WorldWideScience

Sample records for striking inverse relationship

  1. Inversion of Acoustic and Electromagnetic Recordings for Mapping Current Flow in Lightning Strikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.; Johnson, J.; Arechiga, R. O.; Thomas, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    Acoustic recordings can be used to map current-carrying conduits in lightning strikes. Unlike stepped leaders, whose very high frequency (VHF) radio emissions have short (meter-scale) wavelengths and can be located by lightning-mapping arrays, current pulses emit longer (kilometer-scale) waves and cannot be mapped precisely by electromagnetic observations alone. While current pulses are constrained to conductive channels created by stepped leaders, these leaders often branch as they propagate, and most branches fail to carry current. Here, we present a method to use thunder recordings to map current pulses, and we apply it to acoustic and VHF data recorded in 2009 in the Magdalena mountains in central New Mexico, USA. Thunder is produced by rapid heating and expansion of the atmosphere along conductive channels in response to current flow, and therefore can be used to recover the geometry of the current-carrying channel. Toward this goal, we use VHF pulse maps to identify candidate conductive channels where we treat each channel as a superposition of finely-spaced acoustic point sources. We apply ray tracing in variable atmospheric structures to forward model the thunder that our microphone network would record for each candidate channel. Because multiple channels could potentially carry current, a non-linear inversion is performed to determine the acoustic source strength of each channel. For each combination of acoustic source strengths, synthetic thunder is modeled as a superposition of thunder signals produced by each channel, and a power envelope of this stack is then calculated. The inversion iteratively minimizes the misfit between power envelopes of recorded and modeled thunder. Because the atmospheric sound speed structure through which the waves propagate during these events is unknown, we repeat the procedure on many plausible atmospheres to find an optimal fit. We then determine the candidate channel, or channels, that minimizes residuals between

  2. A nonlinear least-squares inverse analysis of strike-slip faulting with application to the San Andreas fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charles A.; Richardson, Randall M.

    1988-01-01

    A nonlinear weighted least-squares analysis was performed for a synthetic elastic layer over a viscoelastic half-space model of strike-slip faulting. Also, an inversion of strain rate data was attempted for the locked portions of the San Andreas fault in California. Based on an eigenvector analysis of synthetic data, it is found that the only parameter which can be resolved is the average shear modulus of the elastic layer and viscoelastic half-space. The other parameters were obtained by performing a suite of inversions for the fault. The inversions on data from the northern San Andreas resulted in predicted parameter ranges similar to those produced by inversions on data from the whole fault.

  3. Using avian radar to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological factors

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    Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Halstead, Brian J.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Laughlin, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Radar systems designed to detect avian activity at airfields are useful in understanding factors that influence the risk of bird and aircraft collisions (bird strikes). We used an avian radar system to measure avian activity at Beale Air Force Base, California, USA, during 2008 and 2009. We conducted a 2-part analysis to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological and time-dependent factors. We found that avian activity around the airfield was greater at times when bird strikes occurred than on average using a permutation resampling technique. Second, we developed generalized linear mixed models of an avian activity index (AAI). Variation in AAI was first explained by seasons that were based on average migration dates of birds at the study area. We then modeled AAI by those seasons to further explain variation by meteorological factors and daily light levels within a 24-hour period. In general, avian activity increased with decreased temperature, wind, visibility, precipitation, and increased humidity and cloud cover. These effects differed by season. For example, during the spring bird migration period, most avian activity occurred before sunrise at twilight hours on clear days with low winds, whereas during fall migration, substantial activity occurred after sunrise, and birds generally were more active at lower temperatures. We report parameter estimates (i.e., constants and coefficients) averaged across models and a relatively simple calculation for safety officers and wildlife managers to predict AAI and the relative risk of bird strike based on time, date, and meteorological values. We validated model predictability and assessed model fit. These analyses will be useful for general inference of avian activity and risk assessment efforts. Further investigation and ongoing data collection will refine these inference models and improve our understanding of factors that influence avian activity, which is necessary to inform

  4. Influence of shod/unshod condition and running speed on foot-strike patterns, inversion/eversion, and vertical foot rotation in endurance runners.

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    Muñoz-Jimenez, M; Latorre-Román, P A; Soto-Hermoso, V M; García-Pinillos, F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of barefoot running on foot-strike patterns, eversion-inversion, running speed and vertical foot rotation in endurance runners. Eighty healthy recreational runners (age = 34.11 ± 12.95 years old, body mass index = 22.56 ± 2.65 kg · m(-2)) performed trials in shod/unshod running conditions on a treadmill at comfortable and competitive self-selected speeds. Data were collected by systematic observation of lateral and back recordings at 240 Hz. McNemar's test indicated significant differences between shod/unshod conditions and foot strike at comfortable and competitive speeds (P Speed was related to vertical foot rotation type for shod (P speeds (P speeds (P < 0.01). No significant difference was found in inversion or eversion (P ≥ 0.05). In conclusion, the results suggest that running kinematics, in terms of foot-strike patterns and vertical foot rotation, differ between shod/unshod conditions, while the inversion or eversion degree remains unchanged.

  5. When yesterday's consumption strikes back: deviation from usual consumption inversely predicts amounts consumed the next weekend evening.

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    Labhart, Florian; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2014-07-01

    Young adults' weekend alcohol consumption is characterised by heavy episodic drinking (HED) with low alcohol use in between. This study investigates whether consuming a lower or higher number of drinks than usual on a given evening predicts consumption the following evening. In French-speaking Switzerland, 115 young adults (57% female, mean age = 23.2) answered questionnaires on their cellphones six times every Thursday, Friday and Saturday evening over five consecutive weeks. Multilevel models with group-mean centering were used to analyse 462 evening pairs. Although the sample average number of drinks consumed tended to increase from Thursday [Mmen (SD) = 3.6 (5.0); Mwomen (SD) = 2.9(4.2)] to Saturday [Mmen (SD) = 7.4( 7.1); Mwomen (SD) = 5.2(5.6)], substantial day-to-day variations were observed within individuals. Variations from the usual consumption (i.e. higher or lower number of drinks than usual) on the first day had a significant inverse impact on amounts consumed the following day (unstandardised regression coefficient (B) = -0.27, P < 0.01). This effect was more marked for evening pairs including HED (B = -0.44, P < 0.001). Men and heavy drinkers were less subject to day-to-day variations than women and usually moderate drinkers. The inverse relationship might result from adverse consequences experienced after HED or an intentional reduction in alcohol consumption in anticipation of a heavy drinking session the next day. Event-specific prevention is needed for women and usually light or moderate drinkers as their more distinct consumption peaks put them at greater risk, particularly of accidents and injuries. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  6. Cenozoic structural inversion from transtension to transpression in Yingxiong Range, western Qaidam Basin: New insights into strike-slip superimposition controlled by Altyn Tagh and Eastern Kunlun Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiang; Zhang, Daowei; Jolivet, Marc; Yu, Xiangjiang; Du, Wei; Liu, Runchao; Guo, Zhaojie

    2018-01-01

    A Cenozoic structural inversion event from transtension to transpression involving salt tectonics has been uncovered in the Yingxiong Range, the western Qaidam Basin. Seismic reflection data show that there are two common structural styles in the Yingxiong Range: (1) the positive flower structure; (2) the thrust-controlled fold at shallow depth and the positive inverted flower structure at deep levels, which are separated by a salt layer in the upper Xiaganchaigou Formation. The Yingxiong Range experienced a first stage of transtension in the Eocene, induced by the Altyn Tagh Fault, and a second stage of transpression from the early Miocene to present, jointly controlled by the Altyn Tagh and Eastern Kunlun Faults. The Eocene transtension produced numerous NW-striking right-stepping en-échelon transtensional normal faults or fractures in the Yingxiong Range. At the same time, evaporites and mudstone were deposited in the vicinity of these faults. In the early Miocene, the Eocene transtensional normal faults were reactivated in a reverse sense, and the thrust-controlled folds at shallow depth started to form simultaneously. With transpression enhanced in the late Cenozoic, positive flower structures directly formed in places without evaporites. The Cenozoic transtension to transpression inversion of the Yingxiong Range is the result of strike-slip superimposition controlled by the Altyn Tagh and Eastern Kunlun Faults in time and space.

  7. Inverse Relationship between Progesterone Receptor and Myc in Endometrial Cancer.

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    Tamar Kavlashvili

    reveal a previously unanticipated inverse relationship between the tumor suppressor PR and the oncogene Myc in endometrial cancer.

  8. Relationship between ionospheric plasma bubble occurrence and lightning strikes over the Amazon region

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    J. Sousasantos

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The vertical coupling between the troposphere and the ionosphere presents some remarkable features. Under intense tropospheric convection, gravity waves may be generated, and once they reach the ionosphere, these waves may seed instabilities and spread F and equatorial plasma bubble events may take place. Additionally, there is a close association between severe tropospheric convection and lightning strikes. In this work an investigation covering an equinox period (September–October during the deep solar minimum (2009 presents the relation between lightning strike activity and spread F (equatorial plasma bubble detected over a low-latitude Brazilian region. The results show a considerable correlation between these two phenomena. The common element in the center of this conformity seems to be the gravity waves. Once gravity waves and lightning strikes share the same source (intense tropospheric convection and the effects of such gravity waves in the ionosphere include the seeding of instabilities according to the gravity waves magnitude, the monitoring of the lightning strike activity seems to offer some information about the subsequent development of spread F over the equatorial region.

  9. Relationship between ionospheric plasma bubble occurrence and lightning strikes over the Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousasantos, Jonas; Sobral, José Humberto Andrade; Alam Kherani, Esfhan; Magalhães Fares Saba, Marcelo; Rodolfo de Campos, Diovane

    2018-03-01

    The vertical coupling between the troposphere and the ionosphere presents some remarkable features. Under intense tropospheric convection, gravity waves may be generated, and once they reach the ionosphere, these waves may seed instabilities and spread F and equatorial plasma bubble events may take place. Additionally, there is a close association between severe tropospheric convection and lightning strikes. In this work an investigation covering an equinox period (September-October) during the deep solar minimum (2009) presents the relation between lightning strike activity and spread F (equatorial plasma bubble) detected over a low-latitude Brazilian region. The results show a considerable correlation between these two phenomena. The common element in the center of this conformity seems to be the gravity waves. Once gravity waves and lightning strikes share the same source (intense tropospheric convection) and the effects of such gravity waves in the ionosphere include the seeding of instabilities according to the gravity waves magnitude, the monitoring of the lightning strike activity seems to offer some information about the subsequent development of spread F over the equatorial region.

  10. Impulse of a Kendo Strike

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    Masahiro Abe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An expert swordsman struck a target with a kendo sword. The velocity and force of the strike were measured. The relationship between the strike velocity, impact force and effective mass of the sword was investigated. It was shown that the effective mass of the sword remains constant for typical strike velocities.

  11. Competing risk bias to explain the inverse relationship between smoking and malignant melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, Caroline A.; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Arah, Onyebuchi A.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between smoking and melanoma remains unclear. Among the different results is the paradoxical finding that smoking was shown to be inversely associated with the risk of malignant melanoma in some large cohort and case-control studies, even after control for suspected confounding

  12. Localized heuristic inverse quantitative structure activity relationship with bulk descriptors using numerical gradients.

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    Stålring, Jonna; Almeida, Pedro R; Carlsson, Lars; Helgee Ahlberg, Ernst; Hasselgren, Catrin; Boyer, Scott

    2013-08-26

    State-of-the-art quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models are often based on nonlinear machine learning algorithms, which are difficult to interpret. From a pharmaceutical perspective, QSARs are used to enhance the chemical design process. Ultimately, they should not only provide a prediction but also contribute to a mechanistic understanding and guide modifications to the chemical structure, promoting compounds with desirable biological activity profiles. Global ranking of descriptor importance and inverse QSAR have been used for these purposes. This paper introduces localized heuristic inverse QSAR, which provides an assessment of the relative ability of the descriptors to influence the biological response in an area localized around the predicted compound. The method is based on numerical gradients with parameters optimized using data sets sampled from analytical functions. The heuristic character of the method reduces the computational requirements and makes it applicable not only to fragment based methods but also to QSARs based on bulk descriptors. The application of the method is illustrated on congeneric QSAR data sets, and it is shown that the predicted influential descriptors can be used to guide structural modifications that affect the biological response in the desired direction. The method is implemented into the AZOrange Open Source QSAR package. The current implementation of localized heuristic inverse QSAR is a step toward a generally applicable method for elucidating the structure activity relationship specifically for a congeneric region of chemical space when using QSARs based on bulk properties. Consequently, this method could contribute to accelerating the chemical design process in pharmaceutical projects, as well as provide information that could enhance the mechanistic understanding for individual scaffolds.

  13. Self-compassion moderates body comparison and appearance self-worth's inverse relationships with body appreciation.

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    Homan, Kristin J; Tylka, Tracy L

    2015-09-01

    Although research on positive body image has increased, little research has explored which variables protect body appreciation during body-related threats. Self-compassion may be one such variable. Individuals high in self-compassion are mindful, kind, and nurturing toward themselves during situations that threaten their adequacy, while recognizing that being imperfect is part of "being human." In this study, we investigated whether two body-related threats (i.e., body comparison and appearance contingent self-worth) were more weakly related to body appreciation when self-compassion was high among an online sample of 263 women (Mage=35.26, SD=12.42). Results indicated that self-compassion moderated the inverse relationships between body related threats and body appreciation. Specifically, when self-compassion was very high, body comparison and appearance contingent self-worth were unrelated to body appreciation. However, when self-compassion was low, these relationships were strong. Self-compassion, then, may help preserve women's body appreciation during body-related threats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Inverse association of natural mentoring relationship with distress mental health in children orphaned by AIDS

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    Munakata Tsunetsugu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The magnitude of the AIDS-orphaned children crisis in sub-Saharan Africa has so overstretched the resource of most families that the collapse of fostering in the sub-region seems imminent (UNICEF, 2003, fueling the need for a complementary/alternative care. This paper examines the probability of the natural mentoring care to ameliorate distress mental health in children orphaned by AIDS. Methods 952 children, mean age about 14 years, from local community schools and child-care centers in Kampala (Uganda and Mafikeng/Klerksdorp (South Africa towns participated in the study. The design has AIDS-orphaned group (n = 373 and two control groups: Other-causes orphaned (n = 287 and non-orphaned (n = 290 children. We use measures of child abuse, depression, social discrimination, anxiety, parental/foster care, self-esteem, and social support to estimate mental health. Natural mentoring care is measured with the Ragins and McFarlin (1990 Mentor Role Instrument as adapted. Results AIDS-orphaned children having a natural mentor showed significant decreased distress mental health factors. Similar evidence was not observed in the control groups. Also being in a natural mentoring relationship inversely related to distress mental health factors in the AIDS-orphaned group, in particular. AIDS-orphaned children who scored high mentoring relationship showed significant lowest distress mental health factors that did those who scored moderate and low mentoring relationship. Conclusions Natural mentoring care seems more beneficial to ameliorate distress mental health in AIDS-orphaned children (many of whom are double-orphans, having no biological parents than in children in the control groups.

  15. The inverse relationship between species diversity and body mass: do primates play by the "rules"?

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    Conroy, Glenn C

    2003-07-01

    Evolutionary biologists have long commented on a seemingly universal "rule" of nature-that in large taxonomic assemblages from groups as diverse as bacteria, plants, insects, marine invertebrates, fish, reptiles, amphibians, birds, and mammals, there exists a frequency distribution of body sizes among species that is highly skewed to the right (positive skewness). This distribution reflects the strong inverse, or negative, relationship often noted between mean body size of taxa and the number of species they contain--i.e., the observation that small body size is often associated with high species diversity (speciosity). This is sometimes "explained" by recourse to the idea that smaller-bodied taxa are able to subdivide their environments more finely than larger-bodied taxa. With but few exceptions, the applicability of this "rule" to the Order Primates has not been studied in any detail. In this study I address the following questions of (paleo)anthropological interest: (1) How speciose is the Order Primates? (2) Does this biological "rule" characterize the Order Primates (at any taxonomic level) in any meaningful way? (3) Does the association between speciosity and body mass within the Order Primates provide any useful models for interpreting and/or predicting speciosity in the fossil primate record? Using phylogenetically independent contrasts methods, I conclude that the answers to those three questions are: (1) not very; (2) no; and (3) not particularly (with the possible exception of larger-bodied taxa).

  16. Inverse relationship between present-day tropical precipitation and its sensitivity to greenhouse warming

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    Ham, Yoo-Geun; Kug, Jong-Seong; Choi, Jun-Young; Jin, Fei-Fei; Watanabe, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    Future changes in rainfall have serious impacts on human adaptation to climate change, but quantification of these changes is subject to large uncertainties in climate model projections. To narrow these uncertainties, significant efforts have been made to understand the intermodel differences in future rainfall changes. Here, we show a strong inverse relationship between present-day precipitation and its future change to possibly calibrate future precipitation change by removing the present-day bias in climate models. The results of the models with less tropical (40° S-40° N) present-day precipitation are closely linked to the dryness over the equatorial central-eastern Pacific, and project weaker regional precipitation increase due to the anthropogenic greenhouse forcing1-6 with stronger zonal Walker circulation. This induces Indo-western Pacific warming through Bjerknes feedback, which reduces relative humidity by the enhanced atmospheric boundary-layer mixing in the future projection. This increases the air-sea humidity difference to enhance tropical evaporation and the resultant precipitation. Our estimation of the sensitivity of the tropical precipitation per 1 K warming, after removing a common bias in the present-day simulation, is about 50% greater than the original future multi-model projection.

  17. Inverse relationship between nonadherence to original GOLD treatment guidelines and exacerbations of COPD.

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    Foda, Hussein D; Brehm, Anthony; Goldsteen, Karen; Edelman, Norman H

    2017-01-01

    Prescriber disagreement is among the reasons for poor adherence to COPD treatment guidelines; it is yet not clear whether this leads to adverse outcomes. We tested whether undertreatment according to the original Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines led to increased exacerbations. Records of 878 patients with spirometrically confirmed COPD who were followed from 2005 to 2010 at one Veterans Administration (VA) Medical Center were analyzed. Analysis of variance was performed to assess differences in exacerbation rates between severity groups. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between noncompliance with guidelines and exacerbation rates. About 19% were appropriately treated by guidelines; 14% overtreated, 44% under-treated, and in 23% treatment did not follow any guideline. Logistic regression revealed a strong inverse relationship between undertreatment and exacerbation rate when severity of obstruction was held constant. Exacerbations per year by GOLD stage were significantly different from each other: mild 0.15, moderate 0.27, severe 0.38, very severe 0.72, and substantially fewer than previously reported. The guidelines were largely not followed. Undertreatment predominated but, contrary to expectations, was associated with fewer exacerbations. Thus, clinicians were likely advancing therapy primarily based upon exacerbation rates as was subsequently recommended in revised GOLD and other more recent guidelines. In retrospect, a substantial lack of prescriber adherence to treatment guidelines may have been a signal that they required re-evaluation. This is likely to be a general principle regarding therapeutic guidelines. The identification of fewer exacerbations in this cohort than has been generally reported probably reflects the comprehensive nature of the VA system, which is more likely to identify relatively asymptomatic (ie, nonexacerbating) COPD patients. Accordingly, these rates may

  18. Inverse relationship between vertebral fractures and spine osteoarthritis in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

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    Roux, C; Fechtenbaum, J; Briot, K; Cropet, C; Liu-Léage, S; Marcelli, C

    2008-02-01

    Although the coexistence of osteoarthritis and osteoporosis is considered as uncommon, it has been suggested that, in postmenopausal women, disc space narrowing increases the risk of vertebral fracture. The aim of this study was to check this hypothesis in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. We analysed the relationship between vertebral fractures and spine osteoarthritis in 410 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: in this population both disc space narrowing and osteophytes are inversely related to vertebral fractures. This study is based on baseline data collected in a multicentre, prospective and 6-month longitudinal observational study. 410 postmenopausal women (74+/-5 years) were enrolled who had consulted for back pain, and had osteoporosis (according to WHO definition). Spine x-rays were performed according to standardised procedures. Vertebral fractures were evaluated from T4 to L4 using the Genant's semiquantitative method; osteoarthritis was evaluated by scoring osteophytes and disc space narrowing at all levels of the thoracic and lumbar spine, and by a qualitative assessment of facet joint arthritis. The prevalence of vertebral fractures was 52.4%. At least one osteophyte, one disc space narrowing and one facet arthritis were present in 90.2, 64.6 and 77.8% of patients respectively. There was an inverse association between vertebral fractures and osteoarthritis: odds ratios adjusted for age and weight (95% CI) were 0.38 (0.17-0.86), p = 0.02 and 0.27 (0.16-0.46), p<10(-4) for the presence of at least one osteophyte, and of at least three disc space narrowings respectively. In a cluster analysis, it was possible to identify a subgroup of patients without any disc space narrowing, and another subgroup with all patients having at least one disc space narrowing; the proportion of patients having more than three vertebral fractures was 25.2 and 15.9% in these two clusters respectively. Disc space narrowing and osteophytes are associated with a

  19. Inverse relationship between urban green space and childhood autism in California elementary school districts.

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    Wu, Jianyong; Jackson, Laura

    2017-10-01

    Green space has a variety of health benefits. However, little is known about its impact on autism, the fastest-growing neurodevelopmental disorder in children. This study examined the relationship between green space and childhood autism prevalence. Autism count data in 2010 were obtained for 543 of ~560 public elementary school districts in California. Multiple types of green space were measured in each school district, including percentages of forest, grassland, and average tree canopy and near-road tree canopy. Their associations with autism prevalence were evaluated with negative binomial regression models and spatial regression models. We observed inverse associations between several green space metrics and autism prevalence in school districts with high road density, the highly urbanized areas, but not in others. According to negative binomial regression models, adjusted rate ratios (RR) for the relationships in these school districts between autism prevalence and green space metrics in 10% increments were as follows: for forest, RR=0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84-0.95); for grassland, RR=0.90 (95% CI: 0.83-0.97); for average tree canopy, RR=0.89 (95% CI: 0.83-0.95), and for near-road tree canopy, RR=0.81 (95% CI: 0.73-0.91). These results suggest that increases of 10% in forest, grassland, average tree canopy and near-road tree canopy are associated with a decrease in autism prevalence of 10%, 10% 11% and 19%, respectively. In contrast, urban land and road density were positively associated with autism prevalence. The results of spatial regression models were consistent with those obtained by negative binomial models, except for grassland. Our study suggests that green space, specifically tree cover in areas with high road density, may influence autism prevalence in elementary school children beneficially. Further studies are needed to investigate a potential causal relationship, and the major mechanisms that may underlie the beneficial associations

  20. Coffee consumption and prostate cancer risk: further evidence for inverse relationship

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    Shafique Kashif

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Higher consumption of coffee intake has recently been linked with reduced risk of aggressive prostate cancer (PC incidence, although meta-analysis of other studies that examine the association between coffee consumption and overall PC risk remains inconclusive. Only one recent study investigated the association between coffee intake and grade-specific incidence of PC, further evidence is required to understand the aetiology of aggressive PCs. Therefore, we conducted a prospective study to examine the relationship between coffee intake and overall as well as grade-specific PC risk. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of 6017 men who were enrolled in the Collaborative cohort study in the UK between 1970 and 1973 and followed up to 31st December 2007. Cox Proportional Hazards Models were used to evaluate the association between coffee consumption and overall, as well as Gleason grade-specific, PC incidence. Results Higher coffee consumption was inversely associated with risk of high grade but not with overall risk of PC. Men consuming 3 or more cups of coffee per day experienced 55% lower risk of high Gleason grade disease compared with non-coffee drinkers in analysis adjusted for age and social class (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.23-0.90, p value for trend 0.01. This association changed a little after additional adjustment for Body Mass Index, smoking, cholesterol level, systolic blood pressure, tea intake and alcohol consumption. Conclusion Coffee consumption reduces the risk of aggressive PC but not the overall risk.

  1. Inverse relationship between nonadherence to original GOLD treatment guidelines and exacerbations of COPD

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    Foda HD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hussein D Foda,1,2 Anthony Brehm,1,2 Karen Goldsteen,3 Norman H Edelman2,4 1Division of Pulmonary Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Northport, 2Division of Pulmonary Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY, 3MPH Program, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND, 4Department of Preventative Medicine and Program in Public Health, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY, USA Background: Prescriber disagreement is among the reasons for poor adherence to COPD treatment guidelines; it is yet not clear whether this leads to adverse outcomes. We tested whether undertreatment according to the original Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD guidelines led to increased exacerbations.Methods: Records of 878 patients with spirometrically confirmed COPD who were followed from 2005 to 2010 at one Veterans Administration (VA Medical Center were analyzed. Analysis of variance was performed to assess differences in exacerbation rates between severity groups. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between noncompliance with guidelines and exacerbation rates.Findings: About 19% were appropriately treated by guidelines; 14% overtreated, 44% undertreated, and in 23% treatment did not follow any guideline. Logistic regression revealed a strong inverse relationship between undertreatment and exacerbation rate when severity of obstruction was held constant. Exacerbations per year by GOLD stage were significantly different from each other: mild 0.15, moderate 0.27, severe 0.38, very severe 0.72, and substantially fewer than previously reported.Interpretation: The guidelines were largely not followed. Undertreatment predominated but, contrary to expectations, was associated with fewer exacerbations. Thus, clinicians were likely

  2. Lightning Often Strikes Twice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Contrary to popular misconception, lightning often strikes the same place twice. Certain conditions are just ripe for a bolt of electricity to come zapping down; and a lightning strike is powerful enough to do a lot of damage wherever it hits. NASA created the Accurate Location of Lightning Strikes technology to determine the ground strike point of lightning and prevent electrical damage in the immediate vicinity of the Space Shuttle launch pads at Kennedy Space Center. The area surrounding the launch pads is enmeshed in a network of electrical wires and components, and electronic equipment is highly susceptible to lightning strike damage. The accurate knowledge of the striking point is important so that crews can determine which equipment or system needs to be retested following a strike. Accurate to within a few yards, this technology can locate a lightning strike in the perimeter of the launch pad. As an added bonus, the engineers, then knowing where the lightning struck, can adjust the variables that may be attracting the lightning, to create a zone that will be less susceptible to future strikes.

  3. Options with Extreme Strikes

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    Lingjiong Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this short paper, we study the asymptotics for the price of call options for very large strikes and put options for very small strikes. The stock price is assumed to follow the Black–Scholes models. We analyze European, Asian, American, Parisian and perpetual options and conclude that the tail asymptotics for these option types fall into four scenarios.

  4. Should doctors strike?

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    Park, John J; Murray, Scott A

    2014-05-01

    Last year in June, British doctors went on strike for the first time since 1975. Amidst a global economic downturn and with many health systems struggling with reduced finances, around the world the issue of public health workers going on strike is a very real one. Almost all doctors will agree that we should always follow the law, but often the law is unclear or does not cover a particular case. Here we must appeal to ethical discussion. The General Medical Council, in its key guidance document for practising doctors, Good Medical Practice, claims that 'Good doctors make the care of their patients their first concern'. Is this true? And if so, how is this relevant to the issue of striking? One year on since the events, we carefully reflect and argue whether it was right for doctors to pursue strike action, and call for greater discussion of ethical issues such as the recent strikes, particularly among younger members of the profession.

  5. Learning of Spatial Relationships between Observed and Imitated Actions allows Invariant Inverse Computation in the Frontal Mirror Neuron System

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    Oh, Hyuk; Gentili, Rodolphe J.; Reggia, James A.; Contreras-Vidal, José L.

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that the human mirror neuron system can facilitate learning by imitation through coupling of observation and action execution. During imitation of observed actions, the functional relationship between and within the inferior frontal cortex, the posterior parietal cortex, and the superior temporal sulcus can be modeled within the internal model framework. The proposed biologically plausible mirror neuron system model extends currently available models by explicitly modeling the intraparietal sulcus and the superior parietal lobule in implementing the function of a frame of reference transformation during imitation. Moreover, the model posits the ventral premotor cortex as performing an inverse computation. The simulations reveal that: i) the transformation system can learn and represent the changes in extrinsic to intrinsic coordinates when an imitator observes a demonstrator; ii) the inverse model of the imitator’s frontal mirror neuron system can be trained to provide the motor plans for the imitated actions. PMID:22255261

  6. Relationship between viscosity of the ankle joint complex and functional ankle instability for inversion ankle sprain patients.

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    Lin, Che-Yu; Kang, Jiunn-Horng; Wang, Chung-Li; Shau, Yio-Wha

    2015-03-01

    Measurement of viscosity of the ankle joint complex is a novel method to assess mechanical ankle instability. In order to further investigate the clinical significance of the method, this study intended to investigate the relationship between ankle viscosity and severity of functional ankle instability. Cross-sectional study. 15 participants with unilateral inversion ankle sprain and 15 controls were recruited. Their ankles were further classified into stable and unstable ankles. Ankle viscosity was measured by an instrumental anterior drawer test. Severity of functional ankle instability was measured by the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool. Unstable ankles were compared with stable ankles. Injured ankles were compared with uninjured ankles of both groups. The spearman's rank correlation coefficient was applied to determine the relationship between ankle viscosity and severity of functional ankle instability in unstable ankles. There was a moderate relationship between ankle viscosity and severity of functional ankle instability (r=-0.64, pankles exhibited significantly lower viscosity (pankle instability (pankles. Injured ankles exhibited significantly lower viscosity and more severe functional ankle instability than uninjured ankles (pankle viscosity and severity of functional ankle instability. This finding suggested that, severity of functional ankle instability may be partially attributed to mechanical insufficiencies such as the degenerative changes in ankle viscosity following the inversion ankle sprain. In clinical application, measurement of ankle viscosity could be a useful tool to evaluate severity of chronic ankle instability. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A right to strike?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, K; Western, G

    1997-07-01

    During 1995, there was a major shift in the United Kingdom in the debate of whether it is right for nurses to strike. The Royal College of Nursing, the former advocate of a non-industrial action policy, moved towards the UNISON position that industrial action is ethical in some circumstances, as well as the necessary thing to do. The authors, both nurses and UNISON officials, look at the reasons for this change and why UNISON's historical position sees industrial action as an effective weapon in defending services, as well as wages and jobs. It can be right to strike.

  8. Acute small bowel toxicity and preoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer: Investigating dose-volume relationships and role for inverse planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tho, Lye Mun; Glegg, Martin; Paterson, Jennifer; Yap, Christina; MacLeod, Alice; McCabe, Marie; McDonald, Alexander C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The relationship between volume of irradiated small bowel (VSB) and acute toxicity in rectal cancer radiotherapy is poorly quantified, particularly in patients receiving concurrent preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Using treatment planning data, we studied a series of such patients. Methods and Materials: Details of 41 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer were reviewed. All received 45 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks, 3-4 fields three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with daily 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid during Weeks 1 and 5. Toxicity was assessed prospectively in a weekly clinic. Using computed tomography planning software, the VSB was determined at 5 Gy dose intervals (V 5 , V 1 , etc.). Eight patients with maximal VSB had dosimetry and radiobiological modeling outcomes compared between inverse and conformal three-dimensional planning. Results: VSB correlated strongly with diarrheal severity at every dose level (p 5 and V 15 . Conclusions: A strong dose-volume relationship exists between VSB and acute diarrhea at all dose levels during preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Our constructed model may be useful in predicting toxicity, and this has been derived without the confounding influence of surgical excision on bowel function. Inverse planning can reduce calculated dose to small bowel and late NTCP, and its clinical role warrants further investigation

  9. Relationships between along-fault heterogeneous normal stress and fault slip patterns during the seismic cycle: Insights from a strike-slip fault laboratory model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniven, Yannick; Dominguez, Stéphane; Soliva, Roger; Peyret, Michel; Cattin, Rodolphe; Maerten, Frantz

    2017-12-01

    We use a strike-slip fault analog model to study experimentally the role played by along-fault non-uniform and asymmetric applied normal stress on both coseismic slip and long-term fault behavior. Our model is based on a visco-elasto-plastic multi-layered rheology that allows to produce several hundreds of scaled analog microquakes and associated seismic cycles. Uniform or heterogeneous applied normal stress along the fault plane is imposed and maintained constant during the whole experiment durations. Our results suggest that coseismic slip patterns are strongly controlled by spatial normal stress variations and subsequent accumulated shear stress along fault strike. Major microquakes occur preferentially in zones of major shear stress asperities. Coseismic slip distributions exhibit a pattern similar to the along-fault applied normal stress distribution. The occurrence of isolated low to moderate microquakes where residual stresses persist around secondary stress asperities, indicates that stress conditions along the fault also control the whole variability of fault slip events. Moreover, when fault slip stability conditions are modulated by normal stress distribution, our experiments suggest that the along-fault stress heterogeneity influences the seismic cycle regularity and, consequently, long-term fault slip behavior. Uniform applied normal stress favors irregular seismic cycles and the occurrence of earthquakes clustering, whereas non-uniform normal stress with a single high amplitude stress asperity generates strong characteristic microquake events with stable return periods. Together our results strengthen the assumption that coseismic slip distribution and earthquake variability along an active fault may provide relevant information on long term tectonic stress and could thus improve seismic hazard assessment.

  10. Connecting rules from paired miRNA and mRNA expression data sets of HCV patients to detect both inverse and positive regulatory relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Renhua; Liu, Qian; Liu, Tao; Li, Jinyan

    2015-01-01

    Background Intensive research based on the inverse expression relationship has been undertaken to discover the miRNA-mRNA regulatory modules involved in the infection of Hepatitis C virus (HCV), the leading cause of chronic liver diseases. However, biological studies in other fields have found that inverse expression relationship is not the only regulatory relationship between miRNAs and their targets, and some miRNAs can positively regulate a mRNA by binding at the 5' UTR of the mRNA. Result...

  11. Inverse relationship between Alzheimer's disease and cancer, and other factors contributing to Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Ovais

    2016-11-22

    The AD etiology is yet not properly known. Interactions among environmental factors, multiple susceptibility genes and aging, contribute to AD. This study investigates the factors that play role in causing AD and how changes in cellular pathways contribute to AD. PUBMED database, MEDLINE database and Google Scholar were searched with no date restrictions for published articles involving cellular pathways with roles in cancers, cell survival, growth, proliferation, development, aging, and also contributing to Alzheimer's disease. This research explores inverse relationship between AD and cancer, also investigates other factors behind AD using several already published research literature to find the etiology of AD. Cancer and Alzheimer's disease have inverse relationship in many aspects such as P53, estrogen, neurotrophins and growth factors, growth and proliferation, cAMP, EGFR, Bcl-2, apoptosis pathways, IGF-1, HSV, TDP-43, APOE variants, notch signals and presenilins, NCAM, TNF alpha, PI3K/AKT/MTOR pathway, telomerase, ROS, ACE levels. AD occurs when brain neurons have weakened growth, cell survival responses, maintenance mechanisms, weakened anti-stress responses such as Vimentin, Carbonic anhydrases, HSPs, SAPK. In cancer, these responses are upregulated and maintained. Evolutionarily conserved responses and maintenance mechanisms such as FOXO are impaired in AD. Countermeasures or compensatory mechanisms by AD affected neurons such as Tau, Beta Amyloid, S100, are last attempts for survival which may be protective for certain time, or can speed up AD in Alzheimer's microenvironment via C-ABL activation, GSK3, neuro-inflammation. Alzheimer's disease and Cancer have inverse relationship; many factors that are upregulated in any cancer to sustain growth and survival are downregulated in Alzheimer's disease contributing to neuro-degeneration. When aged neurons or genetically susceptible neurons have weakened growth, cell survival and anti-stress responses, age

  12. Algab õppus "Saber Strike"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Täna algab Eestis, Lätis ja Leedus Ameerika Ühendriikide Euroopa väekoondise õppus "Saber Strike", mille eesmärk on maaväeüksuste koostöö harjutamine. Õppusest võtab osa üle 2000 kaitseväelase Baltimaadest, USAst, Ühendkuningriigist, Taanist, Norrast, Soomest ja Saksamaalt. Eestist osaleb õppusel ligi 400 kaitseväelast

  13. Occupational, social, and relationship hazards and psychological distress among low-income workers: implications of the 'inverse hazard law'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Nancy; Kaddour, Afamia; Koenen, Karestan; Kosheleva, Anna; Chen, Jarvis T; Waterman, Pamela D; Barbeau, Elizabeth M

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have simultaneously included exposure information on occupational hazards, relationship hazards (eg, intimate partner violence) and social hazards (eg, poverty and racial discrimination), especially among low-income multiracial/ethnic populations. A cross-sectional study (2003-2004) of 1202 workers employed at 14 worksites in the greater Boston area of Massachusetts investigated the independent and joint association of occupational, social and relationship hazards with psychological distress (K6 scale). Among this low-income cohort (45% were below the US poverty line), exposure to occupational, social and relationship hazards, per the 'inverse hazard law,' was high: 82% exposed to at least one occupational hazard, 79% to at least one social hazard, and 32% of men and 34% of women, respectively, stated they had been the perpetrator or target of intimate partner violence (IPV). Fully 15.4% had clinically significant psychological distress scores (K6 score ≥ 13). All three types of hazards, and also poverty, were independently associated with increased risk of psychological distress. In models including all three hazards, however, significant associations with psychological distress occurred among men and women for workplace abuse and high exposure to racial discrimination only; among men, for IPV; and among women, for high exposure to occupational hazards, poverty and smoking. Reckoning with the joint and embodied reality of diverse types of hazards involving how people live and work is necessary for understanding determinants of health status.

  14. Global strike hypersonic weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Mark J.

    2017-11-01

    Beginning in the 1940's, the United States has pursued the development of hypersonic technologies, enabling atmospheric flight in excess of five times the speed of sound. Hypersonic flight has application to a range of military and civilian applications, including commercial transport, space access, and various weapons and sensing platforms. A number of flight tests of hypersonic vehicles have been conducted by countries around the world, including the United States, Russia, and China, that could lead the way to future hypersonic global strike weapon systems. These weapons would be especially effective at penetrating conventional defenses, and could pose a significant risk to national security.

  15. Inverse relationship between TCTP/RhoA and p53/ /cyclin A/actin expression in ovarian cancer cells Inverse relationship between TCTP/RhoA and p53/ /cyclin A/actin expression in ovarian cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Kloc

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP plays a role in cell growth, cell cycle and cancer
    progression. TCTP controls negatively the stability of the p53 tumor suppressor protein and interacts with the
    cellular cytoskeleton. The deregulation of the actin and cytokeratin cytoskeleton is responsible for the increased
    migratory activity of tumor cells and is linked with poor patient outcome. Recent studies indicate that cyclin A,
    a key regulator of cell cycle, controls actin organization and negatively regulates cell motility via regulation of RhoA
    expression. We studied the organization of actin and cytokeratin cytoskeleton and the expression of TCTP, p53,
    cyclin A, RhoA and actin in HIO180 non-transformed ovarian epithelial cells, and OVCAR3 and SKOV3 (expressing
    low level of inducible p53 ovarian epithelial cancer cells with different metastatic potential. Immunostaining
    and ultrastructural analyses illustrated a dramatic difference in the organization of the cytokeratin and actin
    filaments in non-transformed versus cancer cell lines. We also determined that there is an inverse relationship between
    the level of TCTP/RhoA and actin/p53/cyclin A expression in ovarian cancer cell lines. This previously unidentified
    negative relationship between TCTP/RhoA and actin/p53/cyclin A may suggest that this interaction is linked
    with the high aggressiveness of ovarian cancers.The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP plays a role in cell growth, cell cycle and cancer
    progression. TCTP controls negatively the stability of the p53 tumor suppressor protein and interacts with the
    cellular cytoskeleton. The deregulation of the actin and cytokeratin cytoskeleton is responsible for the increased
    migratory activity of tumor cells and is linked with poor patient outcome. Recent studies indicate that cyclin A,
    a key regulator of cell cycle, controls actin organization

  16. Inverse relationship of cardioankle vascular index with BMI in healthy Japanese subjects: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagayama D

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Daiji Nagayama,1,2 Haruki Imamura,2 Yuta Sato,2 Takashi Yamaguchi,2 Noriko Ban,2 Hidetoshi Kawana,2 Masahiro Ohira,2 Atsuhito Saiki,2 Kohji Shirai,3 Ichiro Tatsuno2 1Center of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shin-Oyama City Hospital, Oyama-City, 2Center of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, 3Department of Vascular Function, Sakura Medical Center, Toho University, Sakura-City, Japan Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the association of body mass index (BMI with arterial stiffness assessed by cardioankle vascular index (CAVI. Subjects and methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in 23,257 healthy Japanese subjects (12,729 men and 10,528 women, aged 47.1 ± 12.5 years, BMI 22.9 ± 3.4 kg/m2 who underwent health screening between 2004 and 2006 in Japan. Exclusion criteria were current medication use and a past history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, and nephritis. Results: Male subjects showed significantly higher BMI, CAVI, and triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol compared with female subjects. Next, the subjects were divided into tertiles of BMI: lower, middle, and upper, in a gender-specific manner. After adjusting for confounders including age, systolic blood pressure, and HDL-cholesterol identified by multiple regression analysis, the mean CAVI decreased progressively as BMI tertile increased in both genders. Furthermore, a negative inverse relationship between BMI and adjusted CAVI was observed throughout the BMI distribution. Multivariate logistic regression model for contributors of high CAVI (≥90th percentile identified obesity (odds ratios (95% confidence interval: 0.804 (0.720–0.899], older age [15.6 (14.0–17.4], male gender [2.26 (2.03–2.51], hypertension [2.28 (2.06–2.54], impaired fasting glucose [1.17 (1.01–1.37], and low HDL-cholesterol [0.843 (0.669–1.06] as independent factors. Conclusion: We demonstrated an

  17. The age-related inverse relationship between ob and lipogenic enzymes genes expression in rat white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogalska, Anna; Pankiewicz, Areta; Goyke, Elzbieta; Swierczynski, Julian

    2003-04-01

    To determine whether increase of serum leptin (the known natural inhibitor of lipogenic enzymes gene expression) concentration would account for the age-related decrease in lipogenesis (a) serum leptin concentration; (b) leptin mRNA abundance; (c) the rate of fatty acid synthesis in vivo; (d) lipogenic enzymes activity and (e) mRNA levels were assayed in white adipose tissue (WAT) of male young and old rats. We found that leptin mRNA abundance in WAT and serum leptin concentration was much lower in young than in old animals. In contrast, the rate of fatty acid synthesis in WAT was much higher in young animals. The old rats displayed much lower lipogenic enzymes activities (acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), ATP-citrate lyase (ACL), malic enzyme (ME), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase 6PGDH) and mRNA abundance as compared to young rats. Considering the inverse relationship between serum leptin concentration and lipogenic enzymes genes expression and known inhibitory effect of leptin on lipogenic enzymes gene expression, one can conclude that the increase of ob gene expression could at least partly account for the reduced WAT lipogenic enzymes genes expression in old animals.

  18. Precision Strike Annual Programs Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-11

    Damage Area*• GPS / INS Navigation + SAL Terminal • Precise əm CEP • Low Probability of Collateral Damage • GPS Extends Glide Range to 10+km • Agile...Page 311 Mar 09 Unclassified Unclassified Viper Strike Lineage Viper Strike SAL Seeker Proof of Principle Demos I & II Hunter-Viper Strike Quick...Information Management • CCA - Clinger Cohen Act • RIT- Rapid Improvement Team • BMMP – Business Management Modernization Program • BTA/ERAM – Business

  19. Successional change in phosphorus stoichiometry explains the inverse relationship between herbivory and lupin density on Mount St. Helens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Apple

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The average nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratio (NratioP of insect herbivores is less than that of leaves, suggesting that P may mediate plant-insect interactions more often than appreciated. We investigated whether succession-related heterogeneity in N and P stoichiometry influences herbivore performance on N-fixing lupin (Lupinus lepidus colonizing primary successional volcanic surfaces, where the abundances of several specialist lepidopteran herbivores are inversely related to lupin density and are known to alter lupin colonization dynamics. We examined larval performance in response to leaf nutritional characteristics using gelechiid and pyralid leaf-tiers, and a noctuid leaf-cutter.We conducted four studies. First, growth of larvae raised on wild-collected leaves responded positively to leaf %P and negatively to leaf carbon (%C, but there was no effect of %N or quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs. Noctuid survival was also positively related to %P. Second, we raised gelechiid larvae on greenhouse-grown lupins with factorial manipulation of competitors and soil N and P. In the presence of competition, larval mass was highest at intermediate leaf NratioP and high %P. Third, survival of gelechiid larvae placed on lupins in high-density patches was greater when plant competitors were removed than on controls. Fourth, surveys of field-collected leaves in 2000, 2002, and 2003 indicated that both %P and %N were generally greater in plants from low-density areas. QAs in plants from low-density areas were equal to or higher than QAs in high-density areas.Our results demonstrate that declines in lupin P content under competitive conditions are associated with decreased larval growth and survival sufficient to cause the observed negative relationship between herbivore abundance and host density. The results support the theoretical finding that declines in stoichiometric resource quality (caused here by succession have the potential to cause a decrease in consumer

  20. Women, transition and strikes in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Nada G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author, in a sociological way, describes and analyzes the concepts of transition, privatization and strikes in Serbia, particularly the place of women in it. It examines the most important economic and social causes and consequences of these phenomena. The main hypothesis is: women's strikes in the Serbian transition are less efficient than strikes and public protests of women in the developed world and the second Yugoslavia. A strike is a class conflict, in which the workers are fighting for their social and economic rights, threatened by the capitalist class. Elites in government and state authorities protect the interests of big capital at the detriment of the interests of the majority of workers. Exploring women's strikes in transition reveals the nature of the social and political system. Their strikes in enterprises, the blocking of public spaces and public protests are systemic, ie. class determined. As the transition was very fast, the resistance of the strikers was inefficient, and the protests of women became an expression of desperation against the loss of jobs and basic resources for lifehood. In short, this research is about the main causes, the organizational forms and the consequences of strikes in which the majority were women. For this purpose, the author chose to describe an array of strikes in the industries and the companies where women are most employed. The choice of strikes in the economic sector is not accidental, but a consequence of the fact that the women there were the most vulnerable. Women in public institutions and companies had much higher financial and social position. They are less likely to strike and publicly protested. After 2000, these strikes were more successful than worker's strikes in textile, food processing, manufacturing and trade. Relationship between the government and the public towards them was tainted by self-interest and selective. The main criterion for the selection of companies and

  1. Characterizing Arctic mixed-phase cloud structure and its relationship with humidity and temperature inversion using ARM NSA observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shaoyue; Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Li, J.-L. F.

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the characteristics of the Arctic mixed-phase cloud (AMC) have been investigated using data collected at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement North Slope Alaska site from October 2006 to September 2009. AMC has an annual occurrence frequency of 42.3%, which includes 18.7% of single-layered AMCs and 23.6% for multiple layers. Two cloud base heights (CBHs) are defined from ceilometer and micropulse lidar (MPL) measurements. For single-layered AMC, the ceilometer-derived CBH represents the base of the liquid-dominant layer near the cloud top, while MPL-derived CBH represents base of the lower ice-dominant layer. The annual mean CBHs from ceilometer and MPL measurements are 1.0 km and 0.6 km, respectively, with the largest difference ( 1.0 km) occurring from December to March and the smallest difference in September. The humidity inversion occurrence decreases with increasing humidity inversion intensity (stronger in summer than in winter). During the winter months, AMC occurrences increase from 15% to 35% when the inversion intensity increases from 0.1 to 0.9 g/kg. On the contrary, despite a higher frequency of strong humidity inversion in summer, AMC occurrences are nearly invariant for different inversion intensities. On average, humidity and temperature inversion frequencies of occurrence above an AMC are 5 and 8 times, respectively, as high as those below an AMC. The strong inversion occurrences for both humidity and temperature above an AMC provide the moisture sources from above for the formation and maintenance of AMCs. This result helps to reconcile the persistency of AMCs even when the Arctic surface is covered by snow and ice.

  2. Inverse Porosity-Hydraulic Conductivity Relationship in Sand-and-Gravel Aquifers Determined From Analysis of Geophysical Well Logs: Implications for Transport Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, R. H.

    2004-05-01

    It is intuitive to think of hydraulic conductivity K as varying directly and monotonically with porosity P in porous media. However, laboratory studies and field observations have documented a possible inverse relationship between these two parameters in unconsolidated deposits under certain grain-size distributions and packing arrangements. This was confirmed at two sites in sand-and-gravel aquifers on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, where sets of geophysical well logs were used to examine the interdependence of several aquifer properties. Along with K and P, the resistivity R and the natural-gamma activity G of the surrounding sediments were measured as a function of depth. Qualitative examination of field results from the first site was useful in locating a contaminant plume and inferred an inverse relation between K and P; this was substantiated by a rigorous multivariate analysis of log data collected from the second site where K and P were determined to respond in a bipolar manner among the four independent variables. Along with this result come some implications regarding our conceptual understanding of contaminant transport processes in the shallow subsurface. According to Darcy's law, the interstitial fluid velocity V is proportional to the ratio K/P and, consequently, a general inverse K-P relationship implies that values of V can extend over a much wider range than conventionally assumed. This situation introduces a pronounced flow stratification within these granular deposits that can result in large values of longitudinal dispersivity; faster velocities occur in already fast zones and slower velocities in already slow zones. An inverse K-P relationship presents a new perspective on the physical processes associated with groundwater flow and transport. Although the results of this study apply strictly to the Cape Cod aquifers, they may merit a re-evaluation of modeling approaches undertaken at other locations having similar geologic environments.

  3. Continental United States Hurricane Strikes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Continental U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster is our most popular poster which is updated annually. The poster includes all hurricanes that affected the U.S. since...

  4. Connecting rules from paired miRNA and mRNA expression data sets of HCV patients to detect both inverse and positive regulatory relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Renhua; Liu, Qian; Liu, Tao; Li, Jinyan

    2015-01-01

    Intensive research based on the inverse expression relationship has been undertaken to discover the miRNA-mRNA regulatory modules involved in the infection of Hepatitis C virus (HCV), the leading cause of chronic liver diseases. However, biological studies in other fields have found that inverse expression relationship is not the only regulatory relationship between miRNAs and their targets, and some miRNAs can positively regulate a mRNA by binding at the 5' UTR of the mRNA. This work focuses on the detection of both inverse and positive regulatory relationships from a paired miRNA and mRNA expression data set of HCV patients through a 'change-to-change' method which can derive connected discriminatory rules. Our study uncovered many novel miRNA-mRNA regulatory modules. In particular, it was revealed that GFRA2 is positively regulated by miR-557, miR-765 and miR-17-3p that probably bind at different locations of the 5' UTR of this mRNA. The expression relationship between GFRA2 and any of these three miRNAs has not been studied before, although separate research for this gene and these miRNAs have all drawn conclusions linked to hepatocellular carcinoma. This suggests that the binding of mRNA GFRA2 with miR-557, miR-765, or miR-17-3p, or their combinations, is worthy of further investigation by experimentation. We also report another mRNA QKI which has a strong inverse expression relationship with miR-129 and miR-493-3p which may bind at the 3' UTR of QKI with a perfect sequence match. Furthermore, the interaction between hsa-miR-129-5p (previous ID: hsa-miR-129) and QKI is supported with CLIP-Seq data from starBase. Our method can be easily extended for the expression data analysis of other diseases. Our rule discovery method is useful for integrating binding information and expression profile for identifying HCV miRNA-mRNA regulatory modules and can be applied to the study of the expression profiles of other complex human diseases.

  5. [Physicians' strikes--ethical considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Shimon; Schwarzfuchs, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Strikes in general represent a solution based on a form of coercion. Historically, the striker caused direct damage to his employer, who was responsible for the perceived unfair treatment of the employee. In the case of strikes in the public sector, the employer is generally not harmed, but innocent citizens suffer in order to pressure the government agencies, a questionable practice from an ethical viewpoint. Physicians' strikes have more serious ethical problems. They cause suffering and death to innocent citizens. They violate the ethical codes to which physicians have committed themselves as professionals, and they seriously impair the trust of the public in physicians. Better and more ethical ways to provide fair compensation for physicians must be employed, perhaps like those used for judges and members of the IDF.

  6. Inversed relationship between CD44 variant and c-Myc due to oxidative stress-induced canonical Wnt activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Go J.; Saya, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •CD44 variant8–10 and c-Myc are inversely expressed in gastric cancer cells. •Redox-stress enhances c-Myc expression via canonical Wnt signal. •CD44v, but not CD44 standard, suppresses redox stress-induced Wnt activation. •CD44v expression promotes both transcription and proteasome degradation of c-Myc. •Inversed expression pattern between CD44v and c-Myc is often recognized in vivo. -- Abstract: Cancer stem-like cells express high amount of CD44 variant8-10 which protects cancer cells from redox stress. We have demonstrated by immunohistochemical analysis and Western blotting, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, that CD44 variant8-10 and c-Myc tend to show the inversed expression manner in gastric cancer cells. That is attributable to the oxidative stress-induced canonical Wnt activation, and furthermore, the up-regulation of the downstream molecules, one of which is oncogenic c-Myc, is not easily to occur in CD44 variant-positive cancer cells. We have also found out that CD44v8-10 expression is associated with the turn-over of the c-Myc with the experiments using gastric cancer cell lines. This cannot be simply explained by the model of oxidative stress-induced Wnt activation. CD44v8-10-positive cancer cells are enriched at the invasive front. Tumor tissue at the invasive area is considered to be composed of heterogeneous cellular population; dormant cancer stem-like cells with CD44v8-10 high / Fbw7 high / c-Myc low and proliferative cancer stem-like cells with CD44v8-10 high / Fbw7 low / c-Myc high

  7. Inversed relationship between CD44 variant and c-Myc due to oxidative stress-induced canonical Wnt activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Go J., E-mail: medical21go@yahoo.co.jp; Saya, Hideyuki

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •CD44 variant8–10 and c-Myc are inversely expressed in gastric cancer cells. •Redox-stress enhances c-Myc expression via canonical Wnt signal. •CD44v, but not CD44 standard, suppresses redox stress-induced Wnt activation. •CD44v expression promotes both transcription and proteasome degradation of c-Myc. •Inversed expression pattern between CD44v and c-Myc is often recognized in vivo. -- Abstract: Cancer stem-like cells express high amount of CD44 variant8-10 which protects cancer cells from redox stress. We have demonstrated by immunohistochemical analysis and Western blotting, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, that CD44 variant8-10 and c-Myc tend to show the inversed expression manner in gastric cancer cells. That is attributable to the oxidative stress-induced canonical Wnt activation, and furthermore, the up-regulation of the downstream molecules, one of which is oncogenic c-Myc, is not easily to occur in CD44 variant-positive cancer cells. We have also found out that CD44v8-10 expression is associated with the turn-over of the c-Myc with the experiments using gastric cancer cell lines. This cannot be simply explained by the model of oxidative stress-induced Wnt activation. CD44v8-10-positive cancer cells are enriched at the invasive front. Tumor tissue at the invasive area is considered to be composed of heterogeneous cellular population; dormant cancer stem-like cells with CD44v8-10 {sup high}/ Fbw7 {sup high}/ c-Myc {sup low} and proliferative cancer stem-like cells with CD44v8-10 {sup high}/ Fbw7 {sup low}/ c-Myc {sup high}.

  8. Inverse relationship of the velocities of perceived time and information processing events in the brain: a potential bioassay for neural functions: a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, R N

    1979-12-01

    The velocity of elapsing time is not a constant but a relativistic component in the space-time continuum as postulated by Albert Einstein in his general and special relativity theories. The hypothesis presented here is that there is a biological corollary to relativity theory. It is postulated that biological time perception is also not a constant but is related by an inverse relationship between the velocities of neural processing events and perceived elapsing time. A careful analysis of this relationship may potentially offer a sensitive bioassay to determine the integrity of regional brain function under normal conditions and in the presence of specific disease processes. The mechanism for the biological basis of this theorem depends on the presence of a neural circuit developed through evolution which monitors overall brain efficiency and is coordinately linked to neural time perceiving circuits. Several test approaches are presented to validate the hypothesis of biologic time relativity compared to the rate of neural processing.

  9. Inverse relationship between age-dependent erythrocyte activity of methaemoglobin reductase and prilocaine-induced methaemoglobinaemia during infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, A; Engberg, G; Henneberg, S

    1990-01-01

    concentrations of local anaesthetics were low (maximum values: prilocaine 78 ng ml-1, lignocaine 412 ng ml-1). The activity of erythrocyte MetHb reductase (cytochrome b5 reductase) was analysed. Data from a previously studied group of infants aged 3-12 months were included also. Enzyme activity did not reach...... adult levels until after the age of 3 months. It showed a good inverse correlation with the maximum MetHb values after application of EMLA. Although the MetHb concentrations in the infants younger than 3 months were small, the enzyme capacity may be overloaded when EMLA is administered at the same time...... as other MetHb-inducing agents. It is concluded that the use of EMLA should be restricted in this age group....

  10. Inverse photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki

    1994-01-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy is regarded as the most powerful means since it can measure almost perfectly the occupied electron state. On the other hand, inverse photoelectron spectroscopy is the technique for measuring unoccupied electron state by using the inverse process of photoelectron spectroscopy, and in principle, the similar experiment to photoelectron spectroscopy becomes feasible. The development of the experimental technology for inverse photoelectron spectroscopy has been carried out energetically by many research groups so far. At present, the heightening of resolution of inverse photoelectron spectroscopy, the development of inverse photoelectron spectroscope in which light energy is variable and so on are carried out. But the inverse photoelectron spectroscope for vacuum ultraviolet region is not on the market. In this report, the principle of inverse photoelectron spectroscopy and the present state of the spectroscope are described, and the direction of the development hereafter is groped. As the experimental equipment, electron guns, light detectors and so on are explained. As the examples of the experiment, the inverse photoelectron spectroscopy of semimagnetic semiconductors and resonance inverse photoelectron spectroscopy are reported. (K.I.)

  11. Respecting the right to strike

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Since two years the representatives of the employers in the ILO, a tripartite multilateral body responsible for guaranteeing the correct application of an international labour code, try to weaken the global work regulations. On the occasion of the Global Day of Action for the right to strike at the invitation of the Geneva community of Union action (Communauté genevoise d’action syndicale) and the Swiss Trade Union Association (Union syndicale suisse) around noon on Wednesday 18th February some fifty staff representatives of international organizations gathered on the place des Nations in Geneva to reaffirm the importance of this fundamental right, too often flouted. A delegation of the CERN Staff Association was also present. In a short speech, the Staff Association said that, while being one of the fundamental human rights, to be efficient the right to strike must be used intelligently. It must be implemented taking into account the sensitivities of the professional environment and r...

  12. Inverse relationship between age-dependent erythrocyte activity of methaemoglobin reductase and prilocaine-induced methaemoglobinaemia during infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, A; Engberg, G; Henneberg, S

    1990-01-01

    adult levels until after the age of 3 months. It showed a good inverse correlation with the maximum MetHb values after application of EMLA. Although the MetHb concentrations in the infants younger than 3 months were small, the enzyme capacity may be overloaded when EMLA is administered at the same time......We have measured plasma concentrations of local anaesthetics, and the substance fraction of methaemoglobin (MetHb), in infants less than 3 months of age, after application of a lignocaine-prilocaine cream (EMLA). A total of EMLA 2 g was applied over four different skin areas, totalling 16 cm2......, for 4 h before anaesthesia for a minor surgical procedure. Sampling was carried out before and 4, 8 and 12 h after application. Maximum MetHb values (median = 2.24%) were obtained usually at 8 h and were significantly (P less than 0.001) higher than before application (median 1.32%). The plasma...

  13. Inverse relationship between chitobiase and transglycosylation activities of chitinase-D from Serratia proteamaculans revealed by mutational and biophysical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhuprakash, Jogi; Bobbili, Kishore Babu; Moerschbacher, Bruno M; Singh, Tej Pal; Swamy, Musti J; Podile, Appa Rao

    2015-10-23

    Serratia proteamaculans chitinase-D (SpChiD) has a unique combination of hydrolytic and transglycosylation (TG) activities. The TG activity of SpChiD can be used for large-scale production of chito-oligosaccharides (CHOS). The multiple activities (hydrolytic and/or chitobiase activities and TG) of SpChiD appear to be strongly influenced by the substrate-binding cleft. Here, we report the unique property of SpChiD substrate-binding cleft, wherein, the residues Tyr28, Val35 and Thr36 control chitobiase activity and the residues Trp160 and Trp290 are crucial for TG activity. Mutants with reduced (V35G and T36G/F) or no (SpChiDΔ30-42 and Y28A) chitobiase activity produced higher amounts of the quantifiable even-chain TG product with degree of polymerization (DP)-6, indicating that the chitobiase and TG activities are inversely related. In addition to its unprecedented catalytic properties, unlike other chitinases, the single modular SpChiD showed dual unfolding transitions. Ligand-induced thermal stability studies with the catalytically inactive mutant of SpChiD (E153A) showed that the transition temperature increased upon binding of CHOS with DP2-6. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments revealed the exceptionally high binding affinities for E153A to CHOS with DP2-6. These observations strongly support that the architecture of SpChiD substrate-binding cleft adopted to control chitobiase and TG activities, in addition to usual chitinase-mediated hydrolysis.

  14. Inverse Limits

    CERN Document Server

    Ingram, WT

    2012-01-01

    Inverse limits provide a powerful tool for constructing complicated spaces from simple ones. They also turn the study of a dynamical system consisting of a space and a self-map into a study of a (likely more complicated) space and a self-homeomorphism. In four chapters along with an appendix containing background material the authors develop the theory of inverse limits. The book begins with an introduction through inverse limits on [0,1] before moving to a general treatment of the subject. Special topics in continuum theory complete the book. Although it is not a book on dynamics, the influen

  15. Macular damage following lightning strikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, A J; Koch, F; Böker, T

    1995-07-01

    Two men with recent history of lightining strike were referred to our hospital. Both patients complained of metamorphosia in one eye and reduced visual acuity. Funduscopy revealed target-like alterations at the fovea. Fluorescein angiography showed window defects of the central retinal pigment epithelium in both patients. One patient developed an anterior subcapsular cataract. If the eye is part of the current-circuit, the melanin granules of the iris, pigment epithelium, and choroid might act as a resistor. The resulting accumulation of heat may lead to damage of the surrounding tissues.

  16. Women, transition and strikes in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Novaković, Nada G.

    2014-01-01

    The author, in a sociological way, describes and analyzes the concepts of transition, privatization and strikes in Serbia, particularly the place of women in it. It examines the most important economic and social causes and consequences of these phenomena. The main hypothesis is: women's strikes in the Serbian transition are less efficient than strikes and public protests of women in the developed world and the second Yugoslavia. A strike is a class conflict, in which the workers are fighting...

  17. 14 CFR 35.38 - Lightning strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lightning strike. 35.38 Section 35.38... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.38 Lightning strike. The applicant must demonstrate, by... lightning strike without causing a major or hazardous propeller effect. The limit to which the propeller has...

  18. Effects of Union Organization on Strike Incidence in EU Companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Giedo

    2014-01-01

    The author reinvestigates the relationship between the organizational power of trade unions and strikes based on data from the European Company Survey 2009 (ECS-2009) and the Institutional Characteristics of Trade Unions, Wage Setting, State Intervention and Social Pacts (ICTWSS) database, which

  19. Inverse relationship between D/H fractionation in cyanobacterial lipids and salinity in Christmas Island saline ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Dirk; Sachs, Julian P.

    2008-02-01

    Sediments from 28 saline and hypersaline (salinity 13.6-149.2) ponds on Christmas Island (Kiritimati), in the Central tropical Pacific Ocean, were investigated for the effect of salinity on the D/H ratios of lipid biomarkers. Hydrogen isotope ratios (expressed as δD values) of total lipid extracts, and individual hydrocarbons heptadecane, heptadecene, octadecane, octadecene, diploptene, and phytene from cyanobacteria, became increasingly enriched in deuterium as salinity increased, spanning a range of 100‰, while lake water δD values spanned a range of just 12‰. Net D/H fractionation between lipids and source water thus decreased as salinity increased. Isotope fractionation factors ( αlipid-water) were strongly correlated with salinity, and increased in all compound classes studied by up to 0.0967 over a salinity range of 136. Differences in the hydrogen isotopic composition of lipids derived from three biosynthetic pathways (acetogenic, mevalonate, and non-mevalonate) remained similar irrespective of the salinity. This suggests that the mechanism responsible for the observed αlipid-water-salinity relationship originates prior to the last common biosynthetic branching point, the Calvin Cycle. We propose that a decrease in the exchange of intra- and extra-cellular (ambient) water resulting from down-regulation or closure of water channels (aquaporins) within cyanobacterial cell membranes, and subsequent isotopic enrichment of the intracellular water, likely resulting from metabolic reactions. These findings imply that caution must be exercised when attempting to reconstruct source water δD values using lipid δD values from environments that may have experienced salinity variations. On the other, hand our results can be used to establish a paleo-salinity proxy based on lipid δD, if additional constraints on source water δD values can be made.

  20. Inverse relationship between viral load and genotypic resistance mutations in Korean patients with primary HIV type 1 infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Bum Sik; Choi, Juyeon; Nam, Jeong-Gu; Kee, Mee Kyung; Suh, Soon Deok; Choi, Jin Young; Chu, Chaeshin; Kim, Sung Soon

    2006-11-01

    The transmission of antiretroviral-resistant HIV-1 strains is associated with suboptimal virological responses to initial antiretroviral therapy. However, certain types of resistance mutations are known to be associated with decreased viral fitness, which confers a lower replication capacity than that of the wild-type virus in the absence of antiretroviral drugs. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between antiretroviral resistance mutations and viral replication in the primary HIV-1 infection (PHI) period. From January 2002 to March 2005, 52 PHI patients were identified in the Republic of Korea. HIV-1 RNA genotyping was performed, and the resistance mutation score was obtained from the HIV Drug Resistance Database of Stanford University. We defined the sum of the average resistance mutation scores (SARMS) for each antiretroviral drug class as a measure of the degree of resistance of any specific strain. The overall mean SARMS was 2.00 +/- 2.74, and the annual mean did not change significantly during the study period. No critical resistance mutation gene was identified in the study group. The SARMS showed a weak negative correlation with the viral load log10 during PHI, but without statistical significance (r = -0.274, p = 0.051). But the mean SARMS of patients with a viral load exceeding 100,000 copies/ml was significantly lower than that of patients with a viral load of less than 100,000 copies/ml (p = 0.03). Evaluation of the potency of antiretroviral resistance revealed a weak negative correlation with viral replication in the PHI period. This could be one reason why the transmission of resistant strains in PHI patients is not increasing significantly despite the widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

  1. Inverse relationship between microRNA-155 and -184 expression with increasing conjunctival inflammation during ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrick, Tamsyn; Last, Anna R; Burr, Sarah E; Roberts, Chrissy H; Nabicassa, Meno; Cassama, Eunice; Bailey, Robin L; Mabey, David C W; Burton, Matthew J; Holland, Martin J

    2016-02-03

    Trachoma, a preventable blinding eye disease, is initiated by ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct). We previously showed that microRNAs (miR) -147b and miR-1285 were up-regulated in inflammatory trachomatous scarring. During the initial stage of disease, follicular trachoma with current Ct infection, the differential expression of miR has not yet been investigated. Conjunctival samples were collected from 163 children aged 1-9 years old living in a trachoma-endemic region of Guinea Bissau, West Africa. Small RNA sequencing (RNAseq) was carried out on samples from five children with follicular trachoma and current Ct infection and five children with healthy conjunctivae and no Ct infection. Small RNAseq was also carried out on human epithelial cell lines infected with ocular Ct strains A2497 and isogenic plasmid-free A2497 in vitro. Results were validated by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in 163 clinical samples. Differential expression of RNAseq data identified 12 miR with changes in relative expression during follicular trachoma, of which 9 were confirmed as differentially expressed by qPCR (miR-155, miR-150, miR-142, miR-181b, miR-181a, miR-342, miR-132, miR-4728 and miR-184). MiR-155 and miR-184 expression had a direct relationship with the degree of clinical inflammation. MiR-155 was up-regulated (OR = 2.533 ((95 % CI = 1.291-4.971); P = 0.0069) and miR-184 was down-regulated (OR = 0.416 ((95 % CI = 0.300-0.578); P = 1.61*10(-7)) as the severity of clinical inflammation increased. Differential miR expression was not detected in HEp-2 or HCjE epithelial cells 48 h post infection with Ct in vitro. HCjE cells, a conjunctival epithelial cell line, had a markedly different miR background expression compared to HEp-2 cells. In follicular trachoma, expression of miR-155 and miR-184 is correlated with the severity of inflammation. This likely reflects host regulation of the immune response and a prolonged period of wound healing following the clearance of Ct

  2. Strikes in Serbia since 2000 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Nada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article author deals with main characteristics of strikes in Serbia within the period 2000–2005. Analysis starts with thesis that strike is open class conflict within class divided society. Therefore strike is radical form of trade union struggle for workers rights. Main questions in the analysis were: on social structure as a background of strikes, on organizations and trade unions included in it, on effects of strikes in Serbia in the given period. Main thesis of the article is that every power dislike strikes and is ready to do everything to diminish them. Main reason lies in the class nature of social conflict that underlie them. Main processes that underlie strike phenomena in Serbia since 2000. are the processes of originally capital accumulation. These bring about the formation of new capitalist class and proletariat of all professions. Author gives a brief analysis of privatization process, as well as of restructuring of public sector and deregulation of economy trying to show the role of all of it in origins of strikes. Main conclusion is that there are large number of strikes in all parts of society, that are well organized, with support of one or more trade unions. For these in power they are factor of obstacle on the way of successful transition. As for the reasons and outcomes these strikes are akin to the strikes at the beginning of 19th century.

  3. Third-party support for strike action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelloway, E Kevin; Francis, Lori; Catano, Victor M; Dupré, Kathryne E

    2008-07-01

    Labor strikes are often seen as battles for public support. Members of the public are asked to show respect for a strike by refusing to cross the picket line or by joining strikers on the picket line. Such public support may affect the morale of strikers and influence the strike's duration. Despite the perceived importance of the public in labor disputes, members of third parties have not been considered in previous strike research. In 2 studies, the authors show that a new measure of third-party strike support is unidimensional and highly reliable. In both cases, union attitudes and perceptions of distributive justice were significant predictors of support for strike action. Those who are more supportive of unions in general and believe that the contract offered to the strikers was unfair were more likely to support the strike by engaging in such actions as conversing with strikers, writing letters, and refusing to cross the picket line.

  4. Sound Quality and Striking Position of a Conga Drum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan Harvey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the location at which a drum membrane was struck and the quality of sound produced was investigated by striking the drum at several distances between the center and the rim. Through analyzing the harmonics of the wave produced from the impact, it was shown that as the striking location changes, the relative amplitudes of different modes of vibration also changes. It was found that sound of a higher pitch is produced at the rim of the drum than anywhere else on the drum head due to higher modes of vibration becoming dominant.

  5. Coin tossing and Laplace inversion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MS received 5 May 1999; revised 3 April 2000. Abstract. An analysis of exchangeable sequences of coin tossings leads to inversion formulae for Laplace transforms of probability measures. Keywords. Laplace inversion; moment problem; exchangeable probabilities. 1. Introduction. There is an intimate relationship between ...

  6. Tectonic inversion in the Wandel Sea Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svennevig, Kristian; Guarnieri, Pierpaolo; Stemmerik, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Sheet and an upper Hondal Elv Thrust Sheet separated by a subhorizontal fault: the Central Detachment. The style of deformation and the structures described are interpreted as the result of Paleocene-Eocene N-S directed compression resulting in basin inversion with strike-slip faults only having minor...

  7. 14 CFR 29.631 - Bird strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bird strike. 29.631 Section 29.631... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.631 Bird strike. The... safe landing (for Category B) after impact with a 2.2-lb (1.0 kg) bird when the velocity of the...

  8. Revisiting the relationship of three-dimensional fluid attenuation inversion recovery imaging and hearing outcomes in adults with idiopathic unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Wen-Huei [School of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, 11221, Taiwan (China); Department of Otolaryngology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, 11217, Taiwan (China); Wu, Hsiu-Mei [School of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, 11221, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, 11217, Taiwan (China); Wu, Hung-Yi [Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, 11217, Taiwan (China); Tu, Tzong-Yang; Shiao, An-Suey [School of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, 11221, Taiwan (China); Department of Otolaryngology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, 11217, Taiwan (China); Castillo, Mauricio [Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599-7510 (United States); Hung, Sheng-Che, E-mail: hsz829@gmail.com [School of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, 11221, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, 11217, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, 11221, Taiwan (China)

    2016-12-15

    Background and purpose: Three-dimensional fluid attenuation inversion recovery (3D FLAIR) may demonstrate high signal in the inner ears of patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL), but the correlations of this finding with outcomes are still controversial. Here we compared 4 3D MRI sequences with the outcomes of patients with ISSNHL. Materials and methods: 77 adult patients with ISSNHL underwent MRI with pre contrast FLAIR, fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition images (FIESTA-C), post contrast T1WI and post contrast FLAIR. The extent and degree of high signal in both cochleas were evaluated in all patients, and asymmetry ratios between the affected ears and the normal ones were calculated. The relationships among MRI findings, including extent and asymmetry of abnormal cochlear high signals, degree of FLAIR enhancement, and clinical information, including age, vestibular symptoms, baseline hearing loss, and final hearing outcomes were analyzed. Results: 54 patients (28 men; age, 52.1 ± 15.5 years) were included in our study. Asymmetric cochlear signal intensities were more frequently observed in pre contrast and post contrast FLAIR (79.6% and 68.5%) than in FIESTA-C (61.1%) and T1WI (51.9%) (p < 0.001). Age, baseline hearing loss, extent of high signal and asymmetry ratios of pre contrast and post contrast FLAIR were all correlated with final hearing outcomes. In multivariate analysis, age and the extent of high signals were the most significant predictors of final hearing outcomes. Conclusion: 3D FLAIR provides a higher sensitivity in detecting the asymmetric cochlear signal abnormality. The more asymmetric FLAIR signals and presence of high signals beyond cochlea indicated a poorer prognosis.

  9. Personality Characteristics of Pre/Post-Strike Air Traffic Control Applicants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schroeder, David

    1997-01-01

    ...) positions within the Federal Aviation Administration for more than 3 decades. This study was designed to assess the relationship between personality characteristics of a group of post-strike applicants (1984...

  10. Propagation of strike-slip faults across Holocene volcano-sedimentary deposits, Pasto, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovida, Andrea; Tibaldi, Alessandro

    2005-10-01

    This study contributes to the understanding of shear failure development on the basis of macroscopic field data collected in latest Pleistocene-Holocene pyroclastic and fluvio-lacustrine deposits in the Pasto Valley, SW Colombia. Here there is a pervasive system of microfaults and joints. Right-lateral strike-slip microfaults strike N065°, whereas left-lateral strike-slip microfaults strike N120°. Three main joint sets strike N, N065° and N020° in decreasing order of frequency. Stress computation gives a horizontal σ1 trending ˜N060° and a horizontal σ3 trending ˜N150°, consistent with earthquake focal mechanisms and stress inversion of main faults. Synthetic shears dominate resulting from nucleation of older cracks. In the basement cropping out northeast of Pasto, the NE- to ENE-striking Buesaco, Aranda and Pasto Faults show evidence of latest Pleistocene-Holocene right-lateral strike-slip motions. The structures in the Pasto Valley can be interpreted as a Mode III damage zone representing the up-dip propagation of the main faults across the young volcano-sedimentary deposits.

  11. Lightning Strike in Pregnancy With Fetal Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galster, Kellen; Hodnick, Ryan; Berkeley, Ross P

    2016-06-01

    Injuries from lightning strikes are an infrequent occurrence, and are only rarely noted to involve pregnant victims. Only 13 cases of lightning strike in pregnancy have been previously described in the medical literature, along with 7 additional cases discovered within news media reports. This case report presents a novel case of lightning-associated injury in a patient in the third trimester of pregnancy, resulting in fetal ischemic brain injury and long-term morbidity, and reviews the mechanics of lightning strikes along with common injury patterns of which emergency providers should be aware. Copyright © 2016 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 2-Phenylimidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-ones: structure-activity relationships and characterization of potent and selective inverse agonists at Human A3 adenosine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozola, Vita; Thorand, Mark; Diekmann, Martina; Qurishi, Ramatullah; Schumacher, Britta; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Müller, Christa E

    2003-02-06

    Structure-activity relationships of 2-phenyl-imidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-ones as ligands for human A(3) adenosine receptors (ARs) were investigated. An ethyl group in the 8-position of the imidazoline ring of 4-methyl-2-phenyl-imidazopurinone leading to chiral compounds was found to increase affinity for human A(3) ARs by several thousand-fold. Propyl substitution instead of methyl at N4 decreased A(3) affinity but increased A(1) affinity leading to potent A(1)-selective AR antagonists. The most potent A(1) antagonist of the present series was (S)-8-ethyl-2-phenyl-4-propyl-4,5,7,8-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-one (S-3) exhibiting a K(i) value of 7.4 nM at rat A(1) ARs and greater than 100-fold selectivity versus rat A(2A) and human A(3) ARs. At human A(1) ARs 2-phenylimidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-ones were generally less potent and therefore less A(1)-selective (S-3: K(i)=98 nM). 2-, 3-, or 4-Mono-chlorination of the 2-phenyl ring reduced A(3) affinity but led to an increase in affinity for A(1) ARs, whereas di- (3,4-dichloro) or polychlorination (2,3,5-trichloro) increased A(3) affinity. The most potent and selective A(3) antagonist of the present series was the trichlorophenyl derivative (R)-8-ethyl-4-methyl-2-(2,3,5-trichlorophenyl)-4,5,7,8-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-one (R-8) exhibiting a subnanomolar K(i) value at human A(3) ARs and greater than 800-fold selectivity versus the other AR subtypes. Methylation of 4-alkyl-2-phenyl-substituted imidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-ones led exclusively to the N9-methyl derivatives, which exhibited largely reduced AR affinities as compared to the unmethylated compounds. [35S]GTP gamma S binding studies of the most potent 2-phenyl-imidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-ones at membranes of Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the human A(3) AR revealed that the compounds were inverse agonists at A(3) receptors under standard test conditions. Due to their high A(3) affinity, selectivity, and relatively high water-solubility, 2-phenyl-imidazo[2,1-i

  13. Expeditionary Strike Group: Command Structure Design Support

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hutchins, Susan G; Kemple, William G; Kleinman, David L; Hocevar, Susan P

    2005-01-01

    An Expeditionary Strike Group (ESG) is a new capability mix that combines the combat power of three surface combatants and one submarine with an Amphibious Readiness Group/ Marine Expeditionary Unit...

  14. The Chicago Teachers Strike and Its Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuffelton, Amy B.

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the 2012 Chicago Teachers Strike in light of John Dewey's "The Public and Its Problems." It engages Dewey's conceptualization of practical reason to challenge the educational reform movement's commitment to technocratic decision-making.

  15. Strikes in the public sector in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen; Ibsen, Flemming; Høgedahl, Laust

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at strikes by employees in the public sector, discusses the theoretical background to these conflicts and shows – based on a case study of three strikes in the Danish public sector – how different union strategies lead to very different outcomes in terms of economic gains......, while public sector unions trying to move up the wage hierarchy cannot expect much help from fellow public sector unions, often quite the reverse....

  16. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of the first nonpeptidergic inverse agonists for the human cytomegalovirus encoded chemokine receptor US28

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, Janneke W; Casarosa, Paola; Menge, Wiro M P B; Kuusisto, Leena M S; van der Goot, Henk; Smit, Martine J; de Esch, Iwan J P; Leurs, Rob

    2005-01-01

    US28 is a human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encoded G-protein-coupled receptor that signals in a constitutively active manner. Recently, we identified 1 [5-(4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)-2,2-diphenylpentanenitrile] as the first reported nonpeptidergic inverse agonist for a viral-encoded

  17. Active and recent strike-slip tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, Amos; Boccaletti, Mario

    An international workshop cosponsored by the Department of Geology, University of Florence, Italy and the Department of Geophysics, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., was held in Florence, Italy, April 18-20, 1989,on the topic of active and recent strike-slip tectonics in the continental crust. Workshop participants from Turkey, Ethiopia, Israel, Greece, and various universities in Italy, Spain, West Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Brazil, and the United States reported on a broad range of studies involving strike-slip faulting in continental crustal setting. As it turned out, much of the work reported on involved aspects of strike-slip faulting that are only poorly understood, especially crustal deformation, which is distributed over a multiplicity of faults, or even fault domains.One of the rewarding aspects of this workshop was the diversity of geographic areas and geological settings covered by the reporters. The north and east Anatolian faults, the Dead Sea transform zone, western Turkey, north and central Greece, Malta, Sicily, southern Italy, the bethic Cordillera in southern Spain, Tunisia, Tibet and southwest China, offshore Brazil, Alaska, Nevada, and California. A recurring observation reported for all those areas was mixed mode faulting, i.e., the coterminous or sequential occurrence of strike-slip and normal faulting, or strike-slip and thrust, and in many instances also strikeslip, normal and thrust faulting in a single tectonic setting.

  18. Foot strike patterns of recreational and sub-elite runners in a long-distance road race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Peter; Higgins, Erin; Kaminski, Justin; Decker, Tamara; Preble, Janine; Lyons, Daniela; McIntyre, Kevin; Normile, Adam

    2011-12-01

    Although the biomechanical properties of the various types of running foot strike (rearfoot, midfoot, and forefoot) have been studied extensively in the laboratory, only a few studies have attempted to quantify the frequency of running foot strike variants among runners in competitive road races. We classified the left and right foot strike patterns of 936 distance runners, most of whom would be considered of recreational or sub-elite ability, at the 10 km point of a half-marathon/marathon road race. We classified 88.9% of runners at the 10 km point as rearfoot strikers, 3.4% as midfoot strikers, 1.8% as forefoot strikers, and 5.9% of runners exhibited discrete foot strike asymmetry. Rearfoot striking was more common among our sample of mostly recreational distance runners than has been previously reported for samples of faster runners. We also compared foot strike patterns of 286 individual marathon runners between the 10 km and 32 km race locations and observed increased frequency of rearfoot striking at 32 km. A large percentage of runners switched from midfoot and forefoot foot strikes at 10 km to rearfoot strikes at 32 km. The frequency of discrete foot strike asymmetry declined from the 10 km to the 32 km location. Among marathon runners, we found no significant relationship between foot strike patterns and race times.

  19. ELMs, strike point jumps and SOL currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano, Emilia R.; Jachmich, S.; Villone, F.; Hawkes, N.; Guenther, K.; Korotkov, A.; Stamp, M.; Andrew, P.; Conboy, J.; Mattews, G.F.; Corre, Y.; Loarte, A.; Pitts, R.A.; Cenedese, A.; Kempenaars, M.; Bolzonella, T.; Rachlew, E.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma equilibria before and after ELMs in JET are investigated. ELMs could be associated with fragile equilibria and separatrix instabilities: previously closed field lines would open up, releasing plasma current and leading to the formation of a new, smaller separatrix. This model could explain experimental observations of sudden jumps and shifts in strike point positions. Novel instability mechanisms are discussed to explain the large transient jumps observed in the strike point position: positive X-point instability, due to positive toroidal current density at the X-point and diamagnetic instability, due to negative inboard toroidal current density. (author)

  20. Strikes, solidarity and scabs. Union members participation norms and williengness to participate in strikes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, A.; Born, M.; Torenvlied, R.

    2013-01-01

    This article studies how participation norms affect workers' willingness to strike. A factor analysis on the responses of 468 Dutch union members about appropriate behavior during a strike produces two factors. The first factor reflects a "solidarity norm" favoring group solidarity; the second

  1. Simulating the Risk of Bird Strikes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, I.C.; Ellerbroek, J.; Muhlhausen, Thorsten; Kügler, D.; Hoekstra, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a fast-time simulation environment for assessing the risk of bird strikes in aviation. An existing air traffic simulator was enhanced in order to simulate air and bird traffic simultaneously and to recognize collisions between birds and aircraft. Furthermore, a method was

  2. The Front Line: No Strikes, Just Balls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unks, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Recent actions of British teachers suggest an alternative to the teacher strike. Those teachers dramatically demonstrated their grievances by withholding the voluntary extra services they customarily perform. American teachers could accomplish the same end by collectively refusing to perform extraneous administrative services: collecting money,…

  3. When Lightning Strikes a Second Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kent

    2017-01-01

    The chances of lightning striking twice are infinitesimal, at best. What are the odds, in middle age, of being struck with a jarring bolt of figurative lightning, then a few months later being an eyewitness as the same sizzle in the sky jolts a group of students--those decision-makers of tomorrow? The author describes two experiences that proved…

  4. Impact of lightning strikes on hospital functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortelmans, Luc J M; Van Springel, Gert L J; Van Boxstael, Sam; Herrijgers, Jan; Hoflacks, Stefaan

    2009-01-01

    Two regional hospitals were struck by lightning during a one-month period. The first hospital, which had 236 beds, suffered a direct strike to the building. This resulted in a direct spread of the power peak and temporary failure of the standard power supply. The principle problems, after restoring standard power supply, were with the fire alarm system and peripheral network connections in the digital radiology systems. No direct impact on the hardware could be found. Restarting the servers resolved all problems. The second hospital, which had 436 beds, had a lightning strike on the premises and mainly experienced problems due to induction. All affected installations had a cable connection from outside in one way or another. The power supplies never were endangered. The main problem was the failure of different communication systems (telephone, radio, intercom, fire alarm system). Also, the electronic entrance control went out. During the days after the lightening strike, multiple software problems became apparent, as well as failures of the network connections controlling the technical support systems. There are very few ways to prepare for induction problems. The use of fiber-optic networks can limit damage. To the knowledge of the authors, these are the first cases of lightning striking hospitals in medical literature.

  5. Developing personal values: trainees' attitudes toward strikes by health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Su-Ting T; Srinivasan, Malathi; Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Kravitz, Richard L; Wilkes, Michael S

    2011-05-01

    Worldwide, health care providers use strikes and job actions to influence policy. For health care providers, especially physicians, strikes create an ethical tension between an obligation to care for current patients (e.g., to provide care and avoid abandonment) and an obligation to better care for future patients by seeking system improvements (e.g., improvements in safety, to access, and in the composition and strength of the health care workforce). This tension is further intensified when the potential benefit of a strike involves professional self-interest and the potential risk involves patient harm or death. By definition, trainees are still forming their professional identities and values, including their opinions on fair wages, health policy, employee benefits, professionalism, and strikes. In this article, the authors explore these ethical tensions, beginning with a discussion of reactions to a potential 2005 nursing strike at the University of California, Davis, Medical Center. The authors then propose a conceptual model describing factors that may influence health care providers' decisions to strike (including personal ethics, personal agency, and strike-related context). In particular, the authors explore the relationship between training level and attitudes toward taking a job action, such as going on strike. Because trainees' attitudes toward strikes continue to evolve during training, the authors maintain that open discussion around the ethics of health care professionals' strikes and other methods of conflict resolution should be included in medical education to enhance professionalism and systems-based practice training. The authors include sample case vignettes to help initiate these important discussions. Copyright © by the Association of American medical Colleges.

  6. Foot strike pattern in preschool children during running: sex and shod-unshod differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Á; Párraga-Montilla, Juan A; Guardia-Monteagudo, Ignacio; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to determine the foot strike patterns (FSPs) and neutral support (no inversion [INV]/eversion [EVE] and no foot rotation) in preschool children, as well as to determine the influence of shod/unshod conditions and sex. A total of 1356 children aged 3-6 years (673 boys and 683 girls) participated in this study. A sagittal and frontal-plane video (240 Hz) was recorded using a high-speed camcorder to record the following variables: rearfoot strike (RFS), midfoot strike (MFS), forefoot strike (FFS), inversion/ eversion (INV/EVE) and foot rotation on initial contact. There were no between-sex significant differences in both shod and unshod conditions in RFS. In the unshod condition, there was a significant reduction (p < 0.001) of RFS prevalence in both boys (shod condition = 44.2% vs. 34.7% unshod condition) and girls (shod condition = 48.5% vs. 36.1% unshod condition). As for neutral support, there were no between-sex differences in both shod and unshod conditions or in the shod-unshod comparison. In preschool children, no between-sex differences were found in relation to prevalence of RFS and neutral support (no INV/EVE). Shod running alters FSP of running barefoot, producing a significant increase of RFS prevalence.

  7. [Management of the hunger strike in prison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayeulle, Stéphanie; Renou, Frédéric; Protais, Emmanuel; Hédouin, Valéry; Wartel, Guillaume; Yvin, Jean-Luc

    2010-10-01

    Entering prison can feed pre-existent behavior of demands or generate them. Several means of expression are then used. Hunger strike is an average privileged act. It belongs to prison culture. Estimate how practitioners working in prison take care of the hunger strikers. The study, realised in 2008, was led with all the Units of Consultations and Ambulatory Care in France. It is a declarative investigation where a medical testimony by unit was asked. From 174 "maisons d'arrêt" and establishments for punishment in France, 95 answers were obtained. This situation was already seen by 98,8% of the doctors. The motives for hunger strike were mainly judicial for "maisons d'arrêt" (70,1%) and prison motives for detention centers (68,7%). Mainly, doctors opted for a neutral attitude (63% of the cases). The hunger strikes were mostly brief (less than a week in 85% of the cases). Only 5,5% of the doctors proposed written information concerning the risks incurred during a fast. A doctor in 4 approximately (23%) was already witness to complications due to fasting. The fact that a patient may refuse care makes the medical approach difficult. Faced with such a situation, 45% of the doctors privileged their duty of care, 28% respected the patient's wishes, and 27% did not pronounce. From a therapeutic point of view, the place of treatment using vitamins was rarely recognized (32,7%). Hunger strike is rarely severe, but it is rather frequent in prison so that every doctor working there will be confronted with it. The refeeding syndrome seems often ignored. The coverage of hunger strike is governed by the law, but ethical questions stay in the appreciation of every doctor. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Gait Retraining From Rearfoot Strike to Forefoot Strike does not change Running Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Jenevieve Lynn; Doerfler, Deborah; Kravitz, Len; Dufek, Janet S; Mermier, Christine

    2017-12-01

    Gait retraining is a method for management of patellofemoral pain, which is a common ailment among recreational runners. The present study investigated the effects of gait retraining from rearfoot strike to forefoot strike on running economy, heart rate, and respiratory exchange ratio immediately post-retraining and one-month post-retraining in recreational runners with patellofemoral pain. Knee pain was also measured. Sixteen participants (n=16) were randomly placed in the control (n=8) or experimental (n=8) group. A 10-minute treadmill RE test was performed by all subjects. The experimental group performed eight gait retraining running sessions where foot strike pattern was switched from rearfoot strike to forefoot strike, while the control group received no intervention. There were no significant differences for running economy (p=0.26), respiratory exchange ratio (p=0.258), or heart rate (p=0.248) between the groups. Knee pain reported on a visual analog scale was also significantly reduced (p<0.05) as a result of retraining. The present study demonstrates that retraining from rearfoot strike to forefoot strike did not affect running economy up to one-month post-retraining while reducing running-related patellofemoral pain. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Inverse problems of geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanovskaya, T.B.

    2003-07-01

    This report gives an overview and the mathematical formulation of geophysical inverse problems. General principles of statistical estimation are explained. The maximum likelihood and least square fit methods, the Backus-Gilbert method and general approaches for solving inverse problems are discussed. General formulations of linearized inverse problems, singular value decomposition and properties of pseudo-inverse solutions are given

  10. Fuzzy Inverse Compactness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halis Aygün

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce definitions of fuzzy inverse compactness, fuzzy inverse countable compactness, and fuzzy inverse Lindelöfness on arbitrary -fuzzy sets in -fuzzy topological spaces. We prove that the proposed definitions are good extensions of the corresponding concepts in ordinary topology and obtain different characterizations of fuzzy inverse compactness.

  11. ["Bell-striking" Saying of Acupuncture Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-Sheng

    2017-04-25

    As an analogy, a prototype of "bell-striking" is proposed in the present paper for exploring the basic properties, major elements, and potential mechanisms of acupuncture stimulation. On the strength of analysis on the physiological basis of acupuncture effect, several fundamental aspects of acupuncture are summarized as a) the body-surface stimulating characters, b) general and local effects, and c) triggering the auto-regulative function of the organism, which mimics the "bell-striking" response. Namely, when stroke, bell will chime, otherwise, chiming will not be heard. During analyzing special contents of acupuncture theory, its formative background should not be separated, and it is improper to take, modern medical theory of the human body as the guiding thinking way for researching the ancient Chinese medical literature.

  12. Central hyperadrenergic state after lightning strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsaik, Ajay K; Ahlskog, J Eric; Singer, Wolfgang; Gelfman, Russell; Sheldon, Seth H; Seime, Richard J; Craft, Jennifer M; Staab, Jeffrey P; Kantor, Birgit; Low, Phillip A

    2013-08-01

    To describe and review autonomic complications of lightning strike. Case report and laboratory data including autonomic function tests in a subject who was struck by lightning. A 24-year-old man was struck by lightning. Following that, he developed dysautonomia, with persistent inappropriate sinus tachycardia and autonomic storms, as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and functional neurologic problems. The combination of persistent sinus tachycardia and episodic exacerbations associated with hypertension, diaphoresis, and agitation was highly suggestive of a central hyperadrenergic state with superimposed autonomic storms. Whether the additional PTSD and functional neurologic deficits were due to a direct effect of the lightning strike on the central nervous system or a secondary response is open to speculation.

  13. Improving work conditions through strike: Examination of nurses' attitudes through perceptions of two physician strikes in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafni-Lachter, Liat; Admi, Hanna; Eilon, Yael; Lachter, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    Strikes are means to influence policies related to working conditions, yet raise ethical dilemmas for healthcare workers. Nurse strikes have become more prominent around the world. To assess the change in Israeli nurses' attitudes towards strikes in light of two physician strikes that have preceded a nursing strike. An anonymous survey was administered once in 2000 (N = 106) and again in 2011 (n = 175) following 110 days of a physician strike, to assess nurses' attitudes towards the strike and resulting ethical issues. A statistically significant change (p working conditions related to professional and public health agendas.

  14. Significant inverse relationship between serum free T4 concentration and body mass index in euthyroid subjects: differences between smokers and nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makepeace, Ashley E; Bremner, Alexandra P; O'Leary, Peter; Leedman, Peter J; Feddema, Peter; Michelangeli, Valdo; Walsh, John P

    2008-10-01

    There are conflicting data regarding the relationship between thyroid function and body mass index (BMI) in euthyroid subjects, and it is uncertain whether tobacco smoking modifies this relationship. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between thyroid function, BMI and smoking in euthyroid subjects. Linear regression models were used to examine the relationships between serum free T4, serum TSH, BMI and smoking in a cross-sectional, community-based sample of 1853 euthyroid subjects in Busselton, Western Australia. There was a significant negative relationship between free T4 and BMI: after adjustment for age and sex, each 1 pmol/l increase in free T4 was associated with a decrease in BMI of 0.12 kg/m(2) (95% CI 0.06, 0.18; P < 0.001). The mean BMI +/- SD of subjects in the highest quintile of free T4 concentration was 24.4 +/- 3.5 kg/m(2), compared with 26.1 +/- 3.8 kg/m(2) for the lowest quintile. The relationship between free T4 and BMI was statistically significant (adjusted for age and sex) in subjects who had never smoked (P = 0.001) and former smokers (P = 0.011), but not in current smokers (P = 0.77). There was no significant relationship between TSH and BMI: after adjustment for age and sex, each 1 mU/l increase in TSH was associated with an increase in BMI of 0.08 kg/m(2) (95% CI -0.16, 0.32; P = 0.53). In euthyroid subjects, small differences in free T4 are associated with differences in BMI. This relationship is not present in current smokers. We speculate that this may be relevant to weight changes associated with smoking cessation.

  15. Stress distribution of metatarsals during forefoot strike versus rearfoot strike: A finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shudong; Zhang, Yan; Gu, Yaodong; Ren, James

    2017-12-01

    Due to the limitations of experimental approaches, comparison of the internal deformation and stresses of the human man foot between forefoot and rearfoot landing is not fully established. The objective of this work is to develop an effective FE modelling approach to comparatively study the stresses and energy in the foot during forefoot strike (FS) and rearfoot strike (RS). The stress level and rate of stress increase in the Metatarsals are established and the injury risk between these two landing styles is evaluated and discussed. A detailed subject specific FE foot model is developed and validated. A hexahedral dominated meshing scheme was applied on the surface of the foot bones and skin. An explicit solver (Abaqus/Explicit) was used to stimulate the transient landing process. The deformation and internal energy of the foot and stresses in the metatarsals are comparatively investigated. The results for forefoot strike tests showed an overall higher average stress level in the metatarsals during the entire landing cycle than that for rearfoot strike. The increase rate of the metatarsal stress from the 0.5 body weight (BW) to 2 BW load point is 30.76% for forefoot strike and 21.39% for rearfoot strike. The maximum rate of stress increase among the five metatarsals is observed on the 1st metatarsal in both landing modes. The results indicate that high stress level during forefoot landing phase may increase potential of metatarsal injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical value of periventricular low-intensity areas detected by fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR). Relationships between perinatal vital parameter and neonatal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadowaki, Sachiko; Iwata, Osuke; Tamura, Masanori [Nagano Children' s Hospital, Toyoshina (Japan)] (and others)

    2002-01-01

    A follow-up study was performed to assess the correlation among the incidence of periventricular low intensities (PVLI) on MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) imaging, clinical evidence of perinatal insults that may cause white matter damage, and the outcome of the infants. We evaluated periventricular white matter lesions of 329 neonates whose MRI were obtained before two months corrected age. The detective rate of periventricular abnormalities on FLAIR imaging was significantly higher than that of T1-T2 weighted imaging. The most typical lesion detected on FLAIR imaging was periventricular low intensities (PVLI), frequently observed in the neonates with a history of preterm labour, very low birth weight, birth asphyxia and severe respiratory failure. Although we could not characterize the risk factors of PVLI, the incidence of PVLI had a strong correlation with the scores of motor and developmental tests at 12 and 36-months corrected age. In conclusion, FLAIR imaging, detecting the border zone damage of white matter, would be a strong tool to pick out neonates at high risk of neurological disturbances from those without clinical evidence of neurological insults in the neonatal period. (author)

  17. Role of bone mineral density in the inverse relationship between body size and aortic calcification: Results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canepa, M.; Ameri, P.; AlGhatrif, M.; Pestelli, G.; Milaneschi, Y.; Strait, J.B.; Giallauria, F.; Ghigliotti, G.; Brunelli, C.; Lakatta, E.G.; Ferrucci, L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: There is a J-shaped relationship between body mass index (BMI) and cardiovascular outcomes in elderly patients (obesity paradox). Whether low BMI correlates with aortic calcification (AC) and whether this association is accounted for by bone demineralization is uncertain. Methods:

  18. Acute transient hemiparesis induced by lightning strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Seyed Hesam; Faridaalaee, Gholamreza; Jahangard, Samira

    2015-07-01

    According to data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,in the years from 1959 to 1994, lightning was responsible for more than 3000 deaths and nearly 10,000 casualties. The most important characteristic features of lightning injuries are multisystem involvement and widely variable severity. Lightning strikes are primarily a neurologic injury that affects all 3 components of the nervous system: central, autonomic,and peripheral. Neurologic complications of lightning strikes vary from transient benign symptoms to permanent disability. Many patients experience a temporary paralysis called keraunoparalysis. Here we reported a 22-year-old mountaineer man with complaining of left sided hemiparesis after being hit by a lightning strike in the mountain 3 hours ago. There was no loss of consciousness at hitting time. On arrival the patient was alert, awake and hemodynamically stable. In neurologic examination cranial nerves were intact, left sided upper and lower extremity muscle force was I/V with a combination of complete sensory loss, and right-sided muscle force and sensory examination were normal. There is not any evidence of significant vascular impairment in the affected extremities. Brain MRI and CT scan and cervical MRI were normal. During 2 days of admission, with intravenous hydration, heparin 5000 unit SC q12hr and physical therapy of the affected limbs, motor and sensory function improved and was normal except mild paresthesia. He was discharged 1 day later for outpatient follow up while vitamin B1 100mg orally was prescribed.Paresthesia improved after 3 days without further sequels.

  19. Lightning strike-induced brachial plexopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita N Bhargava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient who presented with a history of lightning strike injury. Following the injury, he sustained acute right upper limb weakness with pain. Clinically, the lesion was located to the upper and middle trunk of the right brachial plexus, and the same confirmed with electrophysiological studies. Nerve damage due to lightning injuries is considered very rare, and a plexus damage has been described infrequently, if ever. Thus, the proposed hypothesis that lightning rarely causes neuropathy, as against high-voltage electric current, due to its shorter duration of exposure not causing severe burns which lead to nerve damage, needs to be reconsidered.

  20. Recent geodynamics of major strike-slip zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir G. Trifonov

    2015-09-01

    In all of the cases mentioned above, strike-slip deformation was expressed only or mainly during strong earthquakes. At other times, the rate of its accumulation was small and the dominant stress conditions led to transverse shortening, rarely resulting in local lengthening of the tectonic zone. These variations are caused by the tectonic peculiarities of these zones. The sinistral component of the deformation is related to the shift of the Arabian Plate relative to the African one, but also the transverse component is related to the continental slope and is expressed by the Coastal range shortening that exists in the El Ghab segment zone. There is not only a dextral deformation component, but also a transverse component, expressed by shortening of the Fergana and Talas ranges existing in the Talas-Fergana fault zone. In both zones, the shortening component became appreciable or dominant when the strike-slip deformation rate decreased. Similar, but more local, relationships were expressed in the epicentral area of the 2003 Altai earthquake and in the Western Palmyrides.

  1. Analysis of Simulated Aircraft Lightning Strikes and Their Electromagnetic Effects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gruden, James

    2001-01-01

    To survive the intense electromagnetic fields associated with a lightning strike, proper design of aircraft electrical control systems requires knowledge of the transient current pulse associated with a lightning strike...

  2. Strike-slip tectonics during rift linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagli, C.; Yun, S. H.; Ebinger, C.; Keir, D.; Wang, H.

    2017-12-01

    The kinematics of triple junction linkage and the initiation of transforms in magmatic rifts remain debated. Strain patterns from the Afar triple junction provide tests of current models of how rifts grow to link in area of incipient oceanic spreading. Here we present a combined analysis of seismicity, InSAR and GPS derived strain rate maps to reveal that the plate boundary deformation in Afar is accommodated primarily by extensional tectonics in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifts, and does not require large rotations about vertical axes (bookshelf faulting). Additionally, models of stress changes and seismicity induced by recent dykes in one sector of the Afar triple junction provide poor fit to the observed strike-slip earthquakes. Instead we explain these patterns as rift-perpendicular shearing at the tips of spreading rifts where extensional strains terminate against less stretched lithosphere. Our results demonstrate that rift-perpendicular strike-slip faulting between rift segments achieves plate boundary linkage during incipient seafloor spreading.

  3. Bird strike incidence at Addis Ababa Bole International Airport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The time and rate of bird strike incidences, species composition and number of birds involved in strikes, and the behaviour of birds were recorded at Bole International Airport from December 1994 to December 1995. The gut contents of the birds struck by aircraft were analyzed. A total of 33 bird strikes were recorded during ...

  4. Evaluating the Effects of a Bird Strike Advisory System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, I.C.; Mühlhausen, T; Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Bird strikes have operational impacts and cause economic loss to the aviation industry. In the worst case, the damages resulting from bird strikes lead to crashes. The highest risk for bird strikes lies in the area below 3000 ft and thus mainly in airport environments. Despite intense efforts from

  5. effects of strike cost on economic development in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    productivity as in most cases strike cost (wages and salaries as well as other unavoidable payments) are paid during the .... Many times the Nigeria Labour Congress (NLC) and students have had to strike against ... the direct compensation package and other conditions of service. This is the most popular cause of strike in ...

  6. Union Competition and Strikes : The Need for Analysis at the Sector Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, A.

    2008-01-01

    International comparative research has found that strike incidence is higher where two or more unions bargain with an employer (“multi-unionism”), as is common in most European countries, than where only one union does, all else equal. Two proposed explanations for this relationship, both invoking

  7. Relationship between fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) signal intensity and inflammatory mediator's levels in the hippocampus of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and mesial temporal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, Pedro Paulo Vasconcellos; Santiago, Joselita Ferreira Carvalho; Carrete, Henrique; Higa, Elisa Mieko Suemitsu; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas; Centeno, Ricardo Silva; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; Castro Neto, Eduardo Ferreira de; Canzian, Mauro; Amado, Débora; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Naffah-Mazzacoratti, Maria da Graça

    2011-02-01

    We investigated a relationship between the FLAIR signal found in mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) and inflammation. Twenty nine patients were selected through clinical and MRI analysis and submitted to cortico-amygdalo-hippocampectomy to seizure control. Glutamate, TNFα, IL1, nitric oxide (NO) levels and immunostaining against IL1β and CD45 was performed. Control tissues (n=10) were obtained after autopsy of patients without neurological disorders. The glutamate was decreased in the temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) -MTS group (p<0.001), suggesting increased release of this neurotransmitter. The IL1β and TNFα were increased in the hippocampus (p<0.05) demonstrating an active inflammatory process. A positive linear correlation between FLAIR signal and NO and IL1β levels and a negative linear correlation between FLAIR signal and glutamate concentration was found. Lymphocytes infiltrates were present in hippocampi of TLE patients. These data showed an association between hippocampal signal alteration and increased inflammatory markers in TLE-MTS.

  8. Relación entre eficacia, lateralidad y zona de lanzamiento del penalti en función del nivel de competición en fútbol. (Relationship between efficacy, laterality of foot strike, and shot zone of the penalty in relation to competition level in soccer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel López-Montero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl objetivo del presente trabajo fue conocer cómo varía la lateralidad, la zona de lanzamiento y la eficacia del penalti en lanzadores especialistas profesionales de fútbol en función del nivel de la competición. La muestra estudiada fue de 642 penaltis de competiciones profesionales españolas de 1ª División, 2ª División A, y 2ª División B de las temporadas 2004/2005, 2005/2006 y 2006/2007. Se realizó un diseño de investigación descriptivo correlacional intra e intergrupo. Las variables objeto de estudio fueron: resultado del lanzamiento (gol, parado, poste, y fuera, lateralidad del lanzador, zona de destino, y nivel de competición (1ª División, 2ª División A, y 2ª División B. Se realizó un análisis de los datos descriptivo e inferencial (Test de Chi-cuadrado y tablas de contingencia. A partir de los resultados obtenidos se pueden extraer las siguientes conclusiones: los lanzadores de penalti analizados obtienen gol en siete de cada 10 lanzamientos. Los diestros tienden a lanzar a la derecha del portero, y los zurdos a la izquierda del portero. Tanto diestros como zurdos son más efectivos lanzando a la derecha del portero. Los lanzamientos dirigidos a las zonas altas presentan un 10% mayor de eficacia que los lanzamientos dirigidos a las zonas bajas. Ninguno de los lanzamientos dirigidos a las zonas altas de la portería fue parado por el portero. A menor nivel de la competición, menos lanzamientos a las zonas altas.AbstractThe purpose of this paper was to study the relationship between competition level, laterality of foot strike, and shot zone on penalty efficacy in professional penalty-taking specialist football players. A total of 642 penalty shots from the Spanish professional divisions (first, second, and third levels of competition in the 2004-2005, 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 seasons were analyzed. A descriptive and correlational intra- and inter-group study design was used. The variables studied were: shot

  9. Forward to the Past: Strikes and Striking as Dialogue by other ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, from the colonial period to the present, the employment of strikes and protests by nationalists, Nigerian workers and civil society groups has been established as one of the potent means of conveying viewpoints, positions as well as the demand for equality, fairness, social justice and reforms. It has been used as ...

  10. Acute rhabdomyolysis of the soleus muscle induced by a lightning strike: magnetic resonance and scintigraphic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Naofumi; Inaoka, Tsutomu; Shuke, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Koji; Aburano, Tamio; Chisato, Naoyuki; Go, Kazutomo; Nochi, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    Among natural disasters, a lightning strike is a rare but potentially life-threatening phenomenon. If victims survive a cardiac arrest due to instantaneous passage of an exceptionally high voltage electric charge through the whole body, they may be afflicted with various complications such as muscle necrosis resulting in acute renal failure. In this article, we report a case of a 54-year-old man with acute rhabdomyolysis of the left soleus muscle associated with a lightning strike. T2-weighted and short-tau inversion recovery MR images showed a high signal intensity in the left soleus muscle. A whole-body bone scintigram showed abnormal uptakes in the left soleus muscle and the dorsal aspect of the left foot. MR and scintigraphic evaluations were very useful in depicting the site and extent of muscle damage. Since the patient showed a surprisingly high level of serum creatine kinase, the added information was very valuable for determining the patient's management. (orig.)

  11. Managing the risks: An analysis of bird strike reporting at Part 139 Airports in Indiana 2001-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Mendonca

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the current study was fourfold: to identify bird strike reporting trends at Part 139 airports in Indiana (2001-2014 for comparison to national data; to determine which quarter of the year yields the most bird strike data; to gain a clearer understanding of the relationship between altitude and bird strikes, and to develop information based upon the data analyzed that can be used for the safety management of birds including comparisons to national data.  Design/methodology: The researchers in this study answered the research questions by reviewing, sorting, and analyzing existing data.  The data collection took place from March 01 to May 02, 2016. Two data sets were utilized for data collection. The National Wildlife Strike Database (NWSD and the FAA Air Traffic Activity System (ATADS. Findings: When compared to national data, Indiana Part 139 airports have seen a faster increase in bird strike reporting during 2012 and 2014. Aggregate data indicated June through September (Quarter 3 had a significantly higher frequency of bird strikes reported.  When examining bird strikes and altitude of occurrences, the exponential equation explained 95 % of the variation in number of strikes by 1,000-foot intervals from 1000 to 10,000 feet. Not surprisingly, the risk of bird strikes appears to decrease as altitude increases. Originality/value: This study adds to the body of knowledge by addressing the lack of published bird strike report analyses at a regional level.  It also connects data analyses to safety management system (SMS concepts and Wildlife Hazards Management Programs (WHMP. The aviation community can use regional bird strike data and information to develop or enhance existing wildlife hazard management programs, increase pilot awareness, and offers airport managerial implications.

  12. Strike Point Control for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolemen, E.; Gates, D.A.; Rowley, C.W.; Kasdin, N.J.; Kallman, J.; Gerhardt, S.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Mueller, D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the first control algorithm for the inner and outer strike point position for a Spherical Torus (ST) fusion experiment and the performance analysis of the controller. A liquid lithium divertor (LLD) will be installed on NSTX which is believed to provide better pumping than lithium coatings on carbon PFCs. The shape of the plasma dictates the pumping rate of the lithium by channeling the plasma to LLD, where strike point location is the most important shape parameter. Simulations show that the density reduction depends on the proximity of strike point to LLD. Experiments were performed to study the dynamics of the strike point, design a new controller to change the location of the strike point to desired location and stabilize it. The most effective PF coils in changing inner and outer strike points were identified using equilibrium code. The PF coil inputs were changed in a step fashion between various set points and the step response of the strike point position was obtained. From the analysis of the step responses, PID controllers for the strike points were obtained and the controller was tuned experimentally for better performance. The strike controller was extended to include the outer-strike point on the inner plate to accommodate the desired low outer-strike points for the experiment with the aim of achieving 'snowflake' divertor configuration in NSTX.

  13. Relationship between fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR signal intensity and inflammatory mediator's levels in the hippocampus of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and mesial temporal sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Vasconcellos Varella

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated a relationship between the FLAIR signal found in mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS and inflammation. Twenty nine patients were selected through clinical and MRI analysis and submitted to cortico-amygdalo-hippocampectomy to seizure control. Glutamate, TNFα, IL1, nitric oxide (NO levels and immunostaining against IL1β and CD45 was performed. Control tissues (n=10 were obtained after autopsy of patients without neurological disorders. The glutamate was decreased in the temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE -MTS group (p<0.001, suggesting increased release of this neurotransmitter. The IL1β and TNFα were increased in the hippocampus (p<0.05 demonstrating an active inflammatory process. A positive linear correlation between FLAIR signal and NO and IL1β levels and a negative linear correlation between FLAIR signal and glutamate concentration was found. Lymphocytes infiltrates were present in hippocampi of TLE patients. These data showed an association between hippocampal signal alteration and increased inflammatory markers in TLE-MTS.

  14. Inverse Raman effect: applications and detection techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, L.J. Jr.

    1980-08-01

    The processes underlying the inverse Raman effect are qualitatively described by comparing it to the more familiar phenomena of conventional and stimulated Raman scattering. An experession is derived for the inverse Raman absorption coefficient, and its relationship to the stimulated Raman gain is obtained. The power requirements of the two fields are examined qualitatively and quantitatively. The assumption that the inverse Raman absorption coefficient is constant over the interaction length is examined. Advantages of the technique are discussed and a brief survey of reported studies is presented

  15. Inverse Raman effect: applications and detection techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, L.J. Jr.

    1980-08-01

    The processes underlying the inverse Raman effect are qualitatively described by comparing it to the more familiar phenomena of conventional and stimulated Raman scattering. An experession is derived for the inverse Raman absorption coefficient, and its relationship to the stimulated Raman gain is obtained. The power requirements of the two fields are examined qualitatively and quantitatively. The assumption that the inverse Raman absorption coefficient is constant over the interaction length is examined. Advantages of the technique are discussed and a brief survey of reported studies is presented.

  16. Lightning Strike Ablation Damage Characteristic Analysis for Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composite Laminate with Fastener

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J. J.; Li, S. L.; Yao, X. L.; Chang, F.; Li, L. K.; Zhang, X. H.

    2016-08-01

    In order to analyze the lightning strike ablation damage characteristic of composite laminate with fastener, based on the energy-balance relationship in lightning strike, mathematical analysis model of ablation damage of composite laminate with fastener was constructed. According to the model, an effective three dimensional thermal-electrical coupling analysis finite element model of composite laminate with fastener suffered from lightning current was established based on ABAQUS, and lightning strike ablation damage characteristic was analyzed. Analytical results reveal that lightning current could conduct through the thickness direction of the laminate due to the existence of metallic fastener, and then distribute to all layers, finally conducted in-the-plane of each layer, conductive ability of different layup orientations depend on potential distribution and in-the-plane electrical conductivity along potential gradient declining direction; different potential boundaries correspond to different potential distribution in each layer, and result in conductive ability of different layup orientations was changed, then caused different lightning strike ablation damage distribution. According to the investigation in this paper, we can recognize the lightning strike ablation damage characteristic of composite laminate with fastener qualitatively.

  17. Geological Effects on Lightning Strike Distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Berdahl, J. Scott

    2016-05-16

    Recent advances in lightning detection networks allow for detailed mapping of lightning flash locations. Longstanding rumors of geological influence on cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning distribution and recent commercial claims based on such influence can now be tested empirically. If present, such influence could represent a new, cheap and efficient geophysical tool with applications in mineral, hydrothermal and oil exploration, regional geological mapping, and infrastructure planning. This project applies statistical analysis to lightning data collected by the United States National Lightning Detection Network from 2006 through 2015 in order to assess whether the huge range in electrical conductivities of geological materials plays a role in the spatial distribution of CG lightning. CG flash densities are mapped for twelve areas in the contiguous United States and compared to elevation and geology, as well as to the locations of faults, railroads and tall towers including wind turbines. Overall spatial randomness is assessed, along with spatial correlation of attributes. Negative and positive polarity lightning are considered separately and together. Topography and tower locations show a strong influence on CG distribution patterns. Geology, faults and railroads do not. This suggests that ground conductivity is not an important factor in determining lightning strike location on scales larger than current flash location accuracies, which are generally several hundred meters. Once a lightning channel is established, however, ground properties at the contact point may play a role in determining properties of the subsequent stroke.

  18. Collective bargaining and strikes among physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, S N

    1984-11-01

    UNLIKE EMPLOYEES IN OTHER SECTORS OF THE ECONOMY, HEALTH CARE WORKERS ARE DIRECTED TOWARD ONE ULTIMATE GOAL: making people well and keeping them healthy. The development of collective bargaining and union activities during this century has had a great impact on all industries in the United States and the western world. However, only in recent years have workers in the health care sector been affected by the organized labor movement. The history of collective bargaining and strikes among physicians, the key decision-makers in the health care sector, is even more recent. Because of their central position, physicians' collective activity has had and will continue to have tremendous implications for the viability of the present health care system and the quality of patient care. Even though most physicians continue to function as individual, entrepreneurial service providers and "professionals," physicians as a group are more frequently being seen as members of a utility like industry. Their importance to individuals and society as a whole, it can be argued, is second to none; if physicians refuse to work there can be no worse set of outcomes. To estimate the potential future impact of growing collective action on the part of physicians, this article explores the general historical developments.

  19. Inverse Kinematics using Quaternions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Knud; Erleben, Kenny; Engell-Nørregård, Morten

    In this project I describe the status of inverse kinematics research, with the focus firmly on the methods that solve the core problem. An overview of the different methods are presented Three common methods used in inverse kinematics computation have been chosen as subject for closer inspection....

  20. Inverse logarithmic potential problem

    CERN Document Server

    Cherednichenko, V G

    1996-01-01

    The Inverse and Ill-Posed Problems Series is a series of monographs publishing postgraduate level information on inverse and ill-posed problems for an international readership of professional scientists and researchers. The series aims to publish works which involve both theory and applications in, e.g., physics, medicine, geophysics, acoustics, electrodynamics, tomography, and ecology.

  1. Children on hunger strike: child abuse or legitimate protest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, A.; Nelson, E. A.; Murphy, J.; Hampson, A.; Hendriks, J. H.

    1996-01-01

    The issue of children on hunger strike (voluntary total fasting) has not been reported before. The World Medical Association Declaration of Tokyo 1975 and the Declaration of Malta 1991 (revised 1992) provide clinicians with guidelines for the management of adult patients on hunger strike but do not mention children. We report the management of 14 Vietnamese children, aged 1 to 12 years, who took part in a hunger strike at a refugee detention centre in Hong Kong. PMID:8597690

  2. Children on hunger strike: child abuse or legitimate protest?

    OpenAIRE

    Mok, A.; Nelson, E. A.; Murphy, J.; Hampson, A.; Hendriks, J. H.

    1996-01-01

    The issue of children on hunger strike (voluntary total fasting) has not been reported before. The World Medical Association Declaration of Tokyo 1975 and the Declaration of Malta 1991 (revised 1992) provide clinicians with guidelines for the management of adult patients on hunger strike but do not mention children. We report the management of 14 Vietnamese children, aged 1 to 12 years, who took part in a hunger strike at a refugee detention centre in Hong Kong.

  3. The effect of hand dominance on martial arts strikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Silva, Jansen Henrique; Marzullo, Ana Carolina de Miranda; Bolander, Richard P; Bir, Cynthia A

    2012-08-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare dominant and non-dominant martial arts palm strikes under different circumstances that usually happen during martial arts and combative sports applications. Seven highly experienced (10±5 years) right hand dominant Kung Fu practitioners performed strikes with both hands, stances with left or right lead legs, and with the possibility or not of stepping towards the target (moving stance). Peak force was greater for the dominant hand strikes (1593.76±703.45 N vs. 1042.28±374.16 N; p<.001), whereas no difference was found in accuracy between the hands (p=.141). Additionally, peak force was greater for the strikes with moving stance (1448.75±686.01 N vs. 1201.80±547.98 N; p=.002) and left lead leg stance (1378.06±705.48 N vs. 1269.96±547.08 N). Furthermore, the difference in peak force between strikes with moving and stationary stances was statistically significant only for the strikes performed with a left lead leg stance (p=.007). Hand speed was higher for the dominant hand strikes (5.82±1.08 m/s vs. 5.24±0.78 m/s; p=.001) and for the strikes with moving stance (5.79±1.01 m/s vs. 5.29±0.90 m/s; p<.001). The difference in hand speed between right and left hand strikes was only significant for strikes with moving stance. In summary, our results suggest that the stronger palm strike for a right-handed practitioner is a right hand strike on a left lead leg stance moving towards the target. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Debunking the viper's strike: harmless snakes kill a common assumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, David A; Sawvel, Baxter; Moon, Brad R

    2016-03-01

    To survive, organisms must avoid predation and acquire nutrients and energy. Sensory systems must correctly differentiate between potential predators and prey, and elicit behaviours that adjust distances accordingly. For snakes, strikes can serve both purposes. Vipers are thought to have the fastest strikes among snakes. However, strike performance has been measured in very few species, especially non-vipers. We measured defensive strike performance in harmless Texas ratsnakes and two species of vipers, western cottonmouths and western diamond-backed rattlesnakes, using high-speed video recordings. We show that ratsnake strike performance matches or exceeds that of vipers. In contrast with the literature over the past century, vipers do not represent the pinnacle of strike performance in snakes. Both harmless and venomous snakes can strike with very high accelerations that have two key consequences: the accelerations exceed values that can cause loss of consciousness in other animals, such as the accelerations experienced by jet pilots during extreme manoeuvres, and they make the strikes faster than the sensory and motor responses of mammalian prey and predators. Both harmless and venomous snakes can strike faster than the blink of an eye and often reach a target before it can move. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Strong Algerian Earthquake Strikes Near Capital City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, A.; Maouche, S.; Harbi, A.; Meghraoui, M.; Beldjoudi, H.; Oussadou, F.; Mahsas, A.; Benouar, D.; Heddar, A.; Rouchiche, Y.; Kherroubi, A.; Frogneux, M.; Lammali, K.; Benhamouda, F.; Sebaï, A.; Bourouis, S.; Alasset, P. J.; Aoudia, A.; Cakir, Z.; Merahi, M.; Nouar, O.; Yelles, A.; Bellik, A.; Briole, P.; Charade, O.; Thouvenot, F.; Semane, F.; Ferkoul, A.; Deramchi, A.; Haned, S. A.

    On 21 May 2003, a damaging earthquake of Mw 6.8 struck the region of Boumerdes 40 km east of Algiers in northern Algeria (Figure 1). The mainshock, which lasted ~ 36-40 s, had devastating effects and claimed about 2300 victims, caused more than 11,450 injuries, and left about 200,000 people homeless. It destroyed and seriously damaged around 180,000 housing units and 6000 public buildings with losses estimated at $5 billion. The mainshock was widely felt within a radius of ~ 400 km in Algeria. To the north, the earthquake was felt in southeastern Spain, including the Balearic Islands, and also in Sardinia and in southern France. The mainshock location, which was calculated at 36.91°N, 3.58°E (15 km offshore of Zemmouri; Figure 1), and the local magnitude (Md 6.4) are from seismic records of local stations. International seismological centers obtained Mw 6.8 (NEIC) with a thrust focal mechanism solution and 1.83 × 1026 dyne.cm for the seismic moment. A sequence of aftershocks affected the epicentral area with two strong shocks reaching Mw 5.8 on 27 and 29 May 2003. Field investigations allowed us to assign a maximum intensity X (European Macroseismic Scale 98) and to report rockfalls, minor surface cracks, and liquefaction phenomena. The mainshock was not associated with inland surface faulting, but one of the most striking coseismic effects is the coastal uplift and the backwash along the littoral of the Mitidja basin.

  6. Making inference from wildlife collision data: inferring predator absence from prey strikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, Peter; Hosack, Geoffrey R; Barry, Simon C

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife collision data are ubiquitous, though challenging for making ecological inference due to typically irreducible uncertainty relating to the sampling process. We illustrate a new approach that is useful for generating inference from predator data arising from wildlife collisions. By simply conditioning on a second prey species sampled via the same collision process, and by using a biologically realistic numerical response functions, we can produce a coherent numerical response relationship between predator and prey. This relationship can then be used to make inference on the population size of the predator species, including the probability of extinction. The statistical conditioning enables us to account for unmeasured variation in factors influencing the runway strike incidence for individual airports and to enable valid comparisons. A practical application of the approach for testing hypotheses about the distribution and abundance of a predator species is illustrated using the hypothesized red fox incursion into Tasmania, Australia. We estimate that conditional on the numerical response between fox and lagomorph runway strikes on mainland Australia, the predictive probability of observing no runway strikes of foxes in Tasmania after observing 15 lagomorph strikes is 0.001. We conclude there is enough evidence to safely reject the null hypothesis that there is a widespread red fox population in Tasmania at a population density consistent with prey availability. The method is novel and has potential wider application.

  7. Making inference from wildlife collision data: inferring predator absence from prey strikes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Caley

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife collision data are ubiquitous, though challenging for making ecological inference due to typically irreducible uncertainty relating to the sampling process. We illustrate a new approach that is useful for generating inference from predator data arising from wildlife collisions. By simply conditioning on a second prey species sampled via the same collision process, and by using a biologically realistic numerical response functions, we can produce a coherent numerical response relationship between predator and prey. This relationship can then be used to make inference on the population size of the predator species, including the probability of extinction. The statistical conditioning enables us to account for unmeasured variation in factors influencing the runway strike incidence for individual airports and to enable valid comparisons. A practical application of the approach for testing hypotheses about the distribution and abundance of a predator species is illustrated using the hypothesized red fox incursion into Tasmania, Australia. We estimate that conditional on the numerical response between fox and lagomorph runway strikes on mainland Australia, the predictive probability of observing no runway strikes of foxes in Tasmania after observing 15 lagomorph strikes is 0.001. We conclude there is enough evidence to safely reject the null hypothesis that there is a widespread red fox population in Tasmania at a population density consistent with prey availability. The method is novel and has potential wider application.

  8. A decade of U.S. Air Force bat strikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peurach, Suzanne C.; Dove, Carla J.; Stepko, Laura

    2009-01-01

    From 1997 through 2007, 821 bat strikes were reported to the U.S. Air Force (USAF) Safety Center by aircraft personnel or ground crew and sent to the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, for identification. Many samples were identified by macroscopic and or microscopic comparisons with bat specimens housed in the museum and augmented during the last 2 years by DNA analysis. Bat remains from USAF strikes during this period were received at the museum from 40 states in the United States and from 20 countries. We confirmed that 46% of the strikes were caused by bats, but we did not identify them further; we identified 5% only to the family or genus level, and 49% to the species level. Fifty-five of the 101 bat-strike samples submitted for DNA analysis have been identified to the species level. Twenty-five bat species have been recorded striking USAF planes worldwide. The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis; n = 173) is the species most commonly identified in USAF strike impacts, followed by the red bat (Lasiurus borealis; n = 83). Bat strikes peak during the spring and fall, with >57% occurring from August through October; 82% of the reports that included time of strike were recorded between 2100 and 0900 hours. More than 12% of the bat strikes were reported at >300 m above ground level (AGL). Although $825,000 and >50% of this sum was attributable to 5 bat-strike incidents. Only 5 bats from the 10 most damaging bat strikes were identified to the species level, either because we did not receive remains with the reports or the sample was insufficient for identification.

  9. Gravity inversion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhard, N.R.

    1979-01-01

    The gravity inversion code applies stabilized linear inverse theory to determine the topography of a subsurface density anomaly from Bouguer gravity data. The gravity inversion program consists of four source codes: SEARCH, TREND, INVERT, and AVERAGE. TREND and INVERT are used iteratively to converge on a solution. SEARCH forms the input gravity data files for Nevada Test Site data. AVERAGE performs a covariance analysis on the solution. This document describes the necessary input files and the proper operation of the code. 2 figures, 2 tables

  10. Moment Tensor Inversion with 3D sensor configuration of Mining Induced Seismicity (Kiruna mine, Sweden)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ju; Dineva, Savka; Cesca, Simone; Heimann, Sebastian

    2018-03-01

    Mining induced seismicity is an undesired consequence of mining operations, which poses significant hazard to miners and infrastructures and requires an accurate analysis of the rupture process. Seismic moment tensors of mining-induced events help to understand the nature of mining-induced seismicity by providing information about the relationship between the mining, stress redistribution and instabilities in the rock mass. In this work, we adapt and test a waveform-based inversion method on high frequency data recorded by a dense underground seismic system in one of the largest underground mines in the world (Kiruna mine, Sweden). Stable algorithm for moment tensor inversion for comparatively small mining induced earthquakes, resolving both the double couple and full moment tensor with high frequency data is very challenging. Moreover, the application to underground mining system requires accounting for the 3D geometry of the monitoring system. We construct a Green's function database using a homogeneous velocity model, but assuming a 3D distribution of potential sources and receivers. We first perform a set of moment tensor inversions using synthetic data to test the effects of different factors on moment tensor inversion stability and source parameters accuracy, including the network spatial coverage, the number of sensors and the signal-to-noise ratio. The influence of the accuracy of the input source parameters on the inversion results is also tested. Those tests show that an accurate selection of the inversion parameters allows resolving the moment tensor also in presence of realistic seismic noise conditions. Finally, the moment tensor inversion methodology is applied to 8 events chosen from mining block #33/34 at Kiruna mine. Source parameters including scalar moment, magnitude, double couple, compensated linear vector dipole and isotropic contributions as well as the strike, dip, rake configurations of the double couple term were obtained. The orientations

  11. Reporting the Great Railroad Strike: How Ideology Shaped the News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, John

    The Great Railroad Strike of 1877, a national catastrophe and the major news story of the year, was the first national labor strike in U.S. history. Because of the ideological bias of the press, specifically its implicit commitment to capitalism and to objectivity (itself a "myth" of social order), newspapers of the period could be…

  12. The public's attitude towards strike action by healthcare workers and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The strength of the associations was determined by Cramer's V. Results. Results revealed strong opinions among the population regarding strikes, numerous misapprehensions when it comes to striking and rights, a poor awareness of other healthcare-related rights and the perception of poor treatment at public hospitals.

  13. Teaching Striking Skills in Elementary Physical Education Using Woodball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Seung Ho; Lee, Jihyun

    2017-01-01

    Object control (OC) skills are a part of fundamental motor skills and basic functional skills, which work as a prerequisite to becoming a skilled performer in many sports. Of various OC skills, striking is one of the most difficult to master due to a variety of interrelated movement components. A form of vertical or underarm striking is a more…

  14. LAW AND ETHICS OF STRIKES IN THE NIGERIAN HEALTH SYSTEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-06

    Oct 6, 2014 ... employment. Kidnapping has been affecting virtually every sector of the Nigerian economy. Thus it is not the right of any health worker to embark on strike. Rather the right to strike can be derived from the principle of collective bargaining, which according to Ahmed (2014) is an essential principle. Workers ...

  15. Ban on right to strike by police challenged

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünell, M.

    2008-01-01

    After months of negotiation between the police force and the minister of the interior on the renewal of the collective agreement, the police trade unions began threatening industrial action and strikes in December 2007. The courts were divided on the issue, with some ruling out strikes as a means of

  16. Martial arts striking hand peak acceleration, accuracy and consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Marzullo, Ana Carolina De Miranda; Bolander, Richard P; Bir, Cynthia A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to investigate the possible trade-off between peak hand acceleration and accuracy and consistency of hand strikes performed by martial artists of different training experiences. Ten male martial artists with training experience ranging from one to nine years volunteered to participate in the experiment. Each participant performed 12 maximum effort goal-directed strikes. Hand acceleration during the strikes was obtained using a tri-axial accelerometer block. A pressure sensor matrix was used to determine the accuracy and consistency of the strikes. Accuracy was estimated by the radial distance between the centroid of each subject's 12 strikes and the target, whereas consistency was estimated by the square root of the 12 strikes mean squared distance from their centroid. We found that training experience was significantly correlated to hand peak acceleration prior to impact (r(2)=0.456, p =0.032) and accuracy (r(2)=0. 621, p=0.012). These correlations suggest that more experienced participants exhibited higher hand peak accelerations and at the same time were more accurate. Training experience, however, was not correlated to consistency (r(2)=0.085, p=0.413). Overall, our results suggest that martial arts training may lead practitioners to achieve higher striking hand accelerations with better accuracy and no change in striking consistency.

  17. Sharp spatially constrained inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vignoli, Giulio G.; Fiandaca, Gianluca G.; Christiansen, Anders Vest C A.V.C.

    2013-01-01

    We present sharp reconstruction of multi-layer models using a spatially constrained inversion with minimum gradient support regularization. In particular, its application to airborne electromagnetic data is discussed. Airborne surveys produce extremely large datasets, traditionally inverted...... by using smoothly varying 1D models. Smoothness is a result of the regularization constraints applied to address the inversion ill-posedness. The standard Occam-type regularized multi-layer inversion produces results where boundaries between layers are smeared. The sharp regularization overcomes...... inversions are compared against classical smooth results and available boreholes. With the focusing approach, the obtained blocky results agree with the underlying geology and allow for easier interpretation by the end-user....

  18. Inverse planning IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenwald, J.-C.

    2008-01-01

    The lecture addressed the following topics: Optimizing radiotherapy dose distribution; IMRT contributes to optimization of energy deposition; Inverse vs direct planning; Main steps of IMRT; Background of inverse planning; General principle of inverse planning; The 3 main components of IMRT inverse planning; The simplest cost function (deviation from prescribed dose); The driving variable : the beamlet intensity; Minimizing a 'cost function' (or 'objective function') - the walker (or skier) analogy; Application to IMRT optimization (the gradient method); The gradient method - discussion; The simulated annealing method; The optimization criteria - discussion; Hard and soft constraints; Dose volume constraints; Typical user interface for definition of optimization criteria; Biological constraints (Equivalent Uniform Dose); The result of the optimization process; Semi-automatic solutions for IMRT; Generalisation of the optimization problem; Driving and driven variables used in RT optimization; Towards multi-criteria optimization; and Conclusions for the optimization phase. (P.A.)

  19. Risk Considerations of Bird Strikes to Space Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Christy; Ring, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Within seconds after liftoff of the Space Shuttle during mission STS-114, a turkey vulture impacted the vehicle's external tank. The contact caused no apparent damage to the Shuttle, but the incident led NASA to consider the potential consequences of bird strikes during a Shuttle launch. The environment at Kennedy Space Center provides unique bird strike challenges due to the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge and the Atlantic Flyway bird migration routes. NASA is currently refining risk assessment estimates for the probability of bird strike to space launch vehicles. This paper presents an approach for analyzing the risks of bird strikes to space launch vehicles and presents an example. The migration routes, types of birds present, altitudes of those birds, exposed area of the launch vehicle, and its capability to withstand impacts affect the risk due to bird strike. A summary of significant risk contributors is discussed.

  20. Power electromagnetic strike machine for engineering-geological surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usanov, K. M.; Volgin, A. V.; Chetverikov, E. A.; Kargin, V. A.; Moiseev, A. P.; Ivanova, Z. I.

    2017-10-01

    When implementing the processes of dynamic sensing of soils and pulsed nonexplosive seismic exploration, the most common and effective method is the strike one, which is provided by a variety of structure and parameters of pneumatic, hydraulic, electrical machines of strike action. The creation of compact portable strike machines which do not require transportation and use of mechanized means is important. A promising direction in the development of strike machines is the use of pulsed electromagnetic actuator characterized by relatively low energy consumption, relatively high specific performance and efficiency, and providing direct conversion of electrical energy into mechanical work of strike mass with linear movement trajectory. The results of these studies allowed establishing on the basis of linear electromagnetic motors the electromagnetic pulse machines with portable performance for dynamic sensing of soils and land seismic pulse of small depths.

  1. Submucous Myoma Induces Uterine Inversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Li Chen

    2006-06-01

    Conclusion: Nonpuerperal inversion of the uterus is rarely encountered by gynecologists. Diagnosis of uterine inversion is often not easy and imaging studies might be helpful. Surgical treatment is the method of choice in nonpuerperal uterine inversion.

  2. Wavelet transform analysis of electromyography kung fu strikes data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Marzullo, Ana Carolina de Miranda

    2009-11-01

    In martial arts and contact sports strikes are performed at near maximum speeds. For that reason, electromyography (EMG) analysis of such movements is non-trivial. This paper has three main goals: firstly, to investigate the differences in the EMG activity of muscles during strikes performed with and without impacts; secondly, to assess the advantages of using Sum of Significant Power (SSP) values instead of root mean square (rms) values when analyzing EMG data; and lastly to introduce a new method of calculating median frequency values using wavelet transforms (WMDF). EMG data of the deltoid anterior (DA), triceps brachii (TB) and brachioradialis (BR) muscles were collected from eight Kung Fu practitioners during strikes performed with and without impacts. SSP results indicated significant higher muscle activity (p = 0.023) for the strikes with impact. WMDF results, on the other hand, indicated significant lower values (p = 0. 007) for the strikes with impact. SSP results presented higher sensitivity than rms to quantify important signal differences and, at the same time, presented lower inter-subject coefficient of variations. The result of increase in SSP values and decrease in WMDF may suggest better synchronization of motor units for the strikes with impact performed by the experienced Kung Fu practitioners. Key PointsThe results show higher muscle activity and lower electromyography median frequencies for strikes with impact compared to strikes without.SSP results presented higher sensitivity and lower inter-subject coefficient of variations than rms results.Kung Fu palm strikes with impact may present better motor units' synchronization than strikes without.

  3. Are Pericentric Inversions Reorganizing Wedge Shell Genomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel García-Souto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wedge shells belonging to the Donacidae family are the dominant bivalves in exposed beaches in almost all areas of the world. Typically, two or more sympatric species of wedge shells differentially occupy intertidal, sublittoral, and offshore coastal waters in any given locality. A molecular cytogenetic analysis of two sympatric and closely related wedge shell species, Donax trunculus and Donax vittatus, was performed. Results showed that the karyotypes of these two species were both strikingly different and closely alike; whilst metacentric and submetacentric chromosome pairs were the main components of the karyotype of D. trunculus, 10–11 of the 19 chromosome pairs were telocentric in D. vittatus, most likely as a result of different pericentric inversions. GC-rich heterochromatic bands were present in both species. Furthermore, they showed coincidental 45S ribosomal RNA (rRNA, 5S rRNA and H3 histone gene clusters at conserved chromosomal locations, although D. trunculus had an additional 45S rDNA cluster. Intraspecific pericentric inversions were also detected in both D. trunculus and D. vittatus. The close genetic similarity of these two species together with the high degree of conservation of the 45S rRNA, 5S rRNA and H3 histone gene clusters, and GC-rich heterochromatic bands indicate that pericentric inversions contribute to the karyotype divergence in wedge shells.

  4. Strikes by physicians: a historical perspective toward an ethical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen L; Salmon, J Warren

    2006-01-01

    Current conditions surrounding the house of medicine-including corporate and government cost-containment strategies, increasing market-penetration schemes in health care, along with clinical scrutiny and the administrative control imposed under privatization by managed care firms, insurance companies, and governments-have spurred an upsurge in physician unionization, which requires a revisiting of the issue of physician strikes. Strikes by physicians have been relatively rare events in medical history. When they have occurred, they have aroused intense debate over their ethical justification among professionals and the public alike, notwithstanding what caused the strikes. As physicians and other health care providers increasingly find employment within organizations as wage-contract employees and their work becomes more highly rationalized, more physicians will join labor organizations to protect both their economic and their professional interests. As a result, these physicians will have to come to terms with the use of the strike weapon. On the surface, many health care strikes may not ever seem justifiable, but in certain defined situations a strike would be not only permissible but an ethical imperative. With an exacerbation of labor strife in the health sector in many nations, it is crucial to explore the question of what constitutes an ethical physician strike.

  5. Determine the Foot Strike Pattern Using Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzyy-Yuang Shiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From biomechanical point of view, strike pattern plays an important role in preventing potential injury risk in running. Traditionally, strike pattern determination was conducted by using 3D motion analysis system with cameras. However, the procedure is costly and not convenient. With the rapid development of technology, sensors have been applied in sport science field lately. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the algorithm that can identify landing strategies with a wearable sensor. Six healthy male participants were recruited to perform heel and forefoot strike strategies at 7, 10, and 13 km/h speeds. The kinematic data were collected by Vicon 3D motion analysis system and 2 inertial measurement units (IMU attached on the dorsal side of both shoes. The data of each foot strike were gathered for pitch angle and strike index analysis. Comparing the strike index from IMU with the pitch angle from Vicon system, our results showed that both signals exhibited highly correlated changes between different strike patterns in the sagittal plane (r=0.98. Based on the findings, the IMU sensors showed potential capabilities and could be extended beyond the context of sport science to other fields, including clinical applications.

  6. Global medicine: Is it ethical or morally justifiable for doctors and other healthcare workers to go on strike?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Doctor and healthcare worker (HCW) strikes are a global phenomenon with the potential to negatively impact on the quality of healthcare services and the doctor-patient relationship. Strikes are a legitimate deadlock breaking mechanism employed when labour negotiations have reached an impasse during collective bargaining. Striking doctors usually have a moral dilemma between adherence to the Hippocratic tenets of the medical profession and fiduciary obligation to patients. In such circumstances the ethical principles of respect for autonomy, justice and beneficence all come into conflict, whereby doctors struggle with their role as ordinary employees who are rightfully entitled to a just wage for just work versus their moral obligations to patients and society. Discussion It has been argued that to deny any group of workers, including "essential workers" the right to strike is akin to enslavement which is ethically and morally indefensible. While HCW strikes occur globally, the impact appears more severe in developing countries challenged by poorer socio-economic circumstances, embedded infrastructural deficiencies, and lack of viable alternative means of obtaining healthcare. These communities appear to satisfy the criteria for vulnerability and may be deserving of special ethical consideration when doctor and HCW strikes are contemplated. Summary The right to strike is considered a fundamental right whose derogation would be inimical to the proper functioning of employer/employee collective bargaining in democratic societies. Motivations for HCW strikes include the natural pressure to fulfil human needs and the paradigm shift in modern medical practice, from self-employment and benevolent paternalism, to managed healthcare and consumer rights. Minimizing the incidence and impact of HCW strikes will require an ethical approach from all stakeholders, and recognition that all parties have an equal moral obligation to serve the best interests of society

  7. Global medicine: is it ethical or morally justifiable for doctors and other healthcare workers to go on strike?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chima, Sylvester C

    2013-01-01

    Doctor and healthcare worker (HCW) strikes are a global phenomenon with the potential to negatively impact on the quality of healthcare services and the doctor-patient relationship. Strikes are a legitimate deadlock breaking mechanism employed when labour negotiations have reached an impasse during collective bargaining. Striking doctors usually have a moral dilemma between adherence to the Hippocratic tenets of the medical profession and fiduciary obligation to patients. In such circumstances the ethical principles of respect for autonomy, justice and beneficence all come into conflict, whereby doctors struggle with their role as ordinary employees who are rightfully entitled to a just wage for just work versus their moral obligations to patients and society. It has been argued that to deny any group of workers, including "essential workers" the right to strike is akin to enslavement which is ethically and morally indefensible. While HCW strikes occur globally, the impact appears more severe in developing countries challenged by poorer socio-economic circumstances, embedded infrastructural deficiencies, and lack of viable alternative means of obtaining healthcare. These communities appear to satisfy the criteria for vulnerability and may be deserving of special ethical consideration when doctor and HCW strikes are contemplated. The right to strike is considered a fundamental right whose derogation would be inimical to the proper functioning of employer/employee collective bargaining in democratic societies. Motivations for HCW strikes include the natural pressure to fulfil human needs and the paradigm shift in modern medical practice, from self-employment and benevolent paternalism, to managed healthcare and consumer rights. Minimizing the incidence and impact of HCW strikes will require an ethical approach from all stakeholders, and recognition that all parties have an equal moral obligation to serve the best interests of society. Employers should implement

  8. Strike action by nurses in South Africa: A value clarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Muller

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The Labour Relations Act (South Africa, 1991 made provision for protected strike action by employees, subject to certain conditions, procedures and negotiated agreements. This led to the removal of the strike clause in the Nursing Act (South Africa, 1992. The labour rights of all citizens are entrenched in the Constitution of the country (South Africa, 1996. Participation in strike action by the nurse/ midwife, regardless of the legal requirements and specifications, does, however, pose an ethical question. It is therefore necessary to conduct a value clarification on strike action by nurses in South Africa. The purpose of this research is to explore and describe the perceived values of participants from an accessible population on this phenomenon. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive research design was deployed. The perceived values of nurses on strike action were collected by means of an openended questionnaire/sketch. Over a period of three years a purposive and convenient sampling method was used, involving all the enrolled post basic nursing/midwifery students/ learners at a particular Nursing Education Institution. The justification of the sample was further enhanced by also collecting data on the participants’ age and provincial distribution location. Although a 63% sample realisation (of the accessible population was achieved, this represents only 1,5% of the registered nursing/midwifery population in the country. A descriptive analysis of the participants’ age and provincial distribution was undertaken, as well as a content analysis of their perceived values on strike action. The mean age of the participants was 48 years, which could be attributed to the fact that most of them were enrolled for a post-basic Diploma in Community Nursing Science. Most of the responses (52,7% were against strike action and 32,5% supported strike action by nurses as a constitutional and legal right. A fairly substantial number of participants (14

  9. "Thunderstruck": penetrating thoracic injury from lightning strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Waes, Oscar J F; van de Woestijne, Pieter C; Halm, Jens A

    2014-04-01

    Lightning strike victims are rarely presented at an emergency department. Burns are often the primary focus. This case report describes the improvised explosive device like-injury to the thorax due to lightning strike and its treatment, which has not been described prior in (kerauno)medicine. Penetrating injury due to blast from lightning strike is extremely rare. These "shrapnel" injuries should however be ruled out in all patients struck by lightning. Copyright © 2013 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Inverse scale space decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marie Foged; Benning, Martin; Schönlieb, Carola-Bibiane

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the inverse scale space flow as a decomposition method for decomposing data into generalised singular vectors. We show that the inverse scale space flow, based on convex and even and positively one-homogeneous regularisation functionals, can decompose data represented...... by the application of a forward operator to a linear combination of generalised singular vectors into its individual singular vectors. We verify that for this decomposition to hold true, two additional conditions on the singular vectors are sufficient: orthogonality in the data space and inclusion of partial sums...... of the subgradients of the singular vectors in the subdifferential of the regularisation functional at zero. We also address the converse question of when the inverse scale space flow returns a generalised singular vector given that the initial data is arbitrary (and therefore not necessarily in the range...

  11. Continental United States Hurricane Strikes 1950-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Continental U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster is our most popular poster which is updated annually. The poster includes all hurricanes that affected the U.S. since...

  12. 2005 Significant U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2005 Significant U.S. Hurricane Strikes poster is one of two special edition posters for the Atlantic Hurricanes. This beautiful poster contains two sets of...

  13. Ethical and legal consideration of prisoner's hunger strike in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alempijevic, Djordje; Pavlekic, Snezana; Jecmenica, Dragan; Nedeljkov, Aleksandra; Jankovic, Milos

    2011-03-01

    Hunger strike of prisoners and detainees remains a major human rights and ethical issue for medical professionals. We are reporting on a case of a 48-year-old male sentenced prisoner, intravenous heroin user, who went on a hunger strike and died 15 days later. Throughout the fasting period, the prisoner, who was capable of decision making, refused any medical examination. Autopsy findings were not supporting prolonged starvation, while toxicology revealed benzodiazepines and opiates in blood and urine. Cause of death was given as "heroin intoxication" in keeping with detection of 6-MAM. Legal and ethical issues pertinent to medical examination and treatment of prisoners on hunger strike are explored in accordance with legislation and professional ethical standards in Serbia. A recommendation for the best autopsy practice in deaths following hunger strike has been made. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Nuclear First Strike-Have the Rules Changed?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carter, Rosemary M

    2008-01-01

    .... Nuclear first strike is the policy that reserves the right to use nuclear weapons against an enemy before that enemy employs a like weapon without any constraints on the decision to employ the weapon...

  15. Joint Strike Fighter fit for duty in Europe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerkens, Johannes M.G.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the potential growth of the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) market in Europe. Competition between Lockheed Martin and Boeing for the fighter's design contract; Disadvantages of the fighter plane; Stealth performance of JSF.

  16. Comparison of force, power, and striking efficiency for a Kung Fu strike performed by novice and experienced practitioners: preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Magini, Marcio; Saba, Marcelo M F; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu Tavares

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a comparison of force, power, and efficiency values calculated from Kung Fu Yau-Man palm strikes, when performed by 7 experienced and 6 novice men. They performed 5 palm strikes to a freestanding basketball, recorded by high-speed camera at 1000 Hz. Nonparametric comparisons and correlations showed experienced practitioners presented larger values of mean muscle force, mean impact force, mean muscle power, mean impact power, and mean striking efficiency, as is noted in evidence obtained for other martial arts. Also, an interesting result was that for experienced Kung Fu practitioners, muscle power was linearly correlated with impact power (p = .98) but not for the novice practitioners (p = .46).

  17. Local avian density influences risk of mortality from window strikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Ann M.; Hagemeyer, Natasha D.G.; Lahey, Ally S.

    2016-01-01

    Up to a billion birds die per year in North America as a result of striking windows. Both transparent and reflective glass panes are a cause for concern, misleading birds by either acting as invisible, impenetrable barriers to desired resources, or reflecting those resources over a large surface area. A high number of window strikes occur during migration, but little is known about the factors of susceptibility, or whether particular avian taxa are more vulnerable than others. We report on a study of window strikes and mist-netting data at the Virginia Zoological Park (Norfolk, Virginia, USA), conducted in the autumn of 2013 and 2014. We focused on three factors likely to contribute to an individual’s predisposition to collide with windows: (i) taxonomic classification, (ii) age, and (iii) migrant vs. resident status. Thrushes, dominated by the partial migrant American Robin (Turdus migratorius), were significantly less likely to strike glass than be sampled in mist nets (χ2 = 9.21, p = 0.002), while wood-warblers (Parulidae) were more likely to strike than expected (χ2 = 13.55, p windows (45.4%) was not significantly different (χ2 = 0.05, p = 0.827) than the population of juvenile birds naturally occurring at the zoo (48.8%). Migrants, however, were significantly more susceptible to window strikes than residents (χ2 = 6.35, p = 0.012). Our results suggest that resident birds are able to learn to avoid and thus reduce their likelihood of striking windows; this intrinsic risk factor may help explain the apparent susceptibility of certain taxa to window strikes. PMID:27366656

  18. NASA storm hazards research in lightning strikes to aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, B. D.; Brown, P. W.; Plumer, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    The lightning strike condition data gathered in the 1980-1984 period are presented, together with the lightning attachment point analysis for the NASA F-106B research aircraft are presented. The analysis of the experienced 637 direct lightning strikes shows that the highest strike rates (2.1 strikes/min and 13 strikes/penetration) occurred at altitudes between 38,000 and 40,000 ft. The regions of highest risk for an aircraft to experience a direct lightning strike were the areas of thunderstorms where the ambient temperature was colder than -40 C and where the relative turbulence and precipitation intensities were characterized as negligible to light. The presence and location of lightning, therefore, did not necessarily indicate the presence and location of hazardous precipitation and turbulence. The total onboard data show that the lightning attachment patterns on this aircraft fall into four general categories, although the 1984 data suggest that the entire surface of the F-106B may be susceptible to lightning attachment.

  19. WAVELET TRANSFORM ANALYSIS OF ELECTROMYOGRAPHY KUNG FU STRIKES DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Miranda Marzullo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In martial arts and contact sports strikes are performed at near maximum speeds. For that reason, electromyography (EMG analysis of such movements is non-trivial. This paper has three main goals: firstly, to investigate the differences in the EMG activity of muscles during strikes performed with and without impacts; secondly, to assess the advantages of using Sum of Significant Power (SSP values instead of root mean square (rms values when analyzing EMG data; and lastly to introduce a new method of calculating median frequency values using wavelet transforms (WMDF. EMG data of the deltoid anterior (DA, triceps brachii (TB and brachioradialis (BR muscles were collected from eight Kung Fu practitioners during strikes performed with and without impacts. SSP results indicated significant higher muscle activity (p = 0.023 for the strikes with impact. WMDF results, on the other hand, indicated significant lower values (p = 0. 007 for the strikes with impact. SSP results presented higher sensitivity than rms to quantify important signal differences and, at the same time, presented lower inter-subject coefficient of variations. The result of increase in SSP values and decrease in WMDF may suggest better synchronization of motor units for the strikes with impact performed by the experienced Kung Fu practitioners

  20. Inversion assuming weak scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    due to the complex nature of the field. A method based on linear inversion is employed to infer information about the statistical properties of the scattering field from the obtained cross-spectral matrix. A synthetic example based on an active high-frequency sonar demonstrates that the proposed...

  1. Locative Inversion in English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuis, H.

    2005-01-01

    This article aims at reformulating in more current terms Hoekstra and Mulder’s (1990) analysis of the Locative Inversion (LI) construction. The new proposal is crucially based on the assumption that Small Clause (SC) predicates agree with their external argument in phi-features, which may be

  2. Positive Emotions Associated with "Counter-Strike" Game Playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mirim; Heard, Rob; Suo, Chao; Chow, Chin Moi

    2012-10-01

    Digital game playing engages people for long periods of time. The pleasure offered by digital games may explain the players' consumption of this activity. Games may elicit both positive and negative emotions, which can be measured by encephalography (EEG). The EEG alpha asymmetry index (AI) is different in positive and negative emotions and so may be used to distinguish positive from negative emotions that occur during gaming. We hypothesized that the "Counter-Strike" (CS) game (Valve Software, Bellevue, WA) is pleasurable and demonstrable with a positive EEG AI. Twelve male participants ages 18-30 years underwent EEG recordings continuously during and postgame. EEG was also recorded pregame for control conditions of baseline (sitting on a chair staring at a blank wall), movement (moving fingers on the computer keyboard with a blank screen), sound (listening to the sound of the CS game with a blank screen), and screen (watching the CS game without playing). Self-ratings of emotional responses were completed at pre-, during, and postgame. A significant decrease in the EEG AI was observed under the screen condition compared with baseline, whereas an increase was observed postgame compared with the screen condition. The participants demonstrated a positive EEG AI following the "shoot" events (shoot opponents) and negative emotions after the "being shot" events. Subjective ratings of emotional response indicated happiness during and postgame, but anger and arousal were reported only during the game. The overall results are consistent with the hypothesis that predominantly positive emotional reactions are elicited from playing the CS game and concur with positive subjective ratings of happiness. Future studies may explore the relationship of game pleasure and obsessive game play.

  3. Bayesian seismic AVO inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buland, Arild

    2002-07-01

    A new linearized AVO inversion technique is developed in a Bayesian framework. The objective is to obtain posterior distributions for P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity and density. Distributions for other elastic parameters can also be assessed, for example acoustic impedance, shear impedance and P-wave to S-wave velocity ratio. The inversion algorithm is based on the convolutional model and a linearized weak contrast approximation of the Zoeppritz equation. The solution is represented by a Gaussian posterior distribution with explicit expressions for the posterior expectation and covariance, hence exact prediction intervals for the inverted parameters can be computed under the specified model. The explicit analytical form of the posterior distribution provides a computationally fast inversion method. Tests on synthetic data show that all inverted parameters were almost perfectly retrieved when the noise approached zero. With realistic noise levels, acoustic impedance was the best determined parameter, while the inversion provided practically no information about the density. The inversion algorithm has also been tested on a real 3-D dataset from the Sleipner Field. The results show good agreement with well logs but the uncertainty is high. The stochastic model includes uncertainties of both the elastic parameters, the wavelet and the seismic and well log data. The posterior distribution is explored by Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation using the Gibbs sampler algorithm. The inversion algorithm has been tested on a seismic line from the Heidrun Field with two wells located on the line. The uncertainty of the estimated wavelet is low. In the Heidrun examples the effect of including uncertainty of the wavelet and the noise level was marginal with respect to the AVO inversion results. We have developed a 3-D linearized AVO inversion method with spatially coupled model parameters where the objective is to obtain posterior distributions for P-wave velocity, S

  4. Pseudo waveform inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Chang Soo; Park, Keun Pil [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Jung Hee; Hyun, Byung Koo; Shin, Sung Ryul [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The seismic reflection exploration technique which is one of the geophysical methods for oil exploration became effectively to image the subsurface structure with rapid development of computer. However, the imagining of subsurface based on the conventional data processing is almost impossible to obtain the information on physical properties of the subsurface such as velocity and density. Since seismic data are implicitly function of velocities of subsurface, it is necessary to develop the inversion method that can delineate the velocity structure using seismic topography and waveform inversion. As a tool to perform seismic inversion, seismic forward modeling program using ray tracing should be developed. In this study, we have developed the algorithm that calculate the travel time of the complex geologic structure using shooting ray tracing by subdividing the geologic model into blocky structure having the constant velocity. With the travel time calculation, the partial derivatives of travel time can be calculated efficiently without difficulties. Since the current ray tracing technique has a limitation to calculate the travel times for extremely complex geologic model, our aim in the future is to develop the powerful ray tracer using the finite element technique. After applying the pseudo waveform inversion to the seismic data of Korea offshore, we can obtain the subsurface velocity model and use the result in bring up the quality of the seismic data processing. If conventional seismic data processing and seismic interpretation are linked with this inversion technique, the high quality of seismic data processing can be expected to image the structure of the subsurface. Future research area is to develop the powerful ray tracer of ray tracing which can calculate the travel times for the extremely complex geologic model. (author). 39 refs., 32 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Variability in the combustion-derived fraction of urban humidity in Salt Lake City winter estimated from stable water vapor isotopes and its relationship to atmospheric stability and inversion structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorella, R.; Bares, R.; Lin, J. C.; Strong, C.; Bowen, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    Water released from the combustion of fossil fuels, while a negligible part of the global hydrological cycle, may be a significant contributor to urban humidity as fossil fuel emissions are strongly concentrated in space and time. The fraction of urban humidity comprised of combustion-derived vapor (CDV) cannot be observed through humidity measurements alone. However, the distinct stable isotopic composition of CDV, which arises from the reaction of 18O-enriched atmospheric O2 with 2H-depleted organic molecules, represents a promising method to apportion observed humidity between CDV and advected vapor. We apply stable water vapor isotopes to investigate variability in CDV amount and its relationship to atmospheric conditions in Salt Lake City, Utah. The Salt Lake Valley experiences several periods of atmospheric stratification during winter known as cold air pools, during which concentrations of CDV and pollutants can be markedly elevated due to reduced atmospheric mixing. Therefore, the SLV during winter is an ideal place to investigate variability in CDV fraction across a spectrum of boundary layer conditions, ranging from well-mixed to very stable. We present water vapor isotope data from four winters (2013-2017) from the top of a 30 m building on the University of Utah (U of U) Campus. Additionally, we present water vapor isotope data from the summit of Hidden Peak from the 2016-2017 winter, 25 km SE and 2000 m above the U of U site. The Hidden Peak site is consistently above the cold air pool emplaced in the SLV during stable events. We find the expression of the CDV signal in the valley is related to the atmospheric structure of the cold air pools in the SLV, and that the fraction of CDV inferred in the valley is likely related to the mixing height within the cold air pool. Furthermore, we find that patterns between the Hidden Peak and U of U sites during inversion events may record the large-scale atmospheric dynamics promoting emplacement of the cold air

  6. Suggestion of an inverse relationship between perception of occupational risks and work-related injuries Sugestão de uma associação inversa entre percepção de riscos ocupacionais e acidentes do trabalho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cordeiro

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Worker perception of risk influences worker behavior and consequently exposure to risks. However, an inverse relationship between perception of occupational risks and work-related injuries has not yet been clearly established. A matched case-control was performed aiming to investigate possible differences in perception of occupational risks between workers who had suffered occupational injuries and those who had not. Cases were defined as all 93 workers from a large metallurgical factory in southeastern Brazil, who had suffered occupational injuries during the year 1996. Controls were 372 workers who had not suffered occupational injuries, matched on the basis of the factory sector and jobs performed. Assessment of occupational risk perception was performed by asking the workers to fill out a questionnaire consisting of questions on specific risks related to problems in work relations, work per se, and mode of production. The findings suggest that the degree of perception that workers with occupational injuries have of some occupational risks is lower than that of their non-injured coworkers.A percepção que o trabalhador tem dos riscos ocupacionais a que está exposto, influencia seu comportamento e sua própria exposição a riscos. Entretanto, uma relação inversa entre percepção de riscos ocupacionais e acidentes do trabalho, embora especulada, não foi ainda claramente estabelecida. Este é um estudo caso-controle objetivando investigar a existência de diferenças na percepção de riscos ocupacionais entre trabalhadores acidentados e não acidentados. Os casos foram todos os 93 trabalhadores de uma grande metalúrgica de Botucatu, que sofreram acidentes do trabalho no ano de 1996. Para cada caso foram aleatoriamente alocados quatro controles não acidentados, emparelhados segundo a seção de trabalho e a função do trabalhador acidentado na semana do acidente. A mensuração da percepção de riscos ocupacionais de casos e controles

  7. Calculation of the inverse data space via sparse inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Saragiotis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The inverse data space provides a natural separation of primaries and surface-related multiples, as the surface multiples map onto the area around the origin while the primaries map elsewhere. However, the calculation of the inverse data is far from trivial as theory requires infinite time and offset recording. Furthermore regularization issues arise during inversion. We perform the inversion by minimizing the least-squares norm of the misfit function by constraining the $ell_1$ norm of the solution, being the inverse data space. In this way a sparse inversion approach is obtained. We show results on field data with an application to surface multiple removal.

  8. [The Teachers' Right to Strike Versus the Students' Right to an Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Edward M.

    The speaker establishes himself in opposition to teacher strikes, outlines the scope of teacher strikes, discusses arguments for and against the right of teachers to strike, presents the kinds of strikes that are possible, outlines what a board and the administration can do to head off a strike, and presents the American Association of School…

  9. Foot and ankle kinematics in chronic ankle instability subjects using a midfoot strike pattern when running, including influence of taping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Kevin; Matricali, Giovanni Arnoldo; Dingenen, Bart; De Boeck, Jente; Bronselaer, Sarah; Staes, Filip

    2018-05-01

    Investigate differences in multi-segment foot kinematics between controls and participants with chronic ankle instability during running with a midfoot striking pattern and to evaluate the effect of Low-Dye and High-Dye taping. Three-dimensional multi-segment foot kinematics of 12 controls and 15 participants with chronic ankle instability were collected while running barefoot, and in both taping conditions. Ranges of motion occurring at each joint, each sub phase of stance, were compared between groups and between taping conditions (0-dimensional inference). Kinematic data were also compared using one-dimensional statistical parametric mapping. The symptomatic group demonstrated while barefoot running a significantly decreased rearfoot dorsiflexion range of motion during the peak impact phase as well as a less dorsiflexed position from 6 to 12% of the running cycle. During the absorption and generation phase, the symptomatic group also showed a significantly increased rearfoot dorsiflexion and adduction motion as well as an increased midfoot inversion motion. In the peak impact phase of both taping conditions, a decreased midfoot inversion motion was found. The High-Dye taping resulted in a decreased rearfoot plantarflexion motion whereas the Low-Dye caused a decreased midfoot inversion motion. Persons with chronic ankle instability seem to have altered rearfoot and midfoot kinematics while running with a midfoot striking index. High-Dye taping seems to have better therapeutic features than Low-Dye taping. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Equivalent strike-slip earthquake cycles in half-space and lithosphere-asthenosphere earth models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    By virtue of the images used in the dislocation solution, the deformation at the free surface produced throughout the earthquake cycle by slippage on a long strike-slip fault in an Earth model consisting of an elastic plate (lithosphere) overlying a viscoelastic half-space (asthenosphere) can be duplicated by prescribed slip on a vertical fault embedded in an elastic half-space. Inversion of 1973-1988 geodetic measurements of deformation across the segment of the San Andreas fault in the Transverse Ranges north of Los Angeles for the half-space equivalent slip distribution suggests no significant slip on the fault above 30 km and a uniform slip rate of 36 mm/yr below 30 km. One equivalent lithosphere-asthenosphere model would have a 30-km thick lithosphere and an asthenosphere relaxation time greater than 33 years, but other models are possible. -from Author

  11. Acute rhabdomyolysis of the soleus muscle induced by a lightning strike: magnetic resonance and scintigraphic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Naofumi; Inaoka, Tsutomu; Shuke, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Koji; Aburano, Tamio [Asahikawa Medical College, Department of Radiology, Asahikawa (Japan); Chisato, Naoyuki; Go, Kazutomo [Asahikawa Medical College, Department of Emergency Medicine, Asahikawa (Japan); Nochi, Hitoshi [Asahikawa Medical College, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Asahikawa (Japan)

    2007-07-15

    Among natural disasters, a lightning strike is a rare but potentially life-threatening phenomenon. If victims survive a cardiac arrest due to instantaneous passage of an exceptionally high voltage electric charge through the whole body, they may be afflicted with various complications such as muscle necrosis resulting in acute renal failure. In this article, we report a case of a 54-year-old man with acute rhabdomyolysis of the left soleus muscle associated with a lightning strike. T2-weighted and short-tau inversion recovery MR images showed a high signal intensity in the left soleus muscle. A whole-body bone scintigram showed abnormal uptakes in the left soleus muscle and the dorsal aspect of the left foot. MR and scintigraphic evaluations were very useful in depicting the site and extent of muscle damage. Since the patient showed a surprisingly high level of serum creatine kinase, the added information was very valuable for determining the patient's management. (orig.)

  12. Electrochemically driven emulsion inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johans, Christoffer; Kontturi, Kyoesti

    2007-01-01

    It is shown that emulsions stabilized by ionic surfactants can be inverted by controlling the electrical potential across the oil-water interface. The potential dependent partitioning of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was studied by cyclic voltammetry at the 1,2-dichlorobenzene|water interface. In the emulsion the potential control was achieved by using a potential-determining salt. The inversion of a 1,2-dichlorobenzene-in-water (O/W) emulsion stabilized by SDS was followed by conductometry as a function of added tetrapropylammonium chloride. A sudden drop in conductivity was observed, indicating the change of the continuous phase from water to 1,2-dichlorobenzene, i.e. a water-in-1,2-dichlorobenzene emulsion was formed. The inversion potential is well in accordance with that predicted by the hydrophilic-lipophilic deviation if the interfacial potential is appropriately accounted for

  13. Channelling versus inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gale, A.S.; Surlyk, Finn; Anderskouv, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from regional stratigraphical patterns in Santonian−Campanian chalk is used to infer the presence of a very broad channel system (5 km across) with a depth of at least 50 m, running NNW−SSE across the eastern Isle of Wight; only the western part of the channel wall and fill is exposed. W......−Campanian chalks in the eastern Isle of Wight, involving penecontemporaneous tectonic inversion of the underlying basement structure, are rejected....

  14. Isolated Sensorineural Hearing Loss as a Sequela after Lightning Strike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfuz Turan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In most of the surviving patients after a lightning strike, audiovestibular abnormalities have been reported. The most frequently reported type of abnormalities is a tympanic membrane perforation with hearing loss and external ear canal burn. However a sensor neural hearing loss and mixed type hearing loss can also occur, but these occur rarely. A nineteen-year-old female patient had, after a lightning strike, serious burns on the left ear, behind the ear, and on the chest and neck. She also had in her left ear 108 dB hearing loss with irregular central perforation and in her right ear 52 dB sensorineural hearing loss. There was no hearing loss before the strike. A hearing aid was recommended for the right ear and good care and follow-up were recommended for the left ear. A lightning strike can cause serious audiological damage. Therefore, it is necessary to make a careful audiovestibular evaluation of the patients. Although there exist rarely healed cases from sensorineural hearing loss after lightning strike in literature, in our case hearing loss occurred bilaterally and then it healed unilaterally. This condition is quite rare in literature.

  15. Intersections, ideals, and inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasco, D.W.

    1998-01-01

    Techniques from computational algebra provide a framework for treating large classes of inverse problems. In particular, the discretization of many types of integral equations and of partial differential equations with undetermined coefficients lead to systems of polynomial equations. The structure of the solution set of such equations may be examined using algebraic techniques.. For example, the existence and dimensionality of the solution set may be determined. Furthermore, it is possible to bound the total number of solutions. The approach is illustrated by a numerical application to the inverse problem associated with the Helmholtz equation. The algebraic methods are used in the inversion of a set of transverse electric (TE) mode magnetotelluric data from Antarctica. The existence of solutions is demonstrated and the number of solutions is found to be finite, bounded from above at 50. The best fitting structure is dominantly one dimensional with a low crustal resistivity of about 2 ohm-m. Such a low value is compatible with studies suggesting lower surface wave velocities than found in typical stable cratons

  16. Intersections, ideals, and inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasco, D.W.

    1998-10-01

    Techniques from computational algebra provide a framework for treating large classes of inverse problems. In particular, the discretization of many types of integral equations and of partial differential equations with undetermined coefficients lead to systems of polynomial equations. The structure of the solution set of such equations may be examined using algebraic techniques.. For example, the existence and dimensionality of the solution set may be determined. Furthermore, it is possible to bound the total number of solutions. The approach is illustrated by a numerical application to the inverse problem associated with the Helmholtz equation. The algebraic methods are used in the inversion of a set of transverse electric (TE) mode magnetotelluric data from Antarctica. The existence of solutions is demonstrated and the number of solutions is found to be finite, bounded from above at 50. The best fitting structure is dominantly onedimensional with a low crustal resistivity of about 2 ohm-m. Such a low value is compatible with studies suggesting lower surface wave velocities than found in typical stable cratons.

  17. Inverse transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L.C.; Romea, R.D.; Kimura, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    A new method for laser acceleration is proposed based upon the inverse process of transition radiation. The laser beam intersects an electron-beam traveling between two thin foils. The principle of this acceleration method is explored in terms of its classical and quantum bases and its inverse process. A closely related concept based on the inverse of diffraction radiation is also presented: this concept has the significant advantage that apertures are used to allow free passage of the electron beam. These concepts can produce net acceleration because they do not satisfy the conditions in which the Lawson-Woodward theorem applies (no net acceleration in an unbounded vacuum). Finally, practical aspects such as damage limits at optics are employed to find an optimized set of parameters. For reasonable assumptions an acceleration gradient of 200 MeV/m requiring a laser power of less than 1 GW is projected. An interesting approach to multi-staging the acceleration sections is also presented. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  18. Predicting timing of foot strike during running, independent of striking technique, using principal component analysis of joint angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osis, Sean T; Hettinga, Blayne A; Leitch, Jessica; Ferber, Reed

    2014-08-22

    As 3-dimensional (3D) motion-capture for clinical gait analysis continues to evolve, new methods must be developed to improve the detection of gait cycle events based on kinematic data. Recently, the application of principal component analysis (PCA) to gait data has shown promise in detecting important biomechanical features. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to define a new foot strike detection method for a continuum of striking techniques, by applying PCA to joint angle waveforms. In accordance with Newtonian mechanics, it was hypothesized that transient features in the sagittal-plane accelerations of the lower extremity would be linked with the impulsive application of force to the foot at foot strike. Kinematic and kinetic data from treadmill running were selected for 154 subjects, from a database of gait biomechanics. Ankle, knee and hip sagittal plane angular acceleration kinematic curves were chained together to form a row input to a PCA matrix. A linear polynomial was calculated based on PCA scores, and a 10-fold cross-validation was performed to evaluate prediction accuracy against gold-standard foot strike as determined by a 10 N rise in the vertical ground reaction force. Results show 89-94% of all predicted foot strikes were within 4 frames (20 ms) of the gold standard with the largest error being 28 ms. It is concluded that this new foot strike detection is an improvement on existing methods and can be applied regardless of whether the runner exhibits a rearfoot, midfoot, or forefoot strike pattern. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. VARIATION OF STRIKE INCENTIVES WITH DAMAGE PREFERENCES; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. CANAVAN

    2001-01-01

    For START III level forces, strike allocations and magnitudes vary little with L, but first strike costs vary directly with L, which means that for K reflecting a preference for the survival of high value targets over their destruction and a preference for high value over military targets, the costs of action are far greater than those of inaction for a wide range of values of damage preference L. Thus, if both sides have much greater preferences for the survival of their high value targets than for military targets or destruction, they do not see a net incentive to strike, and crises are terminated by inaction. Recent decades suggest strong preferences for the survival of high value and that this has contributed to the lack of direct conflict during that period

  20. Lightning Strike Ablation Damage Influence Factors Analysis of Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composite Based on Coupled Electrical-Thermal Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J. J.; Chang, F.; Li, S. L.; Yao, X. L.; Sun, J. R.; Xiao, Y.

    2017-10-01

    According to the mathematical analysis model constructed on the basis of energy-balance relationship in lightning strike, and accompany with the simplified calculation strategy of composite resin pyrolysis degree dependent electrical conductivity, an effective three dimensional thermal-electrical coupling analysis finite element model of composite laminate suffered from lightning current was established based on ABAQUS, to elucidate the effects of lighting current waveform parameters and thermal/electrical properties of composite laminate on the extent of ablation damage. Simulated predictions agree well with the composite lightning strike directed effect experimental data, illustrating the potential accuracy of the constructed model. The analytical results revealed that extent of composite lightning strike ablation damage can be characterized by action integral validly, there exist remarkable power function relationships between action integral and visual damage area, projected damage area, maximum damage depth and damage volume of ablation damage, and enhancing the electrical conductivity and specific heat of composite, ablation damage will be descended obviously, power function relationships also exist between electrical conductivity, specific heat and ablation damage, however, the impact of thermal conductivity on the extent of ablation damage is not notable. The conclusions obtained provide some guidance for composite anti-lightning strike structure-function integration design.

  1. Comparison of blade-strike modeling results with empirical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, Thomas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2004-03-01

    This study is the initial stage of further investigation into the dynamics of injury to fish during passage through a turbine runner. As part of the study, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) estimated the probability of blade strike, and associated injury, as a function of fish length and turbine operating geometry at two adjacent turbines in Powerhouse 1 of Bonneville Dam. Units 5 and 6 had identical intakes, stay vanes, wicket gates, and draft tubes, but Unit 6 had a new runner and curved discharge ring to minimize gaps between the runner hub and blades and between the blade tips and discharge ring. We used a mathematical model to predict blade strike associated with two Kaplan turbines and compared results with empirical data from biological tests conducted in 1999 and 2000. Blade-strike models take into consideration the geometry of the turbine blades and discharges as well as fish length, orientation, and distribution along the runner. The first phase of this study included a sensitivity analysis to consider the effects of difference in geometry and operations between families of turbines on the strike probability response surface. The analysis revealed that the orientation of fish relative to the leading edge of a runner blade and the location that fish pass along the blade between the hub and blade tip are critical uncertainties in blade-strike models. Over a range of discharges, the average prediction of injury from blade strike was two to five times higher than average empirical estimates of visible injury from shear and mechanical devices. Empirical estimates of mortality may be better metrics for comparison to predicted injury rates than other injury measures for fish passing at mid-blade and blade-tip locations.

  2. Striking volume intolerance is induced by mimicking arterial baroreflex failure in normal left ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funakoshi, Kouta; Hosokawa, Kazuya; Kishi, Takuya; Ide, Tomomi; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) are supersensitive to volume overload, and a striking increase in left atrial pressure (LAP) often occurs transiently and is rapidly resolved by intravascular volume reduction. The arterial baroreflex is a powerful regulator of intravascular stressed blood volume. We examined whether arterial baroreflex failure (FAIL) mimicked by constant carotid sinus pressure (CSP) causes a striking increase in LAP and systemic arterial pressure (AP) by volume loading in rats with normal left ventricular (LV) function. In anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats, we isolated bilateral carotid sinuses and controlled CSP by a servo-controlled piston pump. We mimicked the normal arterial baroreflex by matching CSP to instantaneous AP and FAIL by maintaining CSP at a constant value regardless of AP. We infused dextran stepwise (infused volume [Vi]) until LAP reached 15 mm Hg and obtained the LAP-Vi relationship. We estimated the critical Vi as the Vi at which LAP reached 20 mm Hg. In FAIL, critical Vi decreased markedly from 19.4 ± 1.6 mL/kg to 15.6 ± 1.6 mL/kg (P baroreflex system we recently developed could fully restore the physiologic volume intolerance in the absence of native arterial baroreflex. Arterial baroreflex failure induces striking volume intolerance in the absence of LV dysfunction and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute heart failure, especially in states of HFpEF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Force-feeding of hunger-striking prisoners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Shimon

    2014-09-01

    In contrast to the position of the World Medical Association and the Ethics Council of the Israel Medical Association, the author argues for forced-feeding of hunger-striking prisoners when their condition reaches a stage of danger of death or permanent injury. This position is based on the priority of human life over autonomy, and of a communitarian ethic. This position is supported by a District Court decision ordering the feeding of a hunger-striking prisoner, by a Supreme Court decision imposing surgery on a non-consenting prisoner, and in line with Israel's Patient's Right Law.

  4. MORE THAN A LABOR DISPUTE: THE PATCO STRIKE OF 1981

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul L. Butterworth

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available On August 3, 1981, 13,000 air traffic controllers walked off the job. Under US law, the strike was illegal. President Ronald Reagan ordered the strikers as a group to return to work; when they did not, he ordered individual strikers to return, and again they refused. Two days later the president fired the strikers. Reagan's action transformed relations between organized labor and American management, and created the worst turbulence to hit the American airways in recent history. “More Than a Labor Dispute” examines the work stoppage and aftermath through the eyes of two controllers and a pilot, all of whom worked during the strike.

  5. Remarkable rates of lightning strike mortality in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Monique Borgerhoff; Msalu, Lameck; Caro, Tim; Salerno, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Livingstone's second mission site on the shore of Lake Malawi suffers very high rates of consequential lightning strikes. Comprehensive interviewing of victims and their relatives in seven Traditional Authorities in Nkhata Bay District, Malawi revealed that the annual rate of consequential strikes was 419/million, more than six times higher than that in other developing countries; the rate of deaths from lightning was 84/million/year, 5.4 times greater than the highest ever recorded. These remarkable figures reveal that lightning constitutes a significant stochastic source of mortality with potential life history consequences, but it should not deflect attention away from the more prominent causes of mortality in this rural area.

  6. Effect of Forefoot Strike on Lower Extremity Muscle Activity and Knee Joint Angle During Cutting in Female Team Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Naruto; Kunugi, Shun; Mashimo, Sonoko; Okuma, Yoshihiro; Masunari, Akihiko; Miyazaki, Shogo; Hisajima, Tatsuya; Miyakawa, Shumpei

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of different strike forms, during cutting, on knee joint angle and lower limb muscle activity. Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activity in individuals performing cutting manoeuvres involving either rearfoot strikes (RFS) or forefoot strikes (FFS). Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to calculate changes in knee angles, during cutting, and to determine the relationship between muscle activity and knee joint angle. Force plates were synchronized with electromyography measurements to compare muscle activity immediately before and after foot strike. The valgus angle tends to be smaller during FFS cutting than during RFS cutting. Just prior to ground contact, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle activities were significantly greater during FFS cutting than during RFS cutting; tibialis anterior muscle activity was greater during RFS cutting. Immediately after ground contact, biceps femoris and lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle activities were significantly greater during FFS cutting than during RFS cutting; tibialis anterior muscle activity was significantly lower during FFS cutting. The results of the present study suggest that the hamstrings demonstrate greater activity, immediately after foot strike, during FFS cutting than during RFS cutting. Thus, FFS cutting may involve a lower risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury than does RFS cutting.

  7. Lower Miocene coeval thrusting and strike-slip faulting in the Western Betics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasca, Gianluca; Gueydan, Frédéric; Brun, Jean-Pierre

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the Africa-Europe convergence, the Mediterranean system presents a complex interaction between subduction rollback and upper subduction plate deformation since 30 Ma. The western end of the system shows an arcuate geometry across the Gibraltar arc, the Betico-Rifean belt, in which the relationship between slab dynamics and onshore tectonics is poorly constrained. The present study focuses on the Western Betics, which is characterized by two major thrusts: 1/ the Alboran Front limits the metamorphic domain (Alboran Domain) from the fold-and-thrust belts involving the Mesozoic cover of the Iberian margin (Subbetics Domain); 2/ the Alboran Internal Thrust allows the juxtaposition of a strongly attenuated lithosphere section, containing the large Ronda subcontinental mantle bodies, on top of crustal rocks. New structural data show that two major E-W strike-slip corridors controlled the deformation pattern of the Alboran Domain, in which E-W dextral strike-slip faults, N60° thrusts and N140° normal faults developed simultaneously during dextral strike-slip simple shear. The Alozaina piggy-back Basin, mainly formed by olistotromic deposits of Lower Miocene age, provides an age estimate for the continuous westward translation of the Alboran Domain, with reference to Iberia, that is accommodated mainly by an E-W lateral strike-slip ramp and a N60° frontal thrust ramp. In this context, a thrust sequence led to the piling up of thrust units in the Western Betics and to the crustal emplacement of the Ronda Peridotites bodies.

  8. Classical geometry Euclidean, transformational, inversive, and projective

    CERN Document Server

    Leonard, I E; Liu, A C F; Tokarsky, G W

    2014-01-01

    Features the classical themes of geometry with plentiful applications in mathematics, education, engineering, and science Accessible and reader-friendly, Classical Geometry: Euclidean, Transformational, Inversive, and Projective introduces readers to a valuable discipline that is crucial to understanding bothspatial relationships and logical reasoning. Focusing on the development of geometric intuitionwhile avoiding the axiomatic method, a problem solving approach is encouraged throughout. The book is strategically divided into three sections: Part One focuses on Euclidean geometry, which p

  9. Limits to Nonlinear Inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosegaard, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    For non-linear inverse problems, the mathematical structure of the mapping from model parameters to data is usually unknown or partly unknown. Absence of information about the mathematical structure of this function prevents us from presenting an analytical solution, so our solution depends on our...... ability to produce efficient search algorithms. Such algorithms may be completely problem-independent (which is the case for the so-called 'meta-heuristics' or 'blind-search' algorithms), or they may be designed with the structure of the concrete problem in mind. We show that pure meta...

  10. EDITORIAL Plagiarism - time to strike at the epidemic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Plagiarism - time to strike at the epidemic. Lukman Yusuf1, Abraham Aseffa2. We live in a globalized world where information is instantly shared across continents. The number of biomedical journals available for reference is quite enormous and there is a sudden huge surge of free open access journals in the last few years ...

  11. The Eastern Pacific Tropical Cyclone Strike Probability Program (EPSTRKP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    of nine preselected points of interest. Although subject to change the points currently listed within the program are: Acapulco, Mazatlan, Puerto ... Vallarta , La Paz, San Diego, Hilo, Honolulu, Johnston Island and Midway Island. The strike probabilities, computed upon receipt of each 6-hourly warning

  12. Monte Carlo Simulation to Estimate Likelihood of Direct Lightning Strikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Carlos; Medelius, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    A software tool has been designed to quantify the lightning exposure at launch sites of the stack at the pads under different configurations. In order to predict lightning strikes to generic structures, this model uses leaders whose origins (in the x-y plane) are obtained from a 2D random, normal distribution.

  13. Torts Liability for Strike Action and Third Party Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raday, Frances

    1979-01-01

    Studies the nature of the torts liability incurred in strikes and the extent of existing immunities bestowed on strikers and their organizers, and explores the principles that should govern liability and immunity. Available from Israel Law Review Association, c/o Faculty of Law, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus, P.O.B. 24100, Jerusalem…

  14. Nurses need the right to strike to protect patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Malcolm

    2012-04-25

    Four of your readers panellists were asked if the RCN should be affiliated to the Trades Union Congress (reflections April 4). One of them said the RCN needs to modernise and join the wider trade union movement, but 'should keep the "no strike" policy that has always served it so well'.

  15. Analysis of the effects of frequent strikes on academic performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The history of Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU)'s strike can be traced back to 1978, the period of the beginning of the decline in the oil boom, when the country faced the consequences of the failure by its rulers to use the oil wealth to generate production and a social welfare system. Military dictatorship had ...

  16. On Striking for a Bargain between Two Completely Informed Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houba, H.E.D.; Wen, Q.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a thorough equilibrium analysis of a wage contract negotiation model where the union must choose between strike and holdout between offers and counter-offers. When the union and the firm have different discount factors, delay in reaching an agreement may Pareto dominate many

  17. Assemblage of strike-slip faults and tectonic extension and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    12

    and its effect on the productivity of the tight reservoirs. The study will not only guide. 95 the oil-gas ..... 5 Effect of tectonic extension and compression on coal reservoir productivity. 288. 5.1 Strike-slip compression and ..... staff of all the authors that cooperated in performing the analyses. We are also. 425 grateful to the ...

  18. Assemblage of strike-slip faults and tectonic extension and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    12

    Assemblage of strike-slip faults and tectonic. 1 extension and compression analysis: A case. 2 study of a Lower Permian commercial coal. 3 reservoir in China. 4. 5. Shuai Yina,*, Dawei Lvb, Zhonghu Wu c .... high-quality reservoirs, and tectonic action is a leading factor for oil and gas. 70 enrichment. Therefore, it is of great ...

  19. BIRD/WILDLIFE STRIKE CONTROL FOR SAFER AIR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-06-05

    Jun 5, 2012 ... These include staff training and retraining, developing good data bank based on .... wildlife is very important in bird control. Successful habitat ... Designated staff patrols the airside areas using chemical repellants, propane cannons, distress call. Birds/Wildlife Strikes Control for Safer Air .................Usman et ...

  20. LAW AND ETHICS OF STRIKES IN THE NIGERIAN HEALTH SYSTEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-06

    Oct 6, 2014 ... MDCN Code of ethics intends to give right for cessation of work by workers in the health sector of the economy. Thus under the Common Law, a strike, especially in the essential services is a breach of the contract of employment. The Trade. Union (amendment) Act (Federal Republic of. Nigeria, 2005) ...

  1. Growth control of kalanchoe cultivars Rako and Gold Strike by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to test the potential of paclobutrazol and uniconazole used at the propagation stage as a plant growth retardant (PGR) of kalanchoe cultivars Rako and Gold Strike. Three node terminal cuttings were soaked in 500 mL of 0.05, 0.25, or 0.50 mg·L-1 paclobutrazol or uniconazole solution for 2 h.

  2. Striking Inside Angola with 32 Battalion | Scheepers | Scientia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 42, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Striking Inside Angola with 32 ...

  3. Force, reaction time, and precision of Kung Fu strikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Bolander, Richard; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu Tavares; Bir, Cynthia

    2009-08-01

    The goal was to compare values of force, precision, and reaction time of several martial arts punches and palm strikes performed by advanced and intermediate Kung Fu practitioners, both men and women. 13 Kung Fu practitioners, 10 men and three women, participated. Only the men, three advanced and seven intermediate, were considered for comparisons between levels. Reaction time values were obtained using two high speed cameras that recorded each strike at 2500 Hz. Force of impact was measured by a load cell. For comparisons of groups, force data were normalized by participant's body mass and height. Precision of the strikes was determined by a high speed pressure sensor. The results show that palm strikes were stronger than punches. Women in the study presented, on average, lower values of reaction time and force but higher values of precision than men. Advanced participants presented higher forces than intermediate participants. Significant negative correlations between the values of force and precision and the values of force and reaction time were also found.

  4. Case Report: Mass Casualty Lightning Strike at Ranger Training Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Shannon N; Wilson, Zachary W; Cole, Christopher B; Kennedy, Andrew R; Aycock, Ryan D

    2017-05-01

    Although lightning strikes are a rare occurrence, their significance cannot be ignored given military operations in the field during all types of weather. With proper medical management, patients with lightning injuries can return to duty. Information for this case report comes from eyewitness account at the 6th Ranger Training Battalion and from review of physician documentation from the 96th Medical Group, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. A lightning strike injured 44 Ranger School participants during a training exercise on August 12, 2015, at Camp Rudder, Florida. These patients were triaged in the field and transported to emergency department of Eglin Air Force Base. Of the 44 casualties, 20 were admitted. All were returned to duty the following day. One patient had cardiac arrest. This patient, along with two others, was admitted to the intensive care unit. Seventeen other patients were admitted for observation for rhabdomyolysis and/or cardiac arrhythmias. One patient was admitted with suspected acute kidney injury indicated by an elevated creatinine. All patients, including those admitted to the intensive care unit, were released on the day following the lightning strike without restrictions and were allowed to return to duty with increased medical monitoring. This case report highlights the need for proper triage and recognition of lightning strike injury, coordination of care between field operations and emergency department personnel, and close follow-up for patients presenting with lightning injury. Symptoms, physical exam, and laboratory findings from rigorous training can be difficult to distinguish from those resulting from lightning injury. Secondary injuries resulting from blunt trauma from falls may have been prevented by the use of the lightning strike posture. Further analysis of procedures and standard operating protocols to mitigate risk during thunderstorms may be required to prevent lightning's effects on large groups of military personnel

  5. Management of patients during hunger strike and refeeding phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, M; Joray, M L; Perrig, M; Bodmer, M; Stanga, Z

    2014-01-01

    Hunger strikers resuming nutritional intake may develop a life-threatening refeeding syndrome (RFS). Consequently, hunger strikers represent a core challenge for the medical staff. The objective of the study was to test the effectiveness and safety of evidence-based recommendations for prevention and management of RFS during the refeeding phase. This was a retrospective, observational data analysis of 37 consecutive, unselected cases of prisoners on a hunger strike during a 5-y period. The sample consisted of 37 cases representing 33 individual patients. In seven cases (18.9%), the hunger strike was continued during the hospital stay, in 16 episodes (43.2%) cessation of the hunger strike occurred immediately after admission to the security ward, and in 14 episodes (37.9%) during hospital stay. In the refeed cases (n = 30), nutritional replenishment occurred orally, and in 25 (83.3%) micronutrients substitutions were made based on the recommendations. The gradual refeeding with fluid restriction occurred over 10 d. Uncomplicated dyselectrolytemia was documented in 12 cases (40%) within the refeeding phase. One case (3.3%) presented bilateral ankle edemas as a clinical manifestation of moderate RFS. Intensive medical treatment was not necessary and none of the patients died. Seven episodes of continued hunger strike were observed during the entire hospital stay without medical complications. Our data suggested that seriousness and rate of medical complications during the refeeding phase can be kept at a minimum in a hunger strike population. This study supported use of recommendations to optimize risk management and to improve treatment quality and patient safety in this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Implications of Incessant Strike Actions on the Implementation of Technical Education Programme in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adavbiele, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper was designed to x-ray the implications of incessant strike actions on the implementation of Technical education programme in Nigeria. The paper took an exploratory view on the concept of strike actions in Nigeria with particular references on notable strike actions that have occurred in Nigeria. The types of strike were explained and…

  7. Magmatic control along a strike-slip volcanic arc: The central Aeolian arc (Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel

    2016-01-23

    The regional stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by magmatic activity, promoting volcanism and faulting. In particular, in strike-slip settings, the definition of the relationships between the regional stress field and magmatic activity remains elusive. To better understand these relationships, we collected stratigraphic, volcanic and structural field data along the strike-slip Central Aeolian arc (Italy): here the islands of Lipari and Vulcano separate the extensional portion of the arc (to the east) from the contractional one (to the west). We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures and dikes at 40 sites. Most structures are NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented, eastward dipping, and show almost pure dip-slip motion; consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral shear. Our data highlight six eruptive periods during the last 55 ka, which allow considering both islands as a single magmatic system, in which tectonic and magmatic activity steadily migrated eastward and currently focus on a 10 km long x 2 km wide active segment. Faulting appears to mostly occur in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, supporting that most of the observable deformation derives from transient magmatic activity (shorter-term, days to months), rather than from steady longer-term regional tectonics (102-104 years). More in general, the Central Aeolian case shows how magmatic activity may affect the structure and evolution of volcanic arcs, overprinting any strike-slip motion with magma-induced extension at the surface.

  8. Inverse plasma equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, H.R.; Dory, R.A.; Holmes, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    We illustrate in some detail a 2D inverse-equilibrium solver that was constructed to analyze tokamak configurations and stellarators (the latter in the context of the average method). To ensure that the method is suitable not only to determine equilibria, but also to provide appropriately represented data for existing stability codes, it is important to be able to control the Jacobian, tilde J is identical to delta(R,Z)/delta(rho, theta). The form chosen is tilde J = J 0 (rho)R/sup l/rho where rho is a flux surface label, and l is an integer. The initial implementation is for a fixed conducting-wall boundary, but the technique can be extended to a free-boundary model

  9. When yesterday's consumption strikes back: Deviation from usual consumption inversely predicts amounts consumed the next weekend evening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labhart, F.; Kuntsche, E.N.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and Aims. Young adults' weekend alcohol consumption is characterised by heavy episodic drinking (HED) with low alcohol use in between. This study investigates whether consuming a lower or higher number of drinks than usual on a given evening predicts consumption the following evening.

  10. Running quietly reduces ground reaction force and vertical loading rate and alters foot strike technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Xuan; Grisbrook, Tiffany L; Wernli, Kevin; Stearne, Sarah M; Davey, Paul; Ng, Leo

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to determine if a quantifiable relationship exists between the peak sound amplitude and peak vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) and vertical loading rate during running. It also investigated whether differences in peak sound amplitude, contact time, lower limb kinematics, kinetics and foot strike technique existed when participants were verbally instructed to run quietly compared to their normal running. A total of 26 males completed running trials for two sound conditions: normal running and quiet running. Simple linear regressions revealed no significant relationships between impact sound and peak vGRF in the normal and quiet conditions and vertical loading rate in the normal condition. t-Tests revealed significant within-subject decreases in peak sound, peak vGRF and vertical loading rate during the quiet compared to the normal running condition. During the normal running condition, 15.4% of participants utilised a non-rearfoot strike technique compared to 76.9% in the quiet condition, which was corroborated by an increased ankle plantarflexion angle at initial contact. This study demonstrated that quieter impact sound is not directly associated with a lower peak vGRF or vertical loading rate. However, given the instructions to run quietly, participants effectively reduced peak impact sound, peak vGRF and vertical loading rate.

  11. Strike-slip tectonics within the northernmost Philippine Sea plate in an arc-continent collisional setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wei; Jiang, Xiaodian; Guo, Yufan; Xing, Junhui; Li, Congying; Sun, Yang

    2017-09-01

    The geological processes in the northernmost Philippine Sea plate, which is bounded by the Suruga and Sagami troughs, are a typical example of an active collision zone. We attempt to illustrate the stress field through seismic estimations and geodetic analysis and propose the kinematic mode of the northernmost tip of the Philippine Sea plate. Seven events (M ≥ 4.0) are chosen for waveform inversion by the ISOLA software to distinguish the stress field. In particular, six of the chosen events, which exhibit strike-slip motion, are distributed in the eastern area, where few focal mechanisms have been reported by previous studies. According to the available focal mechanisms, strike-slip faults with similar P and T axes are widely distributed in the study area. The stress inversion suggests that the northern area is characterized by a NW-SE compression and a NE-SW extension stress regime, although some spatial differences exist. As indicated by an analysis of the geodesy, epicenters, focal mechanisms, gravity anomalies and velocity structure, the deformation in the northernmost tip is mainly accommodated by several conjugate strike-slip fault systems with steep dips that center on the Izu volcanic line. Generally, the maximum principal stress of the kinematics is derived from the collision between the Philippine Sea plate and Central Japan. Because of the different subduction angles, rates and directions of the down-going plate, diverging slab-pull forces along the Suruga and Sagami troughs may be causing the NE-NNE extension in most of the areas that are bounded by the two troughs. The extension propagates southwards along the Izu volcanic line and reaches the area adjacent to Miyake-jima.

  12. Holocaust inversion and contemporary antisemitism.

    OpenAIRE

    Klaff, Lesley D

    2014-01-01

    One of the cruellest aspects of the new antisemitism is its perverse use of the Holocaust as a stick to beat 'the Jews'. This article explains the phenomenon of 'Holocaust Inversion', which involves an 'inversion of reality' (the Israelis are cast as the 'new' Nazis and the Palestinians as the 'new' Jews) and an 'inversion of morality' (the Holocaust is presented as a moral lesson for, or even a moral indictment of, 'the Jews'). Holocaust inversion is a form of soft-core Holocaust denial, yet...

  13. Remarkable rates of lightning strike mortality in Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Borgerhoff Mulder

    Full Text Available Livingstone's second mission site on the shore of Lake Malawi suffers very high rates of consequential lightning strikes. Comprehensive interviewing of victims and their relatives in seven Traditional Authorities in Nkhata Bay District, Malawi revealed that the annual rate of consequential strikes was 419/million, more than six times higher than that in other developing countries; the rate of deaths from lightning was 84/million/year, 5.4 times greater than the highest ever recorded. These remarkable figures reveal that lightning constitutes a significant stochastic source of mortality with potential life history consequences, but it should not deflect attention away from the more prominent causes of mortality in this rural area.

  14. Legal questions surrounding hunger strikes by detainees and prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, S A

    1991-01-01

    The 'right to die' is not of an absolute character but is subject to definite qualification. There are legal and social interests reflecting profound ethical values which militate against an absolute right on the part of a prisoner to die by means of a hunger strike. The declared policy of the South African authorities is that a prisoner who resorts to a hunger strike may not be subjected to force-feeding. This is in accordance with the 1975 Tokyo Declaration. Unfortunately the Declaration is silent on the question of whether a doctor may provide medical treatment once a hunger striker has reached the point where he is no longer capable of rational thought. In this article it is submitted that a doctor would be legally entitled to do so.

  15. Single Station System and Method of Locating Lightning Strikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Starr, Stanley O. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An embodiment of the present invention uses a single detection system to approximate a location of lightning strikes. This system is triggered by a broadband RF detector and measures a time until the arrival of a leading edge of the thunder acoustic pulse. This time difference is used to determine a slant range R from the detector to the closest approach of the lightning. The azimuth and elevation are determined by an array of acoustic sensors. The leading edge of the thunder waveform is cross-correlated between the various acoustic sensors in the array to determine the difference in time of arrival, AT. A set of AT S is used to determine the direction of arrival, AZ and EL. The three estimated variables (R, AZ, EL) are used to locate a probable point of the lightning strike.

  16. HUNGER STRIKES AND FORCE-FEEDING IN PRISONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Florin GEAMĂNU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study will try to give an overview and assess the international and European standards regarding the management of hunger strikes. We will analyse the international and European standards regarding the force-feeding a prisoner on a hunger strike. The paper will focus on the study of the ECtHR judgements regarding the force-feeding of hunger strikers. Also, we will address the U.S. case and the force-feeding of prisoners which is considered to be, in certain cases, an act of torture based on the international human rights standards. To close with, the study will attempt to go through the recent developments in the Romanian legislation, analysing the legislation and its conformity with the European principles and recommendations, bearing in mind the prohibition, in absolute terms, of torture or inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

  17. Control of striking velocity by table tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinovic, Welber; Iizuka, Cristina Akiko; Freudenheim, Andrea Michele

    2004-12-01

    This study investigated how 7 skilled table tennis players controlled velocity of a forehand drive stroke when the ball's trajectory, velocity, and spin were modified. They hit a target in response to balls launched under four different conditions. The relative and absolute times used in the backswing phase showed no significant differences among conditions. When subjects hit fastballs, there was a significant change in the time required for them to reach the peak of velocity in the forward swing phase. In addition, players decreased the velocity of their strokes to hit fast-approaching balls. These results indicate that highly skilled table tennis players need to adjust the striking velocity and striking time (relative and absolute) required to reach the peak of velocity in the forward swing phase for these task modifications. Since they used slower movement velocities to hit faster-approaching balls, skilled table tennis players may override this speed-coupling process.

  18. Simulating Bird Strike on Aircraft Composite Wing Leading Edge.

    OpenAIRE

    Ericsson, Max

    2012-01-01

    In this master thesis project the possibility to model the response of a wing when subjected to bird strike using finite elements is analyzed. Since this transient event lasts only a few milliseconds the used solution method is explicit time integration. The wing is manufactured using carbon fiber laminate. Carbon fiber laminates have orthotropic material properties with different stiffness in different directions. Accordingly, there are damage mechanisms not considered when using metal that ...

  19. Timing of growth inhibition following shoot inversion in Pharbitis nil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, A. M.; Cline, M. G.

    1989-01-01

    Shoot inversion in Pharbitis nil results in the enhancement of ethylene production and in the inhibition of elongation in the growth zone of the inverted shoot. The initial increase in ethylene production previously was detected within 2 to 2.75 hours after inversion. In the present study, the initial inhibition of shoot elongation was detected within 1.5 to 4 hours with a weighted mean of 2.4 hours. Ethylene treatment of upright shoots inhibited elongation in 1.5 hours. A cause and effect relationship between shoot inversion-enhanced ethylene production and inhibition of elongation cannot be excluded.

  20. Inverse feasibility problems of the inverse maximum flow problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A linear time method to decide if any inverse maximum flow (denoted General Inverse Maximum Flow problems (IMFG)) problem has solution is deduced. If IMFG does not have solution, methods to transform IMFG into a feasible problem are presented. The methods consist of modifying as little as possible the restrictions to ...

  1. Inverse feasibility problems of the inverse maximum flow problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    199–209. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Inverse feasibility problems of the inverse maximum flow problems. ADRIAN DEACONU. ∗ and ELEONOR CIUREA. Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics, Transilvania University of Brasov, Brasov, Iuliu Maniu st. 50,. Romania.

  2. Striking dynamics and kinetic properties of boxing and MMA gloves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the growing popularity of Mixed Martial Arts (MMA as a competitive sport, questions regarding the dynamic response and properties of MMA gloves arise. High-energy impacts from punches are very similar to boxing yet MMA competition requires the use of 4 oz fingerless glove, compared to the larger full enclosure boxing glove. This work assessed the kinetic properties and strike dynamics of MMA gloves and compared findings with traditional boxing gloves. Gloves mounted on a molded fist were impacted repetitively on an instrumental anvil designed for impact, over a 5 hour period resulting in 10,000 continuous and consistent strikes. Kinetic data from impacts were sampled at the beginning of the data collection and subsequently every 30 minutes (every 1,000 strikes. MMA gloves produced 4-5 times greater peak force and 5 times faster load rate compared to the boxing glove. However, MMA gloves also showed signs of material fatigue, with peak force increasing by 35% and rate of loading increasing by 60% over the duration of the test. Boxing glove characteristics did deteriorate but to a lesser extent. In summary, the kinetic properties of MMA glove differed substantially from the boxing glove resulting in impacts characterized by higher peak forces and more rapid development of force. Material properties including stiffness and thickness play a role in the kinetic characteristics upon impact, and can be inferred to alter injury mechanisms of blunt force trauma.

  3. A Possible Differentially Shortened Strike-slip Plate Boundary: the Okhotsk Plate Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, D.; Egorov, V.; Mackey, K. G.; Fujita, K.

    2004-12-01

    The Okhotsk plate has been postulated based on a combination of GPS geodetic inversions (REVEL1), seimsicity, geologic and lineament data. Lying between the North American and Eurasian plates, its northwestern corner would appear to be undergoing compression in a scissors motion between the two bounding plates. Extrusion tectonics along multiple, large strike-slip faults within the Okhotsk plate itself have been suggested to allow the escape of material away from the apex of Eurasia-North America. The plate boundary between Okhotsk and North America has been suggested to be diffuse, based on widely scattered minor seismicity. However, the large, left lateral, Ulakhan fault has also been suggested as a candidate plate boundary. We present field geological and geomorphological evidence of the partitioning of deformation between the Ulakhan fault, and several parallel and oblique, linked faults. The Ulakhan fault strand appears to have a maximum displacement of 24 km based on river valley offsets and closing large pull apart basins. Some of the displacement from the Ulakhan fault appears relayed into the plate margin along oblique trending, thrust/oblique slip faults. Estimated shortening over these faults is equivalent to the amount of shortening relayed into the plate margin from the plate boundary. There may be several thrust/oblique slip faults along the Ulakhan fault, which leads to the interesting situation of a segmented, strike-slip plate boundary being actively shortened in a margin parallel direction. This may be the result of postulated extrusion of the Okhotsk plate due to North America/Eurasia convergence. Such a situation would have important consequences for the interpretation of GPS data in a plate tectonic context.

  4. Inverse problem in hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Jesús; Alcolea, Andrés; Medina, Agustín; Hidalgo, Juan; Slooten, Luit J.

    2005-03-01

    The state of the groundwater inverse problem is synthesized. Emphasis is placed on aquifer characterization, where modelers have to deal with conceptual model uncertainty (notably spatial and temporal variability), scale dependence, many types of unknown parameters (transmissivity, recharge, boundary conditions, etc.), nonlinearity, and often low sensitivity of state variables (typically heads and concentrations) to aquifer properties. Because of these difficulties, calibration cannot be separated from the modeling process, as it is sometimes done in other fields. Instead, it should be viewed as one step in the process of understanding aquifer behavior. In fact, it is shown that actual parameter estimation methods do not differ from each other in the essence, though they may differ in the computational details. It is argued that there is ample room for improvement in groundwater inversion: development of user-friendly codes, accommodation of variability through geostatistics, incorporation of geological information and different types of data (temperature, occurrence and concentration of isotopes, age, etc.), proper accounting of uncertainty, etc. Despite this, even with existing codes, automatic calibration facilitates enormously the task of modeling. Therefore, it is contended that its use should become standard practice. L'état du problème inverse des eaux souterraines est synthétisé. L'accent est placé sur la caractérisation de l'aquifère, où les modélisateurs doivent jouer avec l'incertitude des modèles conceptuels (notamment la variabilité spatiale et temporelle), les facteurs d'échelle, plusieurs inconnues sur différents paramètres (transmissivité, recharge, conditions aux limites, etc.), la non linéarité, et souvent la sensibilité de plusieurs variables d'état (charges hydrauliques, concentrations) des propriétés de l'aquifère. A cause de ces difficultés, le calibrage ne peut êtreséparé du processus de modélisation, comme c'est le

  5. Face inversion increases attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Helmut; Goller, Juergen; Forster, Michael; Schlageter, Lena; Paul, Matthew A

    2017-07-01

    Assessing facial attractiveness is a ubiquitous, inherent, and hard-wired phenomenon in everyday interactions. As such, it has highly adapted to the default way that faces are typically processed: viewing faces in upright orientation. By inverting faces, we can disrupt this default mode, and study how facial attractiveness is assessed. Faces, rotated at 90 (tilting to either side) and 180°, were rated on attractiveness and distinctiveness scales. For both orientations, we found that faces were rated more attractive and less distinctive than upright faces. Importantly, these effects were more pronounced for faces rated low in upright orientation, and smaller for highly attractive faces. In other words, the less attractive a face was, the more it gained in attractiveness by inversion or rotation. Based on these findings, we argue that facial attractiveness assessments might not rely on the presence of attractive facial characteristics, but on the absence of distinctive, unattractive characteristics. These unattractive characteristics are potentially weighed against an individual, attractive prototype in assessing facial attractiveness. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Multiples waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Dongliang

    2013-01-01

    To increase the illumination of the subsurface and to eliminate the dependency of FWI on the source wavelet, we propose multiples waveform inversion (MWI) that transforms each hydrophone into a virtual point source with a time history equal to that of the recorded data. These virtual sources are used to numerically generate downgoing wavefields that are correlated with the backprojected surface-related multiples to give the migration image. Since the recorded data are treated as the virtual sources, knowledge of the source wavelet is not required, and the subsurface illumination is greatly enhanced because the entire free surface acts as an extended source compared to the radiation pattern of a traditional point source. Numerical tests on the Marmousi2 model show that the convergence rate and the spatial resolution of MWI is, respectively, faster and more accurate then FWI. The potential pitfall with this method is that the multiples undergo more than one roundtrip to the surface, which increases attenuation and reduces spatial resolution. This can lead to less resolved tomograms compared to conventional FWI. The possible solution is to combine both FWI and MWI in inverting for the subsurface velocity distribution.

  7. Inverse problems for Maxwell's equations

    CERN Document Server

    Romanov, V G

    1994-01-01

    The Inverse and Ill-Posed Problems Series is a series of monographs publishing postgraduate level information on inverse and ill-posed problems for an international readership of professional scientists and researchers. The series aims to publish works which involve both theory and applications in, e.g., physics, medicine, geophysics, acoustics, electrodynamics, tomography, and ecology.

  8. Algebraic properties of generalized inverses

    CERN Document Server

    Cvetković‐Ilić, Dragana S

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses selected topics in the theory of generalized inverses. Following a discussion of the “reverse order law” problem and certain problems involving completions of operator matrices, it subsequently presents a specific approach to solving the problem of the reverse order law for {1} -generalized inverses. Particular emphasis is placed on the existence of Drazin invertible completions of an upper triangular operator matrix; on the invertibility and different types of generalized invertibility of a linear combination of operators on Hilbert spaces and Banach algebra elements; on the problem of finding representations of the Drazin inverse of a 2x2 block matrix; and on selected additive results and algebraic properties for the Drazin inverse. In addition to the clarity of its content, the book discusses the relevant open problems for each topic discussed. Comments on the latest references on generalized inverses are also included. Accordingly, the book will be useful for graduate students, Ph...

  9. Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Compression-after-Impact Test of Nano-Particles-Coated CFRP Damaged by Simulated Lightning Strikes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Je Ha; Kwon, Oh Yang; Seo, Seong Wook

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticles-coated and impact-damaged carbon-fiber reinforced plastics(CFRP) laminates were tested under compression-after-impact(CAI) mode and the propagation of damage due to compressive loading has been monitored by acoustic emission(AE). The impact damage was induced not by mechanical loading but by a simulated lightning strike. CFRP laminates were made of carbon prepregs prepared by coating of conductive nano-particles directly on the fibers and the coupons were subjected to simulated lightning strikes with a high voltage/current impulse of 10∼40 kA within a few microseconds. The effects of nano-particles coating and the degree of damage induced by the simulated lightning strikes on the AE activities were examined, and the relationship between the compressive residual strength and AE behavior has been evaluated in terms of AE event counts and the onset of AE activity with the compressive loading. The degree of impact damage was also measured in terns of damage area by using ultrasonic C-scan images. From the results assessed during the CAI tests of damaged CFRP showed that AE monitoring appeared to be very useful to differentiate the degree of damage hence the mechanical integrity of composite structures damaged by lightning strikes

  10. A rainbow inverse problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvez V.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the radiative transfer equation (RTE with reflection in a three-dimensional domain, infinite in two dimensions, and prove an existence result. Then, we study the inverse problem of retrieving the optical parameters from boundary measurements, with help of existing results by Choulli and Stefanov. This theoretical analysis is the framework of an attempt to model the color of the skin. For this purpose, a code has been developed to solve the RTE and to study the sensitivity of the measurements made by biophysicists with respect to the physiological parameters responsible for the optical properties of this complex, multi-layered material. On étudie l’équation du transfert radiatif (ETR dans un domaine tridimensionnel infini dans deux directions, et on prouve un résultat d’existence. On s’intéresse ensuite à la reconstruction des paramètres optiques à partir de mesures faites au bord, en s’appuyant sur des résultats de Choulli et Stefanov. Cette analyse sert de cadre théorique à un travail de modélisation de la couleur de la peau. Dans cette perspective, un code à été développé pour résoudre l’ETR et étudier la sensibilité des mesures effectuées par les biophysiciens par rapport aux paramètres physiologiques tenus pour responsables des propriétés optiques de ce complexe matériau multicouche.

  11. Developments in inverse photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheils, W.; Leckey, R.C.G.; Riley, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    In the 1950's and 1960's, Photoemission Spectroscopy (PES) established itself as the major technique for the study of the occupied electronic energy levels of solids. During this period the field divided into two branches: X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) for photon energies greater than ∼l000eV, and Ultra-violet Photoemission Spectroscopy (UPS) for photon energies below ∼100eV. By the 1970's XPS and UPS had become mature techniques. Like XPS, BIS (at x-ray energies) does not have the momentum-resolving ability of UPS that has contributed much to the understanding of the occupied band structures of solids. BIS moved into a new energy regime in 1977 when Dose employed a Geiger-Mueller tube to obtain density of unoccupied states data from a tantalum sample at a photon energy of ∼9.7eV. At similar energies, the technique has since become known as Inverse Photoemission Spectroscopy (IPS), in acknowledgment of its complementary relationship to UPS and to distinguish it from the higher energy BIS. Drawing on decades of UPS expertise, IPS has quickly moved into areas of interest where UPS has been applied; metals, semiconductors, layer compounds, adsorbates, ferromagnets, and superconductors. At La Trobe University an IPS facility has been constructed. This presentation reports on developments in the experimental and analytical techniques of IPS that have been made there. The results of a study of the unoccupied bulk and surface bands of GaAs are presented

  12. An inverse approach for elucidating dendritic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Torben-Nielsen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We outline an inverse approach for investigating dendritic function-structure relationships by optimizing dendritic trees for a-priori chosen computational functions. The inverse approach can be applied in two different ways. First, we can use it as a `hypothesis generator' in which we optimize dendrites for a function of general interest. The optimization yields an artificial dendrite that is subsequently compared to real neurons. This comparison potentially allows us to propose hypotheses about the function of real neurons. In this way, we investigated dendrites that optimally perform input-order detection. Second, we can use it as a `function confirmation' by optimizing dendrites for functions hypothesized to be performed by classes of neurons. If the optimized, artificial, dendrites resemble the dendrites of real neurons the artificial dendrites corroborate the hypothesized function of the real neuron. Moreover, properties of the artificial dendrites can lead to predictions about yet unmeasured properties. In this way, we investigated wide-field motion integration performed by the VS cells of the fly visual system. In outlining the inverse approach and two applications, we also elaborate on the nature of dendritic function. We furthermore discuss the role of optimality in assigning functions to dendrites and point out interesting future directions.

  13. Inverse Relationship of Marine Aerosol and Dust in Antarctic Ice with Fine-Grained Sediment in the South Atlantic Ocean: Implications for Sea-Ice Coverage and Wind Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Kanfoush

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This research seeks to test the hypothesis that natural gamma radiation (NGR from Ocean Drilling Program Site 1094, which displays variability over the last glacial-interglacial cycle similar to dust in the Vostok ice core, reflects fine-grained terrigenous sediment delivered by eolian processes. Grain size was measured on 400 samples spanning 0–20 m in a composite core. Accumulation of the <63μ size fraction at Site 1094 and dust in Vostok exhibit a negative correlation, suggesting the fine sediments are not dominantly eolian. However the technique used for grain size measurements cannot distinguish between terrigenous and biogenous materials; therefore it is possible much fine-grained material is diatoms. An inverse correlation between fine sediments and NGR supports this interpretation, and implies terrigenous materials were at times diluted by microfossils from high biological productivity. Fine marine sediments correlate positively with temperature and negatively with marine aerosol Na+ in Vostok. One plausible explanation is extensive sea-ice of cold intervals steepened ocean-continent temperature gradients, intensified winds, and led to increased transport of dust and marine aerosol to Antarctica yet also reduced biological productivity at Site 1094. Such a reduction despite increases in NGR, potentially representing Fe-rich dust influx, would require light limitation or stratification associated with sea-ice.

  14. Source characteristics of the 2015 Mw6.5 Lefkada, Greece, strike-slip earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgar, Diego; Ganas, Athanassios; Geng, Jianghui; Liang, Cunren; Fielding, Eric J.; Kassaras, Ioannis

    2017-03-01

    We present a kinematic slip model from the inversion of 1 Hz GPS, strong motion, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data for the 2015 Mw6.5 Lefkada, Greece, earthquake. We will show that most of the slip during this event is updip of the hypocenter (10.7 km depth) with substantial slip (>0.5 m) between 5 km depth and the surface. The peak slip is 1.6 m, and the inverted rake angles show predominantly strike-slip motion. Slip concentrates mostly to the south of the hypocenter, and the source time function indicates a total duration of 17 s with peak moment rate at 6 s. We will show that a 65° dipping geometry is the most plausible due to a lack of polarity reversals in the InSAR data and good agreement with Coulomb stress modeling, aftershock locations, and regional moment tensors. We also note that there was an 20 cm peak-to-peak tsunami observed at one tide gauge station 300 km away from the earthquake. We will discuss tsunami modeling results and study the possible source of the amplitude discrepancy between the modeled and the observed data at far-field tide gauges.

  15. PSpice Model of Lightning Strike to a Steel Reinforced Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koone, Neil; Condren, Brian

    2003-01-01

    Surges and arcs from lightning can pose hazards to personnel and sensitive equipment, and processes. Steel reinforcement in structures can act as a Faraday cage mitigating lightning effects. Knowing a structure's response to a lightning strike allows hazards associated with lightning to be analyzed. A model of lightning's response in a steel reinforced structure has been developed using PSpice (a commercial circuit simulation). Segments of rebar are modeled as inductors and resistors in series. A program has been written to take architectural information of a steel reinforced structure and 'build' a circuit network that is analogous to the network of reinforcement in a facility. A severe current waveform (simulating a 99th percentile lightning strike), modeled as a current source, is introduced in the circuit network, and potential differences within the structure are determined using PSpice. A visual three-dimensional model of the facility displays the voltage distribution across the structure using color to indicate the potential difference relative to the floor. Clear air arcing distances can be calculated from the voltage distribution using a conservative value for the dielectric breakdown strength of air. Potential validation tests for the model will be presented

  16. Onset of aseismic creep on major strike-slip faults

    KAUST Repository

    Çakir, Ziyadin

    2012-10-02

    Time series analysis of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data, GPS measurements, and fi eld observations reveal that the central section of the Izmit (Turkey) fault that slipped with a supershear rupture velocity in the A.D. 1999, Mw7.4, Izmit earthquake began creeping aseismically following the earthquake. Rapid initial postseismic afterslip decayed logarithmically with time and appears to have reached a steady rate comparable to the preearthquake full fault-crossing rate, suggesting that it may continue for decades and possibly until late in the earthquake cycle. If confi rmed by future monitoring, these observations identify postseismic afterslip as a mechanism for initiating creep behavior along strike-slip faults. Long-term afterslip and/or creep has signifi cant implications for earthquake cycle models, recurrence intervals of large earthquakes, and accordingly, seismic hazard estimation along mature strike-slip faults, in particular for Istanbul which is believed to lie adjacent to a seismic gap along the North Anatolian fault in the Sea of Marmara. © 2012 Geological Society of America.

  17. Influence of strike object grounding on close lightning electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Yoshihiro; Rakov, Vladimir A.

    2008-06-01

    Using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, we have calculated vertical electric field Ez, horizontal (radial) electric field Eh, and azimuthal magnetic field Hϕ produced on the ground surface by lightning strikes to 160-m- and a 553-m-high conical strike objects representing the Peissenberg tower (Germany) and the CN Tower (Canada), respectively. The fields were computed for a typical subsequent stroke at distances d' from the bottom of the object ranging from 5 to 100 m for the 160-m tower and from 10 to 300 m for the 553-m tower. Grounding of the 160-m object was assumed to be accomplished by its underground basement represented by a 10-m-radius and 8-m-long perfectly conducting cylinder with or without a reference ground plane located 2 m below. The reference ground plane simulates, to some extent, a higher-conducting ground layer that is expected to exist below the water table. The configuration without reference ground plane actually means that this plane is present, but is located at an infinitely large depth. Grounding of the 553-m object was modeled in a similar manner but in the absence of reference ground plane only. In all cases considered, waveforms of Eh and Hϕ are not much influenced by the presence of strike object, while waveforms of Ez are. Waveforms of Ez are essentially unipolar (as they are in the absence of strike object) when the ground conductivity σ is 10 mS/m (the equivalent transient grounding impedance is several ohms) or greater. Thus, for the CN Tower, for which σ ≥ 10 mS/m, the occurrence of Ez polarity change is highly unlikely. For the 160-m tower and for σ = 1 and 0.1 mS/m, waveforms of Ez become bipolar (exhibit polarity change) at d' ≤ 10 m and d' ≤ 50 m, respectively, regardless of the presence of the reference ground plane. The corresponding equivalent transient grounding impedances are about 30 and 50 Ω in the absence of the reference ground plane and smaller than 10 Ω in the presence of the reference

  18. Bayesian Approach to Inverse Problems

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    Many scientific, medical or engineering problems raise the issue of recovering some physical quantities from indirect measurements; for instance, detecting or quantifying flaws or cracks within a material from acoustic or electromagnetic measurements at its surface is an essential problem of non-destructive evaluation. The concept of inverse problems precisely originates from the idea of inverting the laws of physics to recover a quantity of interest from measurable data.Unfortunately, most inverse problems are ill-posed, which means that precise and stable solutions are not easy to devise. Regularization is the key concept to solve inverse problems.The goal of this book is to deal with inverse problems and regularized solutions using the Bayesian statistical tools, with a particular view to signal and image estimation

  19. Testing earthquake source inversion methodologies

    KAUST Repository

    Page, Morgan T.

    2011-01-01

    Source Inversion Validation Workshop; Palm Springs, California, 11-12 September 2010; Nowadays earthquake source inversions are routinely performed after large earthquakes and represent a key connection between recorded seismic and geodetic data and the complex rupture process at depth. The resulting earthquake source models quantify the spatiotemporal evolution of ruptures. They are also used to provide a rapid assessment of the severity of an earthquake and to estimate losses. However, because of uncertainties in the data, assumed fault geometry and velocity structure, and chosen rupture parameterization, it is not clear which features of these source models are robust. Improved understanding of the uncertainty and reliability of earthquake source inversions will allow the scientific community to use the robust features of kinematic inversions to more thoroughly investigate the complexity of the rupture process and to better constrain other earthquakerelated computations, such as ground motion simulations and static stress change calculations.

  20. Parameter estimation and inverse problems

    CERN Document Server

    Aster, Richard C; Thurber, Clifford H

    2005-01-01

    Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems primarily serves as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and introductory graduate courses. Class notes have been developed and reside on the World Wide Web for faciliting use and feedback by teaching colleagues. The authors'' treatment promotes an understanding of fundamental and practical issus associated with parameter fitting and inverse problems including basic theory of inverse problems, statistical issues, computational issues, and an understanding of how to analyze the success and limitations of solutions to these probles. The text is also a practical resource for general students and professional researchers, where techniques and concepts can be readily picked up on a chapter-by-chapter basis.Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems is structured around a course at New Mexico Tech and is designed to be accessible to typical graduate students in the physical sciences who may not have an extensive mathematical background. It is accompanied by a Web site that...

  1. Statistical perspectives on inverse problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Emil

    of the interior of an object from electrical boundary measurements. One part of this thesis concerns statistical approaches for solving, possibly non-linear, inverse problems. Thus inverse problems are recasted in a form suitable for statistical inference. In particular, a Bayesian approach for regularisation...... problem is given in terms of probability distributions. Posterior inference is obtained by Markov chain Monte Carlo methods and new, powerful simulation techniques based on e.g. coupled Markov chains and simulated tempering is developed to improve the computational efficiency of the overall simulation......Inverse problems arise in many scientific disciplines and pertain to situations where inference is to be made about a particular phenomenon from indirect measurements. A typical example, arising in diffusion tomography, is the inverse boundary value problem for non-invasive reconstruction...

  2. Computation of inverse magnetic cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, D.

    1981-10-01

    Inverse cascades of magnetic quantities for turbulent incompressible magnetohydrodynamics are reviewed, for two and three dimensions. The theory is extended to the Strauss equations, a description intermediate between two and three dimensions appropriate to tokamak magnetofluids. Consideration of the absolute equilibrium Gibbs ensemble for the system leads to a prediction of an inverse cascade of magnetic helicity, which may manifest itself as a major disruption. An agenda for computational investigation of this conjecture is proposed

  3. Thermal measurements and inverse techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Orlande, Helcio RB; Maillet, Denis; Cotta, Renato M

    2011-01-01

    With its uncommon presentation of instructional material regarding mathematical modeling, measurements, and solution of inverse problems, Thermal Measurements and Inverse Techniques is a one-stop reference for those dealing with various aspects of heat transfer. Progress in mathematical modeling of complex industrial and environmental systems has enabled numerical simulations of most physical phenomena. In addition, recent advances in thermal instrumentation and heat transfer modeling have improved experimental procedures and indirect measurements for heat transfer research of both natural phe

  4. Coin tossing and Laplace inversion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of a probability measure " on Е0Y 1К via the obvious change of variables e└t И xX An inversion formula for " in terms of its moments yields an inversion formula for # in terms of the values of its Laplace transform at n И 0Y 1Y 2Y ... and vice versa. In our discussion we allow " (respectively #) to have positive mass at 0 ...

  5. The Diffusion of Strikes: A Dyadic Analysis of Economic Sectors in the Netherlands, 1995–2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Giedo; Sluiter, Roderick; Akkerman, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which strikes diffuse across sectors and to what extent this diffusion of strikes can be explained by similarities and interdependencies between sectors. For this purpose, the authors examine a unique temporally disaggregated and dyadic database on strikes in Dutch

  6. The Right to Strike in Public Employment. Key Issues Series--No. 15. Second Edition, Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterret, Grace; Aboud, Antone

    Since the 1960s, the number of strikes by public employees, especially local government employees, has increased, and the number of employees belonging to unions or associations has about tripled. Recently, attention has been focused on strikes by public employees as a result of the strike in 1981 by air traffic controllers and their subsequent…

  7. Causes of falls of hangingwall over gullies adjacent to stabilizing strike pillars

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Turner, PA

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available This report discusses the occurrence of falls of ground in strike gullies. Falls of hangingwall over strike gullies on the up-dip side of strike stabilizing pillars in longwall mining systems were investigated. Gullies were examined in both...

  8. Strikes in France and the Netherlands; A Comparison of Labour Market Institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butter, den F.A.G.; Koppes, S.Y.

    2003-01-01

    Strikes as a consequence of labour conflicts occur about 28 times as much in France as in the Netherlands. This paper examines the institutional differences underlying these differences in strike activity. Our empirical analysis shows that strike activity is high in France if workers were successful

  9. EDITORIAL: Inverse Problems in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert M.; Lesnic, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Presented here are 11 noteworthy papers selected from the Fifth International Conference on Inverse Problems in Engineering: Theory and Practice held in Cambridge, UK during 11-15 July 2005. The papers have been peer-reviewed to the usual high standards of this journal and the contributions of reviewers are much appreciated. The conference featured a good balance of the fundamental mathematical concepts of inverse problems with a diverse range of important and interesting applications, which are represented here by the selected papers. Aspects of finite-element modelling and the performance of inverse algorithms are investigated by Autrique et al and Leduc et al. Statistical aspects are considered by Emery et al and Watzenig et al with regard to Bayesian parameter estimation and inversion using particle filters. Electrostatic applications are demonstrated by van Berkel and Lionheart and also Nakatani et al. Contributions to the applications of electrical techniques and specifically electrical tomographies are provided by Wakatsuki and Kagawa, Kim et al and Kortschak et al. Aspects of inversion in optical tomography are investigated by Wright et al and Douiri et al. The authors are representative of the worldwide interest in inverse problems relating to engineering applications and their efforts in producing these excellent papers will be appreciated by many readers of this journal.

  10. Labor conflict, general strikes and dynamics of trade union organizations in the Gran La Plata 1969-1972

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Nava

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is inscribed within studies on the history of the labor movement during the years '60 and '70 in Argentina and aims to analyze the cycle of general strikes and labor conflictivity that took place more specifically between the years 1969-1972 on a particular region: the Gran La Plata. Through a qualitative and quantitative analysis we will approach the dynamics of general strikes and their impact on our study region, as a kind of struggle that allows us to analyze the different tendencies and forms assumed by the conflict, the degrees of unity within the labor movement, the dynamics of trade unions, alliances with other social forces and the relationship with the state. Therefore, this article contributes to study not only certain specific dynamics of labor conflictivity in our study region, but also the more general cycle of social protest and political radicalization that took place in Argentina during the sixties and seventies

  11. The Effect of Flow Velocity on Waveform Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.; Shin, S.; Chung, W.; Ha, J.; Lim, Y.; Kim, S.

    2017-12-01

    The waveform inversion is a velocity modeling technique that reconstructs accurate subsurface physical properties. Therefore, using the model in its final, updated version, we generated data identical to modeled data. Flow velocity, like several other factors, affects observed data in seismic exploration. Despite this, there is insufficient research on its relationship with waveform inversion. In this study, the generated synthetic data considering flow velocity was factored in waveform inversion and the influence of flow velocity in waveform inversion was analyzed. Measuring the flow velocity generally requires additional equipment. However, for situations where only seismic data was available, flow velocity was calculated by fixed-point iteration method using direct wave in observed data. Further, a new waveform inversion was proposed, which can be applied to the calculated flow velocity. We used a wave equation, which can work with the flow velocities used in the study by Käser and Dumbser. Further, we enhanced the efficiency of computation by applying the back-propagation method. To verify the proposed algorithm, six different data sets were generated using the Marmousi2 model; each of these data sets used different flow velocities in the range 0-50, i.e., 0, 2, 5, 10, 25, and 50. Thereafter, the inversion results from these data sets along with the results without the use of flow velocity were compared and analyzed. In this study, we analyzed the results of waveform inversion after flow velocity has been factored in. It was demonstrated that the waveform inversion is not affected significantly when the flow velocity is of smaller value. However, when the flow velocity has a large value, factoring it in the waveform inversion produces superior results. This research was supported by the Basic Research Project(17-3312, 17-3313) of the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources(KIGAM) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning of Korea.

  12. Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and inversions) have profound genetic...

  13. Electrical Characterizations of Lightning Strike Protection Techniques for Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatkowski, George N.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Mielnik, John J.

    2009-01-01

    The growing application of composite materials in commercial aircraft manufacturing has significantly increased the risk of aircraft damage from lightning strikes. Composite aircraft designs require new mitigation strategies and engineering practices to maintain the same level of safety and protection as achieved by conductive aluminum skinned aircraft. Researchers working under the NASA Aviation Safety Program s Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project are investigating lightning damage on composite materials to support the development of new mitigation, diagnosis & prognosis techniques to overcome the increased challenges associated with lightning protection on composite aircraft. This paper provides an overview of the electrical characterizations being performed to support IVHM lightning damage diagnosis research on composite materials at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  14. A Probabilistic, Facility-Centric Approach to Lightning Strike Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Lisa L.; Roeder, William p.; Merceret, Francis J.

    2012-01-01

    A new probabilistic facility-centric approach to lightning strike location has been developed. This process uses the bivariate Gaussian distribution of probability density provided by the current lightning location error ellipse for the most likely location of a lightning stroke and integrates it to determine the probability that the stroke is inside any specified radius of any location, even if that location is not centered on or even with the location error ellipse. This technique is adapted from a method of calculating the probability of debris collisionith spacecraft. Such a technique is important in spaceport processing activities because it allows engineers to quantify the risk of induced current damage to critical electronics due to nearby lightning strokes. This technique was tested extensively and is now in use by space launch organizations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Future applications could include forensic meteorology.

  15. Migraine strikes as neuronal excitability reaches a tipping point.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marten Scheffer

    Full Text Available Self-propagating waves of cerebral neuronal firing, known as spreading depolarisations, are believed to be at the roots of migraine attacks. We propose that the start of spreading depolarisations corresponds to a critical transition that occurs when dynamic brain networks approach a tipping point. We show that this hypothesis is consistent with current pathogenetic insights and observed dynamics. Our view implies that migraine strikes when modulating factors further raise the neuronal excitability in genetically predisposed subjects to a level where even minor perturbations can trigger spreading depolarisations. A corollary is that recently discovered generic early warning indicators for critical transitions may be used to predict the onset of migraine attacks even before patients are clinically aware. This opens up new avenues for dissecting the mechanisms for the onset of migraine attacks and for identifying novel prophylactic treatment targets for the prevention of attacks.

  16. Precision Strike Training in Lean Manufacturing: A Workplace Literacy Guidebook [and] Final Report on Precision Strike Workplace Literacy Training at CertainTeed Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Alliance of Business, Inc., Washington, DC.

    CertainTeed's Precision Strike training program was designed to close the gaps between the current status of its workplace and where that work force needed to be to compete successfully in global markets. Precision Strike included Skills and Knowledge in Lifelong Learning (SKILL) customized, computerized lessons in basic skills, one-on-one…

  17. Relationship between in-situ stress and fractures and faults in the Monterey Formation, Santa Maria Basin, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkbeiner, T.; Barton, C.A.; Zoback, M.D. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

    1996-01-01

    Borehole televiewer (BHTV) data from four wells within the on- and offshore Santa Maria Basin were utilized to investigate the relationship between fracture distribution, orientation, and variation with depth and in situ stress. Analysis of stress-induced wellbore breakouts in each well shows a uniform NE-SW maximum horizontal stress (S[sub Hmax]) orientation with depth. This is consistent with the regional S[sub Hmax] direction throughout the entire seismogenic part of the crust as determined from other wellbore breakout data, NW-SE trends of active fold axes and results of kinematic stress-inversion of earthquake focal plane mechanisms. In marked contrast to the uniform stress field, analysis of fractures indicates that their orientation, dip, and frequency vary considerably within each well and laterally among them. With depth, fractures can be generally divided into distinct subsets on the basis of fracture frequency and predominant strike and dip directions. These subsets correlate with changes of lithology and physical properties indicating that factors such as tectonic history, diagenesis and structural variations may have strongly influenced the initiation and propagation of fractures. Only in the onshore well do steeply-dipping fractures strike parallel to S[sub Hmax] and are interpreted as Mode I extension fractures. In the three offshore wells, the fracture strike is mainly oblique or orthogonal to S[sub Hmax] suggesting that they may be distributed strike-slip or reverse faults. We believe currently active faults in the NE-SW transpressional deformation regime play a crucial role for fluid migration by providing permeability enhanced flow paths. Drill stem tests conducted in two of the offshore wells indicate that formation permeability is greatly enhanced in sections of the well where fractures strike predominantly perpendicular to S[sub Hmax] and dip at moderate to steep angles.

  18. Relationship between in-situ stress and fractures and faults in the Monterey Formation, Santa Maria Basin, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkbeiner, T.; Barton, C.A.; Zoback, M.D. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Borehole televiewer (BHTV) data from four wells within the on- and offshore Santa Maria Basin were utilized to investigate the relationship between fracture distribution, orientation, and variation with depth and in situ stress. Analysis of stress-induced wellbore breakouts in each well shows a uniform NE-SW maximum horizontal stress (S{sub Hmax}) orientation with depth. This is consistent with the regional S{sub Hmax} direction throughout the entire seismogenic part of the crust as determined from other wellbore breakout data, NW-SE trends of active fold axes and results of kinematic stress-inversion of earthquake focal plane mechanisms. In marked contrast to the uniform stress field, analysis of fractures indicates that their orientation, dip, and frequency vary considerably within each well and laterally among them. With depth, fractures can be generally divided into distinct subsets on the basis of fracture frequency and predominant strike and dip directions. These subsets correlate with changes of lithology and physical properties indicating that factors such as tectonic history, diagenesis and structural variations may have strongly influenced the initiation and propagation of fractures. Only in the onshore well do steeply-dipping fractures strike parallel to S{sub Hmax} and are interpreted as Mode I extension fractures. In the three offshore wells, the fracture strike is mainly oblique or orthogonal to S{sub Hmax} suggesting that they may be distributed strike-slip or reverse faults. We believe currently active faults in the NE-SW transpressional deformation regime play a crucial role for fluid migration by providing permeability enhanced flow paths. Drill stem tests conducted in two of the offshore wells indicate that formation permeability is greatly enhanced in sections of the well where fractures strike predominantly perpendicular to S{sub Hmax} and dip at moderate to steep angles.

  19. THE EFFECTS OF HEIGHT AND DISTANCE ON THE FORCE PRODUCTION AND ACCELERATION IN MARTIAL ARTS STRIKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A. Bir

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Almost all cultures have roots in some sort of self defence system and yet there is relatively little research in this area, outside of a sports related environment. This project investigated different applications of strikes from Kung Fu practitioners that have not been addressed before in the literature. Punch and palm strikes were directly compared from different heights and distances, with the use of a load cell, accelerometers, and high speed video. The data indicated that the arm accelerations of both strikes were similar, although the force and resulting acceleration of the target were significantly greater for the palm strikes. Additionally, the relative height at which the strike was delivered was also investigated. The overall conclusion is that the palm strike is a more effective strike for transferring force to an object. It can also be concluded that an attack to the chest would be ideal for maximizing impact force and moving an opponent off balance

  20. Full Waveform Inversion Using Oriented Time Migration Method

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong

    2016-04-12

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) for reflection events is limited by its linearized update requirements given by a process equivalent to migration. Unless the background velocity model is reasonably accurate the resulting gradient can have an inaccurate update direction leading the inversion to converge into what we refer to as local minima of the objective function. In this thesis, I first look into the subject of full model wavenumber to analysis the root of local minima and suggest the possible ways to avoid this problem. And then I analysis the possibility of recovering the corresponding wavenumber components through the existing inversion and migration algorithms. Migration can be taken as a generalized inversion method which mainly retrieves the high wavenumber part of the model. Conventional impedance inversion method gives a mapping relationship between the migration image (high wavenumber) and model parameters (full wavenumber) and thus provides a possible cascade inversion strategy to retrieve the full wavenumber components from seismic data. In the proposed approach, consider a mild lateral variation in the model, I find an analytical Frechet derivation corresponding to the new objective function. In the proposed approach, the gradient is given by the oriented time-domain imaging method. This is independent of the background velocity. Specifically, I apply the oriented time-domain imaging (which depends on the reflection slope instead of a background velocity) on the data residual to obtain the geometrical features of the velocity perturbation. Assuming that density is constant, the conventional 1D impedance inversion method is also applicable for 2D or 3D velocity inversion within the process of FWI. This method is not only capable of inverting for velocity, but it is also capable of retrieving anisotropic parameters relying on linearized representations of the reflection response. To eliminate the cross-talk artifacts between different parameters, I

  1. Inverse comptonization vs. thermal synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, E.E.; Klebesadel, R.W.; Laros, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    There are currently two radiation mechanisms being considered for gamma-ray bursts: thermal synchrotron and inverse comptonization. They are mutually exclusive since thermal synchrotron requires a magnetic field of approx. 10 12 Gauss whereas inverse comptonization cannot produce a monotonic spectrum if the field is larger than 10 11 and is too inefficient relative to thermal synchrotron unless the field is less than 10 9 Gauss. Neither mechanism can explain completely the observed characteristics of gamma-ray bursts. However, we conclude that thermal synchrotron is more consistent with the observations if the sources are approx. 40 kpc away whereas inverse comptonization is more consistent if they are approx. 300 pc away. Unfortunately, the source distance is still not known and, thus, the radiation mechanism is still uncertain

  2. Inverse comorbidity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thormann, Anja; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Laursen, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    discovery rate and investigated each of eight pre-specified comorbidity categories: psychiatric, cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, lung, and autoimmune comorbidities, diabetes, cancer, and Parkinson's disease. Results A total of 8947 MS-cases and 44,735 controls were eligible for inclusion. We found...... This study showed a decreased risk of cancers and pulmonary diseases after onset of MS. Identification of inverse comorbidity and of its underlying mechanisms may provide important new entry points into the understanding of MS.......Background Inverse comorbidity is disease occurring at lower rates than expected among persons with a given index disease. The objective was to identify inverse comorbidity in MS. Methods We performed a combined case-control and cohort study in a total nationwide cohort of cases with clinical onset...

  3. Inverse photoemission of uranium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, P.; Morrall, P.; Tull, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the itinerant-localised bonding role of the 5f electrons in the light actinides will afford an insight into their unusual physical and chemical properties. In recent years, the combination of core and valance band electron spectroscopies with theoretic modelling have already made significant progress in this area. However, information of the unoccupied density of states is still scarce. When compared to the forward photoemission techniques, measurements of the unoccupied states suffer from significantly less sensitivity and lower resolution. In this paper, we report on our experimental apparatus, which is designed to measure the inverse photoemission spectra of the light actinides. Inverse photoemission spectra of UO 2 and UO 2.2 along with the corresponding core and valance electron spectra are presented in this paper. UO 2 has been reported previously, although through its inclusion here it allows us to compare and contrast results from our experimental apparatus to the previous Bremsstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy and Inverse Photoemission Spectroscopy investigations

  4. Inverse source problems in elastodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Gang; Hu, Guanghui; Kian, Yavar; Yin, Tao

    2018-04-01

    We are concerned with time-dependent inverse source problems in elastodynamics. The source term is supposed to be the product of a spatial function and a temporal function with compact support. We present frequency-domain and time-domain approaches to show uniqueness in determining the spatial function from wave fields on a large sphere over a finite time interval. The stability estimate of the temporal function from the data of one receiver and the uniqueness result using partial boundary data are proved. Our arguments rely heavily on the use of the Fourier transform, which motivates inversion schemes that can be easily implemented. A Landweber iterative algorithm for recovering the spatial function and a non-iterative inversion scheme based on the uniqueness proof for recovering the temporal function are proposed. Numerical examples are demonstrated in both two and three dimensions.

  5. Optimization for nonlinear inverse problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyadzhiev, G.; Brandmayr, E.; Pinat, T.; Panza, G.F.

    2007-06-01

    The nonlinear inversion of geophysical data in general does not yield a unique solution, but a single model, representing the investigated field, is preferred for an easy geological interpretation of the observations. The analyzed region is constituted by a number of sub-regions where the multi-valued nonlinear inversion is applied, which leads to a multi-valued solution. Therefore, combining the values of the solution in each sub-region, many acceptable models are obtained for the entire region and this complicates the geological interpretation of geophysical investigations. In this paper are presented new methodologies, capable to select one model, among all acceptable ones, that satisfies different criteria of smoothness in the explored space of solutions. In this work we focus on the non-linear inversion of surface waves dispersion curves, which gives structural models of shear-wave velocity versus depth, but the basic concepts have a general validity. (author)

  6. Inverse methods in hydrologic optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard R. Gordon

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Methods for solving the hydrologic-optics inverse problem, i.e., estimating the inherent optical properties of a water body based solely on measurements of the apparent optical properties, are reviewed in detail. A new method is developed for the inverse problem in water bodies in which fluorescence is important. It is shown that in principle, given profiles of the spectra of up- and downwelling irradiance, estimation of the coefficient of inelastic scattering from any wave band to any other wave band can be effected.

  7. Inverse Interval Matrix: A Survey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří; Farhadsefat, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, - (2011), s. 704-719 E-ISSN 1081-3810 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1957; GA ČR GC201/08/J020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interval matrix * inverse interval matrix * NP-hardness * enclosure * unit midpoint * inverse sign stability * nonnegative invertibility * absolute value equation * algorithm Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.808, year: 2010 http://www.math.technion.ac.il/iic/ela/ela-articles/articles/vol22_pp704-719.pdf

  8. Size Estimates in Inverse Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Di Cristo, Michele

    2014-01-06

    Detection of inclusions or obstacles inside a body by boundary measurements is an inverse problems very useful in practical applications. When only finite numbers of measurements are available, we try to detect some information on the embedded object such as its size. In this talk we review some recent results on several inverse problems. The idea is to provide constructive upper and lower estimates of the area/volume of the unknown defect in terms of a quantity related to the work that can be expressed with the available boundary data.

  9. -Dimensional Fractional Lagrange's Inversion Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Abd El-Salam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Riemann-Liouville fractional differential operator, a fractional extension of the Lagrange inversion theorem and related formulas are developed. The required basic definitions, lemmas, and theorems in the fractional calculus are presented. A fractional form of Lagrange's expansion for one implicitly defined independent variable is obtained. Then, a fractional version of Lagrange's expansion in more than one unknown function is generalized. For extending the treatment in higher dimensions, some relevant vectors and tensors definitions and notations are presented. A fractional Taylor expansion of a function of -dimensional polyadics is derived. A fractional -dimensional Lagrange inversion theorem is proved.

  10. San Andreas-sized Strike-slip Fault on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This mosaic of the south polar region of Jupiter's moon Europa shows the northern 290 kilometers (180 miles) of a strike-slip fault named Astypalaea Linea. The entire fault is about 810 kilometers (500 miles) long, about the size of the California portion of the San Andreas fault, which runs from the California-Mexico border north to the San Francisco Bay. In a strike-slip fault, two crustal blocks move horizontally past one another, similar to two opposing lanes of traffic. Overall motion along the fault seems to have followed a continuous narrow crack along the feature's entire length, with a path resembling steps on a staircase crossing zones that have been pulled apart. The images show that about 50 kilometers (30 miles) of displacement have taken place along the fault. The fault's opposite sides can be reconstructed like a puzzle, matching the shape of the sides and older, individual cracks and ridges broken by its movements. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] The red line marks the once active central crack of the fault. The black line outlines the fault zone, including material accumulated in the regions which have been pulled apart. Bends in the fault have allowed the surface to be pulled apart. This process created openings through which warmer, softer ice from below Europa's brittle ice shell surface, or frozen water from a possible subsurface ocean, could reach the surface. This upwelling of material formed large areas of new ice within the boundaries of the original fault. A similar pulling-apart phenomenon can be observed in the geological trough surrounding California's Salton Sea, in Death Valley and the Dead Sea. In those cases, the pulled-apart regions can include upwelled materials, but may be filled mostly by sedimentary and eroded material from above. One theory is that fault motion on Europa is induced by the pull of variable daily tides generated by Jupiter's gravitational tug on Europa. Tidal tension opens the fault and

  11. Effect of public transport strikes on air pollution levels in Barcelona (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basagaña, Xavier; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Agis, David; Pérez, Noemí; Reche, Cristina; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    Public transport strikes can lead to an increase of the number of private vehicle trips, which in turn can increase air pollution levels. We aimed to estimate the change in air pollution concentrations during public transport strikes in the city of Barcelona (Spain). Data on strikes of the metro, train or bus systems were collected from government records (2005-2016). We collected daily concentrations of NOx; particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10μm (PM10), 2.5μm (PM2.5), and 1μm (PM1); particle number concentration (N); black carbon (BC) and CO from research and official monitoring stations. We fitted linear regression models for each pollutant with the strike indicator as an independent variable, and models were adjusted for day of the week, month, year, and holiday periods. During the study period, there were 208days affected by a strike of the metro (28), train (106) or bus (91) systems. Half of the strikes were partial, most of them were single-day strikes, there was little overlap between strikes of the different transport systems, and all strikes had to comply with mandatory minimal services. When pooling all types of strikes, NOx and BC showed higher levels during strike days in comparison with non-strike days (increase between 4.1% and 7.7%, with higher increases for NO). The increases in these concentrations were more evident during full day and multiday metro strikes. In conclusion, alterations in public transport have consequences on air quality. This highlights the importance of public transport in reducing air pollution concentrations in cities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Superconductivity in Pb inverse opal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, Ali E.; Lee, Sergey B.; Zakhidov, Anvar A.; Baughman, Ray H.

    2007-01-01

    Type-II superconducting behavior was observed in highly periodic three-dimensional lead inverse opal prepared by infiltration of melted Pb in blue (D = 160 nm), green (D = 220 nm) and red (D = 300 nm) opals and followed by the extraction of the SiO 2 spheres by chemical etching. The onset of a broad phase transition (ΔT = 0.3 K) was shifted from T c = 7.196 K for bulk Pb to T c = 7.325 K. The upper critical field H c2 (3150 Oe) measured from high-field hysteresis loops exceeds the critical field for bulk lead (803 Oe) fourfold. Two well resolved peaks observed in the hysteresis loops were ascribed to flux penetration into the cylindrical void space that can be found in inverse opal structure and into the periodic structure of Pb nanoparticles. The red inverse opal shows pronounced oscillations of magnetic moment in the mixed state at low temperatures, T 0.9T c has been observed for all of the samples studied. The magnetic field periodicity of resistivity modulation is in good agreement with the lattice parameter of the inverse opal structure. We attribute the failure to observe pronounced modulation in magneto-resistive measurement to difficulties in the precision orientation of the sample along the magnetic field

  13. Statistical and Computational Inverse Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Kaipio, Jari

    2005-01-01

    Develops the statistical approach to inverse problems with an emphasis on modeling and computations. The book discusses the measurement noise modeling and Bayesian estimation, and uses Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to explore the probability distributions. It is for researchers and advanced students in applied mathematics.

  14. Coin Tossing and Laplace Inversion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An analysis of exchangeable sequences of coin tossings leads to inversion formulae for Laplace transforms of probability measures. Author Affiliations. J C Gupta1 2. Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi 110 016, India; 32, Mirdha Tola, Budaun 243 601, India. Dates. Manuscript received: 5 May 1999; Manuscript revised: 3 ...

  15. Givental Graphs and Inversion Symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunin-Barkovskiy, P.; Shadrin, S.; Spitz, L.

    2013-01-01

    Inversion symmetry is a very non-trivial discrete symmetry of Frobenius manifolds. It was obtained by Dubrovin from one of the elementary Schlesinger transformations of a special ODE associated to a Frobenius manifold. In this paper, we review the Givental group action on Frobenius manifolds in

  16. Wave-equation dispersion inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2016-12-08

    We present the theory for wave-equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. The dispersion curves are obtained from Rayleigh waves recorded by vertical-component geophones. Similar to wave-equation traveltime tomography, the complicated surface wave arrivals in traces are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the picked dispersion curves in the phase-velocity and frequency domains. Solutions to the elastic wave equation and an iterative optimization method are then used to invert these curves for 2-D or 3-D S-wave velocity models. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD), does not require the assumption of a layered model and is significantly less prone to the cycle-skipping problems of full waveform inversion. The synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that WD can approximately reconstruct the S-wave velocity distributions in laterally heterogeneous media if the dispersion curves can be identified and picked. The WD method is easily extended to anisotropic data and the inversion of dispersion curves associated with Love waves.

  17. Adjoint modeling for acoustic inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursky, Paul; Porter, Michael B.; Cornuelle, B. D.; Hodgkiss, W. S.; Kuperman, W. A.

    2004-02-01

    The use of adjoint modeling for acoustic inversion is investigated. An adjoint model is derived from a linearized forward propagation model to propagate data-model misfit at the observation points back through the medium to the medium perturbations not being accounted for in the model. This adjoint model can be used to aid in inverting for these unaccounted medium perturbations. Adjoint methods are being applied to a variety of inversion problems, but have not drawn much attention from the underwater acoustic community. This paper presents an application of adjoint methods to acoustic inversion. Inversions are demonstrated in simulation for both range-independent and range-dependent sound speed profiles using the adjoint of a parabolic equation model. Sensitivity and error analyses are discussed showing how the adjoint model enables calculations to be performed in the space of observations, rather than the often much larger space of model parameters. Using an adjoint model enables directions of steepest descent in the model parameters (what we invert for) to be calculated using far fewer modeling runs than if a forward model only were used.

  18. The assessment of lethal propeller strike injuries in sea mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W; Winskog, Calle; Machado, Aaron; Boardman, Wayne

    2012-04-01

    Assessment of injuries in marine mammals may be required to help authorities determine whether human activity was involved. Three cases of marine animal deaths involving propeller blade strikes are reported to demonstrate characteristic features of such cases and diagnostic difficulties that may occur. Case 1: A juvenile New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) suffered two parallel linear incised wounds of the flank and died following small intestinal herniation. Case 2: An Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin neonate (Tursiops aduncus) died from a deeply incised wound of the left side of the head with shattering of the skull and laceration of the underlying brain.Case 3: An adult female Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (T. aduncus) died from two parallel chop wounds to the torso with opening of the thoracic and abdominal cavities with fractures of the ribs and vertebrae. Given that some animals may recover, and that the carcasses of those that are killed may simply not be found or reported, it is impossible to provide an estimate of the incidence of this type of injury amongst wild sea mammals. In cases that do come to forensic attention accurate evaluation of the type of injury may potentially have great medicolegal significance. Post-mortem putrefaction and post-mortem feeding by other sea animals may complicate assessments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. Cellular nonlinear networks for strike-point localization at JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, P.; Fortuna, L.; Bruno, M.; Vagliasindi, G.; Murari, A.; Andrew, P.; Mazzitelli, G.

    2005-11-01

    At JET, the potential of fast image processing for real-time purposes is thoroughly investigated. Particular attention is devoted to smart sensors based on system on chip technology. The data of the infrared cameras were processed with a chip implementing a cellular nonlinear network (CNN) structure so as to support and complement the magnetic diagnostics in the real-time localization of the strike-point position in the divertor. The circuit consists of two layers of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor components, the first being the sensor and the second implementing the actual CNN. This innovative hardware has made it possible to determine the position of the maximum thermal load with a time resolution of the order of 30 ms. Good congruency has been found with the measurement from the thermocouples in the divertor, proving the potential of the infrared data in locating the region of the maximum thermal load. The results are also confirmed by JET magnetic codes, both those used for the equilibrium reconstructions and those devoted to the identification of the plasma boundary.

  20. Cellular nonlinear networks for strike-point localization at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arena, P.; Fortuna, L.; Bruno, M.; Vagliasindi, G.; Murari, A.; Andrew, P.; Mazzitelli, G.

    2005-01-01

    At JET, the potential of fast image processing for real-time purposes is thoroughly investigated. Particular attention is devoted to smart sensors based on system on chip technology. The data of the infrared cameras were processed with a chip implementing a cellular nonlinear network (CNN) structure so as to support and complement the magnetic diagnostics in the real-time localization of the strike-point position in the divertor. The circuit consists of two layers of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor components, the first being the sensor and the second implementing the actual CNN. This innovative hardware has made it possible to determine the position of the maximum thermal load with a time resolution of the order of 30 ms. Good congruency has been found with the measurement from the thermocouples in the divertor, proving the potential of the infrared data in locating the region of the maximum thermal load. The results are also confirmed by JET magnetic codes, both those used for the equilibrium reconstructions and those devoted to the identification of the plasma boundary

  1. The Influence of Foot-Strike Technique on the Neuromechanical Function of the Foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Luke A; Farris, Dominic J; Lichtwark, Glen A; Cresswell, Andrew G

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of foot-strike technique on longitudinal arch mechanics and intrinsic foot muscle function during running. Thirteen healthy participants ran barefoot on a force-instrumented treadmill at 2.8 ms with a forefoot (FFS) and rearfoot (RFS; habitual) running technique, whereas kinetic, kinematic, and electromyographic data from the intrinsic foot muscles were collected simultaneously. The longitudinal arch was modeled as a single "midfoot" joint representing motion of the rearfoot (calcaneus) relative to the forefoot (metatarsals). An inverse dynamic analysis was performed to estimate joint moments generated about the midfoot, as well as mechanical work and power. The midfoot was more plantar flexed (higher arch) at foot contact when running with a forefoot running technique (RFS 0.2 ± 1.8 vs FFS 6.9 ± 3.0°, effect size (ES) = 2.7); however, there was no difference in peak midfoot dorsiflexion in stance (RFS -11.6 ± 3.0 vs FFS -11.4 ± 3.4°, ES = 0.63). When running with a forefoot technique, participants generated greater moments about the midfoot (27% increase, ES = 1.1) and performed more negative work (240% increase, ES = 2.2) and positive work (42% increase, ES = 1.1) about the midfoot. Average stance-phase muscle activation was greater for flexor digitorum brevis (20% increase, ES = 0.56) and abductor hallucis (17% increase, ES = 0.63) when running with a forefoot technique. Forefoot running increases loading about the longitudinal arch and also increases the mechanical work performed by the intrinsic foot muscles. These findings have substantial implications in terms of injury prevention and management for runners who transition from a rearfoot to a forefoot running technique.

  2. Theraputic relationship versus boundary transgressions: Lessons for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No therapy exists in a vacuum. It involves striking relationship between the therapists and clients. Such relationships are relationships of trust and are therefore meant to be maintained religiously by adhering strictly to ethnical codes of conduct. However, most times, boundary transgression are inevitable. While boundary ...

  3. Differentiation of ankle sprain motion and common sporting motion by ankle inversion velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Vikki Wing-Shan; Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Chan, Yue-Yan; Yung, Patrick Shu-Hang; Fung, Kwai-Yau; Chan, Kai-Ming

    2010-07-20

    This study investigated the ankle inversion and inversion velocity between various common motions in sports and simulated sprain motion, in order to provide a threshold for ankle sprain risk identification. The experiment was composed of two parts: firstly, ten male subjects wore a pair of sport shoes and performed ten trials of running, cutting, jump-landing and stepping-down motions. Secondly, five subjects performed five trials of simulated sprain motion by a supination sprain simulator. The motions were analyzed by an eight-camera motion capture system at 120 Hz. A force plate was employed to record the vertical ground reaction force and locate the foot strike time for common sporting motions. Ankle inversion and inversion velocity were calculated by a standard lower extremity biomechanics calculation procedure. Profiles of vertical ground reaction force, ankle inversion angle and ankle inversion velocity were obtained. Results suggested that the ankle was kept in an everted position during the stance. The maximum ankle inversion velocity ranged from 22.5 to 85.1 degrees/s and 114.0 to 202.5 degrees/s for the four tested motions and simulated sprain motion respectively. Together with the ankle inversion velocity reported in the injury case (623 degrees/s), a threshold of ankle inversion velocity of 300 degrees/s was suggested for the identification of ankle sprain. The information obtained in this study can serve as a basis for the development of an active protection apparatus for reducing ankle sprain injury. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluating Ethical Responsibility in Inverse Decision Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Kabil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision makers have considerable autonomy on how they make decisions and what type of support they receive. This situation places the DSS analyst in a different relationship with the client than his colleagues who support regular MIS applications. This paper addresses an ethical dilemma in “Inverse Decision Support,” when the analyst supports a decision maker who requires justification for a preconceived selection that does not correspond to the best option that resulted from the professional resolution of the problem. An extended application of the AHP model is proposed for evaluating the ethical responsibility in selecting a suboptimal alternative. The extended application is consistent with the Inverse Decision Theory that is used extensively in medical decision making. A survey of decision analysts is used to assess their perspective of using the proposed extended application. The results show that 80% of the respondents felt that the proposed extended application is useful in business practices. 14% of them expanded the usability of the extended application to academic teaching of the ethics theory. The extended application is considered more usable in a country with a higher Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (TICPI than in a country with a lower one.

  5. Wave-equation reflection traveltime inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Sanzong

    2011-01-01

    The main difficulty with iterative waveform inversion using a gradient optimization method is that it tends to get stuck in local minima associated within the waveform misfit function. This is because the waveform misfit function is highly nonlinear with respect to changes in the velocity model. To reduce this nonlinearity, we present a reflection traveltime tomography method based on the wave equation which enjoys a more quasi-linear relationship between the model and the data. A local crosscorrelation of the windowed downgoing direct wave and the upgoing reflection wave at the image point yields the lag time that maximizes the correlation. This lag time represents the reflection traveltime residual that is back-projected into the earth model to update the velocity in the same way as wave-equation transmission traveltime inversion. No travel-time picking is needed and no high-frequency approximation is assumed. The mathematical derivation and the numerical examples are presented to partly demonstrate its efficiency and robustness. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  6. Workflows for Full Waveform Inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Christian; Krischer, Lion; Afanasiev, Michael; van Driel, Martin; May, Dave A.; Rietmann, Max; Fichtner, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Despite many theoretical advances and the increasing availability of high-performance computing clusters, full seismic waveform inversions still face considerable challenges regarding data and workflow management. While the community has access to solvers which can harness modern heterogeneous computing architectures, the computational bottleneck has fallen to these often manpower-bounded issues that need to be overcome to facilitate further progress. Modern inversions involve huge amounts of data and require a tight integration between numerical PDE solvers, data acquisition and processing systems, nonlinear optimization libraries, and job orchestration frameworks. To this end we created a set of libraries and applications revolving around Salvus (http://salvus.io), a novel software package designed to solve large-scale full waveform inverse problems. This presentation focuses on solving passive source seismic full waveform inversions from local to global scales with Salvus. We discuss (i) design choices for the aforementioned components required for full waveform modeling and inversion, (ii) their implementation in the Salvus framework, and (iii) how it is all tied together by a usable workflow system. We combine state-of-the-art algorithms ranging from high-order finite-element solutions of the wave equation to quasi-Newton optimization algorithms using trust-region methods that can handle inexact derivatives. All is steered by an automated interactive graph-based workflow framework capable of orchestrating all necessary pieces. This naturally facilitates the creation of new Earth models and hopefully sparks new scientific insights. Additionally, and even more importantly, it enhances reproducibility and reliability of the final results.

  7. Relationship between areas of popliteal cysts and radiological damage in rheumatoid arthritis and in osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganelli, P; Salaffi, F; Nervetti, A; Chierici, P; Ferraccioli, G F; Ambanelli, U

    1987-01-01

    Fifty-five patients, (30 Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and 25 Osteoarthritis (OA], with knee synovial effusion and popliteal cysts, visualized through arthrograms, were studied. A relationship was sought between radiological findings and area of the cysts, measured through a millimeter grid. Ten radiological parameters were graded and summed up to obtain a "total knee score". A "total geode score" was also obtained by scoring, separately, the geodes. In addition two specific indexes were used--for comparison--the erosive index, modified after Berens and Lin, in RA and the Kelligren's index in OA. In RA a statistically significant, inverse correlation was found between the x-ray scores and the area of the cysts, while such a relationship was not observed in OA. However, only a third of the cysts accounted for the inverse relationship in RA. Furthermore, two control groups of RA and OA patients revealed a striking association between degree of radiological damage and frequency of popliteal cysts. Therefore, the hypothesis that popliteal cysts might have a protective effect against the articular-bone damage in RA, can be held only in few cases.

  8. Stress regimes in the northwest of Iran from stress inversion of earthquake focal mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afra, Mahsa; Moradi, Ali; Pakzad, Mehrdad

    2017-11-01

    Northwestern Iran is one of the seismically active regions with a high seismic risk in the world. This area is a part of the complex tectonic system due to the interaction between Arabia, Anatolia and Eurasia. The purpose of this study is to deduce the stress regimes in the northwestern Iran and surrounding regions from stress inversion of earthquake focal mechanisms. We compile 92 focal mechanisms data from the Global CMT catalogue and other sources and also determine the focal mechanisms of 14 earthquakes applying the moment tensor inversion. We divide the studied region into 9 zones using similarity of the horizontal GPS velocities and existing focal mechanisms. We implement two stress inversion methods, Multiple Inverse Method and Iterative Joint Inversion Method, which provide comparable results in terms of orientations of maximum horizontal stress axes SHmax. The similar results of the two methods should make us more confident about the interpretations. We consider zones of exclusion surrounding all the earthquakes according to independent focal mechanisms hypothesis. The hypothesis says that the inversion should involve events that are far enough from each other in order that any previous event doesn't affect the stress field near the earthquake under consideration. Accordingly we deal with the matter by considering zones of exclusion around all the events. The result of exclusion is only significant for eastern Anatolia. The stress regime in this region changes from oblique to strike slip faulting because of the exclusion. In eastern Anatolia, the direction of maximum horizontal stress is nearly north-south. The direction alters to east-west in Talesh region. Errors of σ1 are lower in all zones comparing with errors of σ2 and σ3 and there is a trade-off between data resolution and covariance of the model. The results substantiate the strike-slip and thrust faulting stress regimes in the northwest of Iran.

  9. Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-24

    Silver Bullet? Asking the Right Questions About Conventional Prompt Global Strike (Washington, DC: Carneige Endowment for International Peace, 2013), pp...124 James M. Acton, Silver Bullet? Asking the Right Questions About Prompt Global Strike (Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2013), pp. 120-129. ...Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues Amy F. Woolf Specialist in Nuclear Weapons Policy

  10. Vessel Strike of Whales in Australia: The Challenges of Analysis of Historical Incident Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Peel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Death or injury to whales from vessel strike is one of the primary threats to whale populations worldwide. However, quantifying the rate of occurrence of these collisions is difficult because many incidents are not detected (particularly from large vessels and therefore go unreported. Furthermore, varying reporting biases occur related to species identification, spatial coverage of reports and type of vessels involved. The International Whaling Commission (IWC has compiled a database of the worldwide occurrence of vessel strikes to cetaceans, within which Australia constitutes ~7% (35 reports of the reported worldwide (~471 reports vessel strike records involving large whales. Worldwide records consist largely of modern reports within the last two decades and historical evaluation of ship strike reports has mainly focused on the Northern Hemisphere. To address this we conducted a search of historical national and international print media archive databases to discover reports of vessel strikes globally, although with a focus on Australian waters. A significant number of previously unrecorded reports of vessel strikes were found for both Australia (76 and worldwide (140, resulting in a revised estimate of ~15% of global vessel strikes occurring in Australian waters. This detailed collation and analysis of vessel strike data in an Australian context has contributed to our knowledge of the worldwide occurrence of vessel strikes and challenges the notion that vessel strikes were historically rare in Australia relative to the rest of the world. The work highlights the need to examine historical records to provide context around current anthropogenic threats to marine fauna and demonstrates the importance of formalized reporting structures for effective collation of vessel strike reports. This paper examines the issues and biases in analysis of vessel strike data in general that would apply to any jurisdiction. Using the Australian data as an example

  11. ‘The Nairobi General Strike [1950]: from protest to insurgency’

    OpenAIRE

    Hyde, David

    2002-01-01

    The Nairobi General Strike [1950] was the culmination of Kenya’s post war strike wave and urban upheaval. An unprecedented upsurge occurred with the general strikes in Mombasa [1947] led by the African Workers Federation [A.W.F.] and in Nairobi by the East African Trades Union Congress [E.A.T.U.C.]. While this has been termed and treated as a city wide strike, there is enough evidence to suggest a movement that went some way beyond Nairobi. The extent of the cohesion and reciprocal impacts am...

  12. Operational Functions to Achieve Synergy between Special Operations and Precision Strike

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huff, William M

    2005-01-01

    ...). The paper describes the operational functions required from the appointed operational commander and his staff to achieve synergism through the combination of special operations and precision strike...

  13. The Chinese nuclear arsenal and its second-strike capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabestan, Jean-Pierre

    2013-03-01

    It is well known that China possesses a second- strike capability, but a great deal of uncertainty persists on the subject. Over the last few years, without officially adjusting its doctrine, China has nonetheless defined its objectives. In April 2010, the People's Liberation Army Daily indicated that China needed such a capability and contended that ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) would constitute the safest means of delivery. In the same year, the IISS estimated that the People's Liberation Army was in possession of 90 ICBMs (66 ground-based missiles and 24 SLBMs) and 400 IRBM mainly aimed at Taiwan and Japan. The Pentagon's 2012 report proposed 50-75 ICBMs and 80 -120 IRBM and MRBM. While it is established that the People's Liberation Army is developing Jin class submarines (type-094, of which there are currently two in service, which will soon rise to five) and is developing solid-propellant missiles, which could be activated more quickly, not a great deal is known about the progress of these two projects. The JL-2 (7400 km), which is mounted on SSBNs, is still being tested. In parallel, the traditional principle to which China adheres - no first use of nuclear weapons - seems to have been slightly dented. Thus, in January 2011, the Japanese press agency Kyodo (relayed by Stratfor) reported that the People's Liberation Army had lowered the threshold for use of its strategic weapons: it could henceforth envisage a preventive nuclear strike against a nuclear power that had by conventional means destroyed key strategic targets on its territory, such as a nuclear power station, a dam, or a large city, having provided prior warning to the aggressor. But what most worries the U.S. and its Asian allies, particularly the Japanese, is the quasi-total opacity of the Chinese military nuclear programme. While in April 2010, the United States and Russia signed a treaty limiting their number of strategic weapons to 1550 by 2018, China considers

  14. Assessment of performing an MST strike in Tank 21H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, Michael R.

    2014-09-29

    Previous Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) tank mixing studies performed for the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) project have shown that 3 Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) installed in Tank 41 are sufficient to support actinide removal by MST sorption as well as subsequent resuspension and removal of settled solids. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is pursuing MST addition into Tank 21 as part of the Large Tank Strike (LTS) project. The preliminary scope for LTS involves the use of three standard slurry pumps (installed in N, SE, and SW risers) in a Type IV tank. Due to the differences in tank size, internal interferences, and pump design, a separate mixing evaluation is required to determine if the proposed configuration will allow for MST suspension and strontium and actinide sorption. The author performed the analysis by reviewing drawings for Tank 21 [W231023] and determining the required cleaning radius or zone of influence for the pumps. This requirement was compared with previous pilot-scale MST suspension data collected for SCIX that determined the cleaning radius, or zone of influence, as a function of pump operating parameters. The author also reviewed a previous Tank 50 mixing analysis that examined the ability of standard slurry pumps to suspend sludge particles. Based on a review of the pilot-scale SCIX mixing tests and Tank 50 pump operating experience, three standard slurry pumps should be able to suspend sludge and MST to effectively sorb strontium and actinides onto the MST. Using the SCIX data requires an assumption about the impact of cooling coils on slurry pump mixing. The basis for this assumption is described in this report. Using the Tank 50 operating experience shows three standard slurry pumps should be able to suspend solids if the shear strength of the settled solids is less than 160 Pa. Because Tank 21 does not contain cooling coils, the shear strength could be larger.

  15. Quantifying uncertainties of seismic Bayesian inversion of Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C.; Lekic, V.

    2017-12-01

    Elastic waves excited by earthquakes are the fundamental observations of the seismological studies. Seismologists measure information such as travel time, amplitude, and polarization to infer the properties of earthquake source, seismic wave propagation, and subsurface structure. Across numerous applications, seismic imaging has been able to take advantage of complimentary seismic observables to constrain profiles and lateral variations of Earth's elastic properties. Moreover, seismic imaging plays a unique role in multidisciplinary studies of geoscience by providing direct constraints on the unreachable interior of the Earth. Accurate quantification of uncertainties of inferences made from seismic observations is of paramount importance for interpreting seismic images and testing geological hypotheses. However, such quantification remains challenging and subjective due to the non-linearity and non-uniqueness of geophysical inverse problem. In this project, we apply a reverse jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (rjMcMC) algorithm for a transdimensional Bayesian inversion of continental lithosphere structure. Such inversion allows us to quantify the uncertainties of inversion results by inverting for an ensemble solution. It also yields an adaptive parameterization that enables simultaneous inversion of different elastic properties without imposing strong prior information on the relationship between them. We present retrieved profiles of shear velocity (Vs) and radial anisotropy in Northern Great Plains using measurements from USArray stations. We use both seismic surface wave dispersion and receiver function data due to their complementary constraints of lithosphere structure. Furthermore, we analyze the uncertainties of both individual and joint inversion of those two data types to quantify the benefit of doing joint inversion. As an application, we infer the variation of Moho depths and crustal layering across the northern Great Plains.

  16. Analysis of RAE-1 inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedland, D. A.; Degonia, P. K.

    1974-01-01

    The RAE-1 spacecraft inversion performed October 31, 1972 is described based upon the in-orbit dynamical data in conjunction with results obtained from previously developed computer simulation models. The computer simulations used are predictive of the satellite dynamics, including boom flexing, and are applicable during boom deployment and retraction, inter-phase coast periods, and post-deployment operations. Attitude data, as well as boom tip data, were analyzed in order to obtain a detailed description of the dynamical behavior of the spacecraft during and after the inversion. Runs were made using the computer model and the results were analyzed and compared with the real time data. Close agreement between the actual recorded spacecraft attitude and the computer simulation results was obtained.

  17. Validation of OSIRIS Ozone Inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudnason, P.; Evans, W. F.; von Savigny, C.; Sioris, C.; Halley, C.; Degenstein, D.; Llewellyn, E. J.; Petelina, S.; Gattinger, R. L.; Odin Team

    2002-12-01

    The OSIRIS instrument onboard the Odin satellite, that was launched on February 20, 2001, is a combined optical spectrograph and infrared imager that obtains profil sets of atmospheric spectra from 280 to 800 nm when Odin scans the terrestrial limb. It has been possible to make a preliminary analysis of the ozone profiles using the Chappuis absorption feature. Three algorithms have been developed for ozone profile inversions from these limb spectra sets. We have dubbed these the Gattinger, Von Savigny-Flittner and DOAS methods. These are being evaluated against POAM and other satellite data. Based on performance, one of these will be selected for the operational algorithm. The infrared imager data have been used by Degenstein with the tomographic inversion procedure to derive ozone concentrations above 60 km. This paper will present some of these initial observations and indicate the best algorithm potential of OSIRIS to make spectacular advances in the study of terrestrial ozone.

  18. Inverse problem in transformation optics

    OpenAIRE

    Novitsky, Andrey V.

    2011-01-01

    The straightforward method of transformation optics implies that one starts from the coordinate transformation and determines the Jacobian matrix, the fields and material parameters of the cloak. However, the coordinate transformation appears as an optional function: it is not necessary to know it. We offer the solution of some sort of inverse problem: starting from the fields in the invisibility cloak we directly derive the permittivity and permeability tensors of the cloaking shell. This ap...

  19. Fourier reconstruction with sparse inversions

    OpenAIRE

    Zwartjes, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    In seismic exploration an image of the subsurface is generated from seismic data through various data processing algorithms. When the data is not acquired on an equidistantly spaced grid, artifacts may result in the final image. Fourier reconstruction is an interpolation technique that can reduce these artifacts by generating uniformly sampled data from such non-uniformly sampled data. The method works by estimating via least-squares inversion the Fourier coefficients that describe the non-un...

  20. The Inverse of Banded Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite ...numbers of summed or subtracted terms in computing the inverse of a term of an upper (lower) triangular matrix are the generalized order-k Fibonacci ... Fibonacci numbers are the usual Fibonacci numbers, that is, f 2m = Fm (mth Fibonacci number). When also k = 3, c1 = c2 = c3 = 1, then the generalized order-3

  1. Inverse Association Between Helicobacter pylori Gastritis and Microscopic Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Amnon; Genta, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is known to be inversely associated with Helicobacter pylori infection of the upper gastrointestinal tract. We hypothesized that a similar inverse association also applied to microscopic colitis. The associations between microscopic colitis and presence of H. pylori-positive chronic active gastritis (CAG), H. pylori-negative CAG, intestinal metaplasia, or gastric atrophy were expressed as odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to adjust these associations for sex, age, percentage residents per ZIP code with white, black, Hispanic, or Asian ethnicity, percentage with college education, average housing values, annual income, and population size of individual ZIP codes. H. pylori-positive CAG was less common among patients with than without microscopic colitis (odds ratio = 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.70). Intestinal metaplasia also occurred less frequently among patients with than without microscopic colitis (0.75, 0.65-0.86). These inverse associations remained unaffected by adjustments for parameters of ethnicity and socioeconomic status. In contradistinction with H. pylori-positive CAG, H. pylori-negative CAG was more common in patients with than without microscopic colitis (1.54, 1.17-1.97). H. pylori infection and microscopic colitis are inversely associated. This observation is consistent with similar inverse associations found between H. pylori and inflammatory bowel disease. These relationships may provide clues about the yet unknown etiology of microscopic colitis.

  2. Inverse-magnetron mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakulin, V.N.

    1979-01-01

    Considered is the operation of a typical magnetron mass spectrometer with an internal ion source and that of an inverse magnetron mass spectrometer with an external ion source. It is found that for discrimination of the same mass using the inverse design of mass spectrometers it is possible to employ either r 2 /r 1 times lesser magnetic fields at equal accelerating source-collector voltages, or r 2 /r 1 higher accelerating voltages at equal magnetic fields, as compared to the typical design (r 1 and r 2 being radii of the internal and external electrodes of the analyser, respectively). The design of an inverse-magnetron mass spectrometer is described. The mass analyzer is formed by a cylindrical electrode of 3 mm diameter and a coaxial tubular cylinder of 55 mm diameter. External to the analyzer is an ionizing chamber at the pressure of up to 5x10 -6 torr. The magnetic field along the chamber axis produced by a solenoid was 300 Oe. At the accelerating voltage of 100 V and mass 28, the spectrometer has a resolution of 30 at a half-peak height

  3. Source rupture process inversion of the 2013 Lushan earthquake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lifen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal slip distribution of the Lushan earthquake was estimated using teleseismic body wave data. To perform a stable inversion, we applied smoothing constraints and determined their optimal relative weights on the observed data using an optimized Akaike’s Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC. The inversion generated the source parameters. Strike, dip and slip were 218°, 39° and 100. 8°, respectively. A seismic moment (M0 was 2. 1 × 1020 Nm with a moment magnitude (Mw of 6. 8, and a source duration was approximately 30 second. The rupture propagated along the dip direction, and the maximum slip occurred at the hypocenter. The maximum slip was approximately 2. 1 m, although this earthquake did not cause an apparent surface rupture. The energy was mainly released within 10 second. In addition, the Lushan earthquake was apparently related to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. However, the question of whether it was an aftershock of the Wenchuan earthquake requires further study.

  4. Inverse problems for difference equations with quadratic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inverse problems for difference equations with quadratic Eigenparameter dependent boundary conditions. Sonja Currie, Anne D. Love. Abstract. This paper inductively investigates an inverse problem for difference boundary value problems with boundary conditions that depend quadratically on the eigenparameter.

  5. Religion & Public Schools: Striking a Constitutional Balance. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittins, Naomi E., Ed.

    This document provides comprehensive analysis of new key developments in the law regarding the proper relationship between religion and public schools. There are 12 chapters: (1) "The First Amendment and Public Schools: Overview of the Religion Clauses" (John Walsh, Dorine Lawrence-Hughes, and Usi N. Botros); (2) "Prayer on Campus:…

  6. Pre/post-strike atmospheric assessment system (PAAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peglow, S. G.; Molitoris, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    The Pre/Post-Strike Atmospheric Assessment System was proposed to show the importance of local meteorological conditions in the vicinity of a site suspected of storing or producing toxic agents and demonstrate a technology to measure these conditions, specifically wind fields. The ability to predict the collateral effects resulting from an attack on a facility containing hazardous materials is crucial to conducting effective military operations. Our study approach utilized a combination of field measurements with dispersion modeling to better understand which variables in terrain and weather were most important to collateral damage predictions. To develop the PAAS wind-sensing technology, we utilized a combination of emergent and available technology from micro-Doppler and highly coherent laser systems. The method used for wind sensing is to probe the atmosphere with a highly coherent laser beam. As the beam probes, light is back-scattered from particles entrained in the air to the lidar transceiver and detected by the instrument. Any motion of the aerosols with a component along the beam axis leads to a Doppler shift of the received light. Scanning in a conical fashion about the zenith results in a more accurate and two-dimensional measurement of the wind velocity. The major milestones in the benchtop system development were to verify the design by demonstrating the technique in the laboratory, then scale the design down to a size consistent with a demonstrator unit which could be built to take data in the field. The micro-Doppler heterodyne system we developed determines absolute motion by optically mixing a reference beam with the return signal and has shown motion sensitivity to better than 1 cm/s. This report describes the rationale, technical approach and laboratory testing undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of a system to provide local meteorological data and predict atmospheric particulate motion. The work described herein was funded by

  7. Fast computation of the inverse CMH model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Umesh D.; Della Torre, Edward

    2001-12-01

    A fast computational method based on differential equation approach for inverse Della Torre, Oti, Kádár (DOK) model has been extended for the inverse Complete Moving Hysteresis (CMH) model. A cobweb technique for calculating the inverse CMH model is also presented. The two techniques differ from the point of view of flexibility, accuracy, and computation time. Simulation results of the inverse computation for both methods are presented.

  8. LA INVERSION INMOBILIARIA INDIRECTA EN ESPANA.

    OpenAIRE

    Joan MONTLLOR-SERRATS; Anna M. PANOSA-GUBAU

    2013-01-01

    En este articulo se revisan los instrumentos de inversion indirecta inmobiliaria en Espana, desde la creacion en 1992 de los Fondos y Sociedades de Inversion inmobiliaria (FII y SII) hasta la creacion de la primera Sociedad de inversion del mercado inmobiliario (SOCIMI) en 2013. Se analizan las caracteristicas de los mismos y asimismo los motivos por los cuales estas figuras de inversion no han tenido mucha demanda hasta el momento, en comparacion con los REITs (Real Estate Investment Trusts)...

  9. Codimension zero laminations are inverse limits

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano Rojo, Álvaro

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to investigate the relation between inverse limit of branched manifolds and codimension zero laminations. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for such an inverse limit to be a lamination. We also show that codimension zero laminations are inverse limits of branched manifolds. The inverse limit structure allows us to show that equicontinuous codimension zero laminations preserves a distance function on transversals.

  10. The balancing act between the constitutional right to strike and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the South African Constitution enshrines both children's right to a basic education and teachers' right to strike, conflict between these two often occurs when the way in which teachers' unions conduct strike actions detracts from learners' education. This article identifies the parties affected by industrial action in the ...

  11. Expert Anticipatory Skill in Striking Sports: A Review and a Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Sean; Abernethy, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Expert performers in striking sports can hit objects moving at high speed with incredible precision. Exceptionally well developed anticipation skills are necessary to cope with the severe constraints on interception. In this paper, we provide a review of the empirical evidence regarding expert interception in striking sports and propose a…

  12. Factors affecting defensive strike behavior in Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) provoked by humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, McKayka M.; Lardner, Bjorn; Mazurek, M.J.; Reed, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    Striking is a typical antipredator defense exhibited by many species of snakes. While trapping Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) on Guam, we observed that snakes most frequently struck at an approaching person at a site where snakes had been trapped, marked, and handled in the past. Using a combination of between-sites and within-site comparisons, we assessed if the propensity to strike was correlated with capture histories (both recent and long-term), snake size, body condition (a proxy to nutritional stress), sex, or tail condition (broken or intact), while controlling for confounding variables. We confirmed that propensity to strike was higher at the site where we had been conducting capture-mark-recapture for several years. However, we were unable to demonstrate a correlation between striking tendencies and individual recent or long-term capture histories. The only morphological covariate that had an effect on strike propensity was sex, with females striking more often than males. After removing the site effect from our model, we found that snakes missing parts of their tails were more likely to strike than snakes with intact tails. We have yet to identify the factor(s) that cause the pronounced difference across sites in snake propensity to strike, and data from additional sites might help elucidate any geographical patterns.

  13. The dark side of solidarity: social norms and social relations in the aftermath of strikes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thommes, Kirsten; Akkerman, Agnes; Torenvlied, René; Born, Marieke

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies how employees anticipate change in social relations after a strike in their organisation. We hypothesise that two group norms affect employees' fear that a strike deteriorates the social relations with their colleagues. We distinguish between two different norms associated with a

  14. The dark side of solidarity. The impact of norms on the aftermath of strikes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thommes, K; Akkerman, A.; Torenvlied, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies how employees anticipate change in social relations after a strike in their organisation. We hypothesise that two group norms affect employees' fear that a strike deteriorates the social relations with their colleagues. We distinguish between two different norms associated with a

  15. Variation in Foot Strike Patterns among Habitually Barefoot and Shod Runners in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Daniel E; Castillo, Eric R; Otarola-Castillo, Erik; Sang, Meshack K; Sigei, Timothy K; Ojiambo, Robert; Okutoyi, Paul; Pitsiladis, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    Runners are often categorized as forefoot, midfoot or rearfoot strikers, but how much and why do individuals vary in foot strike patterns when running on level terrain? This study used general linear mixed-effects models to explore both intra- and inter-individual variations in foot strike pattern among 48 Kalenjin-speaking participants from Kenya who varied in age, sex, body mass, height, running history, and habitual use of footwear. High speed video was used to measure lower extremity kinematics at ground contact in the sagittal plane while participants ran down 13 meter-long tracks with three variables independently controlled: speed, track stiffness, and step frequency. 72% of the habitually barefoot and 32% of the habitually shod participants used multiple strike types, with significantly higher levels of foot strike variation among individuals who ran less frequently and who used lower step frequencies. There was no effect of sex, age, height or weight on foot strike angle, but individuals were more likely to midfoot or forefoot strike when they ran on a stiff surface, had a high preferred stride frequency, were habitually barefoot, and had more experience running. It is hypothesized that strike type variation during running, including a more frequent use of forefoot and midfoot strikes, used to be greater before the introduction of cushioned shoes and paved surfaces.

  16. The Balancing Act between the Constitutional Right to Strike and the Constitutional Right to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    While the South African Constitution enshrines both children's right to a basic education and teachers' right to strike, conflict between these two often occurs when the way in which teachers' unions conduct strike actions detracts from learners' education. This article identifies the parties affected by industrial action in the school context,…

  17. The Implications of Granting New Jersey Teachers the Right to Strike: A Public Policy Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisella, Carmine; Schwartz, Patricia

    Strikes are generally accepted as legitimate prerogatives of employees bargaining with employers in the private sector. Two broad questions must be answered when considering whether the right to strike should be granted public employees, including teachers. First, what are the distinctions between the public and private sectors that can reasonably…

  18. Are physicians' strikes ever morally justifiable? A call for a return to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Though physicians strike provides an opportunity to generate more knowledge about the process in which legitimacy of an organization can be restored, it meets with a great deal of resistance not only by the public but from within the medical profession. This paper critically examines the legitimacy of strike by medical ...

  19. Major Burn Injury From Lightning Strike: A Case Report and Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Lightning has been viewed as a sign of the anger of the “gods” from Greek mythology. Among Yorubas, thunderstorm is regarded as anger from the god of thunder, “Sango” who could strike anybody anywhere to vent his anger at someone who has committed some form of atrocity. When lightning strikes, it ...

  20. Batter's Choice: Lessons for Teaching Tactics in a Modified Striking/Fielding Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Christina

    2004-01-01

    When played in their standard form, striking/fielding games are often a favorite among elementary students; yet they allow for only limited participation, which is contradictory to quality physical education. This article presents a sequence of lessons leading to Batter's Choice, a modified striking/fielding game, designed to maximize the…

  1. Strike type variation among Tarahumara Indians in minimal sandals versus conventional running shoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E. Lieberman

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: These data reinforce earlier studies that there is variation among foot strike patterns among minimally shod runners, but also support the hypothesis that foot stiffness and important aspects of running form, including foot strike, differ between runners who grow up using minimal versus modern, conventional footwear.

  2. A rapid assessment of species-specific bird strike risk at the Kotoka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rapid assessment of species-specific bird strike risk at the Kotoka International Airport in Accra, Ghana. ... We conclude that wildlife management to avert the risk of bird strikes could be successfully achieved by adopting both proactive and reactive measures to reduce the presence of problem species at the aerodrome.

  3. Lightning Strikes and Thunder Claps: The Strategic Bomber and Air Superiority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Views November–December 2012 Air & Space Power Journal | 137 Lightning Strikes and Thunder Claps The Strategic Bomber and Air Superiority Maj Wade S...2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lightning Strikes and Thunder Claps: The Strategic Bomber and Air Superiority 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  4. Variation in Foot Strike Patterns among Habitually Barefoot and Shod Runners in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Lieberman

    Full Text Available Runners are often categorized as forefoot, midfoot or rearfoot strikers, but how much and why do individuals vary in foot strike patterns when running on level terrain? This study used general linear mixed-effects models to explore both intra- and inter-individual variations in foot strike pattern among 48 Kalenjin-speaking participants from Kenya who varied in age, sex, body mass, height, running history, and habitual use of footwear. High speed video was used to measure lower extremity kinematics at ground contact in the sagittal plane while participants ran down 13 meter-long tracks with three variables independently controlled: speed, track stiffness, and step frequency. 72% of the habitually barefoot and 32% of the habitually shod participants used multiple strike types, with significantly higher levels of foot strike variation among individuals who ran less frequently and who used lower step frequencies. There was no effect of sex, age, height or weight on foot strike angle, but individuals were more likely to midfoot or forefoot strike when they ran on a stiff surface, had a high preferred stride frequency, were habitually barefoot, and had more experience running. It is hypothesized that strike type variation during running, including a more frequent use of forefoot and midfoot strikes, used to be greater before the introduction of cushioned shoes and paved surfaces.

  5. Labor Conflict on the National Stage: Metaphoric Lenses in Israel's Teachers' Strike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkar, Miriam; Shenkar, Oded

    2011-01-01

    Teachers often embed their labor demands within a broader context to claim high moral ground and build community support. We analyze a recent teachers' strike in Israel, looking at how the strike played out in a country where the challenges of globalization collided with a socialist legacy in the face of an existential threat. The analysis reveals…

  6. Inversion: A Most Useful Kind of Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovsky, Vladimir

    1992-01-01

    The transformation assigning to every point its inverse with respect to a circle with given radius and center is called an inversion. Discusses inversion with respect to points, circles, angles, distances, space, and the parallel postulate. Exercises related to these topics are included. (MDH)

  7. A wrench and inversion model for structures in the Timor Sea region, northwest Austrialia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, A.W.

    1996-01-01

    A structural model is developed for part of the Timor Sea region, northwest Australia, involving multiple strike-slip episodes, and significant changes in the regional or local stress regimes. It is interpreted that both normal and reverse faults have existed since at least the Permian, and have changed their sense of movement in response to changing stress fields, with latest changes occurring as a result of Tertiary collision of the Australian and Eurasian Plates. Both 2-D and 3-D seismic data sets are used to demonstrate development of conventional simple strike-slip models into complex multi-episode models incorporating through-going and abandoned faults. After only three episodes of fault movement, one of which involves inversion, the fault linkages and structural history can become very difficult to unravel. The Jabiru Oil Field is shown to have developed at the intersection of orthogonal faults, with resultant restraining fault bend geometry. Failure to identify a large part of the field for several years after discovery may be attributed to misinterpretation of reversal of fault throw with depth (resulting from inversion), and to lack of appreciation of the significance of abandoned faults. Factors including fault abandonment, fault dips steepening with depth (including sideways concave faults), fault inversion, and trap seal development on inverted and abandoned faults may have a significant influence on the way petroleum traps are mapped and the trapping capacity of seals.

  8. A wrench and inversion model for structures in the Timor Sea region, northwest Austrialia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, A.W.

    1996-12-31

    A structural model is developed for part of the Timor Sea region, northwest Australia, involving multiple strike-slip episodes, and significant changes in the regional or local stress regimes. It is interpreted that both normal and reverse faults have existed since at least the Permian, and have changed their sense of movement in response to changing stress fields, with latest changes occurring as a result of Tertiary collision of the Australian and Eurasian Plates. Both 2-D and 3-D seismic data sets are used to demonstrate development of conventional simple strike-slip models into complex multi-episode models incorporating through-going and abandoned faults. After only three episodes of fault movement, one of which involves inversion, the fault linkages and structural history can become very difficult to unravel. The Jabiru Oil Field is shown to have developed at the intersection of orthogonal faults, with resultant restraining fault bend geometry. Failure to identify a large part of the field for several years after discovery may be attributed to misinterpretation of reversal of fault throw with depth (resulting from inversion), and to lack of appreciation of the significance of abandoned faults. Factors including fault abandonment, fault dips steepening with depth (including sideways concave faults), fault inversion, and trap seal development on inverted and abandoned faults may have a significant influence on the way petroleum traps are mapped and the trapping capacity of seals.

  9. The tragic Inversion of the Sense of Action

    OpenAIRE

    Ciro Alegría Varona

    1997-01-01

    Through the analyses of certain passages of Chapter VI of the Phenomenology of Spirit, this paper show how Hegel uses Greek tragedy to design a model of conflictive development of the relationship between society and State. The thread of this reading is the concept of inversion (Verkehrung) which appears closely related to that of action (Handlung). This paper shows, in conclusion, that the reduction of this tragic comprehension of the ethical to the conflictive terrns between civil society a...

  10. Inversion of GPS meteorology data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hocke

    Full Text Available The GPS meteorology (GPS/MET experiment, led by the Universities Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR, consists of a GPS receiver aboard a low earth orbit (LEO satellite which was launched on 3 April 1995. During a radio occultation the LEO satellite rises or sets relative to one of the 24 GPS satellites at the Earth's horizon. Thereby the atmospheric layers are successively sounded by radio waves which propagate from the GPS satellite to the LEO satellite. From the observed phase path increases, which are due to refraction of the radio waves by the ionosphere and the neutral atmosphere, the atmospheric parameter refractivity, density, pressure and temperature are calculated with high accuracy and resolution (0.5–1.5 km. In the present study, practical aspects of the GPS/MET data analysis are discussed. The retrieval is based on the Abelian integral inversion of the atmospheric bending angle profile into the refractivity index profile. The problem of the upper boundary condition of the Abelian integral is described by examples. The statistical optimization approach which is applied to the data above 40 km and the use of topside bending angle profiles from model atmospheres stabilize the inversion. The retrieved temperature profiles are compared with corresponding profiles which have already been calculated by scientists of UCAR and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, using Abelian integral inversion too. The comparison shows that in some cases large differences occur (5 K and more. This is probably due to different treatment of the upper boundary condition, data runaways and noise. Several temperature profiles with wavelike structures at tropospheric and stratospheric heights are shown. While the periodic structures at upper stratospheric heights could be caused by residual errors of the ionospheric correction method, the periodic temperature fluctuations at heights below 30 km are most likely caused by atmospheric waves (vertically

  11. A realistic inversion algorithm for magnetic anomaly data: the Mt. Amiata volcano test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Carmisciano

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the formulation of a 3D model of the Mt. Amiata volcanic complex (Southern Tuscany by means of geomagnetic data. This work is shown not only as a real test to check the validity of the inversion algorithm, but also to add information about the structure of the volcanic complex. First, we outline briefly the theory of geomagnetic data inversion and we introduce the approach adopted. Then we show the 3D model of the Amiata volcano built from the inversion, and we compare it with the available geological information. The most important consideration regards the surface distribution of the magnetization that is in good agreement with rock samples from this area. Moreover, the recovered model orientation recall the extension of the lava flows, and as a last proof of validity, the source appears to be contained inside of the topographic contour level. The credibility of the inversion procedure drives the interpretation even for the deepest part of the volcano. The geomagnetic signal appears suppressed at a depth of about 2 km, but the most striking consequence is that sub-vertical structures are found even in different positions from the conduits shown in the geologic sections. The results are thus in good agreement with the information obtained from other data, but showing features that had not been identified, stressing the informative power of the geomagnetic signal when a meaningful inversion algorithm is used.

  12. Dynamics of a strike-slip fault analog model : Effects of the tectonic loading rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniven, Y.; Dominguez, S.; Soliva, R.; Cattin, R.; Peyret, M.; Chéry, J.; Romano, C.

    2013-12-01

    The average seismic cycle duration extends from hundred to a few thousands years but geodetic measurements and seismological data extend over less than one century. This short time observation scale renders difficult to constrain the role of key parameters such as fault friction and geometry, crust rheology, stress and strain rate that control the kinematics and mechanics of active faults. To solve this time scale issue, we have developed a new experimental set-up that reproduces scaled micro-earthquakes and several hundreds of seismic cycles along a strike-slip fault. The model is constituted by two polyurethane foam plates laterally in contact, lying on a basal silicone layer, which simulate the mechanical behaviour of an elastoplastic upper crust over a ductile lower crust, respectively. To simulate the boundary conditions of a strike-slip fault, a computerized motoreductor system moves the two compartments on an opposite sens at a constant low velocity (a few μm/s). The model scaling, deduces from analog material physical parameters, implies that 1 cm in the model represents 2-3 km in the nature and 1 s is equivalent to 5-15 years. Surface-horizontal strain field is quantified by sub-pixel correlation of digital camera pictures recorded every 16 μm of displacement. We record about 2000 horizontal-velocity field measurements for each experiment. The analysis of model-interseismic and coseismic surface displacements and their comparison to seismogenic natural faults demonstrate that our analog model reproduces correctly both near and far-field surface strains. To compare the experiments, we have developed several algorithms that allow studying the main spatial and temporal evolution of the physical parameters and surface deformation processes that characterise the seismic cycle (magnitudes, stress, strain, friction coefficients, interseismic locking depth, recurrence time, ...). We also performed surface-velocity field inversions to assess the spatial

  13. Inverse problem in transformation optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    . We offer the solution of some sort of inverse problem: starting from the fields in the invisibility cloak we directly derive the permittivity and permeability tensors of the cloaking shell. This approach can be useful for finding material parameters for the specified electromagnetic fields......The straightforward method of transformation optics implies that one starts from the coordinate transformation and determines the Jacobian matrix, the fields and material parameters of the cloak. However, the coordinate transformation appears as an optional function: it is not necessary to know it...... in the cloaking shell without knowing the coordinate transformation....

  14. Iterative optimization in inverse problems

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Charles L

    2014-01-01

    Iterative Optimization in Inverse Problems brings together a number of important iterative algorithms for medical imaging, optimization, and statistical estimation. It incorporates recent work that has not appeared in other books and draws on the author's considerable research in the field, including his recently developed class of SUMMA algorithms. Related to sequential unconstrained minimization methods, the SUMMA class includes a wide range of iterative algorithms well known to researchers in various areas, such as statistics and image processing. Organizing the topics from general to more

  15. Inverse design of multicomponent assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeros, William D.; Lindquist, Beth A.; Jadrich, Ryan B.; Truskett, Thomas M.

    2018-03-01

    Inverse design can be a useful strategy for discovering interactions that drive particles to spontaneously self-assemble into a desired structure. Here, we extend an inverse design methodology—relative entropy optimization—to determine isotropic interactions that promote assembly of targeted multicomponent phases, and we apply this extension to design interactions for a variety of binary crystals ranging from compact triangular and square architectures to highly open structures with dodecagonal and octadecagonal motifs. We compare the resulting optimized (self- and cross) interactions for the binary assemblies to those obtained from optimization of analogous single-component systems. This comparison reveals that self-interactions act as a "primer" to position particles at approximately correct coordination shell distances, while cross interactions act as the "binder" that refines and locks the system into the desired configuration. For simpler binary targets, it is possible to successfully design self-assembling systems while restricting one of these interaction types to be a hard-core-like potential. However, optimization of both self- and cross interaction types appears necessary to design for assembly of more complex or open structures.

  16. LHC Report: 2 inverse femtobarns!

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team

    2011-01-01

    The LHC is enjoying a confluence of twos. This morning (Friday 5 August) we passed 2 inverse femtobarns delivered in 2011; the peak luminosity is now just over 2 x1033 cm-2s-1; and recently fill 2000 was in for nearly 22 hours and delivered around 90 inverse picobarns, almost twice 2010's total.   In order to increase the luminosity we can increase of number of bunches, increase the number of particles per bunch, or decrease the transverse beam size at the interaction point. The beam size can be tackled in two ways: either reduce the size of the injected bunches or squeeze harder with the quadrupole magnets situated on either side of the experiments. Having increased the number of bunches to 1380, the maximum possible with a 50 ns bunch spacing, a one day meeting in Crozet decided to explore the other possibilities. The size of the beams coming from the injectors has been reduced to the minimum possible. This has brought an increase in the peak luminosity of about 50% and the 2 x 1033 cm...

  17. Inverse problems in systems biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engl, Heinz W; Lu, James; Müller, Stefan; Flamm, Christoph; Schuster, Peter; Kügler, Philipp

    2009-01-01

    Systems biology is a new discipline built upon the premise that an understanding of how cells and organisms carry out their functions cannot be gained by looking at cellular components in isolation. Instead, consideration of the interplay between the parts of systems is indispensable for analyzing, modeling, and predicting systems' behavior. Studying biological processes under this premise, systems biology combines experimental techniques and computational methods in order to construct predictive models. Both in building and utilizing models of biological systems, inverse problems arise at several occasions, for example, (i) when experimental time series and steady state data are used to construct biochemical reaction networks, (ii) when model parameters are identified that capture underlying mechanisms or (iii) when desired qualitative behavior such as bistability or limit cycle oscillations is engineered by proper choices of parameter combinations. In this paper we review principles of the modeling process in systems biology and illustrate the ill-posedness and regularization of parameter identification problems in that context. Furthermore, we discuss the methodology of qualitative inverse problems and demonstrate how sparsity enforcing regularization allows the determination of key reaction mechanisms underlying the qualitative behavior. (topical review)

  18. Collective Labor Disputes and Strikes in Russia: The Impact of Judicial Precedents and Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gerasimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The right to strike is recognized in the Constitution and the Labor Code of the Russian Federation as a means to resolve collective labor disputes. However, in Russia labor protests come up for discussion much more frequently than strikes. In recent years the number of labor protests in Russia, including various forms of work stoppage, has increased significantly compared to previous years, but the number of legally constituted collective labor disputes and strikes has remained very low. The legislation on resolution of collective labor disputes and mounting strikes is quite restrictive in Russia, and its enforcement also encourages employees to seek alternative ways to settle collective labor conflicts. There is little empirical research on the judicial implementation of these norms and its influence on the enforcement of legislation. Therefore, this paper analyses the reasoning of courts in cases on the legality of strikes, their interpretations of the law, and the impact these decisions have on the enforcement of the legislation on resolution of collective labor disputes and strikes. Our conclusion is that the courts act as another restrictive influence on the resolution of collective labor disputes and the exercise of the right to strike in Russia.

  19. A simple field method to identify foot strike pattern during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giandolini, Marlène; Poupard, Thibaut; Gimenez, Philippe; Horvais, Nicolas; Millet, Guillaume Y; Morin, Jean-Benoît; Samozino, Pierre

    2014-05-07

    Identifying foot strike patterns in running is an important issue for sport clinicians, coaches and footwear industrials. Current methods allow the monitoring of either many steps in laboratory conditions or only a few steps in the field. Because measuring running biomechanics during actual practice is critical, our purpose is to validate a method aiming at identifying foot strike patterns during continuous field measurements. Based on heel and metatarsal accelerations, this method requires two uniaxial accelerometers. The time between heel and metatarsal acceleration peaks (THM) was compared to the foot strike angle in the sagittal plane (αfoot) obtained by 2D video analysis for various conditions of speed, slope, footwear, foot strike and state of fatigue. Acceleration and kinematic measurements were performed at 1000Hz and 120Hz, respectively, during 2-min treadmill running bouts. Significant correlations were observed between THM and αfoot for 14 out of 15 conditions. The overall correlation coefficient was r=0.916 (Pfoot strike except for extreme forefoot strike during which the heel rarely or never strikes the ground, and for different footwears and states of fatigue. We proposed a classification based on THM: FFS<-5.49ms

  20. Inverse problems and inverse scattering of plane waves

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh Roy, Dilip N

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this text is to present the theory and mathematics of inverse scattering, in a simple way, to the many researchers and professionals who use it in their everyday research. While applications range across a broad spectrum of disciplines, examples in this text will focus primarly, but not exclusively, on acoustics. The text will be especially valuable for those applied workers who would like to delve more deeply into the fundamentally mathematical character of the subject matter.Practitioners in this field comprise applied physicists, engineers, and technologists, whereas the theory is almost entirely in the domain of abstract mathematics. This gulf between the two, if bridged, can only lead to improvement in the level of scholarship in this highly important discipline. This is the book''s primary focus.

  1. Gender frames and collective action: Configurations of masculinity in the Pittston Coal strike

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckwith, K. [College Wooster, Wooster, OH (United States)

    2001-06-01

    This article develops the concept of gender frame for understanding major transformations in the collective action repertoires of social movements. Focusing on the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) strike against the Pittston Coal Group (1989-90), the article discusses the UMWA's traditional collective action repertoire and its innovation of nonviolent protest, widely employed during the strike. Interviews with major activists and UMWA staff and officers illustrate how the UMWA employed a gender frame of mining masculinities to initiate the new nonviolent strike action. The article concludes by suggesting how collective action repertoires and framing are linked and encouraging future research on gender frames in social movements.

  2. Inverse analysis of turbidites by machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, H.; Nakao, K.

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to propose a method to estimate paleo-hydraulic conditions of turbidity currents from ancient turbidites by using machine-learning technique. In this method, numerical simulation was repeated under various initial conditions, which produces a data set of characteristic features of turbidites. Then, this data set of turbidites is used for supervised training of a deep-learning neural network (NN). Quantities of characteristic features of turbidites in the training data set are given to input nodes of NN, and output nodes are expected to provide the estimates of initial condition of the turbidity current. The optimization of weight coefficients of NN is then conducted to reduce root-mean-square of the difference between the true conditions and the output values of NN. The empirical relationship with numerical results and the initial conditions is explored in this method, and the discovered relationship is used for inversion of turbidity currents. This machine learning can potentially produce NN that estimates paleo-hydraulic conditions from data of ancient turbidites. We produced a preliminary implementation of this methodology. A forward model based on 1D shallow-water equations with a correction of density-stratification effect was employed. This model calculates a behavior of a surge-like turbidity current transporting mixed-size sediment, and outputs spatial distribution of volume per unit area of each grain-size class on the uniform slope. Grain-size distribution was discretized 3 classes. Numerical simulation was repeated 1000 times, and thus 1000 beds of turbidites were used as the training data for NN that has 21000 input nodes and 5 output nodes with two hidden-layers. After the machine learning finished, independent simulations were conducted 200 times in order to evaluate the performance of NN. As a result of this test, the initial conditions of validation data were successfully reconstructed by NN. The estimated values show very small

  3. Statistical Inversion of Seismic Noise Inversion statistique du bruit sismique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adler P. M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A systematic investigation of wave propagation in random media is presented. Spectral analysis, inversion of codas and attenuation of the direct wave front are studied for synthetic data obtained in isotropic or anisotropic, 2D or 3D media. A coda inversion process is developed and checked on two sets of real data. In both cases, it is possible to compare the correlation lengths obtained by inversion to characteristic lengths measured on seismic logs, for the full scale seismic survey, or on a thin section, for the laboratory experiment. These two experiments prove the feasibility and the efficiency of the statistical inversion of codas. Correct characteristic lengths can be obtained which cannot be determined by another method. Le problème de la géophysique est la recherche d'informations concernant le sous-sol, dans des signaux sismiques enregistrés en surface ou dans des puits. Ces informations sont habituellement recherchées sous forme déterministe, c'est-à-dire sous la forme de la donnée en chaque point d'une valeur du paramètre étudié. Notre point de vue est différent puisque notre objectif est de déduire certaines propriétés statistiques du milieu, supposé hétérogène, à partir des sismogrammes enregistrés après propagation. Il apparaît alors deux moyens de remplir l'objectif fixé. Le premier est l'analyse spectrale des codas ; cette analyse permet de déterminer les tailles moyennes des hétérogénéités du sous-sol. La deuxième possibilité est l'étude de l'atténuation du front direct de l'onde, qui conduit aussi à la connaissance des longueurs caractéristiques du sous-sol ; contrairement à la première méthode, elle ne semble pas pouvoir être transposée efficacement à des cas réels. Dans la première partie, on teste numériquement la proportionnalité entre le facteur de rétrodiffraction, relié aux propriétés statistiques du milieu, et le spectre des codas. Les distributions de vitesse, à valeur

  4. Adaptive online inverse control of a shape memory alloy wire actuator using a dynamic neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai, Huanhuan; Liao, Xiaofeng; Song, Gangbing

    2013-01-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators exhibit severe hysteresis, a nonlinear behavior, which complicates control strategies and limits their applications. This paper presents a new approach to controlling an SMA actuator through an adaptive inverse model based controller that consists of a dynamic neural network (DNN) identifier, a copy dynamic neural network (CDNN) feedforward term and a proportional (P) feedback action. Unlike fixed hysteresis models used in most inverse controllers, the proposed one uses a DNN to identify online the relationship between the applied voltage to the actuator and the displacement (the inverse model). Even without a priori knowledge of the SMA hysteresis and without pre-training, the proposed controller can precisely control the SMA wire actuator in various tracking tasks by identifying online the inverse model of the SMA actuator. Experiments were conducted, and experimental results demonstrated real-time modeling capabilities of DNN and the performance of the adaptive inverse controller. (paper)

  5. Solution for Ill-Posed Inverse Kinematics of Robot Arm by Network Inversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiko Ogawa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of controlling a robot arm with multiple joints, the method of estimating the joint angles from the given end-effector coordinates is called inverse kinematics, which is a type of inverse problems. Network inversion has been proposed as a method for solving inverse problems by using a multilayer neural network. In this paper, network inversion is introduced as a method to solve the inverse kinematics problem of a robot arm with multiple joints, where the joint angles are estimated from the given end-effector coordinates. In general, inverse problems are affected by ill-posedness, which implies that the existence, uniqueness, and stability of their solutions are not guaranteed. In this paper, we show the effectiveness of applying network inversion with regularization, by which ill-posedness can be reduced, to the ill-posed inverse kinematics of an actual robot arm with multiple joints.

  6. Inverse problem in neutron reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xiao-Lin; Felcher, G.P.; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    1991-05-01

    Reflectance and transmittance of neutrons from a thin film deposited on a bulk substrate are derived from solution of Schroedinger wave equation in the material medium with an optical potential. A closed-form solution for the complex reflectance and transmittance is obtained in an approximation where the curvature of the scattering length density profile in the film is small. This closed-form solution reduces to all the known approximations in various limiting cases and is shown to be more accurate than the existing approximations. The closed-form solution of the reflectance is used as a starting point for an inversion algorithm whereby the reflectance data are inverted by a matrix iteration scheme to obtain the scattering length density distribution in the film. A preliminary test showed that the inverted profile is accurate for the linear scattering length density distribution but falls short in the case of an exponential distribution. 30 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  7. Wake Vortex Inverse Model User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, David; Delisi, Donald

    2008-01-01

    NorthWest Research Associates (NWRA) has developed an inverse model for inverting landing aircraft vortex data. The data used for the inversion are the time evolution of the lateral transport position and vertical position of both the port and starboard vortices. The inverse model performs iterative forward model runs using various estimates of vortex parameters, vertical crosswind profiles, and vortex circulation as a function of wake age. Forward model predictions of lateral transport and altitude are then compared with the observed data. Differences between the data and model predictions guide the choice of vortex parameter values, crosswind profile and circulation evolution in the next iteration. Iterations are performed until a user-defined criterion is satisfied. Currently, the inverse model is set to stop when the improvement in the rms deviation between the data and model predictions is less than 1 percent for two consecutive iterations. The forward model used in this inverse model is a modified version of the Shear-APA model. A detailed description of this forward model, the inverse model, and its validation are presented in a different report (Lai, Mellman, Robins, and Delisi, 2007). This document is a User's Guide for the Wake Vortex Inverse Model. Section 2 presents an overview of the inverse model program. Execution of the inverse model is described in Section 3. When executing the inverse model, a user is requested to provide the name of an input file which contains the inverse model parameters, the various datasets, and directories needed for the inversion. A detailed description of the list of parameters in the inversion input file is presented in Section 4. A user has an option to save the inversion results of each lidar track in a mat-file (a condensed data file in Matlab format). These saved mat-files can be used for post-inversion analysis. A description of the contents of the saved files is given in Section 5. An example of an inversion input

  8. An Exploratory Analysis of Littoral Combat Ships Ability to Protect Expeditionary Strike Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Efimba, Motale

    2003-01-01

    ...) to augment or replace the current defenses of Expeditionary Strike Groups (ESG). Specifically, LCS's ability to help defend an ESGs in an anti-access scenario against a high-density small boat attack is simulated. Numbers of CRUDES...

  9. Expeditionary Strike Group: New Label, or New Concept - for Future Naval Warriors of America's Small Wars?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hancock, Daryl

    2003-01-01

    ... as, emergent contingency operations, and major theater wars. In the near future they will accomplish this mission while deployed around the globe under the new concept of Expeditionary Strike Groups (ESG...

  10. Three-dimensional impact kinetics with foot-strike manipulations during running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Nordin

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Loading rate–time assessment identified contrasting impact characteristics in each direction and the 3D resultant following foot-strike manipulations, with potential implications for lower extremity structures in running.

  11. Counterproliferation Strategy: The Role of Preventive War, Preventive Strikes, and Interdiction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rak, Claire

    2003-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the potential effectiveness of preventive war, preventive strikes, and interdiction as tools for the United States to counter the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD...

  12. Wildlife strike risk assessment in several Italian airports: lessons from BRI and a new methodology implementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Soldatini

    Full Text Available The presence of wildlife in airport areas poses substantial hazards to aviation. Wildlife aircraft collisions (hereafter wildlife strikes cause losses in terms of human lives and direct monetary losses for the aviation industry. In recent years, wildlife strikes have increased in parallel with air traffic increase and species habituation to anthropic areas. In this paper, we used an ecological approach to wildlife strike risk assessment to eight Italian international airports. The main achievement is a site-specific analysis that avoids flattening wildlife strike events on a large scale while maintaining comparable airport risk assessments. This second version of the Birdstrike Risk Index (BRI2 is a sensitive tool that provides different time scale results allowing appropriate management planning. The methodology applied has been developed in accordance with the Italian Civil Aviation Authority, which recognizes it as a national standard implemented in the advisory circular ENAC APT-01B.

  13. Electrically conductive carbon fibre-reinforced composite for aircraft lightning strike protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katunin, Andrzej; Krukiewicz, Katarzyna; Turczyn, Roman; Sul, Przemysław; Bilewicz, Marcin

    2017-05-01

    Aircraft elements, especially elements of exterior fuselage, are subjected to damage caused by lightning strikes. Due to the fact that these elements are manufactured from polymeric composites in modern aircraft, and thus, they cannot conduct electrical charges, the lightning strikes cause burnouts in composite structures. Therefore, the effective lightning strike protection for such structures is highly desired. The solution presented in this paper is based on application of organic conductive fillers in the form of intrinsically conducting polymers and carbon fabric in order to ensure electrical conductivity of whole composite and simultaneously retain superior mechanical properties. The presented studies cover synthesis and manufacturing of the electrically conductive composite as well as its characterization with respect to mechanical and electrical properties. The performed studies indicate that the proposed material can be potentially considered as a constructional material for aircraft industry, which characterizes by good operational properties and low cost of manufacturing with respect to current lightning strike protection materials solutions.

  14. Annotated Bibliography of Bird Hazards to Aircraft: Bird Strike Committee Citations 1967-1997

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Short, Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    .... This annotated bibliography of bird hazards to aircraft, termed ABBHA, is a compilation of citations with abstracts on a wide range of related topics such as bird strike tolerance engineering, bird...

  15. Accommodating chromosome inversions in linkage analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gary K; Slaten, Erin; Ophoff, Roel A; Lange, Kenneth

    2006-08-01

    This work develops a population-genetics model for polymorphic chromosome inversions. The model precisely describes how an inversion changes the nature of and approach to linkage equilibrium. The work also describes algorithms and software for allele-frequency estimation and linkage analysis in the presence of an inversion. The linkage algorithms implemented in the software package Mendel estimate recombination parameters and calculate the posterior probability that each pedigree member carries the inversion. Application of Mendel to eight Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain pedigrees in a region containing a common inversion on 8p23 illustrates its potential for providing more-precise estimates of the location of an unmapped marker or trait gene. Our expanded cytogenetic analysis of these families further identifies inversion carriers and increases the evidence of linkage.

  16. Optimization and inverse problems in electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Wiak, Sławomir

    2003-01-01

    From 12 to 14 September 2002, the Academy of Humanities and Economics (AHE) hosted the workshop "Optimization and Inverse Problems in Electromagnetism". After this bi-annual event, a large number of papers were assembled and combined in this book. During the workshop recent developments and applications in optimization and inverse methodologies for electromagnetic fields were discussed. The contributions selected for the present volume cover a wide spectrum of inverse and optimal electromagnetic methodologies, ranging from theoretical to practical applications. A number of new optimal and inverse methodologies were proposed. There are contributions related to dedicated software. Optimization and Inverse Problems in Electromagnetism consists of three thematic chapters, covering: -General papers (survey of specific aspects of optimization and inverse problems in electromagnetism), -Methodologies, -Industrial Applications. The book can be useful to students of electrical and electronics engineering, computer sci...

  17. Bird Strike Committee Europe (BSCE) , 13th Meeting, Bern, Switzerland 29th May to 2nd June 1978

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1979-01-01

    ...: Identification of Bird Remains as Part of the Bird Strike Reporting Procedure Birdstrikes - Helicopter in GAF Collisions with Birds of Prey in the Alps The Bird Strike Reporting System in Swiss Air...

  18. Hospitalized hunger-striking prisoners: the role of ethics consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caenazzo, Luciana; Tozzo, Pamela; Rodriguez, Daniele

    2016-12-01

    We refer to hospitalized convicted hunger strikers in Padua Hospital who decided to fast for specific reasons, often demanding, to be heard by the judge, to complain about the existing custodial situation or to claim unjust treatment. The medical ethics of hunger strikers are debated because the use of force feeding by physicians is widely condemned as unethical, but courts, in Italy, sometimes order to transfer the convicted person to hospital and oblige healthcare practitioners to perform forcible feeding. This can engender a profound insecurity for the physicians taking action on the one hand, while preventing patients from fully availing themselves of this principle of self-determination on the other. Physicians are mainly concerned about how to manage this situation and they may request ethical consultation. When it comes to managing hospitalized hunger strikers, the ethics consultant may be able to facilitate the relationship between physicians and hunger strikers, enhance the latter's trust in the former, ensuring that strikers are aware of the risks associated with their fasting, and helping them to arrive of their own free will at the right decision concerning their behavior and their demands.

  19. The Evolution of Preemptive Strikes in Israeli Operational Planning and Future Implications for the Cyber Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    The strategic and operational use of preemptive strikes has transitioned from the traditional tactic of air raids to the use of covert cyber attacks like...Stuxnet, operational planners can gain an understanding of the evolution of preemption as a concept. Examining this shift from air strikes to cyber ... attacks through the lens of U.S. Army Doctrine and the tenets of Unified Land Operations (Depth, Synchronization, Integration, Adaptability, Flexibility

  20. A numerical model for bird strike on sidewall structure of an aircraft nose

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jun; Li, Yulong; Gao, Xiaosheng; Yu, Xiancheng

    2014-01-01

    In order to examine the potential of using the coupled smooth particles hydrodynamic (SPH) and finite element (FE) method to predict the dynamic responses of aircraft structures in bird strike events, bird-strike tests on the sidewall structure of an aircraft nose are carried out and numerically simulated. The bird is modeled with SPH and described by the Murnaghan equation of state, while the structure is modeled with finite elements. A coupled SPH–FE method is developed to simulate the bird...

  1. Upward streamers produced by a lightning strike to radio transmission towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krider, E. Philip; Wetmore, Ralph H.

    1987-01-01

    A lightning strike to the center of three 78-m radio transmission towers produced upward discharges with lengths of 40 and 79 m from each of the neighboring towers. This strike also caused a number of insulators on guy wires that supported the tower to flash over, and the locations of these points and the two-dimensional geometry of the discharge channels are projected onto a vertical plane that is centered on the tower.

  2. The Left Labourites and the General Strike of 1926 in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya G. Blosfeld

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The author analyses the left labourites’ attitude to the interaction of the Labour Party and trade unions and use of general strike as a means of the social struggle. Besides the article analyses the left labourites’ estimation of 1926 general strike and the causes of the defeat, and the strike of the miners who decided to continue it. The left labourites defended the branch principle of the trade unions’ organization based on the shopstewards’ model which was better adopted for the strike struggle. The left labourites took into account that the general structure of the labour movement would remain the same, but the Labour Party would take over the leadership from trade unions. The left labourites supported the peaceful way of transition to socialism and they considered the general strike to be analogy of social revolution or a means of pressure of the government for nationalization of the main economic branches and the improvement of the workers’ life conditions. Under extreme circumstances, the general strike was considered to be a means to prevent antidemocratic revolution. Evaluating the general strike of 1926, the author marks the absence of unity in the leadership, hesitations and inconsistency of the left labourites themselves. They didn’t give a single proposal about the improvement of the working-class movement organization except of state British Trade Unions Congress. As a result, the criticism of the General Council’s renegade position was bestowed upon the leadership of the Miners Federation who didn’t submit to the General Council order to stop the strike.

  3. The single match approach to strike rate adjustments in batting performance measures in cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmer, Hermanus H

    2011-01-01

    Batting performance measures containing strike rate adjustments take into account the important fact that if two batsmen had scored the same number of runs in a match, the one with the better strike rate had performed best. But match conditions can influence the batting and bowling performances of cricket players. On a good pitch a batsman can get a good score at a high strike rate, but if the pitch was bad, a similar good score is normally accompanied by a much lower strike rate. The main objective of this study is to propose a method that can be used to make batsmen's scores comparable despite the fact that playing conditions might have been very different. The number of runs scored by a batsman is adjusted by comparing his strike rate with the overall strike rate of all the players in the specific match. These adjusted runs are then used in the most appropriate formula to calculate the average of the batsman. The method is illustrated by using the results of the Indian Premier League 2009 Twenty20 Series played during May and June 2009. The main conclusion is that the traditional average is not the most appropriate measure to compare batsmen's performances after conclusion of a short series. Key pointsIt is unfair to compare the score of a batsman obtained on a good pitch under ideal batting conditions with that of a batsman who had to battle under severe conditions.By comparing a batsman's strike rate with the overall strike rate of the players in the specific match, his score can be adjusted to get a better figure for his true performance.The results demonstrate clearly that the use of adjusted scores lead to rankings that differ from those based on the traditional measures.

  4. Carrier Aviation and Hybrid Conflict: The Future of the Strike Fighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Throughout strike fighter squadrons, the TOPGUN manual is the bible, "TOPGUN recommends ... " is the gospel , and Strike Fighter Instructors (SFTI) are the...34. 60 Ibid, 7. 61 Ibid, 34. 62 Lambeth, 2. 63 Ibid .. 64 Ibid, 3 . . 65 Matthew Klam, "Status is ... for Navy Fighter Pilots; An Air-to-Air...Naval War College, 2004. Klain, Matthew . "Status is ... for Navy Fighter Pilots; An Air-to-Air Kill". NYTIMES. COM, November 15, 1998. http

  5. Professional solidarity versus responsibility for the health of the public: is a nurses' strike morally defensible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, N; Wagner, N

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to deliberate the moral and legal dilemma entailed in the weapon of the labour strike as a pressure tactic on the Israeli Finance Ministry regarding job slots, budgets and, in effect, violating the collective agreement signed by the nurses and impairing patients' treatment, as opposed to refraining from striking and suffering the heavy burden of work, the lack of trained personnel, low wages, and the inability to give patients proper, high quality treatment.

  6. Identifiability Scaling Laws in Bilinear Inverse Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhary, Sunav; Mitra, Urbashi

    2014-01-01

    A number of ill-posed inverse problems in signal processing, like blind deconvolution, matrix factorization, dictionary learning and blind source separation share the common characteristic of being bilinear inverse problems (BIPs), i.e. the observation model is a function of two variables and conditioned on one variable being known, the observation is a linear function of the other variable. A key issue that arises for such inverse problems is that of identifiability, i.e. whether the observa...

  7. Lectures on the inverse scattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, V.E.

    1983-06-01

    In a series of six lectures an elementary introduction to the theory of inverse scattering is given. The first four lectures contain a detailed theory of solitons in the framework of the KdV equation, together with the inverse scattering theory of the one-dimensional Schroedinger equation. In the fifth lecture the dressing method is described, while the sixth lecture gives a brief review of the equations soluble by the inverse scattering method. (author)

  8. Inverse kinematics of OWI-535 robotic arm

    OpenAIRE

    DEBENEC, PRIMOŽ

    2015-01-01

    The thesis aims to calculate the inverse kinematics for the OWI-535 robotic arm. The calculation of the inverse kinematics determines the joint parameters that provide the right pose of the end effector. The pose consists of the position and orientation, however, we will focus only on the second one. Due to arm limitations, we have created our own type of the calculation of the inverse kinematics. At first we have derived it only theoretically, and then we have transferred the derivation into...

  9. Automatic Flight Controller With Model Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, George; Smith, G. Allan

    1992-01-01

    Automatic digital electronic control system based on inverse-model-follower concept being developed for proposed vertical-attitude-takeoff-and-landing airplane. Inverse-model-follower control places inverse mathematical model of dynamics of controlled plant in series with control actuators of controlled plant so response of combination of model and plant to command is unity. System includes feedback to compensate for uncertainties in mathematical model and disturbances imposed from without.

  10. THE SINGLE MATCH APPROACH TO STRIKE RATE ADJUSTMENTS IN BATTING PERFORMANCE MEASURES IN CRICKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermanus H. Lemmer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Batting performance measures containing strike rate adjustments take into account the important fact that if two batsmen had scored the same number of runs in a match, the one with the better strike rate had performed best. But match conditions can influence the batting and bowling performances of cricket players. On a good pitch a batsman can get a good score at a high strike rate, but if the pitch was bad, a similar good score is normally accompanied by a much lower strike rate. The main objective of this study is to propose a method that can be used to make batsmen's scores comparable despite the fact that playing conditions might have been very different. The number of runs scored by a batsman is adjusted by comparing his strike rate with the overall strike rate of all the players in the specific match. These adjusted runs are then used in the most appropriate formula to calculate the average of the batsman. The method is illustrated by using the results of the Indian Premier League 2009 Twenty20 Series played during May and June 2009. The main conclusion is that the traditional average is not the most appropriate measure to compare batsmen's performances after conclusion of a short series.

  11. Time-reversal and Bayesian inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debski, Wojciech

    2017-04-01

    Probabilistic inversion technique is superior to the classical optimization-based approach in all but one aspects. It requires quite exhaustive computations which prohibit its use in huge size inverse problems like global seismic tomography or waveform inversion to name a few. The advantages of the approach are, however, so appealing that there is an ongoing continuous afford to make the large inverse task as mentioned above manageable with the probabilistic inverse approach. One of the perspective possibility to achieve this goal relays on exploring the internal symmetry of the seismological modeling problems in hand - a time reversal and reciprocity invariance. This two basic properties of the elastic wave equation when incorporating into the probabilistic inversion schemata open a new horizons for Bayesian inversion. In this presentation we discuss the time reversal symmetry property, its mathematical aspects and propose how to combine it with the probabilistic inverse theory into a compact, fast inversion algorithm. We illustrate the proposed idea with the newly developed location algorithm TRMLOC and discuss its efficiency when applied to mining induced seismic data.

  12. Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the continued development of a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and...

  13. Towards inverse modeling of intratumor heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutovsky, Branislav; Horvath, Denis

    2015-08-01

    Development of resistance limits efficiency of present anticancer therapies and preventing it remains a big challenge in cancer research. It is accepted, at the intuitive level, that resistance emerges as a consequence of the heterogeneity of cancer cells at the molecular, genetic and cellular levels. Produced by many sources, tumor heterogeneity is extremely complex time dependent statistical characteristics which may be quantified by measures defined in many different ways, most of them coming from statistical mechanics. In this paper, we apply the Markovian framework to relate population heterogeneity to the statistics of the environment. As, from an evolutionary viewpoint, therapy corresponds to a purposeful modi- fication of the cells' fitness landscape, we assume that understanding general relationship between the spatiotemporal statistics of a tumor microenvironment and intratumor heterogeneity will allow to conceive the therapy as an inverse problem and to solve it by optimization techniques. To account for the inherent stochasticity of biological processes at cellular scale, the generalized distancebased concept was applied to express distances between probabilistically described cell states and environmental conditions, respectively.

  14. Microstructural Evolution of Inverse Bainite in a Hypereutectoid Low-Alloy Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Rangasayee; Wang, Yiyu; Li, Leijun

    2017-12-01

    Microstructural evolution of inverse bainite during isothermal bainite transformation of a hypereutectoid low-alloy steel at 773 K (500 °C) was investigated through a series of interrupted isothermal experiments using a quench dilatometer. Microstructural characterization revealed that the inverse bainitic transformation starts by the nucleation of cementite (Fe3C) from parent austenite as a midrib in the bainitic microstructure. The inverse bainite becomes "degenerated" to typical upper bainite at prolonged transformation times. Crystallographic orientation relationships between the individual phases of inverse bainite microstructure were found to obey { _{γ } || _{θ } } { _{α } || _{θ } } { _{γ } || _{α } } 111_{γ } || { \\overline{2} 21} _{θ } } { 110} _{α } || { \\overline{2} 21} _{θ } } { 111} _{γ } || { 110 } _{α } {111} _{γ } || {211} _{θ } {110} _{α } || {211} _{θ } Furthermore, the crystallographic orientation deviations between the individual phases of inverse bainite microstructure suggest that the secondary carbide nucleation occurs from the inverse bainitic ferrite. Thermodynamic driving force calculations provide an explanation for the observed nucleation sequence in inverse bainite. The degeneracy of inverse bainite microstructure to upper bainite at prolonged transformation times is likely due to the effects of cementite midrib dissolution at the early stage and secondary carbide coarsening at the later stage.

  15. Sensitivity study on hydraulic well testing inversion using simulated annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, Shinsuke; Najita, J.; Karasaki, Kenzi

    1997-11-01

    For environmental remediation, management of nuclear waste disposal, or geothermal reservoir engineering, it is very important to evaluate the permeabilities, spacing, and sizes of the subsurface fractures which control ground water flow. Cluster variable aperture (CVA) simulated annealing has been used as an inversion technique to construct fluid flow models of fractured formations based on transient pressure data from hydraulic tests. A two-dimensional fracture network system is represented as a filled regular lattice of fracture elements. The algorithm iteratively changes an aperture of cluster of fracture elements, which are chosen randomly from a list of discrete apertures, to improve the match to observed pressure transients. The size of the clusters is held constant throughout the iterations. Sensitivity studies using simple fracture models with eight wells show that, in general, it is necessary to conduct interference tests using at least three different wells as pumping well in order to reconstruct the fracture network with a transmissivity contrast of one order of magnitude, particularly when the cluster size is not known a priori. Because hydraulic inversion is inherently non-unique, it is important to utilize additional information. The authors investigated the relationship between the scale of heterogeneity and the optimum cluster size (and its shape) to enhance the reliability and convergence of the inversion. It appears that the cluster size corresponding to about 20--40 % of the practical range of the spatial correlation is optimal. Inversion results of the Raymond test site data are also presented and the practical range of spatial correlation is evaluated to be about 5--10 m from the optimal cluster size in the inversion.

  16. Effects of Induced Stress on Seismic Forward Modelling and Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, Jeroen; Trampert, Jeannot

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate how effects of induced stress may be incorporated in seismic modelling and inversion. Our approach is motivated by the accommodation of prestress in global seismology. Induced stress modifies both the equation of motion and the constitutive relationship. The theory predicts that induced pressure linearly affects the unstressed isotropic moduli with a slope determined by their adiabatic pressure derivatives. The induced deviatoric stress produces anisotropic compressional and shear wavespeeds; the latter result in shear-wave splitting. For forward modelling purposes, we determine the weak form of the equation of motion under induced stress. In the context of the inverse problem, we determine induced stress sensitivity kernels, which may be used for adjoint tomography. The theory is illustrated by considering 2D propagation of SH waves and related Fréchet derivatives based on a spectral-element method.

  17. Laterally constrained inversion for CSAMT data interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruo; Yin, Changchun; Wang, Miaoyue; Di, Qingyun

    2015-10-01

    Laterally constrained inversion (LCI) has been successfully applied to the inversion of dc resistivity, TEM and airborne EM data. However, it hasn't been yet applied to the interpretation of controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) data. In this paper, we apply the LCI method for CSAMT data inversion by preconditioning the Jacobian matrix. We apply a weighting matrix to Jacobian to balance the sensitivity of model parameters, so that the resolution with respect to different model parameters becomes more uniform. Numerical experiments confirm that this can improve the convergence of the inversion. We first invert a synthetic dataset with and without noise to investigate the effect of LCI applications to CSAMT data, for the noise free data, the results show that the LCI method can recover the true model better compared to the traditional single-station inversion; and for the noisy data, the true model is recovered even with a noise level of 8%, indicating that LCI inversions are to some extent noise insensitive. Then, we re-invert two CSAMT datasets collected respectively in a watershed and a coal mine area in Northern China and compare our results with those from previous inversions. The comparison with the previous inversion in a coal mine shows that LCI method delivers smoother layer interfaces that well correlate to seismic data, while comparison with a global searching algorithm of simulated annealing (SA) in a watershed shows that though both methods deliver very similar good results, however, LCI algorithm presented in this paper runs much faster. The inversion results for the coal mine CSAMT survey show that a conductive water-bearing zone that was not revealed by the previous inversions has been identified by the LCI. This further demonstrates that the method presented in this paper works for CSAMT data inversion.

  18. Concussion in professional football: biomechanics of the striking player--part 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viano, David C; Pellman, Elliot J

    2005-02-01

    Concussive impacts in professional football were simulated in laboratory tests to determine the collision mechanics resulting in injury to the struck player and the biomechanics of the striking players, who were not concussed or neck-injured in the tackle. Twenty-seven helmet-to-helmet collisions were reconstructed in laboratory tests using Hybrid III dummies. The head impact velocity, direction, and kinematics matched game video. Translational and rotational head accelerations and six-axis upper neck loads and moments were used to evaluate how the striking player delivered the concussive blow. The neck injury criterion, Nij, was calculated to assess neck injury risks in the striking player. The time-averaged impact force reached 6372 +/- 2486 N at 7.2 milliseconds because of 46.8 +/- 21.7 g head acceleration and 3624 +/- 1729 N neck compression force in the striking player. Fifty-seven percent of the load was contributed by neck compression. The striking players had their heads down and lined up the impact axis through their necks and torsos. This allowed momentum transfer with minimal neck bending and increased the effective mass of the striking player to 1.67 times that of the struck player at peak load. The impact caused 94.3 +/- 27.5 g head acceleration in the concussed players and 67.9 +/- 14.5 g without concussion (t = 2.06, df = 25, P = 0.025). The striking player's Nij was greater than tolerance in 9 of 27 cases by exceeding the 4000 N neck compression limit. For these cases, the average neck compression force was 6631 +/- 977 N (range, 5210-8194 N). Nij was 1.25 +/- 0.16 for eight cases above the tolerance Nij = 1.0. In the NFL, striking players line up their heads, necks, and torsos to deliver maximum force to the other player in helmet-to-helmet impacts. The concussive force is from acceleration of the striking player's head and torso load through the neck. Even though neck responses exceeded tolerances, no striking player experienced neck injury or

  19. Basin inversion by distributed deformation: the southern margin of the Bristol Channel Basin, England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, R. A.; Hancock, P. L.; Whittaker, A.

    Several models of basin inversion described in the literature are tested in a study of Triassic and Early Jurassic strata exposed along the southern margin of the Bristol Channel Basin in Somerset, England that has been exhumed by 95% of them are still in net extension, despite widespread kinematic evidence for reverse reactivation. When coupled with the general absence of thin-skinned thrusts and the widespread occurrence of regional contractional folds, it appears that none of three main inversion models—the fault-reactivation model, the thin-skinned model and the buttress model—are by themselves applicable. We erect a new model of basin inversion, the distributed deformation model, which consists of three stages of basin inversion. Stage one involved early partial reactivation of large-displacement steep normal faults. Stage two was dominated by folding, wherein fault blocks underwent oblique (non-coaxial) shortening by map scale folding, accompanied by formation of outer arc normal faults, minor cleavage and neoformed thrusts. Stage three involved reverse reactivation of outer arc normal faults and activation of oblique and strike-slip faults that partitioned deformation into compartments.

  20. Micro-seismic waveform matching inversion based on gravitational search algorithm and parallel computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y.; Xing, H. L.

    2016-12-01

    Micro-seismic events induced by water injection, mining activity or oil/gas extraction are quite informative, the interpretation of which can be applied for the reconstruction of underground stress and monitoring of hydraulic fracturing progress in oil/gas reservoirs. The source characterises and locations are crucial parameters that required for these purposes, which can be obtained through the waveform matching inversion (WMI) method. Therefore it is imperative to develop a WMI algorithm with high accuracy and convergence speed. Heuristic algorithm, as a category of nonlinear method, possesses a very high convergence speed and good capacity to overcome local minimal values, and has been well applied for many areas (e.g. image processing, artificial intelligence). However, its effectiveness for micro-seismic WMI is still poorly investigated; very few literatures exits that addressing this subject. In this research an advanced heuristic algorithm, gravitational search algorithm (GSA) , is proposed to estimate the focal mechanism (angle of strike, dip and rake) and source locations in three dimension. Unlike traditional inversion methods, the heuristic algorithm inversion does not require the approximation of green function. The method directly interacts with a CPU parallelized finite difference forward modelling engine, and updating the model parameters under GSA criterions. The effectiveness of this method is tested with synthetic data form a multi-layered elastic model; the results indicate GSA can be well applied on WMI and has its unique advantages. Keywords: Micro-seismicity, Waveform matching inversion, gravitational search algorithm, parallel computation

  1. Inverse problems and uncertainty quantification

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2013-12-18

    In a Bayesian setting, inverse problems and uncertainty quantification (UQ)— the propagation of uncertainty through a computational (forward) model—are strongly connected. In the form of conditional expectation the Bayesian update becomes computationally attractive. This is especially the case as together with a functional or spectral approach for the forward UQ there is no need for time- consuming and slowly convergent Monte Carlo sampling. The developed sampling- free non-linear Bayesian update is derived from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. This formulation in general calls for further discretisa- tion to make the computation possible, and we choose a polynomial approximation. After giving details on the actual computation in the framework of functional or spectral approximations, we demonstrate the workings of the algorithm on a number of examples of increasing complexity. At last, we compare the linear and quadratic Bayesian update on the small but taxing example of the chaotic Lorenz 84 model, where we experiment with the influence of different observation or measurement operators on the update.

  2. Package inspection using inverse diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAulay, Alastair D.

    2008-08-01

    More efficient cost-effective hand-held methods of inspecting packages without opening them are in demand for security. Recent new work in TeraHertz sources,1 millimeter waves, presents new possibilities. Millimeter waves pass through cardboard and styrofoam, common packing materials, and also pass through most materials except those with high conductivity like metals which block light and are easily spotted. Estimating refractive index along the path of the beam through the package from observations of the beam passing out of the package provides the necessary information to inspect the package and is a nonlinear problem. So we use a generalized linear inverse technique that we first developed for finding oil by reflection in geophysics.2 The computation assumes parallel slices in the packet of homogeneous material for which the refractive index is estimated. A beam is propagated through this model in a forward computation. The output is compared with the actual observations for the package and an update computed for the refractive indices. The loop is repeated until convergence. The approach can be modified for a reflection system or to include estimation of absorption.

  3. MODEL SELECTION FOR SPECTROPOLARIMETRIC INVERSIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asensio Ramos, A.; Manso Sainz, R.; Martínez González, M. J.; Socas-Navarro, H.; Viticchié, B.; Orozco Suárez, D.

    2012-01-01

    Inferring magnetic and thermodynamic information from spectropolarimetric observations relies on the assumption of a parameterized model atmosphere whose parameters are tuned by comparison with observations. Often, the choice of the underlying atmospheric model is based on subjective reasons. In other cases, complex models are chosen based on objective reasons (for instance, the necessity to explain asymmetries in the Stokes profiles) but it is not clear what degree of complexity is needed. The lack of an objective way of comparing models has, sometimes, led to opposing views of the solar magnetism because the inferred physical scenarios are essentially different. We present the first quantitative model comparison based on the computation of the Bayesian evidence ratios for spectropolarimetric observations. Our results show that there is not a single model appropriate for all profiles simultaneously. Data with moderate signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) favor models without gradients along the line of sight. If the observations show clear circular and linear polarization signals above the noise level, models with gradients along the line are preferred. As a general rule, observations with large S/Ns favor more complex models. We demonstrate that the evidence ratios correlate well with simple proxies. Therefore, we propose to calculate these proxies when carrying out standard least-squares inversions to allow for model comparison in the future.

  4. Inverse Problems and Uncertainty Quantification

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2014-01-06

    In a Bayesian setting, inverse problems and uncertainty quantification (UQ) - the propagation of uncertainty through a computational (forward) modelare strongly connected. In the form of conditional expectation the Bayesian update becomes computationally attractive. This is especially the case as together with a functional or spectral approach for the forward UQ there is no need for time- consuming and slowly convergent Monte Carlo sampling. The developed sampling- free non-linear Bayesian update is derived from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. This formulation in general calls for further discretisa- tion to make the computation possible, and we choose a polynomial approximation. After giving details on the actual computation in the framework of functional or spectral approximations, we demonstrate the workings of the algorithm on a number of examples of increasing complexity. At last, we compare the linear and quadratic Bayesian update on the small but taxing example of the chaotic Lorenz 84 model, where we experiment with the influence of different observation or measurement operators on the update.

  5. Inverse problem in radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.

    1988-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste must comply with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR 61 for low-level waste (LLW) and 10 CFR 60 for high-level waste (HLW). To determine probable compliance, the proposed disposal system can be modeled to predict its performance. One of the difficulties encountered in such a study is modeling the migration of radionuclides through a complex geologic medium for the long term. Although many radionuclide transport models exist in the literature, the accuracy of the model prediction is highly dependent on the model parameters used. The problem of using known parameters in a radionuclide transport model to predict radionuclide concentrations is a direct problem (DP); whereas the reverse of DP, i.e., the parameter identification problem of determining model parameters from known radionuclide concentrations, is called the inverse problem (IP). In this study, a procedure to solve IP is tested, using the regression technique. Several nonlinear regression programs are examined, and the best one is recommended. 13 refs., 1 tab

  6. Reverse Universal Resolving Algorithm and inverse driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Inverse interpretation is a semantics based, non-standard interpretation of programs. Given a program and a value, an inverse interpreter finds all or one of the inputs, that would yield the given value as output with normal forward evaluation. The Reverse Universal Resolving Algorithm is a new v...

  7. Third Harmonic Imaging using a Pulse Inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim; Du, Yigang; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2011-01-01

    The pulse inversion (PI) technique can be utilized to separate and enhance harmonic components of a waveform for tissue harmonic imaging. While most ultrasound systems can perform pulse inversion, only few image the 3rd harmonic component. PI pulse subtraction can isolate and enhance the 3rd...

  8. Metaheuristic optimization of acoustic inverse problems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leijen, A.V.; Rothkrantz, L.; Groen, F.

    2011-01-01

    Swift solving of geoacoustic inverse problems strongly depends on the application of a global optimization scheme. Given a particular inverse problem, this work aims to answer the questions how to select an appropriate metaheuristic search strategy, and how to configure it for optimal performance.

  9. Inverse Filtering Techniques in Speech Analysis | Nwachuku ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inverse filtering' has been applied. The unifying features of these techniques are presented, namely: 1. a basis in the source-filter theory of speech production, 2. the use of a network whose transfer function is the inverse of the transfer function of ...

  10. Foot Strike Patterns Differ Between Children and Adolescents Growing up Barefoot vs. Shod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Karsten; de Villiers, Johanna Elsabe; Venter, Ranel; Sehner, Susanne; Wegscheider, Karl; Braumann, Klaus-Michael; Zech, Astrid

    2018-02-01

    Effects of early and permanent footwear use are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of habituation to footwear on foot strike patterns of children and adolescents. Healthy habitually barefoot and shod participants (aged 6-18 years) from South Africa (n=288) and Germany (n=390) performed multiple 20-m jogging and running trials with and without shoes. Each foot strike was captured using a high-speed camera to determine a rearfoot or non-rearfoot strike. The probability of a rearfoot strike in both cohorts and each age was analyzed by using a mixed-effects logistic regression adjusted for possible confounders. Habitually barefoot children showed a higher probability of using rearfoot strikes than habitually shod children (p<0.001). The probability was age-dependent and decreased in habitually barefoot children with age (OR barefoot-jogging =0.82, 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.96, p=0.014; OR barefoot-running =0.58, 95% CI, 0.50 to 0.67, p<0.001 and OR shod-running =0.68, 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.79, p<0.001). In habitually shod children, the probability increased significantly for shod jogging (OR=1.19, 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.35, p=0.006). To conclude, foot strike patterns of children are influenced by habituation to footwear. Younger habitually barefoot children show higher rates of rearfoot strikes for shod and barefoot running, and it converges in later adolescence. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Inverse m-matrices and ultrametric matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Dellacherie, Claude; San Martin, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The study of M-matrices, their inverses and discrete potential theory is now a well-established part of linear algebra and the theory of Markov chains. The main focus of this monograph is the so-called inverse M-matrix problem, which asks for a characterization of nonnegative matrices whose inverses are M-matrices. We present an answer in terms of discrete potential theory based on the Choquet-Deny Theorem. A distinguished subclass of inverse M-matrices is ultrametric matrices, which are important in applications such as taxonomy. Ultrametricity is revealed to be a relevant concept in linear algebra and discrete potential theory because of its relation with trees in graph theory and mean expected value matrices in probability theory. Remarkable properties of Hadamard functions and products for the class of inverse M-matrices are developed and probabilistic insights are provided throughout the monograph.

  12. Fast wavelet based sparse approximate inverse preconditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, W.L. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Incomplete LU factorization is a robust preconditioner for both general and PDE problems but unfortunately not easy to parallelize. Recent study of Huckle and Grote and Chow and Saad showed that sparse approximate inverse could be a potential alternative while readily parallelizable. However, for special class of matrix A that comes from elliptic PDE problems, their preconditioners are not optimal in the sense that independent of mesh size. A reason may be that no good sparse approximate inverse exists for the dense inverse matrix. Our observation is that for this kind of matrices, its inverse entries typically have piecewise smooth changes. We can take advantage of this fact and use wavelet compression techniques to construct a better sparse approximate inverse preconditioner. We shall show numerically that our approach is effective for this kind of matrices.

  13. Solving inverse problems of optical microlithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granik, Yuri

    2005-05-01

    The direct problem of microlithography is to simulate printing features on the wafer under given mask, imaging system, and process characteristics. The goal of inverse problems is to find the best mask and/or imaging system and/or process to print the given wafer features. In this study we will describe and compare solutions of inverse mask problems. Pixel-based inverse problem of mask optimization (or "layout inversion") is harder than inverse source problem, especially for partially-coherent systems. It can be stated as a non-linear constrained minimization problem over complex domain, with large number of variables. We compare method of Nashold projections, variations of Fienap phase-retrieval algorithms, coherent approximation with deconvolution, local variations, and descent searches. We propose electrical field caching technique to substantially speedup the searching algorithms. We demonstrate applications of phase-shifted masks, assist features, and maskless printing.

  14. Recurrent Neural Network for Computing Outer Inverse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković, Ivan S; Stanimirović, Predrag S; Wei, Yimin

    2016-05-01

    Two linear recurrent neural networks for generating outer inverses with prescribed range and null space are defined. Each of the proposed recurrent neural networks is based on the matrix-valued differential equation, a generalization of dynamic equations proposed earlier for the nonsingular matrix inversion, the Moore-Penrose inversion, as well as the Drazin inversion, under the condition of zero initial state. The application of the first approach is conditioned by the properties of the spectrum of a certain matrix; the second approach eliminates this drawback, though at the cost of increasing the number of matrix operations. The cases corresponding to the most common generalized inverses are defined. The conditions that ensure stability of the proposed neural network are presented. Illustrative examples present the results of numerical simulations.

  15. Forward modeling. Route to electromagnetic inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groom, R.; Walker, P. [PetRos EiKon Incorporated, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-05-01

    Inversion of electromagnetic data is a topical subject in the literature, and much time has been devoted to understanding the convergence properties of various inverse methods. The relative lack of success of electromagnetic inversion techniques is partly attributable to the difficulties in the kernel forward modeling software. These difficulties come in two broad classes: (1) Completeness and robustness, and (2) convergence, execution time and model simplicity. If such problems exist in the forward modeling kernel, it was demonstrated that inversion can fail to generate reasonable results. It was suggested that classical inversion techniques, which are based on minimizing a norm of the error between data and the simulated data, will only be successful when these difficulties in forward modeling kernels are properly dealt with. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Stochastic Gabor reflectivity and acoustic impedance inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri Naghadeh, Diako; Morley, Christopher Keith; Ferguson, Angus John

    2018-02-01

    To delineate subsurface lithology to estimate petrophysical properties of a reservoir, it is possible to use acoustic impedance (AI) which is the result of seismic inversion. To change amplitude to AI, removal of wavelet effects from the seismic signal in order to get a reflection series, and subsequently transforming those reflections to AI, is vital. To carry out seismic inversion correctly it is important to not assume that the seismic signal is stationary. However, all stationary deconvolution methods are designed following that assumption. To increase temporal resolution and interpretation ability, amplitude compensation and phase correction are inevitable. Those are pitfalls of stationary reflectivity inversion. Although stationary reflectivity inversion methods are trying to estimate reflectivity series, because of incorrect assumptions their estimations will not be correct, but may be useful. Trying to convert those reflection series to AI, also merging with the low frequency initial model, can help us. The aim of this study was to apply non-stationary deconvolution to eliminate time variant wavelet effects from the signal and to convert the estimated reflection series to the absolute AI by getting bias from well logs. To carry out this aim, stochastic Gabor inversion in the time domain was used. The Gabor transform derived the signal’s time–frequency analysis and estimated wavelet properties from different windows. Dealing with different time windows gave an ability to create a time-variant kernel matrix, which was used to remove matrix effects from seismic data. The result was a reflection series that does not follow the stationary assumption. The subsequent step was to convert those reflections to AI using well information. Synthetic and real data sets were used to show the ability of the introduced method. The results highlight that the time cost to get seismic inversion is negligible related to general Gabor inversion in the frequency domain. Also

  17. Learning strategies in table tennis using inverse reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muelling, Katharina; Boularias, Abdeslam; Mohler, Betty; Schölkopf, Bernhard; Peters, Jan

    2014-10-01

    Learning a complex task such as table tennis is a challenging problem for both robots and humans. Even after acquiring the necessary motor skills, a strategy is needed to choose where and how to return the ball to the opponent's court in order to win the game. The data-driven identification of basic strategies in interactive tasks, such as table tennis, is a largely unexplored problem. In this paper, we suggest a computational model for representing and inferring strategies, based on a Markov decision problem, where the reward function models the goal of the task as well as the strategic information. We show how this reward function can be discovered from demonstrations of table tennis matches using model-free inverse reinforcement learning. The resulting framework allows to identify basic elements on which the selection of striking movements is based. We tested our approach on data collected from players with different playing styles and under different playing conditions. The estimated reward function was able to capture expert-specific strategic information that sufficed to distinguish the expert among players with different skill levels as well as different playing styles.

  18. Select injury-related variables are affected by stride length and foot strike style during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Elizabeth R; Derrick, Timothy R

    2015-09-01

    Some frontal plane and transverse plane variables have been associated with running injury, but it is not known if they differ with foot strike style or as stride length is shortened. To identify if step width, iliotibial band strain and strain rate, positive and negative free moment, pelvic drop, hip adduction, knee internal rotation, and rearfoot eversion differ between habitual rearfoot and habitual mid-/forefoot strikers when running with both a rearfoot strike (RFS) and a mid-/forefoot strike (FFS) at 3 stride lengths. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 42 healthy runners (21 habitual rearfoot, 21 habitual mid-/forefoot) ran overground at 3.35 m/s with both a RFS and a FFS at their preferred stride lengths and 5% and 10% shorter. Variables did not differ between habitual groups. Step width was 1.5 cm narrower for FFS, widening to 0.8 cm as stride length shortened. Iliotibial band strain and strain rate did not differ between foot strikes but decreased as stride length shortened (0.3% and 1.8%/s, respectively). Pelvic drop was reduced 0.7° for FFS compared with RFS, and both pelvic drop and hip adduction decreased as stride length shortened (0.8° and 1.5°, respectively). Peak knee internal rotation was not affected by foot strike or stride length. Peak rearfoot eversion was not different between foot strikes but decreased 0.6° as stride length shortened. Peak positive free moment (normalized to body weight [BW] and height [h]) was not affected by foot strike or stride length. Peak negative free moment was -0.0038 BW·m/h greater for FFS and decreased -0.0004 BW·m/h as stride length shortened. The small decreases in most variables as stride length shortened were likely associated with the concomitant wider step width. RFS had slightly greater pelvic drop, while FFS had slightly narrower step width and greater negative free moment. Shortening one's stride length may decrease or at least not increase propensity for running injuries based on the variables

  19. Stability study of pre-stack seismic inversion based on the full Zoeppritz equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lifeng; Zhang, Hongbing; Guo, Qiang; Saeed, Wasif; Shang, Zuoping; Huang, Guojiao

    2017-10-01

    Pre-stack seismic inversion is highly important and complicated. Its result is non-unique, and the process is unstable because pre-stack seismic inversion is an ill-posed problem that simultaneously obtains the results of multiple parameters. Combining the full Zoeppritz equation and additional assumptions with edge-preserving regularization (EPR) can help mitigate the problem. To achieve this combination, we developed an inversion method by constructing a new objective function, which includes the EPR and the Markov random field. The method directly gains reflectivity R PP by the full Zoeppritz equation instead of its approximations and effectively controls the stability of simultaneous inversion by two additional assumptions: the sectional constant V S/V P and the generalized Gardner equation. Thus, the simultaneous inversion of multiple parameters is directed toward to V P, ΔL S (the fitting deviation of V S) and density, and the generalized Gardner equation is regarded as a constraint from which the fitting relationship is derived. We applied the fast simulated annealing algorithm to solve the nonlinear optimization problem. The test results on 2D synthetic data indicated that the stability of simultaneous inversion for V P, ΔL S and density is better than these for V P, V S, and density. The inverted result of density gradually worsens as the deviation ΔL D (the fitting deviation of the density) increases. Moreover, the inverted results were acceptable when using the fitting relationships with error, although they showed varying degrees of influence. We constructed time-varying and space-varying fitting relationships using the logging data in pre-stack inversion of the field seismic data. This improved the inverted results of the simultaneous inversion for complex geological models. Finally, the inverted results of the field data distinctly revealed more detailed information about the layers and matched well with the logging data along the wells over most

  20. Acute neuromuscular responses to short and long roundhouse kick striking paces in professional Muay Thai fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimadoro, Giuseppe; Mahaffey, Ryan; Babault, Nicolas

    2018-04-04

    Muay Thai fighters strongly rely on the use of the roundhouse kick due to its effectiveness (i.e. power) and implications on the final score. Therefore, different striking tempos at full power are used during training as a method to enhance kicking power. However, the neuromuscular responses are unknown. Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate neuromuscular responses to a single bout of shorter (every second = H1) and longer (every 3s = H3) kick striking time intervals, measured with the countermovement jump (CMJ). Nine professional Muay Thai fighters participated in this randomized, cross-over trial. CMJs were measured on force plates before and after (post 0min, post 5min, post 10min, post 20min and post 30min) two striking (1set x 20reps) conditions (H1; H3). Although no difference was observed between H1 and H3 values, neuromuscular fatigue parameters displayed different patterns over time. CMJ height decreased immediately after H3 striking (PMuay Thai and conditioning coaches should focus on hard striking with both long and slow pacing during specific heavy bag or pad work.

  1. The balancing act between the constitutional right to strike and the constitutional right to education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H J (Jaco Deacon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available While the South African Constitution enshrines both children's right to a basic education and teachers' right to strike, conflict between these two often occurs when the way in which teachers' unions conduct strike actions detracts from learners' education. This article identifies the parties affected by industrial action in the school context, and then proceeds to examine educators' right to strike as defined by the provisions of the Labour Relations Act. The unique implications of picketing in the education environment are then discussed, covering relevant questions such as where pickets may be held, the issue of picketing rules as well as unprotected pickets. Even though we are faced with a qualified right to strike as opposed to an unqualified right to education, the South African reality seems to be that striking teachers are handled with kid gloves. It is therefore concluded that the vast range of existing laws regulating protest action should be applied more effectively. One of the most important aspects should be the picketing rules, which should clearly determine whether picketing in fact contributes to resolution of the dispute, and how learners' interests and rights may best be actualised.

  2. Public Servants' right to strike in Lesotho, Botswana and South Africa – A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Cohen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Restrictions on the rights of public officers to strike are permitted by the Constitutions of Lesotho, Botswana and South Africa, where such limitations are reasonable, necessary and justifiable in a democratic society. The limitation of this right in the context of public servants is endorsed by the ILO in the Freedom of Association Digest of Decisions and Principles which holds that "[t]he right to strike can be restricted or even prohibited in the public service or in essential services in so far as a strike there could cause serious hardship to the national community and provided that these limitations are accompanied by certain compensatory guarantees". Public officers in Lesotho are deprived of the right to join trade unions or to strike, without exception or justification. Furthermore in Lesotho no dispute resolution mechanism exists to effectively facilitate the final resolution of disputes of interest in the public sector. This paper considers whether the limitations imposed on the freedom and right to strike of public officers in Lesotho are in breach of international obligations and are reasonable and justifiable in a free and democratic society committed to the rule of law. In so doing a comparative analysis of the jurisdictions of South Africa and Botswana is undertaken. It concludes that Lesotho is in breach of its obligations as a member state of the ILO and its constitutional commitment to freedom of association and needs to be urgently addressed.

  3. Neotectonics of a subduction/strike-slip transition: the northeastern Dominican Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winslow, M.A.; McCann, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Septentrional fault system in the northeastern Dominican Republic marks the zone where the North American-Carribean plate boundary is evolving from subduction to strike-slip motion, and where terranes appear to be forming and migrating laterally in a subduction complex/forearc region. On the Island of Hispaniola, slip vectors are oblique to the strike of the Puerto Rico trench, and oblique subduction thrusts the upper plate over normal seafloor. The offshore geology and seismicity of the northern Caribbean suggest that uplift, broad crustal warping, thrusting, and strike-slip faulting (ie. collisional tectonics) should be present in the northern part of the Dominican Republic. The high topography (>1000m), high levels of seismicity, and large earthquakes support the hypothesis of contemporary deformation in Hispaniola. In this region, the subduction regime dies out toward the west, and deformation is transferred to onshore, oblique-slip faults. As this change in tectonic style has occurred in Neogene to Recent times, we are investigating the modern evolution of a plate boundary. We have already documented: (1) the presence of a strike-slip faulting in the northeastern Dominican Republic; (2) an anomalous push-up structure; and (3) a region of numerous splay faults. In conclusion, recent seismicity suggest a wide zone of deformation and variations in interplate motions near Hispaniola. This island lies at the western limit of active underthrusting and at the eastern limit of onshore faulting, i.e., at an important transition from a subduction to strike-slip regime.

  4. Convex blind image deconvolution with inverse filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiao-Guang; Li, Fang; Zeng, Tieyong

    2018-03-01

    Blind image deconvolution is the process of estimating both the original image and the blur kernel from the degraded image with only partial or no information about degradation and the imaging system. It is a bilinear ill-posed inverse problem corresponding to the direct problem of convolution. Regularization methods are used to handle the ill-posedness of blind deconvolution and get meaningful solutions. In this paper, we investigate a convex regularized inverse filtering method for blind deconvolution of images. We assume that the support region of the blur object is known, as has been done in a few existing works. By studying the inverse filters of signal and image restoration problems, we observe the oscillation structure of the inverse filters. Inspired by the oscillation structure of the inverse filters, we propose to use the star norm to regularize the inverse filter. Meanwhile, we use the total variation to regularize the resulting image obtained by convolving the inverse filter with the degraded image. The proposed minimization model is shown to be convex. We employ the first-order primal-dual method for the solution of the proposed minimization model. Numerical examples for blind image restoration are given to show that the proposed method outperforms some existing methods in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), structural similarity (SSIM), visual quality and time consumption.

  5. [Hunger striking in prisons: ethics and the ethical and legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Guerrero, J

    2013-01-01

    Hunger strike is a common form of protest in prisons and is a potential cause of many types of problems, both for the prison administration and the doctors who care for prisoners who participate in one. Issues of conflict of rights and obligations involved, and how to treat people who are subject to the Administration, which in this case takes the position of guarantor, have created major controversies over doctrine. Conscientious objection and the conflict of dual loyalty of doctors working in prisons are also issues closely linked to a prison hunger strike. In this paper we review the solution given to the problem of treatment of a prison hunger strike from three perspectives: ethics, ethical and legal.

  6. Down the needle! Should public sector nurses in South Africa have the right to strike?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heunis, C; Pelser, A J

    1997-09-01

    It is often argued that because the public sector provides essential services, it is intolerable that the citizenry be denied its entitlement because of a domestic dispute between civil servants (such as nurses) and the state. In this contribution an attempt is made to unravel a number of ideological, legislative and ethical issues relating to the right of the public sector nurse to strike. Notwithstanding the merits of opposite contentions, it is argued that public sector nurses should, in fact, have the right to strike. If this right is to be legitimized, however, due consideration should be given to problems relating to nurses' labour organisation and preventative measures to ensure minimal harm to patients in the planning and in the course of strike action.

  7. Evaluation of blade-strike models for estimating the biological performance of large Kaplan hydro turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Z. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ploskey, G. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richmond, M. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Bio-indexing of hydro turbines has been identified as an important means to optimize passage conditions for fish by identifying operations for existing and new design turbines that minimize the probability of injury. Cost-effective implementation of bio-indexing requires the use of tools such as numerical and physical turbine models to generate hypotheses for turbine operations that can be tested at prototype scales using live fish. Blade strike has been proposed as an index variable for the biological performance of turbines. Report reviews an evaluation of the use of numerical blade-strike models as a means with which to predict the probability of blade strike and injury of juvenile salmon smolt passing through large Kaplan turbines on the mainstem Columbia River.

  8. ST-segment elevation following lightning strike: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akın, Alper; Bilici, Meki; Demir, Fikri; Gözü Pirinççioğlu, Ayfer; Yıldırım, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Lightning strikes may cause injury to the heart, ranging from slight electrocardiographic changes to fatal damage. As heart injury is the most important cause of mortality in these patients, cardiac monitoring is crucial. Even though various ECG changes have been reported, published data on pathologic ST-segment changes is scarce. Herein, we present a seven-year old patient with ST-segment elevation following a lightning strike. There is not sufficient data regarding lightning-related myocardial ischemia. However, because of the similar effects of lightning strikes and high-voltage electric shocks, we believe myocardial injury related to lightning may be managed in the same manner as is cardiac involvement associated with electric shock.

  9. [Lightning strikes and lightning injuries in prehospital emergency medicine. Relevance, results, and practical implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkelbein, J; Spelten, O; Wetsch, W A

    2013-01-01

    Up to 32.2% of patients in a burn center suffer from electrical injuries. Of these patients, 2-4% present with lightning injuries. In Germany, approximately 50 people per year are injured by a lightning strike and 3-7 fatally. Typically, people involved in outdoor activities are endangered and affected. A lightning strike usually produces significantly higher energy doses as compared to those in common electrical injuries. Therefore, injury patterns vary significantly. Especially in high voltage injuries and lightning injuries, internal injuries are of special importance. Mortality ranges between 10 and 30% after a lightning strike. Emergency medical treatment is similar to common electrical injuries. Patients with lightning injuries should be transported to a regional or supraregional trauma center. In 15% of all cases multiple people may be injured. Therefore, it is of outstanding importance to create emergency plans and evacuation plans in good time for mass gatherings endangered by possible lightning.

  10. Practice Makes Perfect?: The Changing Civilian Toll of CIA Drone Strikes in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery Plaw

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available U.S. officials have recently claimed that the CIA has sharply reduced the number of civilian casualties resulting from covert Predator and Reaper drone strikes in the Taliban-controlled agencies of Northwest Pakistan. Critics, especially in Pakistan, along with human rights NGOs have, however, questioned these claims. This article examines independent databases tracking the drone strikes and finds that there is significant support for the U.S. officials’ claims, or at least for their more moderate assertions. It also briefly reviews the explanations that have been offered for the declining civilian death toll from drone strikes. It shows that there is reason to believe that this development is the deliberate result of adjustments to CIA targeting procedures and improvements in spy networks and technology, and thus is likely to prove broadly sustainable at least for the immediate future.

  11. Probability, consequences, and mitigation for lightning strikes to Hanford site high-level waste tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zach, J.J.

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize selected lightning issues concerning the Hanford Waste Tanks. These issues include the probability of lightning discharge striking the area immediately adjacent to a tank including a riser, the consequences of significant energy deposition from a lightning strike in a tank, and mitigating actions that have been or are being taken. The major conclusion of this report is that the probability of a lightning strike depositing sufficient energy in a tank to cause an effect on employees or the public is unlikely;but there are insufficient, quantitative data on the tanks and waste to prove that. Protection, such as grounding of risers and air terminals on existing light poles, is recommended.

  12. An Inverse Almost Ideal Demand System for Mussels in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien

    2012-01-01

    This study used monthly data on ex-farm prices and quantities of mussels from five major mussel-producing countries in Europe to estimate a nonlinear Inverse Almost Ideal Demand System (IAIDS). The model specification fits well with monthly data from 2002-2008. Uncompensated own-price flexibilities...... for farmed mussels from Spain, France, Italy, and the Netherlands are inflexible, while demand for Denmark's wild stock mussels is flexible. Dutch mussels are deemed a luxury food, while preferences for mussels from other countries appear independent of the level of total expenditure (i.e., homothetic...... preferences). The results also show weak substitution relationships between mussels from these countries....

  13. Ankle and knee kinetics between strike patterns at common training speeds in competitive male runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhman, Daniel; Melcher, Daniel; Paquette, Max R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction of foot strike and common speeds on sagittal plane ankle and knee joint kinetics in competitive rear foot strike (RFS) runners when running with a RFS pattern and an imposed forefoot strike (FFS) pattern. Sixteen competitive habitual male RFS runners ran at two different speeds (i.e. 8 and 6 min mile(-1)) using their habitual RFS and an imposed FFS pattern. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess a potential interaction between strike pattern and speed for selected ground reaction force (GRF) variables and, sagittal plane ankle and knee kinematic and kinetic variables. No foot strike and speed interaction was observed for any of the kinetic variables. Habitual RFS yielded a greater loading rate of the vertical GRF, peak ankle dorsiflexor moment, peak knee extensor moment, peak knee eccentric extensor power, peak dorsiflexion and sagittal plane knee range of motion compared to imposed FFS. Imposed FFS yielded greater maximum vertical GRF, peak ankle plantarflexor moment, peak ankle eccentric plantarflexor power and sagittal plane ankle ROM compared to habitual RFS. Consistent with previous literature, imposed FFS in habitual RFS reduces eccentric knee extensor and ankle dorsiflexor involvement but produce greater eccentric ankle plantarflexor action compared to RFS. These acute differences between strike patterns were independent of running speeds equivalent to typical easy and hard training runs in competitive male runners. Current findings along with previous literature suggest differences in lower extremity kinetics between habitual RFS and imposed FFS running are consistent among a variety of runner populations.

  14. 3rd Annual Workshop on Inverse Problem

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This proceeding volume is based on papers presented on the Third Annual Workshop on Inverse Problems which was organized by the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg, and took place in May 2013 in Stockholm. The purpose of this workshop was to present new analytical developments and numerical techniques for solution of inverse problems for a wide range of applications in acoustics, electromagnetics, optical fibers, medical imaging, geophysics, etc. The contributions in this volume reflect these themes and will be beneficial to researchers who are working in the area of applied inverse problems.

  15. Multiparameter Optimization for Electromagnetic Inversion Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elkattan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic (EM methods have been extensively used in geophysical investigations such as mineral and hydrocarbon exploration as well as in geological mapping and structural studies. In this paper, we developed an inversion methodology for Electromagnetic data to determine physical parameters of a set of horizontal layers. We conducted Forward model using transmission line method. In the inversion part, we solved multi parameter optimization problem where, the parameters are conductivity, dielectric constant, and permeability of each layer. The optimization problem was solved by simulated annealing approach. The inversion methodology was tested using a set of models representing common geological formations.

  16. Population inversion in a stationary recombining plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, M.

    1980-01-01

    Population inversion, which occurs in a recombining plasma when a stationary He plasma is brought into contact with a neutral gas, is examined. With hydrogen as a contact gas, noticeable inversion between low-lying levels of H as been found. The overpopulation density is of the order of 10 8 cm -3 , which is much higher then that (approx. =10 5 cm -3 ) obtained previously with He as a contact gas. Relations between these experimental results and the conditions for population inversion are discussed with the CR model

  17. Inverse design methods for radiative transfer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daun, K.J.; Howell, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Radiant enclosures used in industrial processes have traditionally been designed by trial-and-error, a technique that usually demands considerable time to find a solution of limited quality. As an alternative, designers have recently adopted optimization and inverse methodologies to solve design problems involving radiative transfer; the optimization methodology solves the inverse problem implicitly by transforming it into a multivariable minimization problem, while the inverse design methodology solves the problem explicitly using regularization. This paper presents the details of both methodologies, and demonstrates them by solving for the optimal heater settings in an industrially relevant radiant enclosure design problem

  18. The factorization method for inverse problems

    CERN Document Server

    Kirsch, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The factorization method is a relatively new method for solving certain types of inverse scattering problems and problems in tomography. Aimed at students and researchers in Applied Mathematics, Physics and Engineering, this text introduces the reader to this promising approach for solving important classes of inverse problems. The wide applicability of this method is discussed by choosing typical examples, such as inverse scattering problems for the scalar Helmholtz equation, ascattering problem for Maxwell's equation, and a problem in impedance and optical tomography. The last section of the

  19. Geoacoustic inversion using combustive sound source signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potty, Gopu R; Miller, James H; Wilson, Preston S; Lynch, James F; Newhall, Arthur

    2008-09-01

    Combustive sound source (CSS) data collected on single hydrophone receiving units, in water depths ranging from 65 to 110 m, during the Shallow Water 2006 experiment clearly show modal dispersion effects and are suitable for modal geoacoustic inversions. CSS shots were set off at 26 m depth in 100 m of water. The inversions performed are based on an iterative scheme using dispersion-based short time Fourier transform in which each time-frequency tiling is adaptively rotated in the time-frequency plane, depending on the local wave dispersion. Results of the inversions are found to compare favorably to local core data.

  20. Cannabidiol, a novel inverse agonist for GPR12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kevin J; Laun, Alyssa S; Song, Zhao-Hui

    2017-11-04

    GPR12 is a constitutively active, G s protein-coupled receptor that currently has no confirmed endogenous ligands. GPR12 may be involved in physiological processes such as maintenance of oocyte meiotic arrest and brain development, as well as pathological conditions such as metastatic cancer. In this study, the potential effects of various classes of cannabinoids on GPR12 were tested using a cAMP accumulation assay. Our data demonstrate that cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid, acted as an inverse agonist to inhibit cAMP accumulation stimulated by the constitutively active GPR12. Thus, GPR12 is a novel molecular target for CBD. The structure-activity relationship studies of CBD indicate that both the free hydroxyl and the pentyl side chain are crucial for the effects of CBD on GPR12. Furthermore, studies using cholera toxin, which blocks G s protein and pertussis toxin, which blocks G i protein, revealed that G s , but not G i is involved in the inverse agonism of CBD on GPR12. CBD is a promising novel therapeutic agent for cancer, and GPR12 has been shown to alter viscoelasticity of metastatic cancer cells. Since we have demonstrated that CBD is an inverse agonist for GPR12, this provides novel mechanism of action for CBD, and an initial chemical scaffold upon which highly potent and efficacious agents acting on GPR12 may be developed with the ultimate goal of blocking cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. BOOK REVIEW: Inverse Problems. Activities for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2003-06-01

    This book is a valuable introduction to inverse problems. In particular, from the educational point of view, the author addresses the questions of what constitutes an inverse problem and how and why we should study them. Such an approach has been eagerly awaited for a long time. Professor Groetsch, of the University of Cincinnati, is a world-renowned specialist in inverse problems, in particular the theory of regularization. Moreover, he has made a remarkable contribution to educational activities in the field of inverse problems, which was the subject of his previous book (Groetsch C W 1993 Inverse Problems in the Mathematical Sciences (Braunschweig: Vieweg)). For this reason, he is one of the most qualified to write an introductory book on inverse problems. Without question, inverse problems are important, necessary and appear in various aspects. So it is crucial to introduce students to exercises in inverse problems. However, there are not many introductory books which are directly accessible by students in the first two undergraduate years. As a consequence, students often encounter diverse concrete inverse problems before becoming aware of their general principles. The main purpose of this book is to present activities to allow first-year undergraduates to learn inverse theory. To my knowledge, this book is a rare attempt to do this and, in my opinion, a great success. The author emphasizes that it is very important to teach inverse theory in the early years. He writes; `If students consider only the direct problem, they are not looking at the problem from all sides .... The habit of always looking at problems from the direct point of view is intellectually limiting ...' (page 21). The book is very carefully organized so that teachers will be able to use it as a textbook. After an introduction in chapter 1, sucessive chapters deal with inverse problems in precalculus, calculus, differential equations and linear algebra. In order to let one gain some insight

  2. Vådområder, flyvepladser og risiko for bird strikes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Kjær; Hounisen, Jens Peder

    2015-01-01

    Rapporten udgør en opdatering af Teknisk anvisning nr. 23 fra DMU (Christensen & Hounisen 2006), omhandlende risikovurdering for bird strikes (kollisioner mellem fugle og fly) i danske lufthavne ved etablering af vådområder nær disse. Rapporten analyserer relationen mellem ændrede forekomster af...... søer og enge/moser indenfor lufthavnenes sikkerhedszoner på 13 km og forekomsten af bird strikes i perioden 2006-2013. Anbefalinger til placering og størrelse af vådområder i lufthavnenes sikkerhedszoner er opdateret på baggrund af rapportens resultater....

  3. FD-TD numerical simulation of an entire lightning strike on the C160 aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliot, J. C.; Grando, J.; Muller, J. D.; Ferrieres, X.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental transient electromagnetic field measurements were performed on a Transall C160 aircraft during in-flight lightning strikes. The data allow a test of the predictive capabilities of a three dimensional time domain finite difference code (ALICE) developed at ONERA in order to investigate lightning-aircraft interactions. Using a transfer function technique in the 3D code, it is shown that a bi-leader attached to an aircraft can be simulated by a linear model, and so the electromagnetic fields can be calculated anywhere on the vehicle. Comparison of experimental and numerical results were made for several lightning strikes. Skin current density and electromagnetic field distributions are discussed in detail.

  4. Direct and nearby lightning strike interaction with test power distribution lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoene, Jens Daniel

    The interaction of direct and nearby rocket-triggered lightning with two unenergized three-phase power distribution lines of about 800 m length was studied at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing in Florida. A horizontally-configured line was tested in 1999 and 2000, a vertically-configured line in 2001, 2002, and 2003, and a vertically-configured line with overhead ground wire in 2004. All lines were equipped with arresters and, additionally, in 2003, the vertical line had a polemounted transformer. During the 2000, 2001, and 2002 direct strike experiments, arresters frequently failed, but there was no arrester failures either during the 2003 direct strike experiment when the transformer was on the line or during the 2004 direct strike experiment when the lightning current was injected into the overhead ground wire. All line configurations except the one tested in 2004 commonly exhibited flashovers. The division of return stroke currents for the vertically-configured line was initially similar to the division on the horizontally-configured line (that is, the arresters closest to the strike point conducted the bulk of the impulsive current). After some tens of microseconds the currents in all arresters on the vertically-configured line equalized, while the close arrester currents on the horizontally-configured line still conducted significantly more current than the remote arresters. The lightning current division for direct strikes to a phase conductor is successfully modeled with the Electromagnetic Transient Program (EMTP) for the vertically-configured line and, if the residual voltage of the close arresters is reduced by 20%, successfully modeled for the horizontally-configured line. Currents on the vertically-configured line induced by nearby lightning strikes were measured and compared to results calculated using the LIOV-EMTP96 code. It was found that during a lightning strike 11 m from a grounded line pole, a significant fraction of

  5. Research on Line Patrol Strategy of 110kV Transmission Line after Lightning Strike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Mingjun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightning faults occupy in the majority of instantaneous fault and reclosing can usually be successful, so power supply can be restored without immediate patrol in many cases. Firstly, this paper introduces the lightning fault positioning and identifying method. Then test electrical performance of insulators after lightning strike from 110kV lines. Data shows that lightning strike has little effect on the electric performance of insulator. Finally, illustrating disposal process of the 110 kV transmission line after lightning fault, certifying that the power supply reliability be ensured without line patrol.

  6. Atmospheric remote sensing to detect effects of temperature inversions on sputum cell counts in airway diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Julie; Nair, Parameswaran; Kanaroglou, Pavlos

    2010-08-01

    Temperature inversions result in the accumulation of air pollution, often to levels exceeding air quality criteria. The respiratory response may be detectable in sputum cell counts. This study investigates the effect of boundary layer temperature inversions on sputum cell counts. Total and differential cell counts of neutrophils, eosinophils, macrophages and lymphocytes were quantified in sputum samples of patients attending an outpatient clinic. Temperature inversions were identified using data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, an atmospheric sensor on the Aqua spacecraft which was launched in 2002 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. On inversion days, a statistically significant increase in the percent of cells that were neutrophils was observed in stable patients. There was also a statistically significant increase in the percent of cells that were macrophages, in exacerbated patients. Multivariate linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between temperature inversions and cell counts, controlling patients' age, smoking status, medications and meteorological variables of temperature and humidity. The analyses indicate that, in the stable and exacerbated groups, percent neutrophils and macrophages increased by 12.6% and 2.5%, respectively, on inversion days. These results suggest that temperature inversions need consideration as an exacerbating factor in bronchitis and obstructive airway disease. The effects of air pollutants, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, fine particulate matter and ozone, were investigated. We identified no significant associations with any pollutant. However, we found that monthly averages of total cell counts were strongly correlated with monthly nitrogen dioxide concentrations, an association not previously identified in the literature.

  7. Transdimensional, hierarchical, Bayesian inversion of ambient seismic noise: Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, E.; Rawlinson, N.; Cornwell, D. G.

    2017-12-01

    We present models of crustal velocity structure in southeastern Australia using a novel, transdimensional and hierarchical, Bayesian inversion approach. The inversion is applied to long-time ambient noise cross-correlations. The study area of SE Australia is thought to represent the eastern margin of Gondwana. Conflicting tectonic models have been proposed to explain the formation of eastern Gondwana and the enigmatic geological relationships in Bass Strait, which separates Tasmania and the mainland. A geologically complex area of crustal accretion, Bass Strait may contain part of an exotic continental block entrained in colliding crusts. Ambient noise data recorded by an array of 24 seismometers is used to produce a high resolution, 3D shear wave velocity model of Bass Strait. Phase velocity maps in the period range 2-30 s are produced and subsequently inverted for 3D shear wave velocity structure. The transdimensional, hierarchical Bayesian, inversion technique is used. This technique proves far superior to linearised inversion. The inversion model is dynamically parameterised during the process, implicitly controlled by the data, and noise is treated as an inversion unknown. The resulting shear wave velocity model shows three sedimentary basins in Bass Strait constrained by slow shear velocities (2.4-2.9 km/s) at 2-10 km depth. These failed rift basins from the breakup of Australia-Antartica appear to be overlying thinned crust, where typical mantle velocities of 3.8-4.0 km/s occur at depths greater than 20 km. High shear wave velocities ( 3.7-3.8 km/s) in our new model also match well with regions of high magnetic and gravity anomalies. Furthermore, we use both Rayleigh and Love wave phase data to to construct Vsv and Vsh maps. These are used to estimate crustal radial anisotropy in the Bass Strait. We interpret that structures delineated by our velocity models support the presence and extent of the exotic Precambrian micro-continent (the Selwyn Block) that was

  8. Lightning strikes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dance, B.

    1982-01-01

    If a nuclear weapon were struck by a powerful lightning flash, what would happen Scientists have assembled a simulator to produce exceptionally powerful discharges to try to find the answer to this question by practical test. The Sandia facility enables the extremely powerful lightning discharges which occur only once in every hundred lightning strokes to be duplicated. A bolt is composed of a series of strokes between two clouds or between one cloud and the earth. The simulator consists of four circuits, an inductor, a resistor and a special crowbar-switch developed at Sandia. The crowbar is for accuracy in the simulation of a lightning stroke. The test data is conveyed to computers for analysis by means of fibre-optic links. The first series of tests involve the warhead for the Air-Launched Cruise Missile

  9. Striking movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Like all music performance, percussion playing requires high control over timing and sound properties. Specific to percussionists, however, is the need to adjust the movement to different instruments with varying physical properties and tactile feedback to the player. Furthermore, the well define...

  10. Sensitivity analyses of acoustic impedance inversion with full-waveform inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Gang; da Silva, Nuno V.; Wu, Di

    2018-04-01

    Acoustic impedance estimation has a significant importance to seismic exploration. In this paper, we use full-waveform inversion to recover the impedance from seismic data, and analyze the sensitivity of the acoustic impedance with respect to the source-receiver offset of seismic data and to the initial velocity model. We parameterize the acoustic wave equation with velocity and impedance, and demonstrate three key aspects of acoustic impedance inversion. First, short-offset data are most suitable for acoustic impedance inversion. Second, acoustic impedance inversion is more compatible with the data generated by density contrasts than velocity contrasts. Finally, acoustic impedance inversion requires the starting velocity model to be very accurate for achieving a high-quality inversion. Based upon these observations, we propose a workflow for acoustic impedance inversion as: (1) building a background velocity model with travel-time tomography or reflection waveform inversion; (2) recovering the intermediate wavelength components of the velocity model with full-waveform inversion constrained by Gardner’s relation; (3) inverting the high-resolution acoustic impedance model with short-offset data through full-waveform inversion. We verify this workflow by the synthetic tests based on the Marmousi model.

  11. Seeing the World Topsy-Turvy: The Primary Role of Kinematics in Biological Motion Inversion Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue-Anne Fitzgerald

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical inversion of whole or partial human body representations typically has catastrophic consequences on the observer's ability to perform visual processing tasks. Explanations usually focus on the effects of inversion on the visual system's ability to exploit configural or structural relationships, but more recently have also implicated motion or kinematic cue processing. Here, we systematically tested the role of both on perceptions of sex from upright and inverted point-light walkers. Our data suggest that inversion results in systematic degradations of the processing of kinematic cues. Specifically and intriguingly, they reveal sex-based kinematic differences: Kinematics characteristic of females generally are resistant to inversion effects, while those of males drive systematic sex misperceptions. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  12. Full traveltime inversion in source domain

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Lu

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a new method of source-domain full traveltime inversion (FTI). The objective of this study is automatically building near-surface velocity using the early arrivals of seismic data. This method can generate the inverted velocity that can kinetically best match the reconstructed plane-wave source of early arrivals with true source in source domain. It does not require picking first arrivals for tomography, which is one of the most challenging aspects of ray-based tomographic inversion. Besides, this method does not need estimate the source wavelet, which is a necessity for receiver-domain wave-equation velocity inversion. Furthermore, we applied our method on one synthetic dataset; the results show our method could generate a reasonable background velocity even when shingling first arrivals exist and could provide a good initial velocity for the conventional full waveform inversion (FWI).

  13. n-Colour self-inverse compositions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    colour self-inverse composition. This introduces four new sequences which satisfy the same recurrence relation with different initial conditions like the famous Fibonacci and Lucas sequences. For these new sequences explicit formulas, recurrence ...

  14. Inverse Doppler Effects in Broadband Acoustic Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, S L; Zhao, X P; Liu, S; Shen, F L; Li, L L; Luo, C R

    2016-08-31

    The Doppler effect refers to the change in frequency of a wave source as a consequence of the relative motion between the source and an observer. Veselago theoretically predicted that materials with negative refractions can induce inverse Doppler effects. With the development of metamaterials, inverse Doppler effects have been extensively investigated. However, the ideal material parameters prescribed by these metamaterial design approaches are complex and also challenging to obtain experimentally. Here, we demonstrated a method of designing and experimentally characterising arbitrary broadband acoustic metamaterials. These omni-directional, double-negative, acoustic metamaterials are constructed with 'flute-like' acoustic meta-cluster sets with seven double meta-molecules; these metamaterials also overcome the limitations of broadband negative bulk modulus and mass density to provide a region of negative refraction and inverse Doppler effects. It was also shown that inverse Doppler effects can be detected in a flute, which has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe.

  15. n-Colour self-inverse compositions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    inverse composition. This introduces four new sequences which satisfy the same recurrence relation with different initial conditions like the famous Fibonacci and Lucas sequences. For these new sequences explicit formulas, recurrence relations ...

  16. Parametric optimization of inverse trapezoid oleophobic surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalli, Andrea; Bøggild, Peter; Okkels, Fridolin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a comprehensive and versatile approach to the parametric shape optimization of oleophobic surfaces. We evaluate the performance of inverse trapezoid microstructures in terms of three objective parameters: apparent contact angle, maximum sustainable hydrostatic pressure...

  17. An inverse method for radiation transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favorite, J. A. (Jeffrey A.); Sanchez, R. (Richard)

    2004-01-01

    Adjoint functions have been used with forward functions to compute gradients in implicit (iterative) solution methods for inverse problems in optical tomography, geoscience, thermal science, and other fields, but only once has this approach been used for inverse solutions to the Boltzmann transport equation. In this paper, this approach is used to develop an inverse method that requires only angle-independent flux measurements, rather than angle-dependent measurements as was done previously. The method is applied to a simplified form of the transport equation that does not include scattering. The resulting procedure uses measured values of gamma-ray fluxes of discrete, characteristic energies to determine interface locations in a multilayer shield. The method was implemented with a Newton-Raphson optimization algorithm, and it worked very well in numerical one-dimensional spherical test cases. A more sophisticated optimization method would better exploit the potential of the inverse method.

  18. The inverse square law of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    The inverse square law of gravitation is very well established over the distances of celestial mechanics, while in electrostatics the law has been shown to be followed to very high precision. However, it is only within the last century that any laboratory experiments have been made to test the inverse square law for gravitation, and all but one has been carried out in the last ten years. At the same time, there has been considerable interest in the possibility of deviations from the inverse square law, either because of a possible bearing on unified theories of forces, including gravitation or, most recently, because of a possible additional fifth force of nature. In this article the various lines of evidence for the inverse square law are summarized, with emphasis upon the recent laboratory experiments. (author)

  19. Bayesian inversion of refraction seismic traveltime data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, T.; Haberland, Ch

    2018-03-01

    We apply a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) formalism to the inversion of refraction seismic, traveltime data sets to derive 2-D velocity models below linear arrays (i.e. profiles) of sources and seismic receivers. Typical refraction data sets, especially when using the far-offset observations, are known as having experimental geometries which are very poor, highly ill-posed and far from being ideal. As a consequence, the structural resolution quickly degrades with depth. Conventional inversion techniques, based on regularization, potentially suffer from the choice of appropriate inversion parameters (i.e. number and distribution of cells, starting velocity models, damping and smoothing constraints, data noise level, etc.) and only local model space exploration. McMC techniques are used for exhaustive sampling of the model space without the need of prior knowledge (or assumptions) of inversion parameters, resulting in a large number of models fitting the observations. Statistical analysis of these models allows to derive an average (reference) solution and its standard deviation, thus providing uncertainty estimates of the inversion result. The highly non-linear character of the inversion problem, mainly caused by the experiment geometry, does not allow to derive a reference solution and error map by a simply averaging procedure. We present a modified averaging technique, which excludes parts of the prior distribution in the posterior values due to poor ray coverage, thus providing reliable estimates of inversion model properties even in those parts of the models. The model is discretized by a set of Voronoi polygons (with constant slowness cells) or a triangulated mesh (with interpolation within the triangles). Forward traveltime calculations are performed by a fast, finite-difference-based eikonal solver. The method is applied to a data set from a refraction seismic survey from Northern Namibia and compared to conventional tomography. An inversion test

  20. An Inversion Recovery NMR Kinetics Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Travis J.; Kershaw, Allan D.; Li, Vincent; Wu, Xinping

    2011-01-01

    A convenient laboratory experiment is described in which NMR magnetization transfer by inversion recovery is used to measure the kinetics and thermochemistry of amide bond rotation. The experiment utilizes Varian spectrometers with the VNMRJ 2.3 software, but can be easily adapted to any NMR platform. The procedures and sample data sets in this article will enable instructors to use inversion recovery as a laboratory activity in applied NMR classes and provide research students with a conveni...

  1. Population inversion in recombining hydrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukane, Utaro; Yokota, Toshiaki; Oda, Toshiatsu.

    1978-11-01

    The collisional-radiative model is applied to a recombining hydrogen plasma in order to investigate the plasma condition in which the population inversion between the energy levels of hydrogen can be generated. The population inversion is expected in a plasma where the three body recombination has a large contribution to the recombining processes and the effective recombination rate is beyond a certain value for a given electron density and temperature. Calculated results are presented in figures and tables. (author)

  2. Approximation of Bayesian Inverse Problems for PDEs

    OpenAIRE

    Cotter, S. L.; Dashti, M.; Stuart, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Inverse problems are often ill posed, with solutions that depend sensitively on data.n any numerical approach to the solution of such problems, regularization of some form is needed to counteract the resulting instability. This paper is based on an approach to regularization, employing a Bayesian formulation of the problem, which leads to a notion of well posedness for inverse problems, at the level of probability measures. The stability which results from this well posedness may be used as t...

  3. On the Inversion of the Lidar Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    sectitns briefly review the major inversion methods to date and a fourth section describes the development of the modified inversion method. All four...can be seeu when It is understood ’in terms of its ,physical significance. Equation 17 states that the normalized integrated backscatter has a limit. In...still give significant errors. 4.0 VALIDATION OF AGILE In this chapter, evidence of the success of AGILE will be reviewed and compared with Klett’s

  4. Inverse regression for ridge recovery II: Numerics

    OpenAIRE

    Glaws, Andrew; Constantine, Paul G.; Cook, R. Dennis

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the application of sufficient dimension reduction (SDR) to a noiseless data set derived from a deterministic function of several variables. In this context, SDR provides a framework for ridge recovery. In this second part, we explore the numerical subtleties associated with using two inverse regression methods---sliced inverse regression (SIR) and sliced average variance estimation (SAVE)---for ridge recovery. This includes a detailed numerical analysis of the eigenvalues of th...

  5. Fast nonlinear susceptibility inversion with variational regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovic, Carlos; Bilgic, Berkin; Zhao, Bo; Acosta-Cabronero, Julio; Tejos, Cristian

    2018-01-10

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping can be performed through the minimization of a function consisting of data fidelity and regularization terms. For data consistency, a Gaussian-phase noise distribution is often assumed, which breaks down when the signal-to-noise ratio is low. A previously proposed alternative is to use a nonlinear data fidelity term, which reduces streaking artifacts, mitigates noise amplification, and results in more accurate susceptibility estimates. We hereby present a novel algorithm that solves the nonlinear functional while achieving computation speeds comparable to those for a linear formulation. We developed a nonlinear quantitative susceptibility mapping algorithm (fast nonlinear susceptibility inversion) based on the variable splitting and alternating direction method of multipliers, in which the problem is split into simpler subproblems with closed-form solutions and a decoupled nonlinear inversion hereby solved with a Newton-Raphson iterative procedure. Fast nonlinear susceptibility inversion performance was assessed using numerical phantom and in vivo experiments, and was compared against the nonlinear morphology-enabled dipole inversion method. Fast nonlinear susceptibility inversion achieves similar accuracy to nonlinear morphology-enabled dipole inversion but with significantly improved computational efficiency. The proposed method enables accurate reconstructions in a fraction of the time required by state-of-the-art quantitative susceptibility mapping methods. Magn Reson Med, 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  6. Atmospheric inverse modeling via sparse reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hase

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many applications in atmospheric science involve ill-posed inverse problems. A crucial component of many inverse problems is the proper formulation of a priori knowledge about the unknown parameters. In most cases, this knowledge is expressed as a Gaussian prior. This formulation often performs well at capturing smoothed, large-scale processes but is often ill equipped to capture localized structures like large point sources or localized hot spots. Over the last decade, scientists from a diverse array of applied mathematics and engineering fields have developed sparse reconstruction techniques to identify localized structures. In this study, we present a new regularization approach for ill-posed inverse problems in atmospheric science. It is based on Tikhonov regularization with sparsity constraint and allows bounds on the parameters. We enforce sparsity using a dictionary representation system. We analyze its performance in an atmospheric inverse modeling scenario by estimating anthropogenic US methane (CH4 emissions from simulated atmospheric measurements. Different measures indicate that our sparse reconstruction approach is better able to capture large point sources or localized hot spots than other methods commonly used in atmospheric inversions. It captures the overall signal equally well but adds details on the grid scale. This feature can be of value for any inverse problem with point or spatially discrete sources. We show an example for source estimation of synthetic methane emissions from the Barnett shale formation.

  7. Atmospheric inverse modeling via sparse reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hase, Nils; Miller, Scot M.; Maaß, Peter; Notholt, Justus; Palm, Mathias; Warneke, Thorsten

    2017-10-01

    Many applications in atmospheric science involve ill-posed inverse problems. A crucial component of many inverse problems is the proper formulation of a priori knowledge about the unknown parameters. In most cases, this knowledge is expressed as a Gaussian prior. This formulation often performs well at capturing smoothed, large-scale processes but is often ill equipped to capture localized structures like large point sources or localized hot spots. Over the last decade, scientists from a diverse array of applied mathematics and engineering fields have developed sparse reconstruction techniques to identify localized structures. In this study, we present a new regularization approach for ill-posed inverse problems in atmospheric science. It is based on Tikhonov regularization with sparsity constraint and allows bounds on the parameters. We enforce sparsity using a dictionary representation system. We analyze its performance in an atmospheric inverse modeling scenario by estimating anthropogenic US methane (CH4) emissions from simulated atmospheric measurements. Different measures indicate that our sparse reconstruction approach is better able to capture large point sources or localized hot spots than other methods commonly used in atmospheric inversions. It captures the overall signal equally well but adds details on the grid scale. This feature can be of value for any inverse problem with point or spatially discrete sources. We show an example for source estimation of synthetic methane emissions from the Barnett shale formation.

  8. An application of sparse inversion on the calculation of the inverse data space of geophysical data

    KAUST Repository

    Saragiotis, Christos

    2011-07-01

    Multiple reflections as observed in seismic reflection measurements often hide arrivals from the deeper target reflectors and need to be removed. The inverse data space provides a natural separation of primaries and surface-related multiples, as the surface multiples map onto the area around the origin while the primaries map elsewhere. However, the calculation of the inverse data is far from trivial as theory requires infinite time and offset recording. Furthermore regularization issues arise during inversion. We perform the inversion by minimizing the least-squares norm of the misfit function and by constraining the 1 norm of the solution, being the inverse data space. In this way a sparse inversion approach is obtained. We show results on field data with an application to surface multiple removal. © 2011 IEEE.

  9. High tsunami frequency as a result of combined strike-slip faulting and coastal landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbach, Matthew J.; Braudy, Nicole; Briggs, Richard W.; Cormier, Marie-Helene; Davis, Marcy B.; Diebold, John B.; Dieudonne, Nicole; Douilly, Roby; Frohlich, Cliff; Gulick, Sean P.S.; Johnson, Harold E.; Mann, Paul; McHugh, Cecilia; Ryan-Mishkin, Katherine; Prentice, Carol S.; Seeber, Leonardo; Sorlien, Christopher C.; Steckler, Michael S.; Symithe, Steeve Julien; Taylor, Frederick W.; Templeton, John

    2010-01-01

    Earthquakes on strike-slip faults can produce devastating natural hazards. However, because they consist predominantly of lateral motion, these faults are rarely associated with significant uplift or tsunami generation. And although submarine slides can generate tsunami, only a few per cent of all tsunami are believed to be triggered in this way. The 12 January Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake exhibited primarily strike-slip motion but nevertheless generated a tsunami. Here we present data from a comprehensive field survey that covered the onshore and offshore area around the epicentre to document that modest uplift together with slope failure caused tsunamigenesis. Submarine landslides caused the most severe tsunami locally. Our analysis suggests that slide-generated tsunami occur an order-of-magnitude more frequently along the Gonave microplate than global estimates predict. Uplift was generated because of the earthquake's location, where the Caribbean and Gonave microplates collide obliquely. The earthquake also caused liquefaction at several river deltas that prograde rapidly and are prone to failure. We conclude that coastal strike-slip fault systems such as the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault produce relief conducive to rapid sedimentation, erosion and slope failure, so that even modest predominantly strike-slip earthquakes can cause potentially catastrophic slide-generated tsunami - a risk that is underestimated at present.

  10. Does Three Strikes Really Deter? A Statistical Analysis of Its Impact on Crime Rates in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John; Datta, Anusua

    2009-01-01

    This study uses California crime statistics for the years 1984-2004, to determine what effect, if any, the increased sentencing standards under the three-strikes legislation in California have had in deterring crime. This study follows a new approach in differentiating between the incapacitation effect and the deterrent effect of the law.…

  11. Bird/Wildlife Strike Control for Safer Air Transportation in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kites and hawks were found to be responsible for 57% of reported strikes. Several factors including lack of adequate data, shortage of funds, inadequate training of staff and lack of public awareness about bird/wildlife hazard were found to be militating against effective control in Nigeria. The paper concludes by making ...

  12. Accelerations due to impact at heel strike using below-knee prosthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Jaarsveld, H.W.L.; Grootenboer, H.J.; de Vries, J.

    1990-01-01

    The acceleration in the sagittal plane of the prosthetic tube at heel strike in normal walking was measured in five healthy amputees with their definitive below-knee prosthesis, every subject using six different prosthetic feet, wearing sport shoes as well as leather shoes. The experiments were

  13. Actual and perceived collision risk for bird strikes at Namibian airports

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At Namibia's two major airports, Hosea Kutako International and Eros (domestic), 117 bird strike collision incidents were recorded between 2006 and 2010. A risk assessment, which included a proposed risk weighting methodology, was conducted at Hosea Kutako and Eros airports, which estimated the probability of an ...

  14. Why Teach a 100-Year-Old Strike?: The "Bread and Roses" Centenary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Norm

    2012-01-01

    Today's movement in support of the 99 percent is a reminder that throughout U.S. history, a major engine of change has been grass-roots organizing and solidarity. Major history textbooks, however, downplay the role of ordinary people in shaping events--especially those who formed labor unions and used the strike to assert their rights. One of the…

  15. Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-03

    ballistic missiles or caches of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) might allow the United States to destroy these weapons before an adversary could... coherent force structure. Hence, although the Air Force considered the NPR objective of integrating nuclear and conventional strike forces as a

  16. Law and ethics of strikes in the Nigerian health system | Mcfubara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is because health sector strikes reflect a loss of the values of professional ethics by health workers. Discussions in bioethics among health workers can redress this loss by targeting the affective domain in health workers' learning during training. Keywords: Compliance, Deliberate acts, Duty, Health workers, Obligation.

  17. Understanding the limitations to the right to strike in essential and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nature of the limitations to the right to strike in essential and public services in the nine sub-regional countries of Southern Africa – South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, Swaziland, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe – is examined in this contribution. While all of these countries share common influences ...

  18. Identifying ideology: media representations of the Irving Oil Refinery strike, 1994-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steuter, E.C.

    1998-07-01

    Media coverage of a strike at the Irving Oil Refinery in Saint John, New Brunswick which began in 1994 and lasted until 1996 is used as a background for the examination of ideology, used here in the more inclusive sense, one in which the term suggests a frame of mind without the coherence and easily recognized label usually associated with political ideology. Central issues such as monopoly ownership of the New Brunswick media by the Irving Group of Companies (also owners of the refinery) , the ideological presentation of strikes in general, and the representation of changing labour relations in a post-industrial, globally-oriented society are analyzed to show how these issues influenced media coverage. Four New Brunswick dailies as well as selected English-language dailies from other parts of Canada have been scrutinized in an effort to determine their ideological stand. It was found that restrictive ideologies such as liberalism or conservatism are on the decline; instead, more inclusive ideologies like defeatism and individualism were prominently featured especially by the St. John Telegraph-Journal in New Brunswick and other papers outside the province. The most striking finding was that if the media coverage of the Irving Refinery strike is representative of public opinion, the current organization of the provincial political economy is accepted as 'natural' by a majority of New Brunswickers.

  19. Alleged Death Threats, a Hunger Strike, and a Department at Risk Over a Tenure Decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherman, Courtney

    2000-01-01

    Reports on a tenure controversy within the Indiana University department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures that has involved possible death threats, a hunger strike, and controversy over the department's continued existence. For now the professor, an expert on Islamic philosophy, remains at the institution, other faculty have left, and…

  20. Changes in Kicking Pattern: Effect of Experience, Speed, Accuracy, and Effective Striking Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Dan L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to: (a) examine the effect of experience and goal constraints (speed, accuracy) on kicking patterns; (b) determine if effective striking mass was independent of ankle velocity at impact; and (c) determine the accuracy of kicks relative to independent factors. Method: Twenty participants were recruited to…

  1. Along-strike Variations in Active Strain Accumulation in the Northwest Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morell, K. D.; Ahmad, T.; Sandiford, M.; Codilean, A. T.; Fulop, R. H.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial distribution of channel steepness, erosion rate, and physiographic data highlight pronounced along-strike changes in active strain accumulation in the northwest Himalaya. In particular, the data suggest that the mid-crustal ramp of the Main Himalayan Thrust could merge along-strike with an active portion of the Main Boundary Thrust near longitude ~77º E. This along-strike change in active fault geometry also coincides with the lateral termination of both lesser and greater Himalayan sequences, a significant reduction in total shortening within the wedge, and pronounced variations in regional seismicity. Recent activity along extensional structures in the high Himalaya of this same region appears to have led to significant reorganization, modification and capture of the Sutlej River basin, one of the largest Himalayan river systems. Given the recent 2015 Gorkha earthquake along a comparable section ~500-km along strike, these new constraints on active fault architecture could have regional implications for how strain is partitioned along seismogenic faults in the northwest Himalaya.

  2. A note on 2-D lithospheric deformation due to a blind strike-slip fault

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mic deformation. Several researchers have devel- oped models of coseismic lithospheric deformation. Rybicki (1971) found a closed-form analytical solu- tion for the problem of a long vertical strike-slip fault in a two-layer model of the earth. Chinnery and Jovanovich (1972) extended the solution to a three-layer model.

  3. Strike-slip deformation reflects complex partitioning of strain in the Nankai Accretionary Prism (SE Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Marco C.; Alves, Tiago M.; Fonseca, Paulo E.; Moore, Gregory F.

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested predominant extensional tectonics acting, at present, on the Nankai Accretionary Prism (NAP), and following a parallel direction to the convergence vector between the Philippine Sea and Amur Plates. However, a complex set of thrusts, pop-up structures, thrust anticlines and strike-slip faults is observed on seismic data in the outer wedge of the NAP, hinting at a complex strain distribution across SE Japan. Three-dimensional (3D) seismic data reveal three main families of faults: (1) NE-trending thrusts and back-thrusts; (2) NNW- to N-trending left-lateral strike-slip faults; and (3) WNW-trending to E-W right-lateral strike-slip faults. Such a fault pattern suggests that lateral slip, together with thrusting, are the two major styles of deformation operating in the outer wedge of the NAP. Both styles of deformation reflect a transpressional tectonic regime in which the maximum horizontal stress is geometrically close to the convergence vector. This work is relevant because it shows a progressive change from faults trending perpendicularly to the convergence vector, to a broader partitioning of strain in the form of thrusts and conjugate strike-slip faults. We suggest that similar families of faults exist within the inner wedge of the NAP, below the Kumano Basin, and control stress accumulation and strain accommodation in this latter region.

  4. Public servants' right to strike in Lesotho, Botswana and South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Restrictions on the rights of public officers to strike are permitted by the Constitutions of Lesotho, Botswana and South Africa, where such limitations are reasonable, necessary and justifiable in a democratic society. The limitation of this right in the context of public servants is endorsed by the ILO in the Freedom of ...

  5. Carpathian Shear Corridor – A strike-slip boundary of an extruded crustal segment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marko, F.; Andriessen, P.A.M.; Tomek, Č.; Bezák, V.; Fojtíková, Lucia; Bošanský, M.; Piovarči, M.; Reichenwalder, P.

    703-704, APR 22 (2017), s. 119-134 ISSN 0040-1951 Grant - others:Slovak Foundation Grant(SK) VEGA 2/0188/15 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : extrusion * Neo-alpine evolution * strike-slip faulting * uplift history * Western Carpathians Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 2.693, year: 2016

  6. The effects of industrial conflicts and strikes in Nigeria: A socio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main thrust of this paper is to analyse and discuss the socio-economic implications of industrial conflicts, particularly strikes, in Nigeria. Industrial conflict was identified as the discord that occurs when the goals, interest or values of different individuals or groups in an industrial setting are incompatible. This conflict is ...

  7. Evaluating a novel endophytic grass for suppressing invertebrates that contribute to bird strike risk at airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Tall fescue containing a selected strain of the fungal endophyte Epichlöe coenophiala purported to express high levels of bioactive alkaloids (Avanex®) was recently commercialized for reducing airport bird strike hazard. We compared bioactivity of Avanex and KY 31, a ubiquitous cultivar...

  8. The initiation and linkage of surface fractures above a buried strike ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In nature, these set ups roughly simulate a major strike slip basement fault system with a package of sedimentary rocks deforming by basement-induced wrenching and/or transpression. Models were made up of clay mixed with water in the ratio 3:1. Approximate undrained shear strength of the clay paste was around 2 KPa ...

  9. A numerical model for bird strike on sidewall structure of an aircraft nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the potential of using the coupled smooth particles hydrodynamic (SPH and finite element (FE method to predict the dynamic responses of aircraft structures in bird strike events, bird-strike tests on the sidewall structure of an aircraft nose are carried out and numerically simulated. The bird is modeled with SPH and described by the Murnaghan equation of state, while the structure is modeled with finite elements. A coupled SPH–FE method is developed to simulate the bird-strike tests and a numerical model is established using a commercial software PAM-CRASH. The bird model shows no signs of instability and correctly modeled the break-up of the bird into particles. Finally the dynamic response such as strains in the skin is simulated and compared with test results, and the simulated deformation and fracture process of the sidewall structure is compared with images recorded by a high speed camera. Good agreement between the simulation results and test data indicates that the coupled SPH–FE method can provide a very powerful tool in predicting the dynamic responses of aircraft structures in events of bird strike.

  10. E–W strike slip shearing of Kinwat granitoid at South East Deccan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R D Kaplay

    2017-07-21

    Jul 21, 2017 ... cO Indian Academy of Sciences. DOI 10.1007/s12040-017-0853-8. E–W strike slip shearing of Kinwat granitoid at South East. Deccan ...... shear zone, Sutlej section-structural geology and extrusion mechanism by various combinations of simple shear, pure shear and channel flow in shifting modes; Int. J.

  11. Moengo on strike: the politics of labour in Suriname’s Bauxite industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, A.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines one crucial period of contestation in colonial Suriname, the years 1941 and 1942, when sustained labour unrest in the bauxite town of Moengo led to the establishment of the first mining unions. It argues that these strikes laid the groundwork for future relations between

  12. Counter-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Warfare: Kill Authorizations for the Carrier Strike Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    missiles at terrorist training camps in Afghanistan and a pharmaceutical plant in Sudan. This strike was justified because passive support had been...Accessed November 15, 2015. http://www.deseret news.com/article/933571/ Colombia -troops-seize-model-planes-in-bomb- plot.html?pg=all. ______. 2015. A

  13. The balancing act between the constitutional right to strike and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    services rendered according to our country's labour laws, which makes extreme exploitation very difficult. These circumstances make it clear that a strike shifts the emphasis from the child as first priority with regard to education to the problems of teachers with teaching authorities. The aim of picketing should thus be ...

  14. Problems for Social Work in a Strike Situation: Professional, Ethical, and Value Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Dena

    1987-01-01

    Discusses potential ethical conflicts social workers face in a strike: whether priority should be given to patient welfare or to the individual's civil rights to participate in union activities. Notes standards of professional behavior conflict with union requirements. Concludes the social work profession should examine labor unions in the 1980s…

  15. F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program: Background, Status, and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bolkcom, Christopher; Murch, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The Defense Department's F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) is one of three aircraft modernization programs in tactical aviation, the others being the Air Force F-22A fighter and the Navy F/A-18E/F fighter/attack plane...

  16. F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program: Background, Status, and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bolkcom, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    The Defense Department's F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) is one of three aircraft modernization programs in tactical aviation, the others being the Air Force F-22A fighter and the Navy F/A-18E/F fighter/attack plane...

  17. F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter "JSF" Program: Background, Status, and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murch, Anthony; Bolkcom, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The Defense Department's F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) is one of three aircraft modernization programs in tactical aviation, the others being the Air Force F-22A fighter and the Navy F/A-18E/F fighter/attack plane...

  18. Foot strike patterns and hind limb joint angles during running in Hadza hunter-gatherers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Pontzer

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Unlike other habitually barefoot populations which prefer FFS while running, Hadza men preferred MFS, and Hadza women and juveniles preferred RFS. Sex and age differences in foot strike behavior among Hadza adults may reflect differences in running experience, with men learning to prefer MFS as they accumulate more running experience.

  19. Synthesis and testing of a conducting polymeric composite material for lightning strike protection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katunin, A.; Krukiewicz, K.; Turczyn, R.; Sul, P.; Łasica, A.; Catalanotti, G.; Bilewicz, M.

    2017-02-01

    Lightning strike protection is one of the important issues in the modern maintenance problems of aircraft. This is due to a fact that the most of exterior elements of modern aircraft is manufactured from polymeric composites which are characterized by isolating electrical properties, and thus cannot carry the giant electrical charge when the lightning strikes. This causes serious damage of an aircraft structure and necessity of repairs and tests before returning a vehicle to operation. In order to overcome this problem, usually metallic meshes are immersed in the polymeric elements. This approach is quite effective, but increases a mass of an aircraft and significantly complicates the manufacturing process. The approach proposed by the authors is based on a mixture of conducting and dielectric polymers. Numerous modeling studies which are based on percolation clustering using kinetic Monte Carlo methods, finite element modeling of electrical and mechanical properties, and preliminary experimental studies, allow achieving an optimal content of conducting particles in a dielectric matrix in order to achieve possibly the best electrical conductivity and mechanical properties, simultaneously. After manufacturing the samples with optimal content of a conducting polymer, mechanical and electrical characterization as well as high-voltage testing was performed. The application of such a material simplifies manufacturing process and ensures unique properties of aircraft structures, which allows for minimizing damage after lightning strike, as well as provide electrical bounding and grounding, interference shielding, etc. The proposed solution can minimize costs of repair, testing and certification of aircraft structures damaged by lightning strikes.

  20. Electromiographic and kinematic characteristics of Kung Fu Yau-Man palm strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, O P; Magini, Marcio

    2008-12-01

    A kinematic and electromyographic analysis of Kung Fu (KF) Yau-Man palm strikes without impact is presented. An empirical model applied to data obtained by a high-speed camera describes the kinematic characteristics of the movement. The electromyographic patterns of the biceps brachii, brachioradialis and triceps brachii muscles were studied during the strike in the time (root mean square) and frequency (wavelet transform) domains. Eight KF practitioners participated in the investigation. A wooden board was placed in front of the subjects, and they were asked to perform the strike imagining a target above the board. The results show that the Yau-Man KF palm strike has very similar kinematic characteristics to a simple moderate speed elbow extension movement. All practitioners positioned themselves in relation to the wooden board in a way to achieve their highest hand speeds in the instant their hands crossed the board. The analyses of the electromyography data shows a well developed muscle coordination of the practitioners in agreement with kinematic results. The results of this paper are important not only for improving the performance of practitioners but also to demonstrate the applicability of KF in the process of motor control development.

  1. Shell Tectonics: A Mechanical Model for Strike-slip Displacement on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoden, Alyssa Rose; Wurman, Gilead; Huff, Eric M.; Manga, Michael; Hurford, Terry A.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new mechanical model for producing tidally-driven strike-slip displacement along preexisting faults on Europa, which we call shell tectonics. This model differs from previous models of strike-slip on icy satellites by incorporating a Coulomb failure criterion, approximating a viscoelastic rheology, determining the slip direction based on the gradient of the tidal shear stress rather than its sign, and quantitatively determining the net offset over many orbits. This model allows us to predict the direction of net displacement along faults and determine relative accumulation rate of displacement. To test the shell tectonics model, we generate global predictions of slip direction and compare them with the observed global pattern of strike-slip displacement on Europa in which left-lateral faults dominate far north of the equator, right-lateral faults dominate in the far south, and near-equatorial regions display a mixture of both types of faults. The shell tectonics model reproduces this global pattern. Incorporating a small obliquity into calculations of tidal stresses, which are used as inputs to the shell tectonics model, can also explain regional differences in strike-slip fault populations. We also discuss implications for fault azimuths, fault depth, and Europa's tectonic history.

  2. Alberta's 2002 Teacher Strike: The Political Economy of Labor Relations in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnetson, Bob

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, approximately two thirds of school teachers in the Canadian province of Alberta went on strike. Drawing on media, government and union documents, this case study reveals some contours of the political economy of labor relations in education that are normally hidden from view. Among these features are that the state can react to worker…

  3. Time Out: The Viewing Experience and Reactions to the 1987 NFL Players' Strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James R.

    The 1987 NFL players' strike provided an opportunity to evaluate the importance of media gratification and viewing involvement in the development of audience reactions to a major sports labor conflict that produced gratification denial. Two groups of viewers of professional football--183 adult males in the Memphis, Tennessee area, interviewed by…

  4. Are physicians' strikes ever morally justifiable? A call for a return to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2010-08-21

    Aug 21, 2010 ... physicians and academics and the national government should contribute before a final deliberation to go on strike is made. The intricacies ..... Chile, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, India, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Korea, Malta, New Zealand, Peru, Serbia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Romania, USA and. UK to name ...

  5. A note on 2-D lithospheric deformation due to a blind strike-slip fault

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chinnery and Jovanovich (1972) extended the solution to a three-layer model. Savage and Prescott (1978) constructed a simple two-dimensional model of an earthquake cycle that takes place on a transform fault. Singh and Rani (1994) obtained an analytical solution for the problem of a long inclined strike- slip fault in an ...

  6. The Role of Near-Fault Relief in Creating and Maintaining Strike-Slip Landscape Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbert, S.; Duvall, A. R.; Tucker, G. E.

    2016-12-01

    Geomorphic landforms, such as shutter ridges, offset river terraces, and deflected stream channels, are often used to assess the activity and slip rates of strike-slip faults. However, in some systems, such as parts of the Marlborough Fault System (South Island, NZ), an active strike-slip fault does not leave a strong landscape signature. Here we explore the factors that dampen or enhance the landscape signature of strike-slip faulting using the Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development model (CHILD). We focus on variables affecting the length of channel offsets, which enhance the signature of strike-slip motion, and the frequency of stream captures, which eliminate offsets and reduce this signature. We model a strike-slip fault that passes through a mountain ridge, offsetting streams that drain across this fault. We use this setup to test the response of channel offset length and capture frequency to fault characteristics, such as slip rate and ratio of lateral to vertical motion, and to landscape characteristics, such as relief contrasts controlled by erodibility. Our experiments show that relief downhill of the fault, whether generated by differential uplift across the fault or by an erodibility contrast, has the strongest effect on offset length and capture frequency. This relief creates shutter ridges, which block and divert streams while being advected along a fault. Shutter ridges and the streams they divert have long been recognized as markers of strike-slip motion. Our results show specifically that the height of shutter ridges is most responsible for the degree to which they create long channel offsets by preventing stream captures. We compare these results to landscape metrics in the Marlborough Fault System, where shutter ridges are common and often lithologically controlled. We compare shutter ridge length and height to channel offset length in order to assess the influence of relief on offset channel features in a real landscape. Based on our

  7. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter: Continued Oversight Needed as Program Plans to Begin Development of New Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    below), which would qualify it as a major defense acquisition program in its own right . F-35 Joint Strike Fighter Block 4 Development Costs Increase...F-35 JOINT STRIKE FIGHTER Continued Oversight Needed as Program Plans to Begin Development of New Capabilities...Accountability Office Highlights of GAO-16-390, a report to congressional committees April 2016 F-35 JOINT STRIKE FIGHTER Continued Oversight

  8. Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and inversions) have profound genetic...

  9. Multiple strike slip faults sets: A case study from the Dead Sea transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Hagai; Nur, Amos; Eyal, Y.

    1990-01-01

    In many strike slip tectonic settings, large rotations of crust blocks about vertical axes have been inferred from paleomagnetic data. These blocks are bounded by sets of parallel faults which presumably accommodate the relative motion between the blocks as regional deformation progress. A mechanical model by Nur et al., (1986) suggests that rotations greater than phi sub c equals 25 to 45 degrees must be accommodated by more than one set of faults, with angle phi sub c between their direction; consequently the sum of the angles between sets must be roughly equal to the total tectonic material rotation. To test this model, the authors investigated the fault geometry and field relation of fault sets in the Mt. Hermon area in northern Israel, where paleomagnetic declination implies data 69 degrees plus or minus 13 degrees counter-clockwise block rotation. The statistical and field relation analysis of over 315 faults shows that the faulting is predominantly right lateral strike slip consisting of three distinct sets. The oldest set strikes 253 degrees, the second oldest set strikes 293 degrees and the youngest strikes 339 degrees. This last direction is consistent also with the current north-south direction of the maximum principle stress axis. The angle phi sub c between the first and second sets is 39 degrees and between the second and third sets 46 degrees, in good agreement with the phi sub c angle predicted from mechanical considerations. The sum of the two angles is 85 degrees, in good agreement with the 69 degrees plus or minus 13 degrees CCW paleomagnetically derived rotation. The results suggest specifically that the sequential development of multiple intersecting fault sets is responsible for the faulting in the Mt. Hermon area; and generally that the model of block rotation with multiple faults provides very good simple rules for analyzing very complex fault patterns.

  10. Early Deafness Increases the Face Inversion Effect and Does Not Modulate the Composite Face Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adélaïde ede Heering

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Early deprivation in audition can have striking effects on the development of visual processing. Here we investigated whether early deafness induces changes in holistic/configural face processing. To this end, we compared the results of a group of early deaf participants to those of a group of hearing participants in an inversion-matching task (Experiment 1 and a composite face task (Experiment 2. We hypothesized that deaf individuals would show an enhanced inversion effect and/or an increased composite face effect compared to hearing controls in case of enhanced holistic/configural face processing. Conversely, these effects would be reduced if they rely more on facial features than hearing controls. As a result, we found that deaf individuals showed an increased inversion effect for faces, but not for non-face objects. They were also significantly slower than hearing controls to match inverted faces. However, the two populations did not differ regarding the overall size of their composite face effect. Altogether these results suggest that early deafness does not enhance or reduce the amount of holistic/configural processing devoted to faces but may increase the dependency on this mode of processing.

  11. The Right to strike: International and regional legal instruments with accent of legislation in Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Majhosev, Andon; Denkova, Jadranka

    2013-01-01

    The right to strike is a universal democratic right of all employees, regardless of where they are employed: Real or public sector. Depending on the degree of realization of this right in a state, it is accordingly evaluated on the scale of democracy. Therefore, we can say that the right to strike is a fundamental measure of democratic values of a society. There is no real democracy without the right to strike. The right to strike is governed by international legal instruments (acts) of the U...

  12. Law and Intergenerational Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Israel; Lowenstein, Ariela; Biggs, Simon

    2017-03-01

    In any aging society, the sociolegal construction of intergenerational relationships is of great importance. This study conducts an international comparison of a specific judicial issue: whether active labor unions have the legal right to strike for the purpose of improving the benefits given to nonactive workers (specifically, pensioners). A comparative case law methodology was used. The texts of three different Supreme Court cases-in the United States, Canada, and Israel-were analyzed and compared. Despite the different legal outcomes, all three court rulings reflect a disregard of known and relevant social gerontology theories of intergenerational relationships. Social gerontological theories can play an important role in both understanding and shaping judicial policies and assisting the courts in choosing their sociojudicial narratives.

  13. Along-strike structural variation and thermokinematic development of the Cenozoic Bitlis-Zagros fold-thrust belt, Turkey and Iraqi Kurdistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Douglas E.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Koshnaw, Renas I.; Tamar-Agha, Mazin Y.; Yilmaz, Ismail O.

    2016-04-01

    The Bitlis-Zagros orogen in northern Iraq is a principal element of the Arabia-Eurasia continent collision and is characterized by the lateral intersection of two structural domains: the NW-SE trending Zagros proper system of Iran and the E-W trending Bitlis fold-thrust belt of Turkey and Syria. While these components in northern Iraq share a similar stratigraphic framework, they exhibit along-strike variations in the width and style of tectonic zones, fold morphology and trends, and structural inheritance. However, the distinctions of the Bitlis and Zagros segments remains poorly understood in terms of timing and deformation kinematics as well as first-order controls on fold-thrust development. Structural and stratigraphic study and seismic data combined with low-T thermochronometry provide the basis for reconstructions of the Bitlis-Zagros fold-thrust belt in southeastern Turkey and northern Iraq to elucidate the kinematic and temporal relationship of these two systems. Balanced cross-sections were constructed and incrementally restored to quantify the deformational evolution and use as input for thermokinematic models (FETKIN) to generate thermochronometric ages along the topographic surface of each cross-section line. The forward modeled thermochronometric ages from were then compared to new and previously published apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He and fission-track ages from southeastern Turkey and northern Iraq to test the validity of the timing, rate, and fault-motion geometry associated with each reconstruction. The results of these balanced theromokinematic restorations integrated with constraints from syn-tectonic sedimentation suggest that the Zagros belt between Erbil and Suleimaniyah was affected by an initial phase of Late Cretaceous exhumation related to the Proto-Zagros collision. During the main Zagros phase, deformation advanced rapidly and in-sequence from the Main Zagros Fault to the thin-skinned frontal thrusts (Kirkuk, Shakal, Qamar) from middle

  14. Brain serotonin 4 receptor binding is inversely associated with verbal memory recall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, Dea S; Fisher, Patrick M; Ozenne, Brice

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously identified an inverse relationship between cerebral serotonin 4 receptor (5-HT 4R) binding and nonaffective episodic memory in healthy individuals. Here, we investigate in a novel sample if the association is related to affective components of memory, by examining t...

  15. QCD-instantons and conformal inversion symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klammer, D.

    2006-07-01

    Instantons are an essential and non-perturbative part of Quantum Chromodynamics, the theory of strong interactions. One of the most relevant quantities in the instanton calculus is the instanton-size distribution, which can be described on the one hand within the framework of instanton perturbation theory and on the other hand investigated numerically by means of lattice computations. A rapid onset of a drastic discrepancy between these respective results indicates that the underlying physics is not yet well understood. In this work we investigate the appealing possibility of a symmetry under conformal inversion of space-time leading to this deviation. The motivation being that the lattice data seem to be invariant under an inversion of the instanton size. Since the instanton solution of a given size turns into an anti-instanton solution having an inverted size under conformal inversion of space-time, we ask in a first investigation, whether this property is transferred to the quantum level. In order to introduce a new scale, which is indicated by the lattice data and corresponds to the average instanton size as inversion radius, we project the instanton calculus onto the four-dimensional surface of a five-dimensional sphere via stereographic projection. The radius of this sphere is associated with the average instanton size. The result for the instanton size-distribution projected onto the sphere agrees surprisingly well with the lattice data at qualitative level. The resulting symmetry under an inversion of the instanton size is almost perfect. (orig.)

  16. QCD-instantons and conformal inversion symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klammer, D.

    2006-07-15

    Instantons are an essential and non-perturbative part of Quantum Chromodynamics, the theory of strong interactions. One of the most relevant quantities in the instanton calculus is the instanton-size distribution, which can be described on the one hand within the framework of instanton perturbation theory and on the other hand investigated numerically by means of lattice computations. A rapid onset of a drastic discrepancy between these respective results indicates that the underlying physics is not yet well understood. In this work we investigate the appealing possibility of a symmetry under conformal inversion of space-time leading to this deviation. The motivation being that the lattice data seem to be invariant under an inversion of the instanton size. Since the instanton solution of a given size turns into an anti-instanton solution having an inverted size under conformal inversion of space-time, we ask in a first investigation, whether this property is transferred to the quantum level. In order to introduce a new scale, which is indicated by the lattice data and corresponds to the average instanton size as inversion radius, we project the instanton calculus onto the four-dimensional surface of a five-dimensional sphere via stereographic projection. The radius of this sphere is associated with the average instanton size. The result for the instanton size-distribution projected onto the sphere agrees surprisingly well with the lattice data at qualitative level. The resulting symmetry under an inversion of the instanton size is almost perfect. (orig.)

  17. Unwrapped phase inversion with an exponential damping

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2015-07-28

    Full-waveform inversion (FWI) suffers from the phase wrapping (cycle skipping) problem when the frequency of data is not low enough. Unless we obtain a good initial velocity model, the phase wrapping problem in FWI causes a result corresponding to a local minimum, usually far away from the true solution, especially at depth. Thus, we have developed an inversion algorithm based on a space-domain unwrapped phase, and we also used exponential damping to mitigate the nonlinearity associated with the reflections. We construct the 2D phase residual map, which usually contains the wrapping discontinuities, especially if the model is complex and the frequency is high. We then unwrap the phase map and remove these cycle-based jumps. However, if the phase map has several residues, the unwrapping process becomes very complicated. We apply a strong exponential damping to the wavefield to eliminate much of the residues in the phase map, thus making the unwrapping process simple. We finally invert the unwrapped phases using the back-propagation algorithm to calculate the gradient. We progressively reduce the damping factor to obtain a high-resolution image. Numerical examples determined that the unwrapped phase inversion with a strong exponential damping generated convergent long-wavelength updates without low-frequency information. This model can be used as a good starting model for a subsequent inversion with a reduced damping, eventually leading to conventional waveform inversion.

  18. RUMBLE Technical Report on Inversion Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Dick G.; Ainslie, Michael A.; Muller, Simonette H. E.; Boek, Wilco

    2002-06-01

    The performance of long range low frequency active sonar (LFAS) systems in shallow water is very sensitive to the properties of the sea bed, because of the impact of these on propagation, reverberation and (to a lesser extent) ambient noise. Direct measurement of sea bed parameters using cores or grab samples is impractical for covering a wide area, and instead we consider the possibility of using the LFAS system itself to measure its operating environment. The advantages of this approach are that it exploits existing (or planned) equipment and potentially offers a wide coverage. Geo-acoustic inversion methods are reviewed, with particular consideration for the problems associated with inversion of reverberation data. Three global optimisation methods are described, known as "simulated annealing", "genetic algorithms" and "differential evolution". The Levenberg-Marquardt and downhill simplex local methods are also described. The advantages and disadvantages of each individual method, as well as some hybrid combinations, are discussed in the context of geo-acoustic inversion. A new inversion method has been developed that exploits both the shape and height of the reverberation vs time curve to obtain information about the sea bed reflection loss and scattering strength separately. Tests on synthetic reverberation data show that the inversion method is able to extract parameters representing reflection loss and scattering strength, but cannot always unambiguously separate the effects of sediment sound speed and attenuation. The method is robust to small mismatches in water depth, sonar depth, sediment sound speed gradient and wind speed.

  19. Full wave-field reflection coefficient inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Jan; Dosso, Stan E; Holland, Charles W

    2007-12-01

    This paper develops a Bayesian inversion for recovering multilayer geoacoustic (velocity, density, attenuation) profiles from a full wave-field (spherical-wave) seabed reflection response. The reflection data originate from acoustic time series windowed for a single bottom interaction, which are processed to yield reflection coefficient data as a function of frequency and angle. Replica data for inversion are computed using a wave number-integration model to calculate the full complex acoustic pressure field, which is processed to produce a commensurate seabed response function. To address the high computational cost of calculating short range acoustic fields, the inversion algorithms are parallelized and frequency averaging is replaced by range averaging in the forward model. The posterior probability density is interpreted in terms of optimal parameter estimates, marginal distributions, and credibility intervals. Inversion results for the full wave-field seabed response are compared to those obtained using plane-wave reflection coefficients. A realistic synthetic study indicates that the plane-wave assumption can fail, producing erroneous results with misleading uncertainty bounds, whereas excellent results are obtained with the full-wave reflection inversion.

  20. Multiscattering inversion for low-model wavenumbers

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2016-09-21

    A successful full-waveform inversion implementation updates the low-wavenumber model components first for a proper description of the wavefield propagation and slowly adds the high wavenumber potentially scattering parts of the model. The low-wavenumber components can be extracted from the transmission parts of the recorded wavefield emanating directly from the source or the transmission parts from the single- or double-scattered wavefield computed from a predicted scatter field acting as secondary sources.We use a combined inversion of data modeled from the source and those corresponding to single and double scattering to update the velocity model and the component of the velocity (perturbation) responsible for the single and double scattering. The combined inversion helps us access most of the potential model wavenumber information that may be embedded in the data. A scattering-angle filter is used to divide the gradient of the combined inversion, so initially the high-wavenumber (low-scattering-angle) components of the gradient are directed to the perturbation model and the low-wavenumber (highscattering- angle) components are directed to the velocity model. As our background velocity matures, the scatteringangle divide is slowly lowered to allow for more of the higher wavenumbers to contribute the velocity model. Synthetic examples including the Marmousi model are used to demonstrate the additional illumination and improved velocity inversion obtained when including multiscattered energy. © 2016 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.