63% sample realisation (of the accessible population was achieved, this represents only 1,5% of the registered nursing/midwifery population in the country. A descriptive analysis of the participants’ age and provincial distribution was undertaken, as well as a content analysis of their perceived values on strike action. The mean age of the participants was 48 years, which could be attributed to the fact that most of them were enrolled for a post-basic Diploma in Community Nursing Science. Most of the responses (52,7% were against strike action and 32,5% supported strike action by nurses as a constitutional and legal right. A fairly substantial number of participants (14

  3. "Thunderstruck": penetrating thoracic injury from lightning strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Waes, Oscar J F; van de Woestijne, Pieter C; Halm, Jens A

    2014-04-01

    Lightning strike victims are rarely presented at an emergency department. Burns are often the primary focus. This case report describes the improvised explosive device like-injury to the thorax due to lightning strike and its treatment, which has not been described prior in (kerauno)medicine. Penetrating injury due to blast from lightning strike is extremely rare. These "shrapnel" injuries should however be ruled out in all patients struck by lightning. Copyright © 2013 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Do allergic families avoid keeping furry pets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, R J; Carlsen, K C L; Granum, B; Carlsen, K-H; Håland, G; Devulapalli, C S; Munthe-Kaas, M C; Mowinckel, P; Løvik, M

    2010-06-01

    Studies addressing the relationship between pet keeping and development of asthma and allergies may be influenced by pet avoidance in families with a history of allergic disease. Following a cohort of 1019 children in Oslo till 10 years of age, we studied the association of pet keeping with socio-economic factors and allergic disease in the family. A family history of asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis was not significantly associated with pet ownership at birth or with pet removal by 10 years. Acquiring cats and dogs was less likely if the child had allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, whereas no association was seen with asthma (in any family member). Single parenthood increased the likelihood of acquiring a cat, smoking parents more often had cats or dogs, and having older siblings was associated with keeping dogs and other furry pets. Among 319 families reporting pet avoidance, 70% never had pets, 8% had given up pets, and 22% avoided a particular type of pet only. Twenty-four per cent of the parents failed to retrospectively report pet keeping during the child's first year of life. Overall, allergic rhinitis, but not asthma was associated with actual pet avoidance, whereas the strongest predictors for keeping pets were found to be socio-economic factors. Allergic disease in a child most often does not lead to the removal of the family's furry pet. Pet avoidance is associated with allergic symptoms, but not asthma. Socio-economic factors like parental education, single parenthood and smoking affects the families' decisions on pet keeping, including the type of pets the families will avoid or acquire. The large recall error demonstrated points to the need for prospective data regarding pet keeping.

  5. Environmental allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.S.; Bokhari, S.R.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: to find out the common environmental allergens responsible for sensitivity in patients with allergic rhinitis. Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: A local allergy clinic in an urban area of Lahore during the year 2000-2001. Subjects and Methods: Eighty patients with allergic rhinitis irrespective of age and sex were studied. These cases were selected on the basis of symptoms like sneezing, itching, watery nasal discharge and eosinophilia in nasal secretions. Forty matched healthy subjects as controls were also studied. Allergy test was performed on all the subjects by skin prick test to determine sensitivity to common environmental allergens using Bencard (England) allergy kit. Results: common environmental allergens responsible for sensitivity in allergic rhinitis patients were house dust (82.5 %), house dust mites (73.7%), mixed threshing (80%), straw dust (58.7%, hay dust (63.7%), mixed feathers (45%), cat fur (57.5%), cotton flock (56.2%), tree pollens (45%) and grass pollens (48.7%). Sensitivity to these allergens was observed in significantly higher (P<0.01) percentage of allergic rhinitis patients as compared with control subjects. Sensitivity to house dust, house dust mites and cat fur was of severe degree in majority of allergic rhinitis patients. While sensitivity to mixed threshing, straw dust, hay dust and mixed feathers was of moderate to severe degree in majority of these patients. Conclusion: Skin prick tests provide an effective and definitive mean to find out sensitivity to different allergens in cases with allergic rhinitis. Based on these findings, the physician can manage these patients in better way. (author)

  6. Presentation and management of allergic fungal sinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thahim, K.; Jawaid, M.A.; Marfani, S.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the presentation of allergic fungal sinusitis and describe the line of management in our setup. Culture and sensitivity / fungal stain proven 20 cases of allergic fungal sinusitis were selected for the study, irrespective of age and gender. Data including age, gender, socioeconomic status, signs, symptoms, laboratory findings (especially Immunoglobulin E and eosinophil count) and imaging studies (Computed Tomography and /or Magnetic Resonance Imaging) were noted for the study. Pre and postoperative medical treatment, surgery performed, follow-up; residual/recurrence disease and revised surgery performed were also recorded. In this series, allergic fungal sinusitis was a disease of younger age group with an average age of 20.75 years with male dominance (70%). Poor socioeconomic status (80%), allergic rhinitis (100%) and nasal polyposis (100%) were important associated factors. Nasal obstruction (100%), nasal discharge (90%), postnasal drip (90%) and unilateral nasal and paranasal sinuses involvement (60%) were the commonest presenting features. Aspergillus (60%) was the most common etiological agent. In all cases (100%), increased eosinophil count and IgE levels were present. Orbital (20%) and intracranial (10%) involvement were also seen. Surgical management was preferred in all cases. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery in 90% cases and lateral rhinotomy in 10% cases were performed. Recurrence / residual disease was seen in 20% cases. In this series, allergic fungal sinusitis was seen in immunocompetent, young males, belonging to poor socioeconomic status, suffering from allergic rhinitis and nasal polyposis, presenting with nasal obstruction, nasal discharge and postnasal drip. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery was the most important problem solving procedure while lateral rhinotomy was reserved for extensive disease. (author)

  7. Does providing written dietary advice improve the ingestion of non-allergic nuts in children with existing nut allergies? - A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, M; South, C; Quinn, P; Chan, D; Palmer, S; Netting, M; Gold, M

    2016-05-01

    Allergy to one or more nuts is common in children and often complete nut avoidance is advised. More recently, introduction of non-allergic nuts into the diet is advised by some allergists. This study aims to determine whether the provision of additional written dietary advice increases the ingestion of non-allergic nuts by children with nut allergy. Secondary aims include determining which factors facilitate or prevent successful inclusion of non-allergic nuts in the diet, and how inclusion influences quality of life, sensitization and the rate of nut reactions. This is a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial of children with nut allergy who were asked to ingest one or more non-allergic nuts. Participants were 75 children aged 2-16 years (Intervention=36, Control=39), recruited in Adelaide, Australia. Randomized participants were supplied with the intervention (recipe booklet and monthly reminder text messages) or provided standard verbal dietary advice. After 6 months participants were assessed by a blinded investigator with regard to nut ingestion, quality of life, sensitization and nut reactions. The intervention did not increase the ingestion of non-allergic nuts. A negative hospital challenge was a predictor of successful introduction. Parental report of child concern about a reaction was the greatest barrier. Ingestion of non-allergic nuts did not improve quality of life or change nut sensitization. Few nut reactions occurred during the study. Ingestion of non-allergic nuts by children with nut allergy was not improved by additional dietary intervention. Selective introduction of non-allergic nuts is difficult to achieve when the child is anxious about introduction and challenges cannot be done in a medically supervised setting. This dietary intervention did not improve non-allergic nut ingestion by nut allergic children. Hospital challenge increased introduction rates, whilst parentally reported child concern about a reaction reduced success. Non-allergic

  8. Cerebrospinal fluid leak mimicking allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketti, Anthony J; Cleri, Dennis J; Porwancher, Richard B; Panesar, Mandip; Villota, Francisco J; Seelagy, Marc M

    2005-01-01

    Rhinitis and rhinorrhea are common clinical complaints that may be allergic or nonallergic in etiology. Distinguishing between allergic and nonallergic etiologies can be difficult but necessary for treatment. Here, we present a case of a 50-year-old woman with > 20 years of rhinorrhea before a diagnosis of cerebrospinal fluid leak and a life-threatening complication occurred. It is essential that no symptom, especially that which persists and resists treatment, is trivialized. Here, we establish how a careful history and evaluation will direct the clinician to the correct diagnosis.

  9. Allergic and immunologic reactions to food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultekin, Fatih; Doguc, Duygu Kumbul

    2013-08-01

    For centuries, food additives have been used for flavouring, colouring and extension of the useful shelf life of food, as well as the promotion of food safety. During the last 20 years, the studies implicating the additives contained in foods and medicine as a causative factor of allergic reactions have been proliferated considerably. In this review, we aimed to overview all of the food additives which were approved to consume in EU and find out how common and serious allergic reactions come into existence following the consuming of food additives.

  10. [Epigenetics in allergic diseases and asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Rodríguez, José A; Krause, Bernardo J; Uauy, Ricardo; Casanello, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases and asthma are the result of complex interactions between genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic disease among children. In this article we review some environmental factors like: allergen exposition, tobacco, bacteria, microbial components, diet, obesity and stress, which influences during intrauterine and infancy life in the epigenetic regulation of asthma and allergic diseases. The review has been done in three models: in-vitro, animal and human. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Direct and nearby lightning strike interaction with test power distribution lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoene, Jens Daniel

    The interaction of direct and nearby rocket-triggered lightning with two unenergized three-phase power distribution lines of about 800 m length was studied at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing in Florida. A horizontally-configured line was tested in 1999 and 2000, a vertically-configured line in 2001, 2002, and 2003, and a vertically-configured line with overhead ground wire in 2004. All lines were equipped with arresters and, additionally, in 2003, the vertical line had a polemounted transformer. During the 2000, 2001, and 2002 direct strike experiments, arresters frequently failed, but there was no arrester failures either during the 2003 direct strike experiment when the transformer was on the line or during the 2004 direct strike experiment when the lightning current was injected into the overhead ground wire. All line configurations except the one tested in 2004 commonly exhibited flashovers. The division of return stroke currents for the vertically-configured line was initially similar to the division on the horizontally-configured line (that is, the arresters closest to the strike point conducted the bulk of the impulsive current). After some tens of microseconds the currents in all arresters on the vertically-configured line equalized, while the close arrester currents on the horizontally-configured line still conducted significantly more current than the remote arresters. The lightning current division for direct strikes to a phase conductor is successfully modeled with the Electromagnetic Transient Program (EMTP) for the vertically-configured line and, if the residual voltage of the close arresters is reduced by 20%, successfully modeled for the horizontally-configured line. Currents on the vertically-configured line induced by nearby lightning strikes were measured and compared to results calculated using the LIOV-EMTP96 code. It was found that during a lightning strike 11 m from a grounded line pole, a significant fraction of

  12. Allergic rhinitis and asthma: the link further unraveled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braunstahl, Gert-Jan; Hellings, Peter W.

    2003-01-01

    Allergic asthma and rhinitis are manifestations of the atopic syndrome. Although the diseases commonly occur together, it is still unclear why some allergic patients develop only asthma and others only rhinitis. The reason for the variety in clinical expression of allergic airway disease is not

  13. Atopic Dermatitis and Allergic Urticaria: Cutaneous Manifestations of Immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudinski, Martin Robert; Milner, Joshua D

    2017-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis and allergic urticaria are common conditions of the skin that can also be the presenting symptoms of uncommon diseases. Defects leading to immunodeficiency may be associated with atopic dermatitis or allergic urticaria. Unusually severe or otherwise atypical presentations of atopic dermatitis or allergic urticaria may lead to clinical suspicion of an underlying immunodeficiency. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Involvement of leukotrienes in allergic inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuany-Amorim, C; Cordeiro, R S; Vargaftig, B B

    1994-05-23

    The involvement of leukotrienes in the anaphylactic paw edema was investigated in sensitized boosted or unboosted mice. No difference was noted in the intensity of the antigen-induced paw edema between boosted and unboosted animals. Since the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, indomethacin and aspirin, were inactive, cyclooxygenase products are not involved in the anaphylactic reaction in boosted or unboosted mice. In contrast, the mixed lipoxygenase/cyclooxygenase inhibitor, BW 755C (3-amino-1-m-(trifluoroethyl)phenyl-2-pyrazoline), and the LTD4 (leukotriene D4) receptor antagonist, LY 171883 (1-(2-hydroxy-3-propyl-4-(4-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)butoxy)phenyl)eth anone, reduced the edema in boosted but not unboosted mice, suggesting the involvement of lipoxygenase metabolites in the allergic edema in boosted mice. Dexamethasone was only effective in inhibiting allergic edema in boosted mice when administered 12 h before provocation, but failed to reduce the edema in unboosted mice. Our results suggest that the booster injection during immunization shifts the anaphylactic mouse paw edema from a leukotriene-independent to a leukotriene-dependent reaction.

  15. ALLERGEN-SPECIFIC IMMUNOTHERAPY: VACCINES FOR ALLERGIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Fedorov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT is the most effective method of allergy treatment which consists of exposure to small doses of antigen responsible for development of allergic condition in the particular patient. Therefore, one may achieve desensitization to this antigen. The history of ASIT application lasts for more than 100 years, and, over this time, huge clinical evidence for the usage of the method has been accumulated. Use of ASIT causes reduction of allergy symptoms and treatment needs and, moreover, it has the potential for long-term clinical benefit, by preventing the development of allergy and its symptoms. The treatment affects basic immunological mechanisms responsible for the development of clinical symptoms. ASIT is an antiinflammatory, pathogenetic and prophylactic treatment of allergic airway disease. The review considers the results of major clinical trials of the ASIT applications for treatment of allergic diseases of the respiratory system (allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Various schemes of ASIT are discussed including its different variants (injectable and sublingual ASIT, the issues of preparation choice for ASIT from those currently available on the pharmaceutical market, patient selection criteria, and the issues of modern molecular allergodiagnostic (allergic sensitization mapping of the patient at molecular level, in order to optimize them. Immunological mechanisms of ASIT are also considered, since appropriate views are rather contraversial. The ASIT effect is mediated through the following basic immunological mechanisms: the suppressed increase of the eosinophil concentrations, reduced duration of the delayed hypersensitivity phase, as well as initiation and maintenance of the Th2-to-Th1-like immune response transition. Regulatory T-cells play a major role in implementation of the immunological mechanism in ASIT, they have a significant impact on the Th2 response suppression. Such suppression may proceed

  16. Association between allergic diseases and ophthalmologic diseases, including cataracts and glaucoma, using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012: A STROBE-compliant article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Bok; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kang, Min Ji; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Jin-Wou; Yu, Dong Soo; Han, Kyung Do; Park, Yong Gyu

    2018-01-04

    This study investigated the association between allergic diseases and comorbid ophthalmologic diseases. We enrolled 14 776 participants who were at least 19 years of age. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the odds ratios for cataracts and glaucoma according to the presence of allergic diseases. Atopic dermatitis was not associated with the development of cataracts and glaucoma. However, asthma and allergic rhinitis were significantly associated with cataracts (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.511, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.120-2.039 and HR = 1.565, 95% CI = 1.192-2.054, respectively). This study examined a nationwide, population-based survey, and concluded that cataracts were significantly associated with asthma and allergic rhinitis but not with atopic dermatitis. Efforts should be made to reduce the risk of ophthalmologic complications when treating patients with allergic diseases. © 2018 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  17. Continental United States Hurricane Strikes 1950-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Continental U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster is our most popular poster which is updated annually. The poster includes all hurricanes that affected the U.S. since...

  18. 2005 Significant U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2005 Significant U.S. Hurricane Strikes poster is one of two special edition posters for the Atlantic Hurricanes. This beautiful poster contains two sets of...

  19. Ethical and legal consideration of prisoner's hunger strike in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alempijevic, Djordje; Pavlekic, Snezana; Jecmenica, Dragan; Nedeljkov, Aleksandra; Jankovic, Milos

    2011-03-01

    Hunger strike of prisoners and detainees remains a major human rights and ethical issue for medical professionals. We are reporting on a case of a 48-year-old male sentenced prisoner, intravenous heroin user, who went on a hunger strike and died 15 days later. Throughout the fasting period, the prisoner, who was capable of decision making, refused any medical examination. Autopsy findings were not supporting prolonged starvation, while toxicology revealed benzodiazepines and opiates in blood and urine. Cause of death was given as "heroin intoxication" in keeping with detection of 6-MAM. Legal and ethical issues pertinent to medical examination and treatment of prisoners on hunger strike are explored in accordance with legislation and professional ethical standards in Serbia. A recommendation for the best autopsy practice in deaths following hunger strike has been made. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Nuclear First Strike-Have the Rules Changed?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carter, Rosemary M

    2008-01-01

    .... Nuclear first strike is the policy that reserves the right to use nuclear weapons against an enemy before that enemy employs a like weapon without any constraints on the decision to employ the weapon...

  1. Joint Strike Fighter fit for duty in Europe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerkens, Johannes M.G.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the potential growth of the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) market in Europe. Competition between Lockheed Martin and Boeing for the fighter's design contract; Disadvantages of the fighter plane; Stealth performance of JSF.

  2. Fexofenadine hydrochloride in the treatment of allergic disease: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Axelrod

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available David Axelrod1, Leonard Bielory2Division of Allergy, Immunology and Rheumatology, UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School, 1Department of Medicine, 2Departments of Medicine, Pediatrics, Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Newark, New Jersey, USAAbstract: Fexofenadine is a selective, non-sedating H1 receptor antagonist, marketed in the United States since 2000. The FDA approved an oral suspension in 2006, for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria in children. The tablet, capsule, and oral suspension are bioequivalent. Although fexofenadine does not use P450 CYP 3A4 it does interact with a number of drugs at P-glycoprotein and organic anion transporter polypeptides. The risk of toxicity from other drugs may increase with the administration of fexofenadine. Orange and grapefruit juices reduce the bioavailability of fexofenadine. Fexofenadine has been shown to have an impact on inflammatory mediators, other than histamine, such as decreasing the production of LTC4, LTD4, LTE4, PGE2, and PGF2α; inhibiting cyclo-oxygenase 2, thromboxane; limiting iNOS generation of NO; decreasing cytokine levels (ICAM-1, ELAM-1, VCAM-1, RANTES, I-TAC, MDC, TARC, MMP-2, MMP-9, tryptase; and diminishing eosinophil adherence, chemotaxis, and opsonization of particles. These effects may provide benefit to some of the inflammatory responses of an acute allergic reaction and provide a basis for future development of H1 antagonists with stronger anti-inflammatory effects. These studies also support the contention that fexofenadine is effective for the treatment of allergic rhinits and chronic idiopathic urticaria.Keywords: fexofenadine, allergy, oral suspension, formulations, pharmacology

  3. Comparison of force, power, and striking efficiency for a Kung Fu strike performed by novice and experienced practitioners: preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Magini, Marcio; Saba, Marcelo M F; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu Tavares

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a comparison of force, power, and efficiency values calculated from Kung Fu Yau-Man palm strikes, when performed by 7 experienced and 6 novice men. They performed 5 palm strikes to a freestanding basketball, recorded by high-speed camera at 1000 Hz. Nonparametric comparisons and correlations showed experienced practitioners presented larger values of mean muscle force, mean impact force, mean muscle power, mean impact power, and mean striking efficiency, as is noted in evidence obtained for other martial arts. Also, an interesting result was that for experienced Kung Fu practitioners, muscle power was linearly correlated with impact power (p = .98) but not for the novice practitioners (p = .46).

  4. Upper and lower airway pathology in young children with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo Lk

    2011-01-01

    Allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis are very common diseases in childhood in industrialized countries. Although these conditions are widely trivialized by both parents and physicians they induce a major impact on quality of life for the affected children and a substantial drainage of health care...... resources. Unfortunately, diagnostic specificity is hampered by nonspecific symptom history and lack of reliable diagnostic tests which may explain why the pathology behind such diagnoses is poorly understood. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology of allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis in young...... airway patencies were strongly associated and independent of body size, rhinitis and asthma. The association was consistent for both baseline values and for decongested nasal airway patency and post-ß2 FEV1. Blood and nasal eosinophilia were also associated with nasal airway obstruction. This suggests...

  5. NASA storm hazards research in lightning strikes to aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, B. D.; Brown, P. W.; Plumer, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    The lightning strike condition data gathered in the 1980-1984 period are presented, together with the lightning attachment point analysis for the NASA F-106B research aircraft are presented. The analysis of the experienced 637 direct lightning strikes shows that the highest strike rates (2.1 strikes/min and 13 strikes/penetration) occurred at altitudes between 38,000 and 40,000 ft. The regions of highest risk for an aircraft to experience a direct lightning strike were the areas of thunderstorms where the ambient temperature was colder than -40 C and where the relative turbulence and precipitation intensities were characterized as negligible to light. The presence and location of lightning, therefore, did not necessarily indicate the presence and location of hazardous precipitation and turbulence. The total onboard data show that the lightning attachment patterns on this aircraft fall into four general categories, although the 1984 data suggest that the entire surface of the F-106B may be susceptible to lightning attachment.

  6. WAVELET TRANSFORM ANALYSIS OF ELECTROMYOGRAPHY KUNG FU STRIKES DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Miranda Marzullo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In martial arts and contact sports strikes are performed at near maximum speeds. For that reason, electromyography (EMG analysis of such movements is non-trivial. This paper has three main goals: firstly, to investigate the differences in the EMG activity of muscles during strikes performed with and without impacts; secondly, to assess the advantages of using Sum of Significant Power (SSP values instead of root mean square (rms values when analyzing EMG data; and lastly to introduce a new method of calculating median frequency values using wavelet transforms (WMDF. EMG data of the deltoid anterior (DA, triceps brachii (TB and brachioradialis (BR muscles were collected from eight Kung Fu practitioners during strikes performed with and without impacts. SSP results indicated significant higher muscle activity (p = 0.023 for the strikes with impact. WMDF results, on the other hand, indicated significant lower values (p = 0. 007 for the strikes with impact. SSP results presented higher sensitivity than rms to quantify important signal differences and, at the same time, presented lower inter-subject coefficient of variations. The result of increase in SSP values and decrease in WMDF may suggest better synchronization of motor units for the strikes with impact performed by the experienced Kung Fu practitioners

  7. Model for Studying Anti- Allergic Drugs for Allergic Conjunctivitis in Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Nakazawa, Yosuke; Oka, Mikako; Takehana, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Allergic conjunctivitis (AC), which is characterized by ocular itching, hyperemia, and edema, deteriorates quality of life. In this study, effects of anti-allergic drugs were evaluated by assessing eye-scratching behavior, the number of eosinophils in conjunctiva epithelial tissues, and concentrations of chemical mediators in the tears of the guinea pig model of ovalbumin (OA)-induced AC. Methodology On day 0, 3-week-old guinea pigs were sensitized by OA subconjunctival injections. O...

  8. Efficacy of a novel food supplement in the relief of the signs and symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis and in the reduction of the consumption of anti-allergic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariano, Renato

    2015-04-27

    Seasonal Allergic rhinitis (SAR) is characterized by runny nose, congestion, sneezing and sinus pressure. A clinical study was performed to demonstrate the efficacy of Lertal®, an innovative food supplement containing Quercetin, Perilla frutescens and Vitamin D3 formu-lated in a double layer "fast-slow" release tablet form, in the relief of symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis and in the reduction of consumption of anti-allergic drugs. 23 subjects enrolled in the open clinical study had at least one year history of allergic rhinitis and positive skin prick test or RAST to Parietaria officinalis pollen. At baseline, the subjects had symptoms of nasal and/or ocular seasonal allergic rhinitis. The activity of the food supplement was evaluated using the Total Symptoms Score at first (baseline) and second (final) visit, after one month of supplementation. The consumption of anti-allergic drugs was also evaluated. All subjects enrolled completed the study. The comparison of the scores obtained in the two visits (baseline and final) showed a highly significant reduction of the overall symptoms: approximately 70% for symptom scores and 73% in use of anti-allergic drugs. Sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction, ocular itching, lacrimation and congestion of the conjunctiva, all showed a highly significant reduction. No noteworthy side effect was recorded and all patients finished the study with good compliance. The results showed a clear efficacy of the food supplement Lertal® in reducing nasal and/or eye symptoms. This activity was objectively confirmed by the reduction in the consumption of anti-allergic drugs used to relieve symptoms. (www.actabiomedica.it).

  9. Retrospective assessment of seasonal allergic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.; Malling, H-J

    2003-01-01

    The history of the severity of seasonal allergic symptoms is often obtained post-seasonally as a retrospective assessment. Correct rating is essential when determining the efficacy of pharmaceutical treatment, indications for allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), or inclusion into controlled...

  10. Dominant epitopes and allergic cross-reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirza, Osman Asghar; Henriksen, A; Ipsen, H

    2000-01-01

    The symptoms characteristic of allergic hypersensitivity are caused by the release of mediators, i.e., histamine, from effector cells such as basophils and mast cells. Allergens with more than one B cell epitope cross-link IgE Abs bound to high affinity FcepsilonRI receptors on mast cell surfaces...

  11. Allergic Rhinitis | Sommers | South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... but the antihistamines are less effective for nasal congestion and minimally address the problem of inflammation. Immune-based specifically targeted molecules, such as the cloned humanised monoclonal antibody-inhibiting human IgE omalizumab, are presently being studied in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis.

  12. Retrospective assessment of seasonal allergic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.; Malling, H-J

    2003-01-01

    The history of the severity of seasonal allergic symptoms is often obtained post-seasonally as a retrospective assessment. Correct rating is essential when determining the efficacy of pharmaceutical treatment, indications for allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), or inclusion into controlled cli...

  13. New aspects in allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To give selected new information on contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis with focus on diagnostic procedures and pitfalls. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies dealing with common contact allergens have improved our understanding of the relationship between positive patch...

  14. Allergic rhinitis management pocket reference 2008.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, J.; Reid, J.; Weel, C. van; Cagnani, C. Baena; Canonica, G.W.; Demoly, P.; Denburg, J.; Fokkens, W.J.; Grouse, L.; Mullol, K.; Ohta, K.; Schermer, T.; Valovirta, E.; Zhong, N.; Zuberbier, T.

    2008-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a major chronic respiratory disease because of its prevalence, impacts on quality of life and work/school performance, economic burden, and links with asthma. Family doctors (also known as 'primary care physicians' or 'general practitioners') play a major role in the management

  15. Allergic rhinitis management pocket reference 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, J.; Reid, J.; van Weel, C.; Baena Cagnani, C.; Canonica, G. W.; Demoly, P.; Denburg, J.; Fokkens, W. J.; Grouse, L.; Mullol, K.; Ohta, K.; Schermer, T.; Valovirta, E.; Zhong, N.; Zuberbier, T.

    2008-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a major chronic respiratory disease because of its prevalence, impacts on quality of life and work/school performance, economic burden, and links with asthma. Family doctors (also known as 'primary care physicians' or 'general practitioners') play a major role in the management

  16. Association of Allergic Rhinitis and Sinusitis with Childhood Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnakkannan, Selva Kumar; Singh, Meenu; Das, Rashmi Ranjan; Mathew, Joseph L; Saxena, Akshay Kumar

    2017-01-15

    To study the point prevalence of allergic rhinitis and sinusitis in childhood asthma and to examine the relationship among them. In 250 children (age allergic rhinitis was diagnosed by clinical plus nasal eosinophilia criteria, and sinusitis was diagnosed clinically plus confirmation by computerized tomography scan. The point prevalence of allergic rhinitis was 13.6%, and of sinusitis was 2%. On multivariate analysis, allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, and family history were significantly associated with asthma severity. Allergic rhinitis is common in childhood asthama, but sinusitis is rare.

  17. Trichuris suis ova therapy for allergic rhinitis does not affect allergen-specific cytokine responses despite a parasite-specific cytokine response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourke, C.D.; Mutapi, F.; Nausch, N.

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic helminths have been shown to reduce inflammation in most experimental models of allergic disease, and this effect is mediated via cytokine responses. However, in humans, the effects of controlled helminth infection on cytokine responses during allergy have not been studied.......Parasitic helminths have been shown to reduce inflammation in most experimental models of allergic disease, and this effect is mediated via cytokine responses. However, in humans, the effects of controlled helminth infection on cytokine responses during allergy have not been studied....

  18. Predictivity of allergic sensitization (RAST) for the onset of allergic diseases in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoefer, Y; Schäfer, T; Meisinger, C; Wichmann, H-E; Heinrich, J

    2008-01-01

    Specific IgE antibodies are often detected without any clinical manifestation of allergies. We aimed to analyse the predictivity of allergic sensitization for incident symptoms of allergic diseases in adults during a 10-year follow-up. In 1994/95 specific IgE antibodies against five common inhalant allergens (grass pollen, birch pollen, house dust mite, cat dander and Cladosporium) were diagnosed by radioallergosorbent test in 4178 adults aged 25-74 years. A subset of 2656 participants could be re-evaluated in 2004/05. Information on socio-economic factors and medical history, including data on atopic diseases, was assessed by a combination of a personal interview and a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression models were applied to study associations between allergic sensitization and incident allergic diseases. Allergic sensitization was an important predictor for incident hay fever (OR 7.95, CI 95% 4.64-13.62) and asthma (OR 1.82, CI 95% 1.29-2.57). Specific IgE antibodies were mainly related to outdoor allergens (grass and birch pollen) for hay fever and indoor allergens (mite and cat dander) for asthma, while for atopic dermatitis no specific IgE antibodies were identified as major predictors. Allergic sensitization not only covers clinically apparent allergies, but indicates a prognostic factor for later allergies, even in adulthood.

  19. Application analysis of pidotimod in the treatment of allergic rhinitis in children accompanied by allergic asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Zhao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the application effect of pidotimod in the treatment of allergic rhinitis in children accompanied by allergic asthma. Methods: A total of 60 children with allergic rhinitis accompanied by allergic asthma who were admitted in our hospital from January, 2013 to January, 2015 were included in the study and randomized into the treatment group and the control group with 30 cases in each group. The patients in the two groups were given routine treatments in combined with sublingual immunotherapy. On this basis, the patients in the treatment group were given additional pidotimod. The immunological function, inflammatory cytokine level, and pulmonary function improvement in the two groups were observed. Results: The immunological function, inflammatory cytokine level, and pulmonary function improvement in the treatment group were significantly superior to those in the control group. Conclusions: Pidotimod can significantly enhance the immunological function in children with allergic rhinitis in children accompanied by allergic asthma, alleviate the inflammatory reaction, and promote the pulmonary function improvement, with an accurate efficacy.

  20. Discrete Element Modeling of Blade–Strike Frequency and Survival of Fish Passing Through Hydrokinetic Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Romero-Gomez, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the consequences to fish from blade-strike on marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbine blades is important for incorporating environmental objectives into the integral optimization of machine performance. For instance, experience with conventional hydroelectric turbines has shown that innovative shaping of the blade and other machine components can improve hydraulic performance while reducing negative impacts to fish and other aquatic life. In this work, we used unsteady computational flu...

  1. The Effect of Strike Face Geometry on the Dynamic Delamination of Composite Back Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    delaminations visible from the back side of the target. Transparent ceramics such as AlON are expensive because of the high cost of machining and...to reduce the delamination growth velocity and delamination area respectively. More research should be done to find the optimal ceramic tile geometry...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Ceramics are often employed as a hard strike face in composite armor systems. The ceramic serves to break up and erode

  2. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) proteins induce allergic responses in nasobronchial allergic patients and BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Tripathi, Anurag; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2012-04-05

    Allergy to chickpea or Garbanzo bean (Cicer arietinum) has been reported in the Indian population. Little information is found regarding allergenic events involved in the chickpea allergy; therefore, chickpea allergenicity assessment was undertaken. In vivo and ex vivo studies were carried out using BALB/c mice. Chickpea skin prick test positive patients have been used to extend this study in humans. Identification of allergens was carried out by simulated gastric fluids assay for pepsin resistant polypeptides and validated by IgE western blotting using chickpea sensitive humans and sensitized mice sera. Our data have shown the occurrence of a systemic anaphylactic reaction resulting in reduced body temperature after challenge along with significantly increased levels of IgE, IgG1, MMCP-1, CCL-2 as well as histamine. Further, increased Th1/Th2 (mixed) cytokine response was observed in spleen cell culture supernatants. Jejunum, lungs and spleen showed prominent histopathological changes specific for allergic inflammation. Immunoblotting with pooled sera of either sensitized mice or human sera recognized seven similar IgE binding polypeptides that may be responsible for chickpea induced hypersensitivity reactions. This study has addressed the allergenic manifestations associated with chickpea consumption and identifies the proteins responsible for allergenicity which may prove useful in diagnosis and management of allergenicity of legumes especially chickpea. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [The Teachers' Right to Strike Versus the Students' Right to an Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Edward M.

    The speaker establishes himself in opposition to teacher strikes, outlines the scope of teacher strikes, discusses arguments for and against the right of teachers to strike, presents the kinds of strikes that are possible, outlines what a board and the administration can do to head off a strike, and presents the American Association of School…

  4. Anti-IgE treatment, airway inflammation and remodelling in severe allergic asthma: current knowledge and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Samitas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a disorder of the airways involving various inflammatory cells and mediators and characterised by bronchial hyperresponsiveness, chronic inflammation and structural alterations in the airways, also known as remodelling. IgE is an important mediator of allergic reactions and has a central role in allergic asthma pathophysiology, as it is implicated in both the early and late phase allergic response. Moreover, clinical and mechanistic evidence has lately emerged, implicating IgE in the development of airway remodelling. The use of monoclonal antibodies targeting IgE, such as omalizumab, has proven very effective in improving respiratory symptoms and quality of life, while reducing asthma exacerbations, emergency room visits and the use of systemic corticosteroids in allergic severe asthma. These effects are believed to be mainly mediated by omalizumab's inhibitory effect on the initiation and further propagation of the allergic inflammation cascade. However, there is evidence to suggest that anti-IgE treatment remains effective long after it has been discontinued. In part, these findings could be attributed to the possible ameliorating effects of anti-IgE treatment on airway remodelling. In this review, we discuss recent findings supporting the notion that anti-IgE treatment modulates the complex immune responses that manifest clinically as asthma and ameliorates airway remodelling changes often observed in allergic severe asthma phenotypes.

  5. Interaction between allergic asthma and atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Conglin; Zhang, Jingying; Shi, Guo-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies have established an essential role of mast cells in allergic asthma and atherosclerosis. Mast cell deficiency or inactivation protects mice from allergen-induced airway hyper-responsiveness and diet-induced atherosclerosis, suggesting that mast cells share pathologic activities in both diseases. Allergic asthma and atherosclerosis are inflammatory diseases that contain similar sets of elevated numbers of inflammatory cells in addition to mast cells in the airway and arterial wall, such as macrophages, monocytes, T cells, eosinophils, and smooth muscle cells. Emerging evidence from experimental models and human studies points to a potential interaction between the two seemingly unrelated diseases. Patients or mice with allergic asthma have a high risk of developing atherosclerosis or vice versa, despite the fact that asthma is a Th2-oriented disease, whereas Th1 immunity promotes atherosclerosis. In addition to the preferred Th1/Th2 responses that may differentiate the two diseases, mast cells and many other inflammatory cells also contribute to their pathogenesis by much more than just T cell immunity. Here we summarize the different roles of airway and arterial wall inflammatory cells and vascular cells in asthma and atherosclerosis, and propose an interaction between the two diseases, although limited investigations are available to delineate the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which one disease increases the risk of the other. Results from mouse allergic asthma and atherosclerosis models and from human population studies lead to the hypothesis that patients with atherosclerosis may benefit from anti-asthmatic medications, or that the therapeutic regimens targeting atherosclerosis may also alleviate allergic asthma. PMID:26608212

  6. Denervation of nasal mucosa induced by posterior nasal neurectomy suppresses nasal secretion, not hypersensitivity, in an allergic rhinitis rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Hironobu; Kondo, Kenji; Toma-Hirano, Makiko; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Kikuta, Shu; Fujimoto, Chisato; Ueha, Rumi; Kagoya, Ryoji; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-09-01

    The posterior nasal nerve is the dominant source of the parasympathetic, sympathetic, and sensory fibers that innervate the nasal respiratory mucosa. Therefore, a posterior nasal neurectomy (PNN) is thought to induce denervation of the nasal mucosa and relieve the nasal symptoms of allergic rhinitis. However, the underlying mechanisms and therapeutic action of PNN remain unknown. To investigate the impact of PNN-induced denervation of the nasal mucosa on allergic rhinitis, we developed a rat model of PNN and examined the effects of PNN on allergic rhinitis in ovalbumin-sensitized rats. This rat model of PNN was characterized by the depletion of nerve fibers, choline acetyltransferase, and neuropeptides (eg, substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and neuropeptide Y) in the nasal respiratory mucosa. These animals exhibited nasal gland and goblet cell hypertrophy in the septal mucosa and atrophy of the submucosal gland in the lateral nasal wall, as well as reduced nasal secretion due to deficient acetylcholine synthesis. In an ovalbumin-sensitized model of allergic rhinitis, PNN also induced the depletion of nerve fibers, choline acetyltransferase, and neuropeptides in the nasal mucosa and suppressed nasal secretion. However, PNN did not affect mucosal thickening, eosinophil and mast cell infiltration, interleukin-4 and interferon-γ mRNA expression, and allergic symptoms (ie, sneezing and nasal scratching). These results suggest that the peripheral nerves and corresponding neuropeptides regulate nasal secretion, but not hypersensitivity, in allergic rhinitis, and that allergic rhinitis-related mucosal reactions occur in a highly denervated mucosa after PNN. Posterior nasal neurectomy may be a therapeutic option for the treatment of hyperrhinorrhea, but not allergic rhinitis hypersensitivity.

  7. Greater risk of incident asthma cases in adults with Allergic Rhinitis and Effect of Allergen Immunotherapy: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccillo Giovita

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asthma and rhinitis are often co-morbid conditions. As rhinitis often precedes asthma it is possible that effective treatment of allergic rhinitis may reduce asthma progression. The aim of our study is to investigate history of allergic rhinitis as a risk factor for asthma and the potential effect of allergen immunotherapy in attenuating the incidence of asthma. Hospital-referred non-asthmatic adults, aged 18–40 years between 1990 and 1991, were retrospectively followed up until January and April 2000. At the end of follow up, available subjects were clinically examined for asthma diagnosis and history of allergen specific immunotherapy, second-hand smoking and the presence of pets in the household. A total of 436 non-asthmatic adults (332 subjects with allergic rhinitis and 104 with no allergic rhinitis nor history of atopy were available for final analyses. The highest OR (odds ratio associated with a diagnosis of asthma at the end of follow-up was for the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis at baseline (OR, 7.8; 95%CI, 3.1–20.0 in the model containing the covariates of rhinitis diagnosis, sex, second-hand smoke exposure, presence of pets at home, family history of allergic disorders, sensitization to Parietaria judaica; grass pollen; house dust mites; Olea europea: orchard; perennial rye; and cat allergens. Female sex, sensitization to Parietaria judaica and the presence of pets in the home were also significantly predictive of new onset asthma in the same model. Treatment with allergen immunotherapy was significantly and inversely related to the development of new onset asthma (OR, 0.53; 95%CI, 0.32–0.86. In the present study we found that allergic rhinitis is an important independent risk factor for asthma. Moreover, treatment with allergen immunotherapy lowers the risk of the development of new asthma cases in adults with allergic rhinitis.

  8. Greater risk of incident asthma cases in adults with Allergic Rhinitis and Effect of Allergen Immunotherapy: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polosa, Riccardo; Al-Delaimy, Wael K; Russo, Cristina; Piccillo, Giovita; Sarvà, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Asthma and rhinitis are often co-morbid conditions. As rhinitis often precedes asthma it is possible that effective treatment of allergic rhinitis may reduce asthma progression. The aim of our study is to investigate history of allergic rhinitis as a risk factor for asthma and the potential effect of allergen immunotherapy in attenuating the incidence of asthma. Hospital-referred non-asthmatic adults, aged 18–40 years between 1990 and 1991, were retrospectively followed up until January and April 2000. At the end of follow up, available subjects were clinically examined for asthma diagnosis and history of allergen specific immunotherapy, second-hand smoking and the presence of pets in the household. A total of 436 non-asthmatic adults (332 subjects with allergic rhinitis and 104 with no allergic rhinitis nor history of atopy) were available for final analyses. The highest OR (odds ratio) associated with a diagnosis of asthma at the end of follow-up was for the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis at baseline (OR, 7.8; 95%CI, 3.1–20.0 in the model containing the covariates of rhinitis diagnosis, sex, second-hand smoke exposure, presence of pets at home, family history of allergic disorders, sensitization to Parietaria judaica; grass pollen; house dust mites; Olea europea: orchard; perennial rye; and cat allergens). Female sex, sensitization to Parietaria judaica and the presence of pets in the home were also significantly predictive of new onset asthma in the same model. Treatment with allergen immunotherapy was significantly and inversely related to the development of new onset asthma (OR, 0.53; 95%CI, 0.32–0.86). In the present study we found that allergic rhinitis is an important independent risk factor for asthma. Moreover, treatment with allergen immunotherapy lowers the risk of the development of new asthma cases in adults with allergic rhinitis. PMID:16381607

  9. Omalizumab: an anti-immunoglobulin E antibody for the treatment of allergic respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bousquet

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin E (IgE is central to the development of allergic diseases. Cross-linking of cell-bound IgE by the allergen leads to the initiation of the inflammatory cascade. Omalizumab, an anti-IgE antibody, forms complexes with free IgE, thereby inhibiting the allergic reaction before its commencement. A survey of the clinical trials performed on omalizumab indicated that this anti-IgE antibody is efficacious and well tolerated in the treatment of separate and concomitant asthma and rhinitis. In patients with poorly controlled asthma, omalizumab reduced the asthma exacerbation and emergency visit rate, along with improving the quality of life. The improvement in asthma control was associated with a reduction of inhaled and oral corticosteroids. Improved nasal symptom scores and a reduced need for antihistamines were observed in patients with allergic rhinitis. Omalizumab was also proven to be effective as an add-on therapy for concomitant asthma and rhinitis. In conclusion, omalizumab provides an integrated approach for the treatment and management of allergic respiratory diseases.

  10. Chinese Guideline on allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yixiao; Chen, Jianjun; Cheng, Lei; Guo, Yinshi; Hong, Suling; Kong, Weijia; Lai, He; Li, Houyong; Li, Huabin; Li, Jing; Li, Tianying; Lin, Xiaoping; Liu, Shixi; Liu, Zheng; Lou, Hongfei; Meng, Juan; Qiu, Qianhui; Shen, Kunling; Tang, Wei; Tao, Zezhang; Wang, Chengshuo; Wang, Xiangdong; Wei, Qingyu; Xiang, Li; Xie, Hua; Xu, Yu; Zhang, Gehua; Zhang, Yuan; Zheng, Yiwu; Zhi, Yuxiang; Chen, Dehua; Hong, Haiyu; Li, Quansheng; Liu, Lin; Meng, Yifan; Wang, Nan; Wang, Yihui; Zhou, Yue

    2017-01-01

    The present document is based on a consensus reached by a panel of experts from Chinese Society of Allergy (CSA) and Chinese Allergic Rhinitis Collaborative Research Group (C2AR2G). Allergen immunotherapy (AIT), has increasingly been used as a treatment for allergic rhinitis (AR) globally, as it has been shown to provide a long-term effect in improving nasal and ocular symptoms, reducing medication need, and improving quality of life. AIT is currently the only curative intervention that can potentially modify the immune system in individuals suffering from AR and prevent the development of new sensitization and the progression of disease from AR to asthma. Although the use of AIT is becoming more acceptable in China, to date no AR immunotherapy guideline from China is available for use by the international community. This document has thus been produced and covers the main aspects of AIT undertaken in China; including selection of patients for AIT, the allergen extracts available on the Chinese market, schedules and doses of allergen employed in different routes of AIT, assessment of effect and safety, patients’ administration and follow-up, and management of adverse reactions. The Chinese guideline for AR immunotherapy will thus serve as a reference point by doctors, healthcare professionals and organizations involved in the AIT of AR in China. Moreover, this guideline will serve as a source of information for the international community on AIT treatment strategies employed in China. PMID:29268533

  11. Climate change, air pollution, and allergic respiratory diseases: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Vitale, Carolina; Lanza, Maurizia; Molino, Antonio; D'Amato, Maria

    2016-10-01

    The rising trend in prevalence of allergic respiratory disease and bronchial asthma, observed over the last decades, can be explained by changes occurring in the environment, with increasing presence of biologic, such as allergens, and chemical atmospheric trigger factors able to stimulate the sensitization and symptoms of these diseases. Many studies have shown changes in production, dispersion, and allergen content of pollen and spores because of climate change with an increasing effect of aeroallergens on allergic patients. Over the last 50 years, global earth's temperature has markedly risen likely because of growing emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations. Major changes involving the atmosphere and the climate, including global warming induced by human activity, have a major impact on the biosphere and human environment.Urbanization and high levels of vehicle emissions are correlated to an increase in the frequency of pollen-induced respiratory allergy prevalent in people who live in urban areas compared with those who live in rural areas. Measures of mitigation need to be applied for reducing future impacts of climate change on our planet, but until global emissions continue to rise, adaptation to the impacts of future climate variability will also be required.

  12. Using avian radar to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Halstead, Brian J.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Laughlin, James A.

    2011-01-01

    management decisions aimed at reducing risk of bird strikes.

  13. In vitro strain in human metacarpal bones during striking: testing the pugilism hypothesis of hominin hand evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horns, Joshua; Jung, Rebekah; Carrier, David R

    2015-10-01

    The hands of hominins (i.e. bipedal apes) are distinguished by skeletal proportions that are known to enhance manual dexterity but also allow the formation of a clenched fist. Because male-male physical competition is important in the mating systems of most species of great apes, including humans, we tested the hypothesis that a clenched fist protects the metacarpal bones from injury by reducing the level of strain during striking. We used cadaver arms to measure in vitro strain in metacarpals during forward strikes with buttressed and unbuttressed fist postures and during side slaps with an open palm. If the protective buttressing hypothesis is correct, the clenched fist posture should substantially reduce strain in the metacarpal bones during striking and therefore reduce the risk of fracture. Recorded strains were significantly higher in strikes in which the hand was secured in unbuttressed and slapping postures than in the fully buttressed posture. Our results suggest that humans can safely strike with 55% more force with a fully buttressed fist than with an unbuttressed fist and with twofold more force with a buttressed fist than with an open-hand slap. Thus, the evolutionary significance of the proportions of the hominin hand may be that these are the proportions that improved manual dexterity while at the same time making it possible for the hand to be used as a club during fighting. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Lower Extremity Biomechanics and Self-Reported Foot-Strike Patterns Among Runners in Traditional and Minimalist Shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Donald L; Lewek, Michael; Yu, Bing; Ware, William B; Teyhen, Deydre S; Gross, Michael T

    2015-06-01

    The injury incidence rate among runners is approximately 50%. Some individuals have advocated using an anterior-foot-strike pattern to reduce ground reaction forces and injury rates that they attribute to a rear-foot-strike pattern. The proportion of minimalist shoe wearers who adopt an anterior-foot-strike pattern remains unclear. To evaluate the accuracy of self-reported foot-strike patterns, compare negative ankle- and knee-joint angular work among runners using different foot-strike patterns and wearing traditional or minimalist shoes, and describe average vertical-loading rates. Descriptive laboratory study. Research laboratory. A total of 60 healthy volunteers (37 men, 23 women; age = 34.9 ± 8.9 years, height = 1.74 ± 0.08 m, mass = 70.9 ± 13.4 kg) with more than 6 months of experience wearing traditional or minimalist shoes were instructed to classify their foot-strike patterns. Participants ran in their preferred shoes on an instrumented treadmill with 3-dimensional motion capture. Self-reported foot-strike patterns were compared with 2-dimensional video assessments. Runners were classified into 3 groups based on video assessment: traditional-shoe rear-foot strikers (TSR; n = 22), minimalist-shoe anterior-foot strikers (MSA; n = 21), and minimalist-shoe rear-foot strikers (MSR; n = 17). Ankle and knee negative angular work and average vertical-loading rates during stance phase were compared among groups. Only 41 (68.3%) runners reported foot-strike patterns that agreed with the video assessment (κ = 0.42, P shoes.

  15. The Role of Near-Fault Relief in Creating and Maintaining Strike-Slip Landscape Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbert, S.; Duvall, A. R.; Tucker, G. E.

    2016-12-01

    Geomorphic landforms, such as shutter ridges, offset river terraces, and deflected stream channels, are often used to assess the activity and slip rates of strike-slip faults. However, in some systems, such as parts of the Marlborough Fault System (South Island, NZ), an active strike-slip fault does not leave a strong landscape signature. Here we explore the factors that dampen or enhance the landscape signature of strike-slip faulting using the Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development model (CHILD). We focus on variables affecting the length of channel offsets, which enhance the signature of strike-slip motion, and the frequency of stream captures, which eliminate offsets and reduce this signature. We model a strike-slip fault that passes through a mountain ridge, offsetting streams that drain across this fault. We use this setup to test the response of channel offset length and capture frequency to fault characteristics, such as slip rate and ratio of lateral to vertical motion, and to landscape characteristics, such as relief contrasts controlled by erodibility. Our experiments show that relief downhill of the fault, whether generated by differential uplift across the fault or by an erodibility contrast, has the strongest effect on offset length and capture frequency. This relief creates shutter ridges, which block and divert streams while being advected along a fault. Shutter ridges and the streams they divert have long been recognized as markers of strike-slip motion. Our results show specifically that the height of shutter ridges is most responsible for the degree to which they create long channel offsets by preventing stream captures. We compare these results to landscape metrics in the Marlborough Fault System, where shutter ridges are common and often lithologically controlled. We compare shutter ridge length and height to channel offset length in order to assess the influence of relief on offset channel features in a real landscape. Based on our

  16. Trichuris suis ova therapy for allergic rhinitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Peter; Arnved, John; Rønborg, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic helminth infections can protect against allergic airway inflammation in experimental models and have been associated with a reduced risk of atopy and a reduced course of asthma in some observational studies. Although no clinical evidence exists to support the use of helminth therapy for...

  17. Evaluation of effectiveness of specific subcutaneous immunotherapy for patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Zandkarimi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allergen immunotherapy involves the administration of gradually increasing quantities of specific allergens to patients with IgE-mediated conditions until a dose is reached that is effective in reducing disease severity from natural exposure. This study evaluated the clinical efficacy of immunotherapy with extracts of common aeroallergens North-East of Iran in asthma and allergic rhinitis. Material and Methods: In this prospective study 156 cases were chosen randomley. The mean age of patients was 37 years (range 5-65 years. The patients with mild to moderate asthma and allergic rhinitis and history of atopy were selected for immunotherapy when they showed no effective response to medical treatment.Immunotherapy materials were made from common aeroallergens in north-eastern region of Iran by Dome Hollister US company. Immunotherapy schedule for injection of the extract with vial dilution of 1:10000pg was one injection every week for ten weeks and one injection with dilution of 1:1000pg every other week for the other ten weeks and one injection monthly from dilution of 1:100pg for two years. Results: One hundred twenty (77% of cases had allergic rhinitis 29(18.5% cases had allergic asthma and 7(4.5% cases were mixed. Mean age of patients were 37 years old. 48(30.8% cases were male. Analysis of efficacy of treatment showed that immunotherapy significantlyimproved the signs and symptoms of all the groups. In allergic rhinitis group 84(70% cases completely improved, 22(18.4% patients moderately responded and no response to immunotherapy was observed in 14(11.6% patients. In allergic asthma group, 22(75% cases completely improved 4(13.6% cases moderately responded and no response to immunotherapy was detected in 3(11.4% cases. In mixed group, 3(42.8% cases completely improved, 3(42.8% cases moderately responded and no response was observed in 1(14.4% case. Conclusion: Specific allergen immunotherapy for patients with allergic persistent

  18. Isolated Sensorineural Hearing Loss as a Sequela after Lightning Strike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfuz Turan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In most of the surviving patients after a lightning strike, audiovestibular abnormalities have been reported. The most frequently reported type of abnormalities is a tympanic membrane perforation with hearing loss and external ear canal burn. However a sensor neural hearing loss and mixed type hearing loss can also occur, but these occur rarely. A nineteen-year-old female patient had, after a lightning strike, serious burns on the left ear, behind the ear, and on the chest and neck. She also had in her left ear 108 dB hearing loss with irregular central perforation and in her right ear 52 dB sensorineural hearing loss. There was no hearing loss before the strike. A hearing aid was recommended for the right ear and good care and follow-up were recommended for the left ear. A lightning strike can cause serious audiological damage. Therefore, it is necessary to make a careful audiovestibular evaluation of the patients. Although there exist rarely healed cases from sensorineural hearing loss after lightning strike in literature, in our case hearing loss occurred bilaterally and then it healed unilaterally. This condition is quite rare in literature.

  19. Interference of antihistamines and anti-allergic drugs with antigen-induced paw edema in boosted and unboosted mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, C Z; Cordeiro, R S; Vargaftig, B B

    1992-06-17

    The protective effects of two antihistamines and two anti-allergic drugs against anaphylactic paw edema were studied in immunized animals that had or had not received a booster injection of antigen. The injection of 1 or 10 micrograms/paw ovalbumin induced acute paw edema of similar intensity in both groups. The antihistamine meclizine and the mixed anti histamine/anti-5-HT antagonist cyproheptadine reduced the anaphylactic reaction by 55 and 84% respectively, in non-boosted animals and were less effective against edema induced by 1 microgram antigen in boosted animals. The effectiveness of these drugs was also reduced when boosted mice were challenged with 10 micrograms antigen, where meclizine and cyproheptadine inhibited edema by 31 and 59%, respectively. The anti-allergic compounds ketotifen and azelastine, although effective against allergic inflammation in non-boosted mice, had a reduced or no effect in boosted mice. Our results suggest that allergic edema is less sensitive to antihistamine and anti-allergic drugs in boosted mice, which may be accounted for by an increased role of other mediators.

  20. Predicting timing of foot strike during running, independent of striking technique, using principal component analysis of joint angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osis, Sean T; Hettinga, Blayne A; Leitch, Jessica; Ferber, Reed

    2014-08-22

    As 3-dimensional (3D) motion-capture for clinical gait analysis continues to evolve, new methods must be developed to improve the detection of gait cycle events based on kinematic data. Recently, the application of principal component analysis (PCA) to gait data has shown promise in detecting important biomechanical features. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to define a new foot strike detection method for a continuum of striking techniques, by applying PCA to joint angle waveforms. In accordance with Newtonian mechanics, it was hypothesized that transient features in the sagittal-plane accelerations of the lower extremity would be linked with the impulsive application of force to the foot at foot strike. Kinematic and kinetic data from treadmill running were selected for 154 subjects, from a database of gait biomechanics. Ankle, knee and hip sagittal plane angular acceleration kinematic curves were chained together to form a row input to a PCA matrix. A linear polynomial was calculated based on PCA scores, and a 10-fold cross-validation was performed to evaluate prediction accuracy against gold-standard foot strike as determined by a 10 N rise in the vertical ground reaction force. Results show 89-94% of all predicted foot strikes were within 4 frames (20 ms) of the gold standard with the largest error being 28 ms. It is concluded that this new foot strike detection is an improvement on existing methods and can be applied regardless of whether the runner exhibits a rearfoot, midfoot, or forefoot strike pattern. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. VARIATION OF STRIKE INCENTIVES WITH DAMAGE PREFERENCES; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. CANAVAN

    2001-01-01

    For START III level forces, strike allocations and magnitudes vary little with L, but first strike costs vary directly with L, which means that for K reflecting a preference for the survival of high value targets over their destruction and a preference for high value over military targets, the costs of action are far greater than those of inaction for a wide range of values of damage preference L. Thus, if both sides have much greater preferences for the survival of their high value targets than for military targets or destruction, they do not see a net incentive to strike, and crises are terminated by inaction. Recent decades suggest strong preferences for the survival of high value and that this has contributed to the lack of direct conflict during that period

  2. Cell-mediated non-allergic rhinitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselli Del Giudice, Alessandro; Barbara, Michele; Russo, Giuseppe Maria; Fiocca Matthews, Emily; Cassano, Michele

    2012-12-01

    Non-allergic rhinitis is a heterogeneous disease whose etiology is largely unknown. Nasal cytology only allows us to recognize different non-allergic rhinitis forms on the basis of the prevalent inflammatory cell infiltrate: non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophils, with neutrophils, with mast-cells and with both eosinophils and mast-cells. The aim of this study is to define the incidence, clinical features and comorbidity of the different types of cell-mediated non-allergic rhinitis in a pediatric age group. One hundred and fourteen non-allergic children with chronic nasal obstruction and associated symptoms (rhinorrhea, sneezing and nasal itchiness) were retrospectively selected. All patients had been submitted to a clinical history, pediatric evaluation, anterior rhinoscopy and fiberendoscopy, rhinomanometry and nasal cytology. Non-allergic rhinitis with neutrophils was present in 46 (40.4%) children, non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophils in 53 (46.5%), non-allergic rhinitis with mast-cells in 12 (10.5%) and non-allergic rhinitis with both eosinophils and mast-cells in 3 (2.6%). Nasal obstruction was prevalent in non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophils and in non-allergic rhinitis with mast-cells patients (Pallergic rhinitis with eosinophils group showed a higher probability of asthma (Ppediatric age group the most frequent forms of non-allergic rhinitis are those with eosinophils or with neutrophils. A diagnosis of non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophils in children presumes more severe symptoms and a higher incidence of pulmonary disease and roncopathy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Antibiotics in the first week of life is a risk factor for allergic rhinitis at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Bernt; Goksör, Emma; Pettersson, Rolf; Möllborg, Per; Erdes, Laslo; Loid, Petra; Aberg, Nils; Wennergren, Göran

    2014-08-01

    Heredity as well as external factors influences the development of allergic rhinitis. The aim of this study was to analyse early risk factors and protective factors for allergic rhinitis at school age. This is a prospective, longitudinal study of children born in western Sweden in 2003 where 50% of the birth cohort was randomly selected. The parents answered questionnaires at 6 months, 12 months, 4.5 yr and 8 yr. At 8 yr, 5044 questionnaires were distributed. Of these, 4051 responded, that is, 80.3%. Current allergic rhinitis was defined as symptoms and use of medication during the past 12 months. Current allergic rhinitis at 8 yr was reported by 10.9%. Mean onset age was 5.7 yr, and 61.9% were boys. In a multivariate analysis, antibiotics in the first week of life increased the risk of allergic rhinitis (adjusted odds ratio 1.75, 95% confidence interval (1.03, 2.97)). Increased risk was also seen with parental allergic rhinitis (aOR 2.73 (2.12, 3.52)), food allergy first year (aOR 2.45 (1.61, 3.73)), eczema first year (aOR 1.97 (1.50, 2.59)) and male gender (aOR 1.35 (1.05, 1.74)). Living on a farm at 4.5 yr reduced the risk (aOR 0.31 (0.13, 0.78)). Antibiotics in the first week of life increased the risk of allergic rhinitis at school age, while living on a farm at preschool age reduced the risk. Both findings are compatible with the hygiene hypothesis. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The Evaluation Method of the Lightning Strike on Transmission Lines Aiming at Power Grid Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jianfeng; Wu, Jianwei; Huang, Liandong; Geng, Yinan; Yu, zhanqing

    2018-01-01

    Lightning protection of power system focuses on reducing the flashover rate, only distinguishing by the voltage level, without considering the functional differences between the transmission lines, and being lack of analysis the effect on the reliability of power grid. This will lead lightning protection design of general transmission lines is surplus but insufficient for key lines. In order to solve this problem, the analysis method of lightning striking on transmission lines for power grid reliability is given. Full wave process theory is used to analyze the lightning back striking; the leader propagation model is used to describe the process of shielding failure of transmission lines. The index of power grid reliability is introduced and the effect of transmission line fault on the reliability of power system is discussed in detail.

  5. Comparison of blade-strike modeling results with empirical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, Thomas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2004-03-01

    This study is the initial stage of further investigation into the dynamics of injury to fish during passage through a turbine runner. As part of the study, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) estimated the probability of blade strike, and associated injury, as a function of fish length and turbine operating geometry at two adjacent turbines in Powerhouse 1 of Bonneville Dam. Units 5 and 6 had identical intakes, stay vanes, wicket gates, and draft tubes, but Unit 6 had a new runner and curved discharge ring to minimize gaps between the runner hub and blades and between the blade tips and discharge ring. We used a mathematical model to predict blade strike associated with two Kaplan turbines and compared results with empirical data from biological tests conducted in 1999 and 2000. Blade-strike models take into consideration the geometry of the turbine blades and discharges as well as fish length, orientation, and distribution along the runner. The first phase of this study included a sensitivity analysis to consider the effects of difference in geometry and operations between families of turbines on the strike probability response surface. The analysis revealed that the orientation of fish relative to the leading edge of a runner blade and the location that fish pass along the blade between the hub and blade tip are critical uncertainties in blade-strike models. Over a range of discharges, the average prediction of injury from blade strike was two to five times higher than average empirical estimates of visible injury from shear and mechanical devices. Empirical estimates of mortality may be better metrics for comparison to predicted injury rates than other injury measures for fish passing at mid-blade and blade-tip locations.

  6. A comparison of the anti-inflammatory properties of intranasal corticosteroids and antihistamines in allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, P H

    2000-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis manifests itself clinically due to the local release of mediators from activated cells within the nasal mucosa. Treatment strategies aim either to reduce the effects of these mediators on the sensory neural and vascular end organs, or to reduce the tissue accumulation of the activated cells that generate them. Corticosteroids intervene at a number of steps in the inflammatory pathway, and, by reducing the release of cytokines and chemokines, inhibit cell recruitment and activation. These effects are evident both in vivo and in vitro. While antihistamines also have some anti-inflammatory effects in vitro, these require higher concentrations than with corticosteroids and are not consistently reproduced in vivo. In addition, although antihistamines and corticosteroids might appear to have complementary mechanisms of action, clinical trials suggest that their co-administration does not confer any additional long-term benefits compared with that achieved with corticosteroids alone. Topical corticosteroids are therefore the preferred anti-inflammatory therapy for persistent allergic rhinitis.

  7. Nasal provocation test is useful for discriminating allergic, nonallergic, and local allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Tae Young; Kim, Young Hyo

    2015-01-01

    No standard study protocol or diagnostic criteria based on nasal provocation test (NPT) and acoustic rhinometry (AR) results are available for allergic rhinitis. We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of NPT plus AR for the differential diagnosis of local allergic rhinitis (LAR), allergic, and nonallergic rhinitis. The medical records and skin-prick test (SPT) and NPT results of 262 patients with symptoms of chronic rhinitis were reviewed. Patients were allocated to one of three groups, that is, group A [n = 110, negative SPT result for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP)], group B (n = 53, weakly positive result), or group C (n = 99, strongly positive result). Twelve patients had a negative SPT result and provoked response in NPT [≥29% decrease of minimal cross-sectional area (MCA) after DP challenge] were diagnosed to have LAR. After DP challenge, group C showed significant aggravation of nasal symptoms and a greater decrease in acoustic parameters than groups A and B (p rhinitis, whereas the diagnostic criterion "a total nasal volume (TNV) change at 30 minutes after DP challenge of more than or equal to 27.6%" had 73.4% sensitivity and 58.1% specificity. NPT with AR could be a useful tool for the differential diagnosis of allergic, nonallergic, and local allergic rhinitis.

  8. A Population-based Clinical Study of Allergic and Non-allergic Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, T.B.; Thomsen, S.F.; Nolte, H.

    2009-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to describe differences between allergic and non-allergic asthma in a large community-based sample of Danish adolescents and adults. Methods. A total of 1,186 subjects, 14 to 44 years of age, who in a screening questionnaire had reported a history of airway...... symptoms suggestive of asthma and/or allergy, or who were taking any medication for these conditions were clinically examined. All participants were interviewed about respiratory symptoms, and furthermore skin test reactivity, lung function, and airway responsiveness were measured. Results. A total of 489...... individuals had clinical asthma of whom 61% had allergic asthma, whereas 39% had non-allergic asthma. Subjects with non-allergic asthma were more likely to be females, OR = 2.24 (1.32-3.72), p = 0.003, and to have cough as the predominant symptom, OR = 1.96, (1.19-3.23), p = 0.008, but were less likely...

  9. [Force-feeding of hunger-striking prisoners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Shimon

    2014-09-01

    In contrast to the position of the World Medical Association and the Ethics Council of the Israel Medical Association, the author argues for forced-feeding of hunger-striking prisoners when their condition reaches a stage of danger of death or permanent injury. This position is based on the priority of human life over autonomy, and of a communitarian ethic. This position is supported by a District Court decision ordering the feeding of a hunger-striking prisoner, by a Supreme Court decision imposing surgery on a non-consenting prisoner, and in line with Israel's Patient's Right Law.

  10. Sound Quality and Striking Position of a Conga Drum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan Harvey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the location at which a drum membrane was struck and the quality of sound produced was investigated by striking the drum at several distances between the center and the rim. Through analyzing the harmonics of the wave produced from the impact, it was shown that as the striking location changes, the relative amplitudes of different modes of vibration also changes. It was found that sound of a higher pitch is produced at the rim of the drum than anywhere else on the drum head due to higher modes of vibration becoming dominant.

  11. MORE THAN A LABOR DISPUTE: THE PATCO STRIKE OF 1981

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul L. Butterworth

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available On August 3, 1981, 13,000 air traffic controllers walked off the job. Under US law, the strike was illegal. President Ronald Reagan ordered the strikers as a group to return to work; when they did not, he ordered individual strikers to return, and again they refused. Two days later the president fired the strikers. Reagan's action transformed relations between organized labor and American management, and created the worst turbulence to hit the American airways in recent history. “More Than a Labor Dispute” examines the work stoppage and aftermath through the eyes of two controllers and a pilot, all of whom worked during the strike.

  12. Remarkable rates of lightning strike mortality in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Monique Borgerhoff; Msalu, Lameck; Caro, Tim; Salerno, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Livingstone's second mission site on the shore of Lake Malawi suffers very high rates of consequential lightning strikes. Comprehensive interviewing of victims and their relatives in seven Traditional Authorities in Nkhata Bay District, Malawi revealed that the annual rate of consequential strikes was 419/million, more than six times higher than that in other developing countries; the rate of deaths from lightning was 84/million/year, 5.4 times greater than the highest ever recorded. These remarkable figures reveal that lightning constitutes a significant stochastic source of mortality with potential life history consequences, but it should not deflect attention away from the more prominent causes of mortality in this rural area.

  13. Allergic reactions to decorative skin paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkels, A F; Henry, F; Piérard, G E

    2001-03-01

    Dye mixtures containing henna, P-phenylenediamine (PPD), and indigo are applied to the skin in various parts of the world for religious purposes, social recognition or fun. To identify eventual allergens responsible for contact sensitization to skin decoration in three young children. Lesions remained strictly limited to the site painted during the summer holiday. None of the children had a previous history of contact dermatitis, but two of them suffered from severe seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Patch testing revealed severe contact hypersensitivity to PPD in all three patients, and one child presented a positive prick test to 1% henna in water. The eruptions resolved following spontaneous elimination of the dyes and topical applications of corticosteroids, but left residual depigmentation. PPD is the main allergen identified in allergic reactions to decorative skin paintings.

  14. [New pets, allergens and allergic dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajon, D; Waton, J; Schmutz, J-L; Barbaud, A

    2014-10-01

    The number of household pets increased greatly during the twentieth century, with the numbers of new pets (NP, i.e. any pet other than cats and dogs) rising especially sharply over the last decade. Contact with such animals, whose owners do not always know how to look after them properly, expose the population to new risks such as trauma, infection and allergy. While the most common allergies are respiratory, allergic skin reactions, both immediate and delayed, may also result from contact with these new allergens. The animal itself or its environment may be the cause. Herein, we review NPs and reports of allergic dermatitis associated with them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. [Aeroallergens becoming more significant for allergic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudack, C; Sachse, F; Jörg, S

    2003-09-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a very common disease with an increasing prevalence to 10-20% over the last 40 years. These studies propose different reasons for this increase. An increasing exposure to outdoor allergens is shown in different geographical and climatic areas, like the rising frequency of reactions to cockroaches in Europe or to mites in tropical areas. New aero-allergens have appeared in the animal and vegetable realms, both in home and professional environments. Respiratory allergy to Ficus benjamina inaugurated a new type of allergy caused by airborne allergens from non-pollinating plants. This is specially important because of the cross-reactions to latex. The immunochemical structures of airborne allergens are now better known, and the homologous structures of different allergens largely explain certain cross-reactions. In the future, recombinant allergens will probably lead to better understanding of the role of allergens in inducing and maintaining the allergic reaction and should promote our approach to diagnosis and therapy.

  16. ALLERGIC RHINITIS: MODERN APPROACHES OF TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.G. Levina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis (AR is global problem of world health care system. Last 50 years the prevalence of AR increased. AR influences social life, sleeping, school progress and capacity for work. AR is frequently combined with bronchial asthma; it is able to induce exacerbation of asthma. The treatment of AR should be directed to the control of symptoms, prophylaxis of complications, improvement of sleeping and quality of life of patients and their parents. Intranasal corticosteroids are the drugs of choice in treatment of children with AR, these medications stop all symptoms of the disease including eyes symptoms.Key words: children, allergic rhinitis, intranasal corticosteroids, treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(6:45-51

  17. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic respiratory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappella, Antonio; Durham, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy involves the repeated administration of allergen products in order to induce clinical and immunologic tolerance to the offending allergen. Immunotherapy is the only etiology-based treatment that has the potential for disease modification, as reflected by longterm remission following its discontinuation and possibly prevention of disease progression and onset of new allergic sensitizations. Whereas subcutaneous immunotherapy is of proven value in allergic rhinitis and asthma there is a risk of untoward side effects including rarely anaphylaxis. Recently the sublingual route has emerged as an effective and safer alternative. Whereas the efficacy of SLIT in seasonal allergy is now well-documented in adults and children, the available data for perennial allergies and asthma is less reliable and particularly lacking in children. This review evaluates the efficacy, safety and longterm benefits of SCIT and SLIT and highlights new findings regarding mechanisms, potential biomarkers and recent novel approaches for allergen immunotherapy. PMID:23095870

  18. Retrospective assessment of seasonal allergic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Poulsen, L K; Malling, H-J

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The history of the severity of seasonal allergic symptoms is often obtained post-seasonally as a retrospective assessment. Correct rating is essential when determining the efficacy of pharmaceutical treatment, indications for allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), or inclusion...... in a double-blind study. Assessment of severity of symptoms from the nose, eyes and lungs were performed daily during the season 2000, and post-seasonally 6 months after the season in 1999 and 2000. A four-point verbal descriptor scale (VDS-4) was used at all occasions. A mean in-seasonal symptom rating...... reported lung symptoms (P assessment of seasonal allergic symptoms generally describes a shorter period than the arithmetic season. Post-season assessment tends to over-rate average symptom severity, but appears sufficiently sensitive to detect treatment efficacy....

  19. Omalizumab in the management of patients with allergic (IgE-mediated asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Sandström

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas SandströmDepartment of Respiratory Medicine and Allergy, University Hospital, Umeå, SwedenAbstract: Immunoglobulin E (IgE is central to the pathophysiology of allergic asthma. Omalizumab, an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, binds to the FcεRI binding site on free IgE. As a result, circulating free IgE is reduced, IgE is prevented from attaching to mast cells and basophils, and FcεRI receptor expression is down-regulated. The inflammatory response to allergens and the acute and chronic effector phases of allergic inflammation are thereby attenuated. In clinical trials in adults and adolescents, omalizumab reduced asthma exacerbations, severe asthma exacerbations, inhaled corticosteroid requirements, and emergency visits, as well as significantly improving asthma-related quality of life, morning peak expiratory flow and asthma symptom scores in patients with severe allergic (IgE-mediated asthma. Results from clinical trials in children (< 12 years are consistent with those in the adult population. It is difficult to predict which patients will respond to omalizumab. Responders to omalizumab should be identified after a 16-week trial of therapy using the physician’s overall assessment. When treatment is targeted to these responders, omalizumab provides a cost-effective therapy for inadequately controlled severe allergic (IgE-mediated asthma. Long-term therapy with omalizumab shows the potential for disease-modification in asthma. Ongoing studies are also evaluating the use of omalizumab in other non-asthma IgE-mediated conditions.Keywords: omalizumab, IgE, allergic asthma

  20. Steroids vs immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasbjerg, Kristian; Backer, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    Treatment for seasonal allergic rhinitis induced by airborne allergens can be divided into two major groups: symptom-dampening drugs, such as antihistamines and corticosteroids, and disease-modifying drugs in the form of immunotherapy. It has been speculated that depot-injection corticosteroids...... given once or twice a year are a safe and patient-friendly alternative to the time-consuming immunotherapy. Our data indicate otherwise....

  1. Egg introduction: differential allergic responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dosanjh A

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Amrita Dosanjh Medical Center, Rady Childrens Hospital, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: The use of egg protein preparations in clinical trials to reduce the incidence of egg allergy among infants includes a number of preparations of egg. These include whole egg, egg white protein, and egg yolk preparations. The study of the differential immune responses to these allergenic proteins in comparison is suggested as a future research area of investigation. Keywords: food allergy, egg allergy, clinical trial, atopy

  2. Egg introduction: differential allergic responses

    OpenAIRE

    Dosanjh,Amrita

    2017-01-01

    Amrita Dosanjh Medical Center, Rady Childrens Hospital, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: The use of egg protein preparations in clinical trials to reduce the incidence of egg allergy among infants includes a number of preparations of egg. These include whole egg, egg white protein, and egg yolk preparations. The study of the differential immune responses to these allergenic proteins in comparison is suggested as a future research area of investigation. Keywords: food allergy, egg allergy, clinica...

  3. Seawater gel in allergic rhinitis: entrapment effect and mucociliary clearance compared with saline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cingi, Cemal; Unlu, H Halis; Songu, Murat; Yalcin, Sinasi; Topcu, Ismail; Cakli, Hamdi; Bal, Cengiz

    2010-02-01

    We performed a prospective study to investigate the the efficacy of seawater gel in reducing symptoms in patients with mild allergic rhinitis. We also aimed to investigate the impact of nasal irrigation on mucociliary clearance with seawater gel compared with saline in this patient group. The study was performed in 100 consecutive adult individuals with a history of allergic rhinitis that was not controlled by anti-allergic drugs. Patients were assigned to receive seawater gel nasal spray for 10 days. The efficacy of treatment was assessed by means of total nasal symptom score and clinical findings. A statistically significant difference was found between scores of 'nasal discharge, nasal obstruction, sneezing, nasal itching'before and after treatment (p < 0.001). Clinical findings evaluation revealed a statistically significant decrease in lower turbinate colour rating and turbinate congestion at the end of treatment (p< 0.001). Saccharin transit time decreased from baseline in the seawater trials by 12% compared with a 4% decrease for saline. The difference between the percent changes was statistically significant (t = 2.177; p < 0.05). The present study provides evidence that a four times daily regimen of seawater gel can be an adjunctive therapy in the patient with allergic rhinitis.

  4. Comparison of turbinoplasty surgery efficacy in patients with and without allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerschmidt, Rodrigo; Hamerschmidt, Rogério; Moreira, Ana Tereza Ramos; Tenório, Sérgio Bernardo; Timi, Jorge Rufno Ribas

    2016-01-01

    Turbinoplasty is a procedure that aims to reduce the size of the inferior turbinate through exuberant bone removal with high mucosal preservation. The procedure is recommended for patients with or without allergic rhinitis and those showing irreversible hypertrophy of inferior turbinates. To evaluate the efficacy of inferior turbinoplasty for obstructive and non-obstructive symptoms in patients with or without allergic rhinitis. Prospective study with 57 patients who underwent inferior turbinoplasty. They were evaluated for nasal obstruction, snoring, facial pressure, smell alterations, sneezing, nasal itching and runny nose symptoms, surgery time, and intraoperative bleeding. The last evaluation took place three months after surgery. Thirty-nine patients with allergic rhinitis and 18 without were assessed. Ninety days after surgery, 94.7% of patients showed degrees IV and V of breathing improvement; 89.5% showed moderate or complete improvement in snoring; all patients showed smell improvement (only one showed moderate improvement; all the others had full improvement); 95.5% experienced complete facial pressure improvement; and 89.7% showed moderate to complete improvement in nasal itching and runny nose symptoms, as well as in sneezing. The efficacy of inferior turbinoplasty was confirmed not only for obstructive symptoms, but also for non-obstructive symptoms in patients with and without allergic rhinitis. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of turbinoplasty surgery efficacy in patients with and without allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Hamerschmidt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Turbinoplasty is a procedure that aims to reduce the size of the inferior turbinate through exuberant bone removal with high mucosal preservation. The procedure is recommended for patients with or without allergic rhinitis and those showing irreversible hypertrophy of inferior turbinates. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of inferior turbinoplasty for obstructive and non-obstructive symptoms in patients with or without allergic rhinitis. METHODS: Prospective study with 57 patients who underwent inferior turbinoplasty. They were evaluated for nasal obstruction, snoring, facial pressure, smell alterations, sneezing, nasal itching and runny nose symptoms, surgery time, and intraoperative bleeding. The last evaluation took place three months after surgery. RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients with allergic rhinitis and 18 without were assessed. Ninety days after surgery, 94.7% of patients showed degrees IV and V of breathing improvement; 89.5% showed moderate or complete improvement in snoring; all patients showed smell improvement (only one showed moderate improvement; all the others had full improvement; 95.5% experienced complete facial pressure improvement; and 89.7% showed moderate to complete improvement in nasal itching and runny nose symptoms, as well as in sneezing. CONCLUSION: The efficacy of inferior turbinoplasty was confirmed not only for obstructive symptoms, but also for non-obstructive symptoms in patients with and without allergic rhinitis.

  6. THE USE OF IMMUNOMODULATORS TO PREVENT RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN WITH ALLERGIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Bokuchava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with allergic diseases, especially bronchial asthma, are in need of protection from acute respiratory infections, as anti-epidemic  measures cannot prevent the spread of influenza; vaccination remains the best means of prevention. Another promising direction in the prevention of acute respiratory infections (ARI can be immunomodulators of bacterial origin. Objective:  Our aim was to study the use of immunomodulators for prevention of respiratory infections with children having allergic diseases. Methods. A comparative analysis of prophylactic efficiency of specific and nonspecific immunoprophylaxis of ARI with children having allergic diseases has been done during three epedemic seasons (2011–2014. Results.  For immunization of 335 children aged 3–17 years having a variety of allergic diseases, vaccine (domestic and foreign in combination with an immunomodulator, and without it have been used. With the help of vaccination, the number of cases of ARI during the whole observation period decreased significantly: 21 (6.3% children did not have ARI,62 (18.5% children had ARI once, 252 (75.2% children — from 1–4 times in a year. Also, significant reduction of frequency of aggravation of the basic disease was observed in all treatment groups. Patients who received only immunomodulator, had significant reduction of both ARI and the basic disease (p <0,05.  Conclusion. The use of vaccines in combination with an immunomodulator or without it fully protects children from flu and significantly (1.5 times reduces prevalence of ARI.

  7. Acanthamoeba protease activity promotes allergic airway inflammation via protease-activated receptor 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Kyung Park

    Full Text Available Acanthamoeba is a free-living amoeba commonly present in the environment and often found in human airway cavities. Acanthamoeba possesses strong proteases that can elicit allergic airway inflammation. To our knowledge, the aeroallergenicity of Acanthamoeba has not been reported. We repeatedly inoculated mice with Acanthamoeba trophozoites or excretory-secretory (ES proteins intra-nasally and evaluated symptoms and airway immune responses. Acanthamoeba trophozoites or ES proteins elicited immune responses in mice that resembled allergic airway inflammation. ES proteins had strong protease activity and activated the expression of several chemokine genes (CCL11, CCL17, CCL22, TSLP, and IL-25 in mouse lung epithelial cells. The serine protease inhibitor phenyl-methane-sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF inhibited ES protein activity. ES proteins also stimulated dendritic cells and enhanced the differentiation of naive T cells into IL-4-secreting T cells. After repeated inoculation of the protease-activated receptor 2 knockout mouse with ES proteins, airway inflammation and Th2 immune responses were markedly reduced, but not to basal levels. Furthermore, asthma patients had higher Acanthamoeba-specific IgE titers than healthy controls and we found Acanthamoeba specific antigen from house dust in typical living room. Our findings suggest that Acanthamoeba elicits allergic airway symptoms in mice via a protease allergen. In addition, it is possible that Acanthamoeba may be one of the triggers human airway allergic disease.

  8. Acanthamoeba Protease Activity Promotes Allergic Airway Inflammation via Protease-Activated Receptor 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi Kyung; Cho, Min Kyoung; Kang, Shin Ae; Park, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Dong-Hee; Yu, Hak Sun

    2014-01-01

    Acanthamoeba is a free-living amoeba commonly present in the environment and often found in human airway cavities. Acanthamoeba possesses strong proteases that can elicit allergic airway inflammation. To our knowledge, the aeroallergenicity of Acanthamoeba has not been reported. We repeatedly inoculated mice with Acanthamoeba trophozoites or excretory-secretory (ES) proteins intra-nasally and evaluated symptoms and airway immune responses. Acanthamoeba trophozoites or ES proteins elicited immune responses in mice that resembled allergic airway inflammation. ES proteins had strong protease activity and activated the expression of several chemokine genes (CCL11, CCL17, CCL22, TSLP, and IL-25) in mouse lung epithelial cells. The serine protease inhibitor phenyl-methane-sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) inhibited ES protein activity. ES proteins also stimulated dendritic cells and enhanced the differentiation of naive T cells into IL-4-secreting T cells. After repeated inoculation of the protease-activated receptor 2 knockout mouse with ES proteins, airway inflammation and Th2 immune responses were markedly reduced, but not to basal levels. Furthermore, asthma patients had higher Acanthamoeba-specific IgE titers than healthy controls and we found Acanthamoeba specific antigen from house dust in typical living room. Our findings suggest that Acanthamoeba elicits allergic airway symptoms in mice via a protease allergen. In addition, it is possible that Acanthamoeba may be one of the triggers human airway allergic disease. PMID:24658532

  9. Sublingual immunotherapy in allergic asthma: Current evidence and needs to meet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Incorvaia Cristoforo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergen-specific immunotherapy is aimed at modifying the natural history of allergy by inducing tolerance to the causative allergen. In its traditional, subcutaneous form, immunotherapy has complete evidence of efficacy in allergic asthma. However, subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT has a major flaw in side effects, and especially in possible anaphylactic reactions, and this prompted the search for safer ways of administration of allergen extracts. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT has met such need while maintaining a clinical efficacy comparable to SCIT. In fact, the safety profile, as outlined by a systematic revision of the available literature, was substantially free from serious systemic reactions. A number of meta-analyses clearly showed that SLIT is effective in allergic rhinitis by significantly reducing the clinical symptoms and the use of anti-allergic drugs, while the efficacy in allergic asthma is still debated, with some meta-analyses showing clear effectiveness but other giving contrasting results. Besides the efficacy on symptoms, the preventive activity and the cost-effectiveness are important outcomes of SLIT in asthma. The needs to meet include more data on efficacy in house dust mite asthma, optimal techniques of administration and, as previously done with SCIT, introduction of adjuvants able to enhance the immunologic response and use of recombinant allergens.

  10. Child with Allergies or Allergic Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Reshma; Baranwal, Arun K

    2018-01-01

    Incidence of allergic disorders in children has increased significantly over time due to environmental and life-style changes. These include allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, allergic conjunctivitis, food allergies, bronchial asthma, drug allergies, insect bites and anaphylaxis; most being IgE-mediated type 1 hypersensitivity reactions to common environmental and food antigens. Although most of them are self-limiting, they may adversely affect the quality of life and sometimes become life-threatening as well. These conditions are more likely to get underestimated, or over-diagnosed as recurrent infections. Hence a careful history and physical examination by attending pediatrician are necessary to differentiate it from infections. Diagnostic tests have limited value in identifying the inciting allergen. Management includes avoidance of the inciting allergens (if known), combined with symptomatic relief provided by a combination of pharmacological agents, e.g., antihistamines, anticholinergics, chromones, leukotriene-modifying agents, topical and systemic steroids. Further, specialist consultation needs to be sought, for children with recurrent or persistent symptoms. The scope of this manuscript does not include bronchial asthma.

  11. Severe allergic reactions to guinea pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Jeffrey L

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergic sensitization and reactions to guinea pig (Cavia porcellus have been well documented in laboratory animal handlers, primarily manifesting as rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma. Severe allergic reactions, however, are rare. Methods We report two patients with severe allergic reactions following non-occupational exposure to guinea pigs. The first patient, an 11-year-old female, developed ocular, nasal, skin and laryngeal edema symptoms immediately after handling a guinea pig. The second patient, a 24-year-old female, developed symptoms of isolated laryngeal edema after cleaning a guinea pig cage. Percutaneous skin testing, RAST, ELISA and ELISA inhibition testing with guinea pig extract were performed. Results Both patients had IgE-mediated allergy to guinea pig confirmed by ELISA and either RAST or skin testing. ELISA inhibition studies confirmed the specificity of the IgE reactivity to guinea pig. Conclusion Severe IgE-mediated reactions can occur following non-occupational guinea pig exposure. Physicians should be aware of this possibility.

  12. Sublingual Immunotherapy for Allergic Fungal Sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Jonathan M; Driskill, Brent R; Clenney, Timothy L; Gessler, Eric M

    2015-10-01

    Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is a condition that has an allergic basis caused by exposure to fungi in the sinonasal tract leading to chronic inflammation. Despite standard treatment modalities, which typically include surgery and medical management of allergies, patients still have a high rate of recurrence. Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) has been used as adjuvant treatment for AFS. Evidence exists to support the use of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) as a safe and efficacious method of treating allergies, but no studies have assessed the utility of SLIT in the management of allergic fungal sinusitis. A record review of cases of AFS that are currently or previously treated with sublingual immunotherapy from 2007 to 2011 was performed. Parameters of interest included serum IgE levels, changes in symptoms, Lund-McKay scores, decreased sensitization to fungal allergens associated with AFS, and serum IgE levels. Ten patients with diagnosed AFS were treated with SLIT. No adverse effects related to the use of SLIT therapy were identified. Decreases in subjective complaints, exam findings, Lund-McKay scores, and serum IgE levels were observed. Thus, sublingual immunotherapy appears to be a safe adjunct to the management of AFS that may improve patient outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Maternal allergic disease history affects childhood allergy development through impairment of neonatal regulatory T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Shan-Shan; Gao, Rong; Yan, Bing-di; Ren, Jin; Wu, Fei; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Li-Fang; Xiao, Yuan-Ming; Liu, Jing

    2016-09-20

    Maternal allergic disease history and impaired regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are critical risk factors for allergy development in children. However, the mechanisms that underlie these risk factors remain poorly defined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether maternal allergies affect the Tregs of offspring and lead to allergy development in childhood. A total of 332 mothers of healthy newborns (234 from no allergic mothers, 98 from allergic mothers) were recruited to this study. Detailed questionnaires were administered yearly to determine the allergy status of the mothers and the newborns from birth to 3 years of age. Cord blood samples obtained at the time of birth were analysed for Treg counts, as well Treg activity, based on their response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimuli such as lipid A (LPA) and peptidoglycans (PPG). Surface markers, associated genes, suppressive capacity, and cytokine levels of Tregs were also measured. Possible correlations between Treg activity and maternal or neonate allergies were assessed. In addition, environmental microbial content and other known risk factors for allergies were measured. Cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) from offspring with allergic mothers showed fewer CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) T cells, lower expression levels of associated genes, and reduced cytokine production of interleukin (IL)-10 and interferon-γ (P allergies was impaired, especially IL-13 production by Type 2 T helper (Th2) cells (P = 0.026). Children who developed allergies in the first 3 years of life had lower numbers of CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) T cells and reduced FOXP3 expression and IL-10 production as newborns (P allergy development in the children (Odds ratio (OR) = 2.46, 95 % CI = 1.05-5.79); while declining Treg numbers, IL-10 production, and FOXP3 expression in neonates (PPG and LPA stimulated) were identified as independent risk factors for allergic diseases in offspring at 3 years of age after adjusting for

  14. Metabolism of /sup 32/P-phosphate in guinea pig cerebrum and cerebellum in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezes, V.; Bukovsky, V.; Drgova, A.; Mezesova, V. (Komenskeho Univ., Martin (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta)

    1984-06-01

    The metabolism of intraventricularly administered /sup 32/P-phosphate in the cerebral and cerebellar tissue of guinea pigs was analyzed in the acute state of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. One and six hours following administration of /sup 32/P-phosphate into the right lateral ventricle of the brain no differences were found in the specific activity of phosphates of the acid-soluble fraction of the brain tissue in the compared series of guinea pigs. The cerebellar tissue in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis displayed the specific activity of the total phosphorus of the acid-soluble fraction reduced by 27% one hour after administration and by 37% after six hours, and the specific activity of inorganic phosphates was reduced by 40% and by 45%, respectively. Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis does not affect the content of total phosphorus in the acid-soluble fraction and in the fraction of inorganic phosphates in the cerebrum and cerebellum of guinea pigs.

  15. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection-induced CD11b+ Gr1+ cells ameliorate allergic airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Venkateswaran; Baru, Abdul Mannan; Hesse, Christina; Friedrich, Christin; Glage, Silke; Gohmert, Melanie; Jänke, Christine; Sparwasser, Tim

    2014-03-01

    Allergies are mainly characterized as an unrestrained Th2-biased immune response. Epidemiological data associate protection from allergic diseases with the exposure to certain infectious agents during early stages of life. Modulation of the immune response by pathogens has been considered to be a major factor influencing this protection. Recent evidence indicates that immunoregulatory mechanisms induced upon infection ameliorate allergic disorders. A longitudinal study has demonstrated reduced frequency and incidence of asthma in children who reported a prior infection with Salmonella. Experimental studies involving Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium-infected murine models have confirmed protection from induced allergic airway inflammation; however, the underlying cause leading to this amelioration remains incompletely defined. In this study, we aimed to delineate the regulatory function of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in the amelioration of allergic airway inflammation in mice. We observed a significant increase in CD11b+ Gr1+ myeloid cell populations in mice after infection with S. Typhimurium. Using in vitro and in vivo studies, we confirmed that these myeloid cells reduce airway inflammation by influencing Th2 cells. Further characterization showed that the CD11b+ Gr1+ myeloid cells exhibited their inhibitory effect by altering GATA-3 expression and interleukin-4 (IL-4) production by Th2 cells. These results indicate that the expansion of myeloid cells upon S. Typhimurium infection could potentially play a significant role in curtailing allergic airway inflammation. These findings signify the contribution of myeloid cells in preventing Th2-mediated diseases and suggest their possible application as therapeutics.

  16. Impact of Aspergillus fumigatus in allergic airway diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Neelkamal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For decades, fungi have been recognized as associated with asthma and other reactive airway diseases. In contrast to type I-mediated allergies caused by pollen, fungi cause a large number of allergic diseases such as allergic bronchopulmonary mycoses, rhinitis, allergic sinusitis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Amongst the fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent cause of severe pulmonary allergic disease, including allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA, known to be associated with chronic lung injury and deterioration in pulmonary function in people with chronic asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF. The goal of this review is to discuss new understandings of host-pathogen interactions in the genesis of allergic airway diseases caused by A. fumigatus. Host and pathogen related factors that participate in triggering the inflammatory cycle leading to pulmonary exacerbations in ABPA are discussed.

  17. Sublingual immunotherapy for pediatric allergic rhinitis: The clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddighe, Dimitri; Licari, Amelia; Caimmi, Silvia; Marseglia, Gian Luigi

    2016-02-08

    Allergic rhinitis is estimated to affect 10%-20% of pediatric population and it is caused by the IgE-sensitization to environmental allergens, most importantly grass pollens and house dust mites. Allergic rhinitis can influence patient's daily activity severely and may precede the development of asthma, especially if it is not diagnosed and treated correctly. In addition to subcutaneous immunotherapy, sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) represents the only treatment being potentially able to cure allergic respiratory diseases, by modulating the immune system activity. This review clearly summarizes and analyzes the available randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trials, which aimed at evaluating the effectiveness and the safety of grass pollen and house dust mite SLIT for the specific treatment of pediatric allergic rhinitis. Our analysis demonstrates the good evidence supporting the efficacy of SLIT for allergic rhinitis to grass pollens in children, whereas trials regarding pediatric allergic rhinitis to house dust mites present lower quality, although several studies supported its usefulness.

  18. A survey of the prevalence of blowfly strike and the control measures used in the Rûens area of the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Scholtz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Blowfly strike and the methods used to combat blowfly strike were recorded on 33 properties in the Rûens area of South Africa during 2003/2004. Data were recorded on Merino and Dohne Merino hoggets (n = 4951 with at least 3 months’ wool growth. The following data were captured: presence or absence of strike, site of the strike (body or breech, presence or absence of dermatophilosis as well as subjective scores for wool quality and wool colour. Control measures recorded include: chemical treatment (preventative and spot treatment, crutching, mulesing and the use of the Lucitrap® system. Blowfly strike was not significantly influenced by gender or breed. Hoggets suffering from dermatophilosis were more likely to be struck, compared with contemporaries not suffering from the skin disorder (0.057 vs 0.027; P < 0.05. Merino hoggets generally had higher scores than their Dohne Merino contemporaries for wool quality (32.6 vs 27.4; P<0.05 and wool colour (29.0 vs 27.2; P<0.05. There was an indication that the Lucitrap® system may have reduced flystrike, but the effect was not statistically significant (P = 0.19 for overall strikes and P = 0.12 for body strike. The Mules operation benefited overall flystrike (0.013 vs 0.110; P < 0.05; mainly through an effect on breech strike (0.010 vs 0.109; P < 0.05. The proportion of fly strikes increased with wool length, and declined with an increase in farm size in wool colour score. None of the ethically acceptable control measures assessed could substantially reduce blowfly strike on their own, and an integrated pest management programme was proposed.

  19. New concept in allergy: Non-allergic rats becomes allergic after induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Utomo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: As a theory, seemingly it is impossible that allergic diseases, including asthma, are the result of exposure to a transmissible agent. The fact that nearly all children with asthma are allergic, but only a small proportion of allergic children have asthma, at least raises the possibility that other factors are involved. Interestingly, non-allergic children become allergic after their parents came from working in allergic people for several months. Recent research revealed that periodontal pathogens are also transmissible from mother and caregivers to infants.Therefore, it is logical that non-allergic children could become allergic after exposed to periodontopathic bacteria. However, the mechanism is still unclear. Purpose: The objective of this study is to verify a new concept that non-allergic rat may become allergic after exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide. Methods: Randomized control series design experimental study was conducted to 24 male Wistar rats, two experimental groups and one control group. One group was subjected to intrasulcular injection of PgLPS1435/1450. Tissue examination were done for allergy biomarkers with peroxidase immunohistochemistry for leukotriene C4 (LTC4 and eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP in bronchus tissue. Serum level examination of interleukin 4 (IL-4, and immunoglobulin E (IgE was done with ELISA. Data were analyzes using ANOVA. Results: after four days, LTC4 and ECP expression increased significantly (p=0.001; even insignificant, IL-4 and IgE serum level also increased. Conclusion: PgLPS is able to stimulate immunocompetent cells which changed the host immune response of non-allergic rats. Therefore, it is possible that they become allergic.Latar belakang: Menurut teori, penularan penyakit alergi termasuk asma merupakan hal yang mustahil. Fakta menunjukkn bahwa hampir semua anak penderita asma mempunyai alergi, tetapi tidak semua anak alergi menderita asma, sehingga mungkin

  20. Atopy and contact allergy to fragrance: allergic reactions to the fragrance mix I (the Larsen mix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Deirdre A; Basketter, David A; Kan-King-Yu, Denis; White, Ian R; White, Jonathan L M; McFadden, John P

    2008-10-01

    The relationship between an atopic diathesis and contact sensitization to fragrances is unclear. To investigate whether there is an association between atopy and allergy to fragrance mix I (FM I). The computerized files of patients patch tested to FM I at St John's Institute of Dermatology (1980-2004) were reviewed. Demographic details recorded for all patch-tested patients included age, sex, date of testing, history of current or previous atopic eczema (AE), history of current or previous asthma nor hay fever (A/HF), family history (FH) of any type of atopy, and any positive patch tests. About 8.4% of females (1713/20 338) and 6.6% of males (903/13 734) were allergic to FM I. About 8.95% (101/1129) of females with AE were allergic to FM I versus 8.63% (619/7171) of females who had neither AE and A/HF nor FH (non-atopics) (P = 0.72). About 5.6% (40/710) of males with AE were positive to FM I versus 6.9% (427/6201) of male non-atopics (P = 0.23). There was a striking increase in AE and A/HF during this 25-year period (P < 0.0001). We found no association between atopy and allergy to FM I. There has been a marked increase in atopy in individuals referred for patch testing in the past 25 years.

  1. [Comparative assessment of cryosurgical treatment results in allergic and non-allergic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska-Bliżniewska, Hanna; Repetowski, Marcin; Miłoński, Jarosław; Olszewski, Jurek

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the work was to assess the treatment efficiency in patients with allergic and non-allergic vasomotor rhinitis after cryoablation procedures. The study covered 60 patients, including 32 women and 28 men, aged 18-66. The patients were divided into two groups: I - 30 patients with chronic allergic rhinitis, II - 30 patients with non-allergic vasomotor rhinitis. The study methodology involved: an otorhinolaryngological interview with a questionnaire and an allergological interview, an objective otolaryngological and rhinomanometrical examination with Homoth apparatus, a subjective evaluation questionnaire for nasal blockage intensification (the scale ranging from 0 to 10), skin tests to aeorallergens and food allergens (Allergopharma Co.), nasal endoscopy with a straight rigid Eleps endoscope before the treatment and 3 months following it. The cryoablation of nasal conchas was performed under local infiltration anesthesia (1% Xylokaina solution) using the Cryo-S apparatus from CryoFlex Poland Company and a flat probe in a spatula shape (L-50) that was placed on the outer surfaces of the inferior nasal concha. The inferior nasal concha cryoablation resulted in a statistically significant improvement in the subjective assessment scale in group I by 82.6% and group II by 141.2%. In the endoscopic examination 3 months following the cryoablation a good nasal patency was achieved in 63.3% patients from group I and 76.7% patients from group II. The conducted studies show a better nasal passages patency in patients with non-allergic rhinitis than in those with allergic rhinitis. Cryoablation procedures on the inferior nasal conchas are not the primary therapy, but together with other methods they can immensely improve the life comfort of a rhinitis patient. Copyright © 2011 Polish Otolaryngology Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner (Poland). All rights reserved.

  2. EDITORIAL Plagiarism - time to strike at the epidemic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Plagiarism - time to strike at the epidemic. Lukman Yusuf1, Abraham Aseffa2. We live in a globalized world where information is instantly shared across continents. The number of biomedical journals available for reference is quite enormous and there is a sudden huge surge of free open access journals in the last few years ...

  3. The Eastern Pacific Tropical Cyclone Strike Probability Program (EPSTRKP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    of nine preselected points of interest. Although subject to change the points currently listed within the program are: Acapulco, Mazatlan, Puerto ... Vallarta , La Paz, San Diego, Hilo, Honolulu, Johnston Island and Midway Island. The strike probabilities, computed upon receipt of each 6-hourly warning

  4. Effects of Union Organization on Strike Incidence in EU Companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Giedo

    2014-01-01

    The author reinvestigates the relationship between the organizational power of trade unions and strikes based on data from the European Company Survey 2009 (ECS-2009) and the Institutional Characteristics of Trade Unions, Wage Setting, State Intervention and Social Pacts (ICTWSS) database, which

  5. Monte Carlo Simulation to Estimate Likelihood of Direct Lightning Strikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Carlos; Medelius, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    A software tool has been designed to quantify the lightning exposure at launch sites of the stack at the pads under different configurations. In order to predict lightning strikes to generic structures, this model uses leaders whose origins (in the x-y plane) are obtained from a 2D random, normal distribution.

  6. Torts Liability for Strike Action and Third Party Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raday, Frances

    1979-01-01

    Studies the nature of the torts liability incurred in strikes and the extent of existing immunities bestowed on strikers and their organizers, and explores the principles that should govern liability and immunity. Available from Israel Law Review Association, c/o Faculty of Law, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus, P.O.B. 24100, Jerusalem…

  7. Nurses need the right to strike to protect patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Malcolm

    2012-04-25

    Four of your readers panellists were asked if the RCN should be affiliated to the Trades Union Congress (reflections April 4). One of them said the RCN needs to modernise and join the wider trade union movement, but 'should keep the "no strike" policy that has always served it so well'.

  8. Analysis of the effects of frequent strikes on academic performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The history of Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU)'s strike can be traced back to 1978, the period of the beginning of the decline in the oil boom, when the country faced the consequences of the failure by its rulers to use the oil wealth to generate production and a social welfare system. Military dictatorship had ...

  9. On Striking for a Bargain between Two Completely Informed Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houba, H.E.D.; Wen, Q.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a thorough equilibrium analysis of a wage contract negotiation model where the union must choose between strike and holdout between offers and counter-offers. When the union and the firm have different discount factors, delay in reaching an agreement may Pareto dominate many

  10. Assemblage of strike-slip faults and tectonic extension and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    12

    and its effect on the productivity of the tight reservoirs. The study will not only guide. 95 the oil-gas ..... 5 Effect of tectonic extension and compression on coal reservoir productivity. 288. 5.1 Strike-slip compression and ..... staff of all the authors that cooperated in performing the analyses. We are also. 425 grateful to the ...

  11. Assemblage of strike-slip faults and tectonic extension and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    12

    Assemblage of strike-slip faults and tectonic. 1 extension and compression analysis: A case. 2 study of a Lower Permian commercial coal. 3 reservoir in China. 4. 5. Shuai Yina,*, Dawei Lvb, Zhonghu Wu c .... high-quality reservoirs, and tectonic action is a leading factor for oil and gas. 70 enrichment. Therefore, it is of great ...

  12. BIRD/WILDLIFE STRIKE CONTROL FOR SAFER AIR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-06-05

    Jun 5, 2012 ... These include staff training and retraining, developing good data bank based on .... wildlife is very important in bird control. Successful habitat ... Designated staff patrols the airside areas using chemical repellants, propane cannons, distress call. Birds/Wildlife Strikes Control for Safer Air .................Usman et ...

  13. LAW AND ETHICS OF STRIKES IN THE NIGERIAN HEALTH SYSTEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-06

    Oct 6, 2014 ... MDCN Code of ethics intends to give right for cessation of work by workers in the health sector of the economy. Thus under the Common Law, a strike, especially in the essential services is a breach of the contract of employment. The Trade. Union (amendment) Act (Federal Republic of. Nigeria, 2005) ...

  14. Growth control of kalanchoe cultivars Rako and Gold Strike by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to test the potential of paclobutrazol and uniconazole used at the propagation stage as a plant growth retardant (PGR) of kalanchoe cultivars Rako and Gold Strike. Three node terminal cuttings were soaked in 500 mL of 0.05, 0.25, or 0.50 mg·L-1 paclobutrazol or uniconazole solution for 2 h.

  15. Striking Inside Angola with 32 Battalion | Scheepers | Scientia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 42, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Striking Inside Angola with 32 ...

  16. Force, reaction time, and precision of Kung Fu strikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Bolander, Richard; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu Tavares; Bir, Cynthia

    2009-08-01

    The goal was to compare values of force, precision, and reaction time of several martial arts punches and palm strikes performed by advanced and intermediate Kung Fu practitioners, both men and women. 13 Kung Fu practitioners, 10 men and three women, participated. Only the men, three advanced and seven intermediate, were considered for comparisons between levels. Reaction time values were obtained using two high speed cameras that recorded each strike at 2500 Hz. Force of impact was measured by a load cell. For comparisons of groups, force data were normalized by participant's body mass and height. Precision of the strikes was determined by a high speed pressure sensor. The results show that palm strikes were stronger than punches. Women in the study presented, on average, lower values of reaction time and force but higher values of precision than men. Advanced participants presented higher forces than intermediate participants. Significant negative correlations between the values of force and precision and the values of force and reaction time were also found.

  17. Levocetirizine modulates lymphocyte activation in patients with allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Fadia; Arifhodzic, Nirmina; Haines, David; Novotney, Ladislav

    2008-10-01

    Levocetirizine, a second generation non-sedating antihistamine that blocks the H(1) histamine receptor, may exhibit immunoregulatory properties that augment its primary pharmacological mechanism. To investigate this possibility, 13 Kuwaiti seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) patients were treated with levocetirizine for four weeks in comparison with a 7-member placebo-treated control group, followed by clinical evaluation and flow cytometric analysis of peripheral venous blood for inflammatory cell and lymphocyte subpopulation profiles. Relative to the controls, levocetirizine-treated patients exhibited an expected reduction in early phase allergic symptoms, including sneezing (P<0.001), nasal itching (P<0.01), nasal congestion, and running nose (P<0.001); reduced percentages of eosinophils (P<0.05); and three subpopulations of activated T lymphocytes: CD4+CD29+, CD4+CD212+, and CD4+CD54+ (P<0.05). Levocetirizine treatment also correlated with a significant increase in the percentage of CD4+CD25+ T cells (P<0.001). The ability of levocetirizine to reduce percentage representation of cell phenotypes known to contribute to inflammatory tissue damage (eosinophils, CD4+CD29+, CD4+CD212+, and CD4+CD54+) and expand percentages of CD4+CD25+, which may include protective immunoregulatory (Treg) cells, indicates that the drug has pharmacological potential beyond the immediate effects of H(1) histamine-receptor inhibition. Although the present data does not define a therapeutic mechanism, the results reported here establish important trends that may be used to guide future mechanistic examination of immunoregulatory capacity of H(1) inhibitors.

  18. Allergic reactions to drugs: implications for perioperative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golembiewski, Julie A

    2002-12-01

    Clinically, one must be able to differentiate between an allergic reaction and an adverse reaction. Clinical manifestations of allergic reactions range from urticaria and rash to bronchoconstriction, laryngeal edema, hematologic disorders, and other serious reactions. Many drugs administered in the perioperative setting can cause allergic reactions. Antibiotics such as penicillins, beta-lactam antibiotics, and sulfonamides are the most common class of drugs that produce allergic reactions. A detailed allergy history is important when deciding if a patient can receive a drug that may cross-react (eg, a cephalosporin in a patient with a penicillin allergy). Vancomycin can cause a reaction that ranges from erythema and pruritus to clinically significant hypotension. Proper dilution and rate of administration are essential in minimizing the histamine from vancomycin that is thought to produce this reaction. "Sulfa allergy" describes an allergy to sulfonamide antibiotics; a patient with a "sulfa allergy" is not allergic to drugs containing sulfur, sulfites, or sulfates. Although true allergic reactions to opioids are rare, naturally occurring compounds like morphine and codeine can cause allergic reactions. After stopping the offending drug, mild allergic reactions can be managed with diphenhydramine, with or without a steroid. Significant allergic reactions require more aggressive management with oxygen, intravenous fluids, epinephrine, and histamine blockers. Copyright 2002 by American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses.

  19. Clinical efficacy and mechanism of probiotics in allergic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha-Jung Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors partially contributes to the development of allergic diseases through immune development during prenatal and early life. To explain the dramatic increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases, hygiene hypothesis was proposed that allergic diseases were prevented by early exposure to infection. This hygiene hypothesis has been changed to microbial hypothesis, which is closely linked to the development of early immune system and allergic diseases. The intestinal flora may be a contributor to allergic disease due to its substantial effect on mucosal immunity. On the basis of the findings that exposure to microbial flora early in life allows for a change in the Th1/Th2 balance, favoring a Th1 cell response, probiotics may be beneficial in preventing allergic diseases. However, evidence to prove its efficacy is lacking from both clinical and basic researches. To date, studies have yielded inconsistent findings on the usefulness of probiotics in allergic diseases. Due to limitations such as different first supplementation period, duration, different strains, short follow-up period, and host factors, it is difficult to demonstrate an exact effect of probiotics in asthma, allergic rhinitis, and food allergy. However, there are many literatures that demonstrate a significant clinical improvement in atopic dermatitis with the use of probiotics. An accurate understanding of the development of human immunity, intestinal barrier function, intestinal microbiota, and systemic immunity is required to comprehend the effects of probiotics on allergic diseases.

  20. Case Report: Mass Casualty Lightning Strike at Ranger Training Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Shannon N; Wilson, Zachary W; Cole, Christopher B; Kennedy, Andrew R; Aycock, Ryan D

    2017-05-01

    Although lightning strikes are a rare occurrence, their significance cannot be ignored given military operations in the field during all types of weather. With proper medical management, patients with lightning injuries can return to duty. Information for this case report comes from eyewitness account at the 6th Ranger Training Battalion and from review of physician documentation from the 96th Medical Group, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. A lightning strike injured 44 Ranger School participants during a training exercise on August 12, 2015, at Camp Rudder, Florida. These patients were triaged in the field and transported to emergency department of Eglin Air Force Base. Of the 44 casualties, 20 were admitted. All were returned to duty the following day. One patient had cardiac arrest. This patient, along with two others, was admitted to the intensive care unit. Seventeen other patients were admitted for observation for rhabdomyolysis and/or cardiac arrhythmias. One patient was admitted with suspected acute kidney injury indicated by an elevated creatinine. All patients, including those admitted to the intensive care unit, were released on the day following the lightning strike without restrictions and were allowed to return to duty with increased medical monitoring. This case report highlights the need for proper triage and recognition of lightning strike injury, coordination of care between field operations and emergency department personnel, and close follow-up for patients presenting with lightning injury. Symptoms, physical exam, and laboratory findings from rigorous training can be difficult to distinguish from those resulting from lightning injury. Secondary injuries resulting from blunt trauma from falls may have been prevented by the use of the lightning strike posture. Further analysis of procedures and standard operating protocols to mitigate risk during thunderstorms may be required to prevent lightning's effects on large groups of military personnel

  1. Management of patients during hunger strike and refeeding phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, M; Joray, M L; Perrig, M; Bodmer, M; Stanga, Z

    2014-01-01

    Hunger strikers resuming nutritional intake may develop a life-threatening refeeding syndrome (RFS). Consequently, hunger strikers represent a core challenge for the medical staff. The objective of the study was to test the effectiveness and safety of evidence-based recommendations for prevention and management of RFS during the refeeding phase. This was a retrospective, observational data analysis of 37 consecutive, unselected cases of prisoners on a hunger strike during a 5-y period. The sample consisted of 37 cases representing 33 individual patients. In seven cases (18.9%), the hunger strike was continued during the hospital stay, in 16 episodes (43.2%) cessation of the hunger strike occurred immediately after admission to the security ward, and in 14 episodes (37.9%) during hospital stay. In the refeed cases (n = 30), nutritional replenishment occurred orally, and in 25 (83.3%) micronutrients substitutions were made based on the recommendations. The gradual refeeding with fluid restriction occurred over 10 d. Uncomplicated dyselectrolytemia was documented in 12 cases (40%) within the refeeding phase. One case (3.3%) presented bilateral ankle edemas as a clinical manifestation of moderate RFS. Intensive medical treatment was not necessary and none of the patients died. Seven episodes of continued hunger strike were observed during the entire hospital stay without medical complications. Our data suggested that seriousness and rate of medical complications during the refeeding phase can be kept at a minimum in a hunger strike population. This study supported use of recommendations to optimize risk management and to improve treatment quality and patient safety in this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Implications of Incessant Strike Actions on the Implementation of Technical Education Programme in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adavbiele, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper was designed to x-ray the implications of incessant strike actions on the implementation of Technical education programme in Nigeria. The paper took an exploratory view on the concept of strike actions in Nigeria with particular references on notable strike actions that have occurred in Nigeria. The types of strike were explained and…

  3. Diesel Exhaust Exposure and Nasal Response to Attenuated Influenza in Normal and Allergic Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haibo; Zhang, Hongtao; Horvath, Katie; Robinette, Carole; Kesic, Matthew; Meyer, Megan; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Jaspers, Ilona

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Diesel exhaust enhances allergic inflammation, and pollutants are associated with heightened susceptibility to viral respiratory infections. The effects of combined diesel and virus exposure in humans are unknown. Objectives: Test whether acute exposure to diesel modifies inflammatory responses to influenza virus in normal humans and those with allergies. Methods: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of nasal responses to live attenuated influenza virus in normal volunteers and those with allergic rhinitis exposed to diesel (100 μg/m3) or clean air for 2 hours, followed by standard dose of virus and serial nasal lavages. Endpoints were inflammatory mediators (ELISA) and virus quantity (quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction). To test for exposure effect, we used multiple regression with exposure group (diesel vs. air) as the main explanatory variable and allergic status as an additional factor. Measurements and Main Results: Baseline levels of mediators did not differ among groups. For most postvirus nasal cytokine responses, there was no significant diesel effect, and no significant interaction with allergy. However, diesel was associated with significantly increased IFN-γ responses (P = 0.02), with no interaction with allergy in the regression model. Eotaxin-1 (P = 0.01), eosinophil cationic protein (P diesel exposure, linked to allergy. Conclusions: Short-term exposure to diesel exhaust leads to increased eosinophil activation and increased virus quantity after virus inoculation in those with allergic rhinitis. This is consistent with previous literature suggesting a diesel “adjuvant” effect promoting allergic inflammation, and our data further suggest this change may be associated with reduced virus clearance. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00617110). PMID:22071326

  4. Allergic Non-Asthmatic Adults Have Regional Pulmonary Responses to Segmental Allergen Challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa J Kelly

    Full Text Available Allergic non-asthmatic (ANA adults experience upper airway symptoms of allergic disease such as rhinorrhea, congestion and sneezing without symptoms of asthma. The aim of this study was to utilize PET-CT functional imaging to determine whether allergen challenge elicits a pulmonary response in ANA subjects or whether their allergic disease is truly isolated to the upper airways.In 6 ANA subjects, bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL were performed at baseline and 24h after instillation of an allergen and a diluent in separate lung lobes. After instillation (10h, functional imaging was performed to quantify and compare regional perfusion, ventilation, fractional gas content (Fgas, and glucose uptake rate (Ki between the baseline, diluent and allergen lobes. BAL cell counts were also compared.In ANA subjects, compared to the baseline and diluent lobes, perfusion and ventilation were significantly lower in the allergen lobe (median [inter-quartile range], baseline vs. diluent vs. allergen: Mean-normalized perfusion; 0.87 [0.85-0.97] vs. 0.90 [0.86-0.98] vs. 0.59 [0.55-0.67]; p<0.05. Mean-normalized ventilation 0.89 [0.88-0.98] vs. 0.95 [0.89-1.02] vs. 0.63 [0.52-0.67], p<0.05. In contrast, no significant differences were found in Fgas between baseline, diluent and allergen lobes or in Ki. Total cell counts, eosinophil and neutrophil cell counts (cells/ml BAL were significantly greater in the allergen lobe compared to the baseline lobe (all P<0.05.Despite having no clinical symptoms of a lower airway allergic response (cough and wheeze allergic non-asthmatic subjects have a pulmonary response to allergen exposure which manifests as reduced ventilation and perfusion.

  5. Concealing Emotions at Work Is Associated with Allergic Rhinitis in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Hongdeok; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Won, Jong-Uk; Lee, Wanhyung; Lee, June-Hee; Jung, Pil Kyun; Roh, Jaehoon

    2016-01-01

    Concealing emotions at work can cause considerable psychological stress. While there is extensive research on the adverse health effects of concealing emotions and the association between allergic diseases and stress, research has not yet investigated whether concealing emotions at work is associated with allergic rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis is a common disease in many industrialized countries, and its prevalence is increasing. Thus, our aim was to determine the strength of this association using data from three years (2007-2009) of the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants (aged 20-64) were 8,345 individuals who were economically active and who had completed the questionnaire items on concealing emotions at work. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated for allergic rhinitis using logistic regression models. Among all participants, 3,140 subjects (37.6%) reported concealing their emotions at work: 1,661 men and 1,479 women. The OR (95% CIs) for allergic rhinitis among those who concealed emotions at work versus those who did not was 1.318 (1.148-1.512). Stratified by sex, the OR (95% CIs) was 1.307 (1.078-1.585) among men and 1.346 (1.105-1.639) among women. Thus, individuals who concealed their emotions at work were significantly more likely to have a diagnosis of AR in comparison to those who did not. Because concealing emotions at work has adverse health effects, labor policies that aim to reduce this practice are needed.

  6. Fabrication and assessment of a thin flexible surface coating made of pristine graphene for lightning strike protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Wichita State University, 1845 Fairmount St., Wichita, KS 67260-0133 (United States); Soltani, S.A. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Wichita State University, 1845 Fairmount St., Wichita, KS 67260-0133 (United States); Le, L.N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Wichita State University, 1845 Fairmount St., Wichita, KS 67260-0133 (United States); Asmatulu, R., E-mail: ramazan.asmatulu@wichita.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Wichita State University, 1845 Fairmount St., Wichita, KS 67260-0133 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    A thin flexible coating made of pristine graphene was fabricated and applied on the surface of a commercial carbon fiber epoxy prepreg laminate to protect it against the lightning strike. To assess the coating’s effectiveness, the coated laminate was subjected to the simulated lightning strike as well as the electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI SE) testing. It was observed that the damaged area and volume in the coated laminate were reduced by 94% and 96%, respectively, as compared to the laminate without the coating. Moreover, the coated laminate had an average EMI SE of 51 dB over 100–2000 MHz range, 55 dB over 8–12 GHz range, and 60 dB over 12–18 GHz range marking 22%, 44%, and 49% improvement in EMI SE for each frequency range, respectively. The results indicate a great potential for the developed coating to protect the commercially available prepreg composites against the lightning strike.

  7. Anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin on mast cell-mediated allergic responses in ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinitis mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Li, Hong; Jia, Jihui; He, Mingqiang

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin has commonly been used for the treatment of various allergic diseases. However, its precise anti-allergic rhinitis effect and mechanism remain unknown. In the present study, the effect of curcumin on allergic responses in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis mouse was investigated. We explored the effect of curcumin on the release of allergic inflammatory mediators, such as histamine, OVA-specific IgE, and inflammatory cytokines. Also, we found that curcumin improved rhinitis symptoms, inhibited the histopathological changes of nasal mucosa, and decreased the serum levels of histamine, OVA-specific IgE and TNF-α in OVA-induced allergic rhinitis mice. In addition, curcumin suppressed the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. Moreover, curcumin significantly inhibited PMA-induced p-ERK, p-p38, p-JNK, p-Iκ-Bα and NF-κB. These findings suggest that curcumin has an anti-allergic effect through modulating mast cell-mediated allergic responses in allergic rhinitis, at least partly by inhibiting MAPK/NF-κB pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Occupational skin allergies: testing and treatment (the case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holness, D Linn

    2014-02-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis, including occupational allergic contact dermatitis, is one of the most common occupational diseases. Making a timely and accurate diagnosis is important to improving the outcome. Taking a work history and patch testing are essential elements in the diagnostic process. Management, based on an accurate diagnosis, must include both medical treatment to address the disease and workplace modifications as appropriate to reduce exposure the causative agents.

  9. Identification and Prevalence of Allergic, Nonallergic, and Local Allergic Rhinitis Patients in Western Area, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, Hatem S; Hussein, Ahmed; Salah, Mohamad; Lotfi, Wassim T

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic yield of skin prick test (SPT) and serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies level in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) and the role of nasal provocation test (NPT) for the determination of local allergic rhinitis (LAR) in patients with nonallergic rhinitis (NAR). This multi-center study included 1230 patients with clinical manifestations for ≥2 years. Patients were classified according to the Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) and scored according to the quantitative Score for Allergic Rhinitis (SFAR). The SPT and total IgE antibody levels were done for all patients. Patients gave negative SPT underwent NPT, and its result was interpreted using Lebel Symptom Score Scale. The SPT was positive in 77.8% of patients, mostly for grass pollen and dust mites. All patients were sensitive to multiple allergens. Median serum IgE antibody level for total study population was 162 IU/ml. Forty-two patients (3.4%) with negative SPT showed a weak response to NPT, while 231 patients (18.7%) with negative SPT had a high response to NPT and were considered to have LAR. The SPT could discriminate between AR and NAR patients. The NPT could identify LAR in 84.6% of patients with rhinitis among those considered as NAR. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Biomarkers for Monitoring Clinical Efficacy of Allergen Immunotherapy for Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis and Allergic Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shamji, M H; Kappen, J H; Akdis, M

    2017-01-01

    Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is an effective treatment for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR) with or without asthma (1-12). AIT has disease modifying properties and confers long-term clinical benefit after cessation of treatment (6, 7, 13-17). AIT is routinely used in daily practice and can...

  11. Children with allergic and nonallergic rhinitis have a similar risk of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil

    2010-01-01

    Both allergic and nonallergic rhinitis have been associated with increased prevalence of asthma.......Both allergic and nonallergic rhinitis have been associated with increased prevalence of asthma....

  12. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection induced allergic airway sensitization is controlled by regulatory T-cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R Crother

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP is associated with induction and exacerbation of asthma. CP infection can induce allergic airway sensitization in mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Allergen exposure 5 days after a low dose (mild-moderate, but not a high dose (severe CP infection induces antigen sensitization in mice. Innate immune signals play a critical role in controlling CP infection induced allergic airway sensitization, however these mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Wild-type, TLR2-/-, and TLR4-/- mice were infected intranasally (i.n. with a low dose of CP, followed by i.n. exposure to human serum albumin (HSA and challenged with HSA 2 weeks later. Airway inflammation, immunoglobulins, eosinophils, and goblet cells were measured. Low dose CP infection induced allergic sensitization in TLR2-/- mice, but not in TLR4-/- mice, due to differential Treg responses in these genotypes. TLR2-/- mice had reduced numbers of Tregs in the lung during CP infection while TLR4-/- mice had increased numbers. High dose CP infection resulted in an increase in Tregs and pDCs in lungs, which prevented antigen sensitization in WT mice. Depletion of Tregs or pDCs resulted in allergic airway sensitization. We conclude that Tregs and pDCs are critical determinants regulating CP infection-induced allergic sensitization. Furthermore, TLR2 and TLR4 signaling during CP infection may play a regulatory role through the modulation of Tregs.

  13. Antioxidant activities of curcumin in allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altıntoprak, Niyazi; Kar, Murat; Acar, Mustafa; Berkoz, Mehmet; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Cingi, Cemal

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the antioxidant effects of curcumin in an experimental rat model of allergic rhinitis (AR). Female Wistar albino rats (n = 34) were divided randomly into four groups: healthy rats (control group, n = 8), AR with no treatment (AR + NoTr group, n = 10), AR with azelastine HCl treatment (AR + Aze group, n = 8), and AR with curcumin treatment (AR + Curc group, n = 8). On day 28, total blood IgE levels were measured. For measurement of antioxidant activity, the glutathione (GSH) level and catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were measured in both inferior turbinate tissue and serum. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured only in inferior turbinate tissue, and paraoxonase (PON) and arylesterase (ARE) activities were measured only in serum. Statistically significant differences were found for all antioxidant measurements (GSH levels and CAT, SOD, GSH-Px activities in the serum and tissue, MDA levels in the tissue, and PON and ARE activities in the serum) between the four groups. In the curcumin group, serum SOD, ARE, and PON and tissue GSH values were higher than the control group. Moreover, tissue GSH levels and serum GSH-Px activities in the curcumin group were higher than in the AR + NoTr group. In the azelastine group, except MDA, antioxidant measurement values were lower than in the other groups. Curcumin may help to increase antioxidant enzymes and decrease oxidative stress in allergic rhinitis. We recommend curcumin to decrease oxidative stress in allergic rhinitis.

  14. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis treated successfully for one year with omalizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Collins,1 Gabriele deVos,2 Golda Hudes,2 David Rosenstreich21New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, New York, NY, 2Albert Einstein College of Medicine/Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USABackground: Current therapy for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA uses oral corticosteroids, exposing patients to the adverse effects of these agents. There are reports of the steroid-sparing effect of anti-IgE therapy with omalizumab for ABPA in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF, but there is little information on its efficacy against ABPA in patients with bronchial asthma without CF.Objective: To examine the effects of omalizumab, measured by asthma control, blood eosinophilia, total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE, oral corticosteroid requirements, and forced expiratory volume spirometry in patients with ABPA and bronchial asthma.Methods: A retrospective review of charts from 2004–2006 of patients treated with omalizumab at an academic allergy and immunology practice in the Bronx, New York were examined for systemic steroid and rescue inhaler usage, serum immunoglobulin E levels, blood eosinophil counts, and asthma symptoms, as measured by the Asthma Control Test (ACT.Results: A total of 21 charts were screened for the diagnosis of ABPA and bronchial asthma. Four patients with ABPA were identified; two of these patients were male. The median monthly systemic corticosteroid use at 6 months and 12 months decreased from baseline usage. Total serum IgE decreased in all patients at 12 months of therapy. Pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory vital capacity at one second (FEV1 was variable at 1 year of treatment. There was an improvement in Asthma Control Test (ACT symptom scores for both daytime and nighttime symptoms.Conclusions: Treatment with omalizumab creates a steroid-sparing effect, reduces systemic inflammatory markers, and results in improvement in ACT scores in patients with ABPA.Keywords: allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis: Patient management and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowad, Christen M; Anderson, Bryan; Scheinman, Pamela; Pootongkam, Suwimon; Nedorost, Susan; Brod, Bruce

    2016-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common diagnosis resulting from exposure to a chemical or chemicals in a patient's personal care products, home, or work environment. Once patch testing has been performed, the education and management process begins. After the causative allergens have been identified, patient education is critical to the proper treatment and management of the patient. This must occur if the dermatitis is to resolve. Detailed education is imperative, and several resources are highlighted. Photoallergic contact dermatitis and occupational contact dermatitis are other considerations a clinician must keep in mind. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Protective Effects of Surfactant Protein D (SP-D) Treatment in 1,3-β-glucan-modulated Allergic Inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fakih, Dalia; Pilecki, Bartosz; Schlosser, Anders

    2015-01-01

    -γ production. rfhSP-D treatment further reduced mucous metaplasia and Th2 cytokine secretion to background levels. In summary, rfhSP-D treatment resulted in attenuation of both allergic inflammation and 1,3-β-glucan mediated neutrophilic inflammation. Our data suggest that treatment with high dose SP......SP-D is a pulmonary collectin important in lung immunity. SP-D-deficient mice (Sftpd(-/-)) are reported to be susceptible to ovalbumin (OVA)- and fungal allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation, while treatment with exogenous SP-D has therapeutic effects in such disease models. β......-glucans are a diverse group of polysaccharides previously suggested to serve as fungal ligands for SP-D. We set out to investigate if SP-D could interact with 1,3-β-glucan and attenuate allergic pulmonary inflammation in the presence of 1,3-β-glucan. Allergic airway disease was induced in Sftpd(-/-) and Sftpd(+/+) mice...

  17. Remarkable rates of lightning strike mortality in Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Borgerhoff Mulder

    Full Text Available Livingstone's second mission site on the shore of Lake Malawi suffers very high rates of consequential lightning strikes. Comprehensive interviewing of victims and their relatives in seven Traditional Authorities in Nkhata Bay District, Malawi revealed that the annual rate of consequential strikes was 419/million, more than six times higher than that in other developing countries; the rate of deaths from lightning was 84/million/year, 5.4 times greater than the highest ever recorded. These remarkable figures reveal that lightning constitutes a significant stochastic source of mortality with potential life history consequences, but it should not deflect attention away from the more prominent causes of mortality in this rural area.

  18. Legal questions surrounding hunger strikes by detainees and prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, S A

    1991-01-01

    The 'right to die' is not of an absolute character but is subject to definite qualification. There are legal and social interests reflecting profound ethical values which militate against an absolute right on the part of a prisoner to die by means of a hunger strike. The declared policy of the South African authorities is that a prisoner who resorts to a hunger strike may not be subjected to force-feeding. This is in accordance with the 1975 Tokyo Declaration. Unfortunately the Declaration is silent on the question of whether a doctor may provide medical treatment once a hunger striker has reached the point where he is no longer capable of rational thought. In this article it is submitted that a doctor would be legally entitled to do so.

  19. Single Station System and Method of Locating Lightning Strikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Starr, Stanley O. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An embodiment of the present invention uses a single detection system to approximate a location of lightning strikes. This system is triggered by a broadband RF detector and measures a time until the arrival of a leading edge of the thunder acoustic pulse. This time difference is used to determine a slant range R from the detector to the closest approach of the lightning. The azimuth and elevation are determined by an array of acoustic sensors. The leading edge of the thunder waveform is cross-correlated between the various acoustic sensors in the array to determine the difference in time of arrival, AT. A set of AT S is used to determine the direction of arrival, AZ and EL. The three estimated variables (R, AZ, EL) are used to locate a probable point of the lightning strike.

  20. HUNGER STRIKES AND FORCE-FEEDING IN PRISONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Florin GEAMĂNU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study will try to give an overview and assess the international and European standards regarding the management of hunger strikes. We will analyse the international and European standards regarding the force-feeding a prisoner on a hunger strike. The paper will focus on the study of the ECtHR judgements regarding the force-feeding of hunger strikers. Also, we will address the U.S. case and the force-feeding of prisoners which is considered to be, in certain cases, an act of torture based on the international human rights standards. To close with, the study will attempt to go through the recent developments in the Romanian legislation, analysing the legislation and its conformity with the European principles and recommendations, bearing in mind the prohibition, in absolute terms, of torture or inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

  1. Control of striking velocity by table tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinovic, Welber; Iizuka, Cristina Akiko; Freudenheim, Andrea Michele

    2004-12-01

    This study investigated how 7 skilled table tennis players controlled velocity of a forehand drive stroke when the ball's trajectory, velocity, and spin were modified. They hit a target in response to balls launched under four different conditions. The relative and absolute times used in the backswing phase showed no significant differences among conditions. When subjects hit fastballs, there was a significant change in the time required for them to reach the peak of velocity in the forward swing phase. In addition, players decreased the velocity of their strokes to hit fast-approaching balls. These results indicate that highly skilled table tennis players need to adjust the striking velocity and striking time (relative and absolute) required to reach the peak of velocity in the forward swing phase for these task modifications. Since they used slower movement velocities to hit faster-approaching balls, skilled table tennis players may override this speed-coupling process.

  2. [Analysis of allergic sieving detection results and clinical significance in children with allergic disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; He, Jingpei; Huang, Fang; Yang, Zili; Deng, Pingping; Zhou, Ping

    2012-03-01

    To explore the clinical use of sieving detection among the childhood with allergic disease. The sieving detection about allergen inhalant allergens, Fx5 in the CAP anaphylactogen detection system, and serum specific IgE were detected in three hundred and thirty-one cases of children (aged from 1 year to 14 years old) with allergic disease. Patients were divided into group 1, group 2 and group 3 according to the age from 0 to 3, 3 to 6, and 6 to 14 years old. All datas were statistical analysed among different age groups. Among the 331 patients, the positive rate of allergic sieving detection was 67.98%, the elevation rate of IgE was 53.78%. Inhalant allergen positive rate was 60.42%, while the food allergen positive rate was 28.10%. Inhalant allergen positive rate of the group 3 (aged from 6 to 14 years old) was significant higher than the other two age groups (68.45%). And the food allergen positive rate of the age group 1 (aged from 0 to 3 years old) was significant higher than the other two age groups (62.50%). Positive rate for simply inhalant allergen was 39.88%, while positive rate for simply food allergen was 7.55% and mixed allergen was 20.54%. Inhalant allergen was the main allergen of the children with allergic disease aged over 3 years old, while food allergen was the main allergen of the children with allergic disease aged below 3 years old. It was safe, sensible and effective to use Uni CAP anaphylactogen detection system for rapid assay of specific allergens.

  3. Allergic sensitization to ornamental plants in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ömür; Erkekol, Ferda Öner; Misirloigil, Zeynep; Demirel, Yavuz Selim; Mungan, Dilşad

    2014-01-01

    Ornamental plants (OPs) can lead to immediate-type sensitization and even asthma and rhinitis symptoms in some cases. This study aimed to evaluate sensitization to OPs in patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and to determine the factors affecting the rate of sensitization to OPs. A total of 150 patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Demographics and disease characteristics were recorded. Skin-prick tests were performed with a standardized inhalant allergen panel. Skin tests by "prick-to-prick" method with the leaves of 15 Ops, which are known to lead to allergenic sensitization, were performed. Skin tests with OPs were positive in 80 patients (47.1%). There was no significant difference between OP sensitized and nonsensitized patients in terms of gender, age, number of exposed OPs, and duration of exposure. Skin test positivity rate for OPs was significantly high in atopic subjects, patients with allergic rhinitis, food sensitivity, and indoor OP exposure, but not in patients with pollen and latex allergy. Most sensitizing OPs were Yucca elephantipes (52.5%), Dieffenbachia picta (50.8%), and Euphorbia pulcherrima (47.5%). There was significant correlation between having Saintpaulia ionantha, Croton, Pelargonium, Y. elephantipes, and positive skin test to these plants. Sensitivity to OPs was significantly higher in atopic subjects and patients with allergic rhinitis, food allergy, and indoor OP exposure. Furthermore, atopy and food sensitivity were found as risk factors for developing sensitization to indoor plants. Additional trials on the relationship between sensitization to OPs and allergic symptoms are needed.

  4. [The use of modern topical medications for the stepwise treatment of allergic rhinitis: the effectiveness and prospects for the further extension of their application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosulya, E V; Kim, I A

    The objective of the present work was to summarize the results of clinical studies designed to evaluate the effectiveness of 'Momate Rhino Advance' in the form of the nasal spray (based on the fixed combination of mometasone furoate and azelastine) that finds an increasingly wide application for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. The available data give evidence that this medication can be prescribed to the patients presenting with the severe and moderate form of allergic rhinitis. The treatment should be started with the use of the combined preparation and continued, after the adequate control of the clinical symptoms of allergic rhinitis is achieved, using 'Momate Rhino' during the next 2-4 weeks for the reliable management of the disease. It is concluded that the proposed strategy makes it possible to avoid the simultaneous application of multiple medications (polypragmasy) and thereby reduce the intake of medicines by the patients suffering from allergic rhinitis.

  5. Simulating Bird Strike on Aircraft Composite Wing Leading Edge.

    OpenAIRE

    Ericsson, Max

    2012-01-01

    In this master thesis project the possibility to model the response of a wing when subjected to bird strike using finite elements is analyzed. Since this transient event lasts only a few milliseconds the used solution method is explicit time integration. The wing is manufactured using carbon fiber laminate. Carbon fiber laminates have orthotropic material properties with different stiffness in different directions. Accordingly, there are damage mechanisms not considered when using metal that ...

  6. Human Milk and Allergic Diseases : An Unsolved Puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munblit, Daniel; Peroni, Diego G; Boix-Amorós, Alba; Hsu, Peter S; Van't Land, Belinda; Gay, Melvin C L; Kolotilina, Anastasia; Skevaki, Chrysanthi; Boyle, Robert J; Collado, Maria Carmen; Garssen, Johan; Geddes, Donna T; Nanan, Ralph; Slupsky, Carolyn; Wegienka, Ganesa; Kozyrskyj, Anita L.; Warner, John O

    2017-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence on the protective role of breastfeeding in relation to the development of allergic sensitisation and allergic disease. Studies vary in methodology and definition of outcomes, which lead to considerable heterogeneity. Human milk composition varies both within and between

  7. Hyposensitization in nickel allergic contact dermatitis: Clinical and immunologic monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.J. Troost (Roger); M.M.A. Kozel (M. M A); C.G. van Helden-Meeuwsen; Th. van Joost (Theo); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); R. Benner (Robbert); E.P. Prens (Errol)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) previously sensitized T cells cause skin damage. If an ubiquitous allergen such as nickel is involved, no effective treatment is available. Down-regulation of this allergic response has been described after antigen presentation in the

  8. [Cytokines and anti-cytokines in allergic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fal, Andrzej M

    2003-06-01

    Allergic inflamation is complexed phenomenon related to the activity of many mediators released from "effector cells". The role of IL-12, IL-5, IL-4 and some adhesive molecules is presented with special attention focused on therapeutical aspects in allergic diseases.

  9. PREMEDICATION PROTOCOLS IN DENTAL PRACTICE IN ALLERGIC PATIENTS.

    OpenAIRE

    Angelina Kisselova; Adriana Krasteva; Assya Krasteva

    2011-01-01

    The problem with choosing a suitable pre-medication protocols before local anesthesia in dentistry in allergic patients is always discussed, as in the dental practice different schemes are already proven (3,5). The propose of this communication is to share the experience on those pre-medication schemes in allergic patients during and outside pollen season.

  10. Objective assessments of allergic and nonallergic rhinitis in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, B L K; Kreiner-Møller, E; Bisgaard, H

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergic and nonallergic rhinitis are common childhood disorders. OBJECTIVE: To study nasal eosinophilia and nasal airway patency in young children with allergic and nonallergic rhinitis to assess the pathology behind such diagnoses. METHODS: We investigated 255 children at six years...

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis from ethylhexyl salicylate and other salicylates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortz, Charlotte G; Thormann, Henrik; Goossens, An

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from salicylates present in topical products is uncommon. Most publications about ACD from salicylates are case reports describing only a few patients. Cross-reactivity between salicylates is not commonly reported. This article describes allergic contact dermatitis...

  12. [The psychoimmunological network og panic disorders, agoraphobia and allergic reactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Traub, S

    1995-02-01

    While treating panic and agoraphobia patients with behaviour therapy, a high frequency of allergic reaction of the IgE-mediated type I was observed. Panic disorder, agoraphobia, allergic disorder, and vasomotor reactions are briefly discussed in the framework of psycho-endocrino-immunological research. A pilot study had shown a high correlation between panic disorder with and without agoraphobia and allergic reaction. A controlled study was then planned to test the hypothesized psychoimmunological relationship. 100 allergic patients, 79 panic/agoraphobic patients, and 66 controls underwent psychodiagnostic and allergic screening. 70% of the anxiety patients responded to test allergens with IgE-mediated type-I immediate reactions in comparison to 28% of the control persons. Another 15% of the panic patients reacted to nickle compound with type-IV delayed skin reactions (7% of the controls). Conversely, 10% of the allergic patients suffered from panic disorder (45% had experienced panic attacks) in contrast to 2% of the controls (24% of these reported panic attacks). The relative risk for allergic patients to develop panic disorder with and without agoraphobia is obviously five times as high as for controls. With this assumption of a psychoimmunological preparedness in mind, a behavioural medical diagnostic and therapeutic concept seems more adequate in coping both with panic/agoraphobia and allergic disorder.

  13. Association between exposure to antimicrobial household products and allergic symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyoung Hong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Antimicrobial chemicals are used in a variety of household and personal care products. Exposure to antimicrobial household products has been hypothesized to lead to allergic diseases in children. Methods We investigated antimicrobial household product exposure and allergic symptoms in Korean children. An antimicrobial exposure (AE score was derived. To examine the symptoms of allergic diseases (current wheeze, current rhinitis, and current eczema in the past 12 months, we used a questionnaire based on the core module of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children. Complete data for the analysis were available for 25,805 of the 35,590 (72.5% children. Results The prevalence of current allergic diseases was as follows: wheeze, 5.6%; allergic rhinitis, 32.6%; and eczema, 17.7%. The mean (standard deviation AE score was 14.3 (9.3 (range: 0-40. Compared with subjects with a low AE score (reference, subjects with a high AE score (fourth quartile were more likely to have symptoms of wheezing and allergic rhinitis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] for wheezing 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.45, p for trend=0.24; aOR for allergic rhinitis 1.30, 95% CI, 1.20-1.40, p<0.01. Conclusions These findings suggest that frequent use of antimicrobial household products was associated with current wheeze and current allergic rhinitis.

  14. STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF EOSINOPHILIA IN ALLERGIC RHINITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis is a common condition, though not life threatening, causes significant morbidity in terms of quality of life. Confirmation of allergen as etiological agent is cumbersome. Hence need for a simple test is vital and eosinophil parameters were looked at to answer the quest. AIM: To find out the prevalence of e osinophilia in Allergic rhinitis . To assess the value of nasal cytogram as an alternative investigation in diagnosing allergic rhinitis . MATERIALS & METHODS: Prospective study of 200 cases divided into two groups of 100 each was done. One group clinically with allergic rhinitis and other without. All cases had clinical examination after history was taken, Blood Absolute eosinophil count, Nasal smear for eosinophils done and assessed. RESULTS: Of the 200 patients examined in two groups of 100 each, mean age of allergic rhinitis patients was 26.22 years . Allergic rhinitis was more common in males than females. Prevalence of nasal eosinophilia was 61%.and blood eosinophilia was 57% in allergic rhinitis patients. Nasal smear sensitivity was 61% and specificity w as 87% . CONCLUSION: Nasal smear eosinophilia is a valid test, can be quickly and easily performed and read. Being an in - expensive test can be used to screen the patients of allergic rhinitis

  15. Prevalence, severity and risk factors of allergic disorders among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Allergic disorders are not usually life-threatening conditions but they impair the person's ability to function. It thus adversely affects the psychological wellbeing and quality of life. These implications of allergic disorders can be minimized if strategies are planned for its early identification followed by appropriate ...

  16. Allergic reactions in arthroplasty: myth or serious problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Daniel; Thomas, Peter; Kendoff, Daniel; Omar, Mohamed; Gehrke, Thorsten; Haasper, Carl

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of sensitisation to chromium, cobalt, nickel, or a cement component in patients who received endoprosthetic surgery at our institution. Also, we aimed to assess the portion related to allergic reactions in endoprosthetic revisions and to follow-up those patients after allergic reaction related revisions. We selected patients with a pre-operative known sensitisation to chromium, cobalt, nickel, or a cement component for a post-operative allergic reaction. All patients who received revision surgery because of a potential allergic reaction were followed up post revision surgery. Eight hundred fifty-five patients were pre-operative known to have a sensitisation to chromium, cobalt, nickel, or a cement component. Six hundred eighty-two patients (79.8 %) received a primary arthroplasty, and 173 patients (20.2 %) received a revision surgery. Seventeen patients (2.0 %) were revised because of allergic reactions. Allergic reactions were the cause for approximately 0.2 % of all endoprosthetic revisions and for 9.8 % of revisions in patients with sensitisation to one of the reviewed components. Potential allergens were strictly avoided in the replaced prosthesis. Outcome scores improved post-operatively. The allergic patient should be thoroughly informed about potential reactions resulting from implant choice. Our study can serve as risk assessments by quantifying the incidence of allergic reactions due to endoprosthetic treatment.

  17. Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J; Schünemann, H J; Samolinski, B

    2012-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma represent global health problems for all age groups. Asthma and rhinitis frequently coexist in the same subjects. Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) was initiated during a World Health Organization workshop in 1999 (published in 2001). ARIA has rec...

  18. Expression of Pendrin Periostin in Allergic Rhinitis Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Ishida

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: : Production of pendrin and periostin is upregulated in allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, and aspirin-induced asthma. These findings suggest that pendrin can induce mucus production and that periostin can induce tissue fibrosis and remodeling in the nasal mucosa. Therefore, these mediators may be therapeutic target candidates for allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, and aspirin- induced asthma.

  19. Histological distinction between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L; Clemmensen, Ole; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1999-01-01

    differentiate between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions. 8 patients with known contact allergy to either colophony or quarternium-15 participated in the study. In each patient, allergic and irritant patch tests reactions were elicited, and 4-mm punch biopsies were taken after 6 8 h from...

  20. Methyldibromoglutaronitrile in rinse-off products causes allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C D; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The frequency of sensitivity to the cosmetic preservative methyldibromoglutaronitrile (MDBGN) has increased significantly in Europe. Most cases of allergic contact dermatitis from MDBGN are caused by leave-on cosmetic products. The risk of developing allergic contact dermatitis from...... recommend that this level should be re-evaluated....

  1. Striking dynamics and kinetic properties of boxing and MMA gloves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the growing popularity of Mixed Martial Arts (MMA as a competitive sport, questions regarding the dynamic response and properties of MMA gloves arise. High-energy impacts from punches are very similar to boxing yet MMA competition requires the use of 4 oz fingerless glove, compared to the larger full enclosure boxing glove. This work assessed the kinetic properties and strike dynamics of MMA gloves and compared findings with traditional boxing gloves. Gloves mounted on a molded fist were impacted repetitively on an instrumental anvil designed for impact, over a 5 hour period resulting in 10,000 continuous and consistent strikes. Kinetic data from impacts were sampled at the beginning of the data collection and subsequently every 30 minutes (every 1,000 strikes. MMA gloves produced 4-5 times greater peak force and 5 times faster load rate compared to the boxing glove. However, MMA gloves also showed signs of material fatigue, with peak force increasing by 35% and rate of loading increasing by 60% over the duration of the test. Boxing glove characteristics did deteriorate but to a lesser extent. In summary, the kinetic properties of MMA glove differed substantially from the boxing glove resulting in impacts characterized by higher peak forces and more rapid development of force. Material properties including stiffness and thickness play a role in the kinetic characteristics upon impact, and can be inferred to alter injury mechanisms of blunt force trauma.

  2. Mouse Models of Allergic Diseases: TSLP and Its Functional Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyuki Omori-Miyake

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The cytokine TSLP was originally identified in a murine thymic stromal cell line as a lymphoid growth factor. After the discovery of TSLP, extensive molecular genetic analyses and gene targeting experiments have demonstrated that TSLP plays an essential role in allergic diseases. In this review, we discuss the current status of TSLP and its functional role in allergic diseases particularly by focusing on effects of TSLP on haematopoietic cells in mouse models. It is our conclusion that a number of research areas, i.e., a new source of TSLP, effects of TSLP on non-haematopoietic and haematopoietic cells, synergistic interactions of cytokines including IL-25 and IL-33 and a regulation of TSLP expression and its function, are critically needed to understand the whole picture of TSLP involvement in allergic diseases. The mouse models will thus contribute further to our understanding of TSLP involvement in allergic diseases and development of therapeutic measures for human allergic diseases.

  3. High incidence of sensitization to ornamental plants in allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahillon, V; Saussez, S; Michel, O

    2006-09-01

    A few indoor plants have been described as potential allergens, in single case reports of allergic rhinitis. There is no data evaluating the prevalence of allergic sensitization to these plants. The relationship between owning indoor ornamental plants with the risk to be sensitized has been evaluated in atopic rhinitis. A group of 59 patients with allergic rhinitis were submitted to skin prick tests (SPT) using both the leafs of their own plant and commercial extracts of the most frequent airborne allergens. A control group of 15 healthy subjects was tested with the same allergens. While no subject from the control group developed a significant SPT to any of the tested plants, 78% of allergic rhinitis had positive SPT to at least one plant, the most frequent sensitization being Ficus benjamina, yucca, ivy and palm tree. In allergic rhinitis, indoor plants should be considered as potential allergens.

  4. Surfactant protein-A suppresses eosinophil-mediated killing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in allergic lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie G Ledford

    Full Text Available Surfactant protein-A (SP-A has well-established functions in reducing bacterial and viral infections but its role in chronic lung diseases such as asthma is unclear. Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp frequently colonizes the airways of chronic asthmatics and is thought to contribute to exacerbations of asthma. Our lab has previously reported that during Mp infection of non-allergic airways, SP-A aides in maintaining airway homeostasis by inhibiting an overzealous TNF-alpha mediated response and, in allergic mice, SP-A regulates eosinophilic infiltration and inflammation of the airway. In the current study, we used an in vivo model with wild type (WT and SP-A(-/- allergic mice challenged with the model antigen ovalbumin (Ova that were concurrently infected with Mp (Ova+Mp to test the hypothesis that SP-A ameliorates Mp-induced stimulation of eosinophils. Thus, SP-A could protect allergic airways from injury due to release of eosinophil inflammatory products. SP-A deficient mice exhibit significant increases in inflammatory cells, mucus production and lung damage during concurrent allergic airway disease and infection (Ova+Mp as compared to the WT mice of the same treatment group. In contrast, SP-A deficient mice have significantly decreased Mp burden compared to WT mice. The eosinophil specific factor, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO, which has been implicated in pathogen killing and also in epithelial dysfunction due to oxidative damage of resident lung proteins, is enhanced in samples from allergic/infected SP-A(-/- mice as compared to WT mice. In vitro experiments using purified eosinophils and human SP-A suggest that SP-A limits the release of EPO from Mp-stimulated eosinophils thereby reducing their killing capacity. These findings are the first to demonstrate that although SP-A interferes with eosinophil-mediated biologic clearance of Mp by mediating the interaction of Mp with eosinophils, SP-A simultaneously benefits the airway by limiting inflammation

  5. Inhibitory effect of 1,2,4,5-tetramethoxybenzene on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation through suppression of IκB kinase complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Je, In-Gyu [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyun Gyu [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hui-Hun; Lee, Soyoung; Choi, Jin Kyeong [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Wan; Kim, Duk-Sil [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, CHA Gumi Medical Center, CHA University, Gumi 730-040 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Taeg Kyu [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Tae-Yong [College of Pharmacy, Woosuk University, Jeonju 565-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Pil-Hoon [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Khang, Dongwoo, E-mail: dkhang@gachon.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, Gachon University, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Hyun, E-mail: shkim72@knu.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-01

    As the importance of allergic disorders such as atopic dermatitis and allergic asthma, research on potential drug candidates becomes more necessary. Mast cells play an important role as initiators of allergic responses through the release of histamine; therefore, they should be the target of pharmaceutical development for the management of allergic inflammation. In our previous study, anti-allergic effect of extracts of Amomum xanthioides was demonstrated. To further investigate improved candidates, 1,2,4,5-tetramethoxybenzene (TMB) was isolated from methanol extracts of A. xanthioides. TMB dose-dependently attenuated the degranulation of mast cells without cytotoxicity by inhibiting calcium influx. TMB decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-4 at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Increased expression of these cytokines was caused by translocation of nuclear factor-κB into the nucleus, and it was hindered by suppressing activation of IκB kinase complex. To confirm the effect of TMB in vivo, the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced active systemic anaphylaxis (ASA) and IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) models were used. In the ASA model, hypothermia was decreased by oral administration of TMB, which attenuated serum histamine, OVA-specific IgE, and IL-4 levels. Increased pigmentation of Evans blue was reduced by TMB in a dose-dependent manner in the PCA model. Our results suggest that TMB is a possible therapeutic candidate for allergic inflammatory diseases that acts through the inhibition of mast cell degranulation and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. - Highlights: • TMB reduced the degranulation of mast cells. • TMB inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. • TMB suppressed both active and passive anaphylaxis. • Anti-allergic inflammatory effects of TMB might be due to the blocking IKK complex. • TMB might be a candidate for the treatment of

  6. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ahmed Janahi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA is a pulmonary disorder that often occurs in patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis (CF and is characterized by a hypersensitivity response to the allergens of the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. In patients with CF, growth of A. fumigatus hyphae within the bronchial lumen triggers an immunoglobulin E (IgE-mediated hypersensitivity response that results in airway inflammation, bronchospasm, and bronchiectasis. In most published studies, the prevalence of ABPA is about 8.9% in patients with CF. Since the clinical features of this condition overlap significantly with that of CF, ABPA is challenging to diagnose and remains underdiagnosed in many patients. Diagnosis of ABPA in CF patients should be sought in those with evidence of clinical and radiologic deterioration that is not attributable to another etiology, a markedly elevated total serum IgE level (while off steroid therapy and evidence of A. fumigatus sensitization. Management of ABPA involves the use of systemic steroids to reduce inflammation and modulate the immune response. In patients who do not respond to steroids or cannot tolerate them, antifungal agents should be used to reduce the burden of A. fumigatus allergens. Recent studies suggest that omalizumab may be an effective option to reduce the frequency of ABPA exacerbations in patients with CF. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to better establish the efficacy of omalizumab in managing patients with CF and ABPA.

  7. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from methyl aminolevulinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonia Pastor-Nieto, María; Olivares, Mercedes; Sánchez-Herreros, Consuelo; Belmar, Paulina; De Eusebio, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used to treat certain types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Metvix cream applied topically in PDT is composed of the active substance methyl aminolevulinate and 14 excipients composing the vehicle. One case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis from methyl aminolevulinate is reported. A 49-year-old nurse's aide working in a PDT unit in the dermatology department developed a dermatitis involving the eyelids and fingers. The lesions began a few months after she started working in that unit. Patch tests were performed with the standard series (Spanish Group for Research into Dermatitis and Skin Allergies [GEIDAC]), cosmetics series, Metvix cream "as is," the Metvix vehicle supplied by the manufacturer, and some of the excipients separately (methyl para-hydroxybenzoate [Nipagin M], propyl para-hydroxybenzoate [Nipasol M], isopropyl myristate, cetostearyl alcohol [Lanette N], and disodium edetate). After day-2, day-4, and day-7 readings, positive results were achieved only with Metvix cream "as is." Tests performed on a control group of 15 individuals were negative. Literature on cases of allergic contact dermatitis from methyl aminolevulinate is reviewed. It should be emphasized that the present case is the first occupational case reported so far.

  8. Capsaicin for non-allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorgyan, Artur; Segboer, Christine; Gorissen, Rob; van Drunen, Cornelis M; Fokkens, Wytske

    2015-07-14

    There are many forms of rhinitis. Patients are diagnosed with non-allergic rhinitis when anatomic, infectious and allergic aetiologies have been excluded. The symptoms, including nasal congestion, blockage or obstruction, clear rhinorrhoea, sneezing and, less frequently, nasal itching, can range from mild to debilitating. It affects between 25% and 50% of patients with rhinitis. Several medications are widely used in the treatment of non-allergic rhinitis, including oral and topical nasal antihistamines, intranasal and (rarely) systemic corticosteroids, and anticholinergics. Capsaicin, the active component of chili peppers, delivered intranasally, is considered a treatment option for non-allergic rhinitis. To assess the effectiveness of capsaicin in the management of non-allergic rhinitis compared with no therapy, placebo or other topical or systemic medications, or two or more of the above therapies in combination, or different capsaicin regimens. We searched the Cochrane Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders Group Trials Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2015, Issue 5); PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; Cambridge Scientific Abstracts; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 24 June 2015. Randomised controlled trials in adult patients with non-allergic rhinitis comparing intranasal capsaicin with no therapy, placebo or other topical or systemic medications, or their combinations. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included four studies (five publications) involving 302 participants with idiopathic non-allergic rhinitis. All the included studies described patients with moderately severe, idiopathic non-allergic rhinitis who were between the ages of 16 and 65. Studies had follow-up periods ranging from four to 38 weeks. The overall risk of bias in the studies was either high or unclear (two studies had overall high risk of

  9. Dominant epitopes and allergic cross-reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirza, Osman Asghar; Henriksen, A; Ipsen, H

    2000-01-01

    leading to aggregation and subsequent mediator release. Thus, allergen-Ab complexes play a crucial role in the cascade leading to the allergic response. We here report the structure of a 1:1 complex between the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and the Fab fragment from a murine monoclonal IgG1 Ab, BV16......, that has been solved to 2.9 A resolution by x-ray diffraction. The mAb is shown to inhibit the binding of allergic patients' IgE to Bet v 1, and the allergen-IgG complex may therefore serve as a model for the study of allergen-IgE interactions relevant in allergy. The size of the BV16 epitope is 931 A2...... as defined by the Bet v 1 Ab interaction surface. Molecular interactions predicted to occur in the interface are likewise in agreement with earlier observations on Ag-Ab complexes. The epitope is formed by amino acids that are conserved among major allergens from related species within the Fagales order...

  10. Histamine and Histamine Receptors in Allergic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Seike, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter we will first introduce the pathophysiological process of several skin diseases including allergic dermatitis, a common skin disease, including chronic allergic contact dermatitis (CACD), and atopic dermatitis (AD). In CACD and AD patients, repeated skin exposure to antigens contributes to the development of chronic eczematous lesions. Repeated application of haptens on mice allows emulation of the development of CACD in humans. Further, we will focus on H1, H2, and H4 histamine receptors and their effects on CACD and AD. Histamine-deficient mice, with a knockout histidine decarboxylase (HDC) gene, were used to investigate the role of histamine in CACD and AD. Histamine induces infiltration of inflammatory cells, including mast cells and eosinophils, and elevates Th2 cytokine levels in CACD. Histamine promotes the development of eczematous lesions, elevates IgE serum levels, and induces scratching behavior in CACD. The administration of H1 or H4 receptor antagonists was effective to ameliorate these symptoms in murine CACD models. The combination of H1 and H4 receptor antagonists is a potential therapeutic target for chronic inflammatory skin diseases such as CACD and AD, since combined therapy proved to be more effective than monotherapy.

  11. Toxocara canis and the allergic process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaia, Mauricio Grecco; de Oliveira, Sandra Regina Pereira; de Castro, Cynthia Aparecida; Soares, Edson Garcia; Afonso, Ana; Monnazzi, Luis Gustavo S; Peitl, Oscar; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena; Anibal, Fernanda de Freitas

    2015-01-01

    The protective effect of infectious agents against allergic reactions has been thoroughly investigated. Current studies have demonstrated the ability of some helminths to modulate the immune response of infected hosts. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between Toxocara canis infection and the development of an allergic response in mice immunised with ovalbumin (OVA). We determined the total and differential blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells using BALB/c mice as a model. To this end, the levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-10 and anti-OVA-IgE were measured using an ELISA. The inflammatory process in the lungs was observed using histology slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The results showed an increase in the total number of leukocytes and eosinophils in the blood of infected and immunised animals at 18 days after infection. We observed a slight lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate in the portal space in all infected mice. Anti-OVA-IgE levels were detected in smaller proportions in the plasma of immunised and infected mice compared with mice that were only infected. Therefore, we concluded that T. canis potentiates inflammation in the lungs in response to OVA, although anti-OVA-IgE levels suggest a potential reduction of the inflammatory process through this mechanism. PMID:26517650

  12. New aspects in allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortz, Charlotte Gotthard; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2008-10-01

    To give selected new information on contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis with focus on diagnostic procedures and pitfalls. Recent studies dealing with common contact allergens have improved our understanding of the relationship between positive patch tests and the clinical interpretation and consequences for the patient. Nickel allergy is still the most common contact allergy in Europe in spite of full implementation of the EU Nickel Directive in 2001. Contact allergens in cosmetics and topical drugs are another common cause of allergic contact dermatitis. The main culprits include fragrance chemicals, preservatives, and hair dyes. We are all more or less exposed to cosmetics and topical drugs on a daily basis. The labelling requirements given in the Cosmetics Directive is of great help in tracing the causative allergenic ingredients. Most of the components present in cosmetic products are also occurring in household and industrial products, often under other trade names. Patients with multiple contact allergies constitute a special problem because their quality of life is severely affected by the multitude of eliciting products in the environment. We still lack a good understanding of why these patients become so easily sensitized.

  13. Climate change: allergens and allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katelaris, Constance H; Beggs, Paul J

    2018-02-01

    Climate change has been described as the biggest global health threat of the 21st century. The atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide, have increased significantly since the start of the Industrial Era around 1750, with much of this increase occurring over just the last 50 years or so. This is resulting in warming of the climate system as well as changes in precipitation and weather and climate extremes. These changes in climate are having wide-ranging impacts on the Earth's physical, biological and human systems, including human health. It is these impacts of climate change on human health that are the focus of this paper, particularly the impacts on allergens and allergic diseases. Such impacts are particularly significant in many countries where the prevalence of such diseases is high and/or increasing. There is now compelling evidence that rising air temperatures and carbon dioxide concentrations are, in some plant species, resulting in increased pollen production and allergenicity and advancement and lengthening of the pollen season. Changes in extreme events, such as thunderstorms and tropical cyclones, will also have impacts on allergic diseases, with, for example, the flooding associated with tropical cyclones leading to proliferation of mould growth in damp homes. The article also considers a range of responses to these health threats, including greenhouse gas mitigation, and adaptation strategies, such as enhanced environmental monitoring and health surveillance and adequate planning for the future medical workforce. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  14. Cissampelos sympodialis Eichl. (Menispermaceae inhibits anaphylactic shock reaction in murine allergic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Bezerra-Santos

    Full Text Available The murine model of OVA-induced immediate allergic reaction was used to evaluate the effectiveness of intraperitoneal sub-acute treatment with the leaf hydroalcoholic extract of Cissampelos sympodialis (AFL in the anaphylactic shock reaction, IgE production and the background proliferative response. BALB/c mice treated with AFL ranging from 200 to 400 mg/kg/day for 5 days before and during OVA-sensitization strongly reduced the animal death and promoted reduction in total and OVA-specific serum IgE level. Spleen cells from AFL-treated sensitized animals showed a decreased proliferative background response when compared with non-sensitized animals. These results demonstrated that sub-acute intraperitoneal treatment with Cissampelos sympodialis extract has an anti-allergic effect.

  15. Kalanchoe pinnata inhibits mast cell activation and prevents allergic airway disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, E A; Reuter, S; Martin, H; Dehzad, N; Muzitano, M F; Costa, S S; Rossi-Bergmann, B; Buhl, R; Stassen, M; Taube, C

    2012-01-15

    Aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata (Kp) have been found effective in models to reduce acute anaphylactic reactions. In the present study, we investigate the effect of Kp and the flavonoid quercetin (QE) and quercitrin (QI) on mast cell activation in vitro and in a model of allergic airway disease in vivo. Treatment with Kp and QE in vitro inhibited degranulation and cytokine production of bone marrow-derived mast cells following IgE/FcɛRI crosslinking, whereas treatment with QI had no effect. Similarly, in vivo treatment with Kp and QE decreased development of airway hyperresponsiveness, airway inflammation, goblet cell metaplasia and production of IL-5, IL-13 and TNF. In contrast, treatment with QI had no effect on these parameters. These findings demonstrate that treatment with Kp or QE is effective in treatment of allergic airway disease, providing new insights to the immunomodulatory functions of this plant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Epidemiology of allergic diseases of the respiratory passages in the Kazakh SSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshkevich, V.S.

    1985-01-01

    Over a period of 20 years, the authors have been studying the distribution, aetiology and causes of increasing incidence of allergic respiratory diseases in various climatogeographic zones of the Kazakh SSR. Large groups of people living in towns and in the country were examined by various methods. The number of patients seeking advice in health service establishments because of allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma was found to increase every year. A number of factors influencing the incidence of disease were pointed out, such as the character of diet, duration of the person's stay, vaccination against brucellosis, pollution of the atmosphere, local flora, climate, and other factors. Morbidity also depended on the methods of studying the epidemiology of respiratory allergoses. The obtained results will help health service authorities in taking specific measures to reduce morbidity from the mentioned pathological condition.

  17. Upper and lower airway pathology in young children with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo

    2011-01-01

    and epidemiological surveys have suggested a close connection between upper and lower airway diseases expressed as the "united airways concept". Furthermore, an association between upper and lower airway diseases also seems to exist in non-atopic individuals. Nevertheless, the nature of this association is poorly...... understood and there is a paucity of data objectivizing this association in young children. The aim of this thesis was to describe pathology in the upper and lower airways in young children from the COPSAC birth cohort with investigator-diagnosed allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis. Nasal congestion is a key...... airway patency end-points derived from paper I to examine whether upper and lower airway patency are associated. Upper airway patency was assessed by acoustic rhinometry before and after intranasal α-agonist and lower airway patency by spirometry before and after inhaled β2-agonist. Upper and lower...

  18. Curine inhibits eosinophil activation and airway hyper-responsiveness in a mouse model of allergic asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Departamento de Fisiologia e Patologia, UFPB, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Calheiros, Andrea Surrage; Vieira-de-Abreu, Adriana [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Moraes de Carvalho, Katharinne Ingrid [Laboratório de Inflamação, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silva Mendes, Diego da [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Melo, Christianne Bandeira [Laboratório de Inflamação, Instituto Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Martins, Marco Aurélio [Laboratório de Inflamação, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silva Dias, Celidarque da [Laboratório de Fitoquímica, Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas, UFPB, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Piuvezam, Márcia Regina, E-mail: mrpiuvezam@ltf.ufpb.br [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Departamento de Fisiologia e Patologia, UFPB, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); and others

    2013-11-15

    Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease with increasing prevalence around the world. Current asthma therapy includes drugs that usually cause significant side effects, justifying the search for new anti-asthmatic drugs. Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid that modulates calcium influx in many cell types; however, its anti-allergic and putative toxic effects remain to be elucidated. Our aim was to investigate the effects of curine on eosinophil activation and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and to characterize its potential toxic effects. We used a mouse model of allergic asthma induced by sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin (OVA) to evaluate the anti-allergic effects of oral treatment with curine. The oral administration of curine significantly inhibited eosinophilic inflammation, eosinophil lipid body formation and AHR in animals challenged with OVA compared with animals in the untreated group. The curine treatment also reduced eotaxin and IL-13 production triggered by OVA. Verapamil, a calcium channel antagonist, had similar anti-allergic properties, and curine pre-treatment inhibited the calcium-induced tracheal contractile response ex-vivo, suggesting that the mechanism by which curine exerts its effects is through the inhibition of a calcium-dependent response. A toxicological evaluation showed that orally administered curine did not significantly alter the biochemical, hematological, behavioral and physical parameters measured in the experimental animals compared with saline-treated animals. In conclusion, curine showed anti-allergic activity through mechanisms that involve inhibition of IL-13 and eotaxin and of Ca{sup ++} influx, without inducing evident toxicity and as such, has the potential for the development of anti-asthmatic drugs. - Highlights: • Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid from Chondrodendron platyphyllum. • Curine inhibits eosinophil influx and activation and airway hyper-responsiveness. • Curine

  19. IV Brazilian Consensus on Rhinitis - an update on allergic rhinitis,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalia Sakano

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The guidelines on allergic rhinitis aim to update knowledge about the disease and care for affected patients. The initiative called "Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma", initially published in 2001 and updated in 2008 and 2010, has been very successful in disseminating information and evidence, as well as providing a classification of severity and proposing a systemized treatment protocol. In order to include the participation of other medical professionals in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, it is important to develop algorithms that accurately indicate what should and can be done regionally. Objective To update the III Brazilian Consensus on Rhinitis - 2012, with the creation of an algorithm for allergic rhinitis management. Methods We invited 24 experts nominated by the Brazilian Association of Allergy and Immunology, Brazilian Association of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery and Brazilian Society of Pediatrics to update the 2012 document. Results The update of the last Brazilian Consensus on Rhinitis incorporated and adapted the relevant information published in all "Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma" Initiative documents to the Brazilian scenario, bringing new concepts such as local allergic rhinitis, new drugs and treatment evaluation methods. Conclusion A flowchart for allergic rhinitis treatment has been proposed.

  20. IV Brazilian Consensus on Rhinitis - an update on allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakano, Eulalia; Sarinho, Emanuel S C; Cruz, Alvaro A; Pastorino, Antonio C; Tamashiro, Edwin; Kuschnir, Fábio; Castro, Fábio F M; Romano, Fabrizio R; Wandalsen, Gustavo F; Chong-Neto, Herberto J; Mello, João F de; Silva, Luciana R; Rizzo, Maria Cândida; Miyake, Mônica A M; Rosário Filho, Nelson A; Rubini, Norma de Paula M; Mion, Olavo; Camargos, Paulo A; Roithmann, Renato; Godinho, Ricardo N; Pignatari, Shirley Shizue N; Sih, Tania; Anselmo-Lima, Wilma T; Solé, Dirceu

    2017-11-02

    The guidelines on allergic rhinitis aim to update knowledge about the disease and care for affected patients. The initiative called "Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma", initially published in 2001 and updated in 2008 and 2010, has been very successful in disseminating information and evidence, as well as providing a classification of severity and proposing a systemized treatment protocol. In order to include the participation of other medical professionals in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, it is important to develop algorithms that accurately indicate what should and can be done regionally. To update the III Brazilian Consensus on Rhinitis - 2012, with the creation of an algorithm for allergic rhinitis management. We invited 24 experts nominated by the Brazilian Association of Allergy and Immunology, Brazilian Association of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery and Brazilian Society of Pediatrics to update the 2012 document. The update of the last Brazilian Consensus on Rhinitis incorporated and adapted the relevant information published in all "Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma" Initiative documents to the Brazilian scenario, bringing new concepts such as local allergic rhinitis, new drugs and treatment evaluation methods. A flowchart for allergic rhinitis treatment has been proposed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  1. Immunomodulatory properties of a lemon-quince preparation (Gencydo®) as an indicator of anti-allergic potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gründemann, Carsten; Papagiannopoulos, Menelaos; Lamy, Evelyn; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker; Huber, Roman

    2011-06-15

    Gencydo®, a combination of lemon (Citrus limon) juice and aqueous quince (Cydonia oblonga) extract has been used traditionally in anthroposophical medicine for treating patients with allergic rhinitis or asthma. Because there are no reports about the mode of action, we investigated the anti-allergic effects of this preparation in vitro by using cell lines and primary cells in various biological and immunological endpoints. The release of soluble mediators from basophilic cells, mast cells and lung epithelial cells, which are essential for the initiation of early- and late-phase allergic reactions, was analyzed in relation to the synthetic anti-allergic drugs azelastine and dexamethasone. In addition, the impact of Gencydo® on the viability and activation of GM-CSF-activated eosinophil granulocytes was investigated. Gencydo® reduced the degranulation and histamine release of IgE-activated basophilic cells and mast cells and inhibited the IgE- and PMA/A23187-induced increases in IL-8, TNF-α and GM-CSF production in mast cells. The effects were comparable to that of the used concentration of azelastine and dexamethasone. Furthermore, Gencydo® partially blocked eotaxin release from human bronchial epithelial cells, but has no impact on the viability and activation of GM-CSF-activated eosinophil granulocytes. In conclusion, these results give a rational base for the topical use of Gencydo® in treatment of allergic disorders through the down regulation of soluble mediators, which are essential for the initiation and maintenance of allergic reactions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Mucosal exposure to cockroach extract induces allergic sensitization and allergic airway inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arizmendi Narcy G

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergic sensitization to aeroallergens develops in response to mucosal exposure to these allergens. Allergic sensitization may lead to the development of asthma, which is characterized by chronic airway inflammation. The objective of this study is to describe in detail a model of mucosal exposure to cockroach allergens in the absence of an exogenous adjuvant. Methods Cockroach extract (CE was administered to mice intranasally (i.n. daily for 5 days, and 5 days later mice were challenged with CE for 4 consecutive days. A second group received CE i.n. for 3 weeks. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR was assessed 24 h after the last allergen exposure. Allergic airway inflammation was assessed by BAL and lung histology 48 h after the last allergen exposure. Antigen-specific antibodies were assessed in serum. Lungs were excised from mice from measurement of cytokines and chemokines in whole lung lysate. Results Mucosal exposure of Balb/c mice to cockroach extract induced airway eosinophilic inflammation, AHR and cockroach-specific IgG1; however, AHR to methacholine was absent in the long term group. Lung histology showed patchy, multicentric damage with inflammatory infiltrates at the airways in both groups. Lungs from mice from the short term group showed increased IL-4, CCL11, CXCL1 and CCL2 protein levels. IL4 and CXCL1 were also increased in the BAL of cockroach-sensitized mice in the short-term protocol. Conclusions Mucosal exposure to cockroach extract in the absence of adjuvant induces allergic airway sensitization characterized by AHR, the presence of Th2 cytokines in the lung and eosinophils in the airways.

  3. The Ethics of Drone Strikes: Does Reducing the Cost of Conflict Encourage War?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    dec- laration of war was in 1941), no tax or war bonds, and now the knowledge that the Americans at risk are mainly just American machines, the...Pakistan: Secrecy , Ethics, and Counterinsurgency,” Asian Security, Vol. 7, No. 3, 2011, pp. 218-237. 45 24. David Hastings Dunn, “Drones: Disembodied

  4. Allergic reactions to antivenom in a patient bitten twice by the same snake within a month: A rare case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Jie Zeng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Antivenom is the most effective method currently available for the treatment of poisonous snake bite. Allergic reactions to antivenom have been reported in the past. Here we shared a case of allergic reactions to antivenom in an old male patient who was bitten twice by the same snake (probably same one at the same biting site within a month whereas the patient did not show any allergic disorder in the first bitten. Envenomations twice in a short period time by the same kind of snake are very rare. Physician should be alert to the occurrence of allergic reactions in treating this type of patients with antivenom. The skin allergy test has a certain value in predicting the allergic response before the second use of antivenom. Desensitization may reduce the incidence of allergic reactions, but this is insufficient. Rather than non-IgE-mediated immediate hypersensitivity, patients receiving the second treatment of antivenom may develop IgE-mediated immediate hypersensitivity. Once happened, the antivenom treatment should be stopped promptly and anti-allergy treatment should be given immediately. Keywords: Snake bites, Antibodies, Anti-snake venom serum, Hypersensitivity

  5. Induction of eosinophil apoptosis by the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor AT7519 promotes the resolution of eosinophil-dominant allergic inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L Alessandri

    Full Text Available Eosinophils not only defend the body against parasitic infection but are also involved in pathological inflammatory allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and contact dermatitis. Clearance of apoptotic eosinophils by macrophages is a key process responsible for driving the resolution of eosinophilic inflammation and can be defective in allergic diseases. However, enhanced resolution of eosinophilic inflammation by deliberate induction of eosinophil apoptosis using pharmacological agents has not been previously demonstrated. Here we investigated the effect of a novel cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor drug, AT7519, on human and mouse eosinophil apoptosis and examined whether it could enhance the resolution of a murine model of eosinophil-dominant inflammation in vivo.Eosinophils from blood of healthy donors were treated with AT7519 and apoptosis assessed morphologically and by flow-cytometric detection of annexin-V/propidium iodide staining. AT7519 induced eosinophil apoptosis in a concentration dependent manner. Therapeutic administration of AT7519 in eosinophil-dominant allergic inflammation was investigated using an established ovalbumin-sensitised mouse model of allergic pleurisy. Following ovalbumin challenge AT7519 was administered systemically at the peak of pleural inflammation and inflammatory cell infiltrate, apoptosis and evidence of macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic eosinophils assessed at appropriate time points. Administration of AT7519 dramatically enhanced the resolution of allergic pleurisy via direct induction of eosinophil apoptosis without detriment to macrophage clearance of these cells. This enhanced resolution of inflammation was shown to be caspase-dependent as the effects of AT7519 were reduced by treatment with a broad spectrum caspase inhibitor (z-vad-fmk.Our data show that AT7519 induces human eosinophil apoptosis and enhances the resolution of a murine model of allergic pleurisy by inducing caspase

  6. Targeting phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ for allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Wendy C; Smith, Janet L; Affleck, Karen; Amour, Augustin

    2012-02-01

    Chronic inflammation in the lung has long been linked to the pathogenesis of asthma. Central to this airway inflammation is a T-cell response to allergens, with Th2 cytokines driving the differentiation, survival and function of the major inflammatory cells involved in the allergic cascade. PI3Kδ (phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ) is a lipid kinase, expressed predominantly in leucocytes, where it plays a critical role in immune receptor signalling. A selective PI3Kδ inhibitor is predicted to block T-cell activation in the lung, reducing the production of pro-inflammatory Th2 cytokines. PI3Kδ is also involved in B-cell and mast cell activation. Therefore the inhibition of PI3Kδ should dampen down the inflammatory cascade involved in the asthmatic response through a wide breadth of pharmacology. Current anti-inflammatory therapies, which are based on corticosteroids, are effective in controlling inflammation in mild asthmatics, but moderate/severe asthmatic patients remain poorly controlled, experiencing recurrent exacerbations. Corticosteroids have no effect on mast cell degranulation and do not act directly on B-cells, so, overall, a PI3Kδ inhibitor has the potential to deliver improvements in onset of action, efficacy and reduced exacerbations in moderate/severe asthmatics. Additionally, PI3Kδ inhibition is expected to block effects of Th17 cells, which are increasingly implicated in steroid-insensitive asthma.

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1999-01-01

    From a clinical point of view, the prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) among children and adolescents seems to be low. However, many children have dermatitis, most often atopic dermatitis. In selected cases, ACD is suspected, and the child is tested. The question remains, whether...... the prevalence of ACD in children really is low or whether the possibility of ACD is not sufficiently considered. During the last decade, reports have appeared on series of children and adolescents with contact allergy and ACD. Few cases have been reported in infants, but the development of contact allergy...... and ACD increases with age. Most studies include selected groups of children and adolescents with suspected ACD. Few studies have examined unselected populations, and most consider only the prevalence of contact allergy without evaluating the clinical relevance, e.g., the prevalence of ACD. Furthermore...

  8. Coin exposure may cause allergic nickel dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Gawkrodger, David J; White, Ian R

    2012-01-01

    Nickel is used in coins because the metal has beneficial properties, including price, colour, weight, and corrosion resistance, and also because it is easy to stamp. It has often been claimed that the duration of skin contact with coins is too short to cause nickel release and dermatitis. However......, it is well known by dermatologists specialized in occupational skin diseases, and by their nickel-allergic patients, that hand eczema in cashiers and other professionals who handle coins may be caused or aggravated by nickel release from coins. In this review, we present evidence from past studies showing...... that nickel-containing coins can indeed pose a risk for those who handle them. For protection of the health of consumers, cashiers, and other workers who handle coins, it is suggested that coins without nickel release should be used as a substitute for the high nickel-releasing coins currently in widespread...

  9. Allergic Broncho Pulmonary Aspergillosis Complicated by Nocardiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 70-year-old male with a history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and asthma who presented with increasing breathlessness for 5 months. He was diagnosed to have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA by serological and radiographic criteria. He was treated with steroids and itraconazole. After initial improvement, he developed fever with cough and mucopurulent sputum. X-ray chest revealed multiple cavities with air fluid level. Patient was treated with antibiotics without any response. Sputum was negative for acid fast bacilli (AFB. Sputum culture for bacteria and fungus did not reveal any significant growth; however a delayed growth of Nocardia was noted on fungal plates. Modified Ziehl Nelsen stain was positive for AFB. Patient was treated with cotrimoxazole. We discuss the serological and radiological criteria of ABPA, presentation and treatment of nocardia pulmonary infection and other possible causes of necrotizing pneumonia in immunocompromised settings.

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Muñoz, P; Conde-Salazar, L; Vañó-Galván, S

    2014-11-01

    Contact dermatitis due to cosmetic products is a common dermatologic complaint that considerably affects the patient's quality of life. Diagnosis, treatment, and preventive strategies represent a substantial cost. This condition accounts for 2% to 4% of all visits to the dermatologist, and approximately 60% of cases are allergic in origin. Most cases are caused by skin hygiene and moisturizing products, followed by cosmetic hair and nail products. Fragrances are the most common cause of allergy to cosmetics, followed by preservatives and hair dyes; however, all components, including natural ingredients, should be considered potential sensitizers. We provide relevant information on the most frequent allergens in cosmetic products, namely, fragrances, preservatives, antioxidants, excipients, surfactants, humectants, emulsifiers, natural ingredients, hair dyes, sunscreens, and nail cosmetics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  11. Jackfruit anaphylaxis in a latex allergic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongrakpanich, Supakanya; Klaewsongkram, Jettanong; Chantaphakul, Hiroshi; Ruxrungtham, Kiat

    2015-03-01

    Several fruits have been reported to crossreact with latex antigen in latex allergy patients but little is known regarding tropical fruits in particular. Here we report the case of a 34-year old nurse who developed anaphylaxis following the ingestion of dried jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus). The patient had a history of chronic eczema on both hands resulting from a regular wear of latex gloves. She and her family also had a history of atopy (allergic rhinitis and/or atopic dermatitis). The results of skin prick tests were positive for jackfruit, latex glove, kiwi and papaya, but the test was negative for banana. While we are reporting the first case of jackfruit anaphylaxis, further research needs to be conducted to identify the mechanisms underlying it. In particular, in-vitro studies need to be designed to understand if the anaphylaxis we describe is due to a cross reactivity between latex and jackfruit or a coincidence of allergy to these 2 antigens.

  12. [Orthodontic treatment possibilities of allergic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitályos, Géza; Török, Judit; Márton, Ildikó; Szepesi, Marta; Radics, Tonde; Hegedus, Csaba

    2007-04-01

    During the past two decades the incidence of allergies against dental materials has been rising. The most common allergens are nickel, mercury, benzoxyl-peroxide, formaldehyde, MMA, HEMA, EGDMA and TEGDMA. Contact allergy develops in predisposed individuals as a consequence of environmental exposures to allergens. Although the relatively high frequency of contact allergies in children is well documented, its importance during orthodontic treatments is still often underestimated. The most common metal to cause dental allergic reactions is nickel. Nickel-containing metal alloys, such as nickel-titanium, are widely used in orthodontics because of their favorable physical properties. Coated wires (epoxi coating, teflon, etc.) are not only more aesthetic, but can play a role in the orthodontic treatment of patients with nickel allergy. In our case report we present two patients with nickel allergy, and their treatment with alternative orthodontic appliances. During the orthodontic treatment our patients did not have any objective or subjective allergy-related symptoms.

  13. Human Milk and Allergic Diseases: An Unsolved Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroni, Diego G.; Boix-Amorós, Alba; Hsu, Peter S.; Van’t Land, Belinda; Skevaki, Chrysanthi; Collado, Maria Carmen; Garssen, Johan; Geddes, Donna T.; Nanan, Ralph; Slupsky, Carolyn; Wegienka, Ganesa; Kozyrskyj, Anita L.; Warner, John O.

    2017-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence on the protective role of breastfeeding in relation to the development of allergic sensitisation and allergic disease. Studies vary in methodology and definition of outcomes, which lead to considerable heterogeneity. Human milk composition varies both within and between individuals, which may partially explain conflicting data. It is known that human milk composition is very complex and contains variable levels of immune active molecules, oligosaccharides, metabolites, vitamins and other nutrients and microbial content. Existing evidence suggests that modulation of human breast milk composition has potential for preventing allergic diseases in early life. In this review, we discuss associations between breastfeeding/human milk composition and allergy development. PMID:28817095

  14. Allergic respiratory disease: Different allergens, different symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, A; Quirce, S; Dávila, I; Delgado, J; Domínguez-Ortega, J

    2017-09-01

    Spanish population is rather homogeneous in its genetic and sociocultural characteristics, but allergen sensitization shows wide geographical variations. We aimed at assessing whether sensitization to different allergens in the diverse geographical areas induced different clinical and quality-of-life characteristics in adult patients with a first-time diagnosis of rhinitis and/or asthma. Two sequential, identically designed studies were carried out to evaluate such associations (PERFILAR I and II). PERFILAR II was an extension of PERFILAR I with additional allergens being included. Both phases were epidemiological, descriptive, cross-sectional, nonintervention multicenter studies. Participants were required to have lived for at least the last 2 years in the geographical zone. Asthma control assessment was based on ACQ-5. Health-related quality of life was evaluated with validated scales for rhinitis (ESPRINT-15) and asthma (Mini-AQLQ). Skin prick tests were used to identify sensitization to involved allergens. A total of 301 physicians recruited 2711 patients for PERFILAR I+II. Sensitization to allergens was significantly different in patients with rhinitis with/without asthma. Seasonal allergens were associated with rhinitis, a longer time to asthma development, and more severe and commonly intermittent rhinitis. HDM were associated with more common rhinitis, and Alternaria was associated with asthma. The study confirms an association of geographical areas with relevant allergens and allergic clinical picture. Different types of aeroallergens and specific sensitization profiles are associated with different allergic clinical pictures (rhinitis with/without asthma), different clinical symptoms, and different levels of severity. This could have implications to predict later clinical course and to select appropriate management approaches. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  15. Significance of heel pad confinement for the shock absorption at heel strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, U; Ekstrand, J

    1988-12-01

    Shock absorption (SA) is a simple way to reduce the body load and can be used in the prevention and treatment of injuries. The heel pad is the most important shock absorber in the shoe heel complex. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the SA at heel strike can be increased by heel support in people and shoes with high or low SA. The impact forces at heel strike were measured on an AMTI (R) force platform. Fourteen legs were tested in seven persons (nine with normal and five with low heel pad SA) in gait analysis and in human drop tests. The tests were performed barefooted, and in a soccer and a running shoe (selected by shoe drop test), with and without the distal 2 cm of the heel counter. The heel pad confinement produced by the heel counter (the heel counter effect) increased the SA in both shoe types significantly in both impact situations. The mean increase in SA was 8.8% (range 5.8%-15.5%). The heel counter effect was in all situations significantly higher in persons with low heel pad shock absorbency (LHPSA) than in those with normal heel pads. The barefoot impact peak force per kg body weight was significantly higher (6% mean) on the side with LHPSA. The running shoe provided the significantly greatest SA compared with the soccer shoe. It is concluded that the shock absorbency at heel strike can be increased significantly by heel support, with highest effect in persons with LHPSA, both in shoes with high and low SA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Why forefoot striking in minimal shoes might positively change the course of running injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene S. Davis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is believed that human ancestors evolved the ability to run bipedally approximately 2 million years ago. This form of locomotion may have been important to our survival and likely has influenced the evolution of our body form. As our bodies have adapted to run, it seems unusual that up to 79% of modern day runners are injured annually. The etiology of these injuries is clearly multifactorial. However, 1 aspect of running that has significantly changed over the past 50 years is the footwear we use. Modern running shoes have become increasingly cushioned and supportive, and have changed the way we run. In particular, they have altered our footstrike pattern from a predominantly forefoot strike (FFS landing to a predominantly rearfoot strike (RFS landing. This change alters the way in which the body is loaded and may be contributing to the high rate of injuries runners experience while engaged in an activity for which they were adapted. In this paper, we will examine the benefits of barefoot running (typically an FFS pattern, and compare the lower extremity mechanics between FFS and RFS. The implications of these mechanical differences, in terms of injury, will be discussed. We will then provide evidence to support our contention that FFS provides an optimal mechanical environment for specific foot and ankle structures, such as the heel pad, the plantar fascia, and the Achilles tendon. The importance of footwear will then be addressed, highlighting its interaction with strike pattern on mechanics. This analysis will underscore why footwear matters when assessing mechanics. Finally, proper preparation and safe transition to an FFS pattern in minimal shoes will be emphasized. Through the discussion of the current literature, we will develop a justification for returning to running in the way for which we were adapted to reduce running-related injuries.

  17. Oleanolic acid acetate inhibits atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a murine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Kyeong [CMRI, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Hyun-Mee [Bio-Materials Research Institute, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soyoung [CMRI, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Woo [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-412 (Korea, Republic of); Khang, Dongwoo [School of Nano and Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, Woo Song [Bio-Materials Research Institute, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Mun-Chual, E-mail: rho-m@kribb.re.kr [Bio-Materials Research Institute, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Hyun, E-mail: shkim72@knu.ac.kr [CMRI, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are common allergic and inflammatory skin diseases caused by a combination of eczema, scratching, pruritus, and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. This paper examines whether oleanolic acid acetate (OAA) modulates AD and ACD symptoms by using an existing AD model based on the repeated local exposure of mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene to the ears of BALB/c mice. In addition, the paper uses a 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-sensitized local lymph node assay (LLNA) for the ACD model. The oral administration of OAA over a four-week period attenuated AD symptoms in terms of decreased skin lesions, epidermal thickness, the infiltration of immune cells (CD4{sup +} cells, eosinophils, and mast cells), and serum IgE, IgG2a, and histamine levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th22 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the lymph node and ear tissue, and the LLNA verified that OAA suppressed ACD. The oral administration of OAA over a three-day period attenuated ACD symptoms in terms of ear thickness, lymphocyte proliferation, and serum IgG2a levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the thymus and ear tissue. Finally, to define the underlying mechanism, this paper uses a TNF-α/IFN-γ-activated human keratinocyte (HaCaT) model. OAA inhibited the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the downregulation of NF-κB and MAPKs in HaCaT cells. Taken together, the results indicate that OAA inhibited AD and ACD symptoms, suggesting that OAA may be effective in treating allergic skin disorders. - Highlights: • OAA reduced both acute and chronic AD symptoms. • OAA had a controlling effect on the immune reaction for ACD. • The effect of OAA on allergic skin disorders was comparable to the cyclosporine A. • OAA might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic skin disorders.

  18. A geranyl acetophenone targeting cysteinyl leukotriene synthesis prevents allergic airway inflammation in ovalbumin-sensitized mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, Norazren; Jambari, Nuzul Nurahya; Zareen, Seema; Akhtar, Mohamad Nadeem; Shaari, Khozirah; Zamri-Saad, Mohamad; Tham, Chau Ling; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan; Lajis, Nordin Hj; Israf, Daud Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is associated with increased pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. The current use of corticosteroids in the management of asthma has recently raised issues regarding safety and lack of responsiveness in 5–10% of asthmatic individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of a non-steroidal small molecule that has cysteinyl leukotriene (cysLT) inhibitory activity, upon attenuation of allergic lung inflammation in an acute murine model. Mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and treated with several intraperitoneal doses (100, 20, 2 and 0.2 mg/kg) of 2,4,6,-trihydroxy-3-geranylacetophenone (tHGA). Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, blood and lung samples were obtained and respiratory function was measured. OVA sensitization increased pulmonary inflammation and pulmonary allergic inflammation was significantly reduced at doses of 100, 20 and 2 mg/kg with no effect at the lowest dose of 0.2 mg/kg. The beneficial effects in the lung were associated with reduced eosinophilic infiltration and reduced secretion of Th2 cytokines and cysLTs. Peripheral blood reduction of total IgE was also a prominent feature. Treatment with tHGA significantly attenuated altered airway hyperresponsiveness as measured by the enhanced pause (Penh) response to incremental doses of methacholine. These data demonstrate that tHGA, a synthetic non-steroidal small molecule, can prevent acute allergic inflammation. This proof of concept opens further avenues of research and development of tHGA as an additional option to the current armamentarium of anti-asthma therapeutics. -- Highlights: ► Safer and effective anti-asthmatic drugs are in great demand. ► tHGA is a new 5-LO/cysLT inhibitor that inhibits allergic asthma in mice. ► tHGA is a natural compound that can be synthesized. ► Doses as low as 2 mg/kg alleviate lung pathology in experimental asthma. ► tHGA is a potential drug lead for the treatment of allergic asthma.

  19. PSpice Model of Lightning Strike to a Steel Reinforced Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koone, Neil; Condren, Brian

    2003-01-01

    Surges and arcs from lightning can pose hazards to personnel and sensitive equipment, and processes. Steel reinforcement in structures can act as a Faraday cage mitigating lightning effects. Knowing a structure's response to a lightning strike allows hazards associated with lightning to be analyzed. A model of lightning's response in a steel reinforced structure has been developed using PSpice (a commercial circuit simulation). Segments of rebar are modeled as inductors and resistors in series. A program has been written to take architectural information of a steel reinforced structure and 'build' a circuit network that is analogous to the network of reinforcement in a facility. A severe current waveform (simulating a 99th percentile lightning strike), modeled as a current source, is introduced in the circuit network, and potential differences within the structure are determined using PSpice. A visual three-dimensional model of the facility displays the voltage distribution across the structure using color to indicate the potential difference relative to the floor. Clear air arcing distances can be calculated from the voltage distribution using a conservative value for the dielectric breakdown strength of air. Potential validation tests for the model will be presented

  20. Recent geodynamics of major strike-slip zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir G. Trifonov

    2015-09-01

    In all of the cases mentioned above, strike-slip deformation was expressed only or mainly during strong earthquakes. At other times, the rate of its accumulation was small and the dominant stress conditions led to transverse shortening, rarely resulting in local lengthening of the tectonic zone. These variations are caused by the tectonic peculiarities of these zones. The sinistral component of the deformation is related to the shift of the Arabian Plate relative to the African one, but also the transverse component is related to the continental slope and is expressed by the Coastal range shortening that exists in the El Ghab segment zone. There is not only a dextral deformation component, but also a transverse component, expressed by shortening of the Fergana and Talas ranges existing in the Talas-Fergana fault zone. In both zones, the shortening component became appreciable or dominant when the strike-slip deformation rate decreased. Similar, but more local, relationships were expressed in the epicentral area of the 2003 Altai earthquake and in the Western Palmyrides.