WorldWideScience

Sample records for striking group differences

  1. Expeditionary Strike Group: Command Structure Design Support

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hutchins, Susan G; Kemple, William G; Kleinman, David L; Hocevar, Susan P

    2005-01-01

    An Expeditionary Strike Group (ESG) is a new capability mix that combines the combat power of three surface combatants and one submarine with an Amphibious Readiness Group/ Marine Expeditionary Unit...

  2. Recent strikes in South Africa’s platinum-group metal mines: effects upon world platinum-group metal supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas R.; Soto-Viruet, Yadira; Barry, James J.

    2012-01-01

    The recent labor disputes over wages and working conditions that have affected South Africa’s three leading platinum-group metal (PGM) producers have affected an industry already plagued by market pressures and labor unrest and raised the specter of constraints in the world’s supply of these metals. Although low demand for these metals in 2011 and 2012 helped to offset production losses of recent years, and particularly those losses caused by the strikes in 2012, a prolonged resumption of strikes could cause severe shortages of iridium, platinum, rhodium, ruthenium, and, to a lesser extent, palladium.

  3. Foot strike pattern in preschool children during running: sex and shod-unshod differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Á; Párraga-Montilla, Juan A; Guardia-Monteagudo, Ignacio; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to determine the foot strike patterns (FSPs) and neutral support (no inversion [INV]/eversion [EVE] and no foot rotation) in preschool children, as well as to determine the influence of shod/unshod conditions and sex. A total of 1356 children aged 3-6 years (673 boys and 683 girls) participated in this study. A sagittal and frontal-plane video (240 Hz) was recorded using a high-speed camcorder to record the following variables: rearfoot strike (RFS), midfoot strike (MFS), forefoot strike (FFS), inversion/ eversion (INV/EVE) and foot rotation on initial contact. There were no between-sex significant differences in both shod and unshod conditions in RFS. In the unshod condition, there was a significant reduction (p < 0.001) of RFS prevalence in both boys (shod condition = 44.2% vs. 34.7% unshod condition) and girls (shod condition = 48.5% vs. 36.1% unshod condition). As for neutral support, there were no between-sex differences in both shod and unshod conditions or in the shod-unshod comparison. In preschool children, no between-sex differences were found in relation to prevalence of RFS and neutral support (no INV/EVE). Shod running alters FSP of running barefoot, producing a significant increase of RFS prevalence.

  4. Biomechanical Differences of Foot-Strike Patterns During Running: A Systematic Review With Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Matheus O; Davis, Irene S; Lopes, Alexandre D

    2015-10-01

    Systematic review with meta-analysis. To determine the biomechanical differences between foot-strike patterns used when running. Strike patterns during running have received attention in the recent literature due to their potential mechanical differences and associated injury risks. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, SciELO, and SPORTDiscus) were searched through July 2014. Studies (cross-sectional, case-control, prospective, and retrospective) comparing the biomechanical characteristics of foot-strike patterns during running in distance runners at least 18 years of age were included in this review. Two independent reviewers evaluated the risk of bias. A meta-analysis with a random-effects model was used to combine the data from the included studies. Sixteen studies were included in the final analysis. In the meta-analyses of kinematic variables, significant differences between forefoot and rearfoot strikers were found for foot and knee angle at initial contact and knee flexion range of motion. A forefoot-strike pattern resulted in a plantar-flexed ankle position and a more flexed knee position, compared to a dorsiflexed ankle position and a more extended knee position for the rearfoot strikers, at initial contact with the ground. In the comparison of rearfoot and midfoot strikers, midfoot strikers demonstrated greater ankle dorsiflexion range of motion and decreased knee flexion range of motion compared to rearfoot strikers. For kinetic variables, the meta-analysis revealed that rearfoot strikers had higher vertical loading rates compared to forefoot strikers. There are differences in kinematic and kinetic characteristics between foot-strike patterns when running. Clinicians should be aware of these characteristics to help in the management of running injuries and advice on training.

  5. Laboratory demonstration of lightning strike pattern on different roof tops installed with Franklin Rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Irshad; Baharom, MNR; Ahmed, H.; Luqman, HM.; Zainal, Zainab

    2017-11-01

    Protection against lightning is always a challenging job for the researcher. The consequences due to lightning on different building shapes needs a comprehensive knowledge in order to provide the information to the common man. This paper is mainly concern with lightning pattern when it strikes on the building with different shape. The work is based on the practical experimental work in high voltage laboratory. Different shapes of the scaled structures have been selected in order to investigate the equal distribution of lightning voltage. The equal distribution of lightning voltage will provide the maximum probability of lightning strike on air terminal of the selected shapes. Building shapes have a very important role in lightning protection. The shapes of the roof tops have different geometry and the Franklin rod installation is also varies with changing the shape of the roof top. According to the ambient weather condition of Malaysia high voltage impulse is applied on the lightning rod installed on different geometrical shape. The equal distribution of high voltage impulse is obtained as the geometry of the scaled structure is identical and the air gap for all the tested object is kept the same. This equal distribution of the lightning voltage also proves that the probability of lightning strike is on the corner and the edges of the building structure.

  6. Differences in Strike Index Between Treadmill and Aquatic Treadmill Running in Experienced Distance Runners

    OpenAIRE

    Hoover, James Paul, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Strike index (SI) quantifies how one’s foot contacts the ground at the beginning of the stance phase of gait. SI is reported as a percentage of the total foot length, with lower percentages indicating a more posterior point of contact, while greater percentages indicate a more anterior point of contact along the foot. Differences in SI may be related to running-related injuries, such that experienced distance runners who are rearfoot (posterior) strikers may have approximately twice the rate ...

  7. Acute effect of different minimalist shoes on foot strike pattern and kinematics in rearfoot strikers during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squadrone, Roberto; Rodano, Renato; Hamill, Joseph; Preatoni, Ezio

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in minimalist shoes, no studies have compared the efficacy of different types of minimalist shoe models in reproducing barefoot running patterns and in eliciting biomechanical changes that make them differ from standard cushioned running shoes. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of different footwear models, marketed as "minimalist" by their manufacturer, on running biomechanics. Six running shoes marketed as barefoot/minimalist models, a standard cushioned shoe and the barefoot condition were tested. Foot-/shoe-ground pressure and three-dimensional lower limb kinematics were measured in experienced rearfoot strike runners while they were running at 3.33 m · s⁻¹ on an instrumented treadmill. Physical and mechanical characteristics of shoes (mass, heel and forefoot sole thickness, shock absorption and flexibility) were measured with laboratory tests. There were significant changes in foot strike pattern (described by the strike index and foot contact angle) and spatio-temporal stride characteristics, whereas only some among the other selected kinematic parameters (i.e. knee angles and hip vertical displacement) changed accordingly. Different types of minimalist footwear models induced different changes. It appears that minimalist footwear with lower heel heights and minimal shock absorption is more effective in replicating barefoot running.

  8. Foot strike pattern differently affects the axial and transverse components of shock acceleration and attenuation in downhill trail running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giandolini, Marlene; Horvais, Nicolas; Rossi, Jérémy; Millet, Guillaume Y; Samozino, Pierre; Morin, Jean-Benoît

    2016-06-14

    Trail runners are exposed to a high number of shocks, including high-intensity shocks on downhill sections leading to greater risk of osseous overuse injury. The type of foot strike pattern (FSP) is known to influence impact severity and lower-limb kinematics. Our purpose was to investigate the influence of FSP on axial and transverse components of shock acceleration and attenuation during an intense downhill trail run (DTR). Twenty-three trail runners performed a 6.5-km DTR (1264m of negative elevation change) as fast as possible. Four tri-axial accelerometers were attached to the heel, metatarsals, tibia and sacrum. Accelerations were continuously recorded at 1344Hz and analyzed over six sections (~400 steps per subject). Heel and metatarsal accelerations were used to identify the FSP. Axial, transverse and resultant peak accelerations, median frequencies and shock attenuation within the impact-related frequency range (12-20Hz) were assessed between tibia and sacrum. Multiple linear regressions showed that anterior (i.e. forefoot) FSPs were associated with higher peak axial acceleration and median frequency at the tibia, lower transverse median frequencies at the tibia and sacrum, and lower transverse peak acceleration at the sacrum. For resultant acceleration, higher tibial median frequency but lower sacral peak acceleration were reported with forefoot striking. FSP therefore differently affects the components of impact shock acceleration. Although a forefoot strike reduces impact severity and impact frequency content along the transverse axis, a rearfoot strike decreases them in the axial direction. Globally, the attenuation of axial and resultant impact-related vibrations was improved using anterior FSPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Striking Clepsydras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Moon-Hyon

    The term "Striking Clepsydra" is a shortened translation of the Korean name Jagyeongnu (自擊漏, tzu-chi lou in Chinese, literally "automatic-striking water-clock"). It was given to the two monumental time-keeping installations built by chief court engineer Yeong-sil Jang in AD 1432-38 under King Sejong (r. AD 1418-50) of the Joseon dynasty (1392-1910) in Seoul. These were housed separately in the Gyeongbok palace complex as major installations of the Royal Observatory Ganuidae equipped during 1432-38. One was the Striking Palace Clepsydra Borugangnu that was employed as the standard time-keeper from 1434, and the other was the Striking Heavenly Clepsydra Heumgyeonggangnu that was put into use not only as the symbol of Neo-Confucian ideology from 1438, but also as a demonstrational orrery and time-keeper. These were restored several times through the dynasty after loss by fires and warfare, and clepsydra-making technologies were succeeded by the development of armillary clocks in 1669. The National Palace Museum of Korea recreated the 1434 Striking Palace Clepsydra of King Sejong, and the replica was installed for permanent exhibition from November 2007.

  10. Nucleolar localization of influenza A NS1: striking differences between mammalian and avian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazel-Sanchez Beryl

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In mammalian cells, nucleolar localization of influenza A NS1 requires the presence of a C-terminal nucleolar localization signal. This nucleolar localization signal is present only in certain strains of influenza A viruses. Therefore, only certain NS1 accumulate in the nucleolus of mammalian cells. In contrast, we show that all NS1 tested in this study accumulated in the nucleolus of avian cells even in the absence of the above described C-terminal nucleolar localization signal. Thus, nucleolar localization of NS1 in avian cells appears to rely on a different nucleolar localization signal that is more conserved among influenza virus strains.

  11. Block and Gradient Copoly(2-oxazoline) Micelles: Strikingly Different on the Inside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, Sergey K; Verbraeken, Bart; Konarev, Petr V; Svergun, Dmitri I; Angelov, Borislav; Vishnevetskaya, Natalya S; Papadakis, Christine M; Rogers, Sarah; Radulescu, Aurel; Courtin, Tim; Martins, José C; Starovoytova, Larisa; Hruby, Martin; Stepanek, Petr; Kravchenko, Vitaly S; Potemkin, Igor I; Hoogenboom, Richard

    2017-08-17

    Herein, we provide a direct proof for differences in the micellar structure of amphiphilic diblock and gradient copolymers, thereby unambiguously demonstrating the influence of monomer distribution along the polymer chains on the micellization behavior. The internal structure of amphiphilic block and gradient co poly(2-oxazolines) based on the hydrophilic poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (PMeOx) and the hydrophobic poly(2-phenyl-2-oxazoline) (PPhOx) was studied in water and water-ethanol mixtures by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), static and dynamic light scattering (SLS/DLS), and 1 H NMR spectroscopy. Contrast matching SANS experiments revealed that block copolymers form micelles with a uniform density profile of the core. In contrast to popular assumption, the outer part of the core of the gradient copolymer micelles has a distinctly higher density than the middle of the core. We attribute the latter finding to back-folding of chains resulting from hydrophilic-hydrophobic interactions, leading to a new type of micelles that we refer to as micelles with a "bitterball-core" structure.

  12. From epidemics to information propagation: Striking differences in structurally similar adaptive network models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajanovski, Stojan; Guo, Dongchao; Van Mieghem, Piet

    2015-09-01

    The continuous-time adaptive susceptible-infected-susceptible (ASIS) epidemic model and the adaptive information diffusion (AID) model are two adaptive spreading processes on networks, in which a link in the network changes depending on the infectious state of its end nodes, but in opposite ways: (i) In the ASIS model a link is removed between two nodes if exactly one of the nodes is infected to suppress the epidemic, while a link is created in the AID model to speed up the information diffusion; (ii) a link is created between two susceptible nodes in the ASIS model to strengthen the healthy part of the network, while a link is broken in the AID model due to the lack of interest in informationless nodes. The ASIS and AID models may be considered as first-order models for cascades in real-world networks. While the ASIS model has been exploited in the literature, we show that the AID model is realistic by obtaining a good fit with Facebook data. Contrary to the common belief and intuition for such similar models, we show that the ASIS and AID models exhibit different but not opposite properties. Most remarkably, a unique metastable state always exists in the ASIS model, while there an hourglass-shaped region of instability in the AID model. Moreover, the epidemic threshold is a linear function in the effective link-breaking rate in the AID model, while it is almost constant but noisy in the AID model.

  13. Striking movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Like all music performance, percussion playing requires high control over timing and sound properties. Specific to percussionists, however, is the need to adjust the movement to different instruments with varying physical properties and tactile feedback to the player. Furthermore, the well defined...... note onsets and short interaction times between player and instrument do not allow for much adjustment once a stroke is initiated. The paper surveys research that shows a close relationship between movement and sound production, and how playing conditions such as tempo and the rebound after impact...

  14. Foot strike patterns after obstacle clearance during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Shane D; Stergiou, Nicholas; Hreljac, Alan; Houser, Jeremy; Blanke, Daniel; Alberts, L Russell

    2002-01-01

    Running over obstacles of sufficient height requires heel strike (HS) runners to make a transition in landing strategy to a forefoot (FF) strike, resulting in similar ground reaction force patterns to those observed while landing from a jump. Identification of the biomechanical variables that distinguish between the landing strategies may offer some insight into the reasons that the transition occurs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in foot strike patterns and kinetic parameters of heel strike runners between level running and running over obstacles of various heights. Ten heel strike subjects ran at their self-selected pace under seven different conditions: unperturbed running (no obstacle) and over obstacles of six different heights (10%, 12.5%, 15%, 17.5%, 20%, and 22.5% of their standing height). The obstacle was placed directly before a Kistler force platform. Repeated measures ANOVAs were performed on the subject means of selected kinetic parameters. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences (P strike patterns were affected by the increased obstacle height. Between the 12.5% and 15% obstacle conditions, the group response changed from a heel strike to a forefoot strike pattern. At height > 15%, the pattern was more closely related to the foot strike patterns found in jumping activities. This strategy change may represent a gait transition effected as a mechanism to protect against increased impact forces. Greater involvement of the ankle and the calf muscles could have assisted in attenuating the increased impact forces while maintaining speed after clearing the obstacle.

  15. Gait Retraining From Rearfoot Strike to Forefoot Strike does not change Running Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Jenevieve Lynn; Doerfler, Deborah; Kravitz, Len; Dufek, Janet S; Mermier, Christine

    2017-12-01

    Gait retraining is a method for management of patellofemoral pain, which is a common ailment among recreational runners. The present study investigated the effects of gait retraining from rearfoot strike to forefoot strike on running economy, heart rate, and respiratory exchange ratio immediately post-retraining and one-month post-retraining in recreational runners with patellofemoral pain. Knee pain was also measured. Sixteen participants (n=16) were randomly placed in the control (n=8) or experimental (n=8) group. A 10-minute treadmill RE test was performed by all subjects. The experimental group performed eight gait retraining running sessions where foot strike pattern was switched from rearfoot strike to forefoot strike, while the control group received no intervention. There were no significant differences for running economy (p=0.26), respiratory exchange ratio (p=0.258), or heart rate (p=0.248) between the groups. Knee pain reported on a visual analog scale was also significantly reduced (pstrike to forefoot strike did not affect running economy up to one-month post-retraining while reducing running-related patellofemoral pain. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Group foliation of finite difference equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert; Valiquette, Francis

    2018-06-01

    Using the theory of equivariant moving frames, a group foliation method for invariant finite difference equations is developed. This method is analogous to the group foliation of differential equations and uses the symmetry group of the equation to decompose the solution process into two steps, called resolving and reconstruction. Our constructions are performed algorithmically and symbolically by making use of discrete recurrence relations among joint invariants. Applications to invariant finite difference equations that approximate differential equations are given.

  17. Psychological wellness constructs: relationships and group differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liezl Gropp

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine the relationships between several constructs that were hypothesised to be components underlying psychological wellness and to establish whether there were differences between managerial and non-managerial groups or between Black and White groups in respect of the wellness variables. The Personal Orientation Inventory (POI, Locus of Control Inventory (LOC, Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC, and the Bar-On EQ-I were administered to a random sample of 200 employees of a financial services company. Statistically significant differences were found between the groups on several of the wellness variables with the manager and White groups obtaining higher scores on these variables than their comparison groups. However, in respect of External Locus of Control, the non-manager and Black groups obtained the higher scores. Factor analytic results demonstrated that the wellness variables clustered in two correlated factors (r = 0,43 labeled psychological wellness and self-actualisation.

  18. Exaggerating Accessible Differences: When Gender Stereotypes Overestimate Actual Group Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyal, Tal; Epley, Nicholas

    2017-09-01

    Stereotypes are often presumed to exaggerate group differences, but empirical evidence is mixed. We suggest exaggeration is moderated by the accessibility of specific stereotype content. In particular, because the most accessible stereotype contents are attributes perceived to differ between groups, those attributes are most likely to exaggerate actual group differences due to regression to the mean. We tested this hypothesis using a highly accessible gender stereotype: that women are more socially sensitive than men. We confirmed that the most accessible stereotype content involves attributes perceived to differ between groups (pretest), and that these stereotypes contain some accuracy but significantly exaggerate actual gender differences (Experiment 1). We observe less exaggeration when judging less accessible stereotype content (Experiment 2), or when judging individual men and women (Experiment 3). Considering the accessibility of specific stereotype content may explain when stereotypes exaggerate actual group differences and when they do not.

  19. A dense SNP-based linkage map for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar reveals extended chromosome homeologies and striking differences in sex-specific recombination patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Sigbjørn

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Atlantic salmon genome is in the process of returning to a diploid state after undergoing a whole genome duplication (WGD event between 25 and100 million years ago. Existing data on the proportion of paralogous sequence variants (PSVs, multisite variants (MSVs and other types of complex sequence variation suggest that the rediplodization phase is far from over. The aims of this study were to construct a high density linkage map for Atlantic salmon, to characterize the extent of rediploidization and to improve our understanding of genetic differences between sexes in this species. Results A linkage map for Atlantic salmon comprising 29 chromosomes and 5650 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs was constructed using genotyping data from 3297 fish belonging to 143 families. Of these, 2696 SNPs were generated from ESTs or other gene associated sequences. Homeologous chromosomal regions were identified through the mapping of duplicated SNPs and through the investigation of syntenic relationships between Atlantic salmon and the reference genome sequence of the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus. The sex-specific linkage maps spanned a total of 2402.3 cM in females and 1746.2 cM in males, highlighting a difference in sex specific recombination rate (1.38:1 which is much lower than previously reported in Atlantic salmon. The sexes, however, displayed striking differences in the distribution of recombination sites within linkage groups, with males showing recombination strongly localized to telomeres. Conclusion The map presented here represents a valuable resource for addressing important questions of interest to evolution (the process of re-diploidization, aquaculture and salmonid life history biology and not least as a resource to aid the assembly of the forthcoming Atlantic salmon reference genome sequence.

  20. Construction of Difference Equations Using Lie Groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axford, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The theory of prolongations of the generators of groups of point transformations to the grid point values of dependent variables and grid spacings is developed and applied to the construction of group invariant numerical algorithms. The concepts of invariant difference operators and generalized discrete sources are introduced for the discretization of systems of inhomogeneous differential equations and shown to produce exact difference equations. Invariant numerical flux functions are constructed from the general solutions of first order partial differential equations that come out of the evaluation of the Lie derivatives of conservation forms of difference schemes. It is demonstrated that invariant numerical flux functions with invariant flux or slope limiters can be determined to yield high resolution difference schemes. The introduction of an invariant flux or slope limiter can be done so as not to break the symmetry properties of a numerical flux-function

  1. Metacognition and Group Differences: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, metacognition refers to performing visual analysis and discrimination of real life events and situations in naïve psychology, naïve physics, and naïve biology domains. It is used, along with measuring reaction time, to examine differences in the ability of four groups of students to select appropriate pictures that correspond with…

  2. Foot strike and injury rates in endurance runners: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Adam I; Geissler, Gary J; Wang, Frank; Saretsky, Jason; Daoud, Yahya A; Lieberman, Daniel E

    2012-07-01

    This retrospective study tests if runners who habitually forefoot strike have different rates of injury than runners who habitually rearfoot strike. We measured the strike characteristics of middle- and long-distance runners from a collegiate cross-country team and quantified their history of injury, including the incidence and rate of specific injuries, the severity of each injury, and the rate of mild, moderate, and severe injuries per mile run. Of the 52 runners studied, 36 (69%) primarily used a rearfoot strike and 16 (31%) primarily used a forefoot strike. Approximately 74% of runners experienced a moderate or severe injury each year, but those who habitually rearfoot strike had approximately twice the rate of repetitive stress injuries than individuals who habitually forefoot strike. Traumatic injury rates were not significantly different between the two groups. A generalized linear model showed that strike type, sex, race distance, and average miles per week each correlate significantly (P strike have significantly higher rates of repetitive stress injury than those who mostly forefoot strike. This study does not test the causal bases for this general difference. One hypothesis, which requires further research, is that the absence of a marked impact peak in the ground reaction force during a forefoot strike compared with a rearfoot strike may contribute to lower rates of injuries in habitual forefoot strikers.

  3. Differences in problems of motivation in different special groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnen, E.S.; Steenbeek, H.W.

    1999-01-01

    In general, children with a range of special needs have below-average motivation and perceived control. We have investigated whether differences exist between the types of problem in different special groups. Theory distinguishes between two types: low motivation and perceived control can be based

  4. Differences in problems of motivation in different special groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnen, E.S.; Steenbeek, H.W.

    In general, children with a range of special needs have below-average motivation and perceived control. We have investigated whether differences exist between the types of problem in different special groups. Theory distinguishes between two types: low motivation and perceived control can be based

  5. What Is a Group? Young Children's Perceptions of Different Types of Groups and Group Entitativity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Plötner

    Full Text Available To date, developmental research on groups has focused mainly on in-group biases and intergroup relations. However, little is known about children's general understanding of social groups and their perceptions of different forms of group. In this study, 5- to 6-year-old children were asked to evaluate prototypes of four key types of groups: an intimacy group (friends, a task group (people who are collaborating, a social category (people who look alike, and a loose association (people who coincidently meet at a tram stop. In line with previous work with adults, the vast majority of children perceived the intimacy group, task group, and social category, but not the loose association, to possess entitativity, that is, to be a 'real group.' In addition, children evaluated group member properties, social relations, and social obligations differently in each type of group, demonstrating that young children are able to distinguish between different types of in-group relations. The origins of the general group typology used by adults thus appear early in development. These findings contribute to our knowledge about children's intuitive understanding of groups and group members' behavior.

  6. 8 Different approaches needed to manage ED demand among different age-groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, Melanie; Ablard, Suzanne; O'Keeffe, Colin; Mason, Suzanne

    2017-12-01

    A variety of interventions have been proposed to manage rising demand for Emergency and Urgent Care, described by an NHS England review as unsustainable in the long term. However it is unlikely that any suggested approach will be equally suitable for the diverse population of ED users.We aimed to understand the patterns of demand amongst different types of patients attending ED. We also sought to understand the intended and unintended effects of demand management initiatives. Our study combined insights from routine data, a survey of ED patients, and qualitative interviews with ED staff. This paper describes the results of our analysis of the interviews. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 25 ED and Urgent Care Centre staff across 7 hospital sites in Yorkshire and Humber between 25 April and 11 July 2016. The interview topic guide asked about 4 broad areas; job role, description of patients and their impact on demand, description of inappropriate attendance, and current/future initiatives to deal with rising demand. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using framework analysis. We analysed the results to identify groups of patients with different patterns of use of ED services. We also explored ED staff experiences of demand management initiatives, and their suggestions for future initiatives. Although we did not ask specifically about patients' age, our analysis revealed that ED staff categorised attenders as children and young people, working age people, and older people. These groups had different reasons for attendance, different routes to the ED, different rate of non-urgent attendance, and different issues driving demand. Staff also described variation in the time taken to treat patients of different ages, with the oldest and youngest patients described as requiring the most time.There was no consensus amongst staff about the effectiveness of initiatives for managing demand. A strikingly wide variety of initiatives were mentioned

  7. Resolving the infection process reveals striking differences in the contribution of environment, genetics and phylogeny to host-parasite interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duneau, David; Luijckx, Pepijn; Ben-Ami, Frida; Laforsch, Christian; Ebert, Dieter

    2011-02-22

    Infection processes consist of a sequence of steps, each critical for the interaction between host and parasite. Studies of host-parasite interactions rarely take into account the fact that different steps might be influenced by different factors and might, therefore, make different contributions to shaping coevolution. We designed a new method using the Daphnia magna - Pasteuria ramosa system, one of the rare examples where coevolution has been documented, in order to resolve the steps of the infection and analyse the factors that influence each of them. Using the transparent Daphnia hosts and fluorescently-labelled spores of the bacterium P. ramosa, we identified a sequence of infection steps: encounter between parasite and host; activation of parasite dormant spores; attachment of spores to the host; and parasite proliferation inside the host. The chances of encounter had been shown to depend on host genotype and environment. We tested the role of genetic and environmental factors in the newly described activation and attachment steps. Hosts of different genotypes, gender and species were all able to activate endospores of all parasite clones tested in different environments; suggesting that the activation cue is phylogenetically conserved. We next established that parasite attachment occurs onto the host oesophagus independently of host species, gender and environmental conditions. In contrast to spore activation, attachment depended strongly on the combination of host and parasite genotypes. Our results show that different steps are influenced by different factors. Host-type-independent spore activation suggests that this step can be ruled out as a major factor in Daphnia-Pasteuria coevolution. On the other hand, we show that the attachment step is crucial for the pronounced genetic specificities of this system. We suggest that this one step can explain host population structure and could be a key force behind coevolutionary cycles. We discuss how different

  8. Resolving the infection process reveals striking differences in the contribution of environment, genetics and phylogeny to host-parasite interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laforsch Christian

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection processes consist of a sequence of steps, each critical for the interaction between host and parasite. Studies of host-parasite interactions rarely take into account the fact that different steps might be influenced by different factors and might, therefore, make different contributions to shaping coevolution. We designed a new method using the Daphnia magna - Pasteuria ramosa system, one of the rare examples where coevolution has been documented, in order to resolve the steps of the infection and analyse the factors that influence each of them. Results Using the transparent Daphnia hosts and fluorescently-labelled spores of the bacterium P. ramosa, we identified a sequence of infection steps: encounter between parasite and host; activation of parasite dormant spores; attachment of spores to the host; and parasite proliferation inside the host. The chances of encounter had been shown to depend on host genotype and environment. We tested the role of genetic and environmental factors in the newly described activation and attachment steps. Hosts of different genotypes, gender and species were all able to activate endospores of all parasite clones tested in different environments; suggesting that the activation cue is phylogenetically conserved. We next established that parasite attachment occurs onto the host oesophagus independently of host species, gender and environmental conditions. In contrast to spore activation, attachment depended strongly on the combination of host and parasite genotypes. Conclusions Our results show that different steps are influenced by different factors. Host-type-independent spore activation suggests that this step can be ruled out as a major factor in Daphnia-Pasteuria coevolution. On the other hand, we show that the attachment step is crucial for the pronounced genetic specificities of this system. We suggest that this one step can explain host population structure and could be a key

  9. Lightning Often Strikes Twice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Contrary to popular misconception, lightning often strikes the same place twice. Certain conditions are just ripe for a bolt of electricity to come zapping down; and a lightning strike is powerful enough to do a lot of damage wherever it hits. NASA created the Accurate Location of Lightning Strikes technology to determine the ground strike point of lightning and prevent electrical damage in the immediate vicinity of the Space Shuttle launch pads at Kennedy Space Center. The area surrounding the launch pads is enmeshed in a network of electrical wires and components, and electronic equipment is highly susceptible to lightning strike damage. The accurate knowledge of the striking point is important so that crews can determine which equipment or system needs to be retested following a strike. Accurate to within a few yards, this technology can locate a lightning strike in the perimeter of the launch pad. As an added bonus, the engineers, then knowing where the lightning struck, can adjust the variables that may be attracting the lightning, to create a zone that will be less susceptible to future strikes.

  10. Differences between Belgian and Brazilian group A Streptococcus epidemiologic landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Robert Smeesters

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group A Streptococcus (GAS clinical and molecular epidemiology varies with location and time. These differences are not or are poorly understood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We prospectively studied the epidemiology of GAS infections among children in outpatient hospital clinics in Brussels (Belgium and Brasília (Brazil. Clinical questionnaires were filled out and microbiological sampling was performed. GAS isolates were emm-typed according to the Center for Disease Control protocol. emm pattern was predicted for each isolate. 334 GAS isolates were recovered from 706 children. Skin infections were frequent in Brasília (48% of the GAS infections, whereas pharyngitis were predominant (88% in Brussels. The mean age of children with GAS pharyngitis in Brussels was lower than in Brasília (65/92 months, p<0.001. emm-typing revealed striking differences between Brazilian and Belgian GAS isolates. While 20 distinct emm-types were identified among 200 Belgian isolates, 48 were found among 128 Brazilian isolates. Belgian isolates belong mainly to emm pattern A-C (55% and E (42.5% while emm pattern E (51.5% and D (36% were predominant in Brasília. In Brasília, emm pattern D isolates were recovered from 18.5% of the pharyngitis, although this emm pattern is supposed to have a skin tropism. By contrast, A-C pattern isolates were infrequently recovered in a region where rheumatic fever is still highly prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiologic features of GAS from a pediatric population were very different in an industrialised country and a low incomes region, not only in term of clinical presentation, but also in terms of genetic diversity and distribution of emm patterns. These differences should be taken into account for designing treatment guidelines and vaccine strategies.

  11. Organization and evolution of hsp70 clusters strikingly differ in two species of Stratiomyidae (Diptera inhabiting thermally contrasting environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettencourt Brian R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously, we described the heat shock response in dipteran species belonging to the family Stratiomyidae that develop in thermally and chemically contrasting habitats including highly aggressive ones. Although all species studied exhibit high constitutive levels of Hsp70 accompanied by exceptionally high thermotolerance, we also detected characteristic interspecies differences in heat shock protein (Hsp expression and survival after severe heat shock. Here, we analyzed genomic libraries from two Stratiomyidae species from thermally and chemically contrasting habitats and determined the structure and organization of their hsp70 clusters. Results Although the genomes of both species contain similar numbers of hsp70 genes, the spatial distribution of hsp70 copies differs characteristically. In a population of the eurytopic species Stratiomys singularior, which exists in thermally variable and chemically aggressive (hypersaline conditions, the hsp70 copies form a tight cluster with approximately equal intergenic distances. In contrast, in a population of the stenotopic Oxycera pardalina that dwells in a stable cold spring, we did not find hsp70 copies in tandem orientation. In this species, the distance between individual hsp70 copies in the genome is very large, if they are linked at all. In O. pardalina we detected the hsp68 gene located next to a hsp70 copy in tandem orientation. Although the hsp70 coding sequences of S. singularior are highly homogenized via conversion, the structure and general arrangement of the hsp70 clusters are highly polymorphic, including gross aberrations, various deletions in intergenic regions, and insertion of incomplete Mariner transposons in close vicinity to the 3'-UTRs. Conclusions The hsp70 gene families in S. singularior and O. pardalina evolved quite differently from one another. We demonstrated clear evidence of homogenizing gene conversion in the S. singularior hsp70 genes, which form

  12. Kinematics and hydrodynamics analysis of swimming anurans reveals striking inter-specific differences in the mechanism for producing thrust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Christopher T

    2010-02-15

    This study aimed to compare the swimming kinematics and hydrodynamics within and among aquatic and semi-aquatic/terrestrial frogs. High-speed video was used to obtain kinematics of the leg joints and feet as animals swam freely across their natural range of speeds. Blade element analysis was then used to model the hydrodynamic thrust as a function of foot kinematics. Two purely aquatic frogs, Xenopus laevis and Hymenochirus boettgeri, were compared with two semi-aquatic/terrestrial frogs, Rana pipiens and Bufo americanus. The four species performed similarly. Among swimming strokes, peak stroke velocity ranged from 3.3+/-1.1 to 20.9+/-2.5, from 6.8+/-2.1 to 28.6+/-3.7 and from 4.9+/-0.5 to 20.9+/-4.1 body lengths per second (BL s(-1)) in X. laevis, H. boettgeri and R. pipiens, respectively (means +/- s.d.; N=4 frogs for each). B. americanus swam much more slowly at 3.1+/-0.3 to 7.0+/-2.0 BL s(-1) (N=3 frogs). Time-varying joint kinematics patterns were superficially similar among species. Because foot kinematics result from the cumulative motion of joints proximal to the feet, small differences in time-varying joint kinematics among species resulted in species-specific foot kinematics (therefore hydrodynamics) patterns. To obtain a simple measure of the hydrodynamically useful motion of the foot, this study uses 'effective foot velocity' (EFV): a measure of the component of foot velocity along the axis of swimming. Resolving EFV into translational and rotational components allows predictions of species-specific propulsion strategies. Additionally, a novel kinematic analysis is presented here that enables the partitioning of translational and rotational foot velocity into velocity components contributed by extension at each individual limb joint. Data from the kinematics analysis show that R. pipiens and B. americanus translated their feet faster than their body moved forward, resulting in positive net translational EFV. Conversely, translational EFV was slower than

  13. Options with Extreme Strikes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjiong Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this short paper, we study the asymptotics for the price of call options for very large strikes and put options for very small strikes. The stock price is assumed to follow the Black–Scholes models. We analyze European, Asian, American, Parisian and perpetual options and conclude that the tail asymptotics for these option types fall into four scenarios.

  14. Along-Strike Differences of the Main Himalayan Thrust and Deformation within the Indian Crust: Insights from Seismicity and Seismic Velocities in Bhutan and its Foreland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, T.; Singer, J.; Hetényi, G.; Kissling, E. H.; Clinton, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    The seismicity of Bhutan is characterized by the apparent lack of great earthquakes and a significantly lower activity compared to most other parts of the Himalayan arc. To better understand the underlying mechanisms of this anomalously low activity and to relate it with possible along-strike differences in the structure of the orogenic belt, a temporary network with up to 38 broadband seismometers was installed in Bhutan between January 2013 and November 2014. In this work we present a catalog of local and regional earthquakes detected and located with the GANSSER network complemented by regional stations in India, Bangladesh, and China. State-of-the-art data analysis and earthquake location procedures were applied to derive a high-precision earthquake catalog of Bhutan and surrounding regions. Focal mechanisms from regional moment tensor inversions and first-motion polarities complement the earthquake catalog. In the vicinity of the Shumar-Kuru Chu Spur in East Bhutan, seismicity forms a moderately dipping structure at about 12 km depth, which we associate with the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). North of 27.6°N the dip of the structure steepens, which can be interpreted as a ramp along the MHT. In West Bhutan seismicity occurs at depths of 20 to 40 km and receiver function images indicate that seismicity occurs in the underthrusting Indian crust rather than on the MHT. The highest seismic activity is clustered along the Goalpara Lineament, a dextral NE-SW striking shear zone in southwest Bhutan, which appears to connect to the western edge of the Shillong Plateau in the foreland. Focal depths indicate that this shear zone is located at depths of 20-30 km and therefore in the underthrusting Indian crust. Preliminary results of a 3D local earthquake tomography show substantial differences in the uppermost crust between east and west Bhutan. Consistent with our receiver function images, the results also indicate a thinning of the crustal root towards eastern Bhutan.

  15. Redshift differences of galaxies in nearby groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    It is reported that galaxies in nearby groups exhibit anomalous nonvelocity redshifts. In this discussion, (1) four classes of nearby groups of galacies are analyzed, and no significant nonvelocity redshift effect is found; and (2) it is pointed out that transverse velocities (i.e., velocities transverse to the line of sight of the main galaxy, or center of mass) contribute components to the redshift measurements of companion galaxies. The redshifts of galaxies in nearby groups of appreciable angular size are considerably affected by these velocity projection effects. The transverse velocity contributions average out in rich, isotropic groups, and also in large samples of irregular groups of low membership, as in the four classes referred to in (1), but can introduce apparent discrepancies in small samples (as studied by Arp) of nearby groups of low membership.

  16. Structure of a second crystal form of Bence-Jones protein Loc: Strikingly different domain associations in two crystal forms of a single protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, M.; Ainsworth, C.; Xu, Z.B.; Carperos, W.; Olsen, K.; Solomon, A.; Stevens, F.J.; Chang, C.H.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have determined the structure of the immunoglobulin light-chain dimer Loc in a second crystal form that was grown from distilled water. The crystal structure was determined to 2.8-angstrom resolution; the R factor is 0.22. The two variable domains are related by local 2-fold axes and form an antigen binding pocket. The variable domain-variable domain interaction observed in this crystal form differs from the one exhibited by the protein when crystallized from ammonium sulfate in which the two variable domains formed a protrusion. The structure attained in the distilled water crystals is similar to, but not identical with, the one observed for the Mcg light-chain dimer in crystals grown from ammonium sulfate. Thus, two strikingly different structures were attained by this multisubunit protein in crystals grown under two different, commonly used, crystallization techniques. The quaternary interactions exhibited by the protein in the two crystal forms are sufficiently different to suggest fundamentally different interpretations of the structural basis for the function of this protein. This observation may have general implications regarding the use of single crystallographic determinations for detailed identification of structural and functional relationships. On the other hand, proteins whose structures can be altered by manipulation of crystallization conditions may provide useful systems for study of fundamental structural chemistry

  17. Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

  18. Striking differences in glucose and lactate levels between brain extracellular fluid and plasma in conscious human subjects: effects of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi-Saab, Walid M; Maggs, David G; Jones, Tim; Jacob, Ralph; Srihari, Vinod; Thompson, James; Kerr, David; Leone, Paola; Krystal, John H; Spencer, Dennis D; During, Matthew J; Sherwin, Robert S

    2002-03-01

    Brain levels of glucose and lactate in the extracellular fluid (ECF), which reflects the environment to which neurons are exposed, have never been studied in humans under conditions of varying glycemia. The authors used intracerebral microdialysis in conscious human subjects undergoing electrophysiologic evaluation for medically intractable epilepsy and measured ECF levels of glucose and lactate under basal conditions and during a hyperglycemia-hypoglycemia clamp study. Only measurements from nonepileptogenic areas were included. Under basal conditions, the authors found the metabolic milieu in the brain to be strikingly different from that in the circulation. In contrast to plasma, lactate levels in brain ECF were threefold higher than glucose. Results from complementary studies in rats were consistent with the human data. During the hyperglycemia-hypoglycemia clamp study the relationship between plasma and brain ECF levels of glucose remained similar, but changes in brain ECF glucose lagged approximately 30 minutes behind changes in plasma. The data demonstrate that the brain is exposed to substantially lower levels of glucose and higher levels of lactate than those in plasma; moreover, the brain appears to be a site of significant anaerobic glycolysis, raising the possibility that glucose-derived lactate is an important fuel for the brain.

  19. Effect of Acute Alterations in Foot Strike Patterns during Running on Sagittal Plane Lower Limb Kinematics and Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Kevin A; Lynn, Scott K; Mikelson, Lisa R; Noffal, Guillermo J; Judelson, Daniel A

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of foot strike patterns and converted foot strike patterns on lower limb kinematics and kinetics at the hip, knee, and ankle during a shod condition. Subjects were videotaped with a high speed camera while running a 5km at self-selected pace on a treadmill to determine natural foot strike pattern on day one. Preferred forefoot group (PFFG, n = 10) and preferred rear foot group (PRFG, n = 11) subjects were identified through slow motion video playback (n = 21, age = 22.8±2.2 years, mass = 73.1±14.5 kg, height 1.75 ± 0.10 m). On day two, subjects performed five overground run trials in both their natural and unnatural strike patterns while motion and force data were collected. Data were collected over two days so that foot strike videos could be analyzed for group placement purposes. Several 2 (Foot Strike Pattern -forefoot strike [FFS], rearfoot strike [RFS]) x 2 (Group - PFFG, PRFG) mixed model ANOVAs (p strike patterns during shod running can create alterations in certain lower limb kinematic and kinetic measures that are not dependent on the preferred foot strike pattern of the individual. This research also challenges the contention that the impact transient spike in the vertical ground reaction force curve is only present during a rear foot strike type of running gait. Key pointsFootstrike pattern changes should be individually considered and implemented based on individual histories/abilitiesForefoot strike patterns increase external dorsiflexion momentsRearfoot strike patterns increase external knee flexion momentsRecreational shod runners are able to mimic habitual mechanics of different foot strike patterns.

  20. Algab õppus "Saber Strike"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Täna algab Eestis, Lätis ja Leedus Ameerika Ühendriikide Euroopa väekoondise õppus "Saber Strike", mille eesmärk on maaväeüksuste koostöö harjutamine. Õppusest võtab osa üle 2000 kaitseväelase Baltimaadest, USAst, Ühendkuningriigist, Taanist, Norrast, Soomest ja Saksamaalt. Eestist osaleb õppusel ligi 400 kaitseväelast

  1. The Poster Strikes Back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Hjorth

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses fundamental issues in relation to placing graphic design in locations such as museums of decorative arts and living history museums. Based on my Ph.D. project on British commercial posters of the interwar years and approached from a combined perspective of museology, semiotics...... and design history, I argue that the poster during the interwar years inhabits a new active position. By exploiting and challenging the commercial and aesthetic paradox out of which it arose, the poster ‘strikes back' as a museologized, exhibited object. Rather than being absorbed into the city swirl...

  2. Global strike hypersonic weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Mark J.

    2017-11-01

    Beginning in the 1940's, the United States has pursued the development of hypersonic technologies, enabling atmospheric flight in excess of five times the speed of sound. Hypersonic flight has application to a range of military and civilian applications, including commercial transport, space access, and various weapons and sensing platforms. A number of flight tests of hypersonic vehicles have been conducted by countries around the world, including the United States, Russia, and China, that could lead the way to future hypersonic global strike weapon systems. These weapons would be especially effective at penetrating conventional defenses, and could pose a significant risk to national security.

  3. Within-Group Differences in Sexual Orientation and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Roger L.; Reynolds, Amy L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine within-group differences among self-identified sexual orientation and identity groups. To understand these within-group differences, 2 types of analysis were conducted. First, a sample of 2,732 participants completed the Sexual Orientation and Identity Scale. Cluster analyses were used to identify 3…

  4. Foot-strike pattern and performance in a marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmer, Mark E; Liu, Xue-Cheng; Roberts, Kyle G; Valadao, Jason M

    2013-05-01

    To determine prevalence of heel strike in a midsize city marathon, if there is an association between foot-strike classification and race performance, and if there is an association between foot-strike classification and gender. Foot-strike classification (forefoot, midfoot, heel, or split strike), gender, and rank (position in race) were recorded at the 8.1-km mark for 2112 runners at the 2011 Milwaukee Lakefront Marathon. 1991 runners were classified by foot-strike pattern, revealing a heel-strike prevalence of 93.67% (n = 1865). A significant difference between foot-strike classification and performance was found using a Kruskal-Wallis test (P strike. No significant difference between foot-strike classification and gender was found using a Fisher exact test. In addition, subgroup analysis of the 126 non-heel strikers found no significant difference between shoe wear and performance using a Kruskal-Wallis test. The high prevalence of heel striking observed in this study reflects the foot-strike pattern of most mid-distance to long-distance runners and, more important, may predict their injury profile based on the biomechanics of a heel-strike running pattern. This knowledge can help clinicians appropriately diagnose, manage, and train modifications of injured runners.

  5. Striking difference between alkane and olefin metathesis using the well-defined precursor [≡Si-O-WMe5]: Indirect evidence in favour of a bifunctional catalyst W alkylidene-hydride

    KAUST Repository

    Riache, Nassima; Callens, Emmanuel; Espinas, Jeff; Dé ry, Alexandre; Samantaray, Manoja; Dey, Raju; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Metathesis of linear alkanes catalyzed by the well-defined precursor (≡Si-O-WMe5) affords a wide distribution of linear alkanes from methane up to triacontane. Olefin metathesis using the same catalyst and under the same reaction conditions gives a very striking different distribution of linear α-olefins and internal olefins. This shows that olefin and alkane metathesis processes occur via very different pathways.

  6. Quantifying and Interpreting Group Differences in Interest Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Fouad, Nadya A.; Rounds, James; Hubert, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Research on group differences in interests has often focused on structural hypotheses and mean-score differences in Holland's (1997) theory, with comparatively little research on basic interest measures. Group differences in interest profiles were examined using statistical methods for matching individuals with occupations, the C-index, Q…

  7. The analysis of multivariate group differences using common principal components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bechger, T.M.; Blanca, M.J.; Maris, G.

    2014-01-01

    Although it is simple to determine whether multivariate group differences are statistically significant or not, such differences are often difficult to interpret. This article is about common principal components analysis as a tool for the exploratory investigation of multivariate group differences

  8. Efficacy of Varicocele Repair in Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Mohammad; Hadi, Mazaher; Abbasi, Homayoun; Nourimahdavi, Kia; Khalighinejad, Pooyan; Mirsattari, Arash; Hadi, Ali

    2015-08-01

    To compare semen parameters and spouse pregnancy rates after varicocele repair in 2 age groups. Mean changes in spermatozoa concentration, motility, and morphology after varicocele repair in 83 patients were compared between patients aged 30 years or younger (group 1) and those older than 30 years (group 2). Spouse pregnancy rates were compared between the 2 age groups. The mean sperm concentration increased significantly in both groups (P group 1 and from 47.2% to 53.2% in group 2 one year after varicocele repair. The increase in motility was statistically significant for both groups (P groups (P = .01). The percentage of sperm with abnormal morphology decreased significantly in both groups 12 months postoperatively (from 62.7% to 59.6% in group 1 and from 61.3% to 58% in group 2; P = .03). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the improvement in sperm morphology between the 2 groups (P >.05). The pregnancy rates in the patients' spouses were 51.1% and 44.7% in groups 1 and 2, respectively. This difference was not statistically significant (P = .9). There was no statistically significant difference in semen parameter improvement and spouse pregnancy rates after varicocelectomy in the 2 age groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Different groups, different motives: identity motives underlying changes in identification with novel groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrook, Matt; Vignoles, Vivian L

    2012-08-01

    Social identification is known to have wide-reaching implications, but theorists disagree about the underlying motives. Integrating motivated identity construction theory with recent social identity research, the authors predicted which motives underlie identification with two types of groups: interpersonal networks and social categories. In a five-wave longitudinal study of social identity processes among 268 new university residents, multilevel analyses showed that motives involved in identity enactment processes--self-esteem, belonging, and efficacy--significantly predicted within-person changes in identification with flatmates (an interpersonal network group), whereas motives involved in identity definition processes--meaning, self-esteem, and distinctiveness--significantly predicted within-person changes in identification with halls of residence (an abstract social category). This article discusses implications for research into identity motives and social identity.

  10. What Is a Group? Young Children’s Perceptions of Different Types of Groups and Group Entitativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plötner, Maria; Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-01-01

    To date, developmental research on groups has focused mainly on in-group biases and intergroup relations. However, little is known about children’s general understanding of social groups and their perceptions of different forms of group. In this study, 5- to 6-year-old children were asked to evaluate prototypes of four key types of groups: an intimacy group (friends), a task group (people who are collaborating), a social category (people who look alike), and a loose association (people who coincidently meet at a tram stop). In line with previous work with adults, the vast majority of children perceived the intimacy group, task group, and social category, but not the loose association, to possess entitativity, that is, to be a ‘real group.’ In addition, children evaluated group member properties, social relations, and social obligations differently in each type of group, demonstrating that young children are able to distinguish between different types of in-group relations. The origins of the general group typology used by adults thus appear early in development. These findings contribute to our knowledge about children's intuitive understanding of groups and group members' behavior. PMID:27010484

  11. The Flynn effect, group differences, and g loadings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Nijenhuis, J.

    2013-01-01

    Flynn effect gains are predominantly driven by environmental factors. Might these factors also be responsible for group differences in intelligence? Group differences in intelligence have been clearly shown to strongly correlate with g loadings. The empirical studies on whether the pattern of Flynn

  12. Executive function in different groups of university students

    OpenAIRE

    Prosen, Simona; Smrtnik Vitulić, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The present study analyses the executive function (EF) skills of 369 students of primary education (n = 116), preschool education (n = 72), social pedagogy (n = 54), and biology (n = 128). It explores how the different groups of students use selected executive skills and whether there are any differences between the groups in this respect. Eleven EF skills were self-assessed using the Executive Skills Questionnaire for Students (Dawson & Guare, 2010). All of the groups of students experien...

  13. STUDIES ON HUMAN FALLOPIAN TUBAL EPITHELIUM IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS The “fallopian tubes” (oviducts or uterine tubes are long paired flexuous reproductive organ which transports ova, spermatozoa, zygotes, the pre-implantation morulae and blastocyst. It has major role during reproductive period, but it remains as if vestigial organ before puberty and after menopause. Due to increasing rate of tubal block and infertility, oviducts and their structures gaining importance and have become a subject of research in present days particularly epithelium. The aim of the study is to ascertain any histological difference of tubal epithelium in different age groups and the research work could be utilized for investigation and management of infertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seven samples of each group i.e., prereproductive, reproductive & postmenopausal were collected from fresh unembalmed human cadavers received in the department of Anatomy, FAA Medical College, Barpeta, Assam. The slides were prepared using the standard laboratory procedure. Under low and high power objectives the type of cells were observed and epithelial height was measured in the different segments. Stress was given for any significant difference of epithelial height between the different age groups. RESULTS Study revealed that among the groups within the same segment, epithelial height was recorded highest (33.57µm in reproductive group as against the lowest (22.91µm in post-menopausal group. Epithelial structures of the prereproductive and reproductive groups were significantly differed (p<0.01 from the postmenopausal group. CONCLUSIONS From the findings of the present study it can be concluded that: 1. In all the groups fallopian tubal epithelium is of simple columnar type and contains three types of cells. Cells are ciliated, secretory & peg (intercalary cells. 2. In all the groups same type of increasing trend of epithelial height from intramural segment to ampullary segment was recorded. 3. In intergroup comparison of

  14. ORGANIZATIONAL WORK GROUPS AND WORK TEAMS – APPROACHES AND DIFFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca ZOLTAN

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Work groups and work teams represents basic structures of traditional and modern organizations, and during the time they have been intensively researched. However, managers often do not always consider the fundamental differences between groups and teams, which will lead to unrealistic goals and results below expectations. Thus, in the present paper we propose a review of the main researching approaches on groups and teams (psychosocial, socio-technical, and behavioral approach, in the third part of the paper being detailed the fundamental differences between groups and teams in the light of these approaches.

  15. Big Five personality group differences across academic majors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Anna

    characterisations are more than humoristic elements in TV shows; are there real, measurable personality differences among groups of academics? One way to study this is to look at students in different academic majors and examine whether they differ on the group level in broad personality traits. During the past...... decades, studies have regularly explored associations between enrolment in specific academic majors and scores on the Big Five personality traits; Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. The present review examines this research systematically, summarises group...... group differences in the Big Five personality traits were generally found in the included studies. None of the included studies reported effect sizes, though, so the magnitude of the obtained differences was not estimated. Consequently, effect sizes were calculated using means and standard deviations...

  16. Peculiarities of roentgenosemiotics of ulcerous disease in different age groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshenko, Yu.T.; Reztsova, N.S.

    1984-01-01

    Roentgenomorphological and functional signs of stomach and duodenum ulcer disease was studied in different age groups in 382 patients that were subjected to a complex of clinico-laboratory and roentgenological examinations. It is concluded that in different age groups ulcerous disease of stomach and duodenum is characterized by a considerable peculiarities of roengenomorphologic characters. In some age groups disclosed are characteristic symptomocomplexes of roentgenofunctional shifts typical of ulcers of different localisations. It is shown that there is a regular relation between the type of functional shifts, age of a patient and location of ulcers

  17. Rearfoot striking runners are more economical than midfoot strikers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogueta-Alday, Ana; Rodríguez-Marroyo, José Antonio; García-López, Juan

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to analyze the influence of foot strike pattern on running economy and biomechanical characteristics in subelite runners with a similar performance level. Twenty subelite long-distance runners participated and were divided into two groups according to their foot strike pattern: rearfoot (RF, n = 10) and midfoot (MF, n = 10) strikers. Anthropometric characteristics were measured (height, body mass, body mass index, skinfolds, circumferences, and lengths); physiological (VO2max, anaerobic threshold, and running economy) and biomechanical characteristics (contact and flight times, step rate, and step length) were registered during both incremental and submaximal tests on a treadmill. There were no significant intergroup differences in anthropometrics, VO2max, or anaerobic threshold measures. RF strikers were 5.4%, 9.3%, and 5.0% more economical than MF at submaximal speeds (11, 13, and 15 km·h respectively, although the difference was not significant at 15 km·h, P = 0.07). Step rate and step length were not different between groups, but RF showed longer contact time (P Foot strike pattern affected both contact and flight times, which may explain the differences in running economy.

  18. Group differences in the heritability of items and test scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Johnson, W.

    2009-01-01

    It is important to understand potential sources of group differences in the heritability of intelligence test scores. On the basis of a basic item response model we argue that heritabilities which are based on dichotomous item scores normally do not generalize from one sample to the next. If groups

  19. Big Five personality group differences across academic majors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Anna

    2016-01-01

    During the past decades, a number of studies have explored personality group differences in the Big Five personality traits among students in different academic majors. To date, though, this research has not been reviewed systematically. This was the aim of the present review. A systematic...... literature search identified twelve eligible studies yielding an aggregated sample size of 13,389. Eleven studies reported significant group differences in one or multiple Big Five personality traits. Consistent findings across studies were that students of arts/humanities and psychology scored high...... on Conscientiousness. Effect sizes were calculated to estimate the magnitude of the personality group differences. These effect sizes were consistent across studies comparing similar pairs of academic majors. For all Big Five personality traits medium effect sizes were found frequently, and for Openness even large...

  20. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE HUMAN OVARY IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Saloi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Ovarian pathology can manifest in various ways, e.g. menstrual abnormalities, cystic disease, infertility, benign and malignant tumours of the ovary, etc. Ovarian cancer is one of the leading cancers in Indian women. The aim was undertaken to observe the age-related changes in the human ovary and to study if there is any difference between the right and left ovaries with respect to length, breadth, thickness and weight and compare it with the established findings of previous workers, which will help the clinicians to adopt appropriate diagnosis and treatment of the various clinical conditions associated with the ovaries. MATERIALS AND METHODS A study on human ovary was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati. The morphological characteristics of 42 pairs of normal human ovaries of different age groups were studied (14 pairs in each age group. The ovaries were divided into three groups, viz. Group A or pre-reproductive, Group B or reproductive and Group C or postmenopausal. The results were statistically analysed and ‘t’ test was done to find out the significant difference of mean value. RESULTS The morphology of the ovary including the length, breadth, thickness and weight of the three groups were measured and the findings were compared with each other and also with the findings of studies done by previous workers. CONCLUSION The study showed that there were certain differences in the morphology of ovary in the three groups. The study also revealed that the weight of the right ovary was more than the left ovary in all the three age groups. The results were statistically analysed and compared with the findings of previous workers.

  1. Identifying Differences in Cultural Behavior in Online Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Michelle L.; Engel, David W.; Bell, Eric B.; Mcgrath, Liam R.

    2012-07-23

    We have developed methods to identify online communities, or groups, using a combination of structural information variables and content information variables from weblog posts and their comments to build a characteristic footprint for groups. We have worked with both explicitly connected groups and 'abstract' groups, in which the connection between individuals is in interest (as determined by content based features) and behavior (metadata based features) as opposed to explicit links. We find that these variables do a good job at identifying groups, placing members within a group, and helping determine the appropriate granularity for group boundaries. The group footprint can then be used to identify differences between the online groups. In the work described here we are interested in determining how an individual's online behavior is influenced by their membership in more than one group. For example, individuals belong to a certain culture; they may belong as well to a demographic group, and other 'chosen' groups such as churches or clubs. There is a plethora of evidence surrounding the culturally sensitive adoption, use, and behavior on the Internet. In this work we begin to investigate how culturally defined internet behaviors may influence behaviors of subgroups. We do this through a series of experiments in which we analyze the interaction between culturally defined behaviors and the behaviors of the subgroups. Our goal is to (a) identify if our features can capture cultural distinctions in internet use, and (b) determine what kinds of interaction there are between levels and types of groups.

  2. Facial anthropometric differences among gender, ethnicity, and age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Ziqing; Landsittel, Douglas; Benson, Stacey; Roberge, Raymond; Shaffer, Ronald

    2010-06-01

    The impact of race/ethnicity upon facial anthropometric data in the US workforce, on the development of personal protective equipment, has not been investigated to any significant degree. The proliferation of minority populations in the US workforce has increased the need to investigate differences in facial dimensions among these workers. The objective of this study was to determine the face shape and size differences among race and age groups from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health survey of 3997 US civilian workers. Survey participants were divided into two gender groups, four racial/ethnic groups, and three age groups. Measurements of height, weight, neck circumference, and 18 facial dimensions were collected using traditional anthropometric techniques. A multivariate analysis of the data was performed using Principal Component Analysis. An exploratory analysis to determine the effect of different demographic factors had on anthropometric features was assessed via a linear model. The 21 anthropometric measurements, body mass index, and the first and second principal component scores were dependent variables, while gender, ethnicity, age, occupation, weight, and height served as independent variables. Gender significantly contributes to size for 19 of 24 dependent variables. African-Americans have statistically shorter, wider, and shallower noses than Caucasians. Hispanic workers have 14 facial features that are significantly larger than Caucasians, while their nose protrusion, height, and head length are significantly shorter. The other ethnic group was composed primarily of Asian subjects and has statistically different dimensions from Caucasians for 16 anthropometric values. Nineteen anthropometric values for subjects at least 45 years of age are statistically different from those measured for subjects between 18 and 29 years of age. Workers employed in manufacturing, fire fighting, healthcare, law enforcement, and other occupational

  3. Different groups, different threats: a multi-threat approach to the experience of stereotype threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jenessa R

    2011-04-01

    Two studies demonstrated that different negatively stereotyped groups are at risk for distinct forms of stereotype threats. The Multi-Threat Framework articulates six distinct stereotype threats and the unique constellations of variables (e.g., group identification, stereotype endorsement) that elicit each stereotype threat. Previous research suggests that different negatively stereotyped groups systematically vary across these stereotype threat elicitors; a pilot study confirms these differences. Across two studies, groups that tend to elicit low stereotype endorsement (religion, race/ethnicity, congenital blindness) were less likely to report experiencing self-as-source stereotype threats (stereotype threats requiring stereotype endorsement) and groups that tend to elicit low group identification (mental illness, obesity, blindness later in life) were less likely to report experiencing group-as-target stereotype threats (stereotype threats requiring group identification). This research suggests that traditional models may overlook the experiences of stereotype threats within some groups and that interventions tailored to address differences between stereotype threats will be most effective.

  4. Grouping and crowding affect target appearance over different spatial scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Sayim

    Full Text Available Crowding is the impairment of peripheral target perception by nearby flankers. A number of recent studies have shown that crowding shares many features with grouping. Here, we investigate whether effects of crowding and grouping on target perception are related by asking whether they operate over the same spatial scale. A target letter T had two sets of flanking Ts of varying orientations. The first set was presented close to the target, yielding strong crowding. The second set was either close enough to cause crowding on their own or too far to cause crowding on their own. The Ts of the second set had the same orientation that either matched the target's orientation (Grouped condition or not (Ungrouped condition. In Experiment 1, the Grouped flankers reduced crowding independently of their distance from the target, suggesting that grouping operated over larger distances than crowding. In Experiments 2 and 3 we found that grouping did not affect sensitivity but produced a strong bias to report that the grouped orientation was present at the target location whether or not it was. Finally, we investigated whether this bias was a response or perceptual bias, rejecting the former in favor of a perceptual grouping explanation. We suggest that the effect of grouping is to assimilate the target to the identity of surrounding flankers when they are all the same, and that this shape assimilation effect differs in its spatial scale from the integration effect of crowding.

  5. Research collaboration in groups and networks: differences across academic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyvik, Svein; Reymert, Ingvild

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give a macro-picture of collaboration in research groups and networks across all academic fields in Norwegian research universities, and to examine the relative importance of membership in groups and networks for individual publication output. To our knowledge, this is a new approach, which may provide valuable information on collaborative patterns in a particular national system, but of clear relevance to other national university systems. At the system level, conducting research in groups and networks are equally important, but there are large differences between academic fields. The research group is clearly most important in the field of medicine and health, while undertaking research in an international network is most important in the natural sciences. Membership in a research group and active participation in international networks are likely to enhance publication productivity and the quality of research.

  6. Renormalization Group in different fields of theoretical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, D.V.

    1992-02-01

    A very simple and general approach to the symmetry that is widely known as a Renormalization Group symmetry is presented. It essentially uses a functional formulation of group transformations that can be considered as a generalization of self-similarity transformations well known in mathematical physics since last century. This generalized Functional Self-Similarity symmetry and corresponding group transformations are discussed first for a number of simple physical problems taken from diverse fields of classical physics as well as for QED. Then we formulate the Renorm-Group Method as a regular procedure that essentially improves the approximate solutions near the singularity. After that we discuss relations between different formulations of Renormalization Group as they appear in various parts of a modern theoretical physics. Finally we present several topics of RGM application in modern QFT. (author)

  7. Variation in foot strike patterns during running among habitually barefoot populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, Kevin G; Dingwall, Heather L; Wunderlich, Roshna E; Richmond, Brian G

    2013-01-01

    Endurance running may have a long evolutionary history in the hominin clade but it was not until very recently that humans ran wearing shoes. Research on modern habitually unshod runners has suggested that they utilize a different biomechanical strategy than runners who wear shoes, namely that barefoot runners typically use a forefoot strike in order to avoid generating the high impact forces that would be experienced if they were to strike the ground with their heels first. This finding suggests that our habitually unshod ancestors may have run in a similar way. However, this research was conducted on a single population and we know little about variation in running form among habitually barefoot people, including the effects of running speed, which has been shown to affect strike patterns in shod runners. Here, we present the results of our investigation into the selection of running foot strike patterns among another modern habitually unshod group, the Daasanach of northern Kenya. Data were collected from 38 consenting adults as they ran along a trackway with a plantar pressure pad placed midway along its length. Subjects ran at self-selected endurance running and sprinting speeds. Our data support the hypothesis that a forefoot strike reduces the magnitude of impact loading, but the majority of subjects instead used a rearfoot strike at endurance running speeds. Their percentages of midfoot and forefoot strikes increased significantly with speed. These results indicate that not all habitually barefoot people prefer running with a forefoot strike, and suggest that other factors such as running speed, training level, substrate mechanical properties, running distance, and running frequency, influence the selection of foot strike patterns.

  8. Variation in foot strike patterns during running among habitually barefoot populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin G Hatala

    Full Text Available Endurance running may have a long evolutionary history in the hominin clade but it was not until very recently that humans ran wearing shoes. Research on modern habitually unshod runners has suggested that they utilize a different biomechanical strategy than runners who wear shoes, namely that barefoot runners typically use a forefoot strike in order to avoid generating the high impact forces that would be experienced if they were to strike the ground with their heels first. This finding suggests that our habitually unshod ancestors may have run in a similar way. However, this research was conducted on a single population and we know little about variation in running form among habitually barefoot people, including the effects of running speed, which has been shown to affect strike patterns in shod runners. Here, we present the results of our investigation into the selection of running foot strike patterns among another modern habitually unshod group, the Daasanach of northern Kenya. Data were collected from 38 consenting adults as they ran along a trackway with a plantar pressure pad placed midway along its length. Subjects ran at self-selected endurance running and sprinting speeds. Our data support the hypothesis that a forefoot strike reduces the magnitude of impact loading, but the majority of subjects instead used a rearfoot strike at endurance running speeds. Their percentages of midfoot and forefoot strikes increased significantly with speed. These results indicate that not all habitually barefoot people prefer running with a forefoot strike, and suggest that other factors such as running speed, training level, substrate mechanical properties, running distance, and running frequency, influence the selection of foot strike patterns.

  9. Two distinct groups within the Bacillus subtilis group display significantly different spore heat resistance properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, Erwin M; Zwietering, Marcel H; Kuipers, Oscar P; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J

    2015-02-01

    The survival of bacterial spores after heat treatment and the subsequent germination and outgrowth in a food product can lead to spoilage of the food product and economical losses. Prediction of time-temperature conditions that lead to sufficient inactivation requires access to detailed spore thermal inactivation kinetics of relevant model strains. In this study, the thermal inactivation kinetics of spores of fourteen strains belonging to the Bacillus subtilis group were determined in detail, using both batch heating in capillary tubes and continuous flow heating in a micro heater. The inactivation data were fitted using a log linear model. Based on the spore heat resistance data, two distinct groups (p subtilis group could be identified. One group of strains had spores with an average D120 °C of 0.33 s, while the spores of the other group displayed significantly higher heat resistances, with an average D120 °C of 45.7 s. When comparing spore inactivation data obtained using batch- and continuous flow heating, the z-values were significantly different, hence extrapolation from one system to the other was not justified. This study clearly shows that heat resistances of spores from different strains in the B. subtilis group can vary greatly. Strains can be separated into two groups, to which different spore heat inactivation kinetics apply. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Strikingly different penetrance of LHON in two Chinese families with primary mutation G11778A is independent of mtDNA haplogroup background and secondary mutation G13708A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huawei; Jia Xiaoyun; Ji Yanli; Kong Qingpeng; Zhang Qingjiong; Yao Yonggang; Zhang Yaping

    2008-01-01

    The penetrance of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) in families with primary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations is very complex. Matrilineal and nuclear genetic background, as well as environmental factors, have been reported to be involved in different affected pedigrees. Here we describe two large Chinese families that show a striking difference in the penetrance of LHON, in which 53.3% and 15.0% of members were affected (P < 0.02), respectively. Analysis of the complete mtDNA genome of the two families revealed the presence of the primary mutation G11778A and several other variants suggesting the same haplogroup status G2a. The family with higher penetrance contained a previously described secondary mutation G13708A, which presents a polymorphism in normal Chinese samples and does not affect in vivo mitochondrial oxidative metabolism as described in a previous study. Evolutionary analysis failed to indicate any putatively pathogenic mutation that cosegregated with G11778A in these two pedigrees. Our results suggest that the variable penetrance of LHON in the two Chinese families is independent of both their mtDNA haplotype background and a secondary mutation G13708A. As a result, it is likely that unknown nuclear gene involvement and/or other factors contribute to the strikingly different penetrance of LHON

  11. Strikingly different penetrance of LHON in two Chinese families with primary mutation G11778A is independent of mtDNA haplogroup background and secondary mutation G13708A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Huawei [Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223 (China)]|[Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-resource, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Jia Xiaoyun; Ji Yanli [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510060 (China); Kong Qingpeng [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650223 (China); Zhang Qingjiong [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510060 (China)], E-mail: qingjiongzhang@yahoo.com; Yao Yonggang [Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223 (China)]|[State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650223 (China)], E-mail: ygyaozh@yahoo.com; Zhang Yaping [Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-resource, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China)]|[State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650223 (China)

    2008-08-25

    The penetrance of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) in families with primary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations is very complex. Matrilineal and nuclear genetic background, as well as environmental factors, have been reported to be involved in different affected pedigrees. Here we describe two large Chinese families that show a striking difference in the penetrance of LHON, in which 53.3% and 15.0% of members were affected (P < 0.02), respectively. Analysis of the complete mtDNA genome of the two families revealed the presence of the primary mutation G11778A and several other variants suggesting the same haplogroup status G2a. The family with higher penetrance contained a previously described secondary mutation G13708A, which presents a polymorphism in normal Chinese samples and does not affect in vivo mitochondrial oxidative metabolism as described in a previous study. Evolutionary analysis failed to indicate any putatively pathogenic mutation that cosegregated with G11778A in these two pedigrees. Our results suggest that the variable penetrance of LHON in the two Chinese families is independent of both their mtDNA haplotype background and a secondary mutation G13708A. As a result, it is likely that unknown nuclear gene involvement and/or other factors contribute to the strikingly different penetrance of LHON.

  12. Strike Laws, Not Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Heather-Jane

    2000-01-01

    In 1999, a coalition of child advocacy groups, the Canadian Foundation for Children, Youth, and the Law, challenged Section 43 of Canada's criminal code, which permits "reasonable force" in disciplining children. The heavily debated issue turns on judges' varied interpretations. A court decision is expected by year's end. (MLH)

  13. A Binomial Test of Group Differences with Correlated Outcome Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Levin, Joel R.; Ferron, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Building on previous arguments for why educational researchers should not provide effect-size estimates in the face of statistically nonsignificant outcomes (Robinson & Levin, 1997), Onwuegbuzie and Levin (2005) proposed a 3-step statistical approach for assessing group differences when multiple outcome measures are individually analyzed…

  14. Cultural Differences in Alliance Formation during Group Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John W.; Pak, Jenny H.; Goodyear, Rodney K.

    Study tested whether general differences between Asian and European-American cultures (interdependent vs. independent orientation, levels of self-disclosure and conflict in social relationships) would have an effect on the supervisory process of counseling trainees. On the context of weekly group supervision, first-year counseling trainees were…

  15. Meat Consumption Patterns among Different Income Groups in Imo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research examined meat consumption patterns among different income groups in Imo State, Nigeria. A combination of purposive and simple random sampling techniques was used to select the markets and 200 respondents. The result of cross price elasticity of meat and fish showed that they were substitute with cross ...

  16. Different Approaches to Cross-Lingual Focus Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Quintanilha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Focus groups are a useful data-generation strategy in qualitative health research when it is important to understand how social contexts shape participants’ health. However, when cross-lingual focus groups are conducted across cultural groups, and in languages in which the researcher is not fluent, questions regarding the usefulness and rigor of the findings can be raised. In this article, we will discuss three different approaches to cross-lingual focus groups used in a community-based participatory research project with pregnant and postpartum, African immigrant women in Alberta, Canada. In two approaches, we moderated focus groups in women’s mother tongue with the support of real-time interpreters, but in the first approach, audio recording was used and in the second approach, audio recording was not used. In the third approach, a bilingual moderator facilitated focus groups in women’s mother tongue, with transcription and translation of audio-recorded data upon completion of data generation. We will describe each approach in detail, including their advantages and challenges, and recontextualize what we have learned within the known literature. We expect the lessons learned in this project may assist others in planning and implementing cross-lingual focus groups, especially in the context of community-based participatory research.

  17. Continental United States Hurricane Strikes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Continental U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster is our most popular poster which is updated annually. The poster includes all hurricanes that affected the U.S. since...

  18. [Perception of sweet and salty flavors in different population groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Carnero, J; de la Montaña Miguélez, J; Míguez Bernárdez, M

    2002-01-01

    The flavour perceived by humans when eating varies depending on age, gender, habits, emotional status, etc. The present study reflects the changes in the perception of sweet and salt flavours among different population groups depending on age, with an assessment, for each flavour, of the threshold concentration for the detection of these flavours. Triangular discrimination sensorial tests were performed in three groups, with thirty members in each, classified to represent young, adult and elderly age groups. With regard to sweet flavours, the groups of young people and adults distinguished the different sample at 0.1% of sugar for 95% and 99% significance levels, whereas the elderly required the concentration to reach 1% at both levels before they could distinguish the sugar solution from water. In the case of salt flavours, young people are able to detect the different sample at the lowest concentration level, for both levels of significance. Adults significantly distinguished the sample containing 0.05% of salt, at the 95% significance level, whereas the elderly needed a concentration of 0.1% for both levels of significance. Age-dependent variations in response were observed. As age increases, greater concentrations are required in order to distinguish the salt or sweet solutions from the samples containing only water.

  19. The COG Strikes Back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The Clausewitzian Center of Gravity (COG) concept is central in western military strategic thinking and serves as a core concept in military planning. However, several interpretations of the concept exist, which contributes to theoretical as well as practical confusion. Moreover, the concept...... contributes to the discussion by combining the COG concept with strategic theory, hereby addressing many of the raised critique points. The article presents three COG-Strategy schools, centered on different/competing interpretations of the Clausewitzian Center of Gravity (CoG) concept as well as different...

  20. The effect of hand dominance on martial arts strikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Silva, Jansen Henrique; Marzullo, Ana Carolina de Miranda; Bolander, Richard P; Bir, Cynthia A

    2012-08-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare dominant and non-dominant martial arts palm strikes under different circumstances that usually happen during martial arts and combative sports applications. Seven highly experienced (10±5 years) right hand dominant Kung Fu practitioners performed strikes with both hands, stances with left or right lead legs, and with the possibility or not of stepping towards the target (moving stance). Peak force was greater for the dominant hand strikes (1593.76±703.45 N vs. 1042.28±374.16 N; p<.001), whereas no difference was found in accuracy between the hands (p=.141). Additionally, peak force was greater for the strikes with moving stance (1448.75±686.01 N vs. 1201.80±547.98 N; p=.002) and left lead leg stance (1378.06±705.48 N vs. 1269.96±547.08 N). Furthermore, the difference in peak force between strikes with moving and stationary stances was statistically significant only for the strikes performed with a left lead leg stance (p=.007). Hand speed was higher for the dominant hand strikes (5.82±1.08 m/s vs. 5.24±0.78 m/s; p=.001) and for the strikes with moving stance (5.79±1.01 m/s vs. 5.29±0.90 m/s; p<.001). The difference in hand speed between right and left hand strikes was only significant for strikes with moving stance. In summary, our results suggest that the stronger palm strike for a right-handed practitioner is a right hand strike on a left lead leg stance moving towards the target. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in children in different age groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guven, Selcuk; Frattini, Antonio; Onal, Bulent

    2013-01-01

    no standardisation in the age categorisation of children, there are inconsistencies among the age subgroups in the current literature. To achieve a standard terminology and thus a common language, the World Health Organization age classification criterion was used in the present study. Based on the findings, we can...... suggest that PCNL can be applied safely and effectively in children in different age groups. OBJECTIVES: •  To present the overall results of paediatric percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) compared with adults. •  To present the indications, complications and outcomes of patients treated...... in the participating centres in the PCNL Global Study, as categorised in different age groups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: •  The Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) Study was conducted from November 2007 to December 2009, and included 96 centres and >5800 patients. •  All children aged ≤14 years...

  2. Different Erythromycin Resistance Mechanisms in Group C and Group G Streptococci

    OpenAIRE

    Kataja, Janne; Seppälä, Helena; Skurnik, Mikael; Sarkkinen, Hannu; Huovinen, Pentti

    1998-01-01

    Different mechanisms of erythromycin resistance predominate in group C and G streptococcus (GCS and GGS, respectively) isolates collected from 1992 to 1995 in Finland. Of the 21 erythromycin-resistant GCS and 32 erythromycin-resistant GGS isolates, 95% had the mefA or mefE drug efflux gene and 94% had the ermTR methylase gene, respectively.

  3. Daughters on Hunger Strike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Wan-lih Chang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the embattled interactions between mothers and daughters in the stories by Edna O’Brien, Mary Lavin, Éilís Ní Dhuibhne and Mary Leland. This conflict involves an underlying distorted intimacy between women within a patriarchal Irish context. The daughter in the stories seeks to rebel against the ‘choking love’ of the tyrannical ‘patriarchal mother’ through a symbolic anorexia, in which the daughter rejects the mother’s food or the food associated with the mother. The mother is also shown to feel ambivalent and resistant towards the daughter’s attempt to break from her dependence upon the mother. The conflict and resistance between mothers and daughters in these stories can be evaluated against the framework of the patriarchal context in which women as mothers are silenced and made powerless in front of the ‘Father,’ and therefore, this resistance can be interpreted as a reaction to this patriarchal ideology and its framework in Irish society. The lost bond between older and younger women needs to be rediscovered and restored by a realisation of patriarchal ideology and furthermore, identification with female subjectivity. This identification between women seems to act as a source of redemption for women of different generations, which results in both liberating themselves from the patriarchal dogma.

  4. Survival Rate of Limb Replantation in Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatebe, Masahiro; Urata, Shiro; Tanaka, Kenji; Kurahashi, Toshikazu; Takeda, Shinsuke; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2017-08-01

    Revascularization of damaged limbs/digits is technically feasible, but indications for surgical replantation remain controversial. The authors analyzed the survival rate of upper limb amputations and the associated factors in different age groups. They grouped 371 limb/digit amputees (average age, 44 years; range, 2-85 years) treated in their hospital during the past 10 years into three groups based on age (young, ≤ 15 years, n  = 12; adult, 16-64 years, n  = 302; elderly, ≥ 65 years, n  = 57) and analyzed their injury type (extent of injury and stump status), operation method, presence of medical complications (Charlson comorbidity index), and survival rate. There were 168 replantations, and the overall replantation survival rate was 93%. The Charlson comorbidity index of the replantation patients was 0 in 124 cases; 1 in 32; 2 in 9; and 3 in 3, but it did not show any significant difference in survival rate after replantation. Eight elderly patients (14%) did not opt for replantation. Younger patients tended to undergo replantation, but they had lower success rates due to their severe injury status. The results of this study show that the survival rate of replantation in elderly patients is equal to that in adults. Stump evaluation is important for survival, but the presence of medical complications is not associated with the overall survival rate.

  5. Latent cluster analysis of ALS phenotypes identifies prognostically differing groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeban Ganesalingam

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a degenerative disease predominantly affecting motor neurons and manifesting as several different phenotypes. Whether these phenotypes correspond to different underlying disease processes is unknown. We used latent cluster analysis to identify groupings of clinical variables in an objective and unbiased way to improve phenotyping for clinical and research purposes.Latent class cluster analysis was applied to a large database consisting of 1467 records of people with ALS, using discrete variables which can be readily determined at the first clinic appointment. The model was tested for clinical relevance by survival analysis of the phenotypic groupings using the Kaplan-Meier method.The best model generated five distinct phenotypic classes that strongly predicted survival (p<0.0001. Eight variables were used for the latent class analysis, but a good estimate of the classification could be obtained using just two variables: site of first symptoms (bulbar or limb and time from symptom onset to diagnosis (p<0.00001.The five phenotypic classes identified using latent cluster analysis can predict prognosis. They could be used to stratify patients recruited into clinical trials and generating more homogeneous disease groups for genetic, proteomic and risk factor research.

  6. Vitamin D Levels in Different Severity Groups of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinlade, Kehinde Sola; Olaniyan, Oyejide Afolabi; Lasebikan, Victor Olufolahan; Rahamon, Sheu Kadiri

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) continues to be associated with schizophrenia, but there is the dearth of information on the relationship between the severity of schizophrenia and plasma levels of vitamin D. This study, therefore, determined the plasma levels of vitamin D in different severity groups of schizophrenia. Plasma level of vitamin D was determined in 60 patients with schizophrenia and 30 apparently healthy individuals who served as controls. Patients with schizophrenia were classified into mildly ill, moderately ill, markedly ill, and severely ill groups using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The mean level of vitamin D was significantly lower in patients with schizophrenia compared with the controls. Similarly, there was a significant association between VDD and schizophrenia. The mean plasma levels of vitamin D were not significantly different when the mildly, moderately, markedly, and severely ill groups were compared with one another and there was no significant correlation between vitamin D level and PANSS scores. Furthermore, patients on atypical antipsychotics had an insignificantly lower level of vitamin D compared with the patients on typical antipsychotics. It could be concluded from this study that patients with schizophrenia have low plasma vitamin D level which does not appear to be associated with the severity of schizophrenia and type of antipsychotics. Therefore, regular screening for vitamin D status of patients with schizophrenia is suggested in order to allow for the institution of appropriate clinical intervention when necessary.

  7. Vitamin D Levels in Different Severity Groups of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Sola Akinlade

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundVitamin D deficiency (VDD continues to be associated with schizophrenia, but there is the dearth of information on the relationship between the severity of schizophrenia and plasma levels of vitamin D. This study, therefore, determined the plasma levels of vitamin D in different severity groups of schizophrenia.Materials and methodsPlasma level of vitamin D was determined in 60 patients with schizophrenia and 30 apparently healthy individuals who served as controls. Patients with schizophrenia were classified into mildly ill, moderately ill, markedly ill, and severely ill groups using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS.ResultsThe mean level of vitamin D was significantly lower in patients with schizophrenia compared with the controls. Similarly, there was a significant association between VDD and schizophrenia. The mean plasma levels of vitamin D were not significantly different when the mildly, moderately, markedly, and severely ill groups were compared with one another and there was no significant correlation between vitamin D level and PANSS scores. Furthermore, patients on atypical antipsychotics had an insignificantly lower level of vitamin D compared with the patients on typical antipsychotics.ConclusionIt could be concluded from this study that patients with schizophrenia have low plasma vitamin D level which does not appear to be associated with the severity of schizophrenia and type of antipsychotics. Therefore, regular screening for vitamin D status of patients with schizophrenia is suggested in order to allow for the institution of appropriate clinical intervention when necessary.

  8. Tornadoes Strike Northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A series of tornadoes ripped through the Upper Midwest region of the United States in the evening of June 7, 2007. At least five different tornadoes touched down in Wisconsin, according to the Associated Press, one of which tore through the Bear Paw Resort in northern Wisconsin. Despite dropping as much as fifteen centimeters (six inches) of rain in some places and baseball-size hail in others, authorities were reporting no deaths attributable to the storm system, and only a smattering of injuries, but considerable property damage in some areas. When the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite observed the area on June 9, 2007, the track torn through the woods by one of the tornadoes stands out quite clearly. This photo-like image uses data collected by MODIS in the normal human vision range to give a familiar natural-looking appearance. The landscape is largely a checkerboard of farms, towns, roads, and cities. The pale land is predominantly farmland where crops have not fully grown in yet. Dark blue shows the winding path of rivers and lakes dotting the landscape. The large blue lake on the east (right) side of the image is Lake Michigan. Towns and cities, including the city of Green Bay, are gray. To the north side, farmland gives way to dark green as land use shifts from agriculture to the Menominee Indian Reservation and Nicolet National Forest. The diagonal slash through the dark green forested land shows the tornado track. Bare land was revealed where the tornado tore down trees or stripped vegetation off the branches. The high-resolution image provided above is at MODIS' full spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response System provides this image at additional resolutions.

  9. Impact of lightning strikes on hospital functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortelmans, Luc J M; Van Springel, Gert L J; Van Boxstael, Sam; Herrijgers, Jan; Hoflacks, Stefaan

    2009-01-01

    Two regional hospitals were struck by lightning during a one-month period. The first hospital, which had 236 beds, suffered a direct strike to the building. This resulted in a direct spread of the power peak and temporary failure of the standard power supply. The principle problems, after restoring standard power supply, were with the fire alarm system and peripheral network connections in the digital radiology systems. No direct impact on the hardware could be found. Restarting the servers resolved all problems. The second hospital, which had 436 beds, had a lightning strike on the premises and mainly experienced problems due to induction. All affected installations had a cable connection from outside in one way or another. The power supplies never were endangered. The main problem was the failure of different communication systems (telephone, radio, intercom, fire alarm system). Also, the electronic entrance control went out. During the days after the lightening strike, multiple software problems became apparent, as well as failures of the network connections controlling the technical support systems. There are very few ways to prepare for induction problems. The use of fiber-optic networks can limit damage. To the knowledge of the authors, these are the first cases of lightning striking hospitals in medical literature.

  10. Estimation of Tooth Size Discrepancies among Different Malocclusion Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasija, Narender; Bala, Madhu; Goyal, Virender

    2014-05-01

    Regards and Tribute: Late Dr Narender Hasija was a mentor and visionary in the light of knowledge and experience. We pay our regards with deepest gratitude to the departed soul to rest in peace. Bolton's ratios help in estimating overbite, overjet relationships, the effects of contemplated extractions on posterior occlusion, incisor relationships and identification of occlusal misfit produced by tooth size discrepancies. To determine any difference in tooth size discrepancy in anterior as well as overall ratio in different malocclusions and comparison with Bolton's study. After measuring the teeth on all 100 patients, Bolton's analysis was performed. Results were compared with Bolton's means and standard deviations. The results were also subjected to statistical analysis. Results show that the mean and standard deviations of ideal occlusion cases are comparable with those Bolton but, when the mean and standard deviation of malocclusion groups are compared with those of Bolton, the values of standard deviation are higher, though the mean is comparable. How to cite this article: Hasija N, Bala M, Goyal V. Estimation of Tooth Size Discrepancies among Different Malocclusion Groups. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):82-85.

  11. Forward to the Past: Strikes and Striking as Dialogue by other ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, from the colonial period to the present, the employment of strikes and protests by nationalists, Nigerian workers and civil society groups has been established as one of the potent means of conveying viewpoints, positions as well as the demand for equality, fairness, social justice and reforms. It has been used as ...

  12. [Physicians' strikes--ethical considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Shimon; Schwarzfuchs, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Strikes in general represent a solution based on a form of coercion. Historically, the striker caused direct damage to his employer, who was responsible for the perceived unfair treatment of the employee. In the case of strikes in the public sector, the employer is generally not harmed, but innocent citizens suffer in order to pressure the government agencies, a questionable practice from an ethical viewpoint. Physicians' strikes have more serious ethical problems. They cause suffering and death to innocent citizens. They violate the ethical codes to which physicians have committed themselves as professionals, and they seriously impair the trust of the public in physicians. Better and more ethical ways to provide fair compensation for physicians must be employed, perhaps like those used for judges and members of the IDF.

  13. Foot strike pattern in children during shod-unshod running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre Román, Pedro Ángel; Balboa, Fernando Redondo; Pinillos, Felipe García

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the foot strike patterns (FSPs) and neutral support (no INV/EVE and no foot rotation) in children, as well as to determine the influence of shod/unshod conditions and sex. A total of 713 children, aged 6 to 16 years, participated in this study (Age=10.28±2.71years, body mass index [BMI]=19.70±3.91kg/m 2 , 302 girls and 411 boys). A sagittal and frontal-plane video (240Hz) was recorded using a high-speed camcorder, to record the following variables: rearfoot strike (RFS), midfoot strike (MFS), forefoot strike (FFS), inversion/eversion (INV/EVE) and foot rotation on initial contact. RFS prevalence was similar between boys and girls in both shod and unshod conditions. In the unshod condition there was a significant reduction (p<0.001) of RFS prevalence both in boys (shod condition=83.95% vs. 62.65% unshod condition) and in girls (shod condition=87.85% vs. 62.70% unshod condition). No significant differences were found in INV/EVE and foot rotation between sex groups. In the unshod condition there was a significant increase (p<0.001) of neutral support (no INV/EVE) both in boys (shod condition=12.55% vs. 22.22% unshod condition) and in girls (shod condition=17.9% vs. 28.15% unshod condition). In addition, in the unshod condition there is a significant reduction (p<0.001) of neutral support (no foot rotation) both in boys (shod condition=21.55% vs. 11.10% unshod condition) and in girls (shod condition=21.05% vs. 11.95% unshod condition). In children, RFS prevalence is lower than adult's population. Additionally, barefoot running reduced the prevalence of RFS and INV/EVE, however increased foot rotation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Group cohesion in sports teams of different professional level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazha M. Devishvili

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Team sports are not only the most exciting sporting events. but also complex activities that make serious demands on players. The effectiveness of the team depends not only on the high level of gaming interaction. but also on the relationship between the players. The work is based on the material of sports teams and is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of group cohesion. As a basic model. the authors choose a 4-factor model that describes cohesion in sports teams. The paper also considered the phenomenon of the emergence of the aggregate subject in the process of joint activity. when the participants feel themselves as a whole and experience feelings of satisfaction and a surge of energy. Objective. The main objective of the work is to investigate the relationship between the level of team cohesion and subjective feelings of unity of its players. As additional variables in the study there is a sport (football and volleyball and team level (amateur and professional. To test the assumptions. two methods were used (the Sport Team Cohesion Questionnaire and the Subject Unity Index. which allow not only to determine the overall level of cohesion and unity. but also to reveal the structure of both phenomena. The study involved two men’s volleyball and two men’s football teams of different ages: 8-9 years (39 athletes; 12-14 years (24 athletes and 18-25 years (41 athletes. Design. For amateur groups represented by children’s and teenage sports teams. significant correlations between unity and unity were obtained (r = 0.618. p <0.01; r = 0.477. p <0.05. For professional teams. no significant correlations were found. Influence of the sport on cohesion is also different for amateur and professional teams. In the first case. the cohesion is higher for football players (U = 118. p <0.05. and in the second case for volleyball players (U = 124. p <0.05. Results. The findings indicate that the professional level of players affects group

  15. The usefulness of carotid sinus massage in different patient groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narasimhan Pradeep; Thomas, Alan; Mudd, Paul; Morris, Robert O; Masud, Tahir

    2003-11-01

    to determine the positive yield of carotid sinus massage in different patient groups: unexplained syncope, falls, dizziness and controls. observational study. teaching hospital. we studied consecutive patients over the age of 60 years referred to the 'falls clinic' with a history of unexplained syncope, unexplained falls and unexplained dizziness. We also studied asymptomatic control subjects recruited from a general practice register aged 60 years and over. All patients and control subjects underwent a full clinical assessment (comprehensive history and detailed clinical examination including supine and erect blood pressure measurements) and 12-lead electrocardiography. We performed carotid sinus massage in the supine position for 5 seconds separately on both sides followed by repeating the procedure in the upright positions using a motorised tilt table. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded using a cardiac monitor and digital plethysmography respectively. The test was considered positive if carotid sinus massage produced asystole with more than a 3 second pause (cardioinhibitory type of carotid sinus syndrome), or a fall in systolic blood pressure of more than 50 mmHg in the absence of significant cardioinhibition (vasodepressor type of carotid sinus syndrome) or where there was evidence of both vasodepressor and cardio-inhibition as above (mixed type). we studied 44 asymptomatic control subjects and 221 symptomatic patients (130 with unexplained syncope, 41 with unexplained falls and 50 with unexplained dizziness). In the overall symptomatic patient group, the positive yield (any type of carotid sinus syndrome) was 17.6% (95% CI = 12.7-22.5). The positive yield in men (26.3% (95% CI = 16.4-36.2)) was twice that in women (13.1% (95% CI = 7.6-18.6)) (P = 0.014). Overall any type of carotid sinus syndrome was present in 22.3% (n = 29) of the syncope group, 17.1% (n = 7) in the unexplained fallers group and 6% (n = 3) in the dizziness group. We also found that

  16. Miners' strike 1984-85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L; Salter, S [comps.

    1985-01-01

    References relating to the 1984-85 UK miners strike are listed under the following subject headings: events and analysis - a chronological record; short term effects - coal stocks and supplies, electricity supplies, financial, industrial and economic; the miners and their leadership; social aspects - civil liberties, media coverage, mining communities, picketing, policing, the future; pit closures. 240 references.

  17. Are interest groups different in the factors determining landscape preferences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bacher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, rural landscape in Europe has evolved from an agricultural by-product to an important public good. This development creates not only new challenges to farming practices, it also makes participation and public involvement an indispensable tool for sustainable landscape planning. This is especially true for many European mountain regions, where tourism represents an important source of income and conflicts between locals’ and tourists’ interests should be avoided. In our study, we analyze whether discrepancies in the perception of the Alpine landscape can be located between locals and tourists and, if these differences exist, in which aspects these two groups are differing. A model employing three general factors able to describe landscape preferences regardless of the personal background is suggested and validated by confirmatory factor analysis. Our major finding shows that an attractive landscape for tourists does not have to be contradictory to a landscape that supports a high living quality for locals. Compromises in landscape planning between locals’ and tourists’ requirements seem often not to be necessary as they, generally, do not differ in the way they experience and assess the landscape.

  18. Select injury-related variables are affected by stride length and foot strike style during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Elizabeth R; Derrick, Timothy R

    2015-09-01

    Some frontal plane and transverse plane variables have been associated with running injury, but it is not known if they differ with foot strike style or as stride length is shortened. To identify if step width, iliotibial band strain and strain rate, positive and negative free moment, pelvic drop, hip adduction, knee internal rotation, and rearfoot eversion differ between habitual rearfoot and habitual mid-/forefoot strikers when running with both a rearfoot strike (RFS) and a mid-/forefoot strike (FFS) at 3 stride lengths. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 42 healthy runners (21 habitual rearfoot, 21 habitual mid-/forefoot) ran overground at 3.35 m/s with both a RFS and a FFS at their preferred stride lengths and 5% and 10% shorter. Variables did not differ between habitual groups. Step width was 1.5 cm narrower for FFS, widening to 0.8 cm as stride length shortened. Iliotibial band strain and strain rate did not differ between foot strikes but decreased as stride length shortened (0.3% and 1.8%/s, respectively). Pelvic drop was reduced 0.7° for FFS compared with RFS, and both pelvic drop and hip adduction decreased as stride length shortened (0.8° and 1.5°, respectively). Peak knee internal rotation was not affected by foot strike or stride length. Peak rearfoot eversion was not different between foot strikes but decreased 0.6° as stride length shortened. Peak positive free moment (normalized to body weight [BW] and height [h]) was not affected by foot strike or stride length. Peak negative free moment was -0.0038 BW·m/h greater for FFS and decreased -0.0004 BW·m/h as stride length shortened. The small decreases in most variables as stride length shortened were likely associated with the concomitant wider step width. RFS had slightly greater pelvic drop, while FFS had slightly narrower step width and greater negative free moment. Shortening one's stride length may decrease or at least not increase propensity for running injuries based on the variables

  19. Gender differences of athletes in different classification groups of sports and sport disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Tarasevych

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify the percentage of masculine, androgynous and feminine figures in different classification groups, sports and sports disciplines, depending on the sport qualification. Material & Methods: the study was conducted on the basis of the Kharkiv State Academy of Physical Culture among students – representatives of different sports that have different athletic skills using analysis and compilation of scientific and methodical literature, survey, testing the procedure S. Bam "Masculinity / femininity "Processing and statistical data. Results: based on the testing method established S. Bam percentage masculine, androgynous and feminine personalities among athletes and athletes in various sports classification groups depending on their athletic skills. Conclusions: among sportsmen and women in a variety of classification groups of sports is not revealed feminine personalities; masculine identity, among both men and women predominate in sports; androgyny attitude towards men and women are different.

  20. Energetic differences between bacterioplankton trophic groups and coral reef resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDole Somera, Tracey; Bailey, Barbara; Barott, Katie; Grasis, Juris; Hatay, Mark; Hilton, Brett J; Hisakawa, Nao; Nosrat, Bahador; Nulton, James; Silveira, Cynthia B; Sullivan, Chris; Brainard, Russell E; Rohwer, Forest

    2016-04-27

    Coral reefs are among the most productive and diverse marine ecosystems on the Earth. They are also particularly sensitive to changing energetic requirements by different trophic levels. Microbialization specifically refers to the increase in the energetic metabolic demands of microbes relative to macrobes and is significantly correlated with increasing human influence on coral reefs. In this study, metabolic theory of ecology is used to quantify the relative contributions of two broad bacterioplankton groups, autotrophs and heterotrophs, to energy flux on 27 Pacific coral reef ecosystems experiencing human impact to varying degrees. The effective activation energy required for photosynthesis is lower than the average energy of activation for the biochemical reactions of the Krebs cycle, and changes in the proportional abundance of these two groups can greatly affect rates of energy and materials cycling. We show that reef-water communities with a higher proportional abundance of microbial autotrophs expend more metabolic energy per gram of microbial biomass. Increased energy and materials flux through fast energy channels (i.e. water-column associated microbial autotrophs) may dampen the detrimental effects of increased heterotrophic loads (e.g. coral disease) on coral reef systems experiencing anthropogenic disturbance. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Gender differences of athletes in different classification groups of sports and sport disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    Olena Tarasevych

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: to identify the percentage of masculine, androgynous and feminine figures in different classification groups, sports and sports disciplines, depending on the sport qualification. Material & Methods: the study was conducted on the basis of the Kharkiv State Academy of Physical Culture among students – representatives of different sports that have different athletic skills using analysis and compilation of scientific and methodical literature, survey, testing the procedure S. Bam "Masc...

  2. A Neuroanatomical Signature for Schizophrenia Across Different Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qiyong; Dazzan, Paola; Scarpazza, Cristina; Kasai, Kyioto; Hu, Xinyu; Marques, Tiago R; Iwashiro, Norichika; Huang, Xiaoqi; Murray, Robin M; Koike, Shinsuke; David, Anthony S; Yamasue, Hidenori; Lui, Su; Mechelli, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    Schizophrenia is a disabling clinical syndrome found across the world. While the incidence and clinical expression of this illness are strongly influenced by ethnic factors, it is unclear whether patients from different ethnicities show distinct brain deficits. In this multicentre study, we used structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging to investigate neuroanatomy in 126 patients with first episode schizophrenia who came from 4 ethnically distinct cohorts (White Caucasians, African-Caribbeans, Japanese, and Chinese). Each patient was individually matched with a healthy control of the same ethnicity, gender, and age (±1 year). We report a reduction in the gray matter volume of the right anterior insula in patients relative to controls (P ethnic groups despite differences in psychopathology, exposure to antipsychotic medication and image acquisition sequence. This finding provides evidence for a neuroanatomical signature of schizophrenia expressed above and beyond ethnic variations in incidence and clinical expression. In light of the existing literature, implicating the right anterior insula in bipolar disorder, depression, addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and anxiety, we speculate that the neuroanatomical deficit reported here may represent a transdiagnostic feature of Axis I disorders. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.

  3. Entrepreneurial networking differences: An ethnic in-group and out-group analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Urban

    2011-04-01

    Research purpose: The research question of this study has focused on what we can learn about entrepreneurial networking, considering that there is an under-explored and unarticulated set of networking principles and practices which have not been previously analysed in terms of a multiethnic country context. Motivation for the study: Often the lack of network use is reported as a feature of entrepreneurs, who have less opportunity to utilise formal social capital features. Social networks provided by extended family, community-based or organisational relationships are often theorised to supplement the effects of education, experience and financial capital. Research design, approach and method: Based on hypothesised differences in networking ties, network assistance and support relationships, a survey was used to collect data on quantitative measures. Descriptive statistics were calculated and differential tests were conducted to test the hypotheses. Main findings: Results indicate that entrepreneurial networking is largely independent on group composition. Generally at least some aspects of networking are generic and as a consequence, a more integrated view of networking can be adopted. Practical/managerial implications: The practical value of the present study points to several areas of interest to entrepreneurs, policy makers and educators, through demonstrating the multifaceted nature of entrepreneurial networks for different groups and their explanatory potential in understanding networking. Contribution/value-add: Despite the importance of entrepreneurial networking, little empirical or theoretical research has examined the dynamics of networking in a developing country context such as South Africa, which has lower than expected total entrepreneurship activity.

  4. Small Group Learning: Do Group Members' Implicit Theories of Ability Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Nadin; Wood, Robert E.; Minbashian, Amirali; Tabernero, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    We examined the impact of members' implicit theories of ability on group learning and the mediating role of several group process variables, such as goal-setting, effort attributions, and efficacy beliefs. Comparisons were between 15 groups with a strong incremental view on ability (high incremental theory groups), and 15 groups with a weak…

  5. Strikes in Serbia since 2000 to 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Novaković Nada

    2005-01-01

    In this article author deals with main characteristics of strikes in Serbia within the period 2000–2005. Analysis starts with thesis that strike is open class conflict within class divided society. Therefore strike is radical form of trade union struggle for workers rights. Main questions in the analysis were: on social structure as a background of strikes, on organizations and trade unions included in it, on effects of strikes in Serbia in the given period. Main thesis of the article is that...

  6. Expertise of using striking techniques for power stroke in badminton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qin

    2013-10-01

    Two striking techniques (fast swing and angled striking) were examined to see if they allowed effective use of string tension for the power stroke in badminton. 12 participants (4 novices, 4 recreational, and 4 expert badminton players) were recorded by a fast-speed camera while striking a shuttlecock with racquets of 8 different string tensions. The peak speed of the shuttlecock, the racquet angle and the shuttlecock angle were analyzed. The results showed that expert players succeeded in using both striking techniques to overcome the constraint of string tension and produce a consistently superior stroke. Failure to use either striking technique resulted in inferior performance that was constrained by string tension. Expertise in badminton allows the necessary motor adjustments based on the affordance perception of the string tension.

  7. Martial arts striking hand peak acceleration, accuracy and consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Marzullo, Ana Carolina De Miranda; Bolander, Richard P; Bir, Cynthia A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to investigate the possible trade-off between peak hand acceleration and accuracy and consistency of hand strikes performed by martial artists of different training experiences. Ten male martial artists with training experience ranging from one to nine years volunteered to participate in the experiment. Each participant performed 12 maximum effort goal-directed strikes. Hand acceleration during the strikes was obtained using a tri-axial accelerometer block. A pressure sensor matrix was used to determine the accuracy and consistency of the strikes. Accuracy was estimated by the radial distance between the centroid of each subject's 12 strikes and the target, whereas consistency was estimated by the square root of the 12 strikes mean squared distance from their centroid. We found that training experience was significantly correlated to hand peak acceleration prior to impact (r(2)=0.456, p =0.032) and accuracy (r(2)=0. 621, p=0.012). These correlations suggest that more experienced participants exhibited higher hand peak accelerations and at the same time were more accurate. Training experience, however, was not correlated to consistency (r(2)=0.085, p=0.413). Overall, our results suggest that martial arts training may lead practitioners to achieve higher striking hand accelerations with better accuracy and no change in striking consistency.

  8. Respecting the right to strike

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Since two years the representatives of the employers in the ILO, a tripartite multilateral body responsible for guaranteeing the correct application of an international labour code, try to weaken the global work regulations. On the occasion of the Global Day of Action for the right to strike at the invitation of the Geneva community of Union action (Communauté genevoise d’action syndicale) and the Swiss Trade Union Association (Union syndicale suisse) around noon on Wednesday 18th February some fifty staff representatives of international organizations gathered on the place des Nations in Geneva to reaffirm the importance of this fundamental right, too often flouted. A delegation of the CERN Staff Association was also present. In a short speech, the Staff Association said that, while being one of the fundamental human rights, to be efficient the right to strike must be used intelligently. It must be implemented taking into account the sensitivities of the professional environment and r...

  9. Seroepidemiological survey of tularemia among different groups in western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Saber; Gooya, Mohammad Mehdi; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Esfandiari, Behzad; Amiri, Fahimeh Bagheri; Behzadi, Manijeh Yousefi; Banafshi, Omid; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    The first human case of tularemia in Iran was reported in 1980 and there have been no subsequent reports of tularemia in the country. The aim of this study was to carry out a survey of tularemia among different groups in the province of Kurdistan in western Iran. The following information was collected by means of an in-house questionnaire: participant demographic characteristics, exposure to risks, and use of appropriate personal protective equipment and disinfectant in their occupation. A blood sample was collected from each participant. Sera were tested using an ELISA kit (Virion\\Serion) to detect specific IgG antibodies against Francisella tularensis. Of a total of 250 serum samples, 14.40% had anti-tularemia IgG antibodies. The highest seroprevalence was found in hunters (18%) and the lowest in health care workers (12%). Age had a significant positive association with tularemia seroprevalence (ptularemia in people exposed to foxes (hunting or eating the meat) (25%) was significantly higher than in others (8.65%) (p = 0.01). According to the findings of this study, it is highly recommended that physicians and health care workers are informed about bacteria circulating in this area. By sensitizing the health system, it is expected that some cases of the clinical disease will be reported in the near future. Similar studies in other parts of the country and on domestic and wild animals will clarify the epidemiology of tularemia in Iran. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Wavelet transform analysis of electromyography kung fu strikes data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Marzullo, Ana Carolina de Miranda

    2009-11-01

    In martial arts and contact sports strikes are performed at near maximum speeds. For that reason, electromyography (EMG) analysis of such movements is non-trivial. This paper has three main goals: firstly, to investigate the differences in the EMG activity of muscles during strikes performed with and without impacts; secondly, to assess the advantages of using Sum of Significant Power (SSP) values instead of root mean square (rms) values when analyzing EMG data; and lastly to introduce a new method of calculating median frequency values using wavelet transforms (WMDF). EMG data of the deltoid anterior (DA), triceps brachii (TB) and brachioradialis (BR) muscles were collected from eight Kung Fu practitioners during strikes performed with and without impacts. SSP results indicated significant higher muscle activity (p = 0.023) for the strikes with impact. WMDF results, on the other hand, indicated significant lower values (p = 0. 007) for the strikes with impact. SSP results presented higher sensitivity than rms to quantify important signal differences and, at the same time, presented lower inter-subject coefficient of variations. The result of increase in SSP values and decrease in WMDF may suggest better synchronization of motor units for the strikes with impact performed by the experienced Kung Fu practitioners. Key PointsThe results show higher muscle activity and lower electromyography median frequencies for strikes with impact compared to strikes without.SSP results presented higher sensitivity and lower inter-subject coefficient of variations than rms results.Kung Fu palm strikes with impact may present better motor units' synchronization than strikes without.

  11. Differences in Sleep Duration among Four Different Population Groups of Older Adults in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate sleep duration in four different population groups in a national probability sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE Wave 1. A national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3284 aged 50 years or older in South Africa was conducted in 2008. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, and self-reported sleep duration. Results indicate that White Africans compared to other population groups had the lowest mean sleep duration (7.88 h among men and 7.46 h among women. The prevalence of short sleep was the highest among both men and women among the White African (18.8% in men and 16.9% in women and Indian or Asian African population groups (14.5% in men and 17.1% in women, and lowest among both men and women in the Black African (7.0% in men and 6.5% in women and multi-ancestry population groups (15.6% in men and 12.7% in women. The prevalence of long sleep was among both men and women the highest in the Black African population group (56.2% in men and 58.5% in women, and the lowest in the White African population group (36.4% in men and 24.3% in women. In a Poisson regression model, adjusted for sociodemographics and chronic disease status, coming from the male and female White African population group was associated with short sleep. In addition, coming from the Indian or Asian African population group was associated with short sleep. No population group differences were found regarding long sleep prevalence. White Africans reported more short sleep duration than the other population groups, while there were no racial or ethnic differences in long sleep. White Africans are more likely to have sleep durations that are associated with negative health outcomes. An explanation of the high short sleep prevalence among White Africans may be related to their racial or ethnic minority status in South Africa.

  12. Differences in Sleep Duration among Four Different Population Groups of Older Adults in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl

    2017-05-09

    The study aims to investigate sleep duration in four different population groups in a national probability sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1. A national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3284 aged 50 years or older in South Africa was conducted in 2008. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, and self-reported sleep duration. Results indicate that White Africans compared to other population groups had the lowest mean sleep duration (7.88 h among men and 7.46 h among women). The prevalence of short sleep was the highest among both men and women among the White African (18.8% in men and 16.9% in women) and Indian or Asian African population groups (14.5% in men and 17.1% in women), and lowest among both men and women in the Black African (7.0% in men and 6.5% in women) and multi-ancestry population groups (15.6% in men and 12.7% in women). The prevalence of long sleep was among both men and women the highest in the Black African population group (56.2% in men and 58.5% in women), and the lowest in the White African population group (36.4% in men and 24.3% in women). In a Poisson regression model, adjusted for sociodemographics and chronic disease status, coming from the male and female White African population group was associated with short sleep. In addition, coming from the Indian or Asian African population group was associated with short sleep. No population group differences were found regarding long sleep prevalence. White Africans reported more short sleep duration than the other population groups, while there were no racial or ethnic differences in long sleep. White Africans are more likely to have sleep durations that are associated with negative health outcomes. An explanation of the high short sleep prevalence among White Africans may be related to their racial or ethnic minority status in South Africa.

  13. Characterization of Foot-Strike Patterns: Lack of an Association With Injuries or Performance in Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warr, Bradley J; Fellin, Rebecca E; Sauer, Shane G; Goss, Donald L; Frykman, Peter N; Seay, Joseph F

    2015-07-01

    Characterize the distribution of foot-strike (FS) patterns in U.S. Army Soldiers and determine if FS patterns are related to self-reported running injuries and performance. 341 male Soldiers from a U.S. Army Combined Arms Battalion ran at their training pace for 100 meters, and FSs were recorded in the sagittal plane. Participants also completed a survey related to training habits, injury history, and run times. Two researchers classified FS patterns as heel strike (HS) or nonheel strike (NHS, combination of midfoot strike and forefoot strike patterns). Two clinicians classified the musculoskeletal injuries as acute or overuse. The relationship of FS type with two-mile run time and running-related injury was analyzed (p ≤ 0.05). The Soldiers predominately landed with an HS (87%) and only 13% were characterized as NHS. Running-related injury was similar between HS (50.3%) and NHS (55.6%) patterns (p = 0.51). There was no difference (p = 0.14) between overuse injury rates between an HS pattern (31.8%) and an NHS pattern (31.0%). Two-mile run times were also similar, with both groups averaging 14:48 minutes. Soldiers were mostly heel strikers (87%) in this U.S. Army Combined Arms Battalion. Neither FS pattern was advantageous for increased performance or decreased incidence of running-related injury. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  14. Answering the Call: How Group Mentoring Makes a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altus, Jillian

    2015-01-01

    Mentoring programs answer the call for social justice for many students who are in success-inhibiting environments. This study employed a case study design to investigate the perceived benefits from a group mentoring program. Data was collected from pre- and post-assessments focus groups, and artifacts. Four participant benefits were revealed:…

  15. Integrating Gender and Group Differences into Bridging Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Serkan; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to integrate gender and group effect into bridging strategy in order to assess the effect of bridging analogy-based instruction on sophomore students' misconceptions in Newton's Third Law. Specifically, the authors developed and benefited from anchoring analogy diagnostic test to merge the effect of group and gender…

  16. Surgical outcomes in two different age groups with Focal Cortical Dysplasia type II: Any real difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Molina, Jorge Luis; Di Giacomo, Roberta; Mariani, Valeria; Deleo, Francesco; Cardinale, Francesco; Uscátegui-Daccarett, Angélica María; Lorenzana, Pablo; Tassi, Laura

    2017-05-01

    Focal Cortical Dysplasias (FCDs) represent a common architectural cortical disorder underlying drug-resistant focal epilepsy. So far, studies aimed at evaluating whether age at surgery is a factor influencing surgical outcome are lacking, so that data on the comparison between patients harboring Type II FCD operated at younger age and those operated at adult age are still scarce. We compared presurgical clinical features and surgical outcomes of patients with histopathologically diagnosed Type II FCD undergoing surgery at an earlier age with those operated after 20 years of age. We retrospectively analyzed 1660 consecutive patients operated at the "Claudio Munari" Epilepsy Surgery Centre. There were 289 patients (17.4%) with a neuropathological diagnosis of Type II FCD. We included two different groups of patients, the first one including patients operated on at less than 6years, the second sharing the same seizure onset age but with delayed surgery, carried out after the age of 20. Seizure characteristics and, neuropsychological and postoperative seizure outcomes were evaluated by study group. Forty patients underwent surgery before the age of 6 and 66 patients after the age of 20. Surgical outcome was favorable in the whole population (72.6% were classified in Engel's Class Ia+Ic), independently from age at surgery. In the children group, 32 patients were classified in Class I, including 30 (75%) children in classes Ia and Ic. In the adult group, 53 belonged to Class I of whom 47 (71%) were in classes Ia and Ic. The percentage of permanent complications, the surgical outcomes, and AED withdrawal did not significantly differ by study group. Our results indicate that there is no difference between the groups, suggesting that outcome depends mainly on the histological findings and not on timing of surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Negative impact of asthma on patients in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alith, Marcela Batan; Gazzotti, Mariana Rodrigues; Montealegre, Federico; Fish, James; Nascimento, Oliver Augusto; Jardim, José Roberto

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of asthma on patients in Brazil, by age group (12-17 years, 18-40 years, and ≥ 41 years). From a survey conducted in Latin America in 2011, we obtained data on 400 patients diagnosed with asthma and residing in one of four Brazilian state capitals (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba, and Salvador). The data had been collected using a standardized questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. For the patients who were minors, the parents/guardians had completed the questionnaire. The questions addressed asthma control, number of hospitalizations, number of emergency room visits, and school/work absenteeism, as well as the impact of asthma on the quality of life, sleep, and leisure. We stratified the data by the selected age groups. The proportions of patients who responded in the affirmative to the following questions were significantly higher in the 12- to 17-year age group than in the other two groups: "Have you had at least one episode of severe asthma that prevented you from playing/exercising in the last 12 months?" (p = 0.012); "Have you been absent from school/work in the last 12 months?" (p age group reported that normal physical exertion was very limiting (p = 0.010 vs. the other groups), whereas 14% of the patients in the ≥ 41-year age group described social activities as very limiting (p = 0.011 vs. the other groups). In this sample, asthma had a greater impact on the patients between 12 and 17 years of age, which might be attributable to poor treatment compliance.

  18. When the Ocean Strikes Back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebauer, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    The disaster scenario is one of the predominant settings we find unfold in the pop-cultural imagination, namely in films and novels. In recent years, as increased awareness of environmental issues affect the agendas of public debate, we also see local and increasingly global environmental disasters...... is evolving caused by an intelligent life form of the deep sea striking back at mankind. This article aims at discussing in what ways The Swarm uses elements and patterns of the pop-cultural disaster imagination, specifically the disaster and science fiction movie of the 1990s. Furthermore, it investigates...

  19. Differences in Some Kinematic Parameters between Two Qualitatively Different Groups of Pole Vaulters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudelj, Ines; Babić, Vesna; Milat, Sanja; Čavala, Marijana; Zagorac, Siniša; Katić, Ratko

    2015-07-01

    The basic aim of this research was to determine the differences of kinematic parameters in two qualitatively different groups of young pole vaulters. With this purpose, a research was conducted in which the video records from a competition were acquired. The sample of entities (N = 71) consisted of successful vaults of 30 pole vaulters, whose attempts were recorded at the European Junior Championship in Novi Sad, held on 23-26th July 2009. The examinees performed the vaults as a part of the elimination competition for the finals, and during the final part of the competition. The age of examinees was from 17 to 19 years, and the span of their best results was from 4.70 to 5.30 meters. The kinematic analysis was conducted according to the standards of APAS procedure (Ariel Performance Analysis System, USA), determining 25 kinematic variables necessary for further analysis. The entities (vaults) were divided into two categories (qualitative classes) based on the expert knowledge. Group 1 consisted of successful vaults up to 4.90 m (N = 46), while group 2 consisted of successful vaults whose height was more than 4.90 m (N = 25). The discrimination analysis determined the parameters differentiating the vaults of different quantitative classes. Also, it was confirmed that the result efficiency in pole vault was primarily determined by the variables defined by motor abilities, as well as the indicators determining the vault performance technique.

  20. Physicians' strikes and the competing bases of physicians' moral obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, D Robert

    2013-09-01

    Many authors have addressed the morality of physicians' strikes on the assumption that medical practice is morally different from other kinds of occupations. This article analyzes three prominent theoretical accounts that attempt to ground such special moral obligations for physicians--practice-based accounts, utilitarian accounts, and social contract accounts--and assesses their applicability to the problem of the morality of strikes. After critiquing these views, it offers a fourth view grounding special moral obligations in voluntary commitments, and explains why this is a preferable basis for understanding physicians' moral obligations in general and especially as pertaining to strikes.

  1. Features of Chronic Bronchitis in Different Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina L. Ignatova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung diseases are assuming greater relevance and importance today. Chronic bronchitis is a self-nosology, which may precede the development of COPD, the importance of which can hardly be overestimated. The main problem in this disease is caused by late diagnosis and treatment due to the delay by patients in seeking medical help. The aim of the work was to study the distribution and exposure to tobacco smoke, especially chronic bronchitis, depending on various factors, including age. Methods: We examined 1779 persons, including 855 men and 924 women. The mean age of the population was 35.83±8.3 years. We conducted surveys and spirometry. The outcome was assessed after a bronchodilation test was performed with salbutamol 400 mcg. We performed all statistical analysis using software package Statistica 10. Results: We identified chronic bronchitis in 9.2% of the cases in the group of younger individuals and in 14.9% of the cases in the group of older individuals, during the active detection of chronic bronchitis using questionnaires. The prevalence of cigarette smoking was slightly higher among the younger (39.5% than the older persons (33.6%; the frequency of smoking in a group of chronic bronchitis was reliably higher. Also, in this group, the performance spirometry reliably decreased. Conclusions: Outpatient survey is an effective method of identifying chronic bronchitis. Smoking is a major risk factor in the group of young respondents and the prevalence of smoking is inversely related to the education level of the respondents, regardless of age. As the decline in the Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV1 and FEV1/FVC is the main criterion diagnosis of COPD, it revealed significant declines in the FEV1 of the younger smoking individuals, which may help to predict the development of COPD in the older age group.

  2. Aorto-iliac occlusive disease in the different population groups ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. It has previously been accepted that atherosclerotic disease is uncommon among blacks worldv.ride; however, recent studies have increasingly reported atherosclerotic disease in this group. Study design. Prospective study of hospital patients with aorta-iliac occlusive disease presenting to the vascUlar ...

  3. Deriving Oral Assessment Scales across Different Tests and Rater Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to derive the criteria/dimensions underlying learners' second-language oral ability scores across three tests: an oral interview, a narration, and a read-aloud. A stimulus tape of 18 speech samples was presented to 3 native speaker rater groups for evaluation. Results indicate that researchers might need to reconsider…

  4. The contamination of the different groups of animals. Chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molotkov, D.V.; Galkovskaya, G.A.; Khmeleva, N.N.; Golubev, A.P.; Plenin, A.E.; Moroz, M.D.; Shevtsova, T.M.; Voronovich, A.I.; Matveenko, A.A.; Maksimova, S.L.; Blinov, V.V.; Litvinova, A.N.; Belyavskaya, V.I.; Maksimenkov, M.V.; Pikulik, M.M.; Drobenkov, S.M.; Vyazovich, Yu.A.; Gutkovskaya, G.F.; Parejko, O.A.; Tarletskaya, R.Yu.; Kozulin, A.V.; Rozhdestvenskaya, A.S.; Sidorovich, V.E.; Kozlo, P.G.; Kuchmel', S.V.; Dunin, V.F.; Emel'yanova, L.G.; Deryabina, T.G.; Fomenkov, A.N.

    1995-01-01

    By means of radiometric monitoring of fauna it was detected territorial and chronological features of radioactive contamination of various animal groups of water and terrestrial ecosystems such as seston, plankton, benthos, fishes, soil invertebrates, insects, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. 12 tabs., 13 figs

  5. Determine the Foot Strike Pattern Using Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzyy-Yuang Shiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From biomechanical point of view, strike pattern plays an important role in preventing potential injury risk in running. Traditionally, strike pattern determination was conducted by using 3D motion analysis system with cameras. However, the procedure is costly and not convenient. With the rapid development of technology, sensors have been applied in sport science field lately. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the algorithm that can identify landing strategies with a wearable sensor. Six healthy male participants were recruited to perform heel and forefoot strike strategies at 7, 10, and 13 km/h speeds. The kinematic data were collected by Vicon 3D motion analysis system and 2 inertial measurement units (IMU attached on the dorsal side of both shoes. The data of each foot strike were gathered for pitch angle and strike index analysis. Comparing the strike index from IMU with the pitch angle from Vicon system, our results showed that both signals exhibited highly correlated changes between different strike patterns in the sagittal plane (r=0.98. Based on the findings, the IMU sensors showed potential capabilities and could be extended beyond the context of sport science to other fields, including clinical applications.

  6. Women, transition and strikes in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Novaković, Nada G.

    2014-01-01

    The author, in a sociological way, describes and analyzes the concepts of transition, privatization and strikes in Serbia, particularly the place of women in it. It examines the most important economic and social causes and consequences of these phenomena. The main hypothesis is: women's strikes in the Serbian transition are less efficient than strikes and public protests of women in the developed world and the second Yugoslavia. A strike is a class conflict, in which the workers are fighting...

  7. 14 CFR 35.38 - Lightning strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lightning strike. 35.38 Section 35.38... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.38 Lightning strike. The applicant must demonstrate, by... lightning strike without causing a major or hazardous propeller effect. The limit to which the propeller has...

  8. Physical, chemical and sensorial parameters for lambs of different groups, slaughtered at different weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landim, Aline Vieira; Castanheira, Marlos; Fioravanti, Maria Clorinda Soares; Pacheco, Aline; Cardoso, Maximiliano Tadeu Memória; Louvandini, Helder; McManus, Concepta

    2011-08-01

    The object of this experiment was to study physicochemical and sensorial traits in the 11th and 13th ribs of 24 Santa Ines (SI), 24 1/2 Ile de France × 1/2 Santa Inês (ILE × SI) and 8 1/2 Texel × 1/2 Santa Inês (TE × SI), slaughtered at different weights (30, 35, 40 and 45 kg, respectively). Subjective measurements (marbling, colour and texture) were carried out on the Longissimus dorsi, as well as initial pH (0 h) and final pH (24 h) after slaughter. The experiment was in a 3 × 4 factorial design and analysed using general linear model and correlation procedures in SAS®. Breed group did not influence colour (3.32), shear force (3.57 kg-force (kgf)) or loss in cooking (24.05%) of the L. dorsi, but slaughter weight affected these, with stronger colour, tougher meat and greater loss in cooking as slaughter weight increased. For sensorial analysis, the L. dorsi were cut, identified and evaluated by 30 untrained judges using a linear scale. Significant differences were detected in preference (6.61 points), tenderness (6.32 points), succulence (6.33 points) and flavour (7.08 points) of the meat from different breed groups and slaughter weights. For preference, all meats were well accepted although the crossbred animals slaughtered at 45 kg were less acceptable.

  9. Patient aggression towards different professional groups of healthcare workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Kowalczuk

    2017-03-01

    Nurses are most exposed to different forms of patient aggression, with verbal attacks being most prevalent. Nurses employed at inpatient healthcare units experienced aggression more frequently than those working in outpatient healthcare units.

  10. Differences in morphological parameters of judo athletes of different age groups and performance level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Štefanovský

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some studies have pointed out the influence of morphological parameters on judo performance, however the relationship between morphological variables and performance status have not yet been confirmed. In addition, there is a lack of studies focused on morphological comparison of different age categories. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess differences in the morphological parameters of judo athletes of different age and performance level. Methods: The research sample was composed of 47 male judokas (age 19.15 ± 2.93 years; body weight 77.16 ± 11.39 kg; height 178.91 ± 6.39 cm; sport age 11.47 ± 2.74 years. It was divided by: (1 age, into cadets (15-17 years, n = 19, juniors (18-20 years, n = 15, and seniors (21+ years, n = 13 category and (2 performance status (elite, n = 10; non-elite, n = 37. In all participants, body fat, and the circumference measurement of wrist, forearm, flexed arm, and calf were observed. A personal interview was used to gain information about the athlete's performance status. Results: We found out that there are significant differences in arm circumference between cadets and seniors, cadets and juniors, juniors and seniors; and in the circumference of forearm between cadets and seniors; cadets and juniors, as well. According to the performance status, we have discovered significantly higher circumference of forearm and wrist in the elite group compared to the non-elite group. Conclusion: Forearm and wrist circumference is a reliable discriminative factor and should be taken into consideration, especially when selecting judo athletes into elite teams. However, we did not confirm that subcutaneous fat is a parameter able to distinguish between judo athletes of different performance status across various age categories.

  11. Effects of footwear and strike type on running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perl, Daniel P; Daoud, Adam I; Lieberman, Daniel E

    2012-07-01

    This study tests if running economy differs in minimal shoes versus standard running shoes with cushioned elevated heels and arch supports and in forefoot versus rearfoot strike gaits. We measured the cost of transport (mL O(2)·kg(-1)·m(-1)) in subjects who habitually run in minimal shoes or barefoot while they were running at 3.0 m·s(-1) on a treadmill during forefoot and rearfoot striking while wearing minimal and standard shoes, controlling for shoe mass and stride frequency. Force and kinematic data were collected when subjects were shod and barefoot to quantify differences in knee flexion, arch strain, plantar flexor force production, and Achilles tendon-triceps surae strain. After controlling for stride frequency and shoe mass, runners were 2.41% more economical in the minimal-shoe condition when forefoot striking and 3.32% more economical in the minimal-shoe condition when rearfoot striking (P forefoot and rearfoot striking did not differ significantly in cost for either minimal- or standard-shoe running. Arch strain was not measured in the shod condition but was significantly greater during forefoot than rearfoot striking when barefoot. Plantar flexor force output was significantly higher in forefoot than in rearfoot striking and in barefoot than in shod running. Achilles tendon-triceps surae strain and knee flexion were also lower in barefoot than in standard-shoe running. Minimally shod runners are modestly but significantly more economical than traditionally shod runners regardless of strike type, after controlling for shoe mass and stride frequency. The likely cause of this difference is more elastic energy storage and release in the lower extremity during minimal-shoe running.

  12. Group cohesion in sports teams of different professional level

    OpenAIRE

    Vazha M. Devishvili; Marina O. Mdivani; Daria S. Elgina

    2017-01-01

    Background. Team sports are not only the most exciting sporting events. but also complex activities that make serious demands on players. The effectiveness of the team depends not only on the high level of gaming interaction. but also on the relationship between the players. The work is based on the material of sports teams and is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of group cohesion. As a basic model. the authors choose a 4-factor model that describes cohesion in sports teams. The pape...

  13. Intermittent exotropia surgery: results in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaho, Dayane Cristine; Wang, Serena Xiaohong; Weakley, David Robert

    2017-01-01

    To report the outcomes in patients undergoing surgical correction of intermittent exotropia and to compare the age at surgery to motor and sensory success. This was a retrospective cohort study. The results of patients with intermittent exotropia treated with surgery over a 4-year period were reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups based on age at first surgery (groups. One hundred thirty-six patients were evaluated, with 67 and 51 patients undergoing surgery before and after the age of 4 years, respectively. The mean age at surgery was 6.8 ± 2.6 years. The reoperation rate for the patients who underwent surgery before 4 years of age was 48% versus 42% for the ones who underwent surgery after this age (p=0.93). Postoperative stereopsis showed an inverse linear association with age at surgery (page, and may even present better motor results than older patients. Postoperative stereoacuity in younger children revealed to be worse than in older children; however, this result is unlikely to be due to inadequate age for surgery, but rather, immaturity for performing the stereopsis test.

  14. Importance of life domains in different cultural groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizur, Dov; Kantor, Jeffrey; Yaniv, Eyal; Sagie, Abraham

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the role of individualism and collectivism in the shaping of personal values of Canadians, Israelis, and Palestinians. Based on Sagie and Elizur's (1996) multifaceted approach, we distinguished personal values that are individual centered (i.e., associated with one's home, family, or work) from collective-centered values (i.e., associated with the religion, sports, or politics). The magnitude of the difference between both value types differs according to cultural orientation. As compared with Palestinians, we predicted that Canadians and Israelis would rank individual-centered values higher and collective-centered values lower. Data obtained from samples of Palestinians, Israelis, and Canadians supported this hypothesis.

  15. Focus Groups Reveal Differences in Career Experiences Between Male and Female Geoscientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oconnell, S.; Frey, C. D.; Holmes, M.

    2003-12-01

    We conducted twelve telephone focus groups of geoscientists to discover what motivates geoscientists to enter our field and stay in our field. There were separate male and female groups from six different professional categories: administrators, full and associate professors, non-tenure track personnel, assistant professors, post-docs and PhD candidates, Bachelor's and Master's candidates. A total of 96 geoscientists participated. Specifically, respondents were asked what initially brought them into the geosciences. Three dominant themes emerged: the subject matter itself, undergraduate experiences, and relationships. A total of 51 responses to this question related to the subject matter itself. Approximately 61 percent (31) of those responses were given by male focus group participants. Across all focus groups, participants brought up issues such as a general appreciation of the outdoors, weather, rocks, and dinosaurs. Following closely behind the general subject matter is undergraduate events. Fifty-one responses mentioned something about undergraduate experiences such as an introductory class, a laboratory experience, or field experiences. While both female and male participants discussed the role of interpersonal relationships in their decision to become a geoscientist, females were slightly more likely to bring up relevant relationships (26 times for females compared to 21 for males). These relationships varied in both groups from a parent or grandparents influence to camping trips with professors. When respondents were asked whether they had ever considered leaving the geosciences and under what circumstances, there was a striking difference between males and females: males were far less likely to have ever considered leaving. Younger males were more likely to consider leaving than older geoscientists. They feel challenged by the financial constraints of graduate school and the time constraints of academic vs. family life. Many females considered leaving at

  16. Playing time between senior rugby players of different ethnic groups ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following the formation of a single body to govern rugby in South. Africa in 1992, the ... Players from across the country were identified and invited to various ... different levels of rugby cannot be evaluated because the players representing ..... programmes for youth and young adults is the disparity in body size and fitness of ...

  17. Job Attitudes among Different Occupational Status Groups. An Economic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Simcha; Sadan, Simcha

    1984-01-01

    An economic model is applied to employee attitudinal variables to compare the contribution of intrinsic and extrinsic factors to job satisfaction for skilled workers and managers in an electronics manufacturing organization. Intrinsic rewards are found to increase in importance as employment level increases, suggesting different frames of…

  18. Generational Differences among a Small Group of Hmong Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vang, Pa Der

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have looked at the differences in culture, language, and educational attainments among generations of Hmong in the United States since the beginning of their immigration to the United States. This study of 195 Hmong participants examines the effects of generational status on Hmong immigrants across several factors including marriage…

  19. Modification of Acute Radiation Response in Different Demographic Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-25

    greater radiosensitivity. Other studies provided further mechanistic insight into the observed age effect of radiation responses. For example ...DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. October 2017 HDTRA1-14-0003; 0005 Prepared by: Applied ... Research Associates, Inc. 801 N. Quincy Street Suite 700 Arlington, VA 22203 Modification of Acute Radiation Response in Different Demographic Age

  20. Intergenerational family solidarity: value differences between immigrant groups and generations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, Eva-Maria; Ozeke-Kocabas, Ezgi; Oort, Frans J.; Schuengel, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Although immigrants may be more dependent on their immediate family for support, they may also experience a wider generation-gap in values regarding intergenerational solidarity, because of processes of acculturation. Based on large scale survey data (N = 2,028), differences between first and second

  1. Psychological Features of Foreign Language Acquisition in Different Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N V Kudinova

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of age factor on the foreign language learning is examined in the article from the practical point of view. The specific age features and their influence on the foreign language acquisition at different stages of age are highlighted and analyzed on the basis of psychological research.

  2. Patellofemoral joint stress during running with alterations in foot strike pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, Charles Nathan; Kernozek, Thomas W

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to quantify differences in patellofemoral joint stress that may occur when healthy runners alter their foot strike pattern from their habitual rearfoot strike to a forefoot strike to gain insight on the potential etiology and treatment methods of patellofemoral pain. Sixteen healthy female runners completed 20 running trials in a controlled laboratory setting under rearfoot strike and forefoot strike conditions. Kinetic and kinematic data were used to drive a static optimization technique to estimate individual muscle forces to input into a model of the patellofemoral joint to estimate joint stress during running. Peak patellofemoral joint stress and the stress-time integral over stance phase decreased by 27% and 12%, respectively, in the forefoot strike condition (P forefoot strike condition (P forefoot strike (P forefoot strike condition (P strike pattern to a forefoot strike results in consistent reductions in patellofemoral joint stress independent of changes in step length. Thus, implementation of forefoot strike training programs may be warranted in the treatment of runners with patellofemoral pain. However, it is suggested that the transition to a forefoot strike pattern should be completed in a graduated manner.

  3. Latex allergy: new insights to explain different sensitization profiles in different risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixinho, C; Tavares-Ratado, P; Tomás, M R; Taborda-Barata, L; Tomaz, C T

    2008-07-01

    Differences in latex allergen sensitization profiles have been described between children subjected to repetitive surgical interventions and health care workers (HCW). 'Major' allergens for patients with spina bifida are Hev b 1, 3 and 7, while for HCW, 'major' allergens are Hev b 2, 5, 6.01 and 13. The reason for these differential sensitization profiles is currently unknown. To investigate latex allergen profiles on internal and external surfaces of natural rubber latex gloves. Eighty-two samples of commonly used surgical gloves (41 glove brands) were used for analysis. Specific allergen levels of Hev b 1, 3, 5 and 6.02 on both surfaces of the gloves were quantified using an enzyme immunometric assay, a FITkit (FIT Biotech, Tampere, Finland). Differences in allergen levels were observed between internal and external surfaces of all glove types. Concentrations of Hev b 1 and Hev b 3 were significantly higher on external surfaces, while internal surfaces had higher allergen levels of Hev b 5 and Hev b 6.02. Analysis of surgical and examination gloves, powdered and nonpowdered gloves also showed that the content of Hev b 5 and Hev b 6.02 was significantly higher on internal surfaces while that of Hev b 1 and Hev b 3 was higher on external surfaces. Our study showed different allergen profiles on internal and external surfaces of natural rubber latex gloves. These results may suggest a relationship between latex allergen localization and sensitization routes in different risk groups.

  4. A Neuroanatomical Signature for Schizophrenia Across Different Ethnic Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Qiyong; Dazzan, Paola; Scarpazza, Cristina; Kasai, Kyioto; Hu, Xinyu; Marques, Tiago R.; Iwashiro, Norichika; Huang, Xiaoqi; Murray, Robin M.; Koike, Shinsuke; David, Anthony S.; Yamasue, Hidenori; Lui, Su; Mechelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disabling clinical syndrome found across the world. While the incidence and clinical expression of this illness are strongly influenced by ethnic factors, it is unclear whether patients from different ethnicities show distinct brain deficits. In this multicentre study, we used structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging to investigate neuroanatomy in 126 patients with first episode schizophrenia who came from 4 ethnically distinct cohorts (White Caucasians, African-Caribbeans, Ja...

  5. Estimation of Tooth Size Discrepancies among Different Malocclusion Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Hasija, Narender; Bala, Madhu; Goyal, Virender

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Regards and Tribute: Late Dr Narender Hasija was a mentor and visionary in the light of knowledge and experience. We pay our regards with deepest gratitude to the departed soul to rest in peace. Bolton’s ratios help in estimating overbite, overjet relationships, the effects of contemplated extractions on posterior occlusion, incisor relationships and identification of occlusal misfit produced by tooth size discrepancies. Aim: To determine any difference in tooth size discrepancy in a...

  6. How Do Groups Work? Age Differences in Performance and the Social Outcomes of Peer Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were…

  7. WAVELET TRANSFORM ANALYSIS OF ELECTROMYOGRAPHY KUNG FU STRIKES DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Miranda Marzullo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In martial arts and contact sports strikes are performed at near maximum speeds. For that reason, electromyography (EMG analysis of such movements is non-trivial. This paper has three main goals: firstly, to investigate the differences in the EMG activity of muscles during strikes performed with and without impacts; secondly, to assess the advantages of using Sum of Significant Power (SSP values instead of root mean square (rms values when analyzing EMG data; and lastly to introduce a new method of calculating median frequency values using wavelet transforms (WMDF. EMG data of the deltoid anterior (DA, triceps brachii (TB and brachioradialis (BR muscles were collected from eight Kung Fu practitioners during strikes performed with and without impacts. SSP results indicated significant higher muscle activity (p = 0.023 for the strikes with impact. WMDF results, on the other hand, indicated significant lower values (p = 0. 007 for the strikes with impact. SSP results presented higher sensitivity than rms to quantify important signal differences and, at the same time, presented lower inter-subject coefficient of variations. The result of increase in SSP values and decrease in WMDF may suggest better synchronization of motor units for the strikes with impact performed by the experienced Kung Fu practitioners

  8. Variability and Intelligibility of Clarified Speech to Different Listener Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Ronnie F.

    Two studies examined the modifications that adult speakers make in speech to disadvantaged listeners. Previous research that has focused on speech to the deaf individuals and to young children has shown that adults clarify speech when addressing these two populations. Acoustic measurements suggest that the signal undergoes similar changes for both populations. Perceptual tests corroborate these results for the deaf population, but are nonsystematic in developmental studies. The differences in the findings for these populations and the nonsystematic results in the developmental literature may be due to methodological factors. The present experiments addressed these methodological questions. Studies of speech to hearing impaired listeners have used read, nonsense, sentences, for which speakers received explicit clarification instructions and feedback, while in the child literature, excerpts of real-time conversations were used. Therefore, linguistic samples were not precisely matched. In this study, experiments used various linguistic materials. Experiment 1 used a children's story; experiment 2, nonsense sentences. Four mothers read both types of material in four ways: (1) in "normal" adult speech, (2) in "babytalk," (3) under the clarification instructions used in the "hearing impaired studies" (instructed clear speech) and (4) in (spontaneous) clear speech without instruction. No extra practice or feedback was given. Sentences were presented to 40 normal hearing college students with and without simultaneous masking noise. Results were separately tabulated for content and function words, and analyzed using standard statistical tests. The major finding in the study was individual variation in speaker intelligibility. "Real world" speakers vary in their baseline intelligibility. The four speakers also showed unique patterns of intelligibility as a function of each independent variable. Results were as follows. Nonsense sentences were less intelligible than story

  9. Intergenerational family solidarity: value differences between immigrant groups and generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Eva-Maria; Ozeke-Kocabas, Ezgi; Oort, Frans J; Schuengel, Carlo

    2009-06-01

    Although immigrants may be more dependent on their immediate family for support, they may also experience a wider generation-gap in values regarding intergenerational solidarity, because of processes of acculturation. Based on large scale survey data (N = 2,028), differences between first and second generation immigrants in values regarding intergenerational solidarity were examined among family members in the Netherlands with an immigration background from Turkey, Morocco, Suriname, and The Dutch Antilles. Using a multilevel analytic approach, effects of family and individual characteristics on values regarding intergenerational solidarity were tested, considering the perspectives of two generations. It was found that immigrants with Moroccan and Turkish backgrounds scored higher on values with respect to intergenerational family solidarity than immigrants stemming from Suriname and The Antilles. First generation immigrants placed higher values on family solidarity compared to second generation immigrants. Additionally, religious denomination was a significant predictor of higher values with respect to intergenerational family solidarity. Immigration and acculturation may create great strains in migrant families. Policies to support the fabric of intergenerational solidarity should consider ethnic and religious background and immigration history. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. The multidimensional nature of ageism: construct validity and group differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Deborah E; Vodanovich, Stephen J; Credé, Marcus

    2005-06-01

    The authors investigated the factor structure and construct validity of the Fraboni Scale of Ageism and the age and gender differences in ageism scores. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the multidimensional nature of FSA scores and generally corroborated the initial factor structure reported by M. Fraboni, with some notable exceptions. Essentially, the present findings were aligned with theoretical models of ageism that emphasize both cognitive facets and affective facets. That is, on the basis of their factor analytic findings, the authors redefined Fraboni's original factors of Antilocution, Avoidance, and Discrimination as Stereotypes, Separation, and Affective Attitudes, respectively, because of the clustering of items within factors. The revised 3-factor structure accounted for 36.4% of the variance in FSA scores. FSA factor scores significantly related to other scores from other measures of age-related attitudes, with higher correlations among factors that were similar in terms of their cognitive nature versus their affective nature. Finally, younger individuals and men had significantly higher ageism scores on the FSA than older individuals and women. The authors discussed the importance of adequately assessing ageism, with particular emphasis devoted to the understanding of age bias.

  11. Preemptive strikes: Fear, hope, and defensive aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevy, Nir

    2017-02-01

    Preemptive strikes are costly and harmful. Existing models of defensive aggression focus narrowly on the role fear plays in motivating preemptive strikes. Theoretically integrating the literatures on conflict, decision making, and emotion, the current research investigated how specific emotions associated with certainty or uncertainty, including fear, anger, disgust, hope, and happiness, influence preemptive strikes. Study 1 demonstrated that hope negatively predicts defensive exits from relationships in choice dilemmas. Studies 2 and 3 experimentally manipulated risk of being attacked in an incentivized, interactive decision making task-the Preemptive Strike Game. Risk of being attacked fueled preemptive strikes; reduced feelings of hope partially mediated this effect in Study 3. Studies 4 and 5 investigated preemptive strikes under uncertainty (rather than risk). In Study 4, reasoning about the factors that make one trustful of others curbed preemptive strikes; cogitating about the factors that underlie discrete emotions, however, did not influence defensive aggression. Study 5 demonstrated that the valence and uncertainty appraisals of incidental emotions interact in shaping preemptive strikes. Specifically, recalling an autobiographical emotional experience that produced hope significantly decreased attack rates relative to fear, happiness, and a control condition. Fear, anger, disgust, and happiness were either unrelated to preemptive strikes or showed inconsistent relationships with preemptive strikes across the 5 studies. These findings shed light on how emotions shape defensive aggression, advance knowledge on strategic choice under risk and uncertainty, and demonstrate hope's positive effects on social interactions and relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. A CRITICAL REVIEW OF HOUSING DELIVERY IN NAIROBI: DIFFERENT ACTORS - DIFFERENT SOCIO-ECONOMIC GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crispino C. Ochieng

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was undertaken by means of qualitative ethnographic method. The arguments in this paper underlie the important role of the different actors in private tenement housing delivery in a developing city such as Nairobi, where more than half the population is poor. In Nairobi the private tenement housing delivers both conventional as well as non-conventional housing with the majority of the poor being able to access only the later. Nonconventional housing includes the informal as well as the slum. Although still targeting the poor, with time, the majority of what started as non-conventional housing undergoes greater physical development. This process ensures access to enough affordable low-income housing. Development in housing delivery has been supported by the government through encouraging creation of relevant housing institutions, developing relevant byelaws and regulations and putting in place an appropriate framework for housing delivery. For a developing city encouraging the participation of the private sector in housing delivery for the different socio-economic groups is a sure guarantee of providing housing for a large percentage of the population.

  13. Relationship between Achilles tendon properties and foot strike patterns in long-distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Keitaro; Miyazaki, Daisuke; Tanaka, Shigeharu; Shimoju, Shozo; Tsunoda, Naoya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Achilles tendon properties and foot strike patterns in long-distance runners. Forty-one highly trained male long-distance runners participated in this study. Elongation of the Achilles tendon and aponeurosis of the medial gastrocnemius muscle were measured using ultrasonography, while the participants performed ramp isometric plantar flexion up to the voluntary maximum. The relationship between the estimated muscle force and tendon elongation during the ascending phase was fit to a linear regression, the slope of which was defined as stiffness. In addition, the cross-sectional area of the Achilles tendon was measured using ultrasonography. Foot strike patterns (forefoot, midfoot and rearfoot) during running were determined at submaximal velocity (18 km · h(-1)) on a treadmill. The number of each foot strike runner was 12 for the forefoot (29.3%), 12 for the midfoot (29.3%) and 17 for the rearfoot (41.5%). No significant differences were observed in the variables measured for the Achilles tendon among the three groups. These results suggested that the foot strike pattern during running did not affect the morphological or mechanical properties of the Achilles tendon in long-distance runners.

  14. Testing Group Mean Differences of Latent Variables in Multilevel Data Using Multiple-Group Multilevel CFA and Multilevel MIMIC Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Sook; Cao, Chunhua

    2015-01-01

    Considering that group comparisons are common in social science, we examined two latent group mean testing methods when groups of interest were either at the between or within level of multilevel data: multiple-group multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (MG ML CFA) and multilevel multiple-indicators multiple-causes modeling (ML MIMIC). The performance of these methods were investigated through three Monte Carlo studies. In Studies 1 and 2, either factor variances or residual variances were manipulated to be heterogeneous between groups. In Study 3, which focused on within-level multiple-group analysis, six different model specifications were considered depending on how to model the intra-class group correlation (i.e., correlation between random effect factors for groups within cluster). The results of simulations generally supported the adequacy of MG ML CFA and ML MIMIC for multiple-group analysis with multilevel data. The two methods did not show any notable difference in the latent group mean testing across three studies. Finally, a demonstration with real data and guidelines in selecting an appropriate approach to multilevel multiple-group analysis are provided.

  15. THE EFFECTS OF HEIGHT AND DISTANCE ON THE FORCE PRODUCTION AND ACCELERATION IN MARTIAL ARTS STRIKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A. Bir

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Almost all cultures have roots in some sort of self defence system and yet there is relatively little research in this area, outside of a sports related environment. This project investigated different applications of strikes from Kung Fu practitioners that have not been addressed before in the literature. Punch and palm strikes were directly compared from different heights and distances, with the use of a load cell, accelerometers, and high speed video. The data indicated that the arm accelerations of both strikes were similar, although the force and resulting acceleration of the target were significantly greater for the palm strikes. Additionally, the relative height at which the strike was delivered was also investigated. The overall conclusion is that the palm strike is a more effective strike for transferring force to an object. It can also be concluded that an attack to the chest would be ideal for maximizing impact force and moving an opponent off balance

  16. MORE THAN A LABOR DISPUTE: THE PATCO STRIKE OF 1981

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul L. Butterworth

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available On August 3, 1981, 13,000 air traffic controllers walked off the job. Under US law, the strike was illegal. President Ronald Reagan ordered the strikers as a group to return to work; when they did not, he ordered individual strikers to return, and again they refused. Two days later the president fired the strikers. Reagan's action transformed relations between organized labor and American management, and created the worst turbulence to hit the American airways in recent history. “More Than a Labor Dispute” examines the work stoppage and aftermath through the eyes of two controllers and a pilot, all of whom worked during the strike.

  17. Estimating the Impact of Bird Strikes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, I.C.; Muhlhausen, Thorsten; Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Bird strikes have the potential to cause severe damage to aircraft. Therefore, measures to reduce the risk of bird strikes are performed at airports. However, this risk is not limited to the airport but is increased in the arrival and departure corridors as well. Consequently, a significant amount

  18. Option Strike Price and Managerial Investment Decisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鸿雁; 张维

    2003-01-01

    The manager′s investment decisions is modeled when the manager is risk-averse and has stock options as compensation. It is found that the strike price of options is crucial to the investment incentives of managers, and that the correct value, or interval of values, of managerial stock option strike price can bring stockholder and manager interests in agreement.

  19. Do different probing depths exhibit striking differences in microbial profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Chaparro, Paula Juliana; McCulloch, John Anthony; Mamizuka, Elsa Masae; Moraes, Aline da Costa Lima; Faveri, Marcelo; Figueiredo, Luciene Cristina; Duarte, Poliana Mendes; Feres, Magda

    2018-01-01

    To perform a thorough characterization of the subgingival microbiota of shallow, moderate and deep sites in subjects with chronic periodontitis (ChP). Subgingival samples were collected from subjects with ChP (n = 3/category of probing depth: ≤3, 4-6 and ≥7 mm) and periodontal health (PH). Individual samples were submitted to 16S rDNA high- throughput sequencing and the analysis was made using mothur and R packages. Nine subjects with ChP and seven with PH were included and 101 samples were evaluated. Thirteen phyla, 118 genera and 211 OTUs were detected. Taxa from Chloroflexi and Spirochaetes phyla were associated with initial stages of disease. Fretibacterium, Eubacterium[XI][G-6], Desulfobulbus, Peptostreptococcaceae[XI][G-1] and [G-3], Bacteroidetes[G-3], Bacteroidaceae[G-1] genera and Filifactor alocis, Fretibacterium fastidiosum, Johnsonella spHOT166, Peptostreptococcaceae[XIII][G-1]HOT113, Porphyromonas endodontalis and Treponema sp. HOT258, which are not conventionally associated with disease, increased with the deepening of the pockets and/or were elevated in ChP; while Streptococcus, Corynebacterium and Bergeyella genera were associated with PH (p oral microorganisms and newly identified periodontal taxa, some of them not-yet-cultured. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Differences within the groups of physicians and managers in Dutch hospitals providing leads for intergroup cooperation : Running head: group differences in hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harten, Willem H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Effective cooperation between physicians and managers is difficult to achieve but is an important factor in successfully implementing improvement initiatives in hospitals. Intergroup literature suggests that large differences between groups hinder effective cooperation. - Purposes:

  1. Clinical significance of changes of serum osteocalcin (BGP) levels in subjects of different age-groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Lihua; Zhang Jin; Han Cuihua; Ouyang Qiaohong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum BGP levels in different age-groups. Methods: Serum BGP levels were determined with RIA in 306 subjects of different age-groups. Results: The serum BGP levels were highest in subjects of the pre-adolescent group (age5-15, n=60, vs other groups, all P 50, n=80, P<0.001). Levels in the middle age group were the lowest and were significantly lower than those in the old age group (P<0.001). No sex related differences were observed in the pre-adolescent and middle age groups, but in the youth group, serum BGP levels were significantly higher in the males than those in the females (P<0.05). However, in the old age group, the reverse was true i.e. values being significantly higher in the females (vs males, P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum BGP levels varied greatly among the different age groups. (authors)

  2. Lightning Strike in Pregnancy With Fetal Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galster, Kellen; Hodnick, Ryan; Berkeley, Ross P

    2016-06-01

    Injuries from lightning strikes are an infrequent occurrence, and are only rarely noted to involve pregnant victims. Only 13 cases of lightning strike in pregnancy have been previously described in the medical literature, along with 7 additional cases discovered within news media reports. This case report presents a novel case of lightning-associated injury in a patient in the third trimester of pregnancy, resulting in fetal ischemic brain injury and long-term morbidity, and reviews the mechanics of lightning strikes along with common injury patterns of which emergency providers should be aware. Copyright © 2016 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Joint stiffness and running economy during imposed forefoot strike before and after a long run in rearfoot strike runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Daniel A; Paquette, Max R; Schilling, Brian K; Bloomer, Richard J

    2017-12-01

    Research has focused on the effects of acute strike pattern modifications on lower extremity joint stiffness and running economy (RE). Strike pattern modifications on running biomechanics have mostly been studied while runners complete short running bouts. This study examined the effects of an imposed forefoot strike (FFS) on RE and ankle and knee joint stiffness before and after a long run in habitual rearfoot strike (RFS) runners. Joint kinetics and RE were collected before and after a long run. Sagittal joint kinetics were computed from kinematic and ground reaction force data that were collected during over-ground running trials in 13 male runners. RE was measured during treadmill running. Knee flexion range of motion, knee extensor moment and ankle joint stiffness were lower while plantarflexor moment and knee joint stiffness were greater during imposed FFS compared with RFS. The long run did not influence the difference in ankle and knee joint stiffness between strike patterns. Runners were more economical during RFS than imposed FFS and RE was not influenced by the long run. These findings suggest that using a FFS pattern towards the end of a long run may not be mechanically or metabolically beneficial for well-trained male RFS runners.

  4. Population biology of intestinal Enterococcus Isolates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized individuals in different age groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tedim, Ana P.; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M.; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J.; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M.

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n=133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n= 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates

  5. Socioeconomic and Gender Group Differences in Early Literacy Skills: A Multiple-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Julia Ai Cheng; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic status and gender are important demographic variables that strongly relate to academic achievement. This study examined the early literacy skills differences between 4 sociodemographic groups, namely, boys ineligible for free or reduced-price lunch (FRL), girls ineligible for FRL, boys eligible for FRL, and girls eligible for FRL.…

  6. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table ... from all walks of life are affected by hepatitis, especially hepatitis C, the most common form of ...

  7. The effects of cigarette smoking on prostate-specific antigen in two different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Gokhan; Akgul, Korhan; Yilmaz, Yuksel; Dirik, Alper; Un, Sitki

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effects of cigarette smoking on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) using 2 different age groups. The study was carried out between January 2007 and October 2011 with men; the 2 sets of age groups were: 25 to 35 years and 50 to 70 years old. The participants were divided into 4 groups. Of the 25 to 35 age range, smokers were Group 1, and non-smokers were Group 2; of the 50 to 70 age range, smokers were Group 3 and non-smokers Group 4. In addition, for the 50 to 70 age group, the International Prostate Symptom Score was completed, digital rectal examination was performed, and transabdominal prostate volume was measured. We wanted to see whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels showed a difference between the 2 age groups. There were 114 patients in Group 1, 82 in Group 2, 90 in Group 3, and 102 in Group 4. The mean PSA level was 0.7 ± 0.28 ng/mL for Group 1, and 0.6 ± 0.27 ng/mL for Group 2 (p = 0.27), and there was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups. The mean PSA was 2.5 ± 1.8 ng/mL for Group 3, and 2.1 ± 2.0 ng/mL (p = 0.59) for Group 4, and there was no statistically significant difference between the these 2 age groups. Cigarette smoking effects various hormone levels. Different from previous studies, the PSA level was higher in smokers compared to nonsmokers, although it was not statistically significant. Our study is limited by the small numbers in our study groups and the lack of PSA velocity data.

  8. The effects of different gender groupings on middle school students' performance in science lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drab, Deborah D.

    Grouping students for labs in science classes is a common practice. This mixed methods quasi-experimental action research study examines homogeneous and heterogeneous gender grouping strategies to determine what gender grouping strategy is the most effective in a coeducational science classroom setting. Sixth grade students were grouped in same-gender and mixed-gender groups, alternating each quarter. Over the course of an academic year, data were collected from four sources. The teacher-researcher observed groups working during hands-on activities to collect data on student behaviors. Students completed post-lab questionnaires and an end-of-course questionnaire about their preferences and experiences in the different grouping strategies. Student scores on written lab assignments were also utilized. Data analysis focused on four areas: active engagement, student achievement, student perceptions of success and cooperative teamwork. Findings suggest that teachers may consider grouping students of different ability levels according to different gender grouping strategies to optimize learning.

  9. Efficacy of adjunctive mitomycin C in transcanalicular diode laser dacryocystorhinostomy in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Taner; Yildirim, Yildiray; Topal, Tuncay; Çolakoğlu, Kadir; Ünal, Melih Hamdi

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of adjunctive mitomycin C (MMC) in transcanalicular multidiode laser dacryocystorhinostomy (TCL-DCR) in different age groups. Ninety-six eyes of 96 patients who underwent TCL-DCR for the treatment of nasolacrimal duct obstruction were included in this retrospective, comparative study. Patients were divided into 4 groups based on age and intraoperative use of MMC: group 1, TCL-DCR without MMC in the 20- to 44-year age group; group 2, TCL-DCR with MMC in the 20- to 44-year age group; group 3, TCL-DCR without MMC in the 45- to 76-year age group; group 4, TCL-DCR with MMC in the 45- to 76-year age group. The postoperative evaluation consisted of calculating and comparing the success rates between groups. Success rates at the final visit were 50% for group 1, 66.66% for group 2, 79.16% for group 3, and 84.61% for group 4. The differences between group 1 and group 4, and group 1 and group 3, were significant (p = 0.01 and p = 0.038, respectively). Logistic regression showed that age group had significant effect on success rate (p = 0.013). However, use of MMC had no significant effect on success rate (p = 0.23). The success rates of the TCL-DCR with MMC application were found to be higher than those of TCL-DCR without MMC in different age groups. However, the differences did not reach statistical significance. In addition, our study demonstrated that age may be a significant factor influencing the surgical outcome of TCL-DCR.

  10. Effect of Acute Alterations in Foot Strike Patterns during Running on Sagittal Plane Lower Limb Kinematics and Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Valenzuela, Scott K. Lynn, Lisa R. Mikelson, Guillermo J. Noffal, Daniel A. Judelson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available subjects were identified through slow motion video playback (n = 21, age = 22.8±2.2 years, mass = 73.1±14.5 kg, height 1.75 ± 0.10 m. On day two, subjects performed five overground run trials in both their natural and unnatural strike patterns while motion and force data were collected. Data were collected over two days so that foot strike videos could be analyzed for group placement purposes. Several 2 (Foot Strike Pattern –forefoot strike [FFS], rearfoot strike [RFS] x 2 (Group – PFFG, PRFG mixed model ANOVAs (p < 0.05 were run on speed, active peak vertical ground reaction force (VGRF, peak early stance and mid stance sagittal ankle moments, sagittal plane hip and knee moments, ankle dorsiflexion ROM, and sagittal plane hip and knee ROM. There were no significant interactions or between group differences for any of the measured variables. Within subject effects demonstrated that the RFS condition had significantly lower (VGRF (RFS = 2.58 ± .21 BW, FFS = 2.71 ± 0.23 BW, dorsiflexion moment (RFS = -2.6 1± 0.61 Nm·kg-1, FFS = -3.09 ± 0.32 Nm·kg-1, and dorsiflexion range of motion (RFS = 17.63 ± 3.76°, FFS = 22.10 ± 5.08°. There was also a significantly higher peak plantarflexion moment (RFS = 0.23 ± 0.11 Nm·kg-1, FFS = 0.01 ± 0.01 Nm·kg-1, peak knee moment (RFS = 2.61 ± 0.54 Nm·kg-1, FFS = 2.39 ± 0.61 Nm·kg-1, knee ROM (RFS = 31.72 ± 2.79°, FFS = 29.58 ± 2.97°, and hip ROM (RFS = 42.72 ± 4.03°, FFS = 41.38 ± 3.32° as compared with the FFS condition. This research suggests that acute changes in foot strike patterns during shod running can create alterations in certain lower limb kinematic and kinetic measures that are not dependent on the preferred foot strike pattern of the individual. This research also challenges the contention that the impact transient spike in the vertical ground reaction force curve is only present during a rear foot strike type of running gait.

  11. Repeatable group differences in the collective behaviour of stickleback shoals across ecological contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Establishing how collective behaviour emerges is central to our understanding of animal societies. Previous research has highlighted how universal interaction rules shape collective behaviour, and that individual differences can drive group functioning. Groups themselves may also differ considerably in their collective behaviour, but little is known about the consistency of such group variation, especially across different ecological contexts that may alter individuals' behavioural responses. Here, we test if randomly composed groups of sticklebacks differ consistently from one another in both their structure and movement dynamics across an open environment, an environment with food, and an environment with food and shelter. Based on high-resolution tracking data of the free-swimming shoals, we found large context-associated changes in the average behaviour of the groups. But despite these changes and limited social familiarity among group members, substantial and predictable behavioural differences between the groups persisted both within and across the different contexts (group-level repeatability): some groups moved consistently faster, more cohesively, showed stronger alignment and/or clearer leadership than other groups. These results suggest that among-group heterogeneity could be a widespread feature in animal societies. Future work that considers group-level variation in collective behaviour may help understand the selective pressures that shape how animal collectives form and function. PMID:29436496

  12. Giardia muris and Giardia duodenalis groups: ultrastructural differences between the trophozoites

    OpenAIRE

    Sogayar,Maria Inês L.; Gregório,Elisa Aparecida

    1989-01-01

    Trophozoites of the Giardia muris group from hamsters, domestic rats and mice and of the Giardia duodenalis group from hamsters and domestic rats were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The basic ultrastructure of the trophozoites was similar. Differences were shown in the morphology of the ventrolateral flange of the trophozoites of Giardia muris and Giardia duodenalis groups. Marginal plates are less developed in the species of the Giardia duodenalis group. In this group, the dis...

  13. Group B streptococcus detection in China: comparison of different screening methods and different sampling sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Wang, Yingna Song, Liangkun Ma, Juntao Liu, Yingchun Xu, Jie Yi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the use of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and bacterial culture methods to detect group B streptococcus (GBS in Chinese pregnant women in the third trimester; to separately assess the prevalence of rectal and vaginal GBS colonization ; and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates. Methodology: Samples were collected from 505 women at 35 and 37 weeks gestation at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Bacterial culture and RT-PCR were performed. Antimicrobial susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics was also analyzed. Results: The overall GBS colonization rate was 7.5%. The colonization rate, sensitivity, and negative predictive value of the bacterial culture method were 2.8%, 36.8%, and 95.1%, respectively, and these values were 7.3%, 97.4%, and 99.8%, respectively, for PCR (p<0.001. The GBS colonization rate of the rectum (6.7% was higher than that of the vagina (2.8% (p=0.005. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that 100% were sensitive to penicillin, cephalosporin and vancomycin. Conclusions: RT-PCR was found to be a rapid and sensitive test for the detection of GBS colonization in Chinese pregnant women. Rectal swabbing was also important for detecting GBS colonization. β-lactams are the first-line antibiotics used for the treatment of GBS. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(4: 179-183

  14. Force, reaction time, and precision of Kung Fu strikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Bolander, Richard; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu Tavares; Bir, Cynthia

    2009-08-01

    The goal was to compare values of force, precision, and reaction time of several martial arts punches and palm strikes performed by advanced and intermediate Kung Fu practitioners, both men and women. 13 Kung Fu practitioners, 10 men and three women, participated. Only the men, three advanced and seven intermediate, were considered for comparisons between levels. Reaction time values were obtained using two high speed cameras that recorded each strike at 2500 Hz. Force of impact was measured by a load cell. For comparisons of groups, force data were normalized by participant's body mass and height. Precision of the strikes was determined by a high speed pressure sensor. The results show that palm strikes were stronger than punches. Women in the study presented, on average, lower values of reaction time and force but higher values of precision than men. Advanced participants presented higher forces than intermediate participants. Significant negative correlations between the values of force and precision and the values of force and reaction time were also found.

  15. Group Performance in Military Scenarios Under Deceptive Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hass, Michael

    2004-01-01

    .... One hundred and eight participants were grouped into teams of three, given similar instructions but different goals, and asked to play a cooperative game called StrikeCOM that mimics the intelligence...

  16. Effect of public transport strikes on air pollution levels in Barcelona (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basagaña, Xavier; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Agis, David; Pérez, Noemí; Reche, Cristina; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    Public transport strikes can lead to an increase of the number of private vehicle trips, which in turn can increase air pollution levels. We aimed to estimate the change in air pollution concentrations during public transport strikes in the city of Barcelona (Spain). Data on strikes of the metro, train or bus systems were collected from government records (2005-2016). We collected daily concentrations of NOx; particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10μm (PM10), 2.5μm (PM2.5), and 1μm (PM1); particle number concentration (N); black carbon (BC) and CO from research and official monitoring stations. We fitted linear regression models for each pollutant with the strike indicator as an independent variable, and models were adjusted for day of the week, month, year, and holiday periods. During the study period, there were 208days affected by a strike of the metro (28), train (106) or bus (91) systems. Half of the strikes were partial, most of them were single-day strikes, there was little overlap between strikes of the different transport systems, and all strikes had to comply with mandatory minimal services. When pooling all types of strikes, NOx and BC showed higher levels during strike days in comparison with non-strike days (increase between 4.1% and 7.7%, with higher increases for NO). The increases in these concentrations were more evident during full day and multiday metro strikes. In conclusion, alterations in public transport have consequences on air quality. This highlights the importance of public transport in reducing air pollution concentrations in cities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Heel–toe running: A new look at the influence of foot strike pattern on impact force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Mercer

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The unique observation of this study was that impact force was different when participants were instructed to run with either an Obvious-HS or a Subtle-HS at contact. Both these foot strike patterns would have been considered rear foot strike patterns, suggesting that something other than which specific part of the foot strikes the ground initially influenced impact force.

  18. Use of contraception by women of different religious groups: differences or similarities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Gomes Dias da Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that religion is an important cultural factor that may determine attitudes and behaviors, influencing many demographic variables such as sexuality, marriage, contraception, fertility, abortion, among others. An important variable that can be influenced by religion is the use of contraception, generating patterns differentiated by religious segment. Religion has several mechanisms of influence in the lives of practitioners of a faith, among them the rules, guidelines, sanctions and coercion. This study aims to identify and analyze possible differences in contraceptive use by religions between sexually active women in the Brazil. We used data from the National Survey of Demography and Health of Children and Women 2006 and binomial logistic regression model. The results suggest that Catholic women used more modern contraception especially hormonal options. Already evangelical women used more traditional contraception and sterilization. Thus, although the Catholic Church is against the use of modern contraception, its rules do not seem to influence the contraceptive behavior of faithful. An other inference is that the low frequency on cults may generate little commitment and lead to doctrinal relativism.

  19. Personnel Identity Management and the Expeditionary Strike Group

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neises, Glen E

    2007-01-01

    .... Chapter I defines IM and explains why IM is important for the Department of Defense (DoD). Chapter II provides an overview of DoD human resource management and Defense Manpower Data Center information systems...

  20. The Carrier Strike Group: Examining Approaches to Forward Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Presence, 4. 129 Robert O. Keohane 1941- Neorealism and Its Critics (New York: Columbia University Press, 1986), 100. 37 coalitions, an...Diplomat. April 20, 2013. http://thediplomat.com/2013/04/the-a2ad-hit-list/. Keohane , Robert O. 1941- Neorealism and Its Critics. New York: Columbia

  1. Comparison of energy balance between two different-sized groups of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Yosuke; Hanya, Goro

    2017-07-01

    Quantifying the energy balance is essential for testing socio-ecological models. To reveal costs and benefits of group living in Japanese macaques from the perspective of feeding competition, Kurihara and Hanya (Am J Primatol 77:986-1000, 2015) previously compared feeding behavior between two different-sized groups of macaques (larger group 30-35 individuals; smaller group 13-15 individuals) in the coastal forest of Yakushima, Japan. The results suggested that the larger group exhibited greater feeding effort because of intragroup scramble competition and that the smaller group suffered from higher travel costs, possibly owing to intergroup contest competition. However, it remained unclear whether the behavioral differences affected their energy budgets. The present study examined energetic consequences of the different feeding behaviors in the two groups. Using behavioral data from 10 to 13 adult females and nutritional composition of food items, we compared ingestion rates, energetic/nutritional content of diet, and energy budgets between the two groups. Ingestion rates and energetic/nutritional content of diet did not differ between the two groups. Despite the higher feeding effort of the larger group, energy intake did not differ between the two groups. Energy expenditure did not differ between the two groups because higher travel costs were negated by lower feeding effort in the smaller group. Consequently, the energy balance did not differ between the two groups. We demonstrated that the behavioral measures of feeding competition were not translated into their energetic condition; moreover, our findings re-emphasize the importance of quantifying behavioral and fitness measures for interpreting variation in feeding behavior properly.

  2. Women, transition and strikes in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Nada G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author, in a sociological way, describes and analyzes the concepts of transition, privatization and strikes in Serbia, particularly the place of women in it. It examines the most important economic and social causes and consequences of these phenomena. The main hypothesis is: women's strikes in the Serbian transition are less efficient than strikes and public protests of women in the developed world and the second Yugoslavia. A strike is a class conflict, in which the workers are fighting for their social and economic rights, threatened by the capitalist class. Elites in government and state authorities protect the interests of big capital at the detriment of the interests of the majority of workers. Exploring women's strikes in transition reveals the nature of the social and political system. Their strikes in enterprises, the blocking of public spaces and public protests are systemic, ie. class determined. As the transition was very fast, the resistance of the strikers was inefficient, and the protests of women became an expression of desperation against the loss of jobs and basic resources for lifehood. In short, this research is about the main causes, the organizational forms and the consequences of strikes in which the majority were women. For this purpose, the author chose to describe an array of strikes in the industries and the companies where women are most employed. The choice of strikes in the economic sector is not accidental, but a consequence of the fact that the women there were the most vulnerable. Women in public institutions and companies had much higher financial and social position. They are less likely to strike and publicly protested. After 2000, these strikes were more successful than worker's strikes in textile, food processing, manufacturing and trade. Relationship between the government and the public towards them was tainted by self-interest and selective. The main criterion for the selection of companies and

  3. Prevalence of vaginitis in different age groups among females in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sianou, Argiri; Galyfos, George; Moragianni, Dimitra; Baka, Stavroula

    2017-08-01

    Patients with vaginitis were classified into four groups: Group A (prepubertal under-aged females); Group B (pubertal under-aged females); Group C (reproductive age adult females); Group D (postmenopausal adult females). All vaginal specimens underwent microscopy, amine testing, Gram staining and culturing. Overall, 163 patients were included (33, 14, 81 and 35 patients, respectively). The most common infection was bacterial vaginosis (BV), followed by Ureaplasma infection, aerobic vaginitis (AV) and candidiasis. The most common AV-associated organism was Escherichia coli and the most common BV-associated organism was Gardnerella vaginalis. AV was more frequent in Group A, BV in Group C and Ureaplasma infections in Groups C/D. Decreased lactobacilli concentrations were associated with BV in fertile patients (Groups B-C). Although presentation of vaginitis is similar among females of different age in Greece, type and prevalence of pathogens differ. Normal vaginal flora changes are associated with higher risk of vaginitis in specific age groups. Impact Statement The worldwide incidence of reproductive tract infections has been increasing, with specific pathogens being associated with significant risk of morbidity and complications. However, literature data on the distribution of such infections in different age groups is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide data on the prevalence and causes of vaginitis in adult and non-adult females of all ages. This study has shown that although presentation of vaginitis is similar among females of different age groups and menstrual status in Greece, type and prevalence of responsible pathogens are different among groups. Changes in normal vaginal flora seem to be associated with higher risk of vaginitis in specific age-groups as well. These findings could contribute in adjusting diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for each age group according to the prevailing pathogens. Further research on antibiotic

  4. Foot strike patterns of runners at the 15-km point during an elite-level half marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Yamauchi, Takeshi; Kraemer, William J

    2007-08-01

    There are various recommendations by many coaches regarding foot landing techniques in distance running that are meant to improve running performance and prevent injuries. Several studies have investigated the kinematic and kinetic differences between rearfoot strike (RFS), midfoot strike (MFS), and forefoot strike (FFS) patterns at foot landing and their effects on running efficiency on a treadmill and over ground conditions. However, little is known about the actual condition of the foot strike pattern during an actual road race at the elite level of competition. The purpose of the present study was to document actual foot strike patterns during a half marathon in which elite international level runners, including Olympians, compete. Four hundred fifteen runners were filmed by 2 120-Hz video cameras in the height of 0.15 m placed at the 15.0-km point and obtained sagittal foot landing and taking off images for 283 runners. Rearfoot strike was observed in 74.9% of all analyzed runners, MFS in 23.7%, and FFS in 1.4%. The percentage of MFS was higher in the faster runners group, when all runners were ranked and divided into 50 runner groups at the 15.0-km point of the competition. In the top 50, which included up to the 69th place runner in actual order who passed the 15-km point at 45 minutes, 53 second (this speed represents 5.45 m x s(-1), or 15 minutes, 17 seconds per 5 km), RFS, MFS, and FFS were 62.0, 36.0, and 2.0%, respectively. Contact time (CT) clearly increased for the slower runners, or the placement order increased (r = 0.71, p strike was observed in 42% of all runners. The percentage of INV for MFS was higher than for RFS and FFS (62.5, 32.0, and 50%, respectively). The CT with INV for MFS + FFS was significantly shorter than the CT with and without INV for RFS. Furthermore, the CT with INV was significantly shorter than push-off time without INV for RFS. The findings of this study indicate that foot strike patterns are related to running speed. The

  5. Short term memory development : Differences in serial position curves between age groups and latent classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppenol, G.V.; Bouwmeester, S.; Vermunt, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    In studies on the development of cognitive processes, children are often grouped based on their ages before analyzing the data. After the analysis, the differences between age groups are interpreted as developmental differences. We argue that this approach is problematic because the variance in

  6. Measurement Error Correction Formula for Cluster-Level Group Differences in Cluster Randomized and Observational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sun-Joo; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Multilevel modeling (MLM) is frequently used to detect cluster-level group differences in cluster randomized trial and observational studies. Group differences on the outcomes (posttest scores) are detected by controlling for the covariate (pretest scores) as a proxy variable for unobserved factors that predict future attributes. The pretest and…

  7. Gender and Ethnic Group Differences on the GMAT Analytical Writing Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, Brent; McHale, Frederick

    Gender and ethnic group differences on the Analytical Writing Assessment that is part of the Graduate Management Admissions Test were evaluated. Data from the first operational administration for 36,583 examinees in October 1994 were used. Standardized differences from the White male reference group were computed separately for men and women in…

  8. How Cultural Differences Affect Written and Oral Communication: The Case of Peer Response Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gayle L.

    1997-01-01

    Peer response groups contribute to students' effectiveness as writers in any field, but cultural differences in communication affect interactions within the group. Culture-based dimensions on which communication may differ include individualism/collectivism, power distance, concept of "face," and communication style. Recommendations are…

  9. When Push Comes to Shove: Strikes in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magney, John

    2002-01-01

    To provide a better sense of how academic unions handle a strike situation, examines six unions who, between 1996 and 2000, went through strikes. Discusses the key issues and outcomes of the strikes. (EV)

  10. The Effect of Drama on the Creative Imagination of Children in Different Age Groups

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNDOĞAN, AYSUN; ARI, MEZİYET; GÖNEN, MÜBECCEL

    2013-01-01

    Imagination is necessary for creative ideas to emerge. The creative imagination can be developed by suitable education programs especially by drama programs with suitable activities. This article presents findings on whether the effect of drama on the creative imagination of children in different age groups differentiate or not. The experiment group of this research is comprised of 60 children (30 from the age group of 10, 30 from the age group of 13) from a regular primary school and the con...

  11. Simulating Bird Strike on Aircraft Composite Wing Leading Edge.

    OpenAIRE

    Ericsson, Max

    2012-01-01

    In this master thesis project the possibility to model the response of a wing when subjected to bird strike using finite elements is analyzed. Since this transient event lasts only a few milliseconds the used solution method is explicit time integration. The wing is manufactured using carbon fiber laminate. Carbon fiber laminates have orthotropic material properties with different stiffness in different directions. Accordingly, there are damage mechanisms not considered when using metal that ...

  12. Comparison of feeding behavior between two different-sized groups of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Yosuke; Hanya, Goro

    2015-05-13

    Group-living animals face intragroup scramble and intergroup contest competitions. Many studies have shown that larger groups bear the costs of intragroup scramble competition, which negatively affects the reproductive success of females. Unlike most primate species, Japanese macaques in the Yakushima coastal forest show increased reproductive success with group size. However, it remains unclear how group size affects the behavior of macaques. The present study examined the effects of group size on the feeding behavior of Japanese macaques in the Yakushima coastal forest. We investigated 9-13 adult females from two different-sized groups via focal animal sampling during October 2012-August 2013. We compared the feeding behavior, including patch use, between the two groups. The larger group had a larger home range and spent more time feeding, especially on mature leaves. This suggests that intragroup feeding competition should be more intense in the larger group than in the smaller group. The feeding of mature leaves might enable the larger group to increase the number of co-feeding individuals. Contrary to the predictions that the larger group travels longer distances and spends more time moving, the smaller group traveled longer distances, and spent more time moving, although the number of visited patches did not differ between the two groups. The immediate consequences of the loss of inter-group encounters could accumulate as daily travel costs, considering that group size is associated with inter-group dominance and that intergroup aggressive encounters occur frequently in the Yakushima coastal forest. This suggests that the smaller group has increased travel costs as a result of intergroup contest competition, which leads to decline in reproductive success. Am. J. Primatol. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [Appraisal of occupational stress in different gender, age, work duration, educational level and marital status groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Ming; Jin, Tai-Yi

    2006-05-01

    This study was conducted to assess occupational stress in different gender, age, work duration, educational level and marital status group. A test of occupational stress in different gender, age, work duration, educational level and marital status group, was carried out with revised occupational stress inventory (OSI-R) for 4278 participants. The results of gender show that there are heavier occupational role, stronger interpersonal and physical strain in male than that in female, and the differences are statistically significant (P 0.05). The occupational stress so as to improve the work ability of different groups. Different measure should be taken to reduce the occupational stress so as to improve the work ability of different groups.

  14. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) Profile of Modified Sba-15 at Different Amount of Alkoxy silane Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norhasyimi Rahmat; Nur Fathilah Mohd Yusof; Ezani Hafiza

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on meso porous silica SBA-15 modified with alkoxy silane functional group; phenyltriethoxysilane (PTES) and vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES) using direct synthesis and post-grafting methods. By direct synthesis method, SBA-15 template by triblock copolymer (P123) and functionalized with alkoxy silane groups at different amount of loadings were co-condensed with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) under acidic conditions. As for post-grafting method, different loadings of alkoxy silane groups were added after co-condensation of TEOS with P123 template. Both synthesis methods used calcination process to remove surfactant template at 550 degree Celsius for 5 hours. The derivatized SBA-15 was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis to evaluate the profile at different loadings of alkoxy silane groups with different synthesis method. At temperature range of 300-800 degree Celsius, post-grafting method displayed the highest weight loss of phenyl and vinyl groups. However, there was no significant difference of weight loss for different amount of organo silane groups. In this study, TGA has shown to be significant characterization means to determine the effects of different method used in synthesizing modified SBA-15. It was shown that different loading of phenyl and vinyl groups did not affect the efficiency of surfactant removal. (author)

  15. Disposal rate in different age groups of Karan Fries (Crossbred) males in organized herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panmei, Achun; Gupta, A K; Shivahre, P R; Bhakat, M; Singh, K Mahesh

    2015-02-01

    The present study was carried out to analyze the disposal rate in different age groups of Karan Fries (KF) males in National Dairy Research Institute herd. Records on 1740 KF crossbred bulls born during the period 1997-2012 were collected with an objective to ascertain the effect of genetic and non-genetic (Period of birth and season of birth) factors on the disposal pattern of KF males. The percent of animals disposed from the herd due to mortality and culling was calculated by proportion using descriptive statistics. The data were subjected to Chi-square test to test the difference due to different factors. Overall disposal rate for the different age groups of 0-1 m, 1-2 m, 2-3 m, 3-6 m, 6-18 m, 18 m-3 year and 3-5 year were calculated as 17.9, 16.3, 14.2, 25.8, 49.0, 37.6 and 51.65%, respectively. In the age groups, 3-6 m, 6-18 m and 3-5 year, effect of periods of birth were found to be statistically significant (page group except in 3-5 year age group. Differences in overall disposal rate due to genetic group were statistically significant (page groups. Overview of the results indicated that higher overall disposal rate in age group of 1 month was due to mortality while, in the age groups of >1 month, culling was the primary cause.

  16. The Influence of Climatic Seasonality on the Diversity of Different Tropical Pollinator Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Kluge, Jürgen; Gareca, Yuvinka; Reichle, Steffen; Kessler, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Tropical South America is rich in different groups of pollinators, but the biotic and abiotic factors determining the geographical distribution of their species richness are poorly understood. We analyzed the species richness of three groups of pollinators (bees and wasps, butterflies, hummingbirds) in six tropical forests in the Bolivian lowlands along a gradient of climatic seasonality and precipitation ranging from 410 mm to 6250 mm. At each site, we sampled the three pollinator groups and their food plants twice for 16 days in both the dry and rainy seasons. The richness of the pollinator groups was related to climatic factors by linear regressions. Differences in species numbers between pollinator groups were analyzed by Wilcoxon tests for matched pairs and the proportion in species numbers between pollinator groups by correlation analyses. Species richness of hummingbirds was most closely correlated to the continuous availability of food, that of bees and wasps to the number of food plant species and flowers, and that of butterflies to air temperature. Only the species number of butterflies differed significantly between seasons. We were not able to find shifts in the proportion of species numbers of the different groups of pollinators along the study gradient. Thus, we conclude that the diversity of pollinator guilds is determined by group-specific factors and that the constant proportions in species numbers of the different pollinator groups constitute a general pattern. PMID:22073268

  17. Group differences in the legitimization of inequality: Questioning the role of social dominance orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrson, Samuel; Carvacho, Héctor; Sibley, Chris G

    2017-03-01

    Social dominance orientation (SDO) is conceived as an individual's level of support for group-based hierarchy in general that causes support for more specific group hierarchies. According to social dominance theory, group differences in SDO underpin ideological and behavioural group differences related to specific group hierarchies. Using representative 5-year longitudinal panel data from New Zealand (N = 3,384), we test whether SDO mediates effects of sex and ethnicity on legitimizing myths (LMs) relating to gender and ethnic hierarchy over time. The SDO mediation hypothesis is supported in the case of hostile sexism. However, it is unsupported in the case of benevolent sexism and LMs relating to ethnic hierarchy, where there was no cross-lagged effect of SDO. Moreover, being in the dominant ethnic group is associated with more legitimization of ethnic hierarchy but less legitimization of gender hierarchy, which is inconsistent with the notion of a general orientation underpinning group differences in legitimation. There was mixed evidence for a reverse path whereby specific LMs mediate group differences in SDO across time. We argue for the need to find alternative ways to theorize ideological consensus and difference between groups. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  18. The influence of climatic seasonality on the diversity of different tropical pollinator groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Abrahamczyk

    Full Text Available Tropical South America is rich in different groups of pollinators, but the biotic and abiotic factors determining the geographical distribution of their species richness are poorly understood. We analyzed the species richness of three groups of pollinators (bees and wasps, butterflies, hummingbirds in six tropical forests in the Bolivian lowlands along a gradient of climatic seasonality and precipitation ranging from 410 mm to 6250 mm. At each site, we sampled the three pollinator groups and their food plants twice for 16 days in both the dry and rainy seasons. The richness of the pollinator groups was related to climatic factors by linear regressions. Differences in species numbers between pollinator groups were analyzed by Wilcoxon tests for matched pairs and the proportion in species numbers between pollinator groups by correlation analyses. Species richness of hummingbirds was most closely correlated to the continuous availability of food, that of bees and wasps to the number of food plant species and flowers, and that of butterflies to air temperature. Only the species number of butterflies differed significantly between seasons. We were not able to find shifts in the proportion of species numbers of the different groups of pollinators along the study gradient. Thus, we conclude that the diversity of pollinator guilds is determined by group-specific factors and that the constant proportions in species numbers of the different pollinator groups constitute a general pattern.

  19. Relationship between foot strike pattern, running speed, and footwear condition in recreational distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Roy T H; Wong, Rodney Y L; Chung, Tim K W; Choi, R T; Leung, Wendy W Y; Shek, Diana H Y

    2017-06-01

    Compared to competitive runners, recreational runners appear to be more prone to injuries, which have been associated with foot strike patterns. Surprisingly, only few studies had examined the foot strike patterns outside laboratories. Therefore, this study compared the foot strike patterns in recreational runners at outdoor tracks with previously reported data. We also investigated the relationship between foot strike pattern, speed, and footwear in this cohort. Among 434 recreational runners analysed, 89.6% of them landed with rearfoot strike (RFS). Only 6.9 and 3.5% landed with midfoot and forefoot, respectively. A significant shift towards non-RFS was observed in our cohort, when compared with previously reported data. When speed increased by 1 m/s, the odds of having forefoot strike and midfoot strike relative to RFS increased by 2.3 times and 2.6 times, respectively. Runners were 9.2 times more likely to run with a forefoot strike in minimalists compared to regular running shoes, although 70% of runners in minimalists continued to use a RFS. These findings suggest that foot strike pattern may differ across running conditions and runners should consider these factors in order to mitigate potential injury.

  20. Different pain responses to chronic and acute pain in various ethnic/racial groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahavard, Behnoosh B; Candido, Kenneth D; Knezevic, Nebojsa Nick

    2017-09-01

    Our goal in this study was to review the similarities and differences among ethnic groups and their respective responses to acute and chronic clinically related and experimentally induced pain. In this review, the PUBMED and Google-Scholar databases were searched to analyze articles that have assessed the variations in both acute and chronic pain responses among different ethnic/racial groups. According to the results from 42 reviewed articles, significant differences exist among ethnic-racial groups for pain prevalence as well as responses to acute and chronic pain. Compared with Caucasians, other ethnic groups are more susceptible to acute pain responses to nociceptive stimulation and to the development of long-term chronic pain. These differences need to be addressed and assessed more extensively in the future in order to minimize the pain management disparities among various ethnic-racial groups and also to improve the relationship between pain management providers and their patients.

  1. Strike type variation among Tarahumara Indians in minimal sandals versus conventional running shoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E. Lieberman

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: These data reinforce earlier studies that there is variation among foot strike patterns among minimally shod runners, but also support the hypothesis that foot stiffness and important aspects of running form, including foot strike, differ between runners who grow up using minimal versus modern, conventional footwear.

  2. "First among Others? Cohen's ""d"" vs. Alternative Standardized Mean Group Difference Measures"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorel Cahan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Standardized effect size measures typically employed in behavioral and social sciences research in the multi-group case (e.g., 2, f2 evaluate between-group variability in terms of either total or within-group variability, such as variance or standard deviation -' that is, measures of dispersion about the mean. In contrast, the definition of Cohen's d, the effect size measure typically computed in the two-group case, is incongruent due to a conceptual difference between the numerator -' which measures between-group variability by the intuitive and straightforward raw difference between the two group means -' and the denominator - which measures within-group variability in terms of the difference between all observations and the group mean (i.e., the pooled within-groups standard deviation, SW. Two congruent alternatives to d, in which the root square or absolute mean difference between all observation pairs is substituted for SW as the variability measure in the denominator of d, are suggested and their conceptual and statistical advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  3. [Optimal energy supply in different age groups of critically ill children on mechanical ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X H; Ji, J; Qian, S Y

    2018-01-02

    Objective: To analyze the resting energy expenditure and optimal energy supply in different age groups of critically ill children on mechanical ventilation in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Methods: Patients on mechanical ventilation hospitalized in PICU of Beijing Children's Hospital from March 2015 to March 2016 were enrolled prospectively. Resting energy expenditure of patients was calculated by US Med Graphic company critical care management (CCM) energy metabolism test system after mechanical ventilation. Patients were divided into three groups:10 years. The relationship between the measured and predictive resting energy expenditure was analyzed with correlation analysis; while the metabolism status and the optimal energy supply in different age groups were analyzed with chi square test and variance analysis. Results: A total of 102 patients were enrolled, the measured resting energy expenditure all correlated with predictive resting energy expenditure in different age groups (10 years ( r= 0.5, P= 0.0) ) . A total of 40 cases in group, including: 14 cases of low metabolism (35%), 14 cases of normal metabolism (35%), and 12 cases of high metabolism (30%); 45 cases in 3-10 years group, including: 22 cases of low metabolism (49%), 19 cases of normal metabolism (42%), 4 cases of high metabolism (9%); 17 cases in > 10 years group, including: 12 cases of low metabolism (71%), 4 cases of normal metabolism (23%), 1 case of high metabolism (6%). Metabolism status showed significant differences between different age groups ( χ (2)=11.30, P age groups ( F= 46.57, Pgroup, (184±53) kJ/ (kg⋅d) in 3-10 years group, and (120±30) kJ/ (kg⋅d) in > 10 years group. Conclusion: The resting energy metabolism of the critically ill children on mechanical ventilation is negatively related to the age. The actual energy requirement should be calculated according to different ages.

  4. Comparing the Central Eight Risk Factors: Do They Differ Across Age Groups of Sex Offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilpert, Julia; van Horn, Joan E; Boonmann, Cyril

    2018-02-01

    Following the risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model, cognitive-behavioral therapy is considered most effective in reducing recidivism when based on dynamic risk factors. As studies have found differences of these factors across age, exploring this seems beneficial. The current study investigates the Central Eight (C8) risk factors across six age groups of outpatient sex offenders ( N = 650). Results showed that recidivism rates and age were inversely related from 19 years and up. Half of the C8 did not predict general recidivism at all, substance abuse, antisocial cognition, antisocial associates, and history of antisocial behavior in only one or several age groups. However, factors differed between age groups, with the youngest group demonstrating the most dysfunction in several areas and the oldest group the least. It is concluded that the C8 risk factors seem to lose significance in the older age groups. Results may benefit targeting treatment goals.

  5. A radiographic study of the mandibular third molar root development in different ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liversidge, H M; Peariasamy, K; Folayan, M O; Adeniyi, A O; Ngom, P I; Mikami, Y; Shimada, Y; Kuroe, K; Tvete, I F; Kvaal, S I

    2017-12-01

    The nature of differences in the timing of tooth formation between ethnic groups is important when estimating age. To calculate age of transition of the mandibular third (M3) molar tooth stages from archived dental radiographs from sub-Saharan Africa, Malaysia, Japan and two groups from London UK (Whites and Bangladeshi). The number of radiographs was 4555 (2028 males, 2527 females) with an age range 10-25 years. The left M3 was staged into Moorrees stages. A probit model was fitted to calculate mean ages for transitions between stages for males and females and each ethnic group separately. The estimated age distributions given each M3 stage was calculated. To assess differences in timing of M3 between ethnic groups, three models were proposed: a separate model for each ethnic group, a joint model and a third model combining some aspects across groups. The best model fit was tested using Bayesian and Akaikes information criteria (BIC and AIC) and log likelihood ratio test. Differences in mean ages of M3 root stages were found between ethnic groups, however all groups showed large standard deviation values. The AIC and log likelihood ratio test indicated that a separate model for each ethnic group was best. Small differences were also noted between timing of M3 between males and females, with the exception of the Malaysian group. These findings suggests that features of a reference data set (wide age range and uniform age distribution) and a Bayesian statistical approach are more important than population specific convenience samples to estimate age of an individual using M3. Some group differences were evident in M3 timing, however, this has some impact on the confidence interval of estimated age in females and little impact in males because of the large variation in age.

  6. Assessing cross-cultural differences through use of multiple-group invariance analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Judith A; Lee, Jerry W; Jones, Patricia S

    2006-12-01

    The use of structural equation modeling in cross-cultural personality research has become a popular method for testing measurement invariance. In this report, we present an example of testing measurement invariance using the Sense of Coherence Scale of Antonovsky (1993) in 3 ethnic groups: Chinese, Japanese, and Whites. In a series of increasingly restrictive constraints on the measurement models of the 3 groups, we demonstrate how to assess differences among the groups. We also provide an example of construct validation.

  7. Consistent Individual Differences Drive Collective Behavior and Group Functioning of Schooling Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolles, Jolle W; Boogert, Neeltje J; Sridhar, Vivek H; Couzin, Iain D; Manica, Andrea

    2017-09-25

    The ubiquity of consistent inter-individual differences in behavior ("animal personalities") [1, 2] suggests that they might play a fundamental role in driving the movements and functioning of animal groups [3, 4], including their collective decision-making, foraging performance, and predator avoidance. Despite increasing evidence that highlights their importance [5-16], we still lack a unified mechanistic framework to explain and to predict how consistent inter-individual differences may drive collective behavior. Here we investigate how the structure, leadership, movement dynamics, and foraging performance of groups can emerge from inter-individual differences by high-resolution tracking of known behavioral types in free-swimming stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) shoals. We show that individual's propensity to stay near others, measured by a classic "sociability" assay, was negatively linked to swim speed across a range of contexts, and predicted spatial positioning and leadership within groups as well as differences in structure and movement dynamics between groups. In turn, this trait, together with individual's exploratory tendency, measured by a classic "boldness" assay, explained individual and group foraging performance. These effects of consistent individual differences on group-level states emerged naturally from a generic model of self-organizing groups composed of individuals differing in speed and goal-orientedness. Our study provides experimental and theoretical evidence for a simple mechanism to explain the emergence of collective behavior from consistent individual differences, including variation in the structure, leadership, movement dynamics, and functional capabilities of groups, across social and ecological scales. In addition, we demonstrate individual performance is conditional on group composition, indicating how social selection may drive behavioral differentiation between individuals. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by

  8. [Variation of CAG repeats in coding region of ATXN2 gene in different ethnic groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Chen; Sun, Hao; Mi, Dong-Qing; Huang, Xiao-Qin; Lin, Ke-Qin; Yi, Wen; Yu, Liang; Shi, Lei; Shi, Li; Yang, Zhao-Qing; Chu, Jia-You

    2011-04-01

    Toinvestigate CAG repeats variation of ATXN2 gene coding region in six ethnic groups that live in comparatively different environments, to evaluate whether these variations are under positive selection, and to find factors driving selection effects, 291 unrelated healthy individuals were collected from six ethnic groups and their STR geneotyping was performed. The frequencies of alleles and genotypes were counted and thereby Slatkin's linearized Fst values were calculated. The UPGMA tree against this gene was constructed. The MDS analysis among these groups was carried out as well. The results from the linearized Fst values indicated that there were significant evolutionary differences of the STR in ATXN2 gene between Hui and Yi groups, but not among the other 4 groups. Further analysis was performed by combining our data with published data obtained from other groups. These results indicated that there were significant differences between Japanese and other groups including Hui, Hani, Yunnan Mongolian, and Inner Mongolian. Both Hui and Mongolian from Inner Mongolia were significantly different from Han. In conclusion, the six ethnic groups had their own distribution characterizations of allelic frequencies of ATXN2 STR, and the potential cause of frequency changes in rare alleles could be the consequence of positive selection.

  9. Self-Assembled Monolayers on Gold of β-Cyclodextrin Adsorbates with Different Anchoring Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Méndez Ardoy, Alejandro; Steentjes, Tom; Kudernac, Tibor; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2014-01-01

    We designed multivalent β-cyclodextrin-based adsorbates bearing different anchoring groups aiming to yield stable monolayers with improved packing and close contact of the cavity to the gold surface. Toward this end the primary rim of the β-cyclodextrin was decorated with several functional groups,

  10. Bumblebee workers from different sire groups vary in susceptibility to parasite infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; Schmid-Hempel, Paul

    2003-01-01

    is so far only supported indirectly. Here we tested this crucial assumption using data from a study on the bumblebee Bombus terrestris L. with queens inseminated with sperm of either one or several males that originated from different sire groups (i.e. groups of brothers). We found that, under field...

  11. Short-term memory development: differences in serial position curves between age groups and latent classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppenol-Gonzalez, Gabriela V; Bouwmeester, Samantha; Vermunt, Jeroen K

    2014-10-01

    In studies on the development of cognitive processes, children are often grouped based on their ages before analyzing the data. After the analysis, the differences between age groups are interpreted as developmental differences. We argue that this approach is problematic because the variance in cognitive performance within an age group is considered to be measurement error. However, if a part of this variance is systematic, it can provide very useful information about the cognitive processes used by some children of a certain age but not others. In the current study, we presented 210 children aged 5 to 12 years with serial order short-term memory tasks. First we analyze our data according to the approach using age groups, and then we apply latent class analysis to form latent classes of children based on their performance instead of their ages. We display the results of the age groups and the latent classes in terms of serial position curves, and we discuss the differences in results. Our findings show that there are considerable differences in performance between the age groups and the latent classes. We interpret our findings as indicating that the latent class analysis yielded a much more meaningful way of grouping children in terms of cognitive processes than the a priori grouping of children based on their ages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Oxygen Saturation in the Dental Pulp of Maxillary Premolars in Different Age Groups - Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrela, Carlos; Serpa, Giuliano C; Alencar, Ana Helena G; Bruno, Kely F; Barletta, Fernando B; Felippe, Wilson T; Estrela, Cyntia R A; Souza, João B

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine oxygen saturation levels in the dental pulp of maxillary premolars in different age groups. A total of 120 human maxillary premolars with normal dental pulps were selected covering the following age groups: 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39 and 40-44 years (n=24 each group). Oxygen saturation was assessed using pulse oximetry. Analysis of variance was used to assess differences in oxygen saturation levels and Tukey's test was used to identify the age groups that differed from each other. Significance was set at 0.05. Mean oxygen saturation of 120 premolars was 86.20% considering all age groups. Significantly reduced levels were found in the oldest group compared to the other groups: 40 to 44 years - 80.00% vs. 89.71, 87.67, 88.71, and 84.80% for age groups 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39 years, respectively. The mean oxygen saturation levels were similar between 20 and 39 years of age (86.20%) in the whole sample, but reduced significantly in the 40-44-year age group, suggesting that older patients present lower oxygen saturation results even in the absence of pulp tissue injury.

  13. Giardia muris and Giardia duodenalis groups: ultrastructural differences between the trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogayar, M I; Gregório, E A

    1989-01-01

    Trophozoites of the Giardia muris group from hamsters, domestic rats and mice and of the Giardia duodenalis group from hamsters and domestic rats were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The basic ultrastructure of the trophozoites was similar. Differences were shown in the morphology of the ventrolateral flange of the trophozoites of Giardia muris and Giardia duodenalis groups. Marginal plates are less developed in the species of the Giardia duodenalis group. In this group, the distal extremity of the lateral flange is short and thick and the marginal plate does not penetrate into the distal extremity of the flange. In the Giardia muris group, the ventro-lateral flange is well developed and narrow and the marginal plate penetrates the distal extremity of the flange. The osmiophilic lamella, which accompanies the dorsal surface of the marginal plate is seen only in the Giardia muris group.

  14. Giardia muris and Giardia duodenalis groups: ultrastructural differences between the trophozoites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês L. Sogayar

    1989-08-01

    Full Text Available Trophozoites of the Giardia muris group from hamsters, domestic rats and mice and of the Giardia duodenalis group from hamsters and domestic rats were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The basic ultrastructure of the trophozoites was similar. Differences were shown in the morphology of the ventrolateral flange of the trophozoites of Giardia muris and Giardia duodenalis groups. Marginal plates are less developed in the species of the Giardia duodenalis group. In this group, the distal extremity of the lateral flange is short and thick and the marginal plate does not penetrate into the distal extremity of the flange. In the Giardia muris group, the ventro-lateral flange is well developed and narrow and the marginal plate penetrates the distal extremity of the flange. The osmiophilic lamella, which accompanies the dorsal surface of the marginal plate is seen only in the Giardia muris group.

  15. Heel–toe running: A new look at the influence of foot strike pattern on impact force

    OpenAIRE

    John A. Mercer; Sarah Horsch

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective: It is important to understand the factors that influence the impact force observed during running, since the impact force is likely to be related to overuse injuries. The purpose of this study was to compare the impact force during running when participants were instructed to use different foot strike patterns: obvious heel strike (Obvious-HS), subtle heel strike (Subtle-HS), midfoot strike (Mid-FS), and fore foot strike (Fore-FS) patterns. Methods: Participants (n = ...

  16. Group Differences in Test-Taking Behaviour: An Example from a High-Stakes Testing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenlund, Tova; Eklöf, Hanna; Lyrén, Per-Erik

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether different groups of test-takers vary in their reported test-taking behaviour in a high-stakes test situation. A between-group design (N = 1129) was used to examine whether high and low achievers, as well as females and males, differ in their use of test-taking strategies, and in level of reported test anxiety and…

  17. Analysis of changes of demographic parameters in different groups of Chernigiv region population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gridzhuk, M.Yu.

    1998-01-01

    To perform comparison of the changes in different social and age groups of the population of Chernigiv region, Kozeletsky district in particular, which was exposed to considerable radioactive contamination, during the recent 20 years (beginning from 1977). The Chernobyl accident together with social and other unfavorable factors caused negative demographic changes in the contaminated districts. Reduction in the number of different social groups of the population is expected

  18. Comparison in anesthetic effects of propofol among patients with different ABO blood groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yiri; Shi, Haixia; Yu, Jianshe

    2017-05-01

    Our study was aimed to investigate anesthetic effects of propofol in patients with different blood groups.A total of 72 participants were enrolled from patients arranged for surgeries of cholecystectomy, tonsillectomy, and spinal operation. Each blood group (A, B, AB, and O) contained 18 participants. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and bispectral index (BIS) were assayed with Philips monitor. These indexes were observed before propofol anesthesia (T0), and then were recorded when concentration of propofol was 1 μg/mL (T1), 2 μg/mL (T2), 3 μg/mL (T3), and 4 μg/mL (T4). The differences in MAP, HR, and BIS at T0 among groups were compared with the χ test. Multiple comparisons were adopted to calculate the differences in MAP, HR, and BIS between groups at T1, T2, T3, and T4.No significant differences in age, sex, and weight of all groups were found (P > .05). Before propofol anesthesia (T0), all the participants exhibited no differences in MAP, HR, and BIS (P > .05). Subsequently, we found obvious differences in ΔMAP, ΔHR, and ΔBIS between groups. The patients in the B blood group showed highest ΔMAP and ΔHR at each time point (P blood group exhibited highest value at T3 and T4 (P blood group remarkably affects the anesthetic effects of propofol.

  19. Constructing a Measurement Method of Differences in Group Preferences Based on Relative Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the research and data analysis of the differences involved in group preferences, conventional statistical methods cannot reflect the integrity and preferences of human minds; in particular, it is difficult to exclude humans’ irrational factors. This paper introduces a preference amount model based on relative entropy theory. A related expansion is made based on the characteristics of the questionnaire data, and we also construct the parameters to measure differences in the data distribution of different groups on the whole. In this paper, this parameter is called the center distance, and it effectively reflects the preferences of human minds. Using the survey data of securities market participants as an example, this paper analyzes differences in market participants’ attitudes toward the effectiveness of securities regulation. Based on this method, differences between groups that were overlooked by analysis of variance are found, and certain aspects obscured by general data characteristics are also found.

  20. Age-Group Differences in Interference from Young and Older Emotional Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Natalie C; Johnson, Marcia K

    2010-11-01

    Human attention is selective, focusing on some aspects of events at the expense of others. In particular, angry faces engage attention. Most studies have used pictures of young faces, even when comparing young and older age groups. Two experiments asked (1) whether task-irrelevant faces of young and older individuals with happy, angry, and neutral expressions disrupt performance on a face-unrelated task, (2) whether interference varies for faces of different ages and different facial expressions, and (3) whether young and older adults differ in this regard. Participants gave speeded responses on a number task while irrelevant faces appeared in the background. Both age groups were more distracted by own than other-age faces. In addition, young participants' responses were slower for angry than happy faces, whereas older participants' responses were slower for happy than angry faces. Factors underlying age-group differences in interference from emotional faces of different ages are discussed.

  1. A very strong difference property for semisimple compact connected lie groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtern, A. I.

    2011-06-01

    Let G be a topological group. For a function f: G → ℝ and h ∈ G, the difference function Δ h f is defined by the rule Δ h f( x) = f( xh) - f( x) ( x ∈ G). A function H: G → ℝ is said to be additive if it satisfies the Cauchy functional equation H( x + y) = H( x) + H( y) for every x, y ∈ G. A class F of real-valued functions defined on G is said to have the difference property if, for every function f: G → ℝ satisfying Δ h f ∈ F for each h ∈ G, there is an additive function H such that f - H ∈ F. Erdős' conjecture claiming that the class of continuous functions on ℝ has the difference property was proved by N. G. de Bruijn; later on, F. W. Carroll and F. S. Koehl obtained a similar result for compact Abelian groups and, under the additional assumption that the other one-sided difference function ∇ h f defined by ∇ h f( x) = f( xh) - f( x) ( x ∈ G, h ∈ G) is measurable for any h ∈ G, also for noncommutative compact metric groups. In the present paper, we consider a narrower class of groups, namely, the family of semisimple compact connected Lie groups. It turns out that these groups admit a significantly stronger difference property. Namely, if a function f: G → ℝ on a semisimple compact connected Lie group has continuous difference functions Δ h f for any h ∈ G (without the additional assumption concerning the measurability of the functions of the form ∇ h f), then f is automatically continuous, and no nontrivial additive function of the form H is needed. Some applications are indicated, including difference theorems for homogeneous spaces of compact connected Lie groups.

  2. Some New Lie Symmetry Groups of Differential-Difference Equations Obtained from a Simple Direct Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi Hongyan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, based on the symbolic computing system Maple, the direct method for Lie symmetry groups presented by Sen-Yue Lou [J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 38 (2005) L129] is extended from the continuous differential equations to the differential-difference equations. With the extended method, we study the well-known differential-difference KP equation, KZ equation and (2+1)-dimensional ANNV system, and both the Lie point symmetry groups and the non-Lie symmetry groups are obtained.

  3. THE DIFFERENCES IN MORAL, GROUP IDENTITY AND THE PERCON’S VARIABILITY DEPENDING ON THE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Aleksandrobna Kolinichenko

    2017-06-01

    Results. The results of the study have revealed the dominance of all specified assessment parameters in the group of test subjects with incomplete higher education: higher level of moral development in all dilemmas (the opposition of life values (compassion and following the law, self-interest – the interests of the city (law, business (benefit and law, personal interests (career and the freedom of another person, except for the dilemma of the opposition between the interests of a majority and a single person. The differences have also been revealed between the two groups of test subjects according to the group identity, group variability, the desirability of the common categories of identity.

  4. Clinical-anthropometric characteristics of COPD outpatients belonging to the different groups and having different severity of airway obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gashynova K.Y.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the clinical and anthropometric characteristics of patients with COPD, which differ in the degree of airways obstruction and belong to groups A, B, C, D in accordance with GOLD, 2011 classification. A total of 112 ambulatory COPD patients in remission made the study sample. Anthropometric data, body mass index, medical history, dyspnea by mMRC scale, and spirometry was performed for all patients. There was confirmed that outpatients with COPD is a heterogeneous group, in which the majority are those with moderate (48.22 % and severe (30.36 %, airway obstruction. Despite the vast majority of men among outpatients, the percentage of women among patients with mild to moderate obstruction (22.58±5.31 % was significantly higher (p=0.002 as compared with those with severe or very severe limitation of airflow (6.00±3.36 %. Patients with severe and very severe obstruction were of significantly older age (p = 0.024. At the same time, the distribution of patients according to the GOLD, 2011 classification, demonstrate that all groups did not differ on any of the anthropometric indicators, including gender and age (p > 0.050. Distribution of patients by groups with different risk for future exacerbations is not a mirror image of gradation in accordance with the degree of airway obstruction. Every second (50.00±4.43 % of cases patient is included in group C and every tenth (10.20±4.32 % belongs to the group D not due to degree of bronchial obstruction, but due to the number of exa­cerbations in the past year. Therefore, in future studies it is advisable to use both principles of patients’ classification.

  5. Normative and subjective need for orthodontic treatment within different age groups in a population in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Yilmaz, R B; Oktay, I; Ilhan, D; Fişekçioğlu, E; Özdemir, Fulya

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate and compare the normative and subjective need for orthodontic treatment within different age groups in Turkey. One thousand and sixteen patients from seven different demographic regions of Turkey (Marmara, Black Sea, East Anatolia, Southeastern Anatolia, Mediterranean, Aegean, and Central Anatolia Region) (mean age ± SD: 12.80 ± 3.57 years) were randomly selected and divided into six age groups (7-8,9-10,11-12,13-14,15-16, and 17-18 year-olds) and categorized according to the dental health component (DHC) of the index for orthodontic treatment need (IOTN). Additionally, the patients were asked to indicate the photograph that was most similar to their own dentition from the 10-point scale of the aesthetic component of IOTN. The DHC of IOTN was not significantly different between the six age groups (P > 0.05). However, no/slight need (aesthetic component 1-4) for orthodontic treatment according to AC of IOTN was significantly higher in 13-14,15-16, and 17-18 age groups than 7-8, 9-10, and 11-12 age groups (P age groups (P > 0.05). The normative need distribution was homogeneous within all the age groups according to DHC. However, the subjective need for orthodontic treatment was higher in the younger age groups.

  6. Facile fabrication of siloxane @ poly (methylacrylic acid) core-shell microparticles with different functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zheng-Bai; Tai, Li; Zhang, Da-Ming; Jiang, Yong, E-mail: yj@seu.edu.cn [Southeast University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2017-02-15

    Siloxane @ poly (methylacrylic acid) core-shell microparticles with functional groups were prepared by a facile hydrolysis-condensation method in this work. Three different silane coupling agents 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS), 3-triethoxysilylpropylamine (APTES), and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) were added along with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) into the polymethylacrylic acid (PMAA) microparticle ethanol dispersion to form the Si@PMAA core-shell microparticles with different functional groups. The core-shell structure and the surface special functional groups of the resulting microparticles were measured by transmission electron microscopy and FTIR. The sizes of these core-shell microparticles were about 350–400 nm. The corresponding preparation conditions and mechanism were discussed in detail. This hydrolysis-condensation method also could be used to functionalize other microparticles which contain active groups on the surface. Meanwhile, the Si@PMAA core-shell microparticles with carbon-carbon double bonds and amino groups have further been applied to prepare hydrophobic coatings.

  7. Facile fabrication of siloxane @ poly (methylacrylic acid) core-shell microparticles with different functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zheng-Bai; Tai, Li; Zhang, Da-Ming; Jiang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Siloxane @ poly (methylacrylic acid) core-shell microparticles with functional groups were prepared by a facile hydrolysis-condensation method in this work. Three different silane coupling agents 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS), 3-triethoxysilylpropylamine (APTES), and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) were added along with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) into the polymethylacrylic acid (PMAA) microparticle ethanol dispersion to form the Si@PMAA core-shell microparticles with different functional groups. The core-shell structure and the surface special functional groups of the resulting microparticles were measured by transmission electron microscopy and FTIR. The sizes of these core-shell microparticles were about 350–400 nm. The corresponding preparation conditions and mechanism were discussed in detail. This hydrolysis-condensation method also could be used to functionalize other microparticles which contain active groups on the surface. Meanwhile, the Si@PMAA core-shell microparticles with carbon-carbon double bonds and amino groups have further been applied to prepare hydrophobic coatings.

  8. The applicability of measures of socioeconomic position to different ethnic groups within the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambert Helen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper we seek to tease out differences in socioeconomic position between ethnic groups. There are 3 main reasons why conventional socioeconomic indicators and asset based measures may not be equally applicable to all ethnic groups: 1 Differences in response rate to conventional socioeconomic indicators 2 Cultural and social differences in economic priorities/opportunities 3 Differences in housing quality, assets and debt within socioeconomic strata Methods The sample consisted of White (n = 227, African-Caribbean (n = 213 and Indian and Pakistani (n = 233 adults aged between 18 and 59 years living in Leeds as measured in a stratified population survey. Measures included income, education, employment, car ownership, home ownership, housing quality, household assets, investments, debt, perceived ability to obtain various sums and perceived level of financial support given and received. Results Response rates to education and income questions were similar for the different ethnic groups. Overall response rates for income were much lower than those for education and biased towards wealthier people. There were differences between ethnic groups in economic priorities/opportunities particularly in relation to car ownership, home ownership, investment and debt. Differences in living conditions, household assets and debt between ethnic groups were dependent on differences in education; however differences in car ownership, home ownership, ability to obtain £10 000, and loaning money to family/friends and income from employment/self employment persisted after adjustment for education. Conclusion In the UK, education appears to be an effective variable for measuring variation in SEP across ethnic groups but the ability to account for SEP differences may be improved by the addition of car and home ownership, ability to obtain £10 000, loaning money to family/friends and income from employment/self employment. Further research

  9. The applicability of measures of socioeconomic position to different ethnic groups within the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelaher, Margaret; Paul, Sheila; Lambert, Helen; Ahmad, Waqar; Smith, George Davey

    2009-02-27

    In this paper we seek to tease out differences in socioeconomic position between ethnic groups. There are 3 main reasons why conventional socioeconomic indicators and asset based measures may not be equally applicable to all ethnic groups:1) Differences in response rate to conventional socioeconomic indicators2) Cultural and social differences in economic priorities/opportunities3) Differences in housing quality, assets and debt within socioeconomic strata The sample consisted of White (n = 227), African-Caribbean (n = 213) and Indian and Pakistani (n = 233) adults aged between 18 and 59 years living in Leeds as measured in a stratified population survey. Measures included income, education, employment, car ownership, home ownership, housing quality, household assets, investments, debt, perceived ability to obtain various sums and perceived level of financial support given and received. Response rates to education and income questions were similar for the different ethnic groups. Overall response rates for income were much lower than those for education and biased towards wealthier people. There were differences between ethnic groups in economic priorities/opportunities particularly in relation to car ownership, home ownership, investment and debt. Differences in living conditions, household assets and debt between ethnic groups were dependent on differences in education; however differences in car ownership, home ownership, ability to obtain pound10 000, and loaning money to family/friends and income from employment/self employment persisted after adjustment for education. In the UK, education appears to be an effective variable for measuring variation in SEP across ethnic groups but the ability to account for SEP differences may be improved by the addition of car and home ownership, ability to obtain pound10 000, loaning money to family/friends and income from employment/self employment. Further research is required to establish the degree to which results of

  10. [Effect of obesity on pulmonary function in asthmatic children of different age groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Wen; Huang, Ying; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xue-Li; Liang, Fan-Mei; Luo, Rong

    2017-05-01

    To study the effect of obesity on pulmonary function in newly diagnosed asthmatic children of different age groups. Two hundred and ninety-four children with newly diagnosed asthma were classified into preschool-age (age (6 to 12.5 years) groups. They were then classified into obese, overweight, and normal-weight subgroups based on their body mass index (BMI). All the children underwent pulmonary function tests, including large airway function tests [forced vital capacity (FVC%) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%)] and small airway function tests [maximal expiratory flow at 25% of vital capacity (MEF25%), maximal expiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity (MEF50%), and maximal expiratory flow at 75% of vital capacity (MEF75%)]. The school-age group showed lower FEV1%, MEF25%, and MEF50% than the preschool-age group (Page group had lower FEV1%, MEF25%, and MEF50% compared with their counterparts in the preschool-age group (Page group showed lower FVC% and MEF50% than those in the preschool-age group. However, all the pulmonary function parameters showed no significant differences between the obese children in the preschool-age and school-age groups. In the preschool-age group, FVC%, FEV1%, and MEF75% of the obese children were lower than those of the normal-weight children. In the school-age group, only FVC% and FEV1% showed differences between the obese and normal-weight children (Page in children with asthma, and the effect is more obvious in those of preschool age.

  11. Students of Different Subjects Have Different Levels of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation to Learn English: Two Different Groups of EFL Students in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kieran; Fujita, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    Here is documented investigation to assess the motivational drivers of a group of Japanese, first-year, dental-university students taking part in compulsory EFL classes and to compare those motivational drivers with an investigation into the motivational drivers of a group of Japanese IT students. There was a clear difference between extrinsic and…

  12. The use and risk of portable electronic devices while cycling among different age groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldenbeld, C. Houtenbos, M. Ehlers, E. & Waard, D. de

    2012-01-01

    In The Netherlands, a survey was set up to monitor the extent of the use of portable, electronic devices while cycling amongst different age groups of cyclists and to estimate the possible consequences for safety. The main research questions concerned age differences in the self-reported use of

  13. The use and risk of portable electronic devices while cycling among different age groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldenbeld, C.; Houtenbos, M.; Ehlers, E.; De Waard, D.

    Introduction: In the Netherlands, a survey was set up to monitor the extent of the use of portable, electronic devices while cycling amongst different age groups of cyclists and to estimate the possible consequences for safety. Method: The main research questions concerned age differences in the

  14. Smoking and Adolescence: Exploring Tobacco Consumption and Related Attitudes in Three Different Adolescent Groups in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Marlene; Maggiori, Christian; Gygax, Pascal Mark; Gay, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    The present study constitutes an investigation of tobacco consumption, related attitudes and individual differences in smoking or non-smoking behaviors in a sample of adolescents of different ages in the French-speaking part of Switzerland. We investigated three school-age groups (7th-grade, 9th-grade, and the second-year of high school) for…

  15. Maternal Child-Rearing Patterns and Children's Scholastic Achievement in Different Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Richard D.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the general proposition that different maternal child-rearing pattern-types (permissive or restrictive) are associated with high scholastic achievement in elementary school children from four different class-culture groupings (black middle-class, black working-class, white middle-class, and white…

  16. Understanding Disproportionate Representation in Special Education by Examining Group Differences in Behavior Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Christina D.; Kranzler, John H.; Algina, James; Smith, Stephen W.; Daunic, Ann P.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine mean-group differences on behavior rating scales and variables that may predict such differences. Sixty-five teachers completed the Clinical Assessment of Behavior-Teacher Form (CAB-T) for a sample of 982 students. Four outcome variables from the CAB-T were assessed. Hierarchical linear modeling was used…

  17. Adolescents' Motivation for Reading: Group Differences and Relation to Standardized Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Christopher A.; Denton, Carolyn A.; York, Mary J.; Francis, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend the research on adolescents' motivation for reading by examining important group differences and the relation of motivation to standardized achievement. Adolescents (N = 406) ranging from grade 7 to grade 12 completed a self-report survey that assessed 13 different aspects of their reading motivation…

  18. Occurrence and strain diversity of thermophilic campylobacters in cattle of different age groups in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva M.

    2002-01-01

    . Serotype 2 was especially prevalent among calves (68% of the positive calves). In eight of the 20 positive herds, all isolates had the same sero- and PFGE type while, in the other herds, two to five different types were isolated. Conclusions: Significant differences were found between age groups...

  19. The Comparison of Different Age Groups on the Attitudes toward and the Use of ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiatko, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Different factors may be influencing the use of information and communication technology (ICT). One of the important factors is age. The society is divided into different groups according to age. A well-known age-based categorization, commonly used especially in the field of economics,, is based on whether people belong to the Millennial…

  20. Performance Assessment and the Components of the Oral Construct across Different Tasks and Rater Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline

    This study investigated whether different groups of native speakers assess second language learners' language skills differently for three elicitation techniques. Subjects were six learners of college-level Arabic as a second language, tape-recorded performing three tasks: participating in a modified oral proficiency interview, narrating a picture…

  1. Modeling Group Differences in OLS and Orthogonal Regression: Implications for Differential Validity Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael T.; Mroch, Andrew A.

    2010-01-01

    In evaluating the relationship between two measures across different groups (i.e., in evaluating "differential validity") it is necessary to examine differences in correlation coefficients and in regression lines. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression is the standard method for fitting lines to data, but its criterion for optimal fit…

  2. Erythrocyte enzymes in groups of Rattus norvegicus with genetic differences in 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, N A; Tanaka, K R

    1979-01-01

    1. A major locus with two alleles is responsible for large differences in erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) levels in Rattus norvegicus. Blood from homozygous High-DPG, homozygous Low-DPG and heterozygous animals was used to measure blood indices and red cell enzyme activities. 2. Significant differences between groups were found in DPG levels, white blood cell counts and hemoglobin levels. 3. The results suggest that none of the red cell enzymes assayed is structurally or quantitatively different in the three groups.

  3. Estimating the contribution of genetic variants to difference in incidence of disease between population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonesinghe, Ramal; Ioannidis, John P A; Flanders, W Dana; Yang, Quanhe; Truman, Benedict I; Khoury, Muin J

    2012-08-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genetic susceptibility variants to several complex human diseases. However, risk-genotype frequency at loci showing robust associations might differ substantially among different populations. In this paper, we present methods to assess the contribution of genetic variants to the difference in the incidence of disease between different population groups for different scenarios. We derive expressions for the contribution of a single genetic variant, multiple genetic variants, and the contribution of the joint effect of a genetic variant and an environmental factor to the difference in the incidence of disease. The contribution of genetic variants to the difference in incidence increases with increasing difference in risk-genotype frequency, but declines with increasing difference in incidence between the two populations. The contribution of genetic variants also increases with increasing relative risk and the contribution of joint effect of genetic and environmental factors increases with increasing relative risk of the gene-environmental interaction. The contribution of genetic variants to the difference in incidence between two populations can be expressed as a function of the population attributable risks of the genetic variants in the two populations. The contribution of a group of genetic variants to the disparity in incidence of disease could change considerably by adding one more genetic variant to the group. Any estimate of genetic contribution to the disparity in incidence of disease between two populations at this stage seems to be an elusive goal.

  4. Estimating the contribution of genetic variants to difference in incidence of disease between population groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonesinghe, Ramal; Ioannidis, John PA; Flanders, W Dana; Yang, Quanhe; Truman, Benedict I; Khoury, Muin J

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genetic susceptibility variants to several complex human diseases. However, risk-genotype frequency at loci showing robust associations might differ substantially among different populations. In this paper, we present methods to assess the contribution of genetic variants to the difference in the incidence of disease between different population groups for different scenarios. We derive expressions for the contribution of a single genetic variant, multiple genetic variants, and the contribution of the joint effect of a genetic variant and an environmental factor to the difference in the incidence of disease. The contribution of genetic variants to the difference in incidence increases with increasing difference in risk-genotype frequency, but declines with increasing difference in incidence between the two populations. The contribution of genetic variants also increases with increasing relative risk and the contribution of joint effect of genetic and environmental factors increases with increasing relative risk of the gene–environmental interaction. The contribution of genetic variants to the difference in incidence between two populations can be expressed as a function of the population attributable risks of the genetic variants in the two populations. The contribution of a group of genetic variants to the disparity in incidence of disease could change considerably by adding one more genetic variant to the group. Any estimate of genetic contribution to the disparity in incidence of disease between two populations at this stage seems to be an elusive goal. PMID:22333905

  5. Factors affecting defensive strike behavior in Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) provoked by humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, McKayka M.; Lardner, Bjorn; Mazurek, M.J.; Reed, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    Striking is a typical antipredator defense exhibited by many species of snakes. While trapping Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) on Guam, we observed that snakes most frequently struck at an approaching person at a site where snakes had been trapped, marked, and handled in the past. Using a combination of between-sites and within-site comparisons, we assessed if the propensity to strike was correlated with capture histories (both recent and long-term), snake size, body condition (a proxy to nutritional stress), sex, or tail condition (broken or intact), while controlling for confounding variables. We confirmed that propensity to strike was higher at the site where we had been conducting capture-mark-recapture for several years. However, we were unable to demonstrate a correlation between striking tendencies and individual recent or long-term capture histories. The only morphological covariate that had an effect on strike propensity was sex, with females striking more often than males. After removing the site effect from our model, we found that snakes missing parts of their tails were more likely to strike than snakes with intact tails. We have yet to identify the factor(s) that cause the pronounced difference across sites in snake propensity to strike, and data from additional sites might help elucidate any geographical patterns.

  6. Effects of Foot Strike and Step Frequency on Achilles Tendon Stress During Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyght, Michael; Nockerts, Matthew; Kernozek, Thomas W; Ragan, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Achilles tendon (AT) injuries are common in runners. The AT withstands high magnitudes of stress during running which may contribute to injury. Our purpose was to examine the effects of foot strike pattern and step frequency on AT stress and strain during running utilizing muscle forces based on a musculoskeletal model and subject-specific ultrasound-derived AT cross-sectional area. Nineteen female runners performed running trials under 6 conditions, including rearfoot strike and forefoot strike patterns at their preferred cadence, +5%, and -5% preferred cadence. Rearfoot strike patterns had less peak AT stress (P forefoot strike pattern. A reduction in peak AT stress and strain were exhibited with a +5% preferred step frequency relative to the preferred condition using a rearfoot (P forefoot (P=.005) strike pattern. Strain rate was not different (P > .05) between step frequencies within each foot strike condition. Our results suggest that a rearfoot pattern may reduce AT stress, strain, and strain rate. Increases in step frequency of 5% above preferred frequency, regardless of foot strike pattern, may also lower peak AT stress and strain.

  7. Footwear Matters: Influence of Footwear and Foot Strike on Load Rates during Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Hannah M; Jamison, Steve T; Davis, Irene S

    2016-12-01

    Running with a forefoot strike (FFS) pattern has been suggested to reduce the risk of overuse running injuries, due to a reduced vertical load rate compared with rearfoot strike (RFS) running. However, resultant load rate has been reported to be similar between foot strikes when running in traditional shoes, leading to questions regarding the value of running with a FFS. The influence of minimal footwear on the resultant load rate has not been considered. This study aimed to compare component and resultant instantaneous loading rate (ILR) between runners with different foot strike patterns in their habitual footwear conditions. Twenty-nine injury-free participants (22 men, seven women) ran at 3.13 m·s along a 30-m runway, with their habitual foot strike and footwear condition. Ground reaction force data were collected. Peak ILR values were compared between three conditions; those who habitually run with an RFS in standard shoes, with an FFS in standard shoes, and with an FFS in minimal shoes. Peak resultant, vertical, lateral, and medial ILR were lower (P strike. When running with an FFS, peak posterior ILR were lower (P strike. Therefore, it appears that footwear alters the load rates during running, even with similar foot strike patterns.

  8. Comparison of micelle structure of glycolipids with different head groups by small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Lizhong; Middelberg, Anton; Hartmann, Thorsten; Niemeyer, Bernd; Garamus, V.M.; Willumeit, Regine

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Glycolipids such as n-alkyl- beta-D-glucopyranoside and n-alkyl- beta-D-maltopyranoside can self-assemble into different structures depending on solution conditions. Their amphiphilic properties enable them to serve as biosurfactants in biology and biotechnology, especially for solubilizing membrane proteins. The physicochemical properties of glycolipids have attracted attentions from several research groups, aiming to better understand their application in biological and environmental processes. For example, small angle neutron and X-ray scattering have been used to study micelle structures formed by glycolipids. Our previous work has shown that n-octyl-beta- D-glucopyranoside and n-octyl- beta-D-maltopyranoside form micelles with different structure, suggesting an important role of the sugar head group in micelle formation. In the present work, we further compare micelle structures of n-octyl- beta-Dglucopyranoside and n-octyl- beta-D-galactopyranoside. These two glycolipids have the same hydrophobic tail and their head sugar groups differ only in the conformation with one hydroxyl group pointing to different direction. Our SANS data together with phase behaviours reported by other group have suggested that a slight alteration of head group conformation can significantly affect self-assembly of glycolipids. (authors)

  9. Evaluating a blended-learning course taught to different groups of learners in a dental school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahinis, Kimon; Stokes, Christopher W; Walsh, Trevor F; Cannavina, Giuseppe

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to present and evaluate a blended-learning course developed for undergraduate (B.D.S.), postgraduate, and diploma (hygiene and therapy) students at the University of Sheffield School of Clinical Dentistry. Blended learning is the integration of classroom face-to-face learning with online learning. The overall methodology used for this study was action research. The data were collected using three processes: questionnaires to collect contextual data from the students taking the course; a student-led, nominal group technique to collect group data from the participants; and a non-participant observer technique to record the context in which certain group and individual behaviors occurred. The online component of the course was accepted as a valuable resource by 65 percent of those responding. While online information-sharing occurred (31 percent of the students posted in forums), there was no evidence of online collaboration, with only 8 percent replying to forum postings. Accessibility of the online environment was one of the main concerns of the students at the nominal group sessions. Differences regarding overall engagement with the course between the student groups (years) were observed during the sessions. The majority of the students were satisfied with the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) course. No statistically significant differences between males and females were found, but there were differences between different student cohorts (year groups).

  10. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Matheus M; Reis, Júlia G; Carvalho, Regiane L; Tanaka, Erika H; Hyppolito, Miguel A; Abreu, Daniela C C

    2015-01-01

    muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (ppostural control performance (ppostural control shown by these women.

  11. Clinical and immunological characteristics of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in women of different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutdusova A.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the clinical and immunological features of the hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in women of different age groups. Materials and methods: Clinical and laboratory characteristics of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in 148 women aged 17 to 65 years old have been investigated. Patients have been divided into two groups: group I included 101 patients with normal menstrual rhythm, group II included 47 female patients with menopause. In 57 women (36 from group I, 21 — from group II the content of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD16+, CD19+ — sub-populations of peripheral blood lymphocytes has been determined. Results: In compared groups significant differences in structure and frequency of complications of the disease have been revealed. Unidirectional tendency to increase significantly reduced absolute rates of investigated lymphocyte subpopulations in dynamics of the disease has been identified. It also has been stated that by the time of early convalescence in case of severe form of HFRS the indices did not reach the standard level. In an older group of women deeper damage and long-term recovery of immune system have been marked. Conclusion: According to the results of clinical and immunological studies the research work has revealed that in young women the response of the immune system to HFRS has developed faster and stronger than that in patients during the menopause period.

  12. Central hyperadrenergic state after lightning strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsaik, Ajay K; Ahlskog, J Eric; Singer, Wolfgang; Gelfman, Russell; Sheldon, Seth H; Seime, Richard J; Craft, Jennifer M; Staab, Jeffrey P; Kantor, Birgit; Low, Phillip A

    2013-08-01

    To describe and review autonomic complications of lightning strike. Case report and laboratory data including autonomic function tests in a subject who was struck by lightning. A 24-year-old man was struck by lightning. Following that, he developed dysautonomia, with persistent inappropriate sinus tachycardia and autonomic storms, as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and functional neurologic problems. The combination of persistent sinus tachycardia and episodic exacerbations associated with hypertension, diaphoresis, and agitation was highly suggestive of a central hyperadrenergic state with superimposed autonomic storms. Whether the additional PTSD and functional neurologic deficits were due to a direct effect of the lightning strike on the central nervous system or a secondary response is open to speculation.

  13. ["Bell-striking" Saying of Acupuncture Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-Sheng

    2017-04-25

    As an analogy, a prototype of "bell-striking" is proposed in the present paper for exploring the basic properties, major elements, and potential mechanisms of acupuncture stimulation. On the strength of analysis on the physiological basis of acupuncture effect, several fundamental aspects of acupuncture are summarized as a) the body-surface stimulating characters, b) general and local effects, and c) triggering the auto-regulative function of the organism, which mimics the "bell-striking" response. Namely, when stroke, bell will chime, otherwise, chiming will not be heard. During analyzing special contents of acupuncture theory, its formative background should not be separated, and it is improper to take, modern medical theory of the human body as the guiding thinking way for researching the ancient Chinese medical literature.

  14. Proliferation of Precision Strike: Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    industrial base. Finally, should Congress legislate requirements for DOD to develop precision strike countermeasures and then provide funding for that...Defense, Part 187 – Environmental Effects Abroad of Major Department of Defense Actions, Section 187.3: Definitions. 32 Bryan Clark and Dan Whiteneck...so many missiles ... referring to reports of Venezuelan arms flowing to Colombian guerrillas.... The Chavez regime also has close ties with

  15. The physical environment of positive places: Exploring differences between age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatikainen, Tiina E; Broberg, Anna; Kyttä, Marketta

    2017-02-01

    Features of the physical environment have an impact on the human behaviour. Thus, planners and policymakers around the world should aim at providing environments that are perceived as being of good quality, in which the residents enjoy spending time and moving around in. It is widely acknowledged that urban environmental quality associates with well-being, but there is currently very little research examining which features of urban environments people of different ages perceive as appealing in their living environments. Individuals experience different age-related developmental environments throughout their life course. Thus, the usage and perceptions of different spaces can also differ between various age groups. Public Participation GIS datasets collected in 2009 and 2011 in Helsinki Metropolitan Area were used to study places perceived as being positive by adults (n=3119) and children (n=672). Participants marked points on a map that were overlaid with GIS data to study whether the physical environment of positive places of different age groups differed. The results demonstrated that the physical environment differs significantly in the positive places of different age groups. The places of adult age groups were characterized by green, blue and commercial spaces, whereas sports, residential and commercial spaces characterize children's and adolescents' places. Older adults' places were found to be closest to home, while adolescents' places were the most distant. Providing appealing environments for all age groups in one setting remains problematic but should nevertheless be strived for, especially in the urban context where a constant competition over different usages of space occurs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of the prognosis among different age groups in elderly patients with hip fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagino Tetsuo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The outcome of treatment of hip fractures in different age groups in the elderly population is largely unknown. Hence, we stratified elderly patients with hip fracture into age groups and compared the prognosis in various age groups. Materials and Methods: Among 459 patients with hip fracture treated at our hospital from 1997, 430 patients aged 65 years or above at the time of injury were studied. The patients comprised 98 males and 332 females and the ages at injury ranged from 65 to 103 years (mean 83.4 years. There were 167 cases of femoral neck fracture and 263 cases of trochanteric fractures. Surgery was performed in 383 cases, while 47 cases were treated conservatively. The subjects were classified by age into young-old for those aged 65-74 years (group A, n = 55, middle-old for those aged 75-84 years (group B, n = 172, old-old for those aged 85-94 (group C, n = 180, and oldest-old for those aged 95 years or above (group D, n = 23. The functional and survival prognosis at discharge in each group was investigated. Results: Numbers of patients who were ambulatory at discharge among those ambulatory before injury were 43 of 49 (87.8% in group A, 113 of 152 (74.3% in group B, 86 of 138 (62.3% in group C, and 5 of 14 (35.7% in group D, showing worse recovery of walking ability as age advanced. Among those ambulatory before injury, 42 patients in group A, 139 patients in group B, 130 patients in group C, and 12 patients in group D underwent surgery and of these patients, 38 patients (90.5% in group A, 109 patients (78.4% in group B, 83 patients (63.8% in group C, and 5 patients (41.7% in group D were ambulatory at discharge. On the other hand, the numbers of patients who were ambulatory at discharge among those receiving conservative treatment were 5 of 7 (71.4% in group A, 4 of 13 (30.8% in group B, 3 of 8 (37.5% in group C, and 0 of 2 (0% in group D, showing better walking ability in surgical patients than in conservatively treated

  17. Stress distribution of metatarsals during forefoot strike versus rearfoot strike: A finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shudong; Zhang, Yan; Gu, Yaodong; Ren, James

    2017-12-01

    Due to the limitations of experimental approaches, comparison of the internal deformation and stresses of the human man foot between forefoot and rearfoot landing is not fully established. The objective of this work is to develop an effective FE modelling approach to comparatively study the stresses and energy in the foot during forefoot strike (FS) and rearfoot strike (RS). The stress level and rate of stress increase in the Metatarsals are established and the injury risk between these two landing styles is evaluated and discussed. A detailed subject specific FE foot model is developed and validated. A hexahedral dominated meshing scheme was applied on the surface of the foot bones and skin. An explicit solver (Abaqus/Explicit) was used to stimulate the transient landing process. The deformation and internal energy of the foot and stresses in the metatarsals are comparatively investigated. The results for forefoot strike tests showed an overall higher average stress level in the metatarsals during the entire landing cycle than that for rearfoot strike. The increase rate of the metatarsal stress from the 0.5 body weight (BW) to 2 BW load point is 30.76% for forefoot strike and 21.39% for rearfoot strike. The maximum rate of stress increase among the five metatarsals is observed on the 1st metatarsal in both landing modes. The results indicate that high stress level during forefoot landing phase may increase potential of metatarsal injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Accounting for group differences in appraisals of social inequality: differential injustice standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Anca M; Warner, Ruth H; Branscombe, Nyla R

    2011-06-01

    We tested whether differential appraisals of inequality are a function of the injustice standards used by different groups. A confirmatory standard of injustice is defined as the amount of evidence needed to arrive at the conclusion that injustice has occurred. Consistent with a motivational shifting of standards view, we found that advantaged and disadvantaged group members set different standards of injustice when judging the magnitude of gender (Study 1) and racial (Study 2) wage inequality. In addition, because advantaged and disadvantaged group members formed - based on their differential standards - divergent appraisals of wage inequality, they experienced differential desire to restore inter-group justice. We discuss the implications of promoting low confirmatory standards for changing perceptions of social reality and for motivating justice-restorative behaviour. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Effects of group exercise on functional abilities: Differences between physically active and physically inactive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokorilo, Nebojsa; Mikalacki, Milena; Satara, Goran; Cvetkovic, Milan; Marinkovic, Dragan; Zvekic-Svorcan, Jelena; Obradovic, Borislav

    2018-03-30

    Aerobic exercises to music can have a positive effect on functional and motor skills of an exerciser, their health, as well as an aesthetic and socio-psychological component. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of reactive exercising in a group on functional capabilities in physically active and physically inactive women. A prospective study included 64 healthy women aged 40-60 years. The sample was divided into the experimental group (n= 36), i.e. physically active women who have been engaged in recreational group exercises at the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Serbia, and the control group (n= 28), which consisted of physically inactive women. All the participants were monitored using the same protocol before and after the implementation of the research. All women had their height, weight, body mass index measured as well as spiroergometric parameters determined according to the Bruce protocol. A univariate analysis of variance has shown that there is a statistically significant difference between the experimental group and the control group in maximum speed, the total duration of the test, relative oxygen consumption, absolute oxygen consumption and ventilation during the final measurement. After the training intervention, the experimental group showed improvements in all the parameters analyzed compared with pretest values. The recreational group exercise model significantly improves aerobic capacity and functioning of the cardiovascular system. Therefore, it is essential for women to be involved more in any form of recreational group exercising in order to improve functional capacity and health.

  20. Developing Marketing Strategies To Increase Brand Equity: The Differences Between Age Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Hui-Chu Chen; Robert D. Green

    2012-01-01

    Retailers are facing challenges from global competitors, aging consumer markets, and households with less income that impact brand equity. This study examines three age groups (younger, middle, older) marketing strategy perceptions and their brand equity (brand loyalty, brand awareness, perceived quality, brand association). As expected, different strategies influence each age group. Generally, older retailer shoppers have the highest brand equity. The results have certain implications to the...

  1. Echotomographic characteristics of kidney in different age groups of our population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašić Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging is a continuous process, which leaves its mark on all tissues, organs and organ systems. The aging process causes a number of functional and morphological and structural changes in the kidneys. Objective: The aim of our study was to analyze echotomographic changes in the size of the renal parenchyma and renal sinus during the aging process. Method: The study was conducted on 62 subjects in the service of the radiological diagnostics of CHC Dr Dragisa Mišović in Belgrade. All subjects included in this study were neither anamnestically nor echotomographically positive for any of kidney diseases. Subjects were assorted in three age groups. Group I (20-39 years - 21 subjects, group II (40-59 years - 21 subjects, and group III (60-79 years - 20 subjects. Results: During aging process dimensions of the renal parenchyma decrease. Dimensions of the renal parenchyma exhibit statistically significant difference (p<0.05 between the first and third age group for both kidneys, but difference between the first and second age group is significant only for the right kidney (p<0,05. Dimensions (length and width, of the renal sinuses tend to increase during the aging process, with difference between the first and third age group that is statistically significant for both kidneys (p<0.05. Difference in width of the sinuses for both kidneys is statistically significant only between the second and third age group. Conclusion: During aging process size of the renal sinus increases at the expense of renal parenchyma, and parenchyma-pyelon index decreases.

  2. Renormalization group and relations between scattering amplitudes in a theory with different mass scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulov, A.V.; Skalozub, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    In the Yukawa model with two different mass scales the renormalization group equation is used to obtain relations between scattering amplitudes at low energies. Considering fermion-fermion scattering as an example, a basic one-loop renormalization group relation is derived which gives possibility to reduce the problem to the scattering of light particles on the external field substituting a heavy virtual state. Applications of the results to problem of searching new physics beyond the Standard Model are discussed [ru

  3. [Echocardiographic indices of the right heart in patients with coronary artery disease in different age groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajfulin, R A; Sumin, A N; Arhipov, O G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of study was to examine echocardiographic indices of right heart chambers in patients with coronary artery disease in different age groups. On 678 patients aged 38-85 years, who underwent echocardiography, are including with the use of spectral tissue Doppler. Obtained 2 age groups: 1st - patients up to 60 years (n=282) and group 2nd - patients 60 years and older (n=396). In the analysis the obtained results in patients with coronary heart disease in older age groups showed an increase in right ventricular wall thickness, systolic and average pressure in the pulmonary artery. These changes were accompanied by deterioration in left ventricular diastolic function, while the systolic function of the left and right ventricle were independent of age. Thus, the results can be recommended for assessment of right ventricular dysfunction in patients of older age groups.

  4. Cultural and age differences of three groups of Taiwanese young children's creativity and drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mei-Hue; Dzeng, Annie

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the cultural and age effects on children's overall creativity and drawing. 1,055 children ages 6 to 8 from three groups--urban and rural Taiwanese children and Taiwanese children of immigrant mothers, all in public schools--were given a creativity test, a people-drawing test, and a free-drawing test. The results showed that the older Taiwanese children scored higher than the young Taiwanese children on people-drawing and free-drawing, but not overall creativity. Drawing and creativity scores increased in accordance with age. In the six-year-old group, a group difference was found only on the scale of people-drawing. Urban Taiwanese children in the eight-year-old group scored higher than the other two groups of children on creativity and free-drawing. Results are discussed in terms of educational opportunities.

  5. ANALYSIS OF RAILWAY USER TRAVEL BEHAVIOUR PATTERNS OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamasa AKIYAMA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there have been requirments for a transport environment that will foster the development of safe, comfortable townships. The study of urban activities amid an aging society and effective use of public transport modes in addressing environmental problems have become particularly important issues. This study analyzes travel behaviour patterns of varying age groups using urban railways in order to examine the relationship between urban public transport use and urban activities. specifically, it analyzes the composition of urban activity and travel behaviour patterns among urban railway users in the Keihanshin (Kyoto-Osaka-Kobe metropolitan area. This paper looks at urban activities within aging societies and identifies the differences in travel behaviour of railway users by separating them into young, middle aged and senior citizen age groups. Analysis makes particular use of the Railway station Database, which is a compilation of existing studies into attributes of railway stations and their surroundings, and results of person trip surveys. Rail use behaviour characteristics have been sorted by age group because mobility via urban railway systems is varied by age group. As a result, differences in railway usage patterns (travel objectives, distance and time, and number of transfers, etc. have been identified and so too have differences in urban activity patterns related to free activities (shopping, recreation. Furthermore, the study developed a travel behaviour pattern estimation model which is capable of categorizing specific transport behaviour patterns and estimating rail users and transport behaviour patterns from the relationship with areas surrounding railway stations to ensure future mobility by public transport for older age groups. The results make it possible to put forward proposals for urban rail services that will facilitate urban activities for the different age groups. Eventually, it will be possible to understand

  6. "Boldness" in the domestic dog differs among breeds and breed groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Thomson, Peter C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2013-07-01

    "Boldness" in dogs is believed to be one end of the shy-bold axis, representing a super-trait. Several personality traits fall under the influence of this super-trait. Previous studies on boldness in dogs have found differences among breeds, but grouping breeds on the basis of behavioural similarities has been elusive. This study investigated differences in the expression of boldness among dog breeds, kennel club breed groups, and sub-groups of kennel club breed groups by way of a survey on dog personality circulated among Australian dog-training clubs and internet forums and lists. Breed had a significant effect on boldness (F=1.63, numDF=111, denDF=272, ppurpose. Retrievers were significantly bolder than flushing and pointing breeds (Reg. Coef.=2.148; S.E.=0.593; pdogs. Differences in boldness among groups and sub-groups suggest that behavioural tendencies may be influenced by historical purpose regardless of whether that purpose still factors in selective breeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Striking dynamics and kinetic properties of boxing and MMA gloves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the growing popularity of Mixed Martial Arts (MMA as a competitive sport, questions regarding the dynamic response and properties of MMA gloves arise. High-energy impacts from punches are very similar to boxing yet MMA competition requires the use of 4 oz fingerless glove, compared to the larger full enclosure boxing glove. This work assessed the kinetic properties and strike dynamics of MMA gloves and compared findings with traditional boxing gloves. Gloves mounted on a molded fist were impacted repetitively on an instrumental anvil designed for impact, over a 5 hour period resulting in 10,000 continuous and consistent strikes. Kinetic data from impacts were sampled at the beginning of the data collection and subsequently every 30 minutes (every 1,000 strikes. MMA gloves produced 4-5 times greater peak force and 5 times faster load rate compared to the boxing glove. However, MMA gloves also showed signs of material fatigue, with peak force increasing by 35% and rate of loading increasing by 60% over the duration of the test. Boxing glove characteristics did deteriorate but to a lesser extent. In summary, the kinetic properties of MMA glove differed substantially from the boxing glove resulting in impacts characterized by higher peak forces and more rapid development of force. Material properties including stiffness and thickness play a role in the kinetic characteristics upon impact, and can be inferred to alter injury mechanisms of blunt force trauma.

  8. [METABOLIC STATUS OF PATIENTS OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS ON THE STAGES OF OSTEOARTHRITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stogov, M V; Ovchinnikov, E N; Sazonova, N V

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the biochemical parameters of blood and urine in patients with osteoarthritis in the stages of the pathological process in different age groups. The patients of all age groups in the stages of osteoarthritis demonstrated metabolic acidosis, activation of the antioxidant system and increase in acute phase proteins. In addition to the total for all age groups metabolic shifts the characteristic age-related changes were observed: activated reaction of lipid peroxidation in middle-aged patients and negative calcium balance, with increasing energy metabolism disorders in elderly patients.

  9. Anthropometric difference of the knee on MRI according to gender and age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyuksoo; Oh, Sohee; Chang, Chong Bum; Kang, Seung-Baik

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the anthropometric data from MRI images that were obtained from the non-arthritic knees in Asian adults, and to identify the existence of morphologic differences between age groups. This cross-sectional study included knee MR images of 535 patients (273 males, 262 females) taken for the evaluation of soft-tissue injuries, excluding cases with cartilage defect and malalignment. The age, gender, height, and BMI were also assessed. The patients were grouped into three different 20-year age groups (20-39, 40-59, and 60-79). The MRI analysis was performed on the anthropometric parameters of distal femur and posterior tibial slope. Age-related differences were found in femoral width, distance from the distal and posterior cartilage surface to the medial/lateral epicondyle, medial posterior condylar offset (PCO), and posterior condylar angle (PCA) (all P age groups was found in most parameters, but not in PCA, distance from the posterior cartilage surface to the medial epicondyle, or medial tibial slope. We found anthropometric differences among age groups exist in most of distal femoral parameters, but not in posterior tibial slope. The results of this study can be used by manufacturers to modify prostheses to be suitable for the future Asian elderly population.

  10. Corneal clarity measurements in healthy volunteers across different age groups: Observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Khaled; Carley, Fiona; Brahma, Arun; Morley, Debbie; Hillarby, M Chantal

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to standardize and investigate the changes in corneal clarity with age. Densitometry software for the Oculus Pentacam was used to examine corneal clarity at different age groups.A total of 192 eyes from 97 healthy participants were included in this cohort comparative nonrandomized, cross-sectional study. An Oculus Pentcam was used to image the cornea of healthy participants grouped by age (between 10 and 70 years old). Data from the densitometry output have been used to determine clarity in concentric zones and different depths of the cornea.Corneal densitometry (CD) across all ages showed significant differences between groups when divided into the following layers: anterior, central, and posterior or divided into 0 to 2, 2 to 6, and 6 to 10 mm concentric zones (P age in all 3 layers of the periphery (6-10 mm) (P age group had lower clarity than the 20 to 30-age group (P age is differed when the cornea is divided into layers and zones. This study suggests that there are other factors that may play an essential role in corneal clarity as well as age.

  11. Fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester: comparison between population groups from different ethnic origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasozomenou, Panayiota; Athanasiadis, Apostolos P; Zafrakas, Menelaos; Panteris, Eleftherios; Loufopoulos, Aristoteles; Assimakopoulos, Efstratios; Tarlatzis, Basil C

    2016-03-01

    To compare normal ranges of ultrasonographically measured fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester between different ethnic groups. A prospective, non-interventional study in order to establish normal ranges of fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester in a Greek population was conducted in 1220 singleton fetuses between 18 completed weeks and 23 weeks and 6 days of gestation. A literature search followed in order to identify similar studies in different population groups. Fetal nasal bone length mean values and percentiles from different population groups were compared. Analysis of measurements in the Greek population showed a linear association, i.e., increasing nasal bone length with increasing gestational age from 5.73 mm at 18 weeks to 7.63 mm at 23 weeks. Eleven studies establishing normal ranges of fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester were identified. Comparison of fetal nasal bone length mean values between the 12 population groups showed statistically significant differences (Pdifferent ethnic groups. Hence, distinct ethnic nomograms of fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester should be used in a given population rather than an international model.

  12. Profiling of Junior College Football Players and Differences between Position Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Lockie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study profiled junior college football players. Sixty-two subjects completed vertical jump (VJ; height and peak power, standing broad jump (SBJ, 36.58 m sprint, pro-agility shuttle, three-cone drill, and maximal-repetition bench press and front squat. The sample included 2 quarterbacks (QB, 7 running backs (RB, 13 wide receivers (WR, 1 tight end (TE, 18 defensive backs (DB, 8 linebackers (LB, and 13 offensive and defensive linemen (LM. To investigate positional differences, subjects were split into skill (SK; WR, DB, big skill (BSK; QB, RB, TE, LB, and LM groups. A one-way ANOVA determined between-group differences. LM were taller and heavier than SK and BSK players. The SK and BSK groups were faster than LM in the 0–36.58 m sprint, pro-agility shuttle, and three-cone drill (p ≤ 0.009. The SK group had greater VJ height and SBJ distance; LM generated greater VJ peak power (p ≤ 0.022. There were no between-group differences in the strength endurance tests. Compared to Division I data, junior college players were smaller, slower, and performed worse in jump tests. Positional differences in junior college football are typical to that of established research. Junior college players should attempt to increase body mass, and improve speed and lower-body power.

  13. Assessment of intraocular pressure in chinchillas of different age groups using rebound tonometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor Diana Yokoay Claros Chacaltana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this research was to measure the intraocular pressure (IOP of normal chinchilla eyes using the rebound tonometer. A further aim was to assess whether there were differences in the values of intraocular pressure in relation to animals age, gender and time of day. Thirty-six chinchillas were divided into three groups of 12 chinchillas each, by age: Group I (2-6-month-old, Group II (20 and 34 months and Group III (37 and 135 months. Ophthalmic examination was performed previously by Schirmer tear test, slit lamp biomicroscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy and fluorescein test in all chinchillas. Three measurements of intraocular pressure were assessed on the same day (7, 12 and 19h. Tonometry was performed on both eyes using the rebound tonometer after calibration in "p" mode. Statistical analysis was performed with SigmaPlot for Windows. The mean IOP for groups I, II and III were 2.47±0.581mmHg, 2.47±0.581mmHg and 2.51±0.531mmHg, respectively. No significant differences were reported between age and IOP and no significant differences were reported between the time of day and IOP. The IOP in chinchillas did not differ significantly between genders or ages of the animals, and did not change with time of day.

  14. Are Happiness and Life Satisfaction Different Across Religious Groups? Exploring Determinants of Happiness and Life Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamaba, Kayonda Hubert; Soni, Debbie

    2017-09-26

    This study explores whether different religions experience different levels of happiness and life satisfaction and in case this is affected by country economic and cultural environment. Using World Value Survey (from 1981 to 2014), this study found that individual religiosity and country level of development play a significant role in shaping people's subjective well-being (SWB). Protestants, Buddhists and Roman Catholic were happier and most satisfied with their lives compared to other religious groups. Orthodox has the lowest SWB. Health status, household's financial satisfaction and freedom of choice are means by which religious groups and governments across the globe can improve the SWB of their citizens.

  15. Effect of torsion angle on electronic transport through different anchoring groups in molecular junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Caijuan; Fang Changfeng; Zhao Peng; Xie Shijie; Liu Desheng

    2009-01-01

    By applying nonequilibrium Green's function formalism combined with first-principles density functional theory, we investigate effect of torsion angle on electronic transport properties of 4,4 ' -biphenyl molecule connected with different anchoring groups (dithiocarboxylate and thiol group) to Au(111) electrodes. The influence of the HOMO-LUMO gaps and the spatial distributions of molecular orbitals on the quantum transport through the molecular device are discussed. Theoretical results show that the torsion angle plays important role in conducting behavior of molecular devices. By changing the torsion angle between two phenyl rings, namely changing the magnitude of the intermolecular coupling effect, a different transport behavior can be observed in these two systems.

  16. Global Strike 2035: Considerations for Enabling Effective Command and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    reach places .1 Broadly grouped under the moniker Global Strike,2 this family-of-systems capability should mature by 2035 leading to the realization of...and] ‘micro-actors with massive impact,’…[combine] with new technology and new or transfigured ways of war, but the old threats also remain and have...as the Joint Time-Sensitive Targets Manager (JTSTM),38 “operators and analysts [could] access the same dynamic common operating picture…to provide

  17. Physical-psychiatric comorbidity: patterns and explanations for ethnic group differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erving, Christy L

    2018-08-01

    This paper examines ethnic differences in the co-occurrence of physical and psychiatric health problems (physical-psychiatric comorbidity) for women and men. The following ethnic groups are included: Non-Latino Whites, African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, Spanish Caribbean Blacks, Mexicans, Cubans, Puerto Ricans, Other Latinos, Chinese, Filipinos, Vietnamese, and Other Asian Americans. In addition, the study assesses the extent to which social factors (socioeconomic status, stress exposure, social support) account for ethnic differences in physical-psychiatric comorbidity (PPC). This study uses data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) (N = 12,787). Weighted prevalence rates of physical-psychiatric comorbidity (PPC) - the co-occurrence of physical and psychiatric health problems - are included to examine ethnic group differences among women and men. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to determine group differences in PPC before and after adjusting for social factors. Puerto Rican men have significantly higher risk of PPC in comparison to Non-Latino White men. Among women, Blacks and Cubans were more likely than Non-Latino Whites to experience PPC as opposed to 'Psychiatric Only' health problems. Social factors account for the Puerto Rican/Non-Latino White difference in comorbid health among men, but have little explanatory power for understanding ethnic differences in comorbidity among women. These findings have implications for medical care and can guide intervention programs in targeting a specific constellation of co-occurring physical and psychiatric health problems for diverse ethnic groups in the United States. As comorbidity rates increase, it is crucial to identify the myriad factors that give rise to ethnic group differences therein.

  18. Isolation, Identification, Prevalence, and Genetic Diversity of Bacillus cereus Group Bacteria From Different Foodstuffs in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gdoura-Ben Amor, Maroua; Siala, Mariam; Zayani, Mariem; Grosset, Noël; Smaoui, Salma; Messadi-Akrout, Feriele; Baron, Florence; Jan, Sophie; Gautier, Michel; Gdoura, Radhouane

    2018-01-01

    Bacillus cereus group is widespread in nature and foods. Several members of this group are recognized as causing food spoilage and/or health issues. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of the B. cereus group strains isolated in Tunisia from different foods (cereals, spices, cooked food, fresh-cut vegetables, raw and cooked poultry meats, seafood, canned, pastry, and dairy products). In total, 687 different samples were collected and searched for the presence of the B. cereus group after selective plating on MYP agar and enumeration of each sample. The typical pink-orange uniform colonies surrounded by a zone of precipitate were assumed to belong to the B. cereus group. One typical colony from each sample was subcultured and preserved as cryoculture. Overall, 191 (27.8%) food samples were found positive, giving rise to a collection of 191 B. cereus -like isolates. The concentration of B. cereus -like bacteria were below 10 3 cfu/g or ml in 77.5% of the tested samples. Higher counts (>10 4 cfu/g or ml) were found in 6.8% of samples including fresh-cut vegetables, cooked foods, cereals, and pastry products. To verify whether B. cereus -like isolates belonged to the B. cereus group, a PCR test targeting the sspE gene sequence specific of the group was carried out. Therefore, 174 isolates were found to be positive. Food samples were contaminated as follows: cereals (67.6%), pastry products (46.2%), cooked food (40.8%), cooked poultry meat (32.7%), seafood products (32.3%), spices (28.8%), canned products (16.7%), raw poultry meat (9.4%), fresh-cut vegetables (5.0%), and dairy products (4.8%). The 174 B. cereus isolates were characterized by partial sequencing of the panC gene, using a Sym'Previous software tool to assign them to different phylogenetic groups. Strains were distributed as follows: 61.3, 29.5, 7.5, and 1.7% in the group III, IV, II, and V, respectively. The genetic diversity was further assessed by ERIC-PCR and PFGE

  19. Isolation, Identification, Prevalence, and Genetic Diversity of Bacillus cereus Group Bacteria From Different Foodstuffs in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroua Gdoura-Ben Amor

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus group is widespread in nature and foods. Several members of this group are recognized as causing food spoilage and/or health issues. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of the B. cereus group strains isolated in Tunisia from different foods (cereals, spices, cooked food, fresh-cut vegetables, raw and cooked poultry meats, seafood, canned, pastry, and dairy products. In total, 687 different samples were collected and searched for the presence of the B. cereus group after selective plating on MYP agar and enumeration of each sample. The typical pink-orange uniform colonies surrounded by a zone of precipitate were assumed to belong to the B. cereus group. One typical colony from each sample was subcultured and preserved as cryoculture. Overall, 191 (27.8% food samples were found positive, giving rise to a collection of 191 B. cereus-like isolates. The concentration of B. cereus-like bacteria were below 103 cfu/g or ml in 77.5% of the tested samples. Higher counts (>104 cfu/g or ml were found in 6.8% of samples including fresh-cut vegetables, cooked foods, cereals, and pastry products. To verify whether B. cereus-like isolates belonged to the B. cereus group, a PCR test targeting the sspE gene sequence specific of the group was carried out. Therefore, 174 isolates were found to be positive. Food samples were contaminated as follows: cereals (67.6%, pastry products (46.2%, cooked food (40.8%, cooked poultry meat (32.7%, seafood products (32.3%, spices (28.8%, canned products (16.7%, raw poultry meat (9.4%, fresh-cut vegetables (5.0%, and dairy products (4.8%. The 174 B. cereus isolates were characterized by partial sequencing of the panC gene, using a Sym'Previous software tool to assign them to different phylogenetic groups. Strains were distributed as follows: 61.3, 29.5, 7.5, and 1.7% in the group III, IV, II, and V, respectively. The genetic diversity was further assessed by ERIC-PCR and PFGE

  20. Association of lens vault with narrow angles among different ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Roland Y; Huang, Guofu; Cui, Qi N; He, Mingguang; Porco, Travis C; Lin, Shan C

    2012-06-01

    To compare lens vault between open-angle and narrow-angle eyes in African-, Caucasian-, Hispanic-, Chinese- and Filipino-Americans. In this prospective study, 436 patients with open angle and narrow angle based on the Shaffer gonioscopic grading classification underwent anterior-segment optical coherence tomography. The Zhongshan Angle Assessment Program was used to calculate lens vault. The narrow-angle group included 32 Chinese-Americans, 22 Filipino-Americans, 26 African-Americans, 24 Hispanic-Americans and 73 Caucasian-Americans. The open-angle group included 56 Chinese-Americans, 29 Filipino-Americans, 45 African-Americans, 27 Hispanic-Americans and 102 Caucasian-Americans. Linear mixed effect regression models, accounting for the use of both eyes and adjusting for age, sex, pupil diameter and spherical equivalent, were used to test for the ethnicity and angle coefficients. Tukey's multiple comparison test was used for pairwise comparisons among the open-angle racial groups. Significant difference in lens vault was found among the open-angle racial groups (P = 0.022). For the open-angle patients, mean values for the lens vault measurements were 265 ± 288 µm for Chinese-Americans, 431 ± 248 µm for Caucasian-Americans, 302 ± 213 µm for Filipino-Americans, 304 ± 263 µm for Hispanic-Americans and 200 ± 237 µm for African-Americans. Using Tukey's multiple comparison for pairwise comparisons among the open-angle racial groups, a significant difference was found between African-American and Caucasian-Americans groups (P values for the rest of the pairwise comparisons were not statistically significant. No significant difference was found among the narrow-angle racial groups (P = 0.14). Comparison between the open angle and narrow angle within each racial group revealed significant difference for all racial groups (P < 0.05). Among all the ethnicities included in this study, narrow-angle eyes have greater lens vault compared to open

  1. Persistent organohalogen contaminants in plasma from groups of humans with different occupations in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir, R; Athanasiadou, M; Nahar, N; Mamun, M I R; Mosihuzzaman, M; Bergman, A

    2009-01-01

    The present study is aimed to assess persistent organic halogenated pollutants in humans living in Bangladesh. The results are compared to other similar studies in the region and globally. Human blood plasma were collected from groups of men and women with different occupations, i.e. being students, garment industry workers, employees at the Power Development Board (PDB), all groups in Dhaka, fishermen and fishermen wife's from Dhaka and another group from Barisal district. The plasma was analysed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), the hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH and delta-HCH, the DDT group of chemicals, chlordane compounds, trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, trans-heptachlorepoxide, methoxychlor and mirex. The most abundant contaminant, in all groups studied, p,p'-DDE is dominating, with p,p'-DDT/Sigma DDT ratios indicating recent and ongoing DDT exposure. Among the other pesticides analysed beta-HCH is the most abundant indicating the use of technical HCH products instead of Lindane (gamma-HCH). While the Sigma DDT is present in the low ppm range the beta-HCH is detected in up to approx. 400 ppb, lipid basis. The beta-HCH is most abundant in the groups of students. In contrast to the pesticides analysed very low concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are present in all study groups, with e.g. CB-153 in the range of 5-30 ng g(-1) fat. The concentrations of the DDT group of chemical differ significantly between fishermen and fishermen's wives living and working in the Dhaka area versus those living and working in Barisal. Also, fishermen and their wives had significantly different concentrations of DDT compared to garment industry workers.

  2. Cognitive-behavioral group therapy for girls victims of sexual violence in Brazil: Are there differences in effectiveness when applied by different groups of psychologists?: effectiveness of group therapy for girls victims of sexual violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Fernanda Habigzang

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy model for the treatment of girls victims of sexual violence (SV was investigated when applied by different groups of practitioners: researchers/psychologists who developed it (G1 and psychologists from the public social care network trained by the first group (G2. A quasi-experimental study was carried out, in which the group therapy model was applied by the two groups. A total of 103 girls victims of sexual violence (SV, aged between seven and 16 years (M=11.76 years, SD=2.02 years were included, with 49 attended by G1, and 54 by G2. The results indicated a significant reduction in the symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress, and PTSD. The comparison between the results obtained by the two groups of practitioners in the application of the model indicated no significant differences in the rates of improvement of the participants. These results indicate the effectiveness of the cognitive-behavioral group therapy model evaluated and the possibility of it being used as a care strategy by psychology practitioners working in public services.

  3. Child mental health differences amongst ethnic groups in Britain: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon David A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inter-ethnic differences have been reported for many mental health outcomes in the UK, but no systematic review on child mental health has been published. The aim of this review is to compare the population-based prevalence of child mental disorders between ethnic groups in Britain, and relate these findings to ethnic differences in mental health service use. Methods A systematic search of bibliographic databases for population-based and clinic-based studies of children aged 0–19, including all ethnic groups and the main child mental disorders. We synthesised findings by comparing each minority group to the White British study sample. Results 31 population-based and 18 clinic-based studies met the inclusion criteria. Children in the main minority groups have similar or better mental health than White British children for common disorders, but may have higher rates for some less common conditions. The causes of these differences are unclear. There may be unmet need for services among Pakistani and Bangladeshi children. Conclusion Inter-ethnic differences exist but are largely unexplained. Future studies should address the challenges of cross-cultural psychiatry and investigate reasons for inter-ethnic differences.

  4. Relative Risk of Various Head and Neck Cancers among Different Blood Groups: An Analytical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Khushboo; Kote, Sunder; Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Singh, Shilpi; Kundu, Hansa; Jain, Swati

    2014-04-01

    Cancer is a unique disease characterized by abnormal growth of cells which have the ability to invade the adjacent tissues and sometimes even distant organs. The limited and contrasting evidence regarding the association of ABO blood groups with the different types of head and neck cancers in the Indian population warrants the need for the present study. To assess the relative risk of various Head & Neck cancers among different blood groups. Three hundred sixty two diagnosed cases of different type of head and neck cancers and 400 controls were selected from four hospitals of New Delhi, India. The information regarding the type of head and neck cancer was obtained from the case sheets of the patients regarding their socio demographic profile, dietary history using a structured performa. The information regarding type of cancer (cases only), ABO blood group was collected. Statistical Tests: The data was analysed using the SPSS 19 version. Chi square test and odd ratios were calculated. The level of significance was fixed at 5%. The O blood group was found to be most prevalent followed by B, A and AB among the cases as well as the controls. Oral cancer patients showed maximum number in blood group O followed by B, A and AB. Significant pattern of distribution was seen among the patients of esophageal cancer, laryngeal cancer and salivary gland cancer as well (p= 0.003, p=0.000 p=0.112 respectively. The present study reveals that there is an inherited element in the susceptibility or protection against different types of head and neck cancers. Blood group A was found to be a potential risk factor for the development of oral cancers, esophageal cancers and salivary gland cancers while blood group B was found to be a potential risk factor for laryngeal cancers.

  5. Relative Risk of Various Head and Neck Cancers among Different Blood Groups: An Analytical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kote, Sunder; Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Singh, Shilpi; Kundu, Hansa; Jain, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a unique disease characterized by abnormal growth of cells which have the ability to invade the adjacent tissues and sometimes even distant organs. The limited and contrasting evidence regarding the association of ABO blood groups with the different types of head and neck cancers in the Indian population warrants the need for the present study. Aim and Objective: To assess the relative risk of various Head & Neck cancers among different blood groups. Materials and Method: Three hundred sixty two diagnosed cases of different type of head and neck cancers and 400 controls were selected from four hospitals of New Delhi, India. The information regarding the type of head and neck cancer was obtained from the case sheets of the patients regarding their socio demographic profile, dietary history using a structured performa. The information regarding type of cancer (cases only), ABO blood group was collected. Statistical Tests: The data was analysed using the SPSS 19 version. Chi square test and odd ratios were calculated. The level of significance was fixed at 5%. Results: The O blood group was found to be most prevalent followed by B, A and AB among the cases as well as the controls. Oral cancer patients showed maximum number in blood group O followed by B, A and AB. Significant pattern of distribution was seen among the patients of esophageal cancer, laryngeal cancer and salivary gland cancer as well (p= 0.003, p=0.000 p=0.112 respectively. Conclusion: The present study reveals that there is an inherited element in the susceptibility or protection against different types of head and neck cancers. Blood group A was found to be a potential risk factor for the development of oral cancers, esophageal cancers and salivary gland cancers while blood group B was found to be a potential risk factor for laryngeal cancers. PMID:24959511

  6. Subtle cytotoxicity and genotoxicity differences in superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with various functional groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong SC

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Seong Cheol Hong1,*, Jong Ho Lee1,*, Jaewook Lee1, Hyeon Yong Kim1, Jung Youn Park2, Johann Cho3, Jaebeom Lee1, Dong-Wook Han11Department of Nanomedical Engineering, BK21 Nano Fusion Technology Division, College of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Pusan National University, 2Department of Biotechnology Research, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Busan, 3Electronic Materials Lab, Samsung Corning Precision Materials Co, Ltd, Gumi City, Gyeongsangbukdo, Korea*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs have been widely utilized for the diagnosis and therapy of specific diseases, as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agents and drug-delivery carriers, due to their easy transportation to targeted areas by an external magnetic field. For such biomedical applications, SPIONs must have multifunctional characteristics, including optimized size and modified surface. However, the biofunctionality and biocompatibility of SPIONs with various surface functional groups of different sizes have yet to be elucidated clearly. Therefore, it is important to carefully monitor the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of SPIONs that are surfaced-modified with various functional groups of different sizes. In this study, we evaluated SPIONs with diameters of approximately 10 nm and 100~150 nm, containing different surface functional groups. SPIONs were covered with –O-groups, so-called bare SPIONs. Following this, they were modified with three different functional groups – hydroxyl (–OH, carboxylic (–COOH, and amine (–NH2 groups – by coating their surfaces with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS, (3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS, TEOS-APTMS, or citrate, which imparted different surface charges and sizes to the particles. The effects of SPIONs coated with these functional groups on mitochondrial activity, intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species, membrane integrity

  7. Self-reported differences in empowerment between lurkers and posters in online patient support groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F; Drossaert, Constance H C; Taal, Erik; Seydel, Erwin R; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2008-06-30

    Patients who visit online support groups benefit in various ways. Results of our earlier study indicated that participation in online support groups had a profound effect on the participants' feelings of "being empowered." However, most studies of online patient support groups have focused on the members of these groups who actively contribute by sending postings (posters). Thus far, little is known about the impact for "lurkers" (ie, those who do not actively participate by sending postings). In the present study, we explored if lurkers in online patient support groups profit to the same extent as posters do. We searched the Internet with the search engine Google to identify all Dutch online support groups for patients with breast cancer, fibromyalgia, and arthritis. Invitations to complete an online survey were sent out by the owners of 19 groups. In the online questionnaire, we asked questions about demographic and health characteristics, use of and satisfaction with the online support group, empowering processes, and empowering outcomes. The online questionnaire was completed by 528 individuals, of which 109 (21%) identified themselves as lurkers. Lurkers (mean age 47 years) were slightly older than active participants (mean age 43 years, P = .002), had a shorter disease history (time since diagnosis 3.7 years vs 5.4 years, P = .001), and reported lower mental well-being (SF 12 subscore 37.7 vs 40.5, P = .004). No significant differences were found in other demographic variables. Posters indicated visiting the online support groups significantly more often for social reasons, such as curiosity about how other members were doing, to enjoy themselves, as a part of their daily routine (all P posters did not differ in their information-related reasons for visiting the online support group. Lurkers were significantly less satisfied with the online support group compared to posters (P posters. However, lurkers did not differ significantly from posters with regard to

  8. Salivary alpha amylase activity in human beings of different age groups subjected to psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-10-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker for stress-induced changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Though several experiments have been conducted to determine the validity of this salivary component as a reliable stress marker in human subjects, the effect of stress induced changes on sAA level in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip. Differences in sAA level based on sex of different age groups under stress have also been studied. A total of 112 subjects consisting of both the male and female subjects, divided into two groups on basis of age were viewed a video clip of corneal transplant surgery as stressor. Activity of sAA from saliva samples of the stressed subjects were measured and compared with the activity of the samples collected from the subjects before viewing the clip. The age ranges of subjects were 18-25 and 40-60 years. The sAA level increased significantly in both the groups after viewing the stressful video. The increase was more pronounced in the younger subjects. The level of sAA was comparatively more in males than females in the respective groups. No significant change in sAA activity was observed after viewing the soothed video clip. Significant increase of sAA level in response to psychological stress suggests that it might act as a reliable sympathetic activity biochemical marker in different stages of human beings.

  9. Population Analysis of Adverse Events in Different Age Groups Using Big Clinical Trials Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jake; Eldredge, Christina; Cho, Chi C; Cisler, Ron A

    2016-10-17

    Understanding adverse event patterns in clinical studies across populations is important for patient safety and protection in clinical trials as well as for developing appropriate drug therapies, procedures, and treatment plans. The objective of our study was to conduct a data-driven population-based analysis to estimate the incidence, diversity, and association patterns of adverse events by age of the clinical trials patients and participants. Two aspects of adverse event patterns were measured: (1) the adverse event incidence rate in each of the patient age groups and (2) the diversity of adverse events defined as distinct types of adverse events categorized by organ system. Statistical analysis was done on the summarized clinical trial data. The incident rate and diversity level in each of the age groups were compared with the lowest group (reference group) using t tests. Cohort data was obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov, and 186,339 clinical studies were analyzed; data were extracted from the 17,853 clinical trials that reported clinical outcomes. The total number of clinical trial participants was 6,808,619, and total number of participants affected by adverse events in these trials was 1,840,432. The trial participants were divided into eight different age groups to support cross-age group comparison. In general, children and older patients are more susceptible to adverse events in clinical trial studies. Using the lowest incidence age group as the reference group (20-29 years), the incidence rate of the 0-9 years-old group was 31.41%, approximately 1.51 times higher (P=.04) than the young adult group (20-29 years) at 20.76%. The second-highest group is the 50-59 years-old group with an incidence rate of 30.09%, significantly higher (Pgroup. The adverse event diversity also increased with increase in patient age. Clinical studies that recruited older patients (older than 40 years) were more likely to observe a diverse range of adverse events (Page group (older

  10. Measuring intergroup ideologies: positive and negative aspects of emphasizing versus looking beyond group differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Adam; Banchefsky, Sarah; Park, Bernadette; Judd, Charles M

    2015-12-01

    Research on interethnic relations has focused on two ideologies, asking whether it is best to de-emphasize social-category differences (colorblind) or emphasize and celebrate differences (multicultural). We argue each of these can manifest with negative outgroup evaluations: Assimilationism demands that subordinate groups adopt dominant group norms to minimize group distinctions; segregationism holds that groups should occupy separate spheres. Parallel versions can be identified for intergender relations. Scales to measure all four ideologies are developed both for ethnicity (Studies 1 and 2) and gender (Studies 3 and 4). Results demonstrate that the ideologies can be reliably measured, that the hypothesized four-factor models are superior to alternative models with fewer factors, and that the ideologies relate as predicted to the importance ascribed to group distinctions, subordinate group evaluations, and solution preferences for intergroup conflict scenarios. We argue that this fourfold model can help clarify theory and measurement, allowing a more nuanced assessment of ideological attitudes. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  11. Cell population data in neonates: differences by age group and associations with perinatal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Kim, S Y; Lee, W; Han, K; Sung, I K

    2015-10-01

    Cell population data (CPD) describe physical parameters of white blood cell subpopulations and are reported to be of some value in the diagnosis of sepsis in neonates. Before using the CPD for diagnosing sepsis, the baseline features of the CPD distribution in healthy neonates should be clarified. The aim of this study was to compare the CPD distributions of healthy neonates and other age groups and to identify perinatal factors that are associated with changes in the CPD distribution of healthy neonates. The CPD distribution of 69 samples from term neonates was compared with adolescents and adults. The CPD distribution of 163 samples from healthy neonates was analyzed in association with perinatal factors, including gestational age, chronologic age, birthweight, delivery mode, premature rupture of membranes, diabetes, and pregnancy-induced hypertension. The CPD distribution for term neonates was significantly different from those in adolescents and adults. The mean lymphocyte volume showed a negative correlation with gestational age at birth (r = -0.305; P group than in the normal delivery group. The small for gestational age (SGA) group had smaller mean neutrophil volume and mean monocyte volume than the appropriate for gestational age group. The CPD distribution of healthy neonates differed from those of adolescents or adults, and the differences were associated with gestational age, delivery mode, and being SGA. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Temporal ventriloquism along the path of apparent motion: speed perception under different spatial grouping principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogulmus, Cansu; Karacaoglu, Merve; Kafaligonul, Hulusi

    2018-03-01

    The coordination of intramodal perceptual grouping and crossmodal interactions plays a critical role in constructing coherent multisensory percepts. However, the basic principles underlying such coordinating mechanisms still remain unclear. By taking advantage of an illusion called temporal ventriloquism and its influences on perceived speed, we investigated how audiovisual interactions in time are modulated by the spatial grouping principles of vision. In our experiments, we manipulated the spatial grouping principles of proximity, uniform connectedness, and similarity/common fate in apparent motion displays. Observers compared the speed of apparent motions across different sound timing conditions. Our results revealed that the effects of sound timing (i.e., temporal ventriloquism effects) on perceived speed also existed in visual displays containing more than one object and were modulated by different spatial grouping principles. In particular, uniform connectedness was found to modulate these audiovisual interactions in time. The effect of sound timing on perceived speed was smaller when horizontal connecting bars were introduced along the path of apparent motion. When the objects in each apparent motion frame were not connected or connected with vertical bars, the sound timing was more influential compared to the horizontal bar conditions. Overall, our findings here suggest that the effects of sound timing on perceived speed exist in different spatial configurations and can be modulated by certain intramodal spatial grouping principles such as uniform connectedness.

  13. Outcome and process differences between professional and nonprofessional therapists in time-limited group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlingame, G M; Barlow, S H

    1996-10-01

    The outcome of clients who saw one of four "expert" professional group therapists selected by peer nomination or four "natural helper" nonprofessional nominated by students is contrasted in a 15-session psychotherapy group. Process measures tapping specific group and "common factors" were drawn from sessions 3, 8, and 14; outcome was assessed at pre, mid, posttreatment, and a 6-month follow-up. Results were examined by leader condition (professional vs. nonprofessional therapists) and time (group development). Virtually no reliable differences were found on measures of outcome primarily because of a floor effect on several measures. Therapist differences on the process measures tapping the "common factors" of therapeutic alliance, client expectancy, and perception of therapists were either nonsignificant or disappeared by the end of treatment. A complex picture of differences on one therapeutic factor (insight), common factor measures and subtle variation in the outcome data suggests a distinct pattern of change, however. Methodological limitations are also addressed including problems inherent in large-scale clinical-trial studies, ethical concerns raised by using nonprofessional leaders, and problems with generalizability, given the absence of significant psychopathology in group members.

  14. Prevalence of multidrug-resistant E. coli in different age groups of dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria has become a major public health concern. The objective of this study was to examine antimicrobial resistance in commensal E. coli from different age-groups of animals on dairy farms. Materials: A total of 444 manur...

  15. The associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoer, I.; Ruitenburg, M. M.; Botje, D.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups. A questionnaire was sent to 2021 employees of a Dutch railway company. Six aspects of psychosocial workload (work pressure, mental workload, emotional

  16. Degree and content of negative meaning in four different age groups in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Read, S.; Westerhof, G.J.; Dittmann-Kohli, F.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the degree and content of negative meaning (i.e., negative evaluations, motivations, feelings) in four different age groups of men and women in East- and West-Germany. A sample was drawn from 290 cities in Germany which was stratified according to four age

  17. Self-Compassion among College Counseling Center Clients: An Examination of Clinical Norms and Group Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, Allison J.; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Neff, Kristin; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2014-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the mental health benefits of self-compassion. This study was designed to establish norms on the Self-Compassion Scale-Short Form, a popular measure of self-compassion for individuals seeking counseling, and to examine group differences in self-compassion based on gender, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation,…

  18. Evaluating Equating Accuracy and Assumptions for Groups that Differ in Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Sonya; Kolen, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate equating results are essential when comparing examinee scores across exam forms. Previous research indicates that equating results may not be accurate when group differences are large. This study compared the equating results of frequency estimation, chained equipercentile, item response theory (IRT) true-score, and IRT observed-score…

  19. The associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoer, I.; Ruitenburg, M.M.; Botje, D.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.; Sluiter, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups. A questionnaire was sent to 2021 employees of a Dutch railway company. Six aspects of psychosocial workload (work pressure, mental workload, emotional

  20. Mindfulness training in a heterogeneous psychiatric sample : Outcome evaluation and comparison of different diagnostic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Elisabeth H.; Merea, Ria; van den Brink, Erik; Sanderman, Robbert; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A.

    ObjectivesTo examine outcome after mindfulness training in a heterogeneous psychiatric outpatient population and to compare outcome in different diagnostic groups. MethodOne hundred and forty-three patients in 5 diagnostic categories completed questionnaires about psychological symptoms, quality of

  1. Polonioum 210 levels in urine of different groups of italian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, L.; Renzetti, A.; Santori, G.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of urine obtained from different groups of the italian population has been analized to determine the content of polonium-210. The analysis has been carried out with samples from people with high probability of exposure to radon and hits daughters

  2. College Students' Interpretation of Research Reports on Group Differences: The Tall-Tale Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Thomas P.; Zaboski, Brian A.; Perry, Tiffany R.

    2015-01-01

    How does the student untrained in advanced statistics interpret results of research that reports a group difference? In two studies, statistically untrained college students were presented with abstracts or professional associations' reports and asked for estimates of scores obtained by the original participants in the studies. These estimates…

  3. Questioning Mathematical Knowledge in Different Didactic Paradigms: The Case of Group Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Marianna; Gascón, Josep; Nicolás, Pedro

    2018-01-01

    What is questioned and what is taken for granted when carrying out research into the teaching of a given mathematical topic such as Group Theory? This paper presents two different questioning procedures using the methodological tools provided by the Anthropological Theory of the Didactic (ATD). The first one, leading to an undergraduate…

  4. Specific and unspecific gynecological alarm symptoms -prevalence estimates in different age groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Ravn, Pernille; Larsen, Pia V

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine prevalence estimates of gynecological alarm symptoms in different age groups and to describe common patterns of gynecological symptoms. DESIGN: Web-based cross-sectional survey study. SETTING: Nationwide in Denmark. POPULATION: A random sample of 51 090 women aged 20 years...

  5. The effect of interventions on Twitter in four target groups using different measures of influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Wijn, R.; Boertjes, E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of interventions on Twitter users is studied. We define influence in (a) number of participants, (b) size of the audience, (c) amount of activity, and (d) reach. Influence is studied for four different target groups: (a) politicians, (b) journalists, (c) employees and

  6. Influence of controlled and uncontrolled interventions on Twitter in different target groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Aarts, O.; Boertjes, E.; Wijn, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the influence of interventions on Twitter users is studied. We define influence in a) number of participants, b) size of the audience, c) amount of activity, and d) reach. Influence is studied for four different target groups: a) politicians, b) journalists, c) employees and d) the

  7. Multicultural Contacts in Education: A Case Study of an Exchange Project between Different Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuitema, Jaap; Veugelers, Wiel

    2011-01-01

    One important aim of citizenship education is learning to deal with cultural diversity. To this end, schools organise exchange projects to bring students into contact with different social and cultural groups. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of intergroup contact in educational settings and to understand what the most…

  8. Group differences in the aesthetic evaluation of nature development plans : A multilevel approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, A.E.; Vlek, CAJ; Coeterier, JF

    The study presented here addresses theoretical, methodological and practical aspects of the issue of group differences in the aesthetic evaluation of natural landscapes. Beauty ratings of an agrarian landscape and five computer simulations of nature development plans in this landscape were collected

  9. Job search and the theory of planned behavior: Minority – majority group differences in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.J. van Hooft (Edwin); M.Ph. Born (Marise); T.W. Taris (Toon); H. van der Flier (Henk)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe labor market in many Western countries increasingly diversifies. However, little is known about job search behavior of 'non-traditional' applicants such as ethnic minorities. This study investigated minority – majority group differences in the predictors of job search behavior, using

  10. Does the EDI Measure School Readiness in the Same Way across Different Groups of Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhn, Martin; Gadermann, Anne; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates whether the Early Development Instrument (Offord & Janus, 1999) measures school readiness similarly across different groups of children. We employ ordinal logistic regression to investigate differential item functioning, a method of examining measurement bias. For 40,000 children, our analysis compares groups…

  11. In love and war: altruism, norm formation, and two different types of group selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veelen, C.M.; Hopfensitz, A.

    2007-01-01

    We analyse simulations reported in "The co-evolution of individual behaviors and social institutions" by Bowles et al., 2003 in the Journal of Theoretical Biology 223, 135-147, and begin with distinguishing two types of group selection models. The literature does not provide different names for

  12. Characteristics of four SPE groups with different origins and acceleration processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, R.-S.; Cho, K.-S.; Lee, J.; Bong, S.-C.; Joshi, A. D.; Park, Y.-D.

    2015-09-01

    Solar proton events (SPEs) can be categorized into four groups based on their associations with flare or CME inferred from onset timings as well as acceleration patterns using multienergy observations. In this study, we have investigated whether there are any typical characteristics of associated events and acceleration sites in each group using 42 SPEs from 1997 to 2012. We find the following: (i) if the proton acceleration starts from a lower energy, a SPE has a higher chance to be a strong event (> 5000 particle flux per unit (pfu)) even if its associated flare and/or CME are not so strong. The only difference between the SPEs associated with flare and CME is the location of the acceleration site. (ii) For the former (Group A), the sites are very low (˜ 1 Rs) and close to the western limb, while the latter (Group C) have relatively higher (mean = 6.05 Rs) and wider acceleration sites. (iii) When the proton acceleration starts from the higher energy (Group B), a SPE tends to be a relatively weak event (pfu), although its associated CME is relatively stronger than previous groups. (iv) The SPEs categorized by the simultaneous acceleration in whole energy range within 10 min (Group D) tend to show the weakest proton flux (mean = 327 pfu) in spite of strong associated eruptions. Based on those results, we suggest that the different characteristics of SPEs are mainly due to the different conditions of magnetic connectivity and particle density, which are changed with longitude and height as well as their origin.

  13. Skin color and makeup strategies of women from different ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caisey, L; Grangeat, F; Lemasson, A; Talabot, J; Voirin, A

    2006-12-01

    The development of a world-wide makeup foundation range requires a thorough understanding of skin color features of women around the world. To understand the cosmetic needs of women from different ethnic groups, we measured skin color in five different groups (French and American Caucasian, Japanese, African-American, and Hispanic-American) and compared the data obtained with women's self-perception of skin color, before or after applying their usual foundation product. Skin color was measured using a spectro-radiometer and a spheric lighting device with CCD camera ensuring a highly reliable imaging and data acquisition. The diversity of skin types involved in the study lead to define a large, continuous color space where color spectra from various ethnic groups overlap. Three types of complexion - dark, medium, or light - were distinguished in each group. Only Japanese women did not identify with this lightness scale and considered it makes more sense to classify their skin according to a pink-ocher-beige color scale. The approach however revealed the great variety of skin colors within each ethnic group and the extent of unevenness. A fairly good agreement appeared between women's self-perception and data from color measurements but in Hispanic-American group. Data recorded, after foundation was applied, showed overall consistency with makeup strategy as described by volunteers except for the latter group whose approach looked more uncertain and variable. The findings of the study demonstrate the advantage of combining qualitative and quantitative approach for assessing the cosmetic needs and expectations of women from different ethnic origin and cultural background.

  14. Age Group Differences in Perceived Age Discrimination: Associations With Self-Perceptions of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giasson, Hannah L; Queen, Tara L; Larkina, Marina; Smith, Jacqui

    2017-08-01

    From midlife onwards, age stereotypes increasingly underlie social judgments and contribute to age-based discrimination. Whereas many studies compare differences between young and older adults in reports of age discrimination or sensitivity to age stereotypes, few consider age group differences among adults over 50. We form subgroups corresponding to social age group membership (early midlife, late midlife, young old, oldest old) and examine differences in reported experiences of everyday age discrimination and associations with self-perceptions of aging. Using cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS: N = 15,071; M Age = 68, range 50-101), multivariate logistic regression was used to examine experiences of everyday discrimination attributed to age, and associations between age discrimination and self-perceptions of aging, in four age groups: early midlife, late midlife, young old, oldest old. People in the early midlife group (aged 50-59) reported more experiences of unfair treatment than the older age groups but were less likely to attribute their experiences to age discrimination. After controlling for covariates, individuals in all age groups who perceived their own aging positively were less likely to report experiences of age discrimination. The magnitude of this effect, however, was greatest in the early midlife group. Findings support proposals that midlife is a pivotal life period when individuals adjust to life events and social role transitions. Future longitudinal studies will provide further insight into whether positive self-perceptions of aging are especially important in this phase of the life course. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Qualitative Analysis of Primary Fingerprint Pattern in Different Blood Group and Gender in Nepalese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudikshya KC

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatoglyphics, the study of epidermal ridges on palm, sole, and digits, is considered as most effective and reliable evidence of identification. The fingerprints were studied in 300 Nepalese of known blood groups of different ages and classified into primary patterns and then analyzed statistically. In both sexes, incidence of loops was highest in ABO blood group and Rh +ve blood types, followed by whorls and arches, while the incidence of whorls was highest followed by loops and arches in Rh −ve blood types. Loops were higher in all blood groups except “A –ve” and “B –ve” where whorls were predominant. The fingerprint pattern in Rh blood types of blood group “A” was statistically significant while in others it was insignificant. In middle and little finger, loops were higher whereas in ring finger whorls were higher in all blood groups. Whorls were higher in thumb and index finger except in blood group “O” where loops were predominant. This study concludes that distribution of primary pattern of fingerprint is not related to gender and blood group but is related to individual digits.

  16. On the relative role of different age groups in influenza epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worby, Colin J; Chaves, Sandra S; Wallinga, Jacco; Lipsitch, Marc; Finelli, Lyn; Goldstein, Edward

    2015-12-01

    The identification of key "driver" groups in influenza epidemics is of much interest for the implementation of effective public health response strategies, including vaccination programs. However, the relative importance of different age groups in propagating epidemics is uncertain. During a communicable disease outbreak, some groups may be disproportionately represented during the outbreak's ascent due to increased susceptibility and/or contact rates. Such groups or subpopulations can be identified by considering the proportion of cases within the subpopulation occurring before (Bp) and after the epidemic peak (Ap) to calculate the subpopulation's relative risk, RR=Bp/Ap. We estimated RR for several subpopulations (age groups) using data on laboratory-confirmed US influenza hospitalizations during epidemics between 2009-2014. Additionally, we simulated various influenza outbreaks in an age-stratified population, relating the RR to the impact of vaccination in each subpopulation on the epidemic's initial effective reproductive number R_e(0). We found that children aged 5-17 had the highest estimates of RR during the five largest influenza A outbreaks, though the relative magnitude of RR in this age group compared to other age groups varied, being highest for the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic. For the 2010-2011 and 2012-2013 influenza B epidemics, adults aged 18-49, and 0-4 year-olds had the highest estimates of RR respectively. For 83% of simulated epidemics, the group with the highest RR was also the group for which initial distribution of a given quantity of vaccine would result in the largest reduction of R_e(0). In the largest 40% of simulated outbreaks, the group with the highest RR and the largest vaccination impact was children 5-17. While the relative importance of different age groups in propagating influenza outbreaks varies, children aged 5-17 play the leading role during the largest influenza A epidemics. Extra vaccination efforts for this group may contribute

  17. Perception of Esthetic Impact of Smile Line in Complete Denture Wearers by Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Alves, Leandro Pereira; da Costa Prado, Matheus; Oliveira, Rener Leal; Costa, Matheus Souza Campos; da Silva Coqueiro, Raildo; Gusmão, João Milton Rocha; Santos, Rogério Lacerda

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate esthetic perceptions based on tooth exposure when smiling of patients wearing complete dentures by evaluators in different age groups. Alterations were made to a front view photograph of a smiling patient wearing complete maxillary and mandibular dentures. Alterations in the smile line were simulated to increase or decrease tooth exposure (increments of 0.5 mm). For this purpose, image manipulation software was used. After manipulation, images were printed on photo paper, attached to a questionnaire, and distributed to individuals in three age groups (n = 150). To evaluate the esthetic perception for each image, a visual analog scale was used, with 0 representing least attractive, 5 representing attractive, and 10 representing very attractive. Differences between examiners were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. All statistical analyses were performed with a degree of confidence of 95%. Two evaluators did not observe any differences between images. The images given the best and worst scores were E and O (alterations of 2 and 7 mm), respectively, in the 15- to 19-year-old group, B and O (alterations of 0.5 and 7 mm), respectively, in the 35- to 44-year-old group, and A and M (no alteration and 6 mm alteration), respectively, in the 65- to 74-year-old group. When the images were presented together (images 1 and 2), the unaltered image was selected by individuals of different age groups as the best, and the image with a change of 7 mm was selected as the worst. In this study, complete dental prostheses with smile lines that coincided with the cervical margins of the anterior teeth were the most acceptable. Less exposure of the maxillary teeth when smiling corresponded with decreased attractiveness. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  18. Acute transient hemiparesis induced by lightning strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Seyed Hesam; Faridaalaee, Gholamreza; Jahangard, Samira

    2015-07-01

    According to data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,in the years from 1959 to 1994, lightning was responsible for more than 3000 deaths and nearly 10,000 casualties. The most important characteristic features of lightning injuries are multisystem involvement and widely variable severity. Lightning strikes are primarily a neurologic injury that affects all 3 components of the nervous system: central, autonomic,and peripheral. Neurologic complications of lightning strikes vary from transient benign symptoms to permanent disability. Many patients experience a temporary paralysis called keraunoparalysis. Here we reported a 22-year-old mountaineer man with complaining of left sided hemiparesis after being hit by a lightning strike in the mountain 3 hours ago. There was no loss of consciousness at hitting time. On arrival the patient was alert, awake and hemodynamically stable. In neurologic examination cranial nerves were intact, left sided upper and lower extremity muscle force was I/V with a combination of complete sensory loss, and right-sided muscle force and sensory examination were normal. There is not any evidence of significant vascular impairment in the affected extremities. Brain MRI and CT scan and cervical MRI were normal. During 2 days of admission, with intravenous hydration, heparin 5000 unit SC q12hr and physical therapy of the affected limbs, motor and sensory function improved and was normal except mild paresthesia. He was discharged 1 day later for outpatient follow up while vitamin B1 100mg orally was prescribed.Paresthesia improved after 3 days without further sequels.

  19. Gender Differences in Intimate Partner Homicides Among Ethnic Sub-Groups of Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Dabby, Firoza Chic

    2016-03-01

    This study explored differences in intimate partner homicides (IPHs) among Asian Americans. Data from newspapers and femicide reports by different state coalitions on 125 intimate partner killings occurring between 2000 and 2005 were analyzed. Men were the perpetrators in nearly 9 out of 10 cases of Asian IPHs. Gender differences were found in ages of victims and perpetrators, types of relationship between partners, and methods of killing. Most homicides occurred among South-east Asians, and East Asians had the highest within-group proportion of suicides. The findings call for culturally competent risk assessment and intervention strategies to prevent IPHs among at-risk Asian Americans. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Comparison of Y-STR polymorphisms in three different Slovak population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrejcíková, Eva; Siváková, Daniela; Soták, Miroslav; Bernasovská, Jarmila; Bernasovský, Ivan; Rebała, Krzysztof; Boronová, Iveta; Bôziková, Alexandra; Sovicová, Adriana; Gabriková, Dana; Maceková, Sona; Svícková, Petra; Carnogurská, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Eleven Y-chromosomal microsatellite loci included in the Powerplex Y multiplex kit were analyzed in different Slovak population samples: Habans (n = 39), Romanies (n = 100) and Slovak Caucasian (n = 148) individuals, respectively, from different regions of Slovakia. The analysis of molecular variance between populations indicated that 89.27% of the haplotypic variations were found within populations and only 10.72% between populations (Fst = 0.1027; p = 0.0000). The haplotype diversities were ranging from 0.9258 to 0.9978, and indicated a high potential for differentiating between male individuals. The study reports differences in allele frequencies between the Romanies, Habans and Slovak Caucasian men. Selected loci showed that both the Romany and Haban population belonged to endogamous and relatively small founder population groups, which developed in relatively reproductive isolated groups surrounded by the Slovak Caucasian population.

  1. Tuning of electronic properties and dynamical stability of graphene oxide with different functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabhi, Shweta D.; Jha, Prafulla K.

    2017-09-01

    The structural, electronic and vibrational properties of graphene oxide (GO) with varying proportion of epoxy and hydroxyl functional groups have been studied using density functional theory. The functional groups and oxygen density have an obvious influence on the electronic and vibrational properties. The dependence of band gap on associated functional groups and oxygen density shows a possibility of tuning the band gap of graphene by varying the functional groups as well as oxidation level. The absorption of high oxygen content in graphene leads to the gap opening and resulting in a transition from semimetal to semiconductor. Phonon dispersion curves show no imaginary frequency or no softening of any phonon mode throughout the Brillouin zone which confirms the dynamical stability of all considered GO models. Different groups and different oxygen density result into the varying characteristics of phonon modes. The computed results show good agreement with the experimental observations. Our results present interesting possibilities for engineering the electronic properties of graphene and GO and impact the fabrication of new electronics.

  2. NMR studies of chemical structural variation of insoluble organic matter from different carbonaceous chondrite groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, George D.; Alexander, Conel M. O.'D.

    2005-02-01

    Solid-state 1H and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopic experiments have been performed on isolated meteoritic Insoluble Organic Matter (IOM) spanning four different carbonaceous chondrite meteorite groups; a CR2 (EET92042), a CI1 (Orgueil), a CM2 (Murchison), and the unique C2 meteorite, Tagish Lake. These solid state NMR experiments reveal considerable variation in bulk organic composition across the different meteorite group's IOM. The fraction of aromatic carbon increases as CR2 meteorite groups. Single pulse (SP) 13C magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR experiments reveal the presence of nanodiamonds with an apparent concentration ranking in the IOM of CR2 IOM of all four meteoritic IOM fractions are highly substituted. Fast spinning SP 1H MAS NMR spectral data combined with other NMR experimental data reveal that the average hydrogen content of sp 3 bonded carbon functional groups is low, requiring a high degree of aliphatic chain branching in each IOM fraction. The variation in chemistry across the meteorite groups is consistent with alteration by low temperature chemical oxidation. It is concluded that such chemistry principally affected the aliphatic moieties whereas the aromatic moieties and nanodiamonds may have been largely unaffected.

  3. Not all group hypnotic suggestibility scales are created equal: individual differences in behavioral and subjective responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Sean M; Lynn, Steven Jay; Pekala, Ronald J

    2009-03-01

    To examine the influence of hypnotic suggestibility testing as a source of individual differences in hypnotic responsiveness, we compared behavioral and subjective responses on three scales of hypnotic suggestibility: The Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS: A; Shor, R. E., Orne, E. C. (1962). Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility. Berlin: Consulting Psychologists Press); the Carleton University Responsiveness to Suggestion Scale (CURSS; Spanos, N. P., Radtke, H. L., Hodgins, D. C., Stam, H. J., Bertrand, L. D. (1983b). The Carleton University Responsiveness to Suggestion Scale: Normative data and psychometric properties. Psychological Reports, 53, 523-535); and the Group Scale of Hypnotic Ability (GSHA; Hawkins, R., Wenzel, L. (1999). The Group Scale of Hypnotic Ability and response booklet. Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 27, 20-31). Behavioral and subjective responses to the CURSS were significantly different than those on the HGSHS: A and GSHA. More participants were classified as "low suggestible" on the CURSS and they reported subjective experiences more similar to everyday mentation. Attitudes and expectancies of participants who received the GSHA were less predictive of responding, but rates of responding and subjective experiences were similar on the GSHA and the HGSHS: A. Discussion focuses on implications for the use of group hypnotic suggestibility scales.

  4. The relationship between personality traits and anxiety/depression levels in different drug abusers' groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatalović Vorkapić Sanja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Since psychosocial characteristics of drug abuse involve mainly specific personality and emotional changes, it is very important to investigate characteristics of addictive personality in relationship with emotional state of the individual. Considering that, the objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between personality structure and emotional state of two different groups: heroin addicts and recreate drug abusers. METHODS: The total of 288 (219 males and 69 females; 191 heroin addicts and 97 recreate drug users clients of Centre for the prevention and treatment of drug abuse in Rijeka completed Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ R/A, Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI. Their average age was 22. RESULTS: In the group of heroin addicts, higher levels of anxiety and depression were significantly correlated with higher levels of psychoticism, neuroticism, criminality and addiction. In the group of recreate drug users, higher extraversion and social conformity were determined. Furthermore, in the first group was found even higher depression. However when the anxiety level was compared between these two groups, there was no significant difference. CONCLUSION: Overall, the findings implied that the used measurement instruments could serve as the useful diagnostic tools that could ensure advantageous treatment directions.

  5. Gender-stereotyping and cognitive sex differences in mixed- and same-sex groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirnstein, Marco; Coloma Andrews, Lisa; Hausmann, Markus

    2014-11-01

    Sex differences in specific cognitive abilities are well documented, but the biological, psychological, and sociocultural interactions that may underlie these differences are largely unknown. We examined within a biopsychosocial approach how gender stereotypes affect cognitive sex differences when adult participants were tested in mixed- or same-sex groups. A total of 136 participants (70 women) were allocated to either mixed- or same-sex groups and completed a battery of sex-sensitive cognitive tests (i.e., mental rotation, verbal fluency, perceptual speed) after gender stereotypes or gender-neutral stereotypes (control) were activated. To study the potential role of testosterone as a mediator for group sex composition and stereotype boost/threat effects, saliva samples were taken before the stereotype manipulation and after cognitive testing. The results showed the typical male and female advantages in mental rotation and verbal fluency, respectively. In general, men and women who were tested in mixed-sex groups and whose gender stereotypes had not been activated performed best. Moreover, a stereotype threat effect emerged in verbal fluency with reduced performance in gender stereotyped men but not women. Testosterone levels did not mediate the effects of group sex composition and stereotype threat nor did we find any relationship between testosterone and cognitive performance in men and women. Taken together, the findings suggest that an interaction of gender stereotyping and group sex composition affects the performance of men and women in sex-sensitive cognitive tasks. Mixed-sex settings can, in fact, increase cognitive performance as long as gender-stereotyping is prevented.

  6. The Difference of Food Pattern and Physical Acti vity between Obese and Non Obese Teenage Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Suryaputra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity in teenage is a syndrome that happened because of fat accumulation in the body. Obesity occured because of complex interaction between parental fatness, food pattern, and physical activity. In Indonesia, prevalence of teenage obesity is gradually increasing. The aim of this research was to analyze about the difference of foodpattern and physical activity between obesity and non obesity teenage group. This study was an analytical observational research with cross sectional design. The samples were 40 teenage from Santa Agnes seniorhigh school Surabaya (age 15-17 that was taken by simple random sampling, that divers to 20 obese and 20 non obese teenage group. The data were analysed by Mann Whitney test for nutrition knowledge, pocket money, food pattern, fast food’s consumption, snack’s consumption pattern, consumption level of energy, carbohydrat, protein, and fat, physical activity and parental fatness. The result of the statistic test showed that variables significant difference are nutrition knowledge, pocket money, food pattern, fastfood’s consumption, snack’s consumption pattern, energy consumption level, carbohydrate consumption level, protein consumption level, fat consumption level, physical activity and parental fatness between obese and non obese teenage group. The conlusion is that significant differences are food pattern and physical activity between obese and non obese teenage group. Recommendation is necessary to provide information and education to teenage about healthy food and adequate physical activity to prevent obesity

  7. Adolescent substance use groups: antecedent and concurrent personality differences in a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Elizabeth M; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2012-06-01

    This study attempted to extend Shedler and Block's (1990) influential study, which found that adolescent drug experimenters had the healthiest personality functioning compared to abstainers and frequent users. Using a prospective design, we examined the relationship between antecedent and concurrent personality and age-18 substance use in a community sample of 1,298 twins (96% Caucasian, 49% male). Personality measures at ages 11 and 18 assessed positive emotionality (agentic and communal), negative emotionality, and constraint. Substance use groups-abstainers, experimenters, and problem users-were created at age 18. Age-18 substance use groups differed in age-11 and age-18 constraint such that problem users were lower than experimenters, who were lower than abstainers. Age-18 substance use groups did not differ in age-18 positive emotionality. However, abstainers were significantly lower than experimenters in communal positive emotionality, whereas female abstainers scored higher in agentic positive emotionality than female experimenters, who scored higher than female problem users. Experimenters were significantly lower in negative emotionality than problem users. Our findings are inconsistent with the notion that experimenters had the healthiest personality functioning and instead suggest different strengths and weaknesses for each group. Future studies should examine agentic and communal positive emotionality separately. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Food prices and consumer demand: differences across income levels and ethnic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cliona Ni Mhurchu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Targeted food pricing policies may improve population diets. To assess their effects on inequalities, it is important to determine responsiveness to price changes across income levels and ethnic groups. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to estimate price elasticity (PE values for major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, by income and ethnicity. PE values represent percentage change in demand associated with 1% change in price of that good (own-PE or another good (cross-PE. DESIGN: We used food expenditure data from national household economic surveys in 2007/08 and 2009/10 and Food Price Index data from 2007 and 2010. Adopting an Almost Ideal Demand System approach, own-PE and cross-PE estimates were derived for 24 food categories, household income quintiles, and two ethnic groups (Māori and non-Māori. RESULTS: Own-PE estimates (with two exceptions ranged from -0.44 to -1.78. Cross-PE estimates were generally small; only 31% of absolute values were greater than 0.10. Excluding the outlier 'energy drinks', nine of 23 food groups had significantly stronger own-PEs for the lowest versus highest income quintiles (average regression-based difference across food groups -0.30 (95% CI -0.62 to 0.02. Six own-PEs were significantly stronger among Māori; the average difference for Māori: non-Māori across food groups was -0.26 (95% CI -0.52 to 0.00. CONCLUSIONS: Food pricing policies have potential to improve population diets. The greater sensitivity of low-income households and Māori to price changes suggests the beneficial effects of such policies on health would be greatest for these groups.

  9. Food Prices and Consumer Demand: Differences across Income Levels and Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Eyles, Helen; Schilling, Chris; Yang, Qing; Kaye-Blake, William; Genç, Murat; Blakely, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Background Targeted food pricing policies may improve population diets. To assess their effects on inequalities, it is important to determine responsiveness to price changes across income levels and ethnic groups. Objective Our goal was to estimate price elasticity (PE) values for major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, by income and ethnicity. PE values represent percentage change in demand associated with 1% change in price of that good (own-PE) or another good (cross-PE). Design We used food expenditure data from national household economic surveys in 2007/08 and 2009/10 and Food Price Index data from 2007 and 2010. Adopting an Almost Ideal Demand System approach, own-PE and cross-PE estimates were derived for 24 food categories, household income quintiles, and two ethnic groups (Māori and non-Māori). Results Own-PE estimates (with two exceptions) ranged from −0.44 to −1.78. Cross-PE estimates were generally small; only 31% of absolute values were greater than 0.10. Excluding the outlier ‘energy drinks’, nine of 23 food groups had significantly stronger own-PEs for the lowest versus highest income quintiles (average regression-based difference across food groups −0.30 (95% CI −0.62 to 0.02)). Six own-PEs were significantly stronger among Māori; the average difference for Māori: non-Māori across food groups was −0.26 (95% CI −0.52 to 0.00). Conclusions Food pricing policies have potential to improve population diets. The greater sensitivity of low-income households and Māori to price changes suggests the beneficial effects of such policies on health would be greatest for these groups. PMID:24098408

  10. The difference of variceal distribution in the portal hypertension on CT between hemorrhagic and nonhemorrhagic groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwa Yeon; Yoo, Seung Min; Lim, Sang Joon; Lee, Jong Beum; Kim, Yang Soo; Choi, Young Hee; Choi, Yun Sun

    1997-01-01

    To determine whether there is any difference in variceal distribution between patients with and without a history of esophageal variceal bleeding. To compare the distribution of varices, abdominal CT scans of 24 patients with a history of esophageal variceal bleeding (hemorrhagic group) and 90 patients without a history of bleeding (non-hemorrhagic group) were retrospectively assessed. The most common varices in both the hemorrhagic (n=21, 87.5%) and nonhemorrhagic group (n=53, 58.9%) were coronary varices, with a statistically significant frequency (p<.01). Esophageal varices were also more common in the hemorrhagic than the nonhemorrhagic group (n=19, 79.2% vs n=36, 40.0% : P<.005). Splenorenal shunts were more common in the nonhemorrhagic (n=8, 8.9%) than in the hemorrhagic group (n=0, 0%)(P<.05). Other types of varice such as paraumbilical (n=10, 41.7% vs n=21, 23.3%), perisplenic (n=6, 25% vs n=15, 16.7%) and retroperitoneal-paravertebral (n=11, 45.8% vs n=24, 26.7%) were more common in the hemorrhagic group, but without a statistically significant frequency. The frequency of coronary and esophageal varices was significant in patients with a history of esophageal variceal bleeding. In patients without such a history, splenorenal shunts were seen

  11. Cephalometric and anthropometric data of obstructive apnea in different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Moura Borges

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome usually present with changes in upper airway morphology and/or body fat distribution, which may occur throughout life and increase the severity of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome with age. Objective: To correlate cephalometric and anthropometric measures with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome severity in different age groups. Methods: A retrospective study of cephalometric and anthropometric measures of 102 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome was analyzed. Patients were divided into three age groups (≥20 and <40 years, ≥40 and <60 years, and ≥60 years. Pearson's correlation was performed for these measures with the apnea-hypopnea index in the full sample, and subsequently by age group. Results: The cephalometric measures MP-H (distance between the mandibular plane and the hyoid bone and PNS-P (distance between the posterior nasal spine and the tip of the soft palate and the neck and waist circumferences showed a statistically significant correlation with apnea-hypopnea index in both the full sample and in the ≥40 and <60 years age group. These variables did not show any significant correlation with the other two age groups (<40 and ≥60 years. Conclusion: Cephalometric measurements MP-H and PNS-P and cervical and waist circumfer- ences correlated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome severity in patients in the ≥40 and <60 age group.

  12. Cephalometric and anthropometric data of obstructive apnea in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Paulo de Tarso Moura; Silva, Benedito Borges da; Moita Neto, José Machado; Borges, Núbia Evangelista de Sá; Li, Li M

    2015-01-01

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome usually present with changes in upper airway morphology and/or body fat distribution, which may occur throughout life and increase the severity of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome with age. To correlate cephalometric and anthropometric measures with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome severity in different age groups. A retrospective study of cephalometric and anthropometric measures of 102 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome was analyzed. Patients were divided into three age groups (≥20 and <40 years, ≥40 and <60 years, and ≥60 years). Pearson's correlation was performed for these measures with the apnea-hypopnea index in the full sample, and subsequently by age group. The cephalometric measures MP-H (distance between the mandibular plane and the hyoid bone) and PNS-P (distance between the posterior nasal spine and the tip of the soft palate) and the neck and waist circumferences showed a statistically significant correlation with apnea-hypopnea index in both the full sample and in the ≥40 and <60 years age group. These variables did not show any significant correlation with the other two age groups (<40 and ≥60 years). Cephalometric measurements MP-H and PNS-P and cervical and waist circumferences correlated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome severity in patients in the ≥40 and <60 age group. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of smile index and incisal edge position on perception of attractiveness in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, J-C; Nelson, A; Katwal, D; Elathamna, E N; Durski, M T

    2016-11-01

    Changes in occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) and age have been found to affect Smile Index (SI, width/height of smile). Limited information is available regarding the aesthetic effects of these changes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the attractiveness of digitally manipulated smile images with differences in SI and incisal edge position (IEP) judged by respondents in different age groups. A total of 12 smile images were generated with varying SI (3·5, 5·3, 7·2, 9·0) and IEP (High, Medium, Low). Fifty respondents each in four age groups (15-24, 25-39, 40-54, 55+) evaluated the attractiveness of the 12 images using a 0-10 visual analog scale (VAS, 10 being most attractive). A repeated-measures three-factorial mixed model assessed differences. SI, IEP and age of respondents were found to significantly influence attractiveness score (P age groups combined, SI = 7·2/IEP = Medium was most attractive (VAS = 7·22), followed by SI = 9·0/IEP = Medium, and SI = 5·3/IEP = Medium (VAS = 6·53 and 6·48, respectively). SI = 3·5/IEP = High and SI = 3·5/IEP = Low were least attractive (VAS = 1·99 and VAS = 2·58, respectively). Age group significantly influenced aesthetic perception, with younger respondents more critical in differences in SI and IEP. SI and IEP significantly influenced attractiveness of the smile in all respondent age groups. Low SI (i.e. 3·5) combined with high or low IEP was unattractive. Medium SI to high SI (i.e. 5·3-9·0) combined with medium IEP were considered attractive. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. [Effects of Meek skin grafting on patients with extensive deep burn at different age groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, H P; Niu, X H; Li, Q; Li, X L; Xue, J D; Cao, D Y; Han, D W; Xia, C D

    2017-03-20

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Meek skin grafting on patients with extensive deep burn at different age groups. Methods: Eighty-four patients with extensive deep burns conforming to the study criteria were hospitalized in our unit from April 2011 to April 2015. Patients were divided into children group (C, with age less than 12 years old), young and middle-aged group (YM, with age more than 18 years and less than 50 years old), and old age group (O, with age more than 55 years old) according to age, with 28 patients in each group. All patients received Meek skin grafting treatment. The use of autologous skin area, operation time, wound healing time, and hospitalization time were recorded. The survival rate of skin graft on post operation day 7, complete wound healing rate in post treatment week 2, and the mortality were calculated. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance, t test, and χ (2) test. Results: The use of autologous skin area of patients in group C was (5.1±1.0)% total body surface area (TBSA), significantly less than (8.3±1.0)%TBSA and (8.3±1.4)%TBSA in groups YM and O, respectively (with t values 32.900 and 52.624, respectively, P values below 0.05). The operation time, wound healing time, and hospitalization time of patients in group C were (1.368±0.562) h, (9.6±0.6) and (32±11) d, significantly shorter than those in group YM [(3.235±0.011) h, (16.9±2.6) and (48±12) d, respectively] and group O [(3.692±0.481) h, (17.3±2.6) and (46±13) d, respectively, with t values from 4.350 to 21.160, P values below 0.05]. The survival rate of skin graft of patients on post operation day 7 in group C was (92±15)%, significantly higher than (81±10)% and (72±12)% in groups YM and O, respectively (with t values 5.509 and 3.229, respectively, P values below 0.05). The above indexes in groups YM and O were similar (with t values from 0.576 to 22.958, P values above 0.05). Complete wound healing rate in post treatment week 2 and the

  15. 2002 Bird Strike Committee USA/Canada Conference

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dolbeer, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Over 380 people from 20 countries and 17 exhibitors attended the 4th annual joint meeting of Bird Strike Committee-USA and Bird Strike Committee Canada in Sacramento, California on October 21-24, 2002...

  16. effect of strikes on management and planning of educational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    Strike is an event that consumes and waste a lot of time which implies that ... from this paper. KEYWORDS: Strikes, Management, Planning, Educational, Activities, Universities ..... employers; and Introduction of new technology which affect the ...

  17. BIRD/WILDLIFE STRIKE CONTROL FOR SAFER AIR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-06-05

    Jun 5, 2012 ... Keywords: bird/wildlife, strike, aviation, hazard, control. Introduction ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management EJESM Vol. 5 No. 3 2012 .... Aircraft Bird. Strike Avoidance Rader System (ABARS) and.

  18. Differences in nutrient requirements imply a non-linear emergence of leaders in animal groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Sueur

    Full Text Available Collective decision making and especially leadership in groups are among the most studied topics in natural, social, and political sciences. Previous studies have shown that some individuals are more likely to be leaders because of their social power or the pertinent information they possess. One challenge for all group members, however, is to satisfy their needs. In many situations, we do not yet know how individuals within groups distribute leadership decisions between themselves in order to satisfy time-varying individual requirements. To gain insight into this problem, we build a dynamic model where group members have to satisfy different needs but are not aware of each other's needs. Data about needs of animals come from real data observed in macaques. Several studies showed that a collective movement may be initiated by a single individual. This individual may be the dominant one, the oldest one, but also the one having the highest physiological needs. In our model, the individual with the lowest reserve initiates movements and decides for all its conspecifics. This simple rule leads to a viable decision-making system where all individuals may lead the group at one moment and thus suit their requirements. However, a single individual becomes the leader in 38% to 95% of cases and the leadership is unequally (according to an exponential law distributed according to the heterogeneity of needs in the group. The results showed that this non-linearity emerges when one group member reaches physiological requirements, mainly the nutrient ones - protein, energy and water depending on weight - superior to those of its conspecifics. This amplification may explain why some leaders could appear in animal groups without any despotism, complex signalling, or developed cognitive ability.

  19. Acute changes in foot strike pattern and cadence affect running parameters associated with tibial stress fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Jennifer R; Silder, Amy; Montgomery, Kate L; Fredericson, Michael; Delp, Scott L

    2018-05-18

    Tibial stress fractures are a common and debilitating injury that occur in distance runners. Runners may be able to decrease tibial stress fracture risk by adopting a running pattern that reduces biomechanical parameters associated with a history of tibial stress fracture. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that converting to a forefoot striking pattern or increasing cadence without focusing on changing foot strike type would reduce injury risk parameters in recreational runners. Running kinematics, ground reaction forces and tibial accelerations were recorded from seventeen healthy, habitual rearfoot striking runners while running in their natural running pattern and after two acute retraining conditions: (1) converting to forefoot striking without focusing on cadence and (2) increasing cadence without focusing on foot strike. We found that converting to forefoot striking decreased two risk factors for tibial stress fracture: average and peak loading rates. Increasing cadence decreased one risk factor: peak hip adduction angle. Our results demonstrate that acute adaptation to forefoot striking reduces different injury risk parameters than acute adaptation to increased cadence and suggest that both modifications may reduce the risk of tibial stress fractures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Strike-slip tectonics during rift linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagli, C.; Yun, S. H.; Ebinger, C.; Keir, D.; Wang, H.

    2017-12-01

    The kinematics of triple junction linkage and the initiation of transforms in magmatic rifts remain debated. Strain patterns from the Afar triple junction provide tests of current models of how rifts grow to link in area of incipient oceanic spreading. Here we present a combined analysis of seismicity, InSAR and GPS derived strain rate maps to reveal that the plate boundary deformation in Afar is accommodated primarily by extensional tectonics in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifts, and does not require large rotations about vertical axes (bookshelf faulting). Additionally, models of stress changes and seismicity induced by recent dykes in one sector of the Afar triple junction provide poor fit to the observed strike-slip earthquakes. Instead we explain these patterns as rift-perpendicular shearing at the tips of spreading rifts where extensional strains terminate against less stretched lithosphere. Our results demonstrate that rift-perpendicular strike-slip faulting between rift segments achieves plate boundary linkage during incipient seafloor spreading.

  1. Concurrent crack and powder cocaine users from Sao Paulo: Do they represent a different group?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guindalini, Camila; Vallada, Homero; Breen, Gerome; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2006-01-01

    Background Cocaine abuse is a serious and socially damaging illegal drug problem. Different routes of administration are associated with a specific progression of use, different degrees of abuse liability, propensity for dependence and treatment response. There have been relatively few studies comparing different cocaine users groups and no studies into the characterization of the group of individuals reporting concurrent use of powder cocaine and crack cocaine. Methods Six hundred and ninety-nine cocaine users were assessed during the period August 1997 to October 1998 in one outpatient and six inpatient clinics located in the São Paulo, Brazil. Patients were interviewed using a structured questionnaire schedule in Portuguese, designed specifically for the Brazilian population. The statistical analyses were performed using either ANOVA or a chi-squared test and focusing on their preferred form of use/route of administration and other variables. Results For 83% of the variables tested in this study, the Dual Users subgroup (using both powder and crack cocaine) demonstrated statistical differences from the single drug user subgroups. Those differences include the initiation of cocaine, the abuse of other illicit drugs, and rates of criminal history. Conclusion These data suggest cocaine-dependent individuals who report use of both powder and crack cocaine are an at least partially, distinct subgroup. However, further studies will be necessary to confirm this and to determine if they also show a different treatment response. PMID:16426451

  2. Concurrent crack and powder cocaine users from Sao Paulo: Do they represent a different group?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breen Gerome

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cocaine abuse is a serious and socially damaging illegal drug problem. Different routes of administration are associated with a specific progression of use, different degrees of abuse liability, propensity for dependence and treatment response. There have been relatively few studies comparing different cocaine users groups and no studies into the characterization of the group of individuals reporting concurrent use of powder cocaine and crack cocaine. Methods Six hundred and ninety-nine cocaine users were assessed during the period August 1997 to October 1998 in one outpatient and six inpatient clinics located in the São Paulo, Brazil. Patients were interviewed using a structured questionnaire schedule in Portuguese, designed specifically for the Brazilian population. The statistical analyses were performed using either ANOVA or a chi-squared test and focusing on their preferred form of use/route of administration and other variables. Results For 83% of the variables tested in this study, the Dual Users subgroup (using both powder and crack cocaine demonstrated statistical differences from the single drug user subgroups. Those differences include the initiation of cocaine, the abuse of other illicit drugs, and rates of criminal history. Conclusion These data suggest cocaine-dependent individuals who report use of both powder and crack cocaine are an at least partially, distinct subgroup. However, further studies will be necessary to confirm this and to determine if they also show a different treatment response.

  3. Properties of Lightning Strike Protection Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Martin

    Composite materials are being increasingly used by many industries. In the case of aerospace companies, those materials are installed on their aircraft to save weight, and thus, fuel costs. These aircraft are lighter, but the loss of electrical conductivity makes aircraft vulnerable to lightning strikes, which hit commercial aircrafts on average once per year. This makes lightning strike protection very important, and while current metallic expanded copper foils offer good protection, they increase the weight of composites. Therefore, under the CRIAQ COMP-502 project, a team of industrial partners and academic researchers are investigating new conductive coatings with the following characteristics: High electromagnetic protection, high mechanical resistance, good environmental protection, manufacturability and moderate cost. The main objectives of this thesis, as part of this project, was to determine the main characteristics, such as electrical and tribomechanical properties, of conductive coatings on composite panels. Their properties were also to be tested after destructive tests such as current injection and environmental testing. Bombardier Aerospace provided the substrate, a composite of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy matrix, and the current commercial product, a surfacing film that includes an expanded copper foil used to compare with the other coatings. The conductive coatings fabricated by the students are: silver nanoparticles inside a binding matrix (PEDOT:PSS or a mix of Epoxy and PEDOT:PSS), silvered carbon nanofibers embedded in the surfacing film, cold sprayed tin, graphene oxide functionalized with silver nanowires, and electroless plated silver. Additionally as part of the project and thesis, magnetron sputtered aluminum coated samples were fabricated. There are three main types of tests to characterize the conductive coatings: electrical, mechanical and environmental. Electrical tests consist of finding the sheet resistance and specific resistivity

  4. Vibrotactile sense in patients with different upper limb disorders compared with a control group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lise Hedegaard; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2006-01-01

    diagnostic tools to reveal underlying mechanisms for specific diagnoses. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible differences in vibration perception threshold (VPT) and tolerance to suprathreshold stimulation (STS) between controls and specific diagnostic ULD patient groups with uni- and bilateral neuropathy...... patients in all diagnostic groups had significantly higher VPT (Pgroups defined with neuropathy demonstrated significantly higher VPT in the limb with diagnoses compared with the contralateral limb without...... diagnoses. The highest VPTs were found in the patient group with unilateral neuropathy and MCD, and for the radial nerve, VPT was significantly higher than that for patients with unilateral MCD alone. These findings were confirmed by almost similar findings in STS responses. CONCLUSIONS: The ULD patients...

  5. Effect of difference between group constants processed by codes TIMS and ETOX on integral quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Hideki; Ishiguro, Yukio; Matsui, Yasushi.

    1978-06-01

    Group constants of 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 241 Pu have been produced with the processing code TIMS using the evaluated nuclear data of JENDL-1. The temperature and composition dependent self-shielding factors have been calculated for the two cases with and without considering mutual interference resonant nuclei. By using the group constants set produced by the TIMS code, the integral quantities, i.e. multiplication factor, Na-void reactivity effect and Doppler reactivity effect, are calculated and compared with those calculated with the use of the cross sections set produced by the ETOX code to evaluate accuracy of the approximate calculation method in ETOX. There is much difference in self-shielding factor in each energy group between the two codes. For the fast reactor assemblies under study, however, the integral quantities calculated with these two sets are in good agreement with each other, because of eventual cancelation of errors. (auth.)

  6. Distinguishing Family from Friends : Implicit Cognitive Differences Regarding General Dispositions, Attitude Similarity, and Group Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Rick; Roberts, Ruth

    2017-09-01

    Kinship and friendship are key human relationships. Increasingly, data suggest that people are not less altruistic toward friends than close kin. Some accounts suggest that psychologically we do not distinguish between them; countering this is evidence that kinship provides a unique explanatory factor. Using the Implicit Association Test, we examined how people implicitly think about close friends versus close kin in three contexts. In Experiment 1, we examined generic attitudinal dispositions toward friends and family. In Experiment 2, attitude similarity as a marker of family and friends was examined, and in Experiments 3 and 4, strength of in-group membership for family and friends was examined. Findings show that differences exist in implicit cognitive associations toward family and friends. There is some evidence that people hold more positive general dispositions toward friends, associate attitude similarity more with friends, consider family as more representative of the in-group than friends, but see friends as more in-group than distant kin.

  7. Comparison of measurements and calculations of fuel for different structures in the libraries of effective sections (44 groups/238 groups)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Rivada, A.; Tore, C.

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted for the use of the sections effective in 44 groups, based on the libraries of effective sections ENDF/B-V, for the calculation of the isotopy of the spent fuel. These effective sections have been developed to be used in the system codes SCALE for the analysis the fresh nuclear fuel as the spent and their radioactive waste.

  8. Effects of high ambient temperature on ambulance dispatches in different age groups in Fukuoka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Kazuya; Ueda, Kayo; Seposo, Xerxes; Yasukochi, Shusuke; Matsumoto, Hiroko; Ono, Masaji; Honda, Akiko; Takano, Hirohisa

    2018-01-01

    The elderly population has been the primary target of intervention to prevent heat-related illnesses. According to the literature, the highest risks have been observed among the elderly in the temperature-mortality relationship. However, findings regarding the temperature-morbidity relationship are inconsistent. This study aimed to examine the association of temperature with ambulance dispatches due to acute illnesses, stratified by age group. Specifically, we explored the optimum temperature, at which the relative health risks were found to be the lowest, and quantified the health risk associated with higher temperatures among different age groups. We used the data for ambulance dispatches in Fukuoka, Japan, during May and September from 2005 to 2012. The data were grouped according to age in 20-year increments. We explored the pattern of the association of ambulance dispatches with temperature using a smoothing spline curve to identify the optimum temperature for each age group. Then, we applied a distributed lag nonlinear model to estimate the risks of the 85th-95th percentile temperature relative to the overall optimum temperature, for each age group. The relative risk of ambulance dispatches at the 85th and 95th percentile temperature for all ages was 1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.12] and 1.12 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.16), respectively. In comparison, among age groups, the optimum temperature was observed as 25.0°C, 23.2°C, and 25.3°C for those aged 0-19, 60-79, and ≥80, respectively. The optimum temperature could not be determined for those aged 20-39 and 40-59. The relative risks of high temperature tended to be higher for those aged 20-39 and 40-59 than those for other age groups. We did not find any definite difference in the effect of high temperature on ambulance dispatches for different age groups. However, more measures should be taken for younger and middle-aged people to avoid heat-related illnesses.

  9. Comparison of skeletal muscle mass to fat-free mass ratios among different ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, T; Bemben, M G; Kondo, M; Kawakami, Y; Fukunaga, T

    2012-01-01

    Asians seem to have less skeletal muscle mass (SMM) than other ethnic groups, but it is not clear whether relative SMM, i.e., SMM / height square or SMM to fat-free mass (FFM) ratio, differs among different ethnic groups at the same level of body mass index (BMI). To compare the SMM to fat-free mass (FFM) ratio as well as anthropometric variables and body composition among 3 ethnic groups. Three hundred thirty-nine Japanese, 343 Brazilian, and 183 German men and women were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Muscle thickness (MTH) and subcutaneous fat thickness (FTH) were measured by ultrasound at nine sites on the anterior and posterior aspects of the body. FTH was used to estimate the body density, from which fat mass and fat-free mass (FFM) was calculated by using Brozek equation. Total SMM was estimated from ultrasound-derived prediction equations. Percentage body fat was similar among the ethnic groups in men, while Brazilians were higher than Japanese in women. In German men and women, absolute SMM and FFM were higher than in their Japanese and Brazilians counterparts. SMM index and SMM:FFM ratios were similar among the ethnic groups in women, excluding SMM:FFM ratio in Brazilian. In men, however, these relative values (SMM index and SMM:FFM ratio) were still higher in Germans. After adjusting for age and BMI, the SMM index and SMM:FFM ratios were lower in Brazilian men and women compared with the other two ethnic groups, while the SMM index and SMM:FFM ratios were similar in Japanese and German men and women, excluding SMM:FFM ratio in women. Our results suggest that relative SMM is not lower in Asian populations compared with European populations after adjusted by age and BMI.

  10. Characterization of the fecal microbiome in different swine groups by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Je; Kim, Jinu; Lee, Jong-Soo; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Kim, Hongik

    2014-08-01

    Swine have a complex microbial community within their gastrointestinal tract that plays a critical role in both health and disease. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing was used to identify the possible core microorganisms in the gut of swine groups that differ in meat quality and weight grades (level 1 as higher meat quality and level 2 as lower meat quality). Samples were taken from the rectum and/or stool from ten animals, DNA was extracted, and the V1-V3 regions of the 16S rRNA gene were amplified. Two bacterial populations (Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes) dominated and were shared between the two groups. Significant differences between the groups were found at the genus level. The genera Lactobacillus and Oscillibacter were found in slightly higher proportions in the level 2 group (12.6 and 12.4% of the classified reads, respectively) than those of level 1 (9.6 and 7.7%, respectively). By contrast, the proportion of reads assigned to the genus Roseburia in the level 1 group (13.0%) was higher than that of level 2 (4.8%). The largest differences were related to the genera Clostridium, Oscillibacter, and Roseburia as core microorganisms. Moreover, two genera, Roseburia and Clostridium, related to level 1 produced linoleic acid or short chain fatty acids that might contribute to swine health and development. In conclusion, the presence of core bacteria in the swine gut is associated with meat quality with reduced body fat in swine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Health literacy among different age groups in Germany: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berens, Eva-Maria; Vogt, Dominique; Messer, Melanie; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Schaeffer, Doris

    2016-11-09

    Health literacy is of increasing importance in public health research. It is a necessary pre-condition for the involvement in decisions about health and health care and related to health outcomes. Knowledge about limited health literacy in different age groups is crucial to better target public health interventions for subgroups of the population. However, little is known about health literacy in Germany. The study therefore assesses the prevalence of limited health literacy and associated factors among different age groups. The Health Literacy Survey Germany is a cross-sectional study with 2,000 participants aged 15 years or older in private households. Perceived health literacy was assessed via computer-assisted personal interviews using the HLS-EU-Q-47 questionnaire. Descriptive analyses, chi-square tests and odds ratios were performed stratified for different age groups. The population affected by limited perceived health literacy increases by age. Of the respondents aged 15-29 years, 47.3 % had limited perceived health literacy and 47.2 % of those aged 30-45 years, whereas 55.2 % of the respondents aged 46-64 years and 66.4 % aged 65 years and older showed limited perceived health literacy. In all age groups, limited perceived health literacy was associated with limited functional health literacy, low social status, and a high frequency of doctor visits. The results suggest a need to further investigate perceived health literacy in all phases of the life-course. Particular attention should be devoted to persons with lower social status, limited functional health literacy and/or a high number of doctor visits in all age groups.

  12. Differences in attitudes towards medication between population groups in the Durban Metropolitan Area of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleman, Fatima; Ally, Shabnam; Bayat, Samirah; Essack, Razia; Moodley, Renalda; Mtembu, Thobekile; Ramalingham, Emily

    2009-08-01

    Personal factors, especially attitude, have been implicated in the utilization of health care services, and in access to medical treatment. There is little information on the attitudes of the general public in South Africa towards medications and whether attitudes differ across population groups or among the different users of the health care system. This study aimed to determine the general attitude of a local population to medications, self-care orientation and health professional contact, and whether differences existed between age groups, gender and race groups. METHODS We carried out a randomized, cross-sectional quantitative study via telephonic questionnaire survey (adapted from a previous study) of a sample of 1132 telephone numbers. The setting was the Durban Metropolitan Area, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. KEY FINDINGS A total of 500 (44.2%) people responded. The majority had a positive attitude towards medication. An increase in age resulted in increased medication use. Females were more likely than males to use medication and seek professional health care (P = 0.0406). Most of the respondents (86.0%) were self-care-orientated and displayed moderate medication knowledge (46.2%). Some 295 (59.0%) of the 500 respondents had visited a pharmacy within the last 6 months. Conclusions Health care professionals can adopt an informed approach to address the needs of the population with regard to medication, by targeting groups more likely to use medication (females and the older age group). In addition, gaps in medication knowledge were identified which could be used for health-promotion interventions by health care workers.

  13. Evaluating the Effects of a Bird Strike Advisory System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, I.C.; Mühlhausen, T; Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Bird strikes have operational impacts and cause economic loss to the aviation industry. In the worst case, the damages resulting from bird strikes lead to crashes. The highest risk for bird strikes lies in the area below 3000 ft and thus mainly in airport environments. Despite intense efforts from

  14. effects of strike cost on economic development in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    same firm, in other firms even in other industries (Kempner, 1980). For example ... The main purpose of this paper is to examine the strike cost and productivity in. Nigeria. ... Obnoxious Policies: Workers do go on strike when management makes obnoxious ... ASUU had to go on strike; the FGN had rescinded the decision.

  15. Examining the role of different age groups, and of vaccination during the 2012 Minnesota pertussis outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worby, Colin J.; Kenyon, Cynthia; Lynfield, Ruth; Lipsitch, Marc; Goldstein, Edward

    2015-01-01

    There is limited information on the roles of different age groups during pertussis outbreaks. Little is known about vaccine effectiveness against pertussis infection (both clinically apparent and subclinical), which is different from effectiveness against reportable pertussis disease, with the former influencing the impact of vaccination on pertussis transmission in the community. For the 2012 pertussis outbreak in Minnesota, we estimated odds ratios for case counts in pairs of population groups before vs. after the epidemic’s peak. We found children aged 11–12y, 13–14y and 8–10y experienced the greatest rates of depletion of susceptible individuals during the outbreak’s ascent, with all ORs for each of those age groups vs. groups outside this age range significantly above 1, with the highest ORs for ages 11–12y. Receipt of the fifth dose of DTaP was associated with a decreased relative role during the outbreak’s ascent compared to non-receipt [OR 0.16 (0.01, 0.84) for children aged 5, 0.13 (0.003, 0.82) for ages 8–10y, indicating a protective effect of DTaP against pertussis infection. No analogous effect of Tdap was detected. Our results suggest that children aged 8–14y played a key role in propagating this outbreak. The impact of immunization with Tdap on pertussis infection requires further investigation. PMID:26278132

  16. Cross-cultural differences in relationship- and group-based trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuki, Masaki; Maddux, William W; Brewer, Marilynn B; Takemura, Kosuke

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments explored differences in depersonalized trust (trust toward a relatively unknown target person) across cultures. Based on a recent theoretical framework that postulates predominantly different bases for group behaviors in Western cultures versus Eastern cultures, it was predicted that Americans would tend to trust people primarily based on whether they shared category memberships; however, trust for Japanese was expected to be based on the likelihood of sharing direct or indirect interpersonal links. Results supported these predictions. In both Study 1 (questionnaire study) and Study 2 (online money allocation game), Americans trusted ingroup members more than outgroup members; however, the existence of a potential indirect relationship link increased trust for outgroup members more for Japanese than for Americans. Implications for understanding group processes across cultures are discussed.

  17. Genetic affinity among five different population groups in India reflecting a Y-chromosome gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Anjana; Sharma, Swarkar; Bhat, Audesh; Pandit, Awadesh; Bamezai, Ramesh

    2005-01-01

    Four binary polymorphisms and four multiallelic short tandem repeat (STR) loci from the nonrecombining region of the human Y-chromosome were typed in different Indian population groups from Uttar Pradeh (UP), Bihar (BI), Punjab (PUNJ), and Bengal (WB) speaking the Indo-Aryan dialects and from South India (SI) with the root in the Dravidian language. We identified four major haplogroups [(P) 1+, (C and F) 2+, (R1a) 3, (K) 26+] and 114 combinations of Y-STR haplotypes. Analyses of the haplogroups indicated no single origin from any lineage but a result of a conglomeration of different lineages from time to time. The phylogenetic analyses indicate a high degree of population admixture and a greater genetic proximity for the studied population groups when compared with other world populations.

  18. Adolescent Substance Use Groups: Antecedent and Concurrent Personality Differences in a Longitudinal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliva, E. M.; Keyes, M.; Iacono, W. G.

    2012-01-01

    personality and age-18 substance use in a community sample of 1,298 twins (96% Caucasian, 49% male). Personality measures at ages 11 and 18 assessed positive emotionality (agentic and communal), negative emotionality, and constraint. Substance use groupsabstainers, experimenters, and problem userswere created......This study attempted to extend Shedler and Block's () influential study, which found that adolescent drug experimenters had the healthiest personality functioning compared to abstainers and frequent users. Using a prospective design, we examined the relationship between antecedent and concurrent...... at age 18. Age-18 substance use groups differed in age-11 and age-18 constraint such that problem users were lower than experimenters, who were lower than abstainers. Age-18 substance use groups did not differ in age-18 positive emotionality. However, abstainers were significantly lower than...

  19. Prevalence of primary headache disorders diagnosed according to ICHD-3 beta in three different social groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebedeva, Elena R; Kobzeva, Natalia R; Gilev, Denis

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to estimate the one-year prevalence of primary headache disorders in three different social groups using the third edition beta of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study population included a total...... of 3124 participants: 1042 students (719 females, 323 males, mean age 20.6, age range 17-40), 1075 workers (146 females, 929 males, mean age 40.4, age range 21-67) and 1007 blood donors (484 females, 523 males, mean age 34.1, age range 18-64). We used a semi-structured, validated face-to-face interview....... RESULTS: The age-adjusted one-year prevalence of migraine in females was significantly higher (p Age-adjusted prevalence of migraine among males did not differ among the three groups: 4.5% in students, 4.9% in workers and 4...

  20. The Multilevel Mixed Intact Group Analysis: A Mixed Method to Seek, Detect, Describe, and Explain Differences Among Intact Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonenboom, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Educational innovations often involve intact subgroups, such as school classes or university departments. In small-scale educational evaluation research, typically involving 1 to 20 subgroups, differences among these subgroups are often neglected. This article presents a mixed method from a qualitative perspective, in which differences among…

  1. Ten Thousand Voices on Marine Climate Change in Europe: Different Perceptions among Demographic Groups and Nationalities

    KAUST Repository

    Buckley, Paul J.

    2017-07-11

    Over the past few decades, substantial funding has been directed toward improving scientific understanding and management of impacts of climate change in the marine environment. Following concerns that the key messages from these studies were not reaching the public, a comprehensive opinion poll of 10,000 European citizens in 10 countries was conducted to establish levels of awareness, concern, and trust among different demographic groups (by age, gender, proximity to the coast) and nationalities. Citizens exhibited varying levels of self-declared

  2. Identifying target groups for environmentally sustainable transport: assessment of different segmentation approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Hunecke, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the use of attitude-based market segmentation to promote environmentally sustainable transport has significantly increased. The segmentation of the population into meaningful groups sharing similar attitudes and preferences provides valuable information about how green measures should...... and behavioural segmentations are compared regarding marketing criteria. Although none of the different approaches can claim absolute superiority, attitudinal approaches show advantages in providing startingpoints for interventions to reduce car use....

  3. Differences in psychotropic drug prescriptions among ethnic groups in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkampf, Laura Christina; Smeets, Hugo M; Knol, Mirjam J; Geerlings, Mirjam I; Braam, Arjan W; De Wit, Niek J

    2010-08-01

    Psychotropic drug use in Europe and the USA has increased in the past 20 years. The rise in mental health-care use instigated a debate about possible differences in prevalence rates between different ethnic groups in the Netherlands, although the exact differences were unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether these minority groups were more or less likely than the native population to receive psychotropic drugs. A descriptive population study was conducted using the Agis Health Database, containing demographic and health-care consumption data of approximately 1.5 million inhabitants of the Netherlands. Rates of prescriptions of psychotropic drugs from 2001 to 2006 and adjusted odds ratios for psychotropic drug prescriptions among native Dutch, Turkish and Moroccan ethnic groups were calculated. These data were analysed using logistic regression, after being adjusted for age, gender and socioeconomic status. The mean year prevalence of psychotropic drug prescriptions from 2001 to 2006 was 14.0%. Except for a decrease in anxiolytic drugs, the prescriptions of psychotropic drugs increased from 2001 to 2006. These trends were the same for all of the ethnic groups considered. Among both the Moroccan and Turkish populations, there was a higher risk of antidepressant and antipsychotic drug prescriptions, and a pronounced lower risk of ADHD medication and lithium prescriptions compared to the native population. Among the Turkish population, the risk of anxiolytic drug prescriptions was greater than in the native population. Compared to the native population in the Netherlands, first- and second-generation Turkish and Moroccan immigrants had an increased risk of antidepressant and antipsychotic drug prescriptions and a decreased risk of ADHD medication and Lithium prescriptions. Further research is needed to clarify whether patients of different ethnic backgrounds with the same symptoms receive similar diagnosis and adequate treatment.

  4. e-Government Readiness, Strategy and Two Different User Groups - in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Noella; Hoechtl, Johann; Parycek, Peter

    This paper offers a description of the e-Government Strategy in Austria and its e-Government readiness, and looks at how two different user groups are experiencing e-Government in Austria. Studies conducted show that adolescent citizens are more optimistic and enthusiastic about the possibilities offered whilst the municipalities are more skeptical. The Austrian e-Government strategy, the decisionmakers and IT solution providers must understand the needs of all stakeholders and provide viable solutions accordingly.

  5. Ten Thousand Voices on Marine Climate Change in Europe: Different Perceptions among Demographic Groups and Nationalities

    KAUST Repository

    Buckley, Paul J.; Pinnegar, John K.; Painting, Suzanne J.; Terry, Geraldine; Chilvers, Jason; Lorenzoni, Irene; Gelcich, Stefan; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few decades, substantial funding has been directed toward improving scientific understanding and management of impacts of climate change in the marine environment. Following concerns that the key messages from these studies were not reaching the public, a comprehensive opinion poll of 10,000 European citizens in 10 countries was conducted to establish levels of awareness, concern, and trust among different demographic groups (by age, gender, proximity to the coast) and nationalities. Citizens exhibited varying levels of self-declared

  6. Use and Outcomes of Noninvasive Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure in Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsancak Ugurlu, Aylin; Sidhom, Samy S; Khodabandeh, Ali; Ieong, Michael; Mohr, Chester; Lin, Denis Y; Buchwald, Irwin; Bahhady, Imad; Wengryn, John; Maheshwari, Vinay; Hill, Nicholas S

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic disease and do-not-intubate status increases with age. Thus, we aimed to determine characteristics and outcomes associated with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) use for acute respiratory failure (ARF) in different age groups. A database comprising prospective data collected on site on all adult patients with ARF requiring ventilatory support from 8 acute care hospitals in Massachusetts was used. From a total of 1,225 ventilator starts, overall NIV utilization, success, and in-hospital mortality rates were 22, 54, and 18% in younger (18-44 y); 34, 65, and 13% in middle-aged (45-64 y); 49, 68, and 17% in elderly (65-79 y); and 47, 76, and 24% in aged (≥ 80 y) groups, respectively (P age (25, 57, 57, and 74% and 7, 12, 18, and 31%, respectively, in the 4 age groups [P age groups (P = .27 and P = .98, respectively). NIV use and a do-not-intubate status are more frequent in subjects with ARF ≥ 65 y than in those age groups. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT00458926.). Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  7. Motivational Factors in Women Seeking Augmentation Mammoplasty Across Different Age Groups: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherf, Matan; Wiser, Itay; Klein, Dov; Heller, Lior

    2018-02-19

    Augmentation mammoplasty is one of the most common esthetic procedures worldwide. A wide range of motivations leads women to undergo this procedure, among them socioeconomic status and age group. The aim of this study was to identify the motivation spectrum for augmentation mammoplasty through different age groups. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective survey given to Israeli women seeking augmentation mammoplasty consults in a hospital and private clinic settings, using a 17-item Motivation for Augmentation questionnaire. Three motivation domains were examined: appearance, sexuality and social. Study participants were divided into three age groups: 18-29, 30-39 and over 40 years. A total of 101 women participated in the study. Motivations were rated similar among all age groups. Appearance and sexuality domains were rated significantly higher compared with the social domain throughout all age groups (3.28 ± 0.91 and 3.15 ± 1.03 vs. 1.88 ± 1.16, p age. The desire to improve one's appearance and sexuality is more prominent than improving social and work status. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  8. Peculiarities of vegetative regulation of heart rate in wrestlers of different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B. Zapovitriana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : the aim of the work was to study the characteristics of vegetative regulation of cardiac rhythm in athletes of high qualification of different age groups. Material : 26 wrestlers of Greco-Roman style of high qualification aged 19-34 years old were studied. Vegetative regulation was assessed by statistical analysis of heart rate variability using cardiac monitors «Polar RS800CX». Results : the results showed that the wrestlers of older age group has a greater level of tension of regulation of heart rhythm for compared with young athletes. This is confirmed by the reduced values of the mean square deviation RR- intervals and triangular index. According to the results of spectral analysis of cardio revealed activation of parasympathetic tone of the autonomic regulation of the heart rhythm of wrestlers in older age group, compared with young athletes. The increase of tension of regulation of heart rate in the wrestlers of older age group accompanied by a slowdown of aperiodic and periodic oscillations of cardio intervals. Conclusions: the high level of tension of regulation of heart rhythm in older wrestlers group (26-34 accompanied by the activation of neurohumoral centers and parasympathetic link of vegetative nervous system.

  9. Myocardial 201Tl washout after combined dipyridamole submaximal exercise stress: Reference values from different patient groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridrich, L.

    1989-01-01

    Dipyridamole stress is favorable in patients unable to exercise maximally for 201 Tl myocardial scintigraphy. Aside from an analysis of uptake defects, proper washout analysis can be limited by heart rate variations when isolated dipyridamole stress is used. Heart rate standardized 201 Tl washout kinetics after a combined dipyridamole and submaximal exercise stress protocol (CDSE), feasible in elderly patients as well as in patients with peripheral artery disease, were therefore studied to investigate the 201 Tl washout after CDSE in differently defined patient groups: Group I comprised 19 patients with documented heart disease and angiographically excluded coronary artery disease (CAD); group II contained 17 patients with a very low likelihood of CAD determined by both normal exercise radionuclide ventriculography and normal 201 Tl uptake. Group III comprised 56 patients with a 50% pretest likelihood of CAD but normal 201 Tl uptake. Mean washout values were nearly identical in all groups. Despite similar uptake patterns, however, washout standardized by CDSE was significantly lower than the normal washout values after maximal treadmill exercise. Thus an obviously lower 201 Tl washout after CDSE than after maximal treadmill exercise must be considered if washout analysis criteria after dipyridamole are applied to evaluate ischemic heart disease. Nevertheless, heart rate elevation achieved by additional submaximal exercise stress seems necessary, adequate and clinically safe for standardisation of washout analysis in dipyridamole 201 Tl scintigraphy. (orig.)

  10. Experiencing maternity care: the care received and perceptions of women from different ethnic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background According to the Office for National Statistics, approximately a quarter of women giving birth in England and Wales are from minority ethnic groups. Previous work has indicated that these women have poorer pregnancy outcomes than White women and poorer experience of maternity care, sometimes encountering stereotyping and racism. The aims of this study were to examine service use and perceptions of care in ethnic minority women from different groups compared to White women. Methods Secondary analysis of data from a survey of women in 2010 was undertaken. The questionnaire asked about women’s experience of care during pregnancy, labour and birth, and the postnatal period, as well as demographic factors. Ethnicity was grouped into eight categories: White, Mixed, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Black Caribbean, Black African, and Other ethnicity. Results A total of 24,319 women completed the survey. Compared to White women, women from minority ethnic groups were more likely to be younger, multiparous and without a partner. They tended to access antenatal care later in pregnancy, have fewer antenatal checks, fewer ultrasound scans and less screening. They were less likely to receive pain relief in labour and, Black African women in particular, were more likely to deliver by emergency caesarean section. Postnatally, women from minority ethnic groups had longer lengths of hospital stay and were more likely to breastfeed but they had fewer home visits from midwives. Throughout their maternity care, women from minority ethnic groups were less likely to feel spoken to so they could understand, to be treated with kindness, to be sufficiently involved in decisions and to have confidence and trust in the staff. Conclusion Women in all minority ethnic groups had a poorer experience of maternity services than White women. That this was still the case following publication of a number of national policy documents and local initiatives is a cause for concern. PMID

  11. Understanding childhood asthma in focus groups: perspectives from mothers of different ethnic backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKenzie Sheila

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosing childhood asthma is dependent upon parental symptom reporting but there are problems in the use of words and terms. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare understandings of childhood 'asthma' by mothers from three different ethnic backgrounds who have no personal experience of diagnosing asthma. A better understanding of parents' perceptions of an illness by clinicians should improve communication and management of the illness. Method Sixty-six mothers living in east London describing their ethnic backgrounds as Bangladeshi, white English and black Caribbean were recruited to 9 focus groups. Discussion was semi-structured. Three sessions were conducted with each ethnic group. Mothers were shown a video clip of a boy with audible wheeze and cough and then addressed 6 questions. Sessions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Responses were compared within and between ethnic groups. Results Each session, and ethnic group overall, developed a particular orientation to the discussion. Some mothers described the problem using single signs, while others imitated the sound or made comparisons to other illnesses. Hereditary factors were recognised by some, although all groups were concerned with environmental triggers. Responses about what to do included 'normal illness' strategies, use of health services and calls for complementary treatment. All groups were concerned about using medication every day. Expectations about the quality of life were varied, with recognition that restrictions may be based on parental beliefs about asthma, rather than asthma itself. Conclusion Information from these focus groups suggests mothers know a great deal about childhood asthma even though they have no personal experience of it. Knowledge of how mothers from these ethnic backgrounds perceive asthma may facilitate doctor – patient communication with parents of children experiencing breathing difficulties.

  12. Experiencing maternity care: the care received and perceptions of women from different ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jane; Gao, Haiyan; Redshaw, Maggie

    2013-10-22

    According to the Office for National Statistics, approximately a quarter of women giving birth in England and Wales are from minority ethnic groups. Previous work has indicated that these women have poorer pregnancy outcomes than White women and poorer experience of maternity care, sometimes encountering stereotyping and racism. The aims of this study were to examine service use and perceptions of care in ethnic minority women from different groups compared to White women. Secondary analysis of data from a survey of women in 2010 was undertaken. The questionnaire asked about women's experience of care during pregnancy, labour and birth, and the postnatal period, as well as demographic factors. Ethnicity was grouped into eight categories: White, Mixed, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Black Caribbean, Black African, and Other ethnicity. A total of 24,319 women completed the survey. Compared to White women, women from minority ethnic groups were more likely to be younger, multiparous and without a partner. They tended to access antenatal care later in pregnancy, have fewer antenatal checks, fewer ultrasound scans and less screening. They were less likely to receive pain relief in labour and, Black African women in particular, were more likely to deliver by emergency caesarean section. Postnatally, women from minority ethnic groups had longer lengths of hospital stay and were more likely to breastfeed but they had fewer home visits from midwives. Throughout their maternity care, women from minority ethnic groups were less likely to feel spoken to so they could understand, to be treated with kindness, to be sufficiently involved in decisions and to have confidence and trust in the staff. Women in all minority ethnic groups had a poorer experience of maternity services than White women. That this was still the case following publication of a number of national policy documents and local initiatives is a cause for concern.

  13. Personality traits of a group of young adults from different family structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Toit, J; Nel, E M; Steel, H R

    1992-07-01

    The impact of parental divorce and remarriage and young adults' gender on second-order personality traits, such as extraversion, anxiety, tough poise and independence, was examined. The responses of 227 young adults on the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF; Cattell, Eber, & Tatsuoka, 1970) were subjected to a parametric multivariate analysis of variance. Results revealed significant differences between the anxiety scores of the young men and women as well as between those of the three different family-structure groups, but divorce and remarriage was not associated with either positive or negative personality development in this sample.

  14. Exposure To Harmful Workplace Practices Could Account For Inequality In Life Spans Across Different Demographic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Joel; Pfeffer, Jeffrey; Zenios, Stefanos

    2015-10-01

    The existence of important socioeconomic disparities in health and mortality is a well-established fact. Many pathways have been adduced to explain inequality in life spans. In this article we examine one factor that has been somewhat neglected: People with different levels of education get sorted into jobs with different degrees of exposure to workplace attributes that contribute to poor health. We used General Social Survey data to estimate differential exposures to workplace conditions, results from a meta-analysis that estimated the effect of workplace conditions on mortality, and a model that permitted us to estimate the overall effects of workplace practices on health. We conclude that 10-38 percent of the difference in life expectancy across demographic groups can be explained by the different job conditions their members experience. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  15. Manipulation of Foot Strike and Footwear Increases Achilles Tendon Loading During Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Hannah; Patel, Mubarak

    2017-08-01

    The Achilles tendon is the most common site of tendon overuse injury in humans. Running with a forefoot strike pattern and in minimal shoes is a topic of recent interest, yet evidence is currently limited regarding the combined influence of foot strike and footwear on Achilles tendon loading. To investigate the influence of both foot strike and footwear on Achilles tendon loading in habitual rearfoot strike runners. Controlled laboratory study. Synchronized kinematic and force data were collected from 22 habitual rearfoot strikers (11 male), who habitually ran in nonminimal running shoes, during overground running at 3.6 m·s -1 . Participants ran in 3 different footwear conditions (standard running shoe, minimal running shoe, and barefoot) with both a rearfoot strike (RFS) and an imposed forefoot strike (FFS) in each footwear condition. Achilles tendon loading was estimated by use of inverse dynamics, where the Achilles tendon moment arm was determined with a regression equation. A 2-way, repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare conditions. Achilles tendon impulse was greater when subjects ran with an FFS rather than an RFS in minimal shoes. Achilles tendon loading rates were higher when subjects ran either in minimal shoes or barefoot than in standard shoes, regardless of foot strike. In runners who habitually rearfoot strike in standard running shoes, running in minimal shoes or barefoot increased the rate of tendon loading, and running with a forefoot strike in minimal shoes increased the magnitude of tendon loading. Transitioning to these running conditions may increase the risk of tendinopathy.

  16. Holistic Wellness in Older Adulthood: Group Differences Based on Age and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullen, Matthew C; Granello, Darcy Haag

    2018-01-01

    To understand how demographic variables and depression symptoms relate to the prevalence of wellness, resilience, and age perception within a sample of community-dwelling older adults. In all, 200 residents across 12 senior housing sites were surveyed. Research questions included the following: (1) Do group differences exist in wellness, resilience, and age perception based on age, sex, race, education, and depression symptoms? (2) Which profile of variables is most strongly associated with self-rated depression among older adults? Multivariate analyses of variance were used to examine group differences. A discriminant analysis demonstrated which variables comprised the profile of individuals who ascribed to depression symptoms. Younger respondents (i.e., age 55-70) had significantly lower levels of wellness (η 2 = .034) and resilience (η 2 = .052). Respondents suffering from depression symptoms had lower levels of wellness (η 2 = .155), resilience (η 2 = .163), and positive age perception (η 2 = .067) and higher rates of negative age perception (η 2 = .052). The discriminant analysis correctly categorized 75.3% of the cases related to depression symptoms, and resilience and certain forms of wellness were most relevant. The current study sheds light into within-group differences in wellness, resilience, and age perception that depend on variables such as age and depression.

  17. Difference in Health Inequity between Two Population Groups due to a Social Determinant of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonesinghe, Ramal; Bouye, Karen; Penman-Aguilar, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization defines social determinants of health as “complex, integrated, and overlapping social structures and economic systems” that are responsible for most health inequities. Similar to the individual-level risk factors such as behavioral and biological risk factors that influence disease, we consider social determinants of health such as the distribution of income, wealth, influence and power as risk factors for risk of disease. We operationally define health inequity in a disease within a population due to a risk factor that is unfair and avoidable as the difference between the disease outcome with and without the risk factor in the population. We derive expressions for difference in health inequity between two populations due to a risk factor that is unfair and avoidable for a given disease. The difference in heath inequity between two population groups due to a risk factor increases with increasing difference in relative risks and the difference in prevalence of the risk factor in the two populations. The difference in health inequity could be larger than the difference in health outcomes between the two populations in some situations. Compared to health disparities which are typically measured and monitored using absolute or relative disparities of health outcomes, the methods presented in this manuscript provide a different, yet complementary, picture because they parse out the contributions of unfair and avoidable risk factors. PMID:25522048

  18. Historical Research and Narrative Inquiry: Striking Similarities, Notable Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Cheryl J.

    2005-01-01

    When Theseus sailed from Athens to the island of Crete to slay the Minotaur, a fearsome monster whose food was human flesh and whose home was the labyrinth, Ariadne, the daughter of the Cretan King Minos, gave her new found love, Theseus, a ball of thread to assist him in maneuvering his way through the great maze of winding passages. "Unwind it…

  19. Group differences in physician responses to handheld presentation of clinical evidence: a verbal protocol analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlovic Nada J

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify individual differences in physicians' needs for the presentation of evidence resources and preferences for mobile devices. Methods Within-groups analysis of responses to semi-structured interviews. Interviews consisted of using prototypes in response to task-based scenarios. The prototypes were implemented on two different form factors: a tablet style PC and a pocketPC. Participants were from three user groups: general internists, family physicians and medicine residents, and from two different settings: urban and semi-urban. Verbal protocol analysis, which consists of coding utterances, was conducted on the transcripts of the testing sessions. Statistical relationships were investigated between staff physicians' and residents' background variables, self-reported experiences with the interfaces, and verbal code frequencies. Results 47 physicians were recruited from general internal medicine, family practice clinics and a residency training program. The mean age of participants was 42.6 years. Physician specialty had a greater effect on device and information-presentation preferences than gender, age, setting or previous technical experience. Family physicians preferred the screen size of the tablet computer and were less concerned about its portability. Residents liked the screen size of the tablet, but preferred the portability of the pocketPC. Internists liked the portability of the pocketPC, but saw less advantage to the large screen of the tablet computer (F[2,44] = 4.94, p = .012. Conclusion Different types of physicians have different needs and preferences for evidence-based resources and handheld devices. This study shows how user testing can be incorporated into the process of design to inform group-based customization.

  20. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups.

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    Salman Rahimi

    Full Text Available Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus to 76 h (P. aviculare. Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; P<0.05. This study shows that management programs aiming to minimize weed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure.

  1. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Salman; Mashhadi, Hamid Rahimian; Banadaky, Mehdi Dehghan; Mesgaran, Mohsen Beheshtian

    2016-01-01

    Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus) to 76 h (P. aviculare). Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; Pweed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure.

  2. Comparison of Masking Level Difference in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Control Group

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    Soghrat Faghihzadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a neurological disorder that involves central nervous system. Studies have showed that multiple sclerosis affects behavioral central auditory tests, such as masking release or masking level difference (MLD. The purpose of this study is to compare the masking level difference between multiple sclerosis patients and normal subjects.Methods: This cross sectional and non-interventional study was conducted on 32 multiple sclerosis patients aged between 20-50 years and 32 controls matched for age and gender in Faculty of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. masking level difference test was performed on each subject.Results: The mean masking level difference in the two groups was significantly different (p<0.01 however, gender did not prove to play a role in this difference.Conclusion: As part of the multiple sclerosis diagnosis panel, masking level difference test is an efficient modality for evaluation of hearing impairment and monitoring of rehabilitation progress.

  3. Similarities and Differences in the Outdoor Recreation Participation of Racial/Ethnic Groups: An Example from Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Dwyer

    2000-01-01

    Much of the initial research on the outdoor recreation participation of racial/ethnic groups focused on between-group differences in percent participating in an activity. This tended to focus research, policy, and management on between-group differences at the expense of a more comprehensive look at the participation patterns of racial/ethnic groups. This paper...

  4. Osteosarcopenic obesity and its relationship with dyslipidemia in women from different ethnic groups of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Dan; Hsieh, Peishan; Yu, Hongrong; Zhou, Lining; Gong, Jichun; Xu, Lin; Liu, Peng; Chen, Gang; Chen, Zhao; Deng, Qiongying

    2018-06-09

    To explore the prevalence and ethnic differences of osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) and dyslipidemia and their relationship among Maonan, Mulam, Hmong, and Yao minorities in China. A total of 2315 Maonan, Mulam, Hmong, and Yao women aged 20-95 from Guangxi were included in this study. Questionnaire survey was carried out and their blood lipids were tested. Body compositions were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and T-score was assessed by ultrasonic examination, respectively. Our study showed ethnic-specific prevalence of OSO. In older women, the incidence rates of OSO in Mulam were 4.9, 12.6, and 11.5% in Maonan, Mulam, and Hmong ethnicity, respectively. In younger group, the incidence rates of OSO were 0.4, 0.4, and 0.6%, respectively. However, there is no prevalence of OSO in Yao women in two groups. The prevalence of dyslipidemia in younger women was 22.86, 29.89, 43.35, and 80.00% in group numbering one, two, and three, respectively. In older women, it was 29.13, 39.02, 41.37, and 52.38%, respectively. Based on logistic regression analysis, after controlling for covariates, dyslipidemia in younger group was positively associated with a higher number of adverse body composition, especially for OSO (OR = 12.53, 95%CI 1.34-116.99). Compared with normal women, OSO women in older group were also more likely to have dyslipidemia (OR = 6.75, 95%CI 3.19-14.31). OSO may be a risk factor for dyslipidemia in the ethnic groups. Thus, efforts to promote healthy aging should be focused on preventing obesity and maintaining bone health and muscle mass.

  5. A bird strike handbook for base-level managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payson, R. P.; Vance, J. D.

    1984-09-01

    To help develop more awareness about bird strikes and bird strike reduction techniques, this thesis compiled all relevant information through an extensive literature search, review of base-level documents, and personal interviews. The final product--A Bird Strike Handbook for Base-Level Managers--provides information on bird strike statistics, methods to reduce the strike hazards, and means to obtain additional assistance. The handbook is organized for use by six major base agencies: Maintenance, Civil Engineering, Operations, Air Field Management, Safety, and Air Traffic Control. An appendix follows at the end.

  6. Immigration concern and the white/non-white difference in smoking: Group position theory and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Frank L

    2017-12-01

    National data indicate that U.S. whites have a higher prevalence of smoking compared to non-whites. Group position theory and public opinion data suggest racial differences in immigration concern. This study examines whether immigration concern mediates the racial difference in smoking. Drawing on the 2012 General Social Survey, the 2012 American National Election Study, and the 2006 Portraits of American Life Study, immigration concern was associated with smoking, controlling for covariates across all three nationally representative surveys. Mediation analysis indicated that immigration concern partially mediated the higher odds of smoking among whites across all surveys. Immigration concern also presents a possible explanation for the healthy immigrant advantage and Hispanic paradox as they pertain to smoking differences.

  7. In love and war: altruism, norm formation, and two different types of group selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veelen, Matthijs; Hopfensitz, Astrid

    2007-12-21

    We analyse simulations reported in "The co-evolution of individual behaviors and social institutions" by Bowles et al., 2003 in the Journal of Theoretical Biology 223, 135-147, and begin with distinguishing two types of group selection models. The literature does not provide different names for them, but they are shown to be fundamentally different and have quite different empirical implications. The working of the first one depends on the answer to the question "is the probability that you also are an altruist large enough", while the other needs an affirmative answer to "are our interests enough in line". The first one therefore can also be understood as a kin selection model, while the working of the second can also be described in terms of the direct benefits. The actual simulation model is a combination of the two. It is also a Markov chain, which has important implications for how the output data should be handled.

  8. Statistically significant faunal differences among Middle Ordovician age, Chickamauga Group bryozoan bioherms, central Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crow, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Middle Ordovician age Chickamauga Group carbonates crop out along the Birmingham and Murphrees Valley anticlines in central Alabama. The macrofossil contents on exposed surfaces of seven bioherms have been counted to determine their various paleontologic characteristics. Twelve groups of organisms are present in these bioherms. Dominant organisms include bryozoans, algae, brachiopods, sponges, pelmatozoans, stromatoporoids and corals. Minor accessory fauna include predators, scavengers and grazers such as gastropods, ostracods, trilobites, cephalopods and pelecypods. Vertical and horizontal niche zonation has been detected for some of the bioherm dwelling fauna. No one bioherm of those studied exhibits all 12 groups of organisms; rather, individual bioherms display various subsets of the total diversity. Statistical treatment (G-test) of the diversity data indicates a lack of statistical homogeneity of the bioherms, both within and between localities. Between-locality population heterogeneity can be ascribed to differences in biologic responses to such gross environmental factors as water depth and clarity, and energy levels. At any one locality, gross aspects of the paleoenvironments are assumed to have been more uniform. Significant differences among bioherms at any one locality may have resulted from patchy distribution of species populations, differential preservation and other factors.

  9. Group differences in risk across three domains using an expanded measure of sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosier, Penny S; Dittus, Patricia J

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to highlight associations between sexual orientation and risk outcomes in late adolescence and early adulthood using an expanded measure of sexual orientation. Recent data indicate higher levels of risk behavior in a newly identified population, mostly heterosexuals, as compared to heterosexuals. Comparisons among groups using an expanded measure of sexual orientation such as this, however, often do not include all possible groups or may restrict comparisons between groups. Data were derived from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health); participants identified as heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, mostly gay, or gay. Main risk outcomes were parental mistreatment, home displacement, thoughts of suicide, depressive symptoms, frequency of drinking, and delinquency. A priori planned comparisons examined differences between: (a) heterosexual vs. mostly heterosexual, (b) gay vs. mostly gay, (c) mostly heterosexual vs. bisexual, (d) mostly gay vs. bisexual, (e) mostly heterosexual vs. mostly gay, (f) heterosexual vs. gay, (g) heterosexual vs. bisexual, and (h) gay vs. bisexual. Mostly heterosexual youth were at significantly greater risk than heterosexual youth on all outcomes but did not differ from bisexual or mostly gay youth. Heterosexuals were at lower risk as compared to mostly heterosexuals and bisexuals. This study provides further evidence of differential risk associations for sexual minorities.

  10. Improved harmonization of eosin-5-maleimide binding test across different instruments and age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Archana M; Liew, Michael A; Nussenzveig, Roberto H; Sangle, Nikhil; Heikal, Nahla; Yaish, Hassan; Christensen, Robert

    2016-11-01

    The eosin-5'maleimide (EMA) binding test has been studied extensively for the detection of hereditary spherocytosis (HS). Its performance characteristics have been compared to NaCl-based or glycerol lysis-based red cell osmotic fragility tests and cryohemolysis. HS samples are also better identified when both mean channel fluorescence (MCF) of EMA relative to controls and the coefficient of variation (CV) are analyzed. We looked at 65 normal controls including 30 adults 25-65 years old and 35 newborns and 12 HS cases. In addition to the MCF and the CV, we used a side scatter (SSC) vs. EMA fluorescence gate or "footprint" to depict where normal erythrocytes should appear. Erythrocytes that have reduced band 3 protein appear outside of the footprint. In our study, newborn data did not cluster with the samples from working age individuals. The MCF and the CVs of normal newborns were higher than normal adult group. However, the footprint data of normal samples relative to their controls was around 99.5% for each group, because the footprint was moved to fit the pattern of the normal. The inclusion of footprint parameter will help in better standardization as well as implementation of this test across different age groups as well as different instruments. © 2015 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2015 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  11. [Investigation on the incidence of genital herpes in different professional groups in Qingdao].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, L

    1993-10-01

    Genital herpes is one of 8 legally reportable sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in China. Using a HSV antigen ELISA kit we detected and typed HSV antigen in 1,148 clinical specimens collected from the genital organs (penis, cervix, vagina and vulva) of 446 men and 702 women in Qindao and divided into 11 different professional and 2 special groups (patients with cervical cancer and pregnant women). The highest positive rate of HSV antigen was found among long-distance transport drivers (48.0%). The second and third high positive rates were among waiters and waitresses in private, restaurants (39.2%) and patients with cervical cancer (38.2%). The positive rates among self-employed retailers and employees in private inns and restaurants were notably higher than those among employees in state-run shops, restaurants and hotels. And, the positive rate among workers was higher than that among peasants. There was no notable difference between the positive rate of HSV antigen among men (24.2%) and that among women (21.5%). But the incidence of HSV-2 infection was much higher than that of HSV-1 infection. The results indicate that some special professional groups have high rates of genital HSV infection. More attention needs to be paid to these special groups in order to control sexually transmitted herpes diseases.

  12. Measuring total health inequality: adding individual variation to group-level differences

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    Gakidou Emmanuela

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have revealed large variations in average health status across social, economic, and other groups. No study exists on the distribution of the risk of ill-health across individuals, either within groups or across all people in a society, and as such a crucial piece of total health inequality has been overlooked. Some of the reason for this neglect has been that the risk of death, which forms the basis for most measures, is impossible to observe directly and difficult to estimate. Methods We develop a measure of total health inequality – encompassing all inequalities among people in a society, including variation between and within groups – by adapting a beta-binomial regression model. We apply it to children under age two in 50 low- and middle-income countries. Our method has been adopted by the World Health Organization and is being implemented in surveys around the world; preliminary estimates have appeared in the World Health Report (2000. Results Countries with similar average child mortality differ considerably in total health inequality. Liberia and Mozambique have the largest inequalities in child survival, while Colombia, the Philippines and Kazakhstan have the lowest levels among the countries measured. Conclusions Total health inequality estimates should be routinely reported alongside average levels of health in populations and groups, as they reveal important policy-related information not otherwise knowable. This approach enables meaningful comparisons of inequality across countries and future analyses of the determinants of inequality.

  13. Utilization of critical group and representative person methodologies: differences and difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Nelson L.D.; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Mazzilli, Barbara P.

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, the assessment of the environmental impact due to routine discharges of radionuclides, which is used to the public protection, normally is based on the determination of the so-called 'critical group'. For the same purpose, the ICRP (2007) proposed the adoption of the 'representative person', defined as the individual receiving a dose representative of the members of the population who are subject to the higher exposures. In this work, are discussed, basically, the different characteristics of each one (critical group and representative person), related, mainly, to its methodologies and the necessary data demanded. Some difficulties to obtain site specific data, mainly habit data, as well as the way they are used, are discussed too. The critical group methodology uses, basically, average values, while the representative person methodology performs deterministic or probabilistic analysis using values obtained from distributions. As reference, it was considered the predicted effluents releases from Uranium Hexafluoride Production Plant (USEXA) and the effective doses calculated to the members of the previously defined critical group of Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA). (author)

  14. The Multilevel Mixed Intact Group Analysis: A Mixed Method to Seek, Detect, Describe and Explain Differences Between Intact Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonenboom, J.I.

    2014-01-01

    Educational innovations often involve intact subgroups, such as school classes or university departments. In small-scale educational evaluation research, typically involving 1 to 20 subgroups, differences among these subgroups are often neglected. This article presents a mixed method from a

  15. Heel-toe running: A new look at the influence of foot strike pattern on impact force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, John A; Horsch, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    It is important to understand the factors that influence the impact force observed during running, since the impact force is likely to be related to overuse injuries. The purpose of this study was to compare the impact force during running when participants were instructed to use different foot strike patterns: obvious heel strike (Obvious-HS), subtle heel strike (Subtle-HS), midfoot strike (Mid-FS), and fore foot strike (Fore-FS) patterns. Participants ( n  = 10, 25 ± 5.7 years, 70.2 ± 12.1 kg, 174.6 ± 7.2 cm) completed four foot strike patterns while running over ground: Obvious-HS, Subtle-HS, Mid-FS, and Fore-FS. Speed was controlled between conditions (random order). Vertical ground reaction forces were recorded (1000 Hz) along with the impact force, peak force, and stance time for analysis. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare each variable across foot strike instructions, with post hoc comparisons contrasting Obvious-HS to each of the other conditions. Impact force was influenced by foot strike instructions, with Obvious-HS being greater than Subtle-HS and Fore-FS ( p   0.05). The peak force was not influenced by foot strike instructions ( p  > 0.05); stance time was longer during Obvious-HS than during Mid-FS or Fore-FS ( p   0.05). The unique observation of this study was that impact force was different when participants were instructed to run with either an Obvious-HS or a Subtle-HS at contact. Both these foot strike patterns would have been considered rear foot strike patterns, suggesting that something other than which specific part of the foot strikes the ground initially influenced impact force.

  16. Strikes and solidarity: coalfield conflict in Britain, 1889-1966

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy Church; Quentin Outram [University of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom)

    2002-05-01

    This book investigates the history of strike activity in the British coal mining industry, a byword for industrial militancy since the late nineteenth century. Contents: 1. Interpreting coalfield conflict: focus and formulations; 2. Tradition and modernity: the mining industry 1889-1940; 3. Employers and workers: organizations and strategies; 4. Employers and workers: ideologies, attitudes and political orientations; 5. Configurations of strike activity; 6. Strike participation and solidarity before 1912; 7. Strikes, organization and consciousness in 1912 and after; 8. Conflictual context? The 'isolated mass' revisited; 9. Mining and modernity: size, sectionalism and solidarity; 10. The foundations of strike propensity; 11. Miners and management: agency and action; 12. Industrial relations and strikes after nationalization; 13. International perspectives; 14. Myths and realities: strikes, solidarity and 'militant miners'.

  17. Identification of copy number variants defining genomic differences among major human groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Armengol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the genetic contribution to phenotype variation of human groups is necessary to elucidate differences in disease predisposition and response to pharmaceutical treatments in different human populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have investigated the genome-wide profile of structural variation on pooled samples from the three populations studied in the HapMap project by comparative genome hybridization (CGH in different array platforms. We have identified and experimentally validated 33 genomic loci that show significant copy number differences from one population to the other. Interestingly, we found an enrichment of genes related to environment adaptation (immune response, lipid metabolism and extracellular space within these regions and the study of expression data revealed that more than half of the copy number variants (CNVs translate into gene-expression differences among populations, suggesting that they could have functional consequences. In addition, the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are in linkage disequilibrium with the copy number alleles allowed us to detect evidences of population differentiation and recent selection at the nucleotide variation level. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results provide a comprehensive view of relevant copy number changes that might play a role in phenotypic differences among major human populations, and generate a list of interesting candidates for future studies.

  18. Comparison of different sampling techniques and of different culture methods for detection of group B streptococcus carriage in pregnant women

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    Verhelst Rita

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS is a significant cause of perinatal and neonatal infections worldwide. To detect GBS colonization in pregnant women, the CDC recommends isolation of the bacterium from vaginal and anorectal swab samples by growth in a selective enrichment medium, such as Lim broth (Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with selective antibiotics, followed by subculture on sheep blood agar. However, this procedure may require 48 h to complete. We compared different sampling and culture techniques for the detection of GBS. Methods A total of 300 swabs was taken from 100 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation. For each subject, one rectovaginal, one vaginal and one rectal ESwab were collected. Plating onto Columbia CNA agar (CNA, group B streptococcus differential agar (GBSDA (Granada Medium and chromID Strepto B agar (CA, with and without Lim broth enrichment, were compared. The isolates were confirmed as S. agalactiae using the CAMP test on blood agar and by molecular identification with tDNA-PCR or by 16S rRNA gene sequence determination. Results The overall GBS colonization rate was 22%. GBS positivity for rectovaginal sampling (100% was significantly higher than detection on the basis of vaginal sampling (50%, but not significantly higher than for rectal sampling (82%. Direct plating of the rectovaginal swab on CNA, GBSDA and CA resulted in detection of 59, 91 and 95% of the carriers, respectively, whereas subculturing of Lim broth yielded 77, 95 and 100% positivity, respectively. Lim broth enrichment enabled the detection of only one additional GBS positive subject. There was no significant difference between GBSDA and CA, whereas both were more sensitive than CNA. Direct culture onto GBSDA or CA (91 and 95% detected more carriers than Lim broth enrichment and subculture onto CNA (77%. One false negative isolate was observed on GBSDA, and three false positives on CA. Conclusions In

  19. Ethnic and gender differences in the association between discrimination and depressive symptoms among five immigrant groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Ho; Noh, Samuel

    2014-12-01

    This study examines ethnic and gender differences in exposure to discrimination and its association with depressive symptoms among five immigrant groups. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 900 adult immigrants (50.8% men, 49.2% women) sampled from five ethnic immigrant communities in Toronto between April and September 2001. Men reported higher levels of discrimination than women. Ethiopians had the highest perception of discrimination followed by Korean, Iranian, Vietnamese, and Irish immigrants. With regard to discrimination-related depressive symptoms, Iranian and Korean men showed a greater risk than their Irish counterparts. Among women, Vietnamese and Irish seemed to be more vulnerable to discrimination than other ethnic groups. Despite experiencing the highest level of discrimination, Ethiopian men and women showed no association between discrimination and depressive symptoms. The exposure and psychological response to discrimination vary significantly across ethnicities and gender.

  20. PSpice Model of Lightning Strike to a Steel Reinforced Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koone, Neil; Condren, Brian

    2003-01-01

    Surges and arcs from lightning can pose hazards to personnel and sensitive equipment, and processes. Steel reinforcement in structures can act as a Faraday cage mitigating lightning effects. Knowing a structure's response to a lightning strike allows hazards associated with lightning to be analyzed. A model of lightning's response in a steel reinforced structure has been developed using PSpice (a commercial circuit simulation). Segments of rebar are modeled as inductors and resistors in series. A program has been written to take architectural information of a steel reinforced structure and 'build' a circuit network that is analogous to the network of reinforcement in a facility. A severe current waveform (simulating a 99th percentile lightning strike), modeled as a current source, is introduced in the circuit network, and potential differences within the structure are determined using PSpice. A visual three-dimensional model of the facility displays the voltage distribution across the structure using color to indicate the potential difference relative to the floor. Clear air arcing distances can be calculated from the voltage distribution using a conservative value for the dielectric breakdown strength of air. Potential validation tests for the model will be presented

  1. Parenting Stress through the Lens of Different Clinical Groups: a Systematic Review & Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Lucybel; Graziano, Paulo A.; Bagner, Daniel M.

    2017-01-01

    Research has demonstrated an association between parenting stress and child behavior problems, and suggested levels of parenting stress are higher among parents of children at risk for behavior problems, such as those with autism and developmental delay (ASD/DD). The goal of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of parenting stress and child behavior problems among different clinical groups (i.e., ASD/DD, chronic illness, with or at-risk for behavioral and/or mood disorders). We also examined demographic and methodological variables as moderators and differences in overall levels of parenting stress between the clinical groups. This systematic review documents a link between parenting stress and child behavior problems with an emphasis on externalizing behavior. One-hundred thirty-three studies were included for quantitative analysis. Parenting stress was more strongly related to child externalizing (weighted ES r = 0.57, d = 1.39) than internalizing (weighted ES r = 0.37, d = 0.79) problems. Moderation analyses indicated that the association between parenting stress and behavior problems was stronger among studies which had mostly male and clinic-recruited samples. Overall, parenting stress levels were higher for parents of children with ASD/DD compared to parents of children from other clinical groups. Findings document the association between parenting stress and child behavior problems and highlight the importance of assessing parenting stress as part of routine care and throughout behavioral intervention programs, especially for groups of children at high risk for behavior problems, such as children with ASD/DD, in order to identify support for both the parent(s) and child. PMID:28555335

  2. Evolution of division of labor: emergence of different activities among group members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahashi, Wataru; Feldman, Marcus W

    2014-05-07

    The division of labor is an important component of the organization of human society. However, why this division evolved in hominids requires further investigation. Archeological evidence suggests that it appeared after the emergence of Homo sapiens and contributed to the great success of our species. We develop a mathematical model to investigate under what conditions division of labor should evolve. We assume two types of resources the acquisition of which demands different skills, and study the evolution of the strategy that an individual should use to divide its lifetime into learning and using each skill. We show that division of labor likely evolves when group size is large, skill learning is important for acquiring resources, and there is food sharing within a group. We also investigate division of labor by gender under the assumption that the genders have different efficiencies in acquiring each resource. We show that division of labor by gender likely evolves when skill learning is important and the difference in efficiencies between genders in acquiring resources is large. We discuss how the results of our analysis might apply to the evolution of division of labor in hominids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sport Tourism Centres from Top Athletes’ Perspective: Differences among Sport Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polanec Anze

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sport tourism plays an important role in the tourism industry and consequently in the economy. Sport tourism centres as providers of sport services need to be familiar with the basic needs of their customers and tailor their services accordingly. Objectives: The aim of the paper is to determine the models for customizing sport tourism services to address the needs specific for an individual sport. Methods/Approach: A questionnaire has been created and sent electronically or physically to top athletes from Slovenia, Central and Eastern Europe. Respondents were mainly from Slovenia and mostly representatives of national sports federations. The Mann Whitney and the Kruskall-Wallis tests were applied in order to test differences among sport groups. Results: The conducted Mann-Whitney non-parametric tests show that representatives of different sport groups have different perspectives on sport tourism services. Conclusions: The results of the study can be used by sport tourism centres in the process of tailoring their services, planning marketing activities or developing strategic projects.

  4. Impaired Recognition of Facially Expressed Emotions in Different Groups of Patients with Sleep Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crönlein, Tatjana; Langguth, Berthold; Eichhammer, Peter; Busch, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that acute sleep loss has a direct impact on emotional processing in healthy individuals. Here we studied the effect of chronically disturbed sleep on emotional processing by investigating two samples of patients with sleep disorders. 25 patients with psychophysiologic insomnia (23 women and 2 men, mean age: 51.6 SD; 10.9 years), 19 patients with sleep apnea syndrome (4 women and 15 men, mean age: 51.9; SD 11.1) and a control sample of 24 subjects with normal sleep (15 women and 9 men, mean age 45.3; SD 8.8) completed a Facial Expressed Emotion Labelling (FEEL) task, requiring participants to categorize and rate the intensity of six emotional expression categories: anger, anxiety, fear, happiness, disgust and sadness. Differences in FEEL score and its subscales among the three samples were analysed using ANOVA with gender as a covariate. Both patients with psychophysiologic insomnia and patients with sleep apnea showed significantly lower performance in the FEEL test as compared to the control group. Differences were seen in the scales happiness and sadness. Patient groups did not differ from each other. By demonstrating that previously known effects of acute sleep deprivation on emotional processing can be extended to persons experiencing chronically disturbed sleep, our data contribute to a deeper understanding of the relationship between sleep loss and emotions.

  5. Impaired Recognition of Facially Expressed Emotions in Different Groups of Patients with Sleep Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Crönlein

    Full Text Available Recently it has been shown that acute sleep loss has a direct impact on emotional processing in healthy individuals. Here we studied the effect of chronically disturbed sleep on emotional processing by investigating two samples of patients with sleep disorders.25 patients with psychophysiologic insomnia (23 women and 2 men, mean age: 51.6 SD; 10.9 years, 19 patients with sleep apnea syndrome (4 women and 15 men, mean age: 51.9; SD 11.1 and a control sample of 24 subjects with normal sleep (15 women and 9 men, mean age 45.3; SD 8.8 completed a Facial Expressed Emotion Labelling (FEEL task, requiring participants to categorize and rate the intensity of six emotional expression categories: anger, anxiety, fear, happiness, disgust and sadness. Differences in FEEL score and its subscales among the three samples were analysed using ANOVA with gender as a covariate.Both patients with psychophysiologic insomnia and patients with sleep apnea showed significantly lower performance in the FEEL test as compared to the control group. Differences were seen in the scales happiness and sadness. Patient groups did not differ from each other.By demonstrating that previously known effects of acute sleep deprivation on emotional processing can be extended to persons experiencing chronically disturbed sleep, our data contribute to a deeper understanding of the relationship between sleep loss and emotions.

  6. São paulo judo team: study of competitive behavior tendency between athlets of differents groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Serassuelo Junior

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to identify the competitive behavior tendency of Judo players according to personal tendencies of competing, winning and setting goals. The samples were separated by circumstantially being part (n=15 or not (n=37 of São Paulo State Team, in two different groups, A and B specifi cally, from different social background and between 14 and 21 years old. The evaluation tools were: Evaluation System ACS – 2 to collect information about competitive tendency; and a second one to obtain Sportive and Personal information about age, practice time and performance level. The Spearman Coeffi cient was used to analyze the intra-group relations between qualitative variables (tendencies of winning, competing and setting goals, and quantitative variables (age, practice time, performance level. The Q-Square was used to analyze the qualitative variables between groups and the test t for the quantitative variables. The results showed that there are signifi cant differences in the variables involved in this study between groups A and B, except for competing tendencies. In conclusion, no differences had been found between qualitative and quantitative variables, in the intra-group analyses but in inter-groups analyses there are signifi cant differences that showed the athletes with more age, practice time and performance level obtain best scores for the competitive tendencies analyzed, these elements can indicate possibilities to reach best results in sport competitions. The Evaluation System ACS – 2 was shown as a good and effi cient model to identify the different competitive behavior tendencies employed by male Judo players. RESUMO O presente estudo teve como objetivo principal identifi car as tendências de comportamento competitivo de atletas masculinos de Judô, em relação às suas tendências pessoais em vencer, competir e estabelecer metas. Os dados foram coletados, utilizando o Sistema de Avaliação ACS – 2 e o

  7. Serotonin transporter gene polymorphism and its association with bipolar disorder across different ethnic groups in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Saini, Suriati; Nik Jaafar, Nik Ruzyanei; Sidi, Hatta; Midin, Marhani; Mohd Radzi, Azizah; Abdul Rahman, Abdul Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The risk variants have been shown to vary substantially across populations and a genetic study in a heterogeneous population might shed a new light in the disease mechanism. This preliminary study aims to determine the frequency of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia and its association with bipolar disorder. This is a candidate gene association study of randomly selected forty five unrelated bipolar disorder probands and sixty six controls. Diagnosis was evaluated using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I). The control group consisted of healthy volunteers without personal psychiatric history and family history of mood disorder. Patients' whole blood was collected for genotyping. This study revealed that the frequency of the short variant of 5-HTTLPR in healthy control group was highest in Indians (42.9%) followed by Malays (23.5%) and was absent in Chinese. The association between the homozygous ss genotype of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism with bipolar disorder was not found in the pooled subjects (χ(2)=1.52, d.f.=1, p=0.218, OR=4.67, 95% C.I.=0.69-7.58) and after stratification into Malays (p=0.315, OR=2.03, 95% CI=0.50-8.17), Indians (p=0.310; OR=0.44, 95% CI=0.21-0.92) and Chinese. The differences in the frequency of the short allele of 5-HTTLPR across the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia were noteworthy. The present study showed no significant association between the homozygous short variant of the 5-HTTLPR and bipolar disorder in the pooled subject and after stratification into the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average ± standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 ± 1.0 cm and 54% ± 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 ± 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

  9. Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, 45 Cheng Hsin Street, Pai-Tou District, Taipei 11220, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 {+-} 1.0 cm and 54% {+-} 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 {+-} 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

  10. Dietary exposure to non-dioxin-like PCBs of different population groups in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihats, Daniela; Moche, Wolfgang; Prean, Michael; Rauscher-Gabernig, Elke

    2015-05-01

    The dietary exposure to the sum of the six indicator PCBs (Σ6 PCBs; PCB 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) across different Austrian population groups was assessed in this study by combining data on occurrence from food of the Austrian market (n=157) analysed during 2006-2011 with national food consumption data. The most contaminated food group was meat, poultry, game and offal with average levels of ndl-PCBs of 5.20 ng g(-1) fat. In fish and fish products and eggs, mean concentrations of 3.89 ng g(-1) fresh weight (fw) and 4.00 ng g(-1) fat, respectively, were found. In milk and dairy products average concentrations ranged from 3.07 to 4.44 ng g(-1) fat. The mean dietary intake of Σ6 PCBs was estimated to be 3.37 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1) for children (6-15 years old), 3.19 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1) for women (19-65 years) and 2.64 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1) for men (19-65 years). In all three population groups, milk and dairy products was the major contributing food group to the total dietary intake (50-55%) followed by fish and fish products (23-27%). The exposure of all Austrian population groups is well below the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 10 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1) proposed by WHO, accounting for 34% in children, 32% in women and 26% in men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in foot and shank coupling due to alterations in foot strike pattern during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Michael B; Buckley, John G

    2008-03-01

    Determining if and how the kinematic relationship between adjacent body segments changes when an individual's gait pattern is experimentally manipulated can yield insight into the robustness of the kinematic coupling across the associated joint(s). The aim of this study was to assess the effects on the kinematic coupling between the forefoot, rearfoot and shank during ground contact of running with alteration in foot strike pattern. Twelve subjects ran over-ground using three different foot strike patterns (heel strike, forefoot strike, toe running). Kinematic data were collected of the forefoot, rearfoot and shank, which were modelled as rigid segments. Coupling at the ankle-complex and midfoot joints was assessed using cross-correlation and vector coding techniques. In general good coupling was found between rearfoot frontal plane motion and transverse plane shank rotation regardless of foot strike pattern. Forefoot motion was also strongly coupled with rearfoot frontal plane motion. Subtle differences were noted in the amount of rearfoot eversion transferred into shank internal rotation in the first 10-15% of stance during heel strike running compared to forefoot and toe running, and this was accompanied by small alterations in forefoot kinematics. These findings indicate that during ground contact in running there is strong coupling between the rearfoot and shank via the action of the joints in the ankle-complex. In addition, there was good coupling of both sagittal and transverse plane forefoot with rearfoot frontal plane motion via the action of the midfoot joints.

  12. Is the rearfoot pattern the most frequently foot strike pattern among recreational shod distance runners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Matheus Oliveira; Saragiotto, Bruno Tirotti; Yamato, Tiê Parma; Lopes, Alexandre Dias

    2015-02-01

    To determine the distribution of the foot strike patterns among recreational shod runners and to compare the personal and training characteristics between runners with different foot strike patterns. Cross-sectional study. Areas of running practice in São Paulo, Brazil. 514 recreational shod runners older than 18 years and free of injury. Foot strike patterns were evaluated with a high-speed camera (250 Hz) and photocells to assess the running speed of participants. Personal and training characteristics were collected through a questionnaire. The inter-rater reliability of the visual foot strike pattern classification method was 96.7% and intra-rater reliability was 98.9%. 95.1% (n = 489) of the participants were rearfoot strikers, 4.1% (n = 21) were midfoot strikers, and four runners (0.8%) were forefoot strikers. There were no significant differences between strike patterns for personal and training characteristics. This is the first study to demonstrate that almost all recreational shod runners were rearfoot strikers. The visual method of evaluation seems to be a reliable and feasible option to classify foot strike pattern. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Performance of microscopy and ELISA for diagnosing Giardia duodenalis infection in different pediatric groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Renata K N R; Pacheco, Flávia T F; Martins, Adson S; Menezes, Joelma F; Costa-Ribeiro, Hugo; Ribeiro, Tereza C M; Mattos, Ângela P; Oliveira, Ricardo R; Soares, Neci M; Teixeira, Márcia C A

    2016-12-01

    Techniques for Giardia diagnosis based on microscopy are usually applied as routine laboratory testing; however, they typically exhibit low sensitivity. This study aimed to evaluate Giardia duodenalis and other intestinal parasitic infections in different pediatric groups, with an emphasis on the comparison of Giardia diagnostic techniques. Feces from 824 children from different groups (diarrheic, malnourished, with cancer and from day care) were examined by microscopy and ELISA for Giardia, Cryptosporidium sp. and Entamoeba histolytica coproantigen detection. Giardia-positive samples from day-care children, identified by either microscopy or ELISA, were further tested by PCR targeting of the β-giardin and Gdh genes. Statistically significant differences (Psp. in diarrheic and malnourished groups; infections by Entamoeba histolytica were found only in children with diarrhea. Considering positivity for Giardia by at least one method, ELISA was found to be more sensitive than microscopy (97% versus 55%). To examine discrepancies among the diagnostic methods, 71 Giardia-positive stool samples from day-care children were tested by PCR; of these, DNA was amplified from 51 samples (77.4%). Concordance of positivity between microscopy and ELISA was found for 48 samples, with 43 confirmed by PCR. Parasite DNA was amplified from eleven of the 20 Giardia samples (55%) identified only by ELISA. This study shows the higher sensitivity of ELISA over microscopy for Giardia diagnosis when a single sample is analyzed and emphasizes the need for methods based on coproantigen detection to identify this parasite in diarrheic fecal samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Different-ligand coordination europium compounds with dibenzoylmethane, nitrate-group, and hexamethylphosphotriamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasev, V.E.; Botova, I.N.

    1988-01-01

    Some different-ligand europium complexes with dibenzoylmethane (DBM), hexamethylphosphotriamide (HMPA) and NO 3 -group of composition: Eu(NO 3 ) 3 x3HMPAx2H 2 O, Eu(NO 3 ) 2 xDBMx2HMPA, EuNO 3 x(DBM) 2 x2HMPA and Eu(DBM) 3 xHMPA are synthesized. Individuality of each complex is confirmed by methods of chemical, IR spectroscopic, luminescent, thermogravimetric analyses. Integral intensities of luminescence of synthesized complexes are measured, their excitation spectra in the crystal state at 77 K in the 200-600 nm range are studied

  15. Correlates of sedentary time in different age groups: results from a large cross sectional Dutch survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaards, Claire M; Hildebrandt, Vincent H; Hendriksen, Ingrid J M

    2016-10-26

    Evidence shows that prolonged sitting is associated with an increased risk of mortality, independent of physical activity (PA). The aim of the study was to identify correlates of sedentary time (ST) in different age groups and day types (i.e. school-/work day versus non-school-/non-work day). The study sample consisted of 1895 Dutch children (4-11 years), 1131 adolescents (12-17 years), 8003 adults (18-64 years) and 1569 elderly (65 years and older) who enrolled in the Dutch continuous national survey 'Injuries and Physical Activity in the Netherlands' between 2006 and 2011. Respondents estimated the number of sitting hours during a regular school-/workday and a regular non-school/non-work day. Multiple linear regression analyses on cross-sectional data were used to identify correlates of ST. Significant positive associations with ST were observed for: higher age (4-to-17-year-olds and elderly), male gender (adults), overweight (children), higher education (adults ≥ 30 years), urban environment (adults), chronic disease (adults ≥ 30 years), sedentary work (adults), not meeting the moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) guideline (children and adults ≥ 30 years) and not meeting the vigorous PA (VPA) guideline (4-to-17-year-olds). Correlates of ST that significantly differed between day types were working hours and meeting the VPA guideline. More working hours were associated with more ST on school-/work days. In children and adolescents, meeting the VPA guideline was associated with less ST on non-school/non-working days only. This study provides new insights in the correlates of ST in different age groups and thus possibilities for interventions in these groups. Correlates of ST appear to differ between age groups and to a lesser degree between day types. This implies that interventions to reduce ST should be age specific. Longitudinal studies are needed to draw conclusions on causality of the relationship between identified correlates and ST.

  16. Correlates of sedentary time in different age groups: results from a large cross sectional Dutch survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Bernaards

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence shows that prolonged sitting is associated with an increased risk of mortality, independent of physical activity (PA. The aim of the study was to identify correlates of sedentary time (ST in different age groups and day types (i.e. school-/work day versus non-school-/non-work day. Methods The study sample consisted of 1895 Dutch children (4–11 years, 1131 adolescents (12–17 years, 8003 adults (18–64 years and 1569 elderly (65 years and older who enrolled in the Dutch continuous national survey ‘Injuries and Physical Activity in the Netherlands’ between 2006 and 2011. Respondents estimated the number of sitting hours during a regular school-/workday and a regular non-school/non-work day. Multiple linear regression analyses on cross-sectional data were used to identify correlates of ST. Results Significant positive associations with ST were observed for: higher age (4-to-17-year-olds and elderly, male gender (adults, overweight (children, higher education (adults ≥ 30 years, urban environment (adults, chronic disease (adults ≥ 30 years, sedentary work (adults, not meeting the moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA guideline (children and adults ≥ 30 years and not meeting the vigorous PA (VPA guideline (4-to-17-year-olds. Correlates of ST that significantly differed between day types were working hours and meeting the VPA guideline. More working hours were associated with more ST on school-/work days. In children and adolescents, meeting the VPA guideline was associated with less ST on non-school/non-working days only. Conclusions This study provides new insights in the correlates of ST in different age groups and thus possibilities for interventions in these groups. Correlates of ST appear to differ between age groups and to a lesser degree between day types. This implies that interventions to reduce ST should be age specific. Longitudinal studies are needed to draw conclusions on causality of

  17. Determination of spatial parameters for different star groups in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharadze, E.K.; Bartaya, R.A.; Vereshchagin, S.V.; Dluzhnevskaya, O.B.; Pavlovskaya, E.D.; Piskunov, A.Eh.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Astronomicheskij Sovet; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ.

    1987-01-01

    Space densities and parameters of z-distribution for ten star groups in the Hertzsprung - Russell diagram (A - K3, A - G4, A - G5) were determined. Data from the Abastumani two-dimensional spectral classification catalogue, and a statistical procedure of data processing, allowing to take into account uncertainties of observational data as well as the catalogue selection effect, were used. The study of the space distributions allowed to carry out an independent estimation of a luminosity dispersion for different sequences in the Hertsprung - Russell diagram

  18. Microtribological study of perfluoropolyether with different functional groups coated on hydrogen terminated Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minn, Myo; Satyanarayana, Nalam [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Sinha, Sujeet K., E-mail: mpesks@nus.edu.sg [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Kondo, Hirofumi [Sony Chemical and Information Device Corporation, R and D Division, 1078 Kamiishikawa, Kanuma 322-8503 (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    Friction and wear properties of different perfluoropolyether (PFPE) films with and without hydrogen termination on Si (Si-H) were studied using a ball-on-disk tribometer. The physical and chemical properties of the films were evaluated using contact angle measurement, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Coating of PFPEs onto bare Si has lowered the coefficient of friction (from 0.6 for Si to {approx}0.05 with PFPE) and enhanced the wear durability (20,000 times) in comparison with those for bare Si which failed immediately. The introduction of hydrogen termination onto Si prior to PFPE coating has further increased the wear durability of PFPE with different functional groups several times (>5 times) under a normal load of 30 mN and a sliding speed of 0.052 m/s.

  19. The stepping behavior analysis of pedestrians from different age groups via a single-file experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuchao; Zhang, Jun; Song, Weiguo; Shi, Chang'an; Zhang, Ruifang

    2018-03-01

    The stepping behavior of pedestrians with different age compositions in single-file experiment is investigated in this paper. The relation between step length, step width and stepping time are analyzed by using the step measurement method based on the calculation of curvature of the trajectory. The relations of velocity-step width, velocity-step length and velocity-stepping time for different age groups are discussed and compared with previous studies. Finally effects of pedestrian gender and height on stepping laws and fundamental diagrams are analyzed. The study is helpful for understanding pedestrian dynamics of movement. Meanwhile, it offers experimental data to develop a microscopic model of pedestrian movement by considering stepping behavior.

  20. Food groups for allergen risk assessment: Combining food consumption data from different countries in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birot, Sophie; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Kruizinga, Astrid G

    2018-01-01

    To prevent allergic reactions, food producers have to be able to make a knowledge based decision on whether to label their products with precautionary labelling. As many manufactured food products are sold in different countries across Europe, the allergen risk assessment should be estimated...... at the European levels. As currently, there are no pan-European food data suitable for food allergy risk assessment. The aim of this paper is to investigate if consumption data, at a meal level, from National Food Consumption Surveys, can be combined to form a common Food Consumption database. In this first...... attempt we developed a procedure to investigate, if national food consumption data can be combined and grouped using data from Netherlands, France and Denmark. The homogeneity of consumption patterns and the relevance of difference in risk of allergic reaction were compared, using a fixed framework...

  1. Age differences in visual search for compound patterns: long- versus short-range grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burack, J A; Enns, J T; Iarocci, G; Randolph, B

    2000-11-01

    Visual search for compound patterns was examined in observers aged 6, 8, 10, and 22 years. The main question was whether age-related improvement in search rate (response time slope over number of items) was different for patterns defined by short- versus long-range spatial relations. Perceptual access to each type of relation was varied by using elements of same contrast (easy to access) or mixed contrast (hard to access). The results showed large improvements with age in search rate for long-range targets; search rate for short-range targets was fairly constant across age. This pattern held regardless of whether perceptual access to a target was easy or hard, supporting the hypothesis that different processes are involved in perceptual grouping at these two levels. The results also point to important links between ontogenic and microgenic change in perception (H. Werner, 1948, 1957).

  2. College grade point average as a personnel selection device: ethnic group differences and potential adverse impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, P L; Bobko, P

    2000-06-01

    College grade point average (GPA) is often used in a variety of ways in personnel selection. Unfortunately, there is little empirical research literature in human resource management that informs researchers or practitioners about the magnitude of ethnic group differences and any potential adverse impact implications when using cumulative GPA for selection. Data from a medium-sized university in the Southeast (N = 7,498) indicate that the standardized average Black-White difference for cumulative GPA in the senior year is d = 0.78. The authors also conducted analyses at 3 GPA screens (3.00, 3.25, and 3.50) to demonstrate that employers (or educators) might face adverse impact at all 3 levels if GPA continues to be implemented as part of a selection system. Implications and future research are discussed.

  3. Parkinsonian abnormality of foot strike: a phenomenon of ageing and/or one responsive to levodopa therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J R; Bowes, S G; Leeman, A L; O'Neill, C J; Deshmukh, A A; Nicholson, P W; Dobbs, S M; Dobbs, R J

    1990-01-01

    1. Normally during walking, the heel strikes the ground before the forefoot. Abnormalities of foot strike in idiopathic Parkinson's disease may be amenable to therapy: objective measurements may reveal response which is not clinically apparent. Occult changes in foot strike leading to instability may parallel the normal, age-related loss of striatal dopamine. 2. The nature of foot strike was studied using pedobarography in 160 healthy volunteers, aged 15 to 91 years. Although 16% of strikes were made simultaneously by heel and forefoot, there were no instances of the forefoot preceding the heel. No significant effect of age on an index of normality of foot strikes was detected (P greater than 0.3). 3. The effect on foot strike of substituting placebo for a morning dose of a levodopa/carbidopa combination was studied in a double-blind, cross-over trial in 14 patients, aged 64 to 88 years, with no overt fluctuations in control of their idiopathic Parkinson's disease in relation to dosing. On placebo treatment there was a highly significant (P = 0.004) reduction in the number of more normal strikes, i.e. heel strikes plus simultaneous heel and forefoot strikes. The effect appeared unrelated to the corresponding difference between active and placebo treatments in plasma concentration of levodopa or a metabolite of long half-time, 3-O-methyldopa (3OMD). However, it correlated negatively (P less than 0.05) with the mean of the 3OMD concentrations. 4. It appears that some abnormalities of foot strike due to Parkinson's disease are reversible. Employing test conditions, designed to provoke abnormalities of foot strike, might be useful in screening for pre-clinical Parkinson's disease. PMID:2306409

  4. Testing problem-solving capacities: differences between individual testing and social group setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasheninnikova, Anastasia; Schneider, Jutta M

    2014-09-01

    Testing animals individually in problem-solving tasks limits distractions of the subjects during the test, so that they can fully concentrate on the problem. However, such individual performance may not indicate the problem-solving capacity that is commonly employed in the wild when individuals are faced with a novel problem in their social groups, where the presence of a conspecific influences an individual's behaviour. To assess the validity of data gathered from parrots when tested individually, we compared the performance on patterned-string tasks among parrots tested singly and parrots tested in social context. We tested two captive groups of orange-winged amazons (Amazona amazonica) with several patterned-string tasks. Despite the differences in the testing environment (singly vs. social context), parrots from both groups performed similarly. However, we found that the willingness to participate in the tasks was significantly higher for the individuals tested in social context. The study provides further evidence for the crucial influence of social context on individual's response to a challenging situation such as a problem-solving test.

  5. Plantar loading changes with alterations in foot strike patterns during a single session in habitual rear foot strike female runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernozek, Thomas W; Vannatta, Charles N; Gheidi, Naghmeh; Kraus, Sydnie; Aminaka, Naoko

    2016-03-01

    Characterize plantar loading parameters when habitually rear foot strike (RFS) runners change their pattern to a non-rear foot strike (NRFS). Experimental. University biomechanics laboratory. Twenty three healthy female runners (Age: 22.17 ± 1.64 yrs; Height: 168.91 ± 5.46 cm; Mass: 64.29 ± 7.11 kg). Plantar loading was measured using an in-sole pressure sensor while running down a 20-m runway restricted to a range of 3.52-3.89 m/s under two conditions, using the runner's typical RFS, and an adapted NRFS pattern. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance was performed to detect differences in loading between these two conditions. Force and pressure variables were greater in the forefoot and phalanx in NRFS and greater in the heel and mid foot in RFS pattern, but the total force imposed upon the whole foot and contact time remained similar between conditions. Total peak pressure was higher and contact area was lower during NRFS running. The primary finding of this investigation is that there are distinctly different plantar loads when changing from a RFS to NRFS during running. So, during a transition from RFS to a NRFS pattern; a period of acclimation should be considered to allow for adaptations to these novel loads incurred on plantar regions of the foot. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Synchrotron-based XRD from rat bone of different age groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, D.V., E-mail: dvrao_9@yahoo.com [Science Based Applications to Engineering (SBAI), Physics Division, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Via Scarpa 10, 00161 Roma (Italy); Gigante, G.E. [Science Based Applications to Engineering (SBAI), Physics Division, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Via Scarpa 10, 00161 Roma (Italy); Cesareo, R.; Brunetti, A. [Istituto di Matematica e Fisica, Università di Sassari, Via Vienna 2, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Schiavon, N. [Hercules Laboratory, University of Evora (Portugal); Akatsuka, T.; Yuasa, T. [Department of Bio-System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata University, Yonezawa-shi, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); Takeda, T. [Allied Health Science, Kitasato University, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228-8555 (Japan)

    2017-05-01

    Synchrotron-based XRD spectra from rat bone of different age groups (w, 56 w and 78w), lumber vertebra at early stages of bone formation, Calcium hydroxyapatite (HAp) [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}] bone fill with varying composition (60% and 70%) and bone cream (35–48%), has been acquired with 15 keV synchrotron X-rays. Experiments were performed at Desy, Hamburg, Germany, utilizing the Resonant and Diffraction beamline (P9), with 15 keV X-rays (λ = 0.82666 A{sup 0}). Diffraction data were quantitatively analyzed using the Rietveld refinement approach, which allowed us to characterize the structure of these samples in their early stages. Hydroxyapatite, received considerable attention in medical and materials sciences, since these materials are the hard tissues, such as bone and teeth. Higher bioactivity of these samples gained reasonable interest for biological application and for bone tissue repair in oral surgery and orthopedics. The results obtained from these samples, such as phase data, crystalline size of the phases, as well as the degree of crystallinity, confirm the apatite family crystallizing in a hexagonal system, space group P6{sub 3}/m with the lattice parameters of a = 9.4328 Å and c = 6.8842 Å (JCPDS card #09-0432). Synchrotron-based XRD patterns are relatively sharp and well resolved and can be attributed to the hexagonal crystal form of hydroxyapatite. All the samples were examined with scanning electron microscope at an accelerating voltage of 15 kV. The presence of large globules of different sizes is observed, in small age groups of the rat bone (8w) and lumber vertebra (LV), as distinguished from, large age groups (56 and 78w) in all samples with different magnification, reflects an amorphous phase without significant traces of crystalline phases. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the morphology and crystalline properties of Hap, for all the samples, from 2 to 100 μm resolution. - Highlights: • For

  7. Synchrotron-based XRD from rat bone of different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, D V; Gigante, G E; Cesareo, R; Brunetti, A; Schiavon, N; Akatsuka, T; Yuasa, T; Takeda, T

    2017-05-01

    Synchrotron-based XRD spectra from rat bone of different age groups (w, 56 w and 78w), lumber vertebra at early stages of bone formation, Calcium hydroxyapatite (HAp) [Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 ] bone fill with varying composition (60% and 70%) and bone cream (35-48%), has been acquired with 15keV synchrotron X-rays. Experiments were performed at Desy, Hamburg, Germany, utilizing the Resonant and Diffraction beamline (P9), with 15keV X-rays (λ=0.82666 A 0 ). Diffraction data were quantitatively analyzed using the Rietveld refinement approach, which allowed us to characterize the structure of these samples in their early stages. Hydroxyapatite, received considerable attention in medical and materials sciences, since these materials are the hard tissues, such as bone and teeth. Higher bioactivity of these samples gained reasonable interest for biological application and for bone tissue repair in oral surgery and orthopedics. The results obtained from these samples, such as phase data, crystalline size of the phases, as well as the degree of crystallinity, confirm the apatite family crystallizing in a hexagonal system, space group P6 3 /m with the lattice parameters of a=9.4328Å and c=6.8842Å (JCPDS card #09-0432). Synchrotron-based XRD patterns are relatively sharp and well resolved and can be attributed to the hexagonal crystal form of hydroxyapatite. All the samples were examined with scanning electron microscope at an accelerating voltage of 15kV. The presence of large globules of different sizes is observed, in small age groups of the rat bone (8w) and lumber vertebra (LV), as distinguished from, large age groups (56 and 78w) in all samples with different magnification, reflects an amorphous phase without significant traces of crystalline phases. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the morphology and crystalline properties of Hap, for all the samples, from 2 to 100μm resolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Epidemiological differences of lower urinary tract symptoms among female subpopulations and group level interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avasarala Atchuta Kameswararao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1 To study the risk factor profiles of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS among adolescent girls, housewives and working women and its socioeconomic and quality of life losses. 2 To undertake risk factor modifications using the adolescent girls. Design and Setting: Cross-sectional descriptive study followed by educational intervention. Statistical Methods: Cluster sampling, Proportions, confidence intervals, Chi square and t-Tests and Logistic regression. Materials and Methods: House to house survey was done in two villages and one urban ward. Seventy-five housewives, 75 working women and 180 adolescent girls were asked about the risk factors and losses due to LUTS. Three teams of adolescent girls were utilized to bring about behavioral modifications. Impact was measured through user perspectives obtained from the participants. Results: Risk factors, social, economic and quality of life losses were different among the three female populations. Overall prevalence of LUTS among the three groups is 61(18.5%. Improper anal washing technique, malnutrition, presence of vaginal discharge, use of unsanitary menstrual pads, pinworm infestation and use of bad toilets were the significant causes among girls. Presence of sexually transmitted diseases was a contributing factor among housewives and working women. Prolonged sitting the posture was also contributing to LUTS among working women. Seventy-four per cent of beneficiaries expressed that intervention is useful. Conclusions: The causes for LUTS and their consequences were differing among the three female subpopulations. Specific group level interventions using trained girls were successful.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF AGE HENS ON THE INTENSITY LOAD CAPACITY FROM DIFFERENT WEIGHT GROUPS EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Pandurević

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of age of hens on the intensity of load from different weight groups eggs. This paper presents the correlation connection, meaning and significance of differences connection for two weight classes (M - 53 to 63g and L – 63g to 73g, which make up the largest part of the total number of eggs produced during the entire production cycle, as well as for all of the eggs produced, as compared to age-laying hens. Between age and intensity of load to 53 weeks of age hens (SN53/34, there is a strong positive, medium and slight correlation coefficients determined and phenotypic correlation are statistically confirmed at the level of P 0.05. Between the age of hens and intensity of load hardest groups (classes eggs (L there is a complete and very strong connections and established correlation coefficients were statistically significant at P <0.001.

  10. Investigation on hepatitis C virus infection among different population group in eastern Guangdong province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Kai; Chen Linxing; Zhang Renhua; Yao Zhanchen; Xu Pinghui

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the HCV infection rate and the route of transmission among different population groups in Eastern Gruangdong province. Methods: Anti HCV was detected with EL ISA and HCV-RNA with FQ-PCR in selected population groups in Eastern Guangdong (total 8990 subjects). Results: The anti-HCV positive rates for general population, pregnant women, medical personnel, hepatitis B patients and patients on hemodialysis (HD) were: 0.89%(58/6468), 0.93%(17/1836), 2.93%(5/171), 11.5%(47/410) and 51.4%(54/105) respectively. Twelve of the 17 anti-HCV positive mothers were found to be HCV-RNA positive and two of the 12 infants were also HCV-RNA positive: a mother-to-infant transmission rate of 16.7%. In MD patients, anti HCV positive rate in those with history of transfusion and those without transfusion was 58% and 17% respectively, the difference being significant (P<0.01). Conclusion: Blood transmission was the main route for HCV infection transmission and mother-to-infant transmission as well as infections in medical personnel should be of great concern. (authors)

  11. Physical fitness profile of professional Italian firefighters: differences among age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Cignitti, Lamberto; Cortis, Cristina; Capranica, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Firefighters perform many tasks which require a high level of fitness and their personal safety may be compromised by the physiological aging process. The aim of the study was to evaluate strength (bench-press), power (countermovement jump), sprint (20 m) and endurance (with and without Self Contained Breathing Apparatus - S.C.B.A.) of 161 Italian firefighters recruits in relation to age groups (profile for each parameter and to assess differences (p < 0.05) among age groups. Anthropometric values showed an age-effect for height and BMI, while performances values showed statistical differences for strength, power, sprint tests and endurance test with S.C.B.A. Wearing the S.C.B.A., 14% of all recruits failed to complete the endurance test. We propose that the firefighters should participate in an assessment of work capacity and specific fitness programs aimed to maintain an optimal fitness level for all ages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Dietary intakes of energy and macronutrients by lactating women of different ethnic groups living in Yakutia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtseva, Tatiana; Solodkova, Irina; Savvina, Maya; Dranaeva, Galina; Shadrin, Victor; Avrusin, Sergei; Sinelnikova, Elena; Chasnyk, Vyacheslav

    2013-01-01

    There should be a substantial increase in the intake of dietary energy, protein and other nutrients by lactating women, though these special increments can be different in different ethnic groups. To evaluate the influence of maternal ethnicity and diet on the quality of breast milk and its potential effect on early childhood development. A total of 185 mothers (150 Native and 35 Russian) living in settlements and small towns of rural Yakutia and 54 mothers (26 Native and 28 Russian) living in Yakutsk were surveyed and average food intake was recorded during 3 successive days before the survey was analyzed. The amount of protein varied from 18 to 168.3 g/day, fat--from 12 to 176.1 g/day, energy--from 900 to 3680.4 kcal/day. Protein intake was at the level of current recommended dietary allowances (RDA) in Russians and was higher than in Natives living in rural settlements and small towns (p = 0.02) and in Yakutsk (p = 0.03). Carbohydrate intake was higher, though not significantly, in both ethnic groups compared with the current recommendations. Protein, fat, carbohydrates and, therefore, energy intake were lower (p macronutrients depended on the place where a woman lived rather than on her ethnicity. Overall, energy intake was considered to be at the lower limit (basal energy expenditure 2002/2005) for lactating women, with the exception of Native women living in Yakutsk whose energy intake was below the lower limit.

  13. Extending the cereus group genomics to putative food-bornepathogens of different toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, Alla; Goltsman, Eugene; Auger, Sandrine; Galleron,Nathalie; Segurens, Beatrice; Dossat, Carole; Land, Miriam L.; Broussole,Veronique; Brillard, Julien; Guinebretiere, Marie-Helene; Sanchis,Vincent; Nguen-the, Christophe; Lereclus, Didier; Richardson, Paul; Winker, Patrick; Weissenbach, Jean; Ehrlich, S.Dusko; Sorokin, Alexei

    2006-08-24

    The cereus group represents sporulating soil bacteriacontaining pathogenic strains which may cause diarrheic or emetic foodpoisoning outbreaks. Multiple locus sequence typing revealed a presencein natural samples of these bacteria of about thirty clonal complexes.Application of genomic methods to this group was however biased due tothe major interest for representatives closely related to B. anthracis.Albeit the most important food-borne pathogens were not yet defined,existing dataindicate that they are scattered all over the phylogenetictree. The preliminary analysis of the sequences of three genomesdiscussed in this paper narrows down the gaps in our knowledge of thecereus group. The strain NVH391-98 is a rare but particularly severefood-borne pathogen. Sequencing revealed that the strain must be arepresentative of a novel bacterial species, for which the name Bacilluscytotoxis is proposed. This strain has a reduced genome size compared toother cereus group strains. Genome analysis revealed absence of sigma Bfactor and the presence of genes encoding diarrheic Nhe toxin, notdetected earlier. The strain B. cereus F837/76 represents a clonalcomplex close to that of B. anthracis. Including F837/76, three such B.cereus strains had been sequenced. Alignment of genomes suggests that B.anthracis is their common ancestor. Since such strains often emerge fromclinical cases, they merit a special attention. The third strain, KBAB4,is a typical psychrotrophe characteristic to unbiased soil communities.Phylogenic studies show that in nature it is the most active group interms of gene exchange. Genomic sequence revealed high presence ofextra-chromosomal genetic material (about 530 kb) that may account forthis phenomenon. Genes coding Nhe-like toxin were found on a big plasmidin this strain. This may indicate a potential mechanism of toxicityspread from the psychrotrophic strain community. The results of thisgenomic work and ecological compartments of different strains incite

  14. User satisfaction with public and private dental services for different age groups in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Macarevich

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article aimed to describe the levels of user satisfaction in different age groups and to study the association between user satisfaction and different types of dental services in a representative sample of Brazilians. This study is based on the Brazilian Oral Health Survey, which evaluated the dental health of adolescents, adults and older adults in 177 Brazilian cities. The outcome variable was user satisfaction, related to the last dental visit, evaluated in a five-level Likert-type scale. The main exposure variable was the type of dental service (public service, private service, health plan or insurance. The independent variables were DMFT (decay, missing and filled teeth; pain intensity in the past six months; reason for the last dental visit; perceived need for treatment; frequency of use of dental services; sex; equivalent income; and educational level. An ordered logistic regression analysis was performed separately for each age group. Few participants evaluated the services as bad or very bad (4.3% of adolescents, 6.1% of adults and 4.1% of older adults. In the crude model, the use of public services was associated with lower satisfaction than the use of private services and health plans between all groups. However, after adjusting by covariates, this association remained only in adolescents, who showed lower satisfaction with the public service compared to the private service and health plans. In general, Brazilians are satisfied with dental services, but, among adolescents, the use of public services was associated with lower satisfaction. Public services may be focused on issues related to children, adults and older adults, and not to the adolescent audience, which has specific demands.

  15. Sex disparities in acute myocardial infarction incidence: do ethnic minority groups differ from the majority population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oeffelen, Aloysia A M; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Stronks, Karien; Bots, Michiel L; Agyemang, Charles

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in men exceeds that in women. The extent of this sex disparity varies widely between countries. Variations may also exist between ethnic minority groups and the majority population, but scientific evidence is lacking. A nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted (n = 7,601,785) between 1997 and 2007. Cox Proportional Hazard Models were used to estimate sex disparities in AMI incidence within the Dutch majority population and within ethnic minority groups, stratified by age (30-54, 55-64, ≥65 years). AMI incidence was higher in men than in women in all groups under study. Compared with the majority population (hazard ratio (HR): 2.23; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.21-2.25), sex disparities were similar among minorities originating from the immediate surrounding countries (Belgium, Germany), whereas they were greater in most other minority groups. Most pronounced results were found among minorities from Morocco (HR: 3.48; 95% CI: 2.48-4.88), South Asia (HR: 3.92; 95% CI: 2.45-6.26) and Turkey (HR: 3.98; 95% CI: 3.51-4.51). Sex disparity differences were predominantly evident in those below 55 years of age, and were mainly provoked by a higher AMI incidence in ethnic minority men compared with men belonging to the Dutch majority population. Sex disparities in AMI incidence clearly varied between ethnic minorities and the Dutch majority population. Health prevention strategies may first target at a reduction of AMI incidence in young ethnic minority men, especially those originating from Turkey and South Asia. Furthermore, an increase in AMI incidence in their female counterparts should be prevented. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Evaluation of Public E-Services and Information Technology Accessibility in Different Social Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramutė Naujikienė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop an approach based on the social quality evaluation square model for evaluation of information technology usage in different social groups. Componential view to the accessibility of e-services including IT means providing the possibility to research the influences of different life conditions to usage of the public e-services. The task of this empirical study is directed towards revealing the differences of e-inclusion and e-services accessibility for social groups of citizens of Lithuania, and to compare this accessibility data with other EU countries.Design/methodology/approach—the approach is based on the square model of social quality evaluation of information technology usage in different social groups. The social division square model includes an assessment of quality according to the evaluation of socioeconomic security, social inclusion, social cohesion, and empowerment. Empowerment can be defined as consisting of individual or collective decisions to act on one’s own life.Findings—the results are demonstrated by the accessibility of public e-services data, which are evaluated by the quality of social group development according to IT applications. The hypothesis was confirmed that the e-government activities can be realized by properly selecting and installing technologies, and using technology facilities. E-services influence the capabilities of state officials to apply modern technology and increase the availability of e-services for social groups. Results consist of individual or collective decisions to act on one’s own life, to implementation of effective information technologies in the e-government activities and using of e-services. An important indicator is the implementation of e-services in the activity of citizens. It is submitted as the index of e-participation in dealing with the activities of citizens and the possibilities of authorities directly related with providing services

  17. Evaluation of Public E-Services and Information Technology Accessibility in Different Social Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramutė Naujikienė

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop an approach based on the social quality evaluation square model for evaluation of information technology usage in different social groups. Componential view to the accessibility of e-services including IT means providing the possibility to research the influences of different life conditions to usage of the public e-services. The task of this empirical study is directed towards revealing the differences of e-inclusion and e-services accessibility for social groups of citizens of Lithuania, and to compare this accessibility data with other EU countries. Design/methodology/approach—the approach is based on the square model of social quality evaluation of information technology usage in different social groups. The social division square model includes an assessment of quality according to the evaluation of socioeconomic security, social inclusion, social cohesion, and empowerment. Empowerment can be defined as consisting of individual or collective decisions to act on one’s own life. Findings—the results are demonstrated by the accessibility of public e-services data, which are evaluated by the quality of social group development according to IT applications. The hypothesis was confirmed that the e-government activities can be realized by properly selecting and installing technologies, and using technology facilities. E-services influence the capabilities of state officials to apply modern technology and increase the availability of e-services for social groups. Results consist of individual or collective decisions to act on one’s own life, to implementation of effective information technologies in the e-government activities and using of e-services. An important indicator is the implementation of e-services in the activity of citizens. It is submitted as the index of e-participation in dealing with the activities of citizens and the possibilities of authorities directly related with providing

  18. The role of test-retest reliability in measuring individual and group differences in executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paap, Kenneth R; Sawi, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    Studies testing for individual or group differences in executive functioning can be compromised by unknown test-retest reliability. Test-retest reliabilities across an interval of about one week were obtained from performance in the antisaccade, flanker, Simon, and color-shape switching tasks. There is a general trade-off between the greater reliability of single mean RT measures, and the greater process purity of measures based on contrasts between mean RTs in two conditions. The individual differences in RT model recently developed by Miller and Ulrich was used to evaluate the trade-off. Test-retest reliability was statistically significant for 11 of the 12 measures, but was of moderate size, at best, for the difference scores. The test-retest reliabilities for the Simon and flanker interference scores were lower than those for switching costs. Standard practice evaluates the reliability of executive-functioning measures using split-half methods based on data obtained in a single day. Our test-retest measures of reliability are lower, especially for difference scores. These reliability measures must also take into account possible day effects that classical test theory assumes do not occur. Measures based on single mean RTs tend to have acceptable levels of reliability and convergent validity, but are "impure" measures of specific executive functions. The individual differences in RT model shows that the impurity problem is worse than typically assumed. However, the "purer" measures based on difference scores have low convergent validity that is partly caused by deficiencies in test-retest reliability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Foot-strike haemolysis in an ultramarathon runner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Abid A; Whittemore, Mary S; DeGeorge, Katharine C

    2017-12-13

    This case report describes mild anaemia and intravascular haemolysis in an otherwise healthy 41-year-old ultramarathon runner. In long-distance endurance athletes, trace gastrointestinal bleeding and plasma volume expansion are recognised sources of mild anaemia, often found incidentally. However, repetitive forceful foot striking can lead to blood cell lysis in the feet, resulting in a mild macrocytic anaemia and intravascular haemolysis, as was demonstrated in the patient described herein. Mild anaemia in runners, often called 'runner's pseudoanaemia', is typically clinically insignificant and does not require intervention. However, an unexplained anaemia can cause undue worry for otherwise healthy patients and lead to costly further testing, providing an argument against routine testing with complete blood counts in healthy, asymptomatic patients. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. A simple field method to identify foot strike pattern during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giandolini, Marlène; Poupard, Thibaut; Gimenez, Philippe; Horvais, Nicolas; Millet, Guillaume Y; Morin, Jean-Benoît; Samozino, Pierre

    2014-05-07

    Identifying foot strike patterns in running is an important issue for sport clinicians, coaches and footwear industrials. Current methods allow the monitoring of either many steps in laboratory conditions or only a few steps in the field. Because measuring running biomechanics during actual practice is critical, our purpose is to validate a method aiming at identifying foot strike patterns during continuous field measurements. Based on heel and metatarsal accelerations, this method requires two uniaxial accelerometers. The time between heel and metatarsal acceleration peaks (THM) was compared to the foot strike angle in the sagittal plane (αfoot) obtained by 2D video analysis for various conditions of speed, slope, footwear, foot strike and state of fatigue. Acceleration and kinematic measurements were performed at 1000Hz and 120Hz, respectively, during 2-min treadmill running bouts. Significant correlations were observed between THM and αfoot for 14 out of 15 conditions. The overall correlation coefficient was r=0.916 (Pstrike except for extreme forefoot strike during which the heel rarely or never strikes the ground, and for different footwears and states of fatigue. We proposed a classification based on THM: FFS<-5.49ms

  1. Foot strike patterns and collision forces in habitually barefoot versus shod runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Daniel E; Venkadesan, Madhusudhan; Werbel, William A; Daoud, Adam I; D'Andrea, Susan; Davis, Irene S; Mang'eni, Robert Ojiambo; Pitsiladis, Yannis

    2010-01-28

    Humans have engaged in endurance running for millions of years, but the modern running shoe was not invented until the 1970s. For most of human evolutionary history, runners were either barefoot or wore minimal footwear such as sandals or moccasins with smaller heels and little cushioning relative to modern running shoes. We wondered how runners coped with the impact caused by the foot colliding with the ground before the invention of the modern shoe. Here we show that habitually barefoot endurance runners often land on the fore-foot (fore-foot strike) before bringing down the heel, but they sometimes land with a flat foot (mid-foot strike) or, less often, on the heel (rear-foot strike). In contrast, habitually shod runners mostly rear-foot strike, facilitated by the elevated and cushioned heel of the modern running shoe. Kinematic and kinetic analyses show that even on hard surfaces, barefoot runners who fore-foot strike generate smaller collision forces than shod rear-foot strikers. This difference results primarily from a more plantarflexed foot at landing and more ankle compliance during impact, decreasing the effective mass of the body that collides with the ground. Fore-foot- and mid-foot-strike gaits were probably more common when humans ran barefoot or in minimal shoes, and may protect the feet and lower limbs from some of the impact-related injuries now experienced by a high percentage of runners.

  2. Origin and structure of major orogen-scale exhumed strike-slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuyun; Neubauer, Franz

    2016-04-01

    The formation of major exhumed strike-slip faults represents one of the most important dynamic processes affecting the evolution of the Earth's lithosphere and surface. Detailed models of the potential initiation and properties and architecture of orogen-scale exhumed strike-slip faults and how these relate to exhumation are rare. In this study, we deal with key properties controlling the development of major exhumed strike-slip fault systems, which are equivalent to the deep crustal sections of active across fault zones. We also propose two dominant processes for the initiation of orogen-scale exhumed strike-slip faults: (1) pluton-controlled and (2) metamorphic core complex-controlled strike-slip faults. In these tectonic settings, the initiation of faults occurs by rheological weakening along hot-to-cool contacts and guides the overall displacement and ultimate exhumation. These processes result in a specific thermal and structural architecture of such faults. These types of strike-slip dominated fault zones are often subparallel to mountain ranges and expose a wide variety of mylonitic, cataclastic and non-cohesive fault rocks, which were formed at different structural levels of the crust during various stages of faulting. The high variety of distinctive fault rocks is a potential evidence for recognition of these types of strike-slip faults. Exhumation of mylonitic rocks is, therefore, a common feature of such reverse oblique-slip strike-slip faults, implying major transtensive and/or transpressive processes accompanying pure strike-slip motion during exhumation. Some orogen-scale strike-slip faults nucleate and initiate along rheologically weak zones, e.g. at granite intrusions, zones of low-strength minerals, thermally weakened crust due to ascending fluids, and lateral borders of hot metamorphic core complexes. A further mechanism is the juxtaposition of mechanically strong mantle lithosphere to hot asthenosphere in continental transform faults (e.g., San

  3. Seminal characteristics and sexual behavior in men of different age groups: is there an aging effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavos, Panayiotis M; Kaskar, Khalied; Correa, Juan R; Sikka, Suresh C

    2006-05-01

    To assess the seminal characteristics as well as the sexual behavior of men of various age groups to establish the presence of an aging effect on those characteristics. Semen samples were collected from men (n = 792) undergoing in vitro fertilization or intrauterine insemination in cases of female factor infertility only. Samples were collected using a seminal collection device at intercourse and evaluated manually according to World Health Organization (WHO) standards. Men were divided into four groups according to their ages: (i) 20-30, (ii) 31-40, (iii) 41-50 and (iv) 51-60 years, and their seminal characteristics and responses to a sexual behavior questionnaire were compared. The data showed statistically significant differences in the seminal characteristics tested, most notably in the sperm concentration, motility, grade of motility, hypo-osmotic swelling and normal sperm morphology. Furthermore, the decline in normal sperm morphology with age was more pronounced when using strict criteria rather than WHO standards. There were also differences in total sperm count, total motile sperm and total functional sperm fraction (assessed by both WHO and strict criteria). Significant differences were also observed in the sexual behavior patterns in older men in terms of the number of years they have been trying to conceive, sexual frequency and sexual satisfaction. The data clearly illustrate an aging effect on semen characteristics and sexual behavior in men as they age. It is suggested that the aging effect be taken into consideration when proposing normal standard values for semen characteristics in routine semen analysis as outlined by WHO standards.

  4. 12 weeks of simulated barefoot running changes foot-strike patterns in female runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, C; Fleming, N; Donne, B; Blanksby, B

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the effect of a transition program of simulated barefoot running (SBR) on running kinematics and foot-strike patterns, female recreational athletes (n=9, age 29 ± 3 yrs) without SBR experience gradually increased running distance in Vibram FiveFingers SBR footwear over 12 weeks. Matched controls (n=10, age 30 ± 4 yrs) continued running in standard footwear. A 3-D motion analysis of treadmill running at 12 km/h(-1) was performed by both groups, barefoot and shod, pre- and post-intervention. Post-intervention data indicated a more-forefoot strike pattern in the SBR group compared to controls; both running barefoot (P>0.05), and shod (Pstrike (Pforefoot strike pattern and "barefoot" kinematics, regardless of preferred footwear. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Geological Effects on Lightning Strike Distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Berdahl, J. Scott

    2016-05-16

    Recent advances in lightning detection networks allow for detailed mapping of lightning flash locations. Longstanding rumors of geological influence on cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning distribution and recent commercial claims based on such influence can now be tested empirically. If present, such influence could represent a new, cheap and efficient geophysical tool with applications in mineral, hydrothermal and oil exploration, regional geological mapping, and infrastructure planning. This project applies statistical analysis to lightning data collected by the United States National Lightning Detection Network from 2006 through 2015 in order to assess whether the huge range in electrical conductivities of geological materials plays a role in the spatial distribution of CG lightning. CG flash densities are mapped for twelve areas in the contiguous United States and compared to elevation and geology, as well as to the locations of faults, railroads and tall towers including wind turbines. Overall spatial randomness is assessed, along with spatial correlation of attributes. Negative and positive polarity lightning are considered separately and together. Topography and tower locations show a strong influence on CG distribution patterns. Geology, faults and railroads do not. This suggests that ground conductivity is not an important factor in determining lightning strike location on scales larger than current flash location accuracies, which are generally several hundred meters. Once a lightning channel is established, however, ground properties at the contact point may play a role in determining properties of the subsequent stroke.

  6. How to Evaluate Phase Differences between Trial Groups in Ongoing Electrophysiological Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanRullen, Rufin

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of studies endeavor to reveal periodicities in sensory and cognitive functions, by comparing the distribution of ongoing (pre-stimulus) oscillatory phases between two (or more) trial groups reflecting distinct experimental outcomes. A systematic relation between the phase of spontaneous electrophysiological signals, before a stimulus is even presented, and the eventual result of sensory or cognitive processing for that stimulus, would be indicative of an intrinsic periodicity in the underlying neural process. Prior studies of phase-dependent perception have used a variety of analytical methods to measure and evaluate phase differences, and there is currently no established standard practice in this field. The present report intends to remediate this need, by systematically comparing the statistical power of various measures of “phase opposition” between two trial groups, in a number of real and simulated experimental situations. Seven measures were evaluated: one parametric test (circular Watson-Williams test), and three distinct measures of phase opposition (phase bifurcation index, phase opposition sum, and phase opposition product) combined with two procedures for non-parametric statistical testing (permutation, or a combination of z-score and permutation). While these are obviously not the only existing or conceivable measures, they have all been used in recent studies. All tested methods performed adequately on a previously published dataset (Busch et al., 2009). On a variety of artificially constructed datasets, no single measure was found to surpass all others, but instead the suitability of each measure was contingent on several experimental factors: the time, frequency, and depth of oscillatory phase modulation; the absolute and relative amplitudes of post-stimulus event-related potentials for the two trial groups; the absolute and relative trial numbers for the two groups; and the number of permutations used for non-parametric testing

  7. Relative position of the mandibular foramen in different age groups of children: A radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonacha K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the relative position of the mandibular foramen (MF and to evaluate the measurement of gonial angle (GoA and its relationship with distances between different mandibular borders in growing children between 3 and 13years of dental age. Materials and methods: The radiographs were traced to arrive at six linear and two angular measurements from which the relative position of the MF was assessed and compared in different age groups to determine the growth pattern of the mandible and changes in the location of the MF. Results: The distances between the MF and the anterior plane of the ramus were greater than that between MF and posterior plane of the ramus through all stages. There was a maximum increase in the vertical dimensions of the mandible compared with the horizontal dimensions, particularly in the late mixed dentition period. Conclusion: The mandible and its growth did not alter the position of the MF, both vertically and horizontally, in relation to different landmarks, and more obtuse GoA indicated an increased growth potential of the mandible. This has major implications in the inferior alveolar nerve block technique when used in children.

  8. Different centre of pressure patterns within the golf stroke II: group-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, K A; Best, R J

    2007-05-01

    Although the golf coaching literature stresses the importance of weight transfer during the swing, research has been conflicting or lacking statistical support. A potential problem with previous studies is that no attempt was made to account for different movement strategies in the golf swing. This study evaluated the relationship between centre of pressure measures and club head velocity within two previously identified swing styles, the "Front Foot" and "Reverse" styles. Thirty-nine Front Foot golfers and 19 Reverse golfers performed swings with a driver while standing on two force plates. From the force plate data, centre of pressure displacement, velocity, range, and timing parameters were calculated. Correlation and regression analysis indicated that a larger range of centre of pressure and a more rapid centre of pressure movement in the downswing was associated with a larger club head velocity at ball contact for the Front Foot group. For the Reverse golfers, positioning the centre of pressure further from the back foot at late backswing and a more rapid centre of pressure transfer towards the back foot at ball contact was associated with a larger club head velocity at ball contact. This study has highlighted the importance of identifying different movement strategies before evaluating performance measures, as different parameters were found to be important for the Front Foot and Reverse styles.

  9. An Automated Detection System for Microaneurysms That Is Effective across Different Racial Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Michael Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients without diabetic retinopathy (DR represent a large proportion of the caseload seen by the DR screening service so reliable recognition of the absence of DR in digital fundus images (DFIs is a prime focus of automated DR screening research. We investigate the use of a novel automated DR detection algorithm to assess retinal DFIs for absence of DR. A retrospective, masked, and controlled image-based study was undertaken. 17,850 DFIs of patients from six different countries were assessed for DR by the automated system and by human graders. The system’s performance was compared across DFIs from the different countries/racial groups. The sensitivities for detection of DR by the automated system were Kenya 92.8%, Botswana 90.1%, Norway 93.5%, Mongolia 91.3%, China 91.9%, and UK 90.1%. The specificities were Kenya 82.7%, Botswana 83.2%, Norway 81.3%, Mongolia 82.5%, China 83.0%, and UK 79%. There was little variability in the calculated sensitivities and specificities across the six different countries involved in the study. These data suggest the possible scalability of an automated DR detection platform that enables rapid identification of patients without DR across a wide range of races.

  10. An Automated Detection System for Microaneurysms That Is Effective across Different Racial Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, George Michael; Wawrzynski, James; Caputo, Silvestro; Peto, Tunde; Al Turk, Lutfiah Ismail; Wang, Su; Hu, Yin; Da Cruz, Lyndon; Smith, Phil; Tang, Hongying Lilian

    2016-01-01

    Patients without diabetic retinopathy (DR) represent a large proportion of the caseload seen by the DR screening service so reliable recognition of the absence of DR in digital fundus images (DFIs) is a prime focus of automated DR screening research. We investigate the use of a novel automated DR detection algorithm to assess retinal DFIs for absence of DR. A retrospective, masked, and controlled image-based study was undertaken. 17,850 DFIs of patients from six different countries were assessed for DR by the automated system and by human graders. The system's performance was compared across DFIs from the different countries/racial groups. The sensitivities for detection of DR by the automated system were Kenya 92.8%, Botswana 90.1%, Norway 93.5%, Mongolia 91.3%, China 91.9%, and UK 90.1%. The specificities were Kenya 82.7%, Botswana 83.2%, Norway 81.3%, Mongolia 82.5%, China 83.0%, and UK 79%. There was little variability in the calculated sensitivities and specificities across the six different countries involved in the study. These data suggest the possible scalability of an automated DR detection platform that enables rapid identification of patients without DR across a wide range of races.

  11. Preventive strike vs. false targets and protection in defense strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitin, Gregory; Hausken, Kjell

    2011-01-01

    A defender allocates its resource between defending an object passively and striking preventively against an attacker seeking to destroy the object. With no preventive strike the defender distributes its entire resource between deploying false targets, which the attacker cannot distinguish from the genuine object, and protecting the object. If the defender strikes preventively, the attacker's vulnerability depends on its protection and on the defender's resource allocated to the strike. If the attacker survives, the object's vulnerability depends on the attacker's revenge attack resource allocated to the attacked object. The optimal defense resource distribution between striking preventively, deploying the false targets and protecting the object is analyzed. Two cases of the attacker strategy are considered: when the attacker attacks all of the targets and when it chooses a number of targets to attack. An optimization model is presented for making a decision about the efficiency of the preventive strike based on the estimated attack probability, dependent on a variety of model parameters.

  12. Differences in conventional cardiovascular risk factors in two ethnic groups in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Priyanka Rani; Kabita, Salam; Singh, Huidrom Suraj; Saraswathy, Kallur Nava; Sinha, Ekata; Kalla, Aloke Kumar; Chongtham, Dhanaraj Singh

    2012-01-01

    Studies have been carried out at national and international levels to assess ethnic variations in the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors. However, ethnic variations in the contribution of various risk factors to complex diseases have been scarcely studied. Our study examined such variations in two ethnic groups in India, namely, Meiteis of Manipur (northeast India) and Aggarwals of Delhi (north India). Through random sampling, we selected 635 participants from the Meitei community and 181 Aggarwals from the Aggarwal Dharmarth Hospital, Delhi. Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and hypertension were identified based on their recent medical diagnostic history. Anthropometric parameters such as height, weight, waist and hip circumferences along with physiological parameters (blood pressures, both systolic and diastolic) and biochemical parameter (lipid profile) were measured for all study participants. Patient parameters were available from the medical reports recorded when patients were first diagnosed. Among CAD individuals, the Aggarwals showed higher mean values of weight, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) but had lower high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels than the Meiteis. The same trend for weight, BMI and lipid parameters could be seen among hypertensive individuals. In step-wise regression analysis, SBP, LDL and TG were found to significantly contribute to the risk for CAD in the Aggarwals; whereas in the Meiteis, SBP, VLDL, HDL, TC and LDL were found to significantly contribute to the risk for CAD. In hypertensive Aggarwal participants, SBP, DBP and waist-to-hip ratio were significant contributors for hypertension; whereas SBP, DBP, and height contributed significantly to risk for hypertension among the Meiteis. We found marked differences in conventional risk

  13. Age-Group and Gender Differences in Stroke Knowledge in an Israeli Jewish Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Semyon; Itzhaki, Michal; Koton, Silvia

    Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability and the fifth leading cause of death in Israel. Knowledge of stroke warning signs has been linked to early seeking of medical help. Little is known about knowledge of stroke warning signs in Israeli Jewish adults. Stroke knowledge was examined among Jewish Israeli adults. Using a structured questionnaire, registered nurses interviewed a convenience sample of the respondents, 18 years or older, with no stroke history. Stroke knowledge and demographics were examined by 3 age groups (64 years) in men and women. In total, 1137 Jewish Israelis were interviewed, 457 (40.2%) men and 680 women (59.8%); 493 (43.4%) were younger than 45 years, 541 (47.6%) were aged 45 to 64 years, and 102 (9%) were older than 64 years; 1 (0.1%) did not report age. On average, each interview lasted for 25 to 30 minutes. Participants younger than 45 years showed the lowest knowledge of stroke cause. Women younger than 45 years were less likely to identify at least 2 stroke warning signs. Participants younger than 45 years were less likely to identify at least 2 risk factors, compared with participants aged 45 to 64 years and older than 64 years. Women younger than 45 years were less likely to identify at least 2 stroke prevention strategies. Participants younger than 45 years showed the lowest levels of stroke knowledge. The highest stroke knowledge was found in the 45 to 64 years age group. Stroke knowledge among different age groups was similar in both genders. Educational campaigns aimed at increasing knowledge of stroke among the general population and targeting the younger population are recommended.

  14. Losing a partner: the varying financial and practical impacts of bereavement in different sociodemographic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Harriet; Johnson, Tom

    2017-04-27

    The purpose of this study was to describe the financial and practical impacts of the death of a life partner, up to 5 years after bereavement. The study compared the impact felt by different sociodemographic groups and evaluated the role of financial and caring organisations in improving these impacts. An evidence review of the subject area was conducted and a qualitative assessment of the target population (individuals whose partner had died in the past 3 years) was carried out using a semistructured interview (n=6). Subsequently, a multiple choice survey was constructed to collect data from a wider target population (individuals whose partner had died in the past 5 years) and covered topics including finances, interaction with organisations and management of daily tasks (n=500). The results of the multiple choice survey have been interpreted here using basic descriptive statistical analysis. 69% of people who lost a partner were unprepared, either financially or practically, for bereavement. Women and those under the age of 50 experienced the most significant financial impact and practical changes continued beyond 3 years postbereavement. To manage this disruption, 61% of participants reported that they felt they needed more help from financial and caring organisations postbereavement. The results of this survey demonstrate some of the key struggles each demographic group faces immediately after bereavement and into the future. It is clear that preparation and bereavement support have a profound effect on mitigating the negative impacts seen here. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Visual acuity and refraction by age for children of three different ethnic groups in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa Janine Carter

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To characterize refractive errors in Paraguayan children aged 5-16 years and investigate effect of age, gender, and ethnicity. METHODS:The study was conducted at 3 schools that catered to Mennonite, indigenous, and mixed race children. Children were examined for presenting visual acuity, autorefraction with and without cycloplegia, and retinoscopy. Data were analyzed for myopia and hyperopia (SE ≤-1 D or -0.5 D and ≥2 D or ≥3 D and astigmatism (cylinder ≥1 D. Spherical equivalent (SE values were calculated from right eye cycloplegic autorefraction data and analyzed using general linear modelling. RESULTS: There were 190, 118, and 168 children of Mennonite, indigenous and mixed race ethnicity, respectively. SE values between right/left eyes were nonsignificant. Mean visual acuity (VA without correction was better for Mennonites compared to indigenous or mixed race children (right eyes: 0.031, 0.090, and 0.102 logMAR units, respectively; P<0.000001. There were 2 cases of myopia in the Mennonite group (1.2% and 2 cases in the mixed race group (1.4% (SE ≤-0.5 D. The prevalence of hyperopia (SE ≥2 D was 40.6%, 34.2%, and 46.3% for Mennonite, indigenous and mixed race children. Corresponding astigmatism rates were 3.2%, 9.5%, and 12.7%. Females were slightly more hyperopic than males, and the 9-11 years age group was the most hyperopic. Mennonite and mixed race children were more hyperopic than indigenous children. CONCLUSIONS: Paraguayan children were remarkably hyperopic and relatively free of myopia. Differences with regard to gender, age, and ethnicity were small.

  16. Unique transcriptomic response to sepsis is observed among patients of different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Steven L; López, María Cecilia; Baker, Henry V; Larson, Shawn D; Efron, Philip A; Sweeney, Timothy E; Khatri, Purvesh; Moldawer, Lyle L; Wynn, James L

    2017-01-01

    Sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially at the extremes of age. To understand the human age-specific transcriptomic response to sepsis, a multi-cohort, pooled analysis was conducted on adults, children, infants, and neonates with and without sepsis. Nine public whole-blood gene expression datasets (636 patients) were employed. Age impacted the transcriptomic host response to sepsis. Gene expression from septic neonates and adults was more dissimilar whereas infants and children were more similar. Neonates showed reductions in inflammatory recognition and signaling pathways compared to all other age groups. Likewise, adults demonstrated decreased pathogen sensing, inflammation, and myeloid cell function, as compared to children. This may help to explain the increased incidence of sepsis-related organ failure and death in adults. The number of dysregulated genes in septic patients was proportional to age and significantly differed among septic adults, children, infants, and neonates. Overall, children manifested a greater transcriptomic intensity to sepsis as compared to the other age groups. The transcriptomic magnitude for adults and neonates was dramatically reduced as compared to children and infants. These findings suggest that the transcriptomic response to sepsis is age-dependent, and diagnostic and therapeutic efforts to identify and treat sepsis will have to consider age as an important variable.

  17. Subjective evaluation of physical and mental workload interactions across different muscle groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ranjana K; Agnew, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Both physical and mental demands, and their interactions, have been shown to increase biomechanical loading and physiological reactivity as well as impair task performance. Because these interactions have shown to be muscle-dependent, the aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the NASA Task Load Index (NASA TLX) and Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) to evaluate physical and mental workload during muscle-specific tasks. Twenty-four participants performed upper extremity and low back exertions at three physical workload levels in the absence and presence of a mental stressor. Outcome measures included RPE and NASA TLX (six sub-scales) ratings. The findings indicate that while both RPEs and NASA TLX ratings were sensitive to muscle-specific changes in physical demand, only an additional mental stressor and its interaction with either physical demand or muscle groups influenced the effort sub-scale and overall workload scores of the NASA TLX. While additional investigations in actual work settings are warranted, the NASA TLX shows promise in evaluating perceived workload that is sensitive not only to physical and mental demands but also sensitive in determining workload for tasks that employ different muscle groups.

  18. Reliability and group differences in quantitative cervicothoracic measures among individuals with and without chronic neck pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinicians frequently rely on subjective categorization of impairments in mobility, strength, and endurance for clinical decision-making; however, these assessments are often unreliable and lack sensitivity to change. The objective of this study was to determine the inter-rater reliability, minimum detectable change (MDC), and group differences in quantitative cervicothoracic measures for individuals with and without chronic neck pain (NP). Methods Nineteen individuals with NP and 20 healthy controls participated in this case control study. Two physical therapists performed a 30-minute examination on separate days. A handheld dynamometer, gravity inclinometer, ruler, and stopwatch were used to quantify cervical range of motion (ROM), cervical muscle strength and endurance, and scapulothoracic muscle length and strength, respectively. Results Intraclass correlation coefficients for inter-rater reliability were significantly greater than zero for most impairment measures, with point estimates ranging from 0.45 to 0.93. The NP group exhibited reduced cervical ROM (P ≤ 0.012) and muscle strength (P ≤ 0.038) in most movement directions, reduced cervical extensor endurance (P = 0.029), and reduced rhomboid and middle trapezius muscle strength (P ≤ 0.049). Conclusions Results demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining objective cervicothoracic impairment measures with acceptable inter-rater agreement across time. The clinical utility of these measures is supported by evidence of impaired mobility, strength, and endurance among patients with NP, with corresponding MDC values that can help establish benchmarks for clinically significant change. PMID:23114092

  19. Deoxynivalenol Exposure in Norway, Risk Assessments for Different Human Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundheim, Leif; Lillegaard, Inger Therese; Fæste, Christiane Kruse; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Brodal, Guro; Eriksen, Gunnar Sundstøl

    2017-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most common mycotoxin in Norwegian cereals, and DON is detected in most samples of crude cereal grain and cereal food commodities such as flour, bran, and oat flakes. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety assessed the risk for adverse effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) in different age groups of the domestic population. This review presents the main results from the risk assessment, supplemented with some recently published data. Impairment of the immune system together with reduced feed intake and weight gain are the critical effects of DON in experimental animals on which the current tolerable daily intake was established. Based on food consumption and occurrence data, the mean exposure to DON in years with low and high levels of DON in the flour, respectively, were in the range of or up to two times the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) in 1-year-old infants and 2-year-old children. In years with high mean DON concentration, the high (95th-percentile) exposure exceeded the TDI by up to 3.5 times in 1-, 2- , 4-, and 9-year-old children. The assessment concluded that exceeding the TDI in infants and children is of concern. The estimated dietary DON intakes in adolescent and adult populations are in the range of the TDI or below, and are not a health concern. Acute human exposure to DON is not of concern in any age group. PMID:28165414

  20. Relationship between physical attributes and heat stress in dairy cattle from different genetic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Evelyn Priscila München; Barbosa da Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto; dos Santos Daltro, Darlene; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; Dalcin, Vanessa Calderaro; Kolling, Giovani; Fischer, Vivian; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Dairy cattle raised under harsh conditions have to adapt and prevent heat stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical characteristics and their association with heat tolerance in different genetic groups of dairy cattle. Thickness of the skin and coat, length and number of hairs, body measurements, as well as physiological parameters and body temperatures by infrared thermography were determined in 19 Holstein and 19 Girolando (½ and ¾ Holstein) cows. The Holstein cattle were less tolerant to heat stress than Girolando (GH50 and GH75 Holstein), because of the difficulty in dissipating heat due to the larger body size, as well as thicker and longer hairs. The correlations between physical characteristics, physiological parameters, and thermographic measurements prove to be inconsistent among genetic groups and therefore are not predictive of heat tolerance, while the regressions of morphometric characteristics on physiological and thermographic measures were not significant. Thus, the physical characteristics were not good predictors of physiological indices and thermographic temperature and so should not be used.

  1. Deoxynivalenol Exposure in Norway, Risk Assessments for Different Human Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Sundheim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is the most common mycotoxin in Norwegian cereals, and DON is detected in most samples of crude cereal grain and cereal food commodities such as flour, bran, and oat flakes. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety assessed the risk for adverse effects of deoxynivalenol (DON in different age groups of the domestic population. This review presents the main results from the risk assessment, supplemented with some recently published data. Impairment of the immune system together with reduced feed intake and weight gain are the critical effects of DON in experimental animals on which the current tolerable daily intake was established. Based on food consumption and occurrence data, the mean exposure to DON in years with low and high levels of DON in the flour, respectively, were in the range of or up to two times the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI in 1-year-old infants and 2-year-old children. In years with high mean DON concentration, the high (95th-percentile exposure exceeded the TDI by up to 3.5 times in 1-, 2- , 4-, and 9-year-old children. The assessment concluded that exceeding the TDI in infants and children is of concern. The estimated dietary DON intakes in adolescent and adult populations are in the range of the TDI or below, and are not a health concern. Acute human exposure to DON is not of concern in any age group.

  2. Structure of production costs of different energy sources (fossile fuels and nuclear energy) (group 11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Ph.

    2002-01-01

    This article is the work of a group of students from the ''Ecole Nationale d'Administration'', they had to study the structure of the costs of the different energy sources. This analysis shows some common features between the energy sources. The cost is very dependent on the partial costs of technological constraints due to exploration, production, transport and distribution. For primary energies the market appears to be not very competitive, the price depends strongly on the market power of the operator and benefits are generally important. In France, taxes play a role to assure competitiveness of gas and coal against oil. Uranium fuel presents the lowest production and transformation costs at the same energy content. Transport costs are important for natural gas which implies a strong mutual dependence between gas producers and consumers. The irreplaceable use of oil in transport assures regular high revenues for oil companies. (A.C.)

  3. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Matthew E.; Pavlath, Grace K.

    2015-01-01

    The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies (MDs), such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some MDs. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease. PMID:26500547

  4. A quantitative review of ethnic group differences in experimental pain response: do biology, psychology, and culture matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim-Williams, Bridgett; Riley, Joseph L; Williams, Ameenah K K; Fillingim, Roger B

    2012-04-01

    Pain is a subjectively complex and universal experience. We examine research investigating ethnic group differences in experimental pain response and factors contributing to group differences. We conducted a systematic literature review and analysis of studies using experimental pain stimuli to assess pain sensitivity across multiple ethnic groups. Our search covered the period from 1944 to 2011, and used the PubMed bibliographic database; a reference source containing over 17 million citations. We calculated effect sizes; identified ethnic/racial group categories, pain stimuli, and measures; and examined findings regarding biopsychosociocultural factors contributing to ethnic/racial group differences. We found 472 studies investigating ethnic group differences and pain. Twenty-six of these met our review inclusion criteria of investigating ethnic group differences in experimental pain. The majority of studies included comparisons between African Americans (AA) and non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). There were consistently moderate to large effect sizes for pain tolerance across multiple stimulus modalities; AA demonstrated lower pain tolerance. For pain threshold, findings were generally in the same direction, but effect sizes were small to moderate across ethnic groups. Limited data were available for suprathreshold pain ratings. A subset of studies comparing NHW and other ethnic groups showed a variable range of effect sizes for pain threshold and tolerance. There are potentially important ethnic/racial group differences in experimental pain perception. Elucidating ethnic group differences has translational merit for culturally competent clinical care and for addressing and reducing pain treatment disparities among ethnically/racially diverse groups. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Children on hunger strike: child abuse or legitimate protest?

    OpenAIRE

    Mok, A.; Nelson, E. A.; Murphy, J.; Hampson, A.; Hendriks, J. H.

    1996-01-01

    The issue of children on hunger strike (voluntary total fasting) has not been reported before. The World Medical Association Declaration of Tokyo 1975 and the Declaration of Malta 1991 (revised 1992) provide clinicians with guidelines for the management of adult patients on hunger strike but do not mention children. We report the management of 14 Vietnamese children, aged 1 to 12 years, who took part in a hunger strike at a refugee detention centre in Hong Kong.

  6. The Role of Family Influences on Adolescent Smoking in Different Racial/Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yang; Gordon, Judith S.; Khoury, Jane C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Although differing levels of family influences may explain some of the varying racial/ethnic trends in adolescent smoking behavior, clarification of which influences are protective against smoking may aid in the development of future ethnic-specific smoking prevention interventions. We sought to identify and compare the association of family influences on adolescent smoking among Black, Hispanic, and White adolescents in a cross-sectional national sample. Methods: Data from 6,426 parent–child dyads from Round 1 of the National Survey of Parents and Youth were analyzed. The association of family influences with ever-smokers and recent smokers was evaluated. Multinomial logistic regression using SUDAAN software was used. Results: While all measures of family influences except for parent–adolescent activities and intention to monitor were significantly protective against recent smoking and ever smoking among Whites, ethnic-specific family influence predictors of smoking were found in Blacks and Hispanics. Higher parental monitoring, higher intention to monitor, and higher connectedness were protective among Hispanics, while higher parental punishment and favorable attitude toward monitoring were protective against smoking among Blacks. For family influences significantly associated with protection against smoking, consistently greater protection was afforded against recent smoking than against ever smoking. Conclusions: Higher levels of family influences are protective against smoking among all racial/ethnic groups. There are consistencies in family influences on youth smoking; however, there may be specific family influences that should be differentially emphasized within racial/ethnic groups in order to protect against smoking behavior. Our results offer insight for designing strategies for preventing smoking in youth of different racial/ethnic backgrounds. PMID:22180584

  7. Perception of chemesthetic stimuli in groups who differ by food involvement and culinary experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Nadia; Loss, Christopher R; Hayes, John E

    2015-12-01

    In the English language, there is generally a limited lexicon when referring to the sensations elicited by chemesthetic stimuli like capsaicin, allyl isothiocyanate, and eugenol, the orally irritating compounds found in chiles, wasabi, and cloves, respectively. Elsewhere, experts and novices have been shown to use language differently, with experts using more precise language. Here, we compare perceptual maps and word usage across three cohorts: experts with formal culinary education, naïve individuals with high Food Involvement Scale (FIS) scores, and naïve individuals with low FIS scores. We hypothesized that increased experience with foods, whether through informal experiential learning or formal culinary education, would have a significant influence on the perceptual maps generated from a sorting task conducted with chemesthetic stimuli, as well as on language use in a descriptive follow-up task to this sorting task. The low- and highFIS non-expert cohorts generated significantly similar maps, though in other respects the highFIS cohort was an intermediate between the lowFIS and expert cohorts. The highFIS and expert cohorts generated more attributes but used language more idiosyncratically than the lowFIS group. Overall, the results from the expert group with formal culinary education differed from the two naïve cohorts both in the perceptual map generated using MDS as well as the mean number of attributes generated. Present data suggest that both formal education and informal experiential learning result in lexical development, but the level and type of learning can have a significant influence on language use and the approach to a sorting task.

  8. Association of social isolation and health across different racial and ethnic groups of older Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Christina E

    2015-11-01

    Social isolation is a social and public health problem that affects people of all ages, especially elders. Previous studies have found that social isolation across numerous industrialised countries is associated with negative health outcomes. However, it is unknown whether and how this association differs by race/ethnicity and age. To begin to address this gap, this study examines the association of social isolation and physical and mental health among Black, White and Hispanic elders in the United States of America. Building on Cornwell and Waite's perceived isolation and social disconnectedness dimension model of social isolation, the author used multi-stage survey data from a nationally representative sample of 3,005 community-residing adults aged 57-85 from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Tests for association were conducted on health by age, gender, marital status, education and race/ethnicity separately. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to test the association of social isolation and health exclusively and separately among these three groups. Results showed that social isolation is strongly associated with physical and mental health. Both perceived isolation and social disconnectedness had a significant negative association with physical and mental health among White elders. For Blacks, social disconnectedness is negatively associated with their physical health while perceived isolation had a negative association with mental health. Among Hispanic elders, there seemed to be no association between social isolation and physical health, but a significant negative association was found with their mental health. Despite various associated patterns, however, social isolation overall was associated with health outcomes that were similar across three elder groups. By identifying factors influencing social isolation and health among minority older Americans, this study has relevance to the development of culturally sensitive health

  9. Perceptions of mental workload in Dutch university employees of different ages: a focus group study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background As academic workload seems to be increasing, many studies examined factors that contribute to the mental workload of academics. Age-related differences in work motives and intellectual ability may lead to differences in experienced workload and in the way employees experience work features. This study aims to obtain a better understanding of age differences in sources of mental workload. 33 academics from one faculty discussed causes of workload during focus group interviews, stratified by age. Findings Among our participants, the influence of ageing seems most evident in employees’ actions and reactions, while the causes of workload mentioned seemed largely similar. These individual reactions to workload may also be driven by differences in tenure. Most positively assessed work characteristics were: interaction with colleagues and students and autonomy. Aspects most often indicated as increasing the workload, were organisational aspects as obstacles for ‘getting the best out of people’ and the feeling that overtime seems unavoidable. Many employees indicated to feel stretched between the ‘greediness’ of the organisation and their own high working standards, and many fear to be assigned even less time for research if they do not meet the rigorous output criteria. Moreover, despite great efforts on their part, promotion opportunities seem limited. A more pronounced role for the supervisor seems appreciated by employees of all ages, although the specific interpretation varied between individuals and career stages. Conclusions To preserve good working conditions and quality of work, it seems important to scrutinize the output requirements and tenure-based needs for employee supervision. PMID:23506458

  10. Stomatal cell wall composition: distinctive structural patterns associated with different phylogenetic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Ilana; Shelef, Yaniv; Marom, Ziv; Zelinger, Einat; Schwartz, Amnon; Popper, Zoë A; Bar-On, Benny; Harpaz-Saad, Smadar

    2017-04-01

    Stomatal morphology and function have remained largely conserved throughout ∼400 million years of plant evolution. However, plant cell wall composition has evolved and changed. Here stomatal cell wall composition was investigated in different vascular plant groups in attempt to understand their possible effect on stomatal function. A renewed look at stomatal cell walls was attempted utilizing digitalized polar microscopy, confocal microscopy, histology and a numerical finite-elements simulation. The six species of vascular plants chosen for this study cover a broad structural, ecophysiological and evolutionary spectrum: ferns ( Asplenium nidus and Platycerium bifurcatum ) and angiosperms ( Arabidopsis thaliana and Commelina erecta ) with kidney-shaped stomata, and grasses (angiosperms, family Poaceae) with dumbbell-shaped stomata ( Sorghum bicolor and Triticum aestivum ). Three distinct patterns of cellulose crystallinity in stomatal cell walls were observed: Type I (kidney-shaped stomata, ferns), Type II (kidney-shaped stomata, angiosperms) and Type III (dumbbell-shaped stomata, grasses). The different stomatal cell wall attributes investigated (cellulose crystallinity, pectins, lignin, phenolics) exhibited taxon-specific patterns, with reciprocal substitution of structural elements in the end-walls of kidney-shaped stomata. According to a numerical bio-mechanical model, the end walls of kidney-shaped stomata develop the highest stresses during opening. The data presented demonstrate for the first time the existence of distinct spatial patterns of varying cellulose crystallinity in guard cell walls. It is also highly intriguing that in angiosperms crystalline cellulose appears to have replaced lignin that occurs in the stomatal end-walls of ferns serving a similar wall strengthening function. Such taxon-specific spatial patterns of cell wall components could imply different biomechanical functions, which in turn could be a consequence of differences in

  11. Bodily differences between Cold- and Heat-prescription groups in Sasang medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Joo Park

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: In the SY-type men, the chest circumference was significantly greater in the Heat-prescription group compared to the Cold-prescription group. In the TE-type men, the rib-to-pelvic circumference ratio was significantly higher in the Heat-prescription group than in the Cold-prescription group.

  12. Debunking the viper's strike: harmless snakes kill a common assumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, David A; Sawvel, Baxter; Moon, Brad R

    2016-03-01

    To survive, organisms must avoid predation and acquire nutrients and energy. Sensory systems must correctly differentiate between potential predators and prey, and elicit behaviours that adjust distances accordingly. For snakes, strikes can serve both purposes. Vipers are thought to have the fastest strikes among snakes. However, strike performance has been measured in very few species, especially non-vipers. We measured defensive strike performance in harmless Texas ratsnakes and two species of vipers, western cottonmouths and western diamond-backed rattlesnakes, using high-speed video recordings. We show that ratsnake strike performance matches or exceeds that of vipers. In contrast with the literature over the past century, vipers do not represent the pinnacle of strike performance in snakes. Both harmless and venomous snakes can strike with very high accelerations that have two key consequences: the accelerations exceed values that can cause loss of consciousness in other animals, such as the accelerations experienced by jet pilots during extreme manoeuvres, and they make the strikes faster than the sensory and motor responses of mammalian prey and predators. Both harmless and venomous snakes can strike faster than the blink of an eye and often reach a target before it can move. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Pharmacotherapeutic directions of iodine herbal remedies use for different groups of thyroid deseases treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Інна Миколаївна Владимирова

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the increase of endocrine diseases is observed worldwide. Diabetes mellitus and thyroid gland pathologies are the most widespread. Endocrine diseases can be acute or chronic. In some cases, they are life threatening.There are different reasons of thyroid gland pathologies development. Both poor nutrition and poor quality water use, and unfavorable environmental conditions, including radiation, are among them. Iodine deficiency is determined to be one of the main reasons of these diseases.Aim. Determination of the pharmacotherapeutic directions of iodine herbal remedies use for different groups of thyroid diseases treatment.Methods. Thyroid stimulating action determination (primary screening and model pathology has been carried out by the method of “goiter reaction” in rats at the Central Scientific-Research Laboratory of National University of Pharmacy. Determination of thyroid hormone blood level in rats has been carried out at the Laboratory of Radioactive Endocrinology of the State Institution “Grigoriev Institute for medical Radiology NAMS of Ukraine”.Results. According to the research results generalization, correctness of developed algorithms was confirmed; peculiarities of the influence on pathological processes in thyroid, and prospects of implementation and use of herbs and herbal remedies for thyroid diseases prevention and treatment were determined.Conclusion. Obtained experimental data are actual for the modern medicine, and new scientific research, specifying their place in etiology, pathogenesis and peculiarities of clinical course of many diseases, will improve the efficiency of treatment and prevention of thyroid diseases

  14. High-fidelity simulation among bachelor students in simulation groups and use of different roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thidemann, Inger-Johanne; Söderhamn, Olle

    2013-12-01

    Cost limitations might challenge the use of high-fidelity simulation as a teaching-learning method. This article presents the results of a Norwegian project including two simulation studies in which simulation teaching and learning were studied among students in the second year of a three-year bachelor nursing programme. The students were organised into small simulation groups with different roles; nurse, physician, family member and observer. Based on experiences in different roles, the students evaluated the simulation design characteristics and educational practices used in the simulation. In addition, three simulation outcomes were measured; knowledge (learning), Student Satisfaction and Self-confidence in Learning. The simulation was evaluated to be a valuable teaching-learning method to develop professional understanding and insight independent of roles. Overall, the students rated the Student Satisfaction and Self-confidence in Learning as high. Knowledge about the specific patient focus increased after the simulation activity. Students can develop practical, communication and collaboration skills, through experiencing the nurse's role. Assuming the observer role, students have the potential for vicarious learning, which could increase the learning value. Both methods of learning (practical experience or vicarious learning) may bridge the gap between theory and practice and contribute to the development of skills in reflective and critical thinking. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Predictability of bee community composition after floral removals differs by floral trait group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban-Mead, Katherine R

    2017-11-01

    Plant-bee visitor communities are complex networks. While studies show that deleting nodes alters network topology, predicting these changes in the field remains difficult. Here, a simple trait-based approach is tested for predicting bee community composition following disturbance. I selected six fields with mixed cover of flower species with shallow (open) and deep (tube) nectar access, and removed all flowers or flower heads of species of each trait in different plots paired with controls, then observed bee foraging and composition. I compared the bee community in each manipulated plot with bees on the same flower species in control plots. The bee morphospecies composition in manipulations with only tube flowers remaining was the same as that in the control plots, while the bee morphospecies on only open flowers were dissimilar from those in control plots. However, the proportion of short- and long-tongued bees on focal flowers did not differ between control and manipulated plots for either manipulation. So, bees within some functional groups are more strongly linked to their floral trait partners than others. And, it may be more fruitful to describe expected bee community compositions in terms of relative proportions of relevant ecological traits than species, particularly in species-diverse communities. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Quantitative analysis of hepatitis C virus activity in vivo in different groups of untreated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzin, A; Solforosi, L; Giostra, F; Bianchi, F B; Bruno, S; Rossi, S; Gabrielli, A; Candela, M; Petrelli, E; Clementi, M

    1997-01-01

    Highly sensitive competitive PCR (cPCR) and competitive reverse transcription PCR (cRT-PCR) methodologies were recently developed and applied for quantifying viral DNA and RNA species (including HCV RNA) present in clinical samples at low concentration. In this study, we used cRT-PCR to compare the viral load of 118 untreated patients with HCV infection and different clinical conditions (80 patients with chronic hepatitis, 18 infected subjects with persistently normal ALT levels and various degrees of liver injury, 10 HCV infected subjects that tested positive for anti-LKM1 antibodies, and 10 patients with HCV infection and cryoglobulinemia). The results indicate that while great individual variability of HCV viremia is detectable even among patients with similar clinical conditions, the mean HCV RNA copy number in samples from patients with different clinical conditions was similar in all groups with the single exception of patients that tested positive for anti-liver-kidney microsomal auto-antibodies type 1 (anti-LKM1); interestingly, lower HCV viremia levels were revealed in these anti-LKM1-positive cases with liver disease of uncertain pathogenesis.

  17. Acute neuromuscular responses to short and long roundhouse kick striking paces in professional Muay Thai fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimadoro, Giuseppe; Mahaffey, Ryan; Babault, Nicolas

    2018-04-04

    Muay Thai fighters strongly rely on the use of the roundhouse kick due to its effectiveness (i.e. power) and implications on the final score. Therefore, different striking tempos at full power are used during training as a method to enhance kicking power. However, the neuromuscular responses are unknown. Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate neuromuscular responses to a single bout of shorter (every second = H1) and longer (every 3s = H3) kick striking time intervals, measured with the countermovement jump (CMJ). Nine professional Muay Thai fighters participated in this randomized, cross-over trial. CMJs were measured on force plates before and after (post 0min, post 5min, post 10min, post 20min and post 30min) two striking (1set x 20reps) conditions (H1; H3). Although no difference was observed between H1 and H3 values, neuromuscular fatigue parameters displayed different patterns over time. CMJ height decreased immediately after H3 striking (PMuay Thai and conditioning coaches should focus on hard striking with both long and slow pacing during specific heavy bag or pad work.

  18. Gender differences in online collaborative learning groups promoting affective education and social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mebane Minou Ella

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a study aimed to establish whether the amount and types of conflicts vary in all male, all female and mixed gender groups working in asynchronous collaborative learning online settings. Sixty psychology majors were divided into three groups conducted online by the same teacher. The study show that the levels of participation in the three groups varied in relation to gender composition. Further the results evidenced all female group did have more conflicts then male and mixed groups, but primarily they did not have interpersonal. The female groups´ conflicts seem to be related to goal-oriented process of work.

  19. Species groups occupying different trophic levels respond differently to the invasion of semi-natural vegetation by Solidago canadensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de M.; Kleijn, D.; Jogan, N.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the impact of the invasive plant species Solidago canadensis on the species richness of vascular plants and the abundance, species richness and diversity of butterflies, hoverflies and carabid beetles in herbaceous semi-natural habitats near Ljubljana, Slovenia. The species groups were

  20. [Physiological changes and related nursing care issues during hunger strike].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yeu-Shan; Chen, Shiu-Lien

    2005-08-01

    The use of hunger strike as a tool to assert grievances has been around for ages and has occasionally happened in the world. Hunger strikers' motives may differ, but their tool is the same--the voluntary refusal of food. Fasting not only results in body weight loss, but also in physiological and neurological function changes, and, of course, it may even threaten life. The health care of hunger strikers is complex. It involves medical staff, medical ethics and guidance for the management of the hunger strikers. Improper medical management may not only undermine the hunger striker's dignity but also risk further damage to his or her health. By understanding hunger strikers' physiological changes and related ethical issues, therefore, we aim to identify appropriate forms of nursing care management and guidance for the care of hunger strikers.

  1. Influenza C virus high seroprevalence rates observed in 3 different population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salez, Nicolas; Mélade, Julien; Pascalis, Hervé; Aherfi, Sarah; Dellagi, Koussay; Charrel, Rémi N; Carrat, Fabrice; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2014-08-01

    The epidemiology of Influenza C virus (FLUCV) infections remains poorly characterised. Here, we have examined the age- and location-specific seroprevalence of antibodies against FLUCV in 1441 sera from metropolitan continental France (Marseille), South-West Indian Ocean French territories (Reunion Island) and United-Kingdom (Edinburgh) using a combination of haemagglutination inhibition, virus neutralisation and ELISA assays. Our results show that immunity to FLUCV is common in all locations studied (global seroprevalence values >50%) and that the first immunising contacts generally occur early in life (i.e., in the 0-4 year-old age group). The latter item is further supported by the detection of FLUCV RNA by RT-PCR in naso-pharyngeal samples collected in patient attending the Emergency Room of the Public hospitals of Marseille, France with a large majority of children under 10 years-old: 17 (60.7%) in children ≤3 yo, 10 (35.7%) in the 4-10 yo age group and 1 (3.6%) in an adult (49yo). The temporal distribution of cases was atypical with regard to influenza (a large proportion of cases occurred in spring and summer) and the clinical presentation was diverse, including but being not limited to classical Influenza-like-Ilnesses. Altogether, our results indicate an intense circulation of FLUCV in the different study areas and an early occurrence of infection in human life. Flu C appears to be a widely under-diagnosed and under-studied human paediatric disease that obviously deserves further clinical and epidemiological characterisation. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Difference Between Clusters and Groups: A Journey from Cluster Cores to Their Outskirts and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Richard G.; Balogh, Michael L.

    In this review, we take the reader on a journey. We start by looking at the properties of galaxies in the cores of rich clusters. We have focused on the overall picture: star formation in clusters is strongly suppressed relative to field galaxies at the same redshift. We will argue that the increasing activity and blue populations of clusters with redshift results from a greater level of activity in field galaxies rather than a change in the transformation imposed by the cluster environment. With this in mind, we travel out from the cluster, focusing first on the properties of galaxies in the outskirts of clusters and then on galaxies in isolated groups. At low redshift, we are able to efficiently probe these environments using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and 2dF redshift surveys. These allow an accurate comparison of galaxy star formation rates in different regions. The current results show a strong suppression of star formation above a critical threshold in local density. The threshold seems similar regardless of the overall mass of the system. At low redshift at least, only galaxies in close, isolated pairs have their star formation rate boosted above the global average. At higher redshift, work on constructing homogeneous catalogs of galaxies in groups and in the infall regions of clusters is still at an early stage. In the final section, we draw these strands together, summarizing what we can deduce about the mechanisms that transform star-forming field galaxies into their quiescent cluster counterparts. We discuss what we can learn about the impact of environment on the global star formation history of the Universe.

  3. Appearances can be deceptive: different diversification patterns within a group of Mediterranean earthworms (Oligochaeta, Hormogastridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, Marta; Almodóvar, Ana; Fernández, Rosa; Trigo, Dolores; Díaz-Cosín, Darío J; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2012-08-01

    Many recent studies on invertebrates have shown how morphology not always captures the true diversity of taxa, with cryptic speciation often being discussed in this context. Here, we show how diversification patterns can be very different in two clades of closely related earthworms in the genus Hormogaster stressing the risk of using nonspecific substitution rate values across taxa. On the one hand, the Hormogaster elisae species complex, endemic to the central Iberian Peninsula, shows morphological stasis. On the other hand, a clade of Hormogaster from the NE Iberian Peninsula shows an enormous morphological variability, with 15 described morphospecies. The H. elisae complex, however, evolves faster genetically, and this could be explained by the harsher environmental conditions to which it is confined-as detected in this study, that is, sandier and slightly poorer soils with lower pH values than those of the other species in the family. These extreme conditions could be at the same time limiting morphological evolution and thus be responsible for the observed morphological stasis in this clade. Contrarily, Hormogaster species from the NE Iberian Peninsula, although still inhabiting harsher milieu than other earthworm groups, have had the opportunity to evolve into a greater morphological disparity. An attempt to delimit species within this group following the recently proposed general mixed Yule-coalescent method showed a higher number of entities than expected under the morphospecies concept, most probably due to the low vagility of these animals, which considerably limits gene flow between distant conspecific populations, but also because of the decoupling between morphological and genetic evolution in the H. elisae complex. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Assessment of current exposure levels in different population groups of the Kola Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travnikova, I.G.; Shutov, V.N.; Ya Bruk, G.; Balonov, M.I.; Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Pogorely, Ju.A.; Burkova, T.F.

    2002-01-01

    Activity concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in samples of vegetation and natural food products collected in the Kola Peninsula in 1998 and 1999 indicate a very slow decrease in contamination levels during the last decade, mainly due to the physical decay of the radionuclides. The activity concentrations of 137 Cs in reindeer meat decreased with a half-life of about 9 years. 137 Cs in lichen, moss and fungi is significantly higher than in natural vegetation (grasses) and agricultural plants (potatoes). The activity concentrations of 137 Cs in reindeer meat were two orders of magnitude higher than those in locally produced beef and pork. Consumption of reindeer meat, fish, mushrooms and berries constituted the main contribution to the internal dose from 137 Cs and 90 Sr for reindeer-breeders in the Lovozero area. The estimated committed doses due to 137 Cs intake in this group were about 10 μSv per month in summer 1998 and 15 μSv per month in winter, 1999. There was good agreement between internal dose estimates based on intake assessment and whole body measurements. The population of Umba settlement, which is not involved in reindeer breeding, received individual committed doses due to 137 Cs intake of about 0.5 μSv per month, about a factor of 20 less than the reindeer-breeders in Lovozero. In this case, the main contribution to the internal dose of the general population came from consumption the of 137 Cs in mushrooms and forest berries. The contribution of 90 Sr to the internal dose varied from 1% to 5% in the different population groups studied

  5. A decade of U.S. Air Force bat strikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peurach, Suzanne C.; Dove, Carla J.; Stepko, Laura

    2009-01-01

    From 1997 through 2007, 821 bat strikes were reported to the U.S. Air Force (USAF) Safety Center by aircraft personnel or ground crew and sent to the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, for identification. Many samples were identified by macroscopic and or microscopic comparisons with bat specimens housed in the museum and augmented during the last 2 years by DNA analysis. Bat remains from USAF strikes during this period were received at the museum from 40 states in the United States and from 20 countries. We confirmed that 46% of the strikes were caused by bats, but we did not identify them further; we identified 5% only to the family or genus level, and 49% to the species level. Fifty-five of the 101 bat-strike samples submitted for DNA analysis have been identified to the species level. Twenty-five bat species have been recorded striking USAF planes worldwide. The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis; n = 173) is the species most commonly identified in USAF strike impacts, followed by the red bat (Lasiurus borealis; n = 83). Bat strikes peak during the spring and fall, with >57% occurring from August through October; 82% of the reports that included time of strike were recorded between 2100 and 0900 hours. More than 12% of the bat strikes were reported at >300 m above ground level (AGL). Although $825,000 and >50% of this sum was attributable to 5 bat-strike incidents. Only 5 bats from the 10 most damaging bat strikes were identified to the species level, either because we did not receive remains with the reports or the sample was insufficient for identification.

  6. Deformations of the Heme Group of Different Ferrocytochrome c Proteins Probed by Resonance Raman Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagarman, Andrew; Schweitzer-Stenner, Reinhard; Wallace, Carmichael; Laberge, Monique

    2008-01-01

    We measured the low-frequency polarized resonance Raman spectra of horse heart, chicken, and yeast(C102T) ferrocytochromes c with Soret excitation. We examined the out-of-plane deformations of the heme groups by determining the relative intensities and depolarization ratios of a variety of out-of-plane and in-plane Raman active bands. Analysis of relative Raman intensities shows differences in non-planarity of the heme groups of yeast(C102T), horse heart and chicken cytochrome c. Cytochrome c has been shown to have a dominant ruffling (B 1u ) deformation by means of normal coordinate structural decomposition (NSD) analysis of the heme group in crystal structures. The presence and intensity of B 1u modes, γ 10 -γ 12 , support the indication of ruffling being the major contribution to the non-planar deformations in cytochrome c. Other types of non-planar deformations like doming (A 2U ) and waving (E g ) can be deduced from the Raman activity of γ 5 (A 2u ), γ 21 and γ 22 (E g ). The depolarization ratios of γ 5 , γ 10 , γ 11 and γ 12 are larger than 0.125, indicating the presence of other deformations such as saddling (B 2u ) and propellering (A 1u ), which is again in agreement with the crystal structures of horse heart and yeast ferrocytochrome c. An analysis of the intensities and depolarization ratios of out-of-plane modes revealed that ruffling is comparable in yeast and horse heart cytochrome c, saddling is larger and doming as well as propellering are lower in yeast cytochrome c. With respect to doming and ruffling our results contradict values obtained from the NSD analysis of the corresponding crystal structures. With respect to saddling, our data are in agreement with the crystal structure. The NSD analysis of heme structures resulting from MD simulations did not correlate very well with the spectroscopically obtained results concerning the ruffling and doming coordinate, whereas a qualitative agreement was again obtained for saddling.

  7. Lightning Strike Induced Damage Mechanisms of Carbon Fiber Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Hirohide

    Composite materials have a wide application in aerospace, automotive, and other transportation industries, because of the superior structural and weight performances. Since carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites possess a much lower electrical conductivity as compared to traditional metallic materials utilized for aircraft structures, serious concern about damage resistance/tolerance against lightning has been rising. Main task of this study is to clarify the lightning damage mechanism of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy polymer composites to help further development of lightning strike protection. The research on lightning damage to carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites is quite challenging, and there has been little study available until now. In order to tackle this issue, building block approach was employed. The research was started with the development of supporting technologies such as a current impulse generator to simulate a lightning strike in a laboratory. Then, fundamental electrical properties and fracture behavior of CFRPs exposed to high and low level current impulse were investigated using simple coupon specimens, followed by extensive parametric investigations in terms of different prepreg materials frequently used in aerospace industry, various stacking sequences, different lightning intensity, and lightning current waveforms. It revealed that the thermal resistance capability of polymer matrix was one of the most influential parameters on lightning damage resistance of CFRPs. Based on the experimental findings, the semi-empirical analysis model for predicting the extent of lightning damage was established. The model was fitted through experimental data to determine empirical parameters and, then, showed a good capability to provide reliable predictions for other test conditions and materials. Finally, structural element level lightning tests were performed to explore more practical situations. Specifically, filled-hole CFRP plates and patch

  8. Intrapartum caesarean rates differ significantly between ethnic groups--relationship to induction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ismail, Khadijah I

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: Given international variation in obstetric practices and outcomes, comparison of labour outcomes in different ethnic groups could provide important information regarding the underlying reasons for rising caesarean delivery rates. Increasing numbers of women from Eastern European countries are now delivering in Irish maternity hospitals. We compared labour outcomes between Irish and Eastern European (EE) women in a large tertiary referral center. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective consecutive cohort study encompassing a single calendar year. The cohort comprised 5550 Irish and 867 EE women delivered in a single institution in 2009. Women who had multiple pregnancies, breech presentation, and elective or pre-labour caesarean sections (CS) were excluded. Data obtained from birth registers included maternal age, nationality, parity, gestation, onset of labour, mode of delivery and birth weight. RESULTS: The overall intrapartum CS rate was 11.4% and was significantly higher in Irish compared to EE women (11.8% vs. 8.8%; p=0.008). The proportion of primiparas was lower in Irish compared to EE women (44.8% vs. 63.6%; p<0.0001). The intrapartum CS rate was almost doubled in Irish compared to EE primiparas (20.7% vs. 11.0%; p<0.0001). Analysis of primiparas according to labour onset revealed a higher intrapartum CS rate in Irish primiparas in both spontaneous (13.5% vs. 7.2%; p<0.0001) and induced labour (29.5% vs. 19.3%; p=0.005). Irish women were older with 19.7% of primiparas aged more than 35, compared to 1.6% of EE women (p<0.0001). The primigravid CS rate in Irish women was significantly higher in women aged 35 years or older compared women aged less than 35 (30.6% vs. 18.3%; p<0.0001) consistent in both spontaneous and induced labour. The primiparous induction rate was 45.4% in Irish women compared to 32% in EE women, and more Irish women were induced before 41 weeks gestation. CONCLUSION: The results highlight that primigravid intrapartum CS rates were

  9. Group Differences between English and Spanish Speakers' Reading Fluency Growth in Bilingual Immersion Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Gordon E.; Sivo, Stephen A.; Puyana, Olivia E.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates second language acquisition of learners enrolled in a dual language/two-way bilingual immersion program. Two groups of third-grade students participated in this study. The first group was composed of Spanish-dominant participants learning English, and the second group was composed of English-dominant students learning…

  10. First among Others? Cohen's "d" vs. Alternative Standardized Mean Group Difference Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahan, Sorel; Gamliel, Eyal

    2011-01-01

    Standardized effect size measures typically employed in behavioral and social sciences research in the multi-group case (e.g., [eta][superscript 2], f[superscript 2]) evaluate between-group variability in terms of either total or within-group variability, such as variance or standard deviation--that is, measures of dispersion about the mean. In…

  11. Self-reported differences in empowerment between lurkers and posters in online patient support groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F.; Drossaert, Constance H C; Taal, Erik; Seydel, Erwin R.; van de Laar, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients who visit online support groups benefit in various ways. Results of our earlier study indicated that participation in online support groups had a profound effect on the participants' feelings of "being empowered." However, most studies of online patient support groups have

  12. Uptake of faecal occult blood test colorectal cancer screening by different ethnic groups in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deutekom, M.; van Rijn, A. F.; Dekker, E.; Blaauwgeers, H.; Stronks, K.; Fockens, P.; Essink-Bot, M.-L.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the participation rates in CRC screening with a FOBT among various ethnic groups in the Netherlands. Individuals (n = 10 054) were invited by mail and grouped by country of birth. Overall participation rate was 49%. Participation among ethnic minority groups was significantly lower

  13. Self-reported differences in empowerment between lurkers and posters in online patient support groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, C.F.; Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Taal, Erik; Seydel, E.R.; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2008-01-01

    Background: Patients who visit online support groups benefit in various ways. Results of our earlier study indicated that participation in online support groups had a profound effect on the participants’ feelings of “being empowered.” However, most studies of online patient support groups have

  14. Interactions between cauliflower and Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups with different levels of aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannecoucque, Joke; Höfte, Monica

    2009-01-01

    Background The soil borne fungus Rhizoctonia is one of the most important plant pathogenic fungi, with a wide host range and worldwide distribution. In cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), several anastomosis groups (AGs) including both multinucleate R. solani and binucleate Rhizoctonia species have been identified showing different levels of aggressiveness. The infection and colonization process of Rhizoctonia during pathogenic interactions is well described. In contrast, insights into processes during interactions with weak aggressive or non-pathogenic isolates are limited. In this study the interaction of cauliflower with seven R. solani AGs and one binucleate Rhizoctonia AG differing in aggressiveness, was compared. Using microscopic and histopathological techniques, the early steps of the infection process, the colonization process and several host responses were studied. Results For aggressive Rhizoctonia AGs (R. solani AG 1-1B, AG 1-1C, AG 2-1, AG 2-2 IIIb and AG 4 HGII), a higher developmental rate was detected for several steps of the infection process, including directed growth along anticlinal cell walls and formation of T-shaped branches, infection cushion formation and stomatal penetration. Weak or non-aggressive AGs (R. solani AG 5, AG 3 and binucleate Rhizoctonia AG K) required more time, notwithstanding all AGs were able to penetrate cauliflower hypocotyls. Histopathological observations indicated that Rhizoctonia AGs provoked differential host responses and pectin degradation. We demonstrated the pronounced deposition of phenolic compounds and callose against weak and non-aggressive AGs which resulted in a delay or complete block of the host colonization. Degradation of pectic compounds was observed for all pathogenic AGs, except for AG 2-2 IIIb. Ranking the AGs based on infection rate, level of induced host responses and pectin degradation revealed a strong correlation with the disease severity caused by the AGs. Conclusion The

  15. Economy and rate of carbohydrate oxidation during running with rearfoot and forefoot strike patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Allison H; Umberger, Brian R; Braun, Barry; Hamill, Joseph

    2013-07-15

    It continues to be argued that a forefoot (FF) strike pattern during running is more economical than a rearfoot (RF) pattern; however, previous studies using one habitual footstrike group have found no difference in running economy between footstrike patterns. We aimed to conduct a more extensive study by including both habitual RF and FF runners. The purposes of this study were to determine whether there were differences in running economy between these groups and whether running economy would change when they ran with the alternative footstrike pattern. Nineteen habitual RF and 18 habitual FF runners performed the RF and FF patterns on a treadmill at 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0 m/s. Steady-state rates of oxygen consumption (Vo2, ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and carbohydrate contribution to total energy expenditure (%CHO) were determined by indirect calorimetry for each footstrike pattern and speed condition. A mixed-model ANOVA was used to assess the differences in each variable between groups and footstrike patterns (α = 0.05). No differences in Vo2 or %CHO were detected between groups when running with their habitual footstrike pattern. The RF pattern resulted in lower Vo2 and %CHO compared with the FF pattern at the slow and medium speeds in the RF group (P 0.05). At the fast speed, a significant footstrike pattern main effect indicated that Vo2 was greater with the FF pattern than with the RF pattern (P 0.05). The results suggest that the FF pattern is not more economical than the RF pattern.

  16. Capsular Sialyltransferase Specificity Mediates Different Phenotypes in Streptococcus suis and Group B Streptococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Roy

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The capsular polysaccharide (CPS represents a key virulence factor for most encapsulated streptococci. Streptococcus suis and Group B Streptococcus (GBS are both well-encapsulated pathogens of clinical importance in veterinary and/or human medicine and responsible for invasive systemic diseases. S. suis and GBS are the only Gram-positive bacteria which express a sialylated CPS at their surface. An important difference between these two sialylated CPSs is the linkage between the side-chain terminal galactose and sialic acid, being α-2,6 for S. suis but α-2,3 for GBS. It is still unclear how sialic acid may affect CPS production and, consequently, the pathogenesis of the disease caused by these two bacterial pathogens. Here, we investigated the role of sialic acid and the putative effect of sialic acid linkage modification in CPS synthesis using inter-species allelic exchange mutagenesis. To this aim, a new molecular biogenetic approach to express CPS with modified sialic acid linkage was developed. We showed that sialic acid (and its α-2,6 linkage is crucial for S. suis CPS synthesis, whereas for GBS, CPS synthesis may occur in presence of an α-2,6 sialyltransferase or in absence of sialic acid moiety. To evaluate the effect of the CPS composition/structure on sialyltransferase activity, two distinct capsular serotypes within each bacterial species were compared (S. suis serotypes 2 and 14 and GBS serotypes III and V. It was demonstrated that the observed differences in sialyltransferase activity and specificity between S. suis and GBS were serotype unrestricted. This is the first time that a study investigates the interspecies exchange of capsular sialyltransferase genes in Gram-positive bacteria. The obtained mutants represent novel tools that could be used to further investigate the immunomodulatory properties of sialylated CPSs. Finally, in spite of common CPS structural characteristics and similarities in the cps loci, sialic acid exerts

  17. Orthotic intervention in forefoot and rearfoot strike running patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, Carrie Laughton; Davis, Irene McClay; Hamill, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    To compare the differential effect of custom orthoses on the lower extremity mechanics of a forefoot and rearfoot strike pattern. Fifteen subjects ran with both a forefoot and a rearfoot strike pattern with and without orthoses. Lower extremity kinematic and kinetic variables were compared between strike pattern and orthotic conditions. Foot orthoses have been shown to be effective in controlling excessive rearfoot motion in rearfoot strikers. The effect of orthotic intervention on rearfoot motion in forefoot strikers has not been previously reported. Five trials were collected for each condition. Peak rearfoot eversion, eversion excursion, eversion velocity, peak inversion moment, an