Empirical laws, regularity and necessity
Koningsveld, H.
1973-01-01
In this book I have tried to develop an analysis of the concept of an empirical law, an analysis that differs in many ways from the alternative analyse's found in contemporary literature dealing with the subject.
1 am referring especially to two well-known views, viz. the regularity and
The Empire Strikes Back. Russian National Cinema After 2005
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomasz Rawski
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The Empire Strikes Back. Russian National Cinema After 2005 The paper provides critical analysis of the latest wave of Russian national cinema (2005-2013, considered one of key instruments of Vladimir Putin’s nation-building cultural policy. The analysis, focused mostly on historical film and war film, reveals the concept of an ‘imperial nation’ as the main concept underlying this policy. The new Russian nation-concept is calculated to binding elements from two former Russian imperial traditions: tradition of the Russian Empire and the Soviet tradition, thus trying to overcome the identity crisis in contemporary Russia. Imperium kontratakuje. Rosyjskie kino narodowe po 2005 roku Artykuł zajmuje się krytyczną analizą filmów najnowszej fali rosyjskiego kina narodowego (2005-2013, uważanej tu za jedno z kluczowych narzędzi polityki kulturalnej Władimira Putina obliczonej na budowanie narodu. Autorzy artykułu skupiają się przede wszystkim na filmie historycznym i wojennym, odsłaniając pojęcie „imperialnego narodu” jako konceptu stojącego u podstaw oficjalnej polityki. Nowe rosyjskie pojęcie narodu łączy w sobie dwie tradycje rosyjskie: tradycję Imperium Rosyjskiego oraz tradycję Związku Radzieckiego, próbując w ten sposób przezwyciężyć kryzys tożsamościowy współczesnej Rosji.
The Anglo-Boer War: Surviving When the Empire Strikes Back
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Van Voorst, Carol
1998-01-01
... effective war their "ignorant peasant communities" had waged against the army of the greatest empire in the world For two and a half years, Boer "commando" units had astonished professional observers...
Are Empires Striking Back? A Political and Cultural Comparison of the European Union and Russia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dumetz Jérôme
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The article is a position paper focusing on the current standoff between two regional powers, the European Union and Russia. Following a series of crises, in particular the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation in 2014, the relationship between Russia and many of its neighbours has significantly deteriorated. This shift has led to various geopolitical opinions, often opposite and seemingly irreconcilable. A holistic and historical approach to this new reality leads some to question the validity of the current world order through the prism of the anachronistic concept of Empires. Subsequent to a review of definitions, the author analyses historical characteristics and political factors of the two territories on focus: the European Union and Russia. There are two outcomes of this study: On the one side, the European Union has become an organisation that shares many characteristics of an Empire, but several key elements exclude it from this political construction. On the other side, the geopolitical actions of Russia have shaped the position of the country into a structure that bears many of the artefacts of an Empire with key essential features. The conclusion of this argument states that the European Union is not an Empire by design, despite many resembling features; whilst Russia lives in an anachronistic paradigm of an Empire, without having the means of being one.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Babb, Jeffry S.; Nørbjerg, Jacob; Yates, David J.
Agile methods have co-evolved with the onset of rapid change andturbidity in software and systems development and the methodologies andprocess models designed to guide them. Conceived from the lessons of practice,Agile methods brought a balanced perspective between the intensions of thestakeholder......, the management function, and developers. As an evolutionaryprogression, trends towards rapid continuous delivery have witnessed theadvent of DevOps where advances in tooling, technologies, and theenvironment of both development and consumption exert a new dynamic intothe Agile oeuvre. We investigate...... the progression from Agile to DevOps from aCritical Social Theoretic perspective to examine a paradox in agility – whatdoes an always-on conceptualization of production forestall and impinge uponthe processes of reflection and renewal that are also endemic to Agile methods?This paper is offered as a catalyst...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Micklitz, Hans-W.; Pałka, Przemysław; Panagis, Yannis
2017-01-01
of automation would not replace human lawyers but would assist them and make their work more effective and efficient. Policy makers should direct their attention to the potential of using algorithmic techniques in enforcing the law regarding unfair contractual terms, and to facilitating research...... on and ultimately implementing such technologies....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Babb, Jeffry S.; Nørbjerg, Jacob; Yates, David J.
2017-01-01
, the management function, and developers. As an evolutionary progression, trends towards rapid continuous delivery have witnessed the advent of DevOps where advances in tooling, technologies, and the environment of both development and consumption exert a new dynamic into the Agile oeuvre. We investigate...
Nam, Moon-Hyon
The term "Striking Clepsydra" is a shortened translation of the Korean name Jagyeongnu (自擊漏, tzu-chi lou in Chinese, literally "automatic-striking water-clock"). It was given to the two monumental time-keeping installations built by chief court engineer Yeong-sil Jang in AD 1432-38 under King Sejong (r. AD 1418-50) of the Joseon dynasty (1392-1910) in Seoul. These were housed separately in the Gyeongbok palace complex as major installations of the Royal Observatory Ganuidae equipped during 1432-38. One was the Striking Palace Clepsydra Borugangnu that was employed as the standard time-keeper from 1434, and the other was the Striking Heavenly Clepsydra Heumgyeonggangnu that was put into use not only as the symbol of Neo-Confucian ideology from 1438, but also as a demonstrational orrery and time-keeper. These were restored several times through the dynasty after loss by fires and warfare, and clepsydra-making technologies were succeeded by the development of armillary clocks in 1669. The National Palace Museum of Korea recreated the 1434 Striking Palace Clepsydra of King Sejong, and the replica was installed for permanent exhibition from November 2007.
Zielke, O.; Arrowsmith, J.
2007-12-01
In order to determine the magnitude of pre-historic earthquakes, surface rupture length, average and maximum surface displacement are utilized, assuming that an earthquake of a specific size will cause surface features of correlated size. The well known Wells and Coppersmith (1994) paper and other studies defined empirical relationships between these and other parameters, based on historic events with independently known magnitude and rupture characteristics. However, these relationships show relatively large standard deviations and they are based only on a small number of events. To improve these first-order empirical relationships, the observation location relative to the rupture extent within the regional tectonic framework should be accounted for. This however cannot be done based on natural seismicity because of the limited size of datasets on large earthquakes. We have developed the numerical model FIMozFric, based on derivations by Okada (1992) to create synthetic seismic records for a given fault or fault system under the influence of either slip- or stress boundary conditions. Our model features A) the introduction of an upper and lower aseismic zone, B) a simple Coulomb friction law, C) bulk parameters simulating fault heterogeneity, and D) a fault interaction algorithm handling the large number of fault patches (typically 5,000-10,000). The joint implementation of these features produces well behaved synthetic seismic catalogs and realistic relationships among magnitude and surface rupture characteristics which are well within the error of the results by Wells and Coppersmith (1994). Furthermore, we use the synthetic seismic records to show that the relationships between magntiude and rupture characteristics are a function of the observation location within the regional tectonic framework. The model presented here can to provide paleoseismologists with a tool to improve magnitude estimates from surface rupture characteristics, by incorporating the
2005-01-01
Contrary to popular misconception, lightning often strikes the same place twice. Certain conditions are just ripe for a bolt of electricity to come zapping down; and a lightning strike is powerful enough to do a lot of damage wherever it hits. NASA created the Accurate Location of Lightning Strikes technology to determine the ground strike point of lightning and prevent electrical damage in the immediate vicinity of the Space Shuttle launch pads at Kennedy Space Center. The area surrounding the launch pads is enmeshed in a network of electrical wires and components, and electronic equipment is highly susceptible to lightning strike damage. The accurate knowledge of the striking point is important so that crews can determine which equipment or system needs to be retested following a strike. Accurate to within a few yards, this technology can locate a lightning strike in the perimeter of the launch pad. As an added bonus, the engineers, then knowing where the lightning struck, can adjust the variables that may be attracting the lightning, to create a zone that will be less susceptible to future strikes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lingjiong Zhu
2015-07-01
Full Text Available In this short paper, we study the asymptotics for the price of call options for very large strikes and put options for very small strikes. The stock price is assumed to follow the Black–Scholes models. We analyze European, Asian, American, Parisian and perpetual options and conclude that the tail asymptotics for these option types fall into four scenarios.
2014-01-01
Täna algab Eestis, Lätis ja Leedus Ameerika Ühendriikide Euroopa väekoondise õppus "Saber Strike", mille eesmärk on maaväeüksuste koostöö harjutamine. Õppusest võtab osa üle 2000 kaitseväelase Baltimaadest, USAst, Ühendkuningriigist, Taanist, Norrast, Soomest ja Saksamaalt. Eestist osaleb õppusel ligi 400 kaitseväelast
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Line Hjorth
2005-01-01
The paper discusses fundamental issues in relation to placing graphic design in locations such as museums of decorative arts and living history museums. Based on my Ph.D. project on British commercial posters of the interwar years and approached from a combined perspective of museology, semiotics...... and design history, I argue that the poster during the interwar years inhabits a new active position. By exploiting and challenging the commercial and aesthetic paradox out of which it arose, the poster ‘strikes back' as a museologized, exhibited object. Rather than being absorbed into the city swirl...
Global strike hypersonic weapons
Lewis, Mark J.
2017-11-01
Beginning in the 1940's, the United States has pursued the development of hypersonic technologies, enabling atmospheric flight in excess of five times the speed of sound. Hypersonic flight has application to a range of military and civilian applications, including commercial transport, space access, and various weapons and sensing platforms. A number of flight tests of hypersonic vehicles have been conducted by countries around the world, including the United States, Russia, and China, that could lead the way to future hypersonic global strike weapon systems. These weapons would be especially effective at penetrating conventional defenses, and could pose a significant risk to national security.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Lars Kai; Rasmussen, Carl Edward; Svarer, C.
1994-01-01
Regularization, e.g., in the form of weight decay, is important for training and optimization of neural network architectures. In this work the authors provide a tool based on asymptotic sampling theory, for iterative estimation of weight decay parameters. The basic idea is to do a gradient desce...
Annotation of Regular Polysemy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martinez Alonso, Hector
Regular polysemy has received a lot of attention from the theory of lexical semantics and from computational linguistics. However, there is no consensus on how to represent the sense of underspecified examples at the token level, namely when annotating or disambiguating senses of metonymic words...... and metonymic. We have conducted an analysis in English, Danish and Spanish. Later on, we have tried to replicate the human judgments by means of unsupervised and semi-supervised sense prediction. The automatic sense-prediction systems have been unable to find empiric evidence for the underspecified sense, even...
Continental United States Hurricane Strikes
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Continental U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster is our most popular poster which is updated annually. The poster includes all hurricanes that affected the U.S. since...
Urea, a true uremic toxin: the empire strikes back.
Lau, Wei Ling; Vaziri, Nosratola D
2017-01-01
Blood levels of urea rise with progressive decline in kidney function. Older studies examining acute urea infusion suggested that urea was well-tolerated at levels 8-10× above normal values. More recent in vitro and in vivo work argue the opposite and demonstrate both direct and indirect toxicities of urea, which probably promote the premature aging phenotype that is pervasive in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Elevated urea at concentrations typically encountered in uremic patients induces disintegration of the gut epithelial barrier, leading to translocation of bacterial toxins into the bloodstream and systemic inflammation. Urea induces apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells as well as endothelial dysfunction, thus directly promoting cardiovascular disease. Further, urea stimulates oxidative stress and dysfunction in adipocytes, leading to insulin resistance. Finally, there are widespread indirect effects of elevated urea as a result of the carbamylation reaction, where isocyanic acid (a product of urea catabolism) alters the structure and function of proteins in the body. Carbamylation has been linked with renal fibrosis, atherosclerosis and anaemia. In summary, urea is a re-emerging Dark Force in CKD pathophysiology. Trials examining low protein diet to minimize accumulation of urea and other toxins suggest a clinical benefit in terms of slowing progression of CKD. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.
The Empire strikes back. Counterrevolutionary strategies for industry leaders.
D'Aveni, Richard
2002-11-01
Industry leaders frequently worry that their companies will fall victim to some revolutionary business model or disruptive technology. But new research shows that it's strategically better for incumbents to counter a revolution than to ignore or fully embrace it. Successful incumbents rely on one or more of five approaches to restrain, modify, or, if necessary, neutralize a revolutionary threat. A company that perceives a revolution in its earliest stages can use containment strategies. By throwing up roadblocks--raising switching costs, perhaps, or launching discrediting PR efforts--an incumbent can often limit the degree to which customers and competitors accept a nascent insurgency. And, sometimes, revolutions die there. If not, early containment buys a company some time to shape the revolution so that it complements, rather than supersedes, the incumbent's strengths. And even if shaping efforts fail, they can give an industry leader more time to work out how to absorb the threat by bringing the new competencies or technologies inside the firm in such a way that they don't destroy its existing strengths and capabilities. When revolutions have progressed too far to slow them down, incumbents must take a more aggressive tack. Neutralizing strategies meet a revolution head-on and terminate it--by, say, temporarily giving away the benefits offered by the challenger for free. Annulment strategies allow the market leader to leapfrog over or sidestep the threat. These five strategic approaches need not be used in isolation, as a detailed case study of the way Anheuser-Busch countered the craft-beer revolution dramatically demonstrates. Sensible industry leaders do not lead revolutions; they know they may not survive the attempt. Instead, they prefer to lead counterrevolutions.
[Physicians' strikes--ethical considerations].
Glick, Shimon; Schwarzfuchs, Dan
2012-01-01
Strikes in general represent a solution based on a form of coercion. Historically, the striker caused direct damage to his employer, who was responsible for the perceived unfair treatment of the employee. In the case of strikes in the public sector, the employer is generally not harmed, but innocent citizens suffer in order to pressure the government agencies, a questionable practice from an ethical viewpoint. Physicians' strikes have more serious ethical problems. They cause suffering and death to innocent citizens. They violate the ethical codes to which physicians have committed themselves as professionals, and they seriously impair the trust of the public in physicians. Better and more ethical ways to provide fair compensation for physicians must be employed, perhaps like those used for judges and members of the IDF.
UNFOLDED REGULAR AND SEMI-REGULAR POLYHEDRA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
IONIŢĂ Elena
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a presentation unfolding regular and semi-regular polyhedra. Regular polyhedra are convex polyhedra whose faces are regular and equal polygons, with the same number of sides, and whose polyhedral angles are also regular and equal. Semi-regular polyhedra are convex polyhedra with regular polygon faces, several types and equal solid angles of the same type. A net of a polyhedron is a collection of edges in the plane which are the unfolded edges of the solid. Modeling and unfolding Platonic and Arhimediene polyhedra will be using 3dsMAX program. This paper is intended as an example of descriptive geometry applications.
Expert Anticipatory Skill in Striking Sports: A Review and a Model
Muller, Sean; Abernethy, Bruce
2012-01-01
Expert performers in striking sports can hit objects moving at high speed with incredible precision. Exceptionally well developed anticipation skills are necessary to cope with the severe constraints on interception. In this paper, we provide a review of the empirical evidence regarding expert interception in striking sports and propose a…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, L; Salter, S [comps.
1985-01-01
References relating to the 1984-85 UK miners strike are listed under the following subject headings: events and analysis - a chronological record; short term effects - coal stocks and supplies, electricity supplies, financial, industrial and economic; the miners and their leadership; social aspects - civil liberties, media coverage, mining communities, picketing, policing, the future; pit closures. 240 references.
Strikes in Serbia since 2000 to 2005
Novaković Nada
2005-01-01
In this article author deals with main characteristics of strikes in Serbia within the period 2000–2005. Analysis starts with thesis that strike is open class conflict within class divided society. Therefore strike is radical form of trade union struggle for workers rights. Main questions in the analysis were: on social structure as a background of strikes, on organizations and trade unions included in it, on effects of strikes in Serbia in the given period. Main thesis of the article is that...
Respecting the right to strike
Staff Association
2015-01-01
Since two years the representatives of the employers in the ILO, a tripartite multilateral body responsible for guaranteeing the correct application of an international labour code, try to weaken the global work regulations. On the occasion of the Global Day of Action for the right to strike at the invitation of the Geneva community of Union action (Communauté genevoise d’action syndicale) and the Swiss Trade Union Association (Union syndicale suisse) around noon on Wednesday 18th February some fifty staff representatives of international organizations gathered on the place des Nations in Geneva to reaffirm the importance of this fundamental right, too often flouted. A delegation of the CERN Staff Association was also present. In a short speech, the Staff Association said that, while being one of the fundamental human rights, to be efficient the right to strike must be used intelligently. It must be implemented taking into account the sensitivities of the professional environment and r...
Coordinate-invariant regularization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halpern, M.B.
1987-01-01
A general phase-space framework for coordinate-invariant regularization is given. The development is geometric, with all regularization contained in regularized DeWitt Superstructures on field deformations. Parallel development of invariant coordinate-space regularization is obtained by regularized functional integration of the momenta. As representative examples of the general formulation, the regularized general non-linear sigma model and regularized quantum gravity are discussed. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gebauer, Mirjam
2013-01-01
The disaster scenario is one of the predominant settings we find unfold in the pop-cultural imagination, namely in films and novels. In recent years, as increased awareness of environmental issues affect the agendas of public debate, we also see local and increasingly global environmental disasters...... is evolving caused by an intelligent life form of the deep sea striking back at mankind. This article aims at discussing in what ways The Swarm uses elements and patterns of the pop-cultural disaster imagination, specifically the disaster and science fiction movie of the 1990s. Furthermore, it investigates...
Women, transition and strikes in Serbia
Novaković, Nada G.
2014-01-01
The author, in a sociological way, describes and analyzes the concepts of transition, privatization and strikes in Serbia, particularly the place of women in it. It examines the most important economic and social causes and consequences of these phenomena. The main hypothesis is: women's strikes in the Serbian transition are less efficient than strikes and public protests of women in the developed world and the second Yugoslavia. A strike is a class conflict, in which the workers are fighting...
14 CFR 35.38 - Lightning strike.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lightning strike. 35.38 Section 35.38... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.38 Lightning strike. The applicant must demonstrate, by... lightning strike without causing a major or hazardous propeller effect. The limit to which the propeller has...
Geological Effects on Lightning Strike Distributions
Berdahl, J. Scott
2016-05-16
Recent advances in lightning detection networks allow for detailed mapping of lightning flash locations. Longstanding rumors of geological influence on cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning distribution and recent commercial claims based on such influence can now be tested empirically. If present, such influence could represent a new, cheap and efficient geophysical tool with applications in mineral, hydrothermal and oil exploration, regional geological mapping, and infrastructure planning. This project applies statistical analysis to lightning data collected by the United States National Lightning Detection Network from 2006 through 2015 in order to assess whether the huge range in electrical conductivities of geological materials plays a role in the spatial distribution of CG lightning. CG flash densities are mapped for twelve areas in the contiguous United States and compared to elevation and geology, as well as to the locations of faults, railroads and tall towers including wind turbines. Overall spatial randomness is assessed, along with spatial correlation of attributes. Negative and positive polarity lightning are considered separately and together. Topography and tower locations show a strong influence on CG distribution patterns. Geology, faults and railroads do not. This suggests that ground conductivity is not an important factor in determining lightning strike location on scales larger than current flash location accuracies, which are generally several hundred meters. Once a lightning channel is established, however, ground properties at the contact point may play a role in determining properties of the subsequent stroke.
Cheung, Roy T H; Wong, Rodney Y L; Chung, Tim K W; Choi, R T; Leung, Wendy W Y; Shek, Diana H Y
2017-06-01
Compared to competitive runners, recreational runners appear to be more prone to injuries, which have been associated with foot strike patterns. Surprisingly, only few studies had examined the foot strike patterns outside laboratories. Therefore, this study compared the foot strike patterns in recreational runners at outdoor tracks with previously reported data. We also investigated the relationship between foot strike pattern, speed, and footwear in this cohort. Among 434 recreational runners analysed, 89.6% of them landed with rearfoot strike (RFS). Only 6.9 and 3.5% landed with midfoot and forefoot, respectively. A significant shift towards non-RFS was observed in our cohort, when compared with previously reported data. When speed increased by 1 m/s, the odds of having forefoot strike and midfoot strike relative to RFS increased by 2.3 times and 2.6 times, respectively. Runners were 9.2 times more likely to run with a forefoot strike in minimalists compared to regular running shoes, although 70% of runners in minimalists continued to use a RFS. These findings suggest that foot strike pattern may differ across running conditions and runners should consider these factors in order to mitigate potential injury.
Preemptive strikes: Fear, hope, and defensive aggression.
Halevy, Nir
2017-02-01
Preemptive strikes are costly and harmful. Existing models of defensive aggression focus narrowly on the role fear plays in motivating preemptive strikes. Theoretically integrating the literatures on conflict, decision making, and emotion, the current research investigated how specific emotions associated with certainty or uncertainty, including fear, anger, disgust, hope, and happiness, influence preemptive strikes. Study 1 demonstrated that hope negatively predicts defensive exits from relationships in choice dilemmas. Studies 2 and 3 experimentally manipulated risk of being attacked in an incentivized, interactive decision making task-the Preemptive Strike Game. Risk of being attacked fueled preemptive strikes; reduced feelings of hope partially mediated this effect in Study 3. Studies 4 and 5 investigated preemptive strikes under uncertainty (rather than risk). In Study 4, reasoning about the factors that make one trustful of others curbed preemptive strikes; cogitating about the factors that underlie discrete emotions, however, did not influence defensive aggression. Study 5 demonstrated that the valence and uncertainty appraisals of incidental emotions interact in shaping preemptive strikes. Specifically, recalling an autobiographical emotional experience that produced hope significantly decreased attack rates relative to fear, happiness, and a control condition. Fear, anger, disgust, and happiness were either unrelated to preemptive strikes or showed inconsistent relationships with preemptive strikes across the 5 studies. These findings shed light on how emotions shape defensive aggression, advance knowledge on strategic choice under risk and uncertainty, and demonstrate hope's positive effects on social interactions and relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
van Dam, Edwin R.; Koolen, Jack H.; Tanaka, Hajime
2016-01-01
This is a survey of distance-regular graphs. We present an introduction to distance-regular graphs for the reader who is unfamiliar with the subject, and then give an overview of some developments in the area of distance-regular graphs since the monograph 'BCN'[Brouwer, A.E., Cohen, A.M., Neumaier,
Nijholt, Antinus
1980-01-01
Culik II and Cogen introduced the class of LR-regular grammars, an extension of the LR(k) grammars. In this paper we consider an analogous extension of the LL(k) grammars called the LL-regular grammars. The relation of this class of grammars to other classes of grammars will be shown. Any LL-regular
Regular Expression Pocket Reference
Stubblebine, Tony
2007-01-01
This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp
Estimating the Impact of Bird Strikes
Metz, I.C.; Muhlhausen, Thorsten; Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.
2018-01-01
Bird strikes have the potential to cause severe damage to aircraft. Therefore, measures to reduce the risk of bird strikes are performed at airports. However, this risk is not limited to the airport but is increased in the arrival and departure corridors as well. Consequently, a significant amount
Option Strike Price and Managerial Investment Decisions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘鸿雁; 张维
2003-01-01
The manager′s investment decisions is modeled when the manager is risk-averse and has stock options as compensation. It is found that the strike price of options is crucial to the investment incentives of managers, and that the correct value, or interval of values, of managerial stock option strike price can bring stockholder and manager interests in agreement.
Regularization by External Variables
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bossolini, Elena; Edwards, R.; Glendinning, P. A.
2016-01-01
Regularization was a big topic at the 2016 CRM Intensive Research Program on Advances in Nonsmooth Dynamics. There are many open questions concerning well known kinds of regularization (e.g., by smoothing or hysteresis). Here, we propose a framework for an alternative and important kind of regula......Regularization was a big topic at the 2016 CRM Intensive Research Program on Advances in Nonsmooth Dynamics. There are many open questions concerning well known kinds of regularization (e.g., by smoothing or hysteresis). Here, we propose a framework for an alternative and important kind...
Goyvaerts, Jan
2009-01-01
This cookbook provides more than 100 recipes to help you crunch data and manipulate text with regular expressions. Every programmer can find uses for regular expressions, but their power doesn't come worry-free. Even seasoned users often suffer from poor performance, false positives, false negatives, or perplexing bugs. Regular Expressions Cookbook offers step-by-step instructions for some of the most common tasks involving this tool, with recipes for C#, Java, JavaScript, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby, and VB.NET. With this book, you will: Understand the basics of regular expressions through a
Lightning Strike in Pregnancy With Fetal Injury.
Galster, Kellen; Hodnick, Ryan; Berkeley, Ross P
2016-06-01
Injuries from lightning strikes are an infrequent occurrence, and are only rarely noted to involve pregnant victims. Only 13 cases of lightning strike in pregnancy have been previously described in the medical literature, along with 7 additional cases discovered within news media reports. This case report presents a novel case of lightning-associated injury in a patient in the third trimester of pregnancy, resulting in fetal ischemic brain injury and long-term morbidity, and reviews the mechanics of lightning strikes along with common injury patterns of which emergency providers should be aware. Copyright © 2016 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Regularities of Multifractal Measures
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
First, we prove the decomposition theorem for the regularities of multifractal Hausdorff measure and packing measure in R R d . This decomposition theorem enables us to split a set into regular and irregular parts, so that we can analyze each separately, and recombine them without affecting density properties. Next, we ...
Stochastic analytic regularization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alfaro, J.
1984-07-01
Stochastic regularization is reexamined, pointing out a restriction on its use due to a new type of divergence which is not present in the unregulated theory. Furthermore, we introduce a new form of stochastic regularization which permits the use of a minimal subtraction scheme to define the renormalized Green functions. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Khair, Tabish
2017-01-01
Review of 'Inglorious Empire: What the British did to India' by Shashi Tharoor, London, Hurst Publishers, 2017, 296 pp., £20.00......Review of 'Inglorious Empire: What the British did to India' by Shashi Tharoor, London, Hurst Publishers, 2017, 296 pp., £20.00...
Expeditionary Strike Group: Command Structure Design Support
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Hutchins, Susan G; Kemple, William G; Kleinman, David L; Hocevar, Susan P
2005-01-01
An Expeditionary Strike Group (ESG) is a new capability mix that combines the combat power of three surface combatants and one submarine with an Amphibious Readiness Group/ Marine Expeditionary Unit...
Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone
... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table ... from all walks of life are affected by hepatitis, especially hepatitis C, the most common form of ...
Collective Labor Disputes and Strikes in Russia: The Impact of Judicial Precedents and Enforcement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elena Gerasimova
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The right to strike is recognized in the Constitution and the Labor Code of the Russian Federation as a means to resolve collective labor disputes. However, in Russia labor protests come up for discussion much more frequently than strikes. In recent years the number of labor protests in Russia, including various forms of work stoppage, has increased significantly compared to previous years, but the number of legally constituted collective labor disputes and strikes has remained very low. The legislation on resolution of collective labor disputes and mounting strikes is quite restrictive in Russia, and its enforcement also encourages employees to seek alternative ways to settle collective labor conflicts. There is little empirical research on the judicial implementation of these norms and its influence on the enforcement of legislation. Therefore, this paper analyses the reasoning of courts in cases on the legality of strikes, their interpretations of the law, and the impact these decisions have on the enforcement of the legislation on resolution of collective labor disputes and strikes. Our conclusion is that the courts act as another restrictive influence on the resolution of collective labor disputes and the exercise of the right to strike in Russia.
Sparse structure regularized ranking
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Sun, Yijun; Gao, Xin
2014-01-01
Learning ranking scores is critical for the multimedia database retrieval problem. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking score learning algorithm by exploring the sparse structure and using it to regularize ranking scores. To explore the sparse
Regular expression containment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henglein, Fritz; Nielsen, Lasse
2011-01-01
We present a new sound and complete axiomatization of regular expression containment. It consists of the conventional axiomatiza- tion of concatenation, alternation, empty set and (the singleton set containing) the empty string as an idempotent semiring, the fixed- point rule E* = 1 + E × E......* for Kleene-star, and a general coin- duction rule as the only additional rule. Our axiomatization gives rise to a natural computational inter- pretation of regular expressions as simple types that represent parse trees, and of containment proofs as coercions. This gives the axiom- atization a Curry......-Howard-style constructive interpretation: Con- tainment proofs do not only certify a language-theoretic contain- ment, but, under our computational interpretation, constructively transform a membership proof of a string in one regular expres- sion into a membership proof of the same string in another regular expression. We...
Supersymmetric dimensional regularization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siegel, W.; Townsend, P.K.; van Nieuwenhuizen, P.
1980-01-01
There is a simple modification of dimension regularization which preserves supersymmetry: dimensional reduction to real D < 4, followed by analytic continuation to complex D. In terms of component fields, this means fixing the ranges of all indices on the fields (and therefore the numbers of Fermi and Bose components). For superfields, it means continuing in the dimensionality of x-space while fixing the dimensionality of theta-space. This regularization procedure allows the simple manipulation of spinor derivatives in supergraph calculations. The resulting rules are: (1) First do all algebra exactly as in D = 4; (2) Then do the momentum integrals as in ordinary dimensional regularization. This regularization procedure needs extra rules before one can say that it is consistent. Such extra rules needed for superconformal anomalies are discussed. Problems associated with renormalizability and higher order loops are also discussed
Regularized maximum correntropy machine
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yunji; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin
2015-01-01
In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.
Regularized maximum correntropy machine
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2015-02-12
In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.
Women, transition and strikes in Serbia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Novaković Nada G.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The author, in a sociological way, describes and analyzes the concepts of transition, privatization and strikes in Serbia, particularly the place of women in it. It examines the most important economic and social causes and consequences of these phenomena. The main hypothesis is: women's strikes in the Serbian transition are less efficient than strikes and public protests of women in the developed world and the second Yugoslavia. A strike is a class conflict, in which the workers are fighting for their social and economic rights, threatened by the capitalist class. Elites in government and state authorities protect the interests of big capital at the detriment of the interests of the majority of workers. Exploring women's strikes in transition reveals the nature of the social and political system. Their strikes in enterprises, the blocking of public spaces and public protests are systemic, ie. class determined. As the transition was very fast, the resistance of the strikers was inefficient, and the protests of women became an expression of desperation against the loss of jobs and basic resources for lifehood. In short, this research is about the main causes, the organizational forms and the consequences of strikes in which the majority were women. For this purpose, the author chose to describe an array of strikes in the industries and the companies where women are most employed. The choice of strikes in the economic sector is not accidental, but a consequence of the fact that the women there were the most vulnerable. Women in public institutions and companies had much higher financial and social position. They are less likely to strike and publicly protested. After 2000, these strikes were more successful than worker's strikes in textile, food processing, manufacturing and trade. Relationship between the government and the public towards them was tainted by self-interest and selective. The main criterion for the selection of companies and
When Push Comes to Shove: Strikes in Higher Education.
Magney, John
2002-01-01
To provide a better sense of how academic unions handle a strike situation, examines six unions who, between 1996 and 2000, went through strikes. Discusses the key issues and outcomes of the strikes. (EV)
Owen, Art B
2001-01-01
Empirical likelihood provides inferences whose validity does not depend on specifying a parametric model for the data. Because it uses a likelihood, the method has certain inherent advantages over resampling methods: it uses the data to determine the shape of the confidence regions, and it makes it easy to combined data from multiple sources. It also facilitates incorporating side information, and it simplifies accounting for censored, truncated, or biased sampling.One of the first books published on the subject, Empirical Likelihood offers an in-depth treatment of this method for constructing confidence regions and testing hypotheses. The author applies empirical likelihood to a range of problems, from those as simple as setting a confidence region for a univariate mean under IID sampling, to problems defined through smooth functions of means, regression models, generalized linear models, estimating equations, or kernel smooths, and to sampling with non-identically distributed data. Abundant figures offer vi...
Manifold Regularized Reinforcement Learning.
Li, Hongliang; Liu, Derong; Wang, Ding
2018-04-01
This paper introduces a novel manifold regularized reinforcement learning scheme for continuous Markov decision processes. Smooth feature representations for value function approximation can be automatically learned using the unsupervised manifold regularization method. The learned features are data-driven, and can be adapted to the geometry of the state space. Furthermore, the scheme provides a direct basis representation extension for novel samples during policy learning and control. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated on two benchmark control tasks, i.e., the inverted pendulum and the energy storage problem. Simulation results illustrate the concepts of the proposed scheme and show that it can obtain excellent performance.
Lightning Strike Induced Damage Mechanisms of Carbon Fiber Composites
Kawakami, Hirohide
Composite materials have a wide application in aerospace, automotive, and other transportation industries, because of the superior structural and weight performances. Since carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites possess a much lower electrical conductivity as compared to traditional metallic materials utilized for aircraft structures, serious concern about damage resistance/tolerance against lightning has been rising. Main task of this study is to clarify the lightning damage mechanism of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy polymer composites to help further development of lightning strike protection. The research on lightning damage to carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites is quite challenging, and there has been little study available until now. In order to tackle this issue, building block approach was employed. The research was started with the development of supporting technologies such as a current impulse generator to simulate a lightning strike in a laboratory. Then, fundamental electrical properties and fracture behavior of CFRPs exposed to high and low level current impulse were investigated using simple coupon specimens, followed by extensive parametric investigations in terms of different prepreg materials frequently used in aerospace industry, various stacking sequences, different lightning intensity, and lightning current waveforms. It revealed that the thermal resistance capability of polymer matrix was one of the most influential parameters on lightning damage resistance of CFRPs. Based on the experimental findings, the semi-empirical analysis model for predicting the extent of lightning damage was established. The model was fitted through experimental data to determine empirical parameters and, then, showed a good capability to provide reliable predictions for other test conditions and materials. Finally, structural element level lightning tests were performed to explore more practical situations. Specifically, filled-hole CFRP plates and patch
Impact of lightning strikes on hospital functions.
Mortelmans, Luc J M; Van Springel, Gert L J; Van Boxstael, Sam; Herrijgers, Jan; Hoflacks, Stefaan
2009-01-01
Two regional hospitals were struck by lightning during a one-month period. The first hospital, which had 236 beds, suffered a direct strike to the building. This resulted in a direct spread of the power peak and temporary failure of the standard power supply. The principle problems, after restoring standard power supply, were with the fire alarm system and peripheral network connections in the digital radiology systems. No direct impact on the hardware could be found. Restarting the servers resolved all problems. The second hospital, which had 436 beds, had a lightning strike on the premises and mainly experienced problems due to induction. All affected installations had a cable connection from outside in one way or another. The power supplies never were endangered. The main problem was the failure of different communication systems (telephone, radio, intercom, fire alarm system). Also, the electronic entrance control went out. During the days after the lightening strike, multiple software problems became apparent, as well as failures of the network connections controlling the technical support systems. There are very few ways to prepare for induction problems. The use of fiber-optic networks can limit damage. To the knowledge of the authors, these are the first cases of lightning striking hospitals in medical literature.
Diverse Regular Employees and Non-regular Employment (Japanese)
MORISHIMA Motohiro
2011-01-01
Currently there are high expectations for the introduction of policies related to diverse regular employees. These policies are a response to the problem of disparities between regular and non-regular employees (part-time, temporary, contract and other non-regular employees) and will make it more likely that workers can balance work and their private lives while companies benefit from the advantages of regular employment. In this paper, I look at two issues that underlie this discussion. The ...
Sparse structure regularized ranking
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2014-04-17
Learning ranking scores is critical for the multimedia database retrieval problem. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking score learning algorithm by exploring the sparse structure and using it to regularize ranking scores. To explore the sparse structure, we assume that each multimedia object could be represented as a sparse linear combination of all other objects, and combination coefficients are regarded as a similarity measure between objects and used to regularize their ranking scores. Moreover, we propose to learn the sparse combination coefficients and the ranking scores simultaneously. A unified objective function is constructed with regard to both the combination coefficients and the ranking scores, and is optimized by an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two multimedia database retrieval data sets demonstrate the significant improvements of the propose algorithm over state-of-the-art ranking score learning algorithms.
'Regular' and 'emergency' repair
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luchnik, N.V.
1975-01-01
Experiments on the combined action of radiation and a DNA inhibitor using Crepis roots and on split-dose irradiation of human lymphocytes lead to the conclusion that there are two types of repair. The 'regular' repair takes place twice in each mitotic cycle and ensures the maintenance of genetic stability. The 'emergency' repair is induced at all stages of the mitotic cycle by high levels of injury. (author)
Regularization of divergent integrals
Felder, Giovanni; Kazhdan, David
2016-01-01
We study the Hadamard finite part of divergent integrals of differential forms with singularities on submanifolds. We give formulae for the dependence of the finite part on the choice of regularization and express them in terms of a suitable local residue map. The cases where the submanifold is a complex hypersurface in a complex manifold and where it is a boundary component of a manifold with boundary, arising in string perturbation theory, are treated in more detail.
Regularizing portfolio optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Still, Susanne; Kondor, Imre
2010-01-01
The optimization of large portfolios displays an inherent instability due to estimation error. This poses a fundamental problem, because solutions that are not stable under sample fluctuations may look optimal for a given sample, but are, in effect, very far from optimal with respect to the average risk. In this paper, we approach the problem from the point of view of statistical learning theory. The occurrence of the instability is intimately related to over-fitting, which can be avoided using known regularization methods. We show how regularized portfolio optimization with the expected shortfall as a risk measure is related to support vector regression. The budget constraint dictates a modification. We present the resulting optimization problem and discuss the solution. The L2 norm of the weight vector is used as a regularizer, which corresponds to a diversification 'pressure'. This means that diversification, besides counteracting downward fluctuations in some assets by upward fluctuations in others, is also crucial because it improves the stability of the solution. The approach we provide here allows for the simultaneous treatment of optimization and diversification in one framework that enables the investor to trade off between the two, depending on the size of the available dataset.
Regularizing portfolio optimization
Still, Susanne; Kondor, Imre
2010-07-01
The optimization of large portfolios displays an inherent instability due to estimation error. This poses a fundamental problem, because solutions that are not stable under sample fluctuations may look optimal for a given sample, but are, in effect, very far from optimal with respect to the average risk. In this paper, we approach the problem from the point of view of statistical learning theory. The occurrence of the instability is intimately related to over-fitting, which can be avoided using known regularization methods. We show how regularized portfolio optimization with the expected shortfall as a risk measure is related to support vector regression. The budget constraint dictates a modification. We present the resulting optimization problem and discuss the solution. The L2 norm of the weight vector is used as a regularizer, which corresponds to a diversification 'pressure'. This means that diversification, besides counteracting downward fluctuations in some assets by upward fluctuations in others, is also crucial because it improves the stability of the solution. The approach we provide here allows for the simultaneous treatment of optimization and diversification in one framework that enables the investor to trade off between the two, depending on the size of the available dataset.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peggs, S.; Talman, R.
1987-01-01
As proton accelerators get larger, and include more magnets, the conventional tracking programs which simulate them run slower. The purpose of this paper is to describe a method, still under development, in which element-by-element tracking around one turn is replaced by a single man, which can be processed far faster. It is assumed for this method that a conventional program exists which can perform faithful tracking in the lattice under study for some hundreds of turns, with all lattice parameters held constant. An empirical map is then generated by comparison with the tracking program. A procedure has been outlined for determining an empirical Hamiltonian, which can represent motion through many nonlinear kicks, by taking data from a conventional tracking program. Though derived by an approximate method this Hamiltonian is analytic in form and can be subjected to further analysis of varying degrees of mathematical rigor. Even though the empirical procedure has only been described in one transverse dimension, there is good reason to hope that it can be extended to include two transverse dimensions, so that it can become a more practical tool in realistic cases
Regular Single Valued Neutrosophic Hypergraphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Aslam Malik
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we define the regular and totally regular single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs, and discuss the order and size along with properties of regular and totally regular single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs. We also extend work on completeness of single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs.
The geometry of continuum regularization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halpern, M.B.
1987-03-01
This lecture is primarily an introduction to coordinate-invariant regularization, a recent advance in the continuum regularization program. In this context, the program is seen as fundamentally geometric, with all regularization contained in regularized DeWitt superstructures on field deformations
Central hyperadrenergic state after lightning strike.
Parsaik, Ajay K; Ahlskog, J Eric; Singer, Wolfgang; Gelfman, Russell; Sheldon, Seth H; Seime, Richard J; Craft, Jennifer M; Staab, Jeffrey P; Kantor, Birgit; Low, Phillip A
2013-08-01
To describe and review autonomic complications of lightning strike. Case report and laboratory data including autonomic function tests in a subject who was struck by lightning. A 24-year-old man was struck by lightning. Following that, he developed dysautonomia, with persistent inappropriate sinus tachycardia and autonomic storms, as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and functional neurologic problems. The combination of persistent sinus tachycardia and episodic exacerbations associated with hypertension, diaphoresis, and agitation was highly suggestive of a central hyperadrenergic state with superimposed autonomic storms. Whether the additional PTSD and functional neurologic deficits were due to a direct effect of the lightning strike on the central nervous system or a secondary response is open to speculation.
["Bell-striking" Saying of Acupuncture Therapy].
Zhao, Jing-Sheng
2017-04-25
As an analogy, a prototype of "bell-striking" is proposed in the present paper for exploring the basic properties, major elements, and potential mechanisms of acupuncture stimulation. On the strength of analysis on the physiological basis of acupuncture effect, several fundamental aspects of acupuncture are summarized as a) the body-surface stimulating characters, b) general and local effects, and c) triggering the auto-regulative function of the organism, which mimics the "bell-striking" response. Namely, when stroke, bell will chime, otherwise, chiming will not be heard. During analyzing special contents of acupuncture theory, its formative background should not be separated, and it is improper to take, modern medical theory of the human body as the guiding thinking way for researching the ancient Chinese medical literature.
Proliferation of Precision Strike: Issues for Congress
2012-05-14
industrial base. Finally, should Congress legislate requirements for DOD to develop precision strike countermeasures and then provide funding for that...Defense, Part 187 – Environmental Effects Abroad of Major Department of Defense Actions, Section 187.3: Definitions. 32 Bryan Clark and Dan Whiteneck...so many missiles ... referring to reports of Venezuelan arms flowing to Colombian guerrillas.... The Chavez regime also has close ties with
Li, Shudong; Zhang, Yan; Gu, Yaodong; Ren, James
2017-12-01
Due to the limitations of experimental approaches, comparison of the internal deformation and stresses of the human man foot between forefoot and rearfoot landing is not fully established. The objective of this work is to develop an effective FE modelling approach to comparatively study the stresses and energy in the foot during forefoot strike (FS) and rearfoot strike (RS). The stress level and rate of stress increase in the Metatarsals are established and the injury risk between these two landing styles is evaluated and discussed. A detailed subject specific FE foot model is developed and validated. A hexahedral dominated meshing scheme was applied on the surface of the foot bones and skin. An explicit solver (Abaqus/Explicit) was used to stimulate the transient landing process. The deformation and internal energy of the foot and stresses in the metatarsals are comparatively investigated. The results for forefoot strike tests showed an overall higher average stress level in the metatarsals during the entire landing cycle than that for rearfoot strike. The increase rate of the metatarsal stress from the 0.5 body weight (BW) to 2 BW load point is 30.76% for forefoot strike and 21.39% for rearfoot strike. The maximum rate of stress increase among the five metatarsals is observed on the 1st metatarsal in both landing modes. The results indicate that high stress level during forefoot landing phase may increase potential of metatarsal injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gait Retraining From Rearfoot Strike to Forefoot Strike does not change Running Economy.
Roper, Jenevieve Lynn; Doerfler, Deborah; Kravitz, Len; Dufek, Janet S; Mermier, Christine
2017-12-01
Gait retraining is a method for management of patellofemoral pain, which is a common ailment among recreational runners. The present study investigated the effects of gait retraining from rearfoot strike to forefoot strike on running economy, heart rate, and respiratory exchange ratio immediately post-retraining and one-month post-retraining in recreational runners with patellofemoral pain. Knee pain was also measured. Sixteen participants (n=16) were randomly placed in the control (n=8) or experimental (n=8) group. A 10-minute treadmill RE test was performed by all subjects. The experimental group performed eight gait retraining running sessions where foot strike pattern was switched from rearfoot strike to forefoot strike, while the control group received no intervention. There were no significant differences for running economy (p=0.26), respiratory exchange ratio (p=0.258), or heart rate (p=0.248) between the groups. Knee pain reported on a visual analog scale was also significantly reduced (pstrike to forefoot strike did not affect running economy up to one-month post-retraining while reducing running-related patellofemoral pain. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Major earthquakes occur regularly on an isolated plate boundary fault.
Berryman, Kelvin R; Cochran, Ursula A; Clark, Kate J; Biasi, Glenn P; Langridge, Robert M; Villamor, Pilar
2012-06-29
The scarcity of long geological records of major earthquakes, on different types of faults, makes testing hypotheses of regular versus random or clustered earthquake recurrence behavior difficult. We provide a fault-proximal major earthquake record spanning 8000 years on the strike-slip Alpine Fault in New Zealand. Cyclic stratigraphy at Hokuri Creek suggests that the fault ruptured to the surface 24 times, and event ages yield a 0.33 coefficient of variation in recurrence interval. We associate this near-regular earthquake recurrence with a geometrically simple strike-slip fault, with high slip rate, accommodating a high proportion of plate boundary motion that works in isolation from other faults. We propose that it is valid to apply time-dependent earthquake recurrence models for seismic hazard estimation to similar faults worldwide.
Mathematical Modeling the Geometric Regularity in Proteus Mirabilis Colonies
Zhang, Bin; Jiang, Yi; Minsu Kim Collaboration
Proteus Mirabilis colony exhibits striking spatiotemporal regularity, with concentric ring patterns with alternative high and low bacteria density in space, and periodicity for repetition process of growth and swarm in time. We present a simple mathematical model to explain the spatiotemporal regularity of P. Mirabilis colonies. We study a one-dimensional system. Using a reaction-diffusion model with thresholds in cell density and nutrient concentration, we recreated periodic growth and spread patterns, suggesting that the nutrient constraint and cell density regulation might be sufficient to explain the spatiotemporal periodicity in P. Mirabilis colonies. We further verify this result using a cell based model.
Regularity of Minimal Surfaces
Dierkes, Ulrich; Tromba, Anthony J; Kuster, Albrecht
2010-01-01
"Regularity of Minimal Surfaces" begins with a survey of minimal surfaces with free boundaries. Following this, the basic results concerning the boundary behaviour of minimal surfaces and H-surfaces with fixed or free boundaries are studied. In particular, the asymptotic expansions at interior and boundary branch points are derived, leading to general Gauss-Bonnet formulas. Furthermore, gradient estimates and asymptotic expansions for minimal surfaces with only piecewise smooth boundaries are obtained. One of the main features of free boundary value problems for minimal surfaces is t
Regularities of radiation heredity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skakov, M.K.; Melikhov, V.D.
2001-01-01
One analyzed regularities of radiation heredity in metals and alloys. One made conclusion about thermodynamically irreversible changes in structure of materials under irradiation. One offers possible ways of heredity transmittance of radiation effects at high-temperature transformations in the materials. Phenomenon of radiation heredity may be turned to practical use to control structure of liquid metal and, respectively, structure of ingot via preliminary radiation treatment of charge. Concentration microheterogeneities in material defect structure induced by preliminary irradiation represent the genetic factor of radiation heredity [ru
Acute transient hemiparesis induced by lightning strike.
Rahmani, Seyed Hesam; Faridaalaee, Gholamreza; Jahangard, Samira
2015-07-01
According to data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,in the years from 1959 to 1994, lightning was responsible for more than 3000 deaths and nearly 10,000 casualties. The most important characteristic features of lightning injuries are multisystem involvement and widely variable severity. Lightning strikes are primarily a neurologic injury that affects all 3 components of the nervous system: central, autonomic,and peripheral. Neurologic complications of lightning strikes vary from transient benign symptoms to permanent disability. Many patients experience a temporary paralysis called keraunoparalysis. Here we reported a 22-year-old mountaineer man with complaining of left sided hemiparesis after being hit by a lightning strike in the mountain 3 hours ago. There was no loss of consciousness at hitting time. On arrival the patient was alert, awake and hemodynamically stable. In neurologic examination cranial nerves were intact, left sided upper and lower extremity muscle force was I/V with a combination of complete sensory loss, and right-sided muscle force and sensory examination were normal. There is not any evidence of significant vascular impairment in the affected extremities. Brain MRI and CT scan and cervical MRI were normal. During 2 days of admission, with intravenous hydration, heparin 5000 unit SC q12hr and physical therapy of the affected limbs, motor and sensory function improved and was normal except mild paresthesia. He was discharged 1 day later for outpatient follow up while vitamin B1 100mg orally was prescribed.Paresthesia improved after 3 days without further sequels.
Foot-strike pattern and performance in a marathon.
Kasmer, Mark E; Liu, Xue-Cheng; Roberts, Kyle G; Valadao, Jason M
2013-05-01
To determine prevalence of heel strike in a midsize city marathon, if there is an association between foot-strike classification and race performance, and if there is an association between foot-strike classification and gender. Foot-strike classification (forefoot, midfoot, heel, or split strike), gender, and rank (position in race) were recorded at the 8.1-km mark for 2112 runners at the 2011 Milwaukee Lakefront Marathon. 1991 runners were classified by foot-strike pattern, revealing a heel-strike prevalence of 93.67% (n = 1865). A significant difference between foot-strike classification and performance was found using a Kruskal-Wallis test (P strike. No significant difference between foot-strike classification and gender was found using a Fisher exact test. In addition, subgroup analysis of the 126 non-heel strikers found no significant difference between shoe wear and performance using a Kruskal-Wallis test. The high prevalence of heel striking observed in this study reflects the foot-strike pattern of most mid-distance to long-distance runners and, more important, may predict their injury profile based on the biomechanics of a heel-strike running pattern. This knowledge can help clinicians appropriately diagnose, manage, and train modifications of injured runners.
2002 Bird Strike Committee USA/Canada Conference
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Dolbeer, Richard
2002-01-01
Over 380 people from 20 countries and 17 exhibitors attended the 4th annual joint meeting of Bird Strike Committee-USA and Bird Strike Committee Canada in Sacramento, California on October 21-24, 2002...
effect of strikes on management and planning of educational ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Global Journal
Strike is an event that consumes and waste a lot of time which implies that ... from this paper. KEYWORDS: Strikes, Management, Planning, Educational, Activities, Universities ..... employers; and Introduction of new technology which affect the ...
BIRD/WILDLIFE STRIKE CONTROL FOR SAFER AIR ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Osondu
2012-06-05
Jun 5, 2012 ... Keywords: bird/wildlife, strike, aviation, hazard, control. Introduction ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management EJESM Vol. 5 No. 3 2012 .... Aircraft Bird. Strike Avoidance Rader System (ABARS) and.
Strike-slip tectonics during rift linkage
Pagli, C.; Yun, S. H.; Ebinger, C.; Keir, D.; Wang, H.
2017-12-01
The kinematics of triple junction linkage and the initiation of transforms in magmatic rifts remain debated. Strain patterns from the Afar triple junction provide tests of current models of how rifts grow to link in area of incipient oceanic spreading. Here we present a combined analysis of seismicity, InSAR and GPS derived strain rate maps to reveal that the plate boundary deformation in Afar is accommodated primarily by extensional tectonics in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifts, and does not require large rotations about vertical axes (bookshelf faulting). Additionally, models of stress changes and seismicity induced by recent dykes in one sector of the Afar triple junction provide poor fit to the observed strike-slip earthquakes. Instead we explain these patterns as rift-perpendicular shearing at the tips of spreading rifts where extensional strains terminate against less stretched lithosphere. Our results demonstrate that rift-perpendicular strike-slip faulting between rift segments achieves plate boundary linkage during incipient seafloor spreading.
Effective field theory dimensional regularization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehmann, Dirk; Prezeau, Gary
2002-01-01
A Lorentz-covariant regularization scheme for effective field theories with an arbitrary number of propagating heavy and light particles is given. This regularization scheme leaves the low-energy analytic structure of Greens functions intact and preserves all the symmetries of the underlying Lagrangian. The power divergences of regularized loop integrals are controlled by the low-energy kinematic variables. Simple diagrammatic rules are derived for the regularization of arbitrary one-loop graphs and the generalization to higher loops is discussed
Effective field theory dimensional regularization
Lehmann, Dirk; Prézeau, Gary
2002-01-01
A Lorentz-covariant regularization scheme for effective field theories with an arbitrary number of propagating heavy and light particles is given. This regularization scheme leaves the low-energy analytic structure of Greens functions intact and preserves all the symmetries of the underlying Lagrangian. The power divergences of regularized loop integrals are controlled by the low-energy kinematic variables. Simple diagrammatic rules are derived for the regularization of arbitrary one-loop graphs and the generalization to higher loops is discussed.
Properties of Lightning Strike Protection Coatings
Gagne, Martin
Composite materials are being increasingly used by many industries. In the case of aerospace companies, those materials are installed on their aircraft to save weight, and thus, fuel costs. These aircraft are lighter, but the loss of electrical conductivity makes aircraft vulnerable to lightning strikes, which hit commercial aircrafts on average once per year. This makes lightning strike protection very important, and while current metallic expanded copper foils offer good protection, they increase the weight of composites. Therefore, under the CRIAQ COMP-502 project, a team of industrial partners and academic researchers are investigating new conductive coatings with the following characteristics: High electromagnetic protection, high mechanical resistance, good environmental protection, manufacturability and moderate cost. The main objectives of this thesis, as part of this project, was to determine the main characteristics, such as electrical and tribomechanical properties, of conductive coatings on composite panels. Their properties were also to be tested after destructive tests such as current injection and environmental testing. Bombardier Aerospace provided the substrate, a composite of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy matrix, and the current commercial product, a surfacing film that includes an expanded copper foil used to compare with the other coatings. The conductive coatings fabricated by the students are: silver nanoparticles inside a binding matrix (PEDOT:PSS or a mix of Epoxy and PEDOT:PSS), silvered carbon nanofibers embedded in the surfacing film, cold sprayed tin, graphene oxide functionalized with silver nanowires, and electroless plated silver. Additionally as part of the project and thesis, magnetron sputtered aluminum coated samples were fabricated. There are three main types of tests to characterize the conductive coatings: electrical, mechanical and environmental. Electrical tests consist of finding the sheet resistance and specific resistivity
2010-12-07
... FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Regular Meeting AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board. ACTION: Regular meeting. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). Date and Time: The meeting of the Board will be held...
Evaluating the Effects of a Bird Strike Advisory System
Metz, I.C.; Mühlhausen, T; Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.
2016-01-01
Bird strikes have operational impacts and cause economic loss to the aviation industry. In the worst case, the damages resulting from bird strikes lead to crashes. The highest risk for bird strikes lies in the area below 3000 ft and thus mainly in airport environments. Despite intense efforts from
effects of strike cost on economic development in nigeria
African Journals Online (AJOL)
USER
same firm, in other firms even in other industries (Kempner, 1980). For example ... The main purpose of this paper is to examine the strike cost and productivity in. Nigeria. ... Obnoxious Policies: Workers do go on strike when management makes obnoxious ... ASUU had to go on strike; the FGN had rescinded the decision.
Optimal behaviour can violate the principle of regularity.
Trimmer, Pete C
2013-07-22
Understanding decisions is a fundamental aim of behavioural ecology, psychology and economics. The regularity axiom of utility theory holds that a preference between options should be maintained when other options are made available. Empirical studies have shown that animals violate regularity but this has not been understood from a theoretical perspective, such decisions have therefore been labelled as irrational. Here, I use models of state-dependent behaviour to demonstrate that choices can violate regularity even when behavioural strategies are optimal. I also show that the range of conditions over which regularity should be violated can be larger when options do not always persist into the future. Consequently, utility theory--based on axioms, including transitivity, regularity and the independence of irrelevant alternatives--is undermined, because even alternatives that are never chosen by an animal (in its current state) can be relevant to a decision.
Selection of regularization parameter for l1-regularized damage detection
Hou, Rongrong; Xia, Yong; Bao, Yuequan; Zhou, Xiaoqing
2018-06-01
The l1 regularization technique has been developed for structural health monitoring and damage detection through employing the sparsity condition of structural damage. The regularization parameter, which controls the trade-off between data fidelity and solution size of the regularization problem, exerts a crucial effect on the solution. However, the l1 regularization problem has no closed-form solution, and the regularization parameter is usually selected by experience. This study proposes two strategies of selecting the regularization parameter for the l1-regularized damage detection problem. The first method utilizes the residual and solution norms of the optimization problem and ensures that they are both small. The other method is based on the discrepancy principle, which requires that the variance of the discrepancy between the calculated and measured responses is close to the variance of the measurement noise. The two methods are applied to a cantilever beam and a three-story frame. A range of the regularization parameter, rather than one single value, can be determined. When the regularization parameter in this range is selected, the damage can be accurately identified even for multiple damage scenarios. This range also indicates the sensitivity degree of the damage identification problem to the regularization parameter.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peggs, S.; Talman, R.
1986-08-01
As proton accelerators get larger, and include more magnets, the conventional tracking programs which simulate them run slower. At the same time, in order to more carefully optimize the higher cost of the accelerators, they must return more accurate results, even in the presence of a longer list of realistic effects, such as magnet errors and misalignments. For these reasons conventional tracking programs continue to be computationally bound, despite the continually increasing computing power available. This limitation is especially severe for a class of problems in which some lattice parameter is slowly varying, when a faithful description is only obtained by tracking for an exceedingly large number of turns. Examples are synchrotron oscillations in which the energy varies slowly with a period of, say, hundreds of turns, or magnet ripple or noise on a comparably slow time scale. In these cases one may with to track for hundreds of periods of the slowly varying parameter. The purpose of this paper is to describe a method, still under development, in which element-by-element tracking around one turn is replaced by a single map, which can be processed far faster. Similar programs have already been written in which successive elements are ''concatenated'' with truncation to linear, sextupole, or octupole order, et cetera, using Lie algebraic techniques to preserve symplecticity. The method described here is rather more empirical than this but, in principle, contains information to all orders and is able to handle resonances in a more straightforward fashion
Forward to the Past: Strikes and Striking as Dialogue by other ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In Nigeria, from the colonial period to the present, the employment of strikes and protests by nationalists, Nigerian workers and civil society groups has been established as one of the potent means of conveying viewpoints, positions as well as the demand for equality, fairness, social justice and reforms. It has been used as ...
Ensemble manifold regularization.
Geng, Bo; Tao, Dacheng; Xu, Chao; Yang, Linjun; Hua, Xian-Sheng
2012-06-01
We propose an automatic approximation of the intrinsic manifold for general semi-supervised learning (SSL) problems. Unfortunately, it is not trivial to define an optimization function to obtain optimal hyperparameters. Usually, cross validation is applied, but it does not necessarily scale up. Other problems derive from the suboptimality incurred by discrete grid search and the overfitting. Therefore, we develop an ensemble manifold regularization (EMR) framework to approximate the intrinsic manifold by combining several initial guesses. Algorithmically, we designed EMR carefully so it 1) learns both the composite manifold and the semi-supervised learner jointly, 2) is fully automatic for learning the intrinsic manifold hyperparameters implicitly, 3) is conditionally optimal for intrinsic manifold approximation under a mild and reasonable assumption, and 4) is scalable for a large number of candidate manifold hyperparameters, from both time and space perspectives. Furthermore, we prove the convergence property of EMR to the deterministic matrix at rate root-n. Extensive experiments over both synthetic and real data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.
A bird strike handbook for base-level managers
Payson, R. P.; Vance, J. D.
1984-09-01
To help develop more awareness about bird strikes and bird strike reduction techniques, this thesis compiled all relevant information through an extensive literature search, review of base-level documents, and personal interviews. The final product--A Bird Strike Handbook for Base-Level Managers--provides information on bird strike statistics, methods to reduce the strike hazards, and means to obtain additional assistance. The handbook is organized for use by six major base agencies: Maintenance, Civil Engineering, Operations, Air Field Management, Safety, and Air Traffic Control. An appendix follows at the end.
Strikes and solidarity: coalfield conflict in Britain, 1889-1966
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roy Church; Quentin Outram [University of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom)
2002-05-01
This book investigates the history of strike activity in the British coal mining industry, a byword for industrial militancy since the late nineteenth century. Contents: 1. Interpreting coalfield conflict: focus and formulations; 2. Tradition and modernity: the mining industry 1889-1940; 3. Employers and workers: organizations and strategies; 4. Employers and workers: ideologies, attitudes and political orientations; 5. Configurations of strike activity; 6. Strike participation and solidarity before 1912; 7. Strikes, organization and consciousness in 1912 and after; 8. Conflictual context? The 'isolated mass' revisited; 9. Mining and modernity: size, sectionalism and solidarity; 10. The foundations of strike propensity; 11. Miners and management: agency and action; 12. Industrial relations and strikes after nationalization; 13. International perspectives; 14. Myths and realities: strikes, solidarity and 'militant miners'.
Electromiographic and kinematic characteristics of Kung Fu Yau-Man palm strike.
Neto, O P; Magini, Marcio
2008-12-01
A kinematic and electromyographic analysis of Kung Fu (KF) Yau-Man palm strikes without impact is presented. An empirical model applied to data obtained by a high-speed camera describes the kinematic characteristics of the movement. The electromyographic patterns of the biceps brachii, brachioradialis and triceps brachii muscles were studied during the strike in the time (root mean square) and frequency (wavelet transform) domains. Eight KF practitioners participated in the investigation. A wooden board was placed in front of the subjects, and they were asked to perform the strike imagining a target above the board. The results show that the Yau-Man KF palm strike has very similar kinematic characteristics to a simple moderate speed elbow extension movement. All practitioners positioned themselves in relation to the wooden board in a way to achieve their highest hand speeds in the instant their hands crossed the board. The analyses of the electromyography data shows a well developed muscle coordination of the practitioners in agreement with kinematic results. The results of this paper are important not only for improving the performance of practitioners but also to demonstrate the applicability of KF in the process of motor control development.
Adaptive Regularization of Neural Classifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Lars Nonboe; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai
1997-01-01
We present a regularization scheme which iteratively adapts the regularization parameters by minimizing the validation error. It is suggested to use the adaptive regularization scheme in conjunction with optimal brain damage pruning to optimize the architecture and to avoid overfitting. Furthermo......, we propose an improved neural classification architecture eliminating an inherent redundancy in the widely used SoftMax classification network. Numerical results demonstrate the viability of the method...
Preventive strike vs. false targets and protection in defense strategy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levitin, Gregory; Hausken, Kjell
2011-01-01
A defender allocates its resource between defending an object passively and striking preventively against an attacker seeking to destroy the object. With no preventive strike the defender distributes its entire resource between deploying false targets, which the attacker cannot distinguish from the genuine object, and protecting the object. If the defender strikes preventively, the attacker's vulnerability depends on its protection and on the defender's resource allocated to the strike. If the attacker survives, the object's vulnerability depends on the attacker's revenge attack resource allocated to the attacked object. The optimal defense resource distribution between striking preventively, deploying the false targets and protecting the object is analyzed. Two cases of the attacker strategy are considered: when the attacker attacks all of the targets and when it chooses a number of targets to attack. An optimization model is presented for making a decision about the efficiency of the preventive strike based on the estimated attack probability, dependent on a variety of model parameters.
2010-09-02
... FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Regular Meeting AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). DATE AND TIME: The meeting of the Board will be held at the offices of the Farm...
Online co-regularized algorithms
Ruijter, T. de; Tsivtsivadze, E.; Heskes, T.
2012-01-01
We propose an online co-regularized learning algorithm for classification and regression tasks. We demonstrate that by sequentially co-regularizing prediction functions on unlabeled data points, our algorithm provides improved performance in comparison to supervised methods on several UCI benchmarks
Children on hunger strike: child abuse or legitimate protest?
Mok, A.; Nelson, E. A.; Murphy, J.; Hampson, A.; Hendriks, J. H.
1996-01-01
The issue of children on hunger strike (voluntary total fasting) has not been reported before. The World Medical Association Declaration of Tokyo 1975 and the Declaration of Malta 1991 (revised 1992) provide clinicians with guidelines for the management of adult patients on hunger strike but do not mention children. We report the management of 14 Vietnamese children, aged 1 to 12 years, who took part in a hunger strike at a refugee detention centre in Hong Kong.
The effect of hand dominance on martial arts strikes.
Neto, Osmar Pinto; Silva, Jansen Henrique; Marzullo, Ana Carolina de Miranda; Bolander, Richard P; Bir, Cynthia A
2012-08-01
The main goal of this study was to compare dominant and non-dominant martial arts palm strikes under different circumstances that usually happen during martial arts and combative sports applications. Seven highly experienced (10±5 years) right hand dominant Kung Fu practitioners performed strikes with both hands, stances with left or right lead legs, and with the possibility or not of stepping towards the target (moving stance). Peak force was greater for the dominant hand strikes (1593.76±703.45 N vs. 1042.28±374.16 N; p<.001), whereas no difference was found in accuracy between the hands (p=.141). Additionally, peak force was greater for the strikes with moving stance (1448.75±686.01 N vs. 1201.80±547.98 N; p=.002) and left lead leg stance (1378.06±705.48 N vs. 1269.96±547.08 N). Furthermore, the difference in peak force between strikes with moving and stationary stances was statistically significant only for the strikes performed with a left lead leg stance (p=.007). Hand speed was higher for the dominant hand strikes (5.82±1.08 m/s vs. 5.24±0.78 m/s; p=.001) and for the strikes with moving stance (5.79±1.01 m/s vs. 5.29±0.90 m/s; p<.001). The difference in hand speed between right and left hand strikes was only significant for strikes with moving stance. In summary, our results suggest that the stronger palm strike for a right-handed practitioner is a right hand strike on a left lead leg stance moving towards the target. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Foot strike patterns after obstacle clearance during running.
Scholten, Shane D; Stergiou, Nicholas; Hreljac, Alan; Houser, Jeremy; Blanke, Daniel; Alberts, L Russell
2002-01-01
Running over obstacles of sufficient height requires heel strike (HS) runners to make a transition in landing strategy to a forefoot (FF) strike, resulting in similar ground reaction force patterns to those observed while landing from a jump. Identification of the biomechanical variables that distinguish between the landing strategies may offer some insight into the reasons that the transition occurs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in foot strike patterns and kinetic parameters of heel strike runners between level running and running over obstacles of various heights. Ten heel strike subjects ran at their self-selected pace under seven different conditions: unperturbed running (no obstacle) and over obstacles of six different heights (10%, 12.5%, 15%, 17.5%, 20%, and 22.5% of their standing height). The obstacle was placed directly before a Kistler force platform. Repeated measures ANOVAs were performed on the subject means of selected kinetic parameters. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences (P strike patterns were affected by the increased obstacle height. Between the 12.5% and 15% obstacle conditions, the group response changed from a heel strike to a forefoot strike pattern. At height > 15%, the pattern was more closely related to the foot strike patterns found in jumping activities. This strategy change may represent a gait transition effected as a mechanism to protect against increased impact forces. Greater involvement of the ankle and the calf muscles could have assisted in attenuating the increased impact forces while maintaining speed after clearing the obstacle.
Debunking the viper's strike: harmless snakes kill a common assumption.
Penning, David A; Sawvel, Baxter; Moon, Brad R
2016-03-01
To survive, organisms must avoid predation and acquire nutrients and energy. Sensory systems must correctly differentiate between potential predators and prey, and elicit behaviours that adjust distances accordingly. For snakes, strikes can serve both purposes. Vipers are thought to have the fastest strikes among snakes. However, strike performance has been measured in very few species, especially non-vipers. We measured defensive strike performance in harmless Texas ratsnakes and two species of vipers, western cottonmouths and western diamond-backed rattlesnakes, using high-speed video recordings. We show that ratsnake strike performance matches or exceeds that of vipers. In contrast with the literature over the past century, vipers do not represent the pinnacle of strike performance in snakes. Both harmless and venomous snakes can strike with very high accelerations that have two key consequences: the accelerations exceed values that can cause loss of consciousness in other animals, such as the accelerations experienced by jet pilots during extreme manoeuvres, and they make the strikes faster than the sensory and motor responses of mammalian prey and predators. Both harmless and venomous snakes can strike faster than the blink of an eye and often reach a target before it can move. © 2016 The Author(s).
A decade of U.S. Air Force bat strikes
Peurach, Suzanne C.; Dove, Carla J.; Stepko, Laura
2009-01-01
From 1997 through 2007, 821 bat strikes were reported to the U.S. Air Force (USAF) Safety Center by aircraft personnel or ground crew and sent to the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, for identification. Many samples were identified by macroscopic and or microscopic comparisons with bat specimens housed in the museum and augmented during the last 2 years by DNA analysis. Bat remains from USAF strikes during this period were received at the museum from 40 states in the United States and from 20 countries. We confirmed that 46% of the strikes were caused by bats, but we did not identify them further; we identified 5% only to the family or genus level, and 49% to the species level. Fifty-five of the 101 bat-strike samples submitted for DNA analysis have been identified to the species level. Twenty-five bat species have been recorded striking USAF planes worldwide. The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis; n = 173) is the species most commonly identified in USAF strike impacts, followed by the red bat (Lasiurus borealis; n = 83). Bat strikes peak during the spring and fall, with >57% occurring from August through October; 82% of the reports that included time of strike were recorded between 2100 and 0900 hours. More than 12% of the bat strikes were reported at >300 m above ground level (AGL). Although $825,000 and >50% of this sum was attributable to 5 bat-strike incidents. Only 5 bats from the 10 most damaging bat strikes were identified to the species level, either because we did not receive remains with the reports or the sample was insufficient for identification.
Continuum-regularized quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan Huesum; Halpern, M.B.
1987-01-01
The recent continuum regularization of d-dimensional Euclidean gravity is generalized to arbitrary power-law measure and studied in some detail as a representative example of coordinate-invariant regularization. The weak-coupling expansion of the theory illustrates a generic geometrization of regularized Schwinger-Dyson rules, generalizing previous rules in flat space and flat superspace. The rules are applied in a non-trivial explicit check of Einstein invariance at one loop: the cosmological counterterm is computed and its contribution is included in a verification that the graviton mass is zero. (orig.)
Learning regularization parameters for general-form Tikhonov
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, Julianne; Español, Malena I
2017-01-01
Computing regularization parameters for general-form Tikhonov regularization can be an expensive and difficult task, especially if multiple parameters or many solutions need to be computed in real time. In this work, we assume training data is available and describe an efficient learning approach for computing regularization parameters that can be used for a large set of problems. We consider an empirical Bayes risk minimization framework for finding regularization parameters that minimize average errors for the training data. We first extend methods from Chung et al (2011 SIAM J. Sci. Comput. 33 3132–52) to the general-form Tikhonov problem. Then we develop a learning approach for multi-parameter Tikhonov problems, for the case where all involved matrices are simultaneously diagonalizable. For problems where this is not the case, we describe an approach to compute near-optimal regularization parameters by using operator approximations for the original problem. Finally, we propose a new class of regularizing filters, where solutions correspond to multi-parameter Tikhonov solutions, that requires less data than previously proposed optimal error filters, avoids the generalized SVD, and allows flexibility and novelty in the choice of regularization matrices. Numerical results for 1D and 2D examples using different norms on the errors show the effectiveness of our methods. (paper)
Martial arts striking hand peak acceleration, accuracy and consistency.
Neto, Osmar Pinto; Marzullo, Ana Carolina De Miranda; Bolander, Richard P; Bir, Cynthia A
2013-01-01
The goal of this paper was to investigate the possible trade-off between peak hand acceleration and accuracy and consistency of hand strikes performed by martial artists of different training experiences. Ten male martial artists with training experience ranging from one to nine years volunteered to participate in the experiment. Each participant performed 12 maximum effort goal-directed strikes. Hand acceleration during the strikes was obtained using a tri-axial accelerometer block. A pressure sensor matrix was used to determine the accuracy and consistency of the strikes. Accuracy was estimated by the radial distance between the centroid of each subject's 12 strikes and the target, whereas consistency was estimated by the square root of the 12 strikes mean squared distance from their centroid. We found that training experience was significantly correlated to hand peak acceleration prior to impact (r(2)=0.456, p =0.032) and accuracy (r(2)=0. 621, p=0.012). These correlations suggest that more experienced participants exhibited higher hand peak accelerations and at the same time were more accurate. Training experience, however, was not correlated to consistency (r(2)=0.085, p=0.413). Overall, our results suggest that martial arts training may lead practitioners to achieve higher striking hand accelerations with better accuracy and no change in striking consistency.
Orthotic intervention in forefoot and rearfoot strike running patterns.
Stackhouse, Carrie Laughton; Davis, Irene McClay; Hamill, Joseph
2004-01-01
To compare the differential effect of custom orthoses on the lower extremity mechanics of a forefoot and rearfoot strike pattern. Fifteen subjects ran with both a forefoot and a rearfoot strike pattern with and without orthoses. Lower extremity kinematic and kinetic variables were compared between strike pattern and orthotic conditions. Foot orthoses have been shown to be effective in controlling excessive rearfoot motion in rearfoot strikers. The effect of orthotic intervention on rearfoot motion in forefoot strikers has not been previously reported. Five trials were collected for each condition. Peak rearfoot eversion, eversion excursion, eversion velocity, peak inversion moment, and inversion work were compared between conditions. Kinematic variables in the sagittal plane of the rearfoot and in the frontal and sagittal plane of the knee were also determined. Increased rearfoot excursions and velocities and decreased peak eversion were noted in the forefoot strike pattern compared to the rearfoot strike pattern. Orthotic intervention, however,did not significantly change rearfoot motion in either strike pattern. Reductions in internal rotation and abduction of the knee were noted with orthotic intervention. Foot orthoses do not differentially effect rearfoot motion of a rearfoot strike and a forefoot strike running pattern. Orthotic intervention has a larger and more systematic effect on rearfoot kinetics compared to rearfoot kinematics.
Teaching Striking Skills in Elementary Physical Education Using Woodball
Chang, Seung Ho; Lee, Jihyun
2017-01-01
Object control (OC) skills are a part of fundamental motor skills and basic functional skills, which work as a prerequisite to becoming a skilled performer in many sports. Of various OC skills, striking is one of the most difficult to master due to a variety of interrelated movement components. A form of vertical or underarm striking is a more…
Strike kinematics and performance in juvenile ball pythons (Python regius).
Ryerson, William G; Tan, Weimin
2017-08-01
The rapid strike of snakes has interested researchers for decades. Although most work has focused on the strike performance of vipers, recent work has shown that other snakes outside of the Viperidae can strike with the same velocities and accelerations. However, to date all of these examples focus on performance in adult snakes. Here, we use high-speed video to measure the strike kinematics and performance of 10 juvenile (pythons, Python regius. We find that juvenile P. regius strike at levels comparable to larger snakes, but with shorter durations and over shorter distances. We conclude that the juvenile P. regius maintain performance likely through manipulation of the axial musculature and accompanying elastic tissues, and that this is a first step to understanding ontogenetic changes in behavior and a potential avenue for understanding how captivity may also impact behavior. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Strike Point Control on EAST Using an Isoflux Control Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xing Zhe; Xiao Bingjia; Luo Zhengping; Walker, M. L.; Humphreys, D. A.
2015-01-01
For the advanced tokamak, the particle deposition and thermal load on the divertor is a big challenge. By moving the strike points on divertor target plates, the position of particle deposition and thermal load can be shifted. We could adjust the Poloidal Field (PF) coil current to achieve the strike point position feedback control. Using isoflux control method, the strike point position can be controlled by controlling the X point position. On the basis of experimental data, we establish relational expressions between X point position and strike point position. Benchmark experiments are carried out to validate the correctness and robustness of the control methods. The strike point position is successfully controlled following our command in the EAST operation. (paper)
Expertise of using striking techniques for power stroke in badminton.
Zhu, Qin
2013-10-01
Two striking techniques (fast swing and angled striking) were examined to see if they allowed effective use of string tension for the power stroke in badminton. 12 participants (4 novices, 4 recreational, and 4 expert badminton players) were recorded by a fast-speed camera while striking a shuttlecock with racquets of 8 different string tensions. The peak speed of the shuttlecock, the racquet angle and the shuttlecock angle were analyzed. The results showed that expert players succeeded in using both striking techniques to overcome the constraint of string tension and produce a consistently superior stroke. Failure to use either striking technique resulted in inferior performance that was constrained by string tension. Expertise in badminton allows the necessary motor adjustments based on the affordance perception of the string tension.
New regular black hole solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zanchin, Vilson T.
2011-01-01
In the present work we consider general relativity coupled to Maxwell's electromagnetism and charged matter. Under the assumption of spherical symmetry, there is a particular class of solutions that correspond to regular charged black holes whose interior region is de Sitter, the exterior region is Reissner-Nordstroem and there is a charged thin-layer in-between the two. The main physical and geometrical properties of such charged regular black holes are analyzed.
Regular variation on measure chains
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Řehák, Pavel; Vitovec, J.
2010-01-01
Roč. 72, č. 1 (2010), s. 439-448 ISSN 0362-546X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100190701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : regularly varying function * regularly varying sequence * measure chain * time scale * embedding theorem * representation theorem * second order dynamic equation * asymptotic properties Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.279, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0362546X09008475
Manifold Regularized Correlation Object Tracking
Hu, Hongwei; Ma, Bo; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling
2017-01-01
In this paper, we propose a manifold regularized correlation tracking method with augmented samples. To make better use of the unlabeled data and the manifold structure of the sample space, a manifold regularization-based correlation filter is introduced, which aims to assign similar labels to neighbor samples. Meanwhile, the regression model is learned by exploiting the block-circulant structure of matrices resulting from the augmented translated samples over multiple base samples cropped fr...
On geodesics in low regularity
Sämann, Clemens; Steinbauer, Roland
2018-02-01
We consider geodesics in both Riemannian and Lorentzian manifolds with metrics of low regularity. We discuss existence of extremal curves for continuous metrics and present several old and new examples that highlight their subtle interrelation with solutions of the geodesic equations. Then we turn to the initial value problem for geodesics for locally Lipschitz continuous metrics and generalize recent results on existence, regularity and uniqueness of solutions in the sense of Filippov.
Wavelet transform analysis of electromyography kung fu strikes data.
Neto, Osmar Pinto; Marzullo, Ana Carolina de Miranda
2009-11-01
In martial arts and contact sports strikes are performed at near maximum speeds. For that reason, electromyography (EMG) analysis of such movements is non-trivial. This paper has three main goals: firstly, to investigate the differences in the EMG activity of muscles during strikes performed with and without impacts; secondly, to assess the advantages of using Sum of Significant Power (SSP) values instead of root mean square (rms) values when analyzing EMG data; and lastly to introduce a new method of calculating median frequency values using wavelet transforms (WMDF). EMG data of the deltoid anterior (DA), triceps brachii (TB) and brachioradialis (BR) muscles were collected from eight Kung Fu practitioners during strikes performed with and without impacts. SSP results indicated significant higher muscle activity (p = 0.023) for the strikes with impact. WMDF results, on the other hand, indicated significant lower values (p = 0. 007) for the strikes with impact. SSP results presented higher sensitivity than rms to quantify important signal differences and, at the same time, presented lower inter-subject coefficient of variations. The result of increase in SSP values and decrease in WMDF may suggest better synchronization of motor units for the strikes with impact performed by the experienced Kung Fu practitioners. Key PointsThe results show higher muscle activity and lower electromyography median frequencies for strikes with impact compared to strikes without.SSP results presented higher sensitivity and lower inter-subject coefficient of variations than rms results.Kung Fu palm strikes with impact may present better motor units' synchronization than strikes without.
Condition Number Regularized Covariance Estimation.
Won, Joong-Ho; Lim, Johan; Kim, Seung-Jean; Rajaratnam, Bala
2013-06-01
Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is known to be a difficult problem, has many applications, and is of current interest to the larger statistics community. In many applications including so-called the "large p small n " setting, the estimate of the covariance matrix is required to be not only invertible, but also well-conditioned. Although many regularization schemes attempt to do this, none of them address the ill-conditioning problem directly. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood approach, with the direct goal of obtaining a well-conditioned estimator. No sparsity assumption on either the covariance matrix or its inverse are are imposed, thus making our procedure more widely applicable. We demonstrate that the proposed regularization scheme is computationally efficient, yields a type of Steinian shrinkage estimator, and has a natural Bayesian interpretation. We investigate the theoretical properties of the regularized covariance estimator comprehensively, including its regularization path, and proceed to develop an approach that adaptively determines the level of regularization that is required. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the regularized estimator in decision-theoretic comparisons and in the financial portfolio optimization setting. The proposed approach has desirable properties, and can serve as a competitive procedure, especially when the sample size is small and when a well-conditioned estimator is required.
Condition Number Regularized Covariance Estimation*
Won, Joong-Ho; Lim, Johan; Kim, Seung-Jean; Rajaratnam, Bala
2012-01-01
Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is known to be a difficult problem, has many applications, and is of current interest to the larger statistics community. In many applications including so-called the “large p small n” setting, the estimate of the covariance matrix is required to be not only invertible, but also well-conditioned. Although many regularization schemes attempt to do this, none of them address the ill-conditioning problem directly. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood approach, with the direct goal of obtaining a well-conditioned estimator. No sparsity assumption on either the covariance matrix or its inverse are are imposed, thus making our procedure more widely applicable. We demonstrate that the proposed regularization scheme is computationally efficient, yields a type of Steinian shrinkage estimator, and has a natural Bayesian interpretation. We investigate the theoretical properties of the regularized covariance estimator comprehensively, including its regularization path, and proceed to develop an approach that adaptively determines the level of regularization that is required. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the regularized estimator in decision-theoretic comparisons and in the financial portfolio optimization setting. The proposed approach has desirable properties, and can serve as a competitive procedure, especially when the sample size is small and when a well-conditioned estimator is required. PMID:23730197
Supporting Regularized Logistic Regression Privately and Efficiently
Li, Wenfa; Liu, Hongzhe; Yang, Peng; Xie, Wei
2016-01-01
As one of the most popular statistical and machine learning models, logistic regression with regularization has found wide adoption in biomedicine, social sciences, information technology, and so on. These domains often involve data of human subjects that are contingent upon strict privacy regulations. Concerns over data privacy make it increasingly difficult to coordinate and conduct large-scale collaborative studies, which typically rely on cross-institution data sharing and joint analysis. Our work here focuses on safeguarding regularized logistic regression, a widely-used statistical model while at the same time has not been investigated from a data security and privacy perspective. We consider a common use scenario of multi-institution collaborative studies, such as in the form of research consortia or networks as widely seen in genetics, epidemiology, social sciences, etc. To make our privacy-enhancing solution practical, we demonstrate a non-conventional and computationally efficient method leveraging distributing computing and strong cryptography to provide comprehensive protection over individual-level and summary data. Extensive empirical evaluations on several studies validate the privacy guarantee, efficiency and scalability of our proposal. We also discuss the practical implications of our solution for large-scale studies and applications from various disciplines, including genetic and biomedical studies, smart grid, network analysis, etc. PMID:27271738
Supporting Regularized Logistic Regression Privately and Efficiently.
Li, Wenfa; Liu, Hongzhe; Yang, Peng; Xie, Wei
2016-01-01
As one of the most popular statistical and machine learning models, logistic regression with regularization has found wide adoption in biomedicine, social sciences, information technology, and so on. These domains often involve data of human subjects that are contingent upon strict privacy regulations. Concerns over data privacy make it increasingly difficult to coordinate and conduct large-scale collaborative studies, which typically rely on cross-institution data sharing and joint analysis. Our work here focuses on safeguarding regularized logistic regression, a widely-used statistical model while at the same time has not been investigated from a data security and privacy perspective. We consider a common use scenario of multi-institution collaborative studies, such as in the form of research consortia or networks as widely seen in genetics, epidemiology, social sciences, etc. To make our privacy-enhancing solution practical, we demonstrate a non-conventional and computationally efficient method leveraging distributing computing and strong cryptography to provide comprehensive protection over individual-level and summary data. Extensive empirical evaluations on several studies validate the privacy guarantee, efficiency and scalability of our proposal. We also discuss the practical implications of our solution for large-scale studies and applications from various disciplines, including genetic and biomedical studies, smart grid, network analysis, etc.
Supporting Regularized Logistic Regression Privately and Efficiently.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenfa Li
Full Text Available As one of the most popular statistical and machine learning models, logistic regression with regularization has found wide adoption in biomedicine, social sciences, information technology, and so on. These domains often involve data of human subjects that are contingent upon strict privacy regulations. Concerns over data privacy make it increasingly difficult to coordinate and conduct large-scale collaborative studies, which typically rely on cross-institution data sharing and joint analysis. Our work here focuses on safeguarding regularized logistic regression, a widely-used statistical model while at the same time has not been investigated from a data security and privacy perspective. We consider a common use scenario of multi-institution collaborative studies, such as in the form of research consortia or networks as widely seen in genetics, epidemiology, social sciences, etc. To make our privacy-enhancing solution practical, we demonstrate a non-conventional and computationally efficient method leveraging distributing computing and strong cryptography to provide comprehensive protection over individual-level and summary data. Extensive empirical evaluations on several studies validate the privacy guarantee, efficiency and scalability of our proposal. We also discuss the practical implications of our solution for large-scale studies and applications from various disciplines, including genetic and biomedical studies, smart grid, network analysis, etc.
Igoe, Joseph A.; DiRocco, Anthony P.
This booklet is designed to give practical and realistic advice to school district officials faced with the possibility of a teachers' strike. It is intended for use both by school district administrators and school board members. The booklet is organized into four sections that focus in turn on signs of a pending teachers' strike, union…
Geometric continuum regularization of quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halpern, M.B.
1989-01-01
An overview of the continuum regularization program is given. The program is traced from its roots in stochastic quantization, with emphasis on the examples of regularized gauge theory, the regularized general nonlinear sigma model and regularized quantum gravity. In its coordinate-invariant form, the regularization is seen as entirely geometric: only the supermetric on field deformations is regularized, and the prescription provides universal nonperturbative invariant continuum regularization across all quantum field theory. 54 refs
Determine the Foot Strike Pattern Using Inertial Sensors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tzyy-Yuang Shiang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available From biomechanical point of view, strike pattern plays an important role in preventing potential injury risk in running. Traditionally, strike pattern determination was conducted by using 3D motion analysis system with cameras. However, the procedure is costly and not convenient. With the rapid development of technology, sensors have been applied in sport science field lately. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the algorithm that can identify landing strategies with a wearable sensor. Six healthy male participants were recruited to perform heel and forefoot strike strategies at 7, 10, and 13 km/h speeds. The kinematic data were collected by Vicon 3D motion analysis system and 2 inertial measurement units (IMU attached on the dorsal side of both shoes. The data of each foot strike were gathered for pitch angle and strike index analysis. Comparing the strike index from IMU with the pitch angle from Vicon system, our results showed that both signals exhibited highly correlated changes between different strike patterns in the sagittal plane (r=0.98. Based on the findings, the IMU sensors showed potential capabilities and could be extended beyond the context of sport science to other fields, including clinical applications.
"Thunderstruck": penetrating thoracic injury from lightning strike.
van Waes, Oscar J F; van de Woestijne, Pieter C; Halm, Jens A
2014-04-01
Lightning strike victims are rarely presented at an emergency department. Burns are often the primary focus. This case report describes the improvised explosive device like-injury to the thorax due to lightning strike and its treatment, which has not been described prior in (kerauno)medicine. Penetrating injury due to blast from lightning strike is extremely rare. These "shrapnel" injuries should however be ruled out in all patients struck by lightning. Copyright © 2013 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Strike action by nurses in South Africa: A value clarification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marie Muller
2001-09-01
Full Text Available The Labour Relations Act (South Africa, 1991 made provision for protected strike action by employees, subject to certain conditions, procedures and negotiated agreements. This led to the removal of the strike clause in the Nursing Act (South Africa, 1992. The labour rights of all citizens are entrenched in the Constitution of the country (South Africa, 1996. Participation in strike action by the nurse/ midwife, regardless of the legal requirements and specifications, does, however, pose an ethical question. It is therefore necessary to conduct a value clarification on strike action by nurses in South Africa. The purpose of this research is to explore and describe the perceived values of participants from an accessible population on this phenomenon. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive research design was deployed. The perceived values of nurses on strike action were collected by means of an openended questionnaire/sketch. Over a period of three years a purposive and convenient sampling method was used, involving all the enrolled post basic nursing/midwifery students/ learners at a particular Nursing Education Institution. The justification of the sample was further enhanced by also collecting data on the participants’ age and provincial distribution location. Although a 63% sample realisation (of the accessible population was achieved, this represents only 1,5% of the registered nursing/midwifery population in the country. A descriptive analysis of the participants’ age and provincial distribution was undertaken, as well as a content analysis of their perceived values on strike action. The mean age of the participants was 48 years, which could be attributed to the fact that most of them were enrolled for a post-basic Diploma in Community Nursing Science. Most of the responses (52,7% were against strike action and 32,5% supported strike action by nurses as a constitutional and legal right. A fairly substantial number of participants (14
Physicians' strikes and the competing bases of physicians' moral obligations.
MacDougall, D Robert
2013-09-01
Many authors have addressed the morality of physicians' strikes on the assumption that medical practice is morally different from other kinds of occupations. This article analyzes three prominent theoretical accounts that attempt to ground such special moral obligations for physicians--practice-based accounts, utilitarian accounts, and social contract accounts--and assesses their applicability to the problem of the morality of strikes. After critiquing these views, it offers a fourth view grounding special moral obligations in voluntary commitments, and explains why this is a preferable basis for understanding physicians' moral obligations in general and especially as pertaining to strikes.
Metric regularity and subdifferential calculus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ioffe, A D
2000-01-01
The theory of metric regularity is an extension of two classical results: the Lyusternik tangent space theorem and the Graves surjection theorem. Developments in non-smooth analysis in the 1980s and 1990s paved the way for a number of far-reaching extensions of these results. It was also well understood that the phenomena behind the results are of metric origin, not connected with any linear structure. At the same time it became clear that some basic hypotheses of the subdifferential calculus are closely connected with the metric regularity of certain set-valued maps. The survey is devoted to the metric theory of metric regularity and its connection with subdifferential calculus in Banach spaces
Manifold Regularized Correlation Object Tracking.
Hu, Hongwei; Ma, Bo; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling
2018-05-01
In this paper, we propose a manifold regularized correlation tracking method with augmented samples. To make better use of the unlabeled data and the manifold structure of the sample space, a manifold regularization-based correlation filter is introduced, which aims to assign similar labels to neighbor samples. Meanwhile, the regression model is learned by exploiting the block-circulant structure of matrices resulting from the augmented translated samples over multiple base samples cropped from both target and nontarget regions. Thus, the final classifier in our method is trained with positive, negative, and unlabeled base samples, which is a semisupervised learning framework. A block optimization strategy is further introduced to learn a manifold regularization-based correlation filter for efficient online tracking. Experiments on two public tracking data sets demonstrate the superior performance of our tracker compared with the state-of-the-art tracking approaches.
Dimensional regularization in configuration space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bollini, C.G.; Giambiagi, J.J.
1995-09-01
Dimensional regularization is introduced in configuration space by Fourier transforming in D-dimensions the perturbative momentum space Green functions. For this transformation, Bochner theorem is used, no extra parameters, such as those of Feynman or Bogoliubov-Shirkov are needed for convolutions. The regularized causal functions in x-space have ν-dependent moderated singularities at the origin. They can be multiplied together and Fourier transformed (Bochner) without divergence problems. The usual ultraviolet divergences appear as poles of the resultant functions of ν. Several example are discussed. (author). 9 refs
Regular algebra and finite machines
Conway, John Horton
2012-01-01
World-famous mathematician John H. Conway based this classic text on a 1966 course he taught at Cambridge University. Geared toward graduate students of mathematics, it will also prove a valuable guide to researchers and professional mathematicians.His topics cover Moore's theory of experiments, Kleene's theory of regular events and expressions, Kleene algebras, the differential calculus of events, factors and the factor matrix, and the theory of operators. Additional subjects include event classes and operator classes, some regulator algebras, context-free languages, communicative regular alg
Matrix regularization of 4-manifolds
Trzetrzelewski, M.
2012-01-01
We consider products of two 2-manifolds such as S^2 x S^2, embedded in Euclidean space and show that the corresponding 4-volume preserving diffeomorphism algebra can be approximated by a tensor product SU(N)xSU(N) i.e. functions on a manifold are approximated by the Kronecker product of two SU(N) matrices. A regularization of the 4-sphere is also performed by constructing N^2 x N^2 matrix representations of the 4-algebra (and as a byproduct of the 3-algebra which makes the regularization of S...
Ethical and legal consideration of prisoner's hunger strike in Serbia.
Alempijevic, Djordje; Pavlekic, Snezana; Jecmenica, Dragan; Nedeljkov, Aleksandra; Jankovic, Milos
2011-03-01
Hunger strike of prisoners and detainees remains a major human rights and ethical issue for medical professionals. We are reporting on a case of a 48-year-old male sentenced prisoner, intravenous heroin user, who went on a hunger strike and died 15 days later. Throughout the fasting period, the prisoner, who was capable of decision making, refused any medical examination. Autopsy findings were not supporting prolonged starvation, while toxicology revealed benzodiazepines and opiates in blood and urine. Cause of death was given as "heroin intoxication" in keeping with detection of 6-MAM. Legal and ethical issues pertinent to medical examination and treatment of prisoners on hunger strike are explored in accordance with legislation and professional ethical standards in Serbia. A recommendation for the best autopsy practice in deaths following hunger strike has been made. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Continental United States Hurricane Strikes 1950-2012
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Continental U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster is our most popular poster which is updated annually. The poster includes all hurricanes that affected the U.S. since...
BIRD/WILDLIFE STRIKE CONTROL FOR SAFER AIR ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Osondu
2012-06-05
Jun 5, 2012 ... Several factors including lack of adequate data, shortage of funds, inadequate training of staff and lack of ... Keywords: bird/wildlife, strike, aviation, hazard, control. Introduction ..... implications of some human activities within.
2005 Significant U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2005 Significant U.S. Hurricane Strikes poster is one of two special edition posters for the Atlantic Hurricanes. This beautiful poster contains two sets of...
Neto, Osmar Pinto; Magini, Marcio; Saba, Marcelo M F; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu Tavares
2008-02-01
This paper presents a comparison of force, power, and efficiency values calculated from Kung Fu Yau-Man palm strikes, when performed by 7 experienced and 6 novice men. They performed 5 palm strikes to a freestanding basketball, recorded by high-speed camera at 1000 Hz. Nonparametric comparisons and correlations showed experienced practitioners presented larger values of mean muscle force, mean impact force, mean muscle power, mean impact power, and mean striking efficiency, as is noted in evidence obtained for other martial arts. Also, an interesting result was that for experienced Kung Fu practitioners, muscle power was linearly correlated with impact power (p = .98) but not for the novice practitioners (p = .46).
Effects of footwear and strike type on running economy.
Perl, Daniel P; Daoud, Adam I; Lieberman, Daniel E
2012-07-01
This study tests if running economy differs in minimal shoes versus standard running shoes with cushioned elevated heels and arch supports and in forefoot versus rearfoot strike gaits. We measured the cost of transport (mL O(2)·kg(-1)·m(-1)) in subjects who habitually run in minimal shoes or barefoot while they were running at 3.0 m·s(-1) on a treadmill during forefoot and rearfoot striking while wearing minimal and standard shoes, controlling for shoe mass and stride frequency. Force and kinematic data were collected when subjects were shod and barefoot to quantify differences in knee flexion, arch strain, plantar flexor force production, and Achilles tendon-triceps surae strain. After controlling for stride frequency and shoe mass, runners were 2.41% more economical in the minimal-shoe condition when forefoot striking and 3.32% more economical in the minimal-shoe condition when rearfoot striking (P forefoot and rearfoot striking did not differ significantly in cost for either minimal- or standard-shoe running. Arch strain was not measured in the shod condition but was significantly greater during forefoot than rearfoot striking when barefoot. Plantar flexor force output was significantly higher in forefoot than in rearfoot striking and in barefoot than in shod running. Achilles tendon-triceps surae strain and knee flexion were also lower in barefoot than in standard-shoe running. Minimally shod runners are modestly but significantly more economical than traditionally shod runners regardless of strike type, after controlling for shoe mass and stride frequency. The likely cause of this difference is more elastic energy storage and release in the lower extremity during minimal-shoe running.
WAVELET TRANSFORM ANALYSIS OF ELECTROMYOGRAPHY KUNG FU STRIKES DATA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ana Carolina de Miranda Marzullo
2009-11-01
Full Text Available In martial arts and contact sports strikes are performed at near maximum speeds. For that reason, electromyography (EMG analysis of such movements is non-trivial. This paper has three main goals: firstly, to investigate the differences in the EMG activity of muscles during strikes performed with and without impacts; secondly, to assess the advantages of using Sum of Significant Power (SSP values instead of root mean square (rms values when analyzing EMG data; and lastly to introduce a new method of calculating median frequency values using wavelet transforms (WMDF. EMG data of the deltoid anterior (DA, triceps brachii (TB and brachioradialis (BR muscles were collected from eight Kung Fu practitioners during strikes performed with and without impacts. SSP results indicated significant higher muscle activity (p = 0.023 for the strikes with impact. WMDF results, on the other hand, indicated significant lower values (p = 0. 007 for the strikes with impact. SSP results presented higher sensitivity than rms to quantify important signal differences and, at the same time, presented lower inter-subject coefficient of variations. The result of increase in SSP values and decrease in WMDF may suggest better synchronization of motor units for the strikes with impact performed by the experienced Kung Fu practitioners
VARIATION OF STRIKE INCENTIVES IN DEEP REDUCTIONS; FINAL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
G.H. CANAVAN
2001-01-01
This note studies the sensitivity of strike incentives to deep offensive force reductions using exchange, cost, and game theoretic decision models derived and discussed in companion reports. As forces fall, weapon allocations shift from military to high value targets, with the shift being half complete at about 1,000 weapons. By 500 weapons, the first and second strikes are almost totally on high value. The dominant cost for striking first is that of damage to one's high value, which is near total absent other constraints, and hence proportional to preferences for survival of high value. Changes in military costs are largely offsetting, so total first strike costs change little. The resulting costs at decision nodes are well above the costs of inaction, so the preferred course is inaction for all offensive reductions studied. As the dominant cost for striking first is proportional to the preference for survival of high value. There is a wide gap between the first strike cost and that of inaction for the parameters studied here. These conclusions should be insensitive to significant reductions in the preference for survival of high value, which is the most sensitive parameter
Regularization of Nonmonotone Variational Inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konnov, Igor V.; Ali, M.S.S.; Mazurkevich, E.O.
2006-01-01
In this paper we extend the Tikhonov-Browder regularization scheme from monotone to rather a general class of nonmonotone multivalued variational inequalities. We show that their convergence conditions hold for some classes of perfectly and nonperfectly competitive economic equilibrium problems
Lattice regularized chiral perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borasoy, Bugra; Lewis, Randy; Ouimet, Pierre-Philippe A.
2004-01-01
Chiral perturbation theory can be defined and regularized on a spacetime lattice. A few motivations are discussed here, and an explicit lattice Lagrangian is reviewed. A particular aspect of the connection between lattice chiral perturbation theory and lattice QCD is explored through a study of the Wess-Zumino-Witten term
2011-01-20
... Meeting SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). Date and Time: The meeting of the Board will be held at the offices of the Farm... meeting of the Board will be open to the [[Page 3630
Forcing absoluteness and regularity properties
Ikegami, D.
2010-01-01
For a large natural class of forcing notions, we prove general equivalence theorems between forcing absoluteness statements, regularity properties, and transcendence properties over L and the core model K. We use our results to answer open questions from set theory of the reals.
Globals of Completely Regular Monoids
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wu Qian-qian; Gan Ai-ping; Du Xian-kun
2015-01-01
An element of a semigroup S is called irreducible if it cannot be expressed as a product of two elements in S both distinct from itself. In this paper we show that the class C of all completely regular monoids with irreducible identity elements satisfies the strong isomorphism property and so it is globally determined.
Fluid queues and regular variation
Boxma, O.J.
1996-01-01
This paper considers a fluid queueing system, fed by N independent sources that alternate between silence and activity periods. We assume that the distribution of the activity periods of one or more sources is a regularly varying function of index ¿. We show that its fat tail gives rise to an even
Fluid queues and regular variation
O.J. Boxma (Onno)
1996-01-01
textabstractThis paper considers a fluid queueing system, fed by $N$ independent sources that alternate between silence and activity periods. We assume that the distribution of the activity periods of one or more sources is a regularly varying function of index $zeta$. We show that its fat tail
Interval matrices: Regularity generates singularity
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Rohn, Jiří; Shary, S.P.
2018-01-01
Roč. 540, 1 March (2018), s. 149-159 ISSN 0024-3795 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : interval matrix * regularity * singularity * P-matrix * absolute value equation * diagonally singilarizable matrix Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2016
Regularization in Matrix Relevance Learning
Schneider, Petra; Bunte, Kerstin; Stiekema, Han; Hammer, Barbara; Villmann, Thomas; Biehl, Michael
A In this paper, we present a regularization technique to extend recently proposed matrix learning schemes in learning vector quantization (LVQ). These learning algorithms extend the concept of adaptive distance measures in LVQ to the use of relevance matrices. In general, metric learning can
Regular and conformal regular cores for static and rotating solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha
2014-03-07
Using a new metric for generating rotating solutions, we derive in a general fashion the solution of an imperfect fluid and that of its conformal homolog. We discuss the conditions that the stress–energy tensors and invariant scalars be regular. On classical physical grounds, it is stressed that conformal fluids used as cores for static or rotating solutions are exempt from any malicious behavior in that they are finite and defined everywhere.
Regular and conformal regular cores for static and rotating solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha
2014-01-01
Using a new metric for generating rotating solutions, we derive in a general fashion the solution of an imperfect fluid and that of its conformal homolog. We discuss the conditions that the stress–energy tensors and invariant scalars be regular. On classical physical grounds, it is stressed that conformal fluids used as cores for static or rotating solutions are exempt from any malicious behavior in that they are finite and defined everywhere.
Energy functions for regularization algorithms
Delingette, H.; Hebert, M.; Ikeuchi, K.
1991-01-01
Regularization techniques are widely used for inverse problem solving in computer vision such as surface reconstruction, edge detection, or optical flow estimation. Energy functions used for regularization algorithms measure how smooth a curve or surface is, and to render acceptable solutions these energies must verify certain properties such as invariance with Euclidean transformations or invariance with parameterization. The notion of smoothness energy is extended here to the notion of a differential stabilizer, and it is shown that to void the systematic underestimation of undercurvature for planar curve fitting, it is necessary that circles be the curves of maximum smoothness. A set of stabilizers is proposed that meet this condition as well as invariance with rotation and parameterization.
Physical model of dimensional regularization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schonfeld, Jonathan F.
2016-12-15
We explicitly construct fractals of dimension 4-ε on which dimensional regularization approximates scalar-field-only quantum-field theory amplitudes. The construction does not require fractals to be Lorentz-invariant in any sense, and we argue that there probably is no Lorentz-invariant fractal of dimension greater than 2. We derive dimensional regularization's power-law screening first for fractals obtained by removing voids from 3-dimensional Euclidean space. The derivation applies techniques from elementary dielectric theory. Surprisingly, fractal geometry by itself does not guarantee the appropriate power-law behavior; boundary conditions at fractal voids also play an important role. We then extend the derivation to 4-dimensional Minkowski space. We comment on generalization to non-scalar fields, and speculate about implications for quantum gravity. (orig.)
Maximum mutual information regularized classification
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2014-09-07
In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.
Maximum mutual information regularized classification
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Shiguang; Gao, Xin
2014-01-01
In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.
Regularized strings with extrinsic curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ambjoern, J.; Durhuus, B.
1987-07-01
We analyze models of discretized string theories, where the path integral over world sheet variables is regularized by summing over triangulated surfaces. The inclusion of curvature in the action is a necessity for the scaling of the string tension. We discuss the physical properties of models with extrinsic curvature terms in the action and show that the string tension vanishes at the critical point where the bare extrinsic curvature coupling tends to infinity. Similar results are derived for models with intrinsic curvature. (orig.)
Circuit complexity of regular languages
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Koucký, Michal
2009-01-01
Roč. 45, č. 4 (2009), s. 865-879 ISSN 1432-4350 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP201/07/P276; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : regular languages * circuit complexity * upper and lower bounds Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.726, year: 2009
General inverse problems for regular variation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damek, Ewa; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Rosinski, Jan
2014-01-01
Regular variation of distributional tails is known to be preserved by various linear transformations of some random structures. An inverse problem for regular variation aims at understanding whether the regular variation of a transformed random object is caused by regular variation of components ...
Osis, Sean T; Hettinga, Blayne A; Leitch, Jessica; Ferber, Reed
2014-08-22
As 3-dimensional (3D) motion-capture for clinical gait analysis continues to evolve, new methods must be developed to improve the detection of gait cycle events based on kinematic data. Recently, the application of principal component analysis (PCA) to gait data has shown promise in detecting important biomechanical features. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to define a new foot strike detection method for a continuum of striking techniques, by applying PCA to joint angle waveforms. In accordance with Newtonian mechanics, it was hypothesized that transient features in the sagittal-plane accelerations of the lower extremity would be linked with the impulsive application of force to the foot at foot strike. Kinematic and kinetic data from treadmill running were selected for 154 subjects, from a database of gait biomechanics. Ankle, knee and hip sagittal plane angular acceleration kinematic curves were chained together to form a row input to a PCA matrix. A linear polynomial was calculated based on PCA scores, and a 10-fold cross-validation was performed to evaluate prediction accuracy against gold-standard foot strike as determined by a 10 N rise in the vertical ground reaction force. Results show 89-94% of all predicted foot strikes were within 4 frames (20 ms) of the gold standard with the largest error being 28 ms. It is concluded that this new foot strike detection is an improvement on existing methods and can be applied regardless of whether the runner exhibits a rearfoot, midfoot, or forefoot strike pattern. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Electric converters of electromagnetic strike machine with battery power
Usanov, K. M.; Volgin, A. V.; Kargin, V. A.; Moiseev, A. P.; Chetverikov, E. A.
2018-03-01
At present, the application of pulse linear electromagnetic engines to drive strike machines for immersion of rod elements into the soil, strike drilling of shallow wells, dynamic probing of soils is recognized as quite effective. The pulse linear electromagnetic engine performs discrete consumption and conversion of electrical energy into mechanical work. Pulse dosing of a stream transmitted by the battery source to the pulse linear electromagnetic engine of the energy is provided by the electrical converter. The electric converters with the control of an electromagnetic strike machine as functions of time and armature movement, which form the unipolar supply pulses of voltage and current necessary for the normal operation of a pulse linear electromagnetic engine, are proposed. Electric converters are stable in operation, implement the necessary range of output parameters control determined by the technological process conditions, have noise immunity and automatic disconnection of power supply in emergency modes.
VARIATION OF STRIKE INCENTIVES WITH DAMAGE PREFERENCES; FINAL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
G. CANAVAN
2001-01-01
For START III level forces, strike allocations and magnitudes vary little with L, but first strike costs vary directly with L, which means that for K reflecting a preference for the survival of high value targets over their destruction and a preference for high value over military targets, the costs of action are far greater than those of inaction for a wide range of values of damage preference L. Thus, if both sides have much greater preferences for the survival of their high value targets than for military targets or destruction, they do not see a net incentive to strike, and crises are terminated by inaction. Recent decades suggest strong preferences for the survival of high value and that this has contributed to the lack of direct conflict during that period
Melcher, Daniel A; Paquette, Max R; Schilling, Brian K; Bloomer, Richard J
2017-12-01
Research has focused on the effects of acute strike pattern modifications on lower extremity joint stiffness and running economy (RE). Strike pattern modifications on running biomechanics have mostly been studied while runners complete short running bouts. This study examined the effects of an imposed forefoot strike (FFS) on RE and ankle and knee joint stiffness before and after a long run in habitual rearfoot strike (RFS) runners. Joint kinetics and RE were collected before and after a long run. Sagittal joint kinetics were computed from kinematic and ground reaction force data that were collected during over-ground running trials in 13 male runners. RE was measured during treadmill running. Knee flexion range of motion, knee extensor moment and ankle joint stiffness were lower while plantarflexor moment and knee joint stiffness were greater during imposed FFS compared with RFS. The long run did not influence the difference in ankle and knee joint stiffness between strike patterns. Runners were more economical during RFS than imposed FFS and RE was not influenced by the long run. These findings suggest that using a FFS pattern towards the end of a long run may not be mechanically or metabolically beneficial for well-trained male RFS runners.
Empirical Test Case Specification
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per
This document includes the empirical specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one. I....... In the comparative approach the outcomes of different software tools are compared, while in the empirical approach the modelling results are compared with the results of experimental test cases....
[Force-feeding of hunger-striking prisoners].
Glick, Shimon
2014-09-01
In contrast to the position of the World Medical Association and the Ethics Council of the Israel Medical Association, the author argues for forced-feeding of hunger-striking prisoners when their condition reaches a stage of danger of death or permanent injury. This position is based on the priority of human life over autonomy, and of a communitarian ethic. This position is supported by a District Court decision ordering the feeding of a hunger-striking prisoner, by a Supreme Court decision imposing surgery on a non-consenting prisoner, and in line with Israel's Patient's Right Law.
MORE THAN A LABOR DISPUTE: THE PATCO STRIKE OF 1981
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paul L. Butterworth
2005-01-01
Full Text Available On August 3, 1981, 13,000 air traffic controllers walked off the job. Under US law, the strike was illegal. President Ronald Reagan ordered the strikers as a group to return to work; when they did not, he ordered individual strikers to return, and again they refused. Two days later the president fired the strikers. Reagan's action transformed relations between organized labor and American management, and created the worst turbulence to hit the American airways in recent history. “More Than a Labor Dispute” examines the work stoppage and aftermath through the eyes of two controllers and a pilot, all of whom worked during the strike.
Remarkable rates of lightning strike mortality in Malawi.
Mulder, Monique Borgerhoff; Msalu, Lameck; Caro, Tim; Salerno, Jonathan
2012-01-01
Livingstone's second mission site on the shore of Lake Malawi suffers very high rates of consequential lightning strikes. Comprehensive interviewing of victims and their relatives in seven Traditional Authorities in Nkhata Bay District, Malawi revealed that the annual rate of consequential strikes was 419/million, more than six times higher than that in other developing countries; the rate of deaths from lightning was 84/million/year, 5.4 times greater than the highest ever recorded. These remarkable figures reveal that lightning constitutes a significant stochastic source of mortality with potential life history consequences, but it should not deflect attention away from the more prominent causes of mortality in this rural area.
Regularized Statistical Analysis of Anatomy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sjöstrand, Karl
2007-01-01
This thesis presents the application and development of regularized methods for the statistical analysis of anatomical structures. Focus is on structure-function relationships in the human brain, such as the connection between early onset of Alzheimer’s disease and shape changes of the corpus...... and mind. Statistics represents a quintessential part of such investigations as they are preluded by a clinical hypothesis that must be verified based on observed data. The massive amounts of image data produced in each examination pose an important and interesting statistical challenge...... efficient algorithms which make the analysis of large data sets feasible, and gives examples of applications....
Regularization methods in Banach spaces
Schuster, Thomas; Hofmann, Bernd; Kazimierski, Kamil S
2012-01-01
Regularization methods aimed at finding stable approximate solutions are a necessary tool to tackle inverse and ill-posed problems. Usually the mathematical model of an inverse problem consists of an operator equation of the first kind and often the associated forward operator acts between Hilbert spaces. However, for numerous problems the reasons for using a Hilbert space setting seem to be based rather on conventions than on an approprimate and realistic model choice, so often a Banach space setting would be closer to reality. Furthermore, sparsity constraints using general Lp-norms or the B
Academic Training Lecture - Regular Programme
PH Department
2011-01-01
Regular Lecture Programme 9 May 2011 ACT Lectures on Detectors - Inner Tracking Detectors by Pippa Wells (CERN) 10 May 2011 ACT Lectures on Detectors - Calorimeters (2/5) by Philippe Bloch (CERN) 11 May 2011 ACT Lectures on Detectors - Muon systems (3/5) by Kerstin Hoepfner (RWTH Aachen) 12 May 2011 ACT Lectures on Detectors - Particle Identification and Forward Detectors by Peter Krizan (University of Ljubljana and J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia) 13 May 2011 ACT Lectures on Detectors - Trigger and Data Acquisition (5/5) by Dr. Brian Petersen (CERN) from 11:00 to 12:00 at CERN ( Bldg. 222-R-001 - Filtration Plant )
RES: Regularized Stochastic BFGS Algorithm
Mokhtari, Aryan; Ribeiro, Alejandro
2014-12-01
RES, a regularized stochastic version of the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) quasi-Newton method is proposed to solve convex optimization problems with stochastic objectives. The use of stochastic gradient descent algorithms is widespread, but the number of iterations required to approximate optimal arguments can be prohibitive in high dimensional problems. Application of second order methods, on the other hand, is impracticable because computation of objective function Hessian inverses incurs excessive computational cost. BFGS modifies gradient descent by introducing a Hessian approximation matrix computed from finite gradient differences. RES utilizes stochastic gradients in lieu of deterministic gradients for both, the determination of descent directions and the approximation of the objective function's curvature. Since stochastic gradients can be computed at manageable computational cost RES is realizable and retains the convergence rate advantages of its deterministic counterparts. Convergence results show that lower and upper bounds on the Hessian egeinvalues of the sample functions are sufficient to guarantee convergence to optimal arguments. Numerical experiments showcase reductions in convergence time relative to stochastic gradient descent algorithms and non-regularized stochastic versions of BFGS. An application of RES to the implementation of support vector machines is developed.
Regularized Label Relaxation Linear Regression.
Fang, Xiaozhao; Xu, Yong; Li, Xuelong; Lai, Zhihui; Wong, Wai Keung; Fang, Bingwu
2018-04-01
Linear regression (LR) and some of its variants have been widely used for classification problems. Most of these methods assume that during the learning phase, the training samples can be exactly transformed into a strict binary label matrix, which has too little freedom to fit the labels adequately. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose a novel regularized label relaxation LR method, which has the following notable characteristics. First, the proposed method relaxes the strict binary label matrix into a slack variable matrix by introducing a nonnegative label relaxation matrix into LR, which provides more freedom to fit the labels and simultaneously enlarges the margins between different classes as much as possible. Second, the proposed method constructs the class compactness graph based on manifold learning and uses it as the regularization item to avoid the problem of overfitting. The class compactness graph is used to ensure that the samples sharing the same labels can be kept close after they are transformed. Two different algorithms, which are, respectively, based on -norm and -norm loss functions are devised. These two algorithms have compact closed-form solutions in each iteration so that they are easily implemented. Extensive experiments show that these two algorithms outperform the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of the classification accuracy and running time.
Torts Liability for Strike Action and Third Party Rights.
Raday, Frances
1979-01-01
Studies the nature of the torts liability incurred in strikes and the extent of existing immunities bestowed on strikers and their organizers, and explores the principles that should govern liability and immunity. Available from Israel Law Review Association, c/o Faculty of Law, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus, P.O.B. 24100, Jerusalem…
Delayed Post Mortem Predation in Lightning Strike Carcasses ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Campbell Murn
An adult giraffe was struck dead by lightning on a game farm outside. Phalaborwa, South Africa in March 2014. Interestingly, delayed post-mortem predation occurred on the carcass, which according to the farm owners was an atypical phenomenon for the region. Delayed post-mortem scavenging on lightning strike ...
EDITORIAL Plagiarism - time to strike at the epidemic
African Journals Online (AJOL)
admin
Plagiarism - time to strike at the epidemic. Lukman Yusuf1, Abraham Aseffa2. We live in a globalized world where information is instantly shared across continents. The number of biomedical journals available for reference is quite enormous and there is a sudden huge surge of free open access journals in the last few years ...
Analysis of the effects of frequent strikes on academic performance ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The history of Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU)'s strike can be traced back to 1978, the period of the beginning of the decline in the oil boom, when the country faced the consequences of the failure by its rulers to use the oil wealth to generate production and a social welfare system. Military dictatorship had ...
When the Corporate Storm Strikes the Academy: Faculty Response Required
DeBoy, James L.
2015-01-01
When the corporate storm strikes the academy, faculty must be willing and able to repel administrative assaults upon academic freedom, shared governance, and tenure. This paper will describe the on-going clash between administrators who embrace the corporate mindset and faculty who cherish traditions of shared governance and collegial…
Force, reaction time, and precision of Kung Fu strikes.
Neto, Osmar Pinto; Bolander, Richard; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu Tavares; Bir, Cynthia
2009-08-01
The goal was to compare values of force, precision, and reaction time of several martial arts punches and palm strikes performed by advanced and intermediate Kung Fu practitioners, both men and women. 13 Kung Fu practitioners, 10 men and three women, participated. Only the men, three advanced and seven intermediate, were considered for comparisons between levels. Reaction time values were obtained using two high speed cameras that recorded each strike at 2500 Hz. Force of impact was measured by a load cell. For comparisons of groups, force data were normalized by participant's body mass and height. Precision of the strikes was determined by a high speed pressure sensor. The results show that palm strikes were stronger than punches. Women in the study presented, on average, lower values of reaction time and force but higher values of precision than men. Advanced participants presented higher forces than intermediate participants. Significant negative correlations between the values of force and precision and the values of force and reaction time were also found.
Striking Inside Angola with 32 Battalion | Scheepers | Scientia ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 42, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Striking Inside Angola with 32 ...
Assemblage of strike-slip faults and tectonic extension and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
12
the formation, evolution and distribution of these strike-slip faults have important. 80 ...... function of coal-derived gas study for natural gas industry development in China; .... Bohai-Zhangjiakou seismotectonic zone based on 3D visco-elastic ...
Empirical Philosophy of Science
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mansnerus, Erika; Wagenknecht, Susann
2015-01-01
knowledge takes place through the integration of the empirical or historical research into the philosophical studies, as Chang, Nersessian, Thagard and Schickore argue in their work. Building upon their contributions we will develop a blueprint for an Empirical Philosophy of Science that draws upon...... qualitative methods from the social sciences in order to advance our philosophical understanding of science in practice. We will regard the relationship between philosophical conceptualization and empirical data as an iterative dialogue between theory and data, which is guided by a particular ‘feeling with......Empirical insights are proven fruitful for the advancement of Philosophy of Science, but the integration of philosophical concepts and empirical data poses considerable methodological challenges. Debates in Integrated History and Philosophy of Science suggest that the advancement of philosophical...
Management of patients during hunger strike and refeeding phase.
Eichelberger, M; Joray, M L; Perrig, M; Bodmer, M; Stanga, Z
2014-01-01
Hunger strikers resuming nutritional intake may develop a life-threatening refeeding syndrome (RFS). Consequently, hunger strikers represent a core challenge for the medical staff. The objective of the study was to test the effectiveness and safety of evidence-based recommendations for prevention and management of RFS during the refeeding phase. This was a retrospective, observational data analysis of 37 consecutive, unselected cases of prisoners on a hunger strike during a 5-y period. The sample consisted of 37 cases representing 33 individual patients. In seven cases (18.9%), the hunger strike was continued during the hospital stay, in 16 episodes (43.2%) cessation of the hunger strike occurred immediately after admission to the security ward, and in 14 episodes (37.9%) during hospital stay. In the refeed cases (n = 30), nutritional replenishment occurred orally, and in 25 (83.3%) micronutrients substitutions were made based on the recommendations. The gradual refeeding with fluid restriction occurred over 10 d. Uncomplicated dyselectrolytemia was documented in 12 cases (40%) within the refeeding phase. One case (3.3%) presented bilateral ankle edemas as a clinical manifestation of moderate RFS. Intensive medical treatment was not necessary and none of the patients died. Seven episodes of continued hunger strike were observed during the entire hospital stay without medical complications. Our data suggested that seriousness and rate of medical complications during the refeeding phase can be kept at a minimum in a hunger strike population. This study supported use of recommendations to optimize risk management and to improve treatment quality and patient safety in this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Optimal Tikhonov Regularization in Finite-Frequency Tomography
Fang, Y.; Yao, Z.; Zhou, Y.
2017-12-01
The last decade has witnessed a progressive transition in seismic tomography from ray theory to finite-frequency theory which overcomes the resolution limit of the high-frequency approximation in ray theory. In addition to approximations in wave propagation physics, a main difference between ray-theoretical tomography and finite-frequency tomography is the sparseness of the associated sensitivity matrix. It is well known that seismic tomographic problems are ill-posed and regularizations such as damping and smoothing are often applied to analyze the tradeoff between data misfit and model uncertainty. The regularizations depend on the structure of the matrix as well as noise level of the data. Cross-validation has been used to constrain data uncertainties in body-wave finite-frequency inversions when measurements at multiple frequencies are available to invert for a common structure. In this study, we explore an optimal Tikhonov regularization in surface-wave phase-velocity tomography based on minimization of an empirical Bayes risk function using theoretical training datasets. We exploit the structure of the sensitivity matrix in the framework of singular value decomposition (SVD) which also allows for the calculation of complete resolution matrix. We compare the optimal Tikhonov regularization in finite-frequency tomography with traditional tradeo-off analysis using surface wave dispersion measurements from global as well as regional studies.
Shakeout: A New Approach to Regularized Deep Neural Network Training.
Kang, Guoliang; Li, Jun; Tao, Dacheng
2018-05-01
Recent years have witnessed the success of deep neural networks in dealing with a plenty of practical problems. Dropout has played an essential role in many successful deep neural networks, by inducing regularization in the model training. In this paper, we present a new regularized training approach: Shakeout. Instead of randomly discarding units as Dropout does at the training stage, Shakeout randomly chooses to enhance or reverse each unit's contribution to the next layer. This minor modification of Dropout has the statistical trait: the regularizer induced by Shakeout adaptively combines , and regularization terms. Our classification experiments with representative deep architectures on image datasets MNIST, CIFAR-10 and ImageNet show that Shakeout deals with over-fitting effectively and outperforms Dropout. We empirically demonstrate that Shakeout leads to sparser weights under both unsupervised and supervised settings. Shakeout also leads to the grouping effect of the input units in a layer. Considering the weights in reflecting the importance of connections, Shakeout is superior to Dropout, which is valuable for the deep model compression. Moreover, we demonstrate that Shakeout can effectively reduce the instability of the training process of the deep architecture.
Fish passage through hydropower turbines: Simulating blade strike using the discrete element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richmond, M C; Romero-Gomez, P
2014-01-01
intake using an empirical method, but the unsteady simulation underestimated turbulence in the intake. However, the DEM-based strike frequency is more representative of blade-strike probability as compared to the steady solution, mainly because DEM particles accounted for the full fish length and width, thus resolving (instead of modeling) the collision event. Although further development and testing is needed, the DEM method shows promise as another tool in the engineering design process to develop turbines that can achieve fish-friendly hydraulic conditions
From inactive to regular jogger
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Brinkmann Løite, Vibeke; Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup
study was conducted using individual semi-structured interviews on how a successful long-term behavior change had been achieved. Ten informants were purposely selected from participants in the DANO-RUN research project (7 men, 3 women, average age 41.5). Interviews were performed on the basis of Theory...... of Planned Behavior (TPB) and The Transtheoretical Model (TTM). Coding and analysis of interviews were performed using NVivo 10 software. Results TPB: During the behavior change process, the intention to jogging shifted from a focus on weight loss and improved fitness to both physical health, psychological......Title From inactive to regular jogger - a qualitative study of achieved behavioral change among recreational joggers Authors Pernille Lund-Cramer & Vibeke Brinkmann Løite Purpose Despite extensive knowledge of barriers to physical activity, most interventions promoting physical activity have proven...
Adavbiele, J. A.
2015-01-01
This paper was designed to x-ray the implications of incessant strike actions on the implementation of Technical education programme in Nigeria. The paper took an exploratory view on the concept of strike actions in Nigeria with particular references on notable strike actions that have occurred in Nigeria. The types of strike were explained and…
Tessellating the Sphere with Regular Polygons
Soto-Johnson, Hortensia; Bechthold, Dawn
2004-01-01
Tessellations in the Euclidean plane and regular polygons that tessellate the sphere are reviewed. The regular polygons that can possibly tesellate the sphere are spherical triangles, squares and pentagons.
On the equivalence of different regularization methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brzezowski, S.
1985-01-01
The R-circunflex-operation preceded by the regularization procedure is discussed. Some arguments are given, according to which the results may depend on the method of regularization, introduced in order to avoid divergences in perturbation calculations. 10 refs. (author)
The uniqueness of the regularization procedure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brzezowski, S.
1981-01-01
On the grounds of the BPHZ procedure, the criteria of correct regularization in perturbation calculations of QFT are given, together with the prescription for dividing the regularized formulas into the finite and infinite parts. (author)
Regular pattern formation in real ecosystems
Rietkerk, Max; Koppel, Johan van de
2008-01-01
Localized ecological interactions can generate striking large-scale spatial patterns in ecosystems through spatial self-organization. Possible mechanisms include oscillating consumer–resource interactions, localized disturbance-recovery processes and scale-dependent feedback. Despite abundant
Application of Turchin's method of statistical regularization
Zelenyi, Mikhail; Poliakova, Mariia; Nozik, Alexander; Khudyakov, Alexey
2018-04-01
During analysis of experimental data, one usually needs to restore a signal after it has been convoluted with some kind of apparatus function. According to Hadamard's definition this problem is ill-posed and requires regularization to provide sensible results. In this article we describe an implementation of the Turchin's method of statistical regularization based on the Bayesian approach to the regularization strategy.
Regular extensions of some classes of grammars
Nijholt, Antinus
Culik and Cohen introduced the class of LR-regular grammars, an extension of the LR(k) grammars. In this report we consider the analogous extension of the LL(k) grammers, called the LL-regular grammars. The relations of this class of grammars to other classes of grammars are shown. Every LL-regular
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
A watershed moment of the twentieth century, the end of empire saw upheavals to global power structures and national identities. However, decolonisation profoundly affected individual subjectivities too. Life Writing After Empire examines how people around the globe have made sense of the post...... in order to understand how individual life writing reflects broader societal changes. From far-flung corners of the former British Empire, people have turned to life writing to manage painful or nostalgic memories, as well as to think about the past and future of the nation anew through the personal...
Theological reflections on empire
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Allan A. Boesak
2009-11-01
Full Text Available Since the meeting of the World Alliance of Reformed Churches in Accra, Ghana (2004, and the adoption of the Accra Declaration, a debate has been raging in the churches about globalisation, socio-economic justice, ecological responsibility, political and cultural domination and globalised war. Central to this debate is the concept of empire and the way the United States is increasingly becoming its embodiment. Is the United States a global empire? This article argues that the United States has indeed become the expression of a modern empire and that this reality has considerable consequences, not just for global economics and politics but for theological refl ection as well.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martha I Almanza P.
2010-07-01
description of the genomes general principles. The total number of sequences in the genes of A. thaliana and O. sativa plant genomes and in M. musculus animal genome was obtained from the public data base of the Genebank through algoritms designed in Python programming language. The variables distribution use frequency and gene size, exons and intrones per chromosome and among genomes were analyzed. The results indicated that variable distribution show non lineal patterns of behavior in a power law form, which are statistically different among genomes but no among the chromosomes of the same genome. In the same manner the analysis gave evidences about the constant mean size of the exons sequences and the single genes per chromosome and among genomes. These findings suggest that, first, the genome is self-organized in the same way in the chromosomes independently of the size or the number of genes being contained; second, so the chromosomes as their constituent elements: genes, exones and intrones, have evolved all together. The study points out that the power laws have a buffer roll in the biological variation laws and provide DNA sequences organization quantitative measurements which are defining the identity of the genome. The statistical regularity of these genetic measurements has potential applications in the predicted value increase of the actual models of genetic plant breeding.
Light-induced bird strikes on vessels in Southwest Greenland
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Merkel, Flemming Ravn; Johansen, Kasper Lambert
2011-01-01
Light-induced bird strikes are known to occur when vessels navigate during darkness in icy waters using powerful searchlight. In Southwest Greenland, which is important internationally for wintering seabirds, we collected reports of incidents of bird strikes over 2–3 winters (2006–2009) from navy...... vessels, cargo vessels and trawlers (total n = 19). Forty-one incidents were reported: mainly close to land (birds were reported killed in a single incident. All occurred between 5 p.m. and 6 a.m. and significantly more birds were involved when...... visibility was poor (snow) rather than moderate or good. Among five seabird species reported, the common eider (Somateria mollissima) accounted for 95% of the bird casualties. Based on spatial analyses of data on vessel traffic intensity and common eider density we are able to predict areas with high risk...
Triggered lightning strikes to aircraft and natural intracloud discharges
Mazur, Vladislav
1989-01-01
The physical model of Mazur (1989) for triggering lightning strikes by aircraft was used to interpret the initiation of intracloud flashes observed by the French UHF-VHF interferometric system. It is shown that both the intracloud discharges and airplane-triggered lightning strikes were initiated by simultaneous bidirectional development of the negative stepped leader and the positive leader-continous current process. However, the negative stepped leader phase in triggered flashes is of shorter duration (tens of milliseconds), than that in intracloud flashes (usually hundreds of milliseconds). This is considered to be due to the fact that, on the aircraft there is a single initiation process, versus the numerous initiation processes that occur inside the cloud.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
FIRST LADY
2011-01-18
Jan 18, 2011 ... Empirical results reveal that consumption of sugar in. Kenya varies ... experiences in trade in different regions of the world. Some studies ... To assess the relationship between domestic sugar retail prices and sugar sales in ...
Concept of a Conducting Composite Material for Lightning Strike Protection
Katunin A.; Krukiewicz K.; Herega A.; Catalanotti G.
2016-01-01
The paper focuses on development of a multifunctional material which allows conducting of electrical current and simultaneously holds mechanical properties of a polymeric composite. Such material could be applied for exterior fuselage elements of an aircraft in order to minimize damage occurring during lightning strikes. The concept introduced in this paper is presented from the points of view of various scientific disciplines including materials science, chemistry, structural physics and mec...
2018 NDIA Precision Strike Annual Review (PSAR-18)
2018-03-20
Planning Agenda as of 9 MAR 18 Ginny Sniegon: 703-575-6653 PRECISION STRIKE ANNUAL REVIEW (PSAR-18) 20 MARCH 2018...Ginny Sniegon PSA Programs Vice-Chair: Captain David “Jumbo” Baird, USN Annual Review Chair: Kurt Chankaya Congressional & William J. Perry...0745 PSA ANNUAL REVIEW WELCOME: Ken Masson—PSA Chairman 0755 PSAR-18 OPENING REMARKS: Kurt Chankaya—PSAR-18 Event Chair 0800 CONGRESSIONAL
Oscillation thresholds for "striking outwards" reeds coupled to a resonator
Silva , Fabrice; Kergomard , Jean; Vergez , Christophe
2007-01-01
International audience; This paper considers a "striking outwards" reed coupled to a resonator. This expression, due to Helmholtz, is not discussed here : it corresponds to the most common model of a lip-type valve, when the valve is assumed to be a one degree of freedom oscillator. The presented work is an extension of the works done by Wilson and Beavers (1974), Tarnopolsky (2000). The range of the playing frequencies is investigated. The first results are analytical : when no losses are pr...
F-35 Joint Strike Fighter: Preliminary Observations on Program Progress
2016-03-23
current fighter aircraft. The cost of extending the lives of current fighter aircraft and acquiring other major weapon systems, while continuing to... Norway . Ongoing Manufacturing and Reliability Progress Continue Page 12 GAO-16-489T rework, and repair costs have remained steady over...Program Progress Why GAO Did This Study With estimated acquisition costs of nearly $400 billion, the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter—also known as the
Foot strike pattern in children during shod-unshod running.
Latorre Román, Pedro Ángel; Balboa, Fernando Redondo; Pinillos, Felipe García
2017-10-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the foot strike patterns (FSPs) and neutral support (no INV/EVE and no foot rotation) in children, as well as to determine the influence of shod/unshod conditions and sex. A total of 713 children, aged 6 to 16 years, participated in this study (Age=10.28±2.71years, body mass index [BMI]=19.70±3.91kg/m 2 , 302 girls and 411 boys). A sagittal and frontal-plane video (240Hz) was recorded using a high-speed camcorder, to record the following variables: rearfoot strike (RFS), midfoot strike (MFS), forefoot strike (FFS), inversion/eversion (INV/EVE) and foot rotation on initial contact. RFS prevalence was similar between boys and girls in both shod and unshod conditions. In the unshod condition there was a significant reduction (p<0.001) of RFS prevalence both in boys (shod condition=83.95% vs. 62.65% unshod condition) and in girls (shod condition=87.85% vs. 62.70% unshod condition). No significant differences were found in INV/EVE and foot rotation between sex groups. In the unshod condition there was a significant increase (p<0.001) of neutral support (no INV/EVE) both in boys (shod condition=12.55% vs. 22.22% unshod condition) and in girls (shod condition=17.9% vs. 28.15% unshod condition). In addition, in the unshod condition there is a significant reduction (p<0.001) of neutral support (no foot rotation) both in boys (shod condition=21.55% vs. 11.10% unshod condition) and in girls (shod condition=21.05% vs. 11.95% unshod condition). In children, RFS prevalence is lower than adult's population. Additionally, barefoot running reduced the prevalence of RFS and INV/EVE, however increased foot rotation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Simulating Bird Strike on Aircraft Composite Wing Leading Edge.
Ericsson, Max
2012-01-01
In this master thesis project the possibility to model the response of a wing when subjected to bird strike using finite elements is analyzed. Since this transient event lasts only a few milliseconds the used solution method is explicit time integration. The wing is manufactured using carbon fiber laminate. Carbon fiber laminates have orthotropic material properties with different stiffness in different directions. Accordingly, there are damage mechanisms not considered when using metal that ...
Active strike-slip faulting in El Salvador, Central America
Corti, Giacomo; Carminati, Eugenio; Mazzarini, Francesco; Oziel Garcia, Marvyn
2005-12-01
Several major earthquakes have affected El Salvador, Central America, during the Past 100 yr as a consequence of oblique subduction of the Cocos plate under the Caribbean plate, which is partitioned between trench-orthogonal compression and strike-slip deformation parallel to the volcanic arc. Focal mechanisms and the distribution of the most destructive earthquakes, together with geomorphologic evidence, suggest that this transcurrent component of motion may be accommodated by a major strike-slip fault (El Salvador fault zone). We present field geological, structural, and geomorphological data collected in central El Salvador that allow the constraint of the kinematics and the Quaternary activity of this major seismogenic strike-slip fault system. Data suggest that the El Salvador fault zone consists of at least two main ˜E-W fault segments (San Vicente and Berlin segments), with associated secondary synthetic (WNW-ESE) and antithetic (NNW-SSE) Riedel shears and NW-SE tensional structures. The two main fault segments overlap in a dextral en echelon style with the formation of an intervening pull-apart basin. Our original geological and geomorphologic data suggest a late Pleistocene Holocene slip rate of ˜11 mm/yr along the Berlin segment, in contrast with low historical seismicity. The kinematics and rates of deformation suggested by our new data are consistent with models involving slip partitioning during oblique subduction, and support the notion that a trench-parallel component of motion between the Caribbean and Cocos plates is concentrated along E-W dextral strike-slip faults parallel to the volcanic arc.
Traditional Islamic cities unveiled: the quest for urban design regularity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jorge Correia
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Traditional Islamic cities have generally gathered orientalized gazes and perspectives, picking up from misconceptions and stereotypes that during the second half af the 19th century andwere perpectuated by colonialism. More recent scholarship has shed light on the urban organizationand composition of such tissues; most of them confined to old quarters or historical centres ofthriving contemporary cities within the Arab-Muslim world. In fact, one of the most striking featureshas been the unveiling of layered urban assemblages where exterior agents have somehowlaunched or interrupted an apparent islamicized continuum. Primarly, this paper wishes to search forexternal political factors that have designed regularly geometrized patterns in medium-sized Arabtowns. For that, two case studies from different geographies - Maghreb and the Near East - will bemorphologically analysed through updated urban surveys. Whereas Nablus (Palestine ows the urbanmatrix of its old town to its Roman past, in Azemmour’s medina (Morocco it is still possible to trackthe thin European early-modern colonial stratum. However, both cases show how regularity patternschallenge Western concepts of geometrical design to embrace levels of rationality related to tradionalIslamic urban forms, societal configurations and built environment. Urban morphology becomes afundamental tool for articulating the history with me processes of sedimentation and evolution in orderto read current urban prints and dynamics. Thus, the paper will also interpret alternative logics ofrational urban display in Azemmour and Nablus, linked to ways of living within the Islamic sphere.
Rearfoot striking runners are more economical than midfoot strikers.
Ogueta-Alday, Ana; Rodríguez-Marroyo, José Antonio; García-López, Juan
2014-03-01
This study aimed to analyze the influence of foot strike pattern on running economy and biomechanical characteristics in subelite runners with a similar performance level. Twenty subelite long-distance runners participated and were divided into two groups according to their foot strike pattern: rearfoot (RF, n = 10) and midfoot (MF, n = 10) strikers. Anthropometric characteristics were measured (height, body mass, body mass index, skinfolds, circumferences, and lengths); physiological (VO2max, anaerobic threshold, and running economy) and biomechanical characteristics (contact and flight times, step rate, and step length) were registered during both incremental and submaximal tests on a treadmill. There were no significant intergroup differences in anthropometrics, VO2max, or anaerobic threshold measures. RF strikers were 5.4%, 9.3%, and 5.0% more economical than MF at submaximal speeds (11, 13, and 15 km·h respectively, although the difference was not significant at 15 km·h, P = 0.07). Step rate and step length were not different between groups, but RF showed longer contact time (P Foot strike pattern affected both contact and flight times, which may explain the differences in running economy.
Striking dynamics and kinetic properties of boxing and MMA gloves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benjamin Lee
2014-08-01
Full Text Available With the growing popularity of Mixed Martial Arts (MMA as a competitive sport, questions regarding the dynamic response and properties of MMA gloves arise. High-energy impacts from punches are very similar to boxing yet MMA competition requires the use of 4 oz fingerless glove, compared to the larger full enclosure boxing glove. This work assessed the kinetic properties and strike dynamics of MMA gloves and compared findings with traditional boxing gloves. Gloves mounted on a molded fist were impacted repetitively on an instrumental anvil designed for impact, over a 5 hour period resulting in 10,000 continuous and consistent strikes. Kinetic data from impacts were sampled at the beginning of the data collection and subsequently every 30 minutes (every 1,000 strikes. MMA gloves produced 4-5 times greater peak force and 5 times faster load rate compared to the boxing glove. However, MMA gloves also showed signs of material fatigue, with peak force increasing by 35% and rate of loading increasing by 60% over the duration of the test. Boxing glove characteristics did deteriorate but to a lesser extent. In summary, the kinetic properties of MMA glove differed substantially from the boxing glove resulting in impacts characterized by higher peak forces and more rapid development of force. Material properties including stiffness and thickness play a role in the kinetic characteristics upon impact, and can be inferred to alter injury mechanisms of blunt force trauma.
Class of regular bouncing cosmologies
Vasilić, Milovan
2017-06-01
In this paper, I construct a class of everywhere regular geometric sigma models that possess bouncing solutions. Precisely, I show that every bouncing metric can be made a solution of such a model. My previous attempt to do so by employing one scalar field has failed due to the appearance of harmful singularities near the bounce. In this work, I use four scalar fields to construct a class of geometric sigma models which are free of singularities. The models within the class are parametrized by their background geometries. I prove that, whatever background is chosen, the dynamics of its small perturbations is classically stable on the whole time axis. Contrary to what one expects from the structure of the initial Lagrangian, the physics of background fluctuations is found to carry two tensor, two vector, and two scalar degrees of freedom. The graviton mass, which naturally appears in these models, is shown to be several orders of magnitude smaller than its experimental bound. I provide three simple examples to demonstrate how this is done in practice. In particular, I show that graviton mass can be made arbitrarily small.
Iterative regularization in intensity-modulated radiation therapy optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlsson, Fredrik; Forsgren, Anders
2006-01-01
A common way to solve intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) optimization problems is to use a beamlet-based approach. The approach is usually employed in a three-step manner: first a beamlet-weight optimization problem is solved, then the fluence profiles are converted into step-and-shoot segments, and finally postoptimization of the segment weights is performed. A drawback of beamlet-based approaches is that beamlet-weight optimization problems are ill-conditioned and have to be regularized in order to produce smooth fluence profiles that are suitable for conversion. The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to explain the suitability of solving beamlet-based IMRT problems by a BFGS quasi-Newton sequential quadratic programming method with diagonal initial Hessian estimate, and second, to empirically show that beamlet-weight optimization problems should be solved in relatively few iterations when using this optimization method. The explanation of the suitability is based on viewing the optimization method as an iterative regularization method. In iterative regularization, the optimization problem is solved approximately by iterating long enough to obtain a solution close to the optimal one, but terminating before too much noise occurs. Iterative regularization requires an optimization method that initially proceeds in smooth directions and makes rapid initial progress. Solving ten beamlet-based IMRT problems with dose-volume objectives and bounds on the beamlet-weights, we find that the considered optimization method fulfills the requirements for performing iterative regularization. After segment-weight optimization, the treatments obtained using 35 beamlet-weight iterations outperform the treatments obtained using 100 beamlet-weight iterations, both in terms of objective value and of target uniformity. We conclude that iterating too long may in fact deteriorate the quality of the deliverable plan
Domain dependent associations between cognitive functioning and regular voluntary exercise behavior
Swagerman, Suzanne C; de Geus, Eco J C; Koenis, Marinka M G; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kan, Kees-Jan
Regular exercise has often been suggested to have beneficial effects on cognition, but empirical findings are mixed because of heterogeneity in sample composition (age and sex); the cognitive domain being investigated; the definition and reliability of exercise behavior measures; and study design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gantschnig, Brigitte E.; Hemmingsson, Helena; la Cour, Karen
2011-01-01
with disabilities appreciated attending regular schools. Being a part of school life was identified to include experiences of participation and nonparticipation. Different aspects of the environment influence experiences of participation and awareness of differences are facilitated through interaction with peers....... Together, the findings complement empirical insights to the understanding of experienced and performed involvement combined with subjective dimensions of environmental features that influence participation....
Domain dependent associations between cognitive functioning and regular voluntary exercise behavior
Swagerman, S.C.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Koenis, M.M.G.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; Boomsma, D.I.; Kan, K.J.
2015-01-01
Regular exercise has often been suggested to have beneficial effects on cognition, but empirical findings are mixed because of heterogeneity in sample composition (age and sex); the cognitive domain being investigated; the definition and reliability of exercise behavior measures; and study design
Stochastic dynamic modeling of regular and slow earthquakes
Aso, N.; Ando, R.; Ide, S.
2017-12-01
Both regular and slow earthquakes are slip phenomena on plate boundaries and are simulated by a (quasi-)dynamic modeling [Liu and Rice, 2005]. In these numerical simulations, spatial heterogeneity is usually considered not only for explaining real physical properties but also for evaluating the stability of the calculations or the sensitivity of the results on the condition. However, even though we discretize the model space with small grids, heterogeneity at smaller scales than the grid size is not considered in the models with deterministic governing equations. To evaluate the effect of heterogeneity at the smaller scales we need to consider stochastic interactions between slip and stress in a dynamic modeling. Tidal stress is known to trigger or affect both regular and slow earthquakes [Yabe et al., 2015; Ide et al., 2016], and such an external force with fluctuation can also be considered as a stochastic external force. A healing process of faults may also be stochastic, so we introduce stochastic friction law. In the present study, we propose a stochastic dynamic model to explain both regular and slow earthquakes. We solve mode III problem, which corresponds to the rupture propagation along the strike direction. We use BIEM (boundary integral equation method) scheme to simulate slip evolution, but we add stochastic perturbations in the governing equations, which is usually written in a deterministic manner. As the simplest type of perturbations, we adopt Gaussian deviations in the formulation of the slip-stress kernel, external force, and friction. By increasing the amplitude of perturbations of the slip-stress kernel, we reproduce complicated rupture process of regular earthquakes including unilateral and bilateral ruptures. By perturbing external force, we reproduce slow rupture propagation at a scale of km/day. The slow propagation generated by a combination of fast interaction at S-wave velocity is analogous to the kinetic theory of gasses: thermal
Neely, J. S.; Huang, Y.; Furlong, K.
2017-12-01
Subduction-Transform Edge Propagator (STEP) faults, produced by the tearing of a subducting plate, allow us to study the development of a transform plate boundary and improve our understanding of both long-term geologic processes and short-term seismic hazards. The 280 km long San Cristobal Trough (SCT), formed by the tearing of the Australia plate as it subducts under the Pacific plate near the Solomon and Vanuatu subduction zones, shows along-strike variations in earthquake behaviors. The segment of the SCT closest to the tear rarely hosts earthquakes > Mw 6, whereas the SCT sections more than 80 - 100 km from the tear experience Mw7 earthquakes with repeated rupture along the same segments. To understand the effect of cumulative displacement on SCT seismicity, we analyze b-values, centroid-time delays and corner frequencies of the SCT earthquakes. We use the spectral ratio method based on Empirical Green's Functions (eGfs) to isolate source effects from propagation and site effects. We find high b-values along the SCT closest to the tear with values decreasing with distance before finally increasing again towards the far end of the SCT. Centroid time-delays for the Mw 7 strike-slip earthquakes increase with distance from the tear, but corner frequency estimates for a recent sequence of Mw 7 earthquakes are approximately equal, indicating a growing complexity in earthquake behavior with distance from the tear due to a displacement-driven transform boundary development process (see figure). The increasing complexity possibly stems from the earthquakes along the eastern SCT rupturing through multiple asperities resulting in multiple moment pulses. If not for the bounding Vanuatu subduction zone at the far end of the SCT, the eastern SCT section, which has experienced the most displacement, might be capable of hosting larger earthquakes. When assessing the seismic hazard of other STEP faults, cumulative fault displacement should be considered a key input in
A Variance Minimization Criterion to Feature Selection Using Laplacian Regularization.
He, Xiaofei; Ji, Ming; Zhang, Chiyuan; Bao, Hujun
2011-10-01
In many information processing tasks, one is often confronted with very high-dimensional data. Feature selection techniques are designed to find the meaningful feature subset of the original features which can facilitate clustering, classification, and retrieval. In this paper, we consider the feature selection problem in unsupervised learning scenarios, which is particularly difficult due to the absence of class labels that would guide the search for relevant information. Based on Laplacian regularized least squares, which finds a smooth function on the data manifold and minimizes the empirical loss, we propose two novel feature selection algorithms which aim to minimize the expected prediction error of the regularized regression model. Specifically, we select those features such that the size of the parameter covariance matrix of the regularized regression model is minimized. Motivated from experimental design, we use trace and determinant operators to measure the size of the covariance matrix. Efficient computational schemes are also introduced to solve the corresponding optimization problems. Extensive experimental results over various real-life data sets have demonstrated the superiority of the proposed algorithms.
Kim, Seyoung; Park, Sukyung
2012-01-10
Humans use equal push-off and heel strike work during the double support phase to minimize the mechanical work done on the center of mass (CoM) during the gait. Recently, a step-to-step transition was reported to occur over a period of time greater than that of the double support phase, which brings into question whether the energetic optimality is sensitive to the definition of the step-to-step transition. To answer this question, the ground reaction forces (GRFs) of seven normal human subjects walking at four different speeds (1.1-2.4 m/s) were measured, and the push-off and heel strike work for three differently defined step-to-step transitions were computed based on the force, work, and velocity. To examine the optimality of the work and the impulse data, a hybrid theoretical-empirical analysis is presented using a dynamic walking model that allows finite time for step-to-step transitions and incorporates the effects of gravity within this period. The changes in the work and impulse were examined parametrically across a range of speeds. The results showed that the push-off work on the CoM was well balanced by the heel strike work for all three definitions of the step-to-step transition. The impulse data were well matched by the optimal impulse predictions (R(2)>0.7) that minimized the mechanical work done on the CoM during the gait. The results suggest that the balance of push-off and heel strike energy is a consistent property arising from the overall gait dynamics, which implies an inherited oscillatory behavior of the CoM, possibly by spring-like leg mechanics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Empirical philosophy of science
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wagenknecht, Susann; Nersessian, Nancy J.; Andersen, Hanne
2015-01-01
A growing number of philosophers of science make use of qualitative empirical data, a development that may reconfigure the relations between philosophy and sociology of science and that is reminiscent of efforts to integrate history and philosophy of science. Therefore, the first part...... of this introduction to the volume Empirical Philosophy of Science outlines the history of relations between philosophy and sociology of science on the one hand, and philosophy and history of science on the other. The second part of this introduction offers an overview of the papers in the volume, each of which...... is giving its own answer to questions such as: Why does the use of qualitative empirical methods benefit philosophical accounts of science? And how should these methods be used by the philosopher?...
Adaptive regularization of noisy linear inverse problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Lars Kai; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Lehn-Schiøler, Tue
2006-01-01
In the Bayesian modeling framework there is a close relation between regularization and the prior distribution over parameters. For prior distributions in the exponential family, we show that the optimal hyper-parameter, i.e., the optimal strength of regularization, satisfies a simple relation: T......: The expectation of the regularization function, i.e., takes the same value in the posterior and prior distribution. We present three examples: two simulations, and application in fMRI neuroimaging....
Higher derivative regularization and chiral anomaly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagahama, Yoshinori.
1985-02-01
A higher derivative regularization which automatically leads to the consistent chiral anomaly is analyzed in detail. It explicitly breaks all the local gauge symmetry but preserves global chiral symmetry and leads to the chirally symmetric consistent anomaly. This regularization thus clarifies the physics content contained in the consistent anomaly. We also briefly comment on the application of this higher derivative regularization to massless QED. (author)
Regularity effect in prospective memory during aging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Geoffrey Blondelle
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Background: Regularity effect can affect performance in prospective memory (PM, but little is known on the cognitive processes linked to this effect. Moreover, its impacts with regard to aging remain unknown. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine regularity effect in PM in a lifespan perspective, with a sample of young, intermediate, and older adults. Objective and design: Our study examined the regularity effect in PM in three groups of participants: 28 young adults (18–30, 16 intermediate adults (40–55, and 25 older adults (65–80. The task, adapted from the Virtual Week, was designed to manipulate the regularity of the various activities of daily life that were to be recalled (regular repeated activities vs. irregular non-repeated activities. We examine the role of several cognitive functions including certain dimensions of executive functions (planning, inhibition, shifting, and binding, short-term memory, and retrospective episodic memory to identify those involved in PM, according to regularity and age. Results: A mixed-design ANOVA showed a main effect of task regularity and an interaction between age and regularity: an age-related difference in PM performances was found for irregular activities (older < young, but not for regular activities. All participants recalled more regular activities than irregular ones with no age effect. It appeared that recalling of regular activities only involved planning for both intermediate and older adults, while recalling of irregular ones were linked to planning, inhibition, short-term memory, binding, and retrospective episodic memory. Conclusion: Taken together, our data suggest that planning capacities seem to play a major role in remembering to perform intended actions with advancing age. Furthermore, the age-PM-paradox may be attenuated when the experimental design is adapted by implementing a familiar context through the use of activities of daily living. The clinical
Regularity effect in prospective memory during aging
Blondelle, Geoffrey; Hainselin, Mathieu; Gounden, Yannick; Heurley, Laurent; Voisin, Hélène; Megalakaki, Olga; Bressous, Estelle; Quaglino, Véronique
2016-01-01
Background: Regularity effect can affect performance in prospective memory (PM), but little is known on the cognitive processes linked to this effect. Moreover, its impacts with regard to aging remain unknown. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine regularity effect in PM in a lifespan perspective, with a sample of young, intermediate, and older adults.Objective and design: Our study examined the regularity effect in PM in three groups of participants: 28 young adults (18–30), 1...
Regularization and error assignment to unfolded distributions
Zech, Gunter
2011-01-01
The commonly used approach to present unfolded data only in graphical formwith the diagonal error depending on the regularization strength is unsatisfac-tory. It does not permit the adjustment of parameters of theories, the exclusionof theories that are admitted by the observed data and does not allow the com-bination of data from different experiments. We propose fixing the regulariza-tion strength by a p-value criterion, indicating the experimental uncertaintiesindependent of the regularization and publishing the unfolded data in additionwithout regularization. These considerations are illustrated with three differentunfolding and smoothing approaches applied to a toy example.
Iterative Regularization with Minimum-Residual Methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Hansen, Per Christian
2007-01-01
subspaces. We provide a combination of theory and numerical examples, and our analysis confirms the experience that MINRES and MR-II can work as general regularization methods. We also demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the same is not true, in general, for GMRES and RRGMRES their success......We study the regularization properties of iterative minimum-residual methods applied to discrete ill-posed problems. In these methods, the projection onto the underlying Krylov subspace acts as a regularizer, and the emphasis of this work is on the role played by the basis vectors of these Krylov...... as regularization methods is highly problem dependent....
Iterative regularization with minimum-residual methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Hansen, Per Christian
2006-01-01
subspaces. We provide a combination of theory and numerical examples, and our analysis confirms the experience that MINRES and MR-II can work as general regularization methods. We also demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the same is not true, in general, for GMRES and RRGMRES - their success......We study the regularization properties of iterative minimum-residual methods applied to discrete ill-posed problems. In these methods, the projection onto the underlying Krylov subspace acts as a regularizer, and the emphasis of this work is on the role played by the basis vectors of these Krylov...... as regularization methods is highly problem dependent....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gravier, Magali
2011-01-01
The article discusses the concepts of federation and empire in the context of the European Union (EU). Even if these two concepts are not usually contrasted to one another, the article shows that they refer to related type of polities. Furthermore, they can be used at a time because they shed light...... on different and complementary aspects of the European integration process. The article concludes that the EU is at the crossroads between federation and empire and may remain an ‘imperial federation’ for several decades. This could mean that the EU is on the verge of transforming itself to another type...
Empirical comparison of theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Opp, K.D.; Wippler, R.
1990-01-01
The book represents the first, comprehensive attempt to take an empirical approach for comparative assessment of theories in sociology. The aims, problems, and advantages of the empirical approach are discussed in detail, and the three theories selected for the purpose of this work are explained. Their comparative assessment is performed within the framework of several research projects, which among other subjects also investigate the social aspects of the protest against nuclear power plants. The theories analysed in this context are the theory of mental incongruities and that of the benefit, and their efficiency in explaining protest behaviour is compared. (orig./HSCH) [de
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grund, Cynthia M.
The toolbox for empirically exploring the ways that artistic endeavors convey and activate meaning on the part of performers and audiences continues to expand. Current work employing methods at the intersection of performance studies, philosophy, motion capture and neuroscience to better understand...... musical performance and reception is inspired by traditional approaches within aesthetics, but it also challenges some of the presuppositions inherent in them. As an example of such work I present a research project in empirical music aesthetics begun last year and of which I am a team member....
The effects of preferred and non-preferred running strike patterns on tissue vibration properties.
Enders, Hendrik; von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Nigg, Benno M
2014-03-01
To characterize soft tissue vibrations during running with a preferred and a non-preferred strike pattern in shoes and barefoot. Cross-sectional study. Participants ran at 3.5 m s(-1) on a treadmill in shoes and barefoot using a rearfoot and a forefoot strike for each footwear condition. The preferred strike patterns for the subjects were a rearfoot strike and a forefoot strike for shod and barefoot running, respectively. Vibrations were recorded with an accelerometer overlying the belly of the medial gastrocnemius. Thirteen non-linearly scaled wavelets were used for the analysis. Damping was calculated as the overall decay of power in the acceleration signal post ground contact. A higher damping coefficient indicates higher damping capacities of the soft tissue. The shod rearfoot strike showed a 93% lower damping coefficient than the shod forefoot strike (pforefoot strike showed a trend toward a lower damping coefficient compared to a barefoot rearfoot strike. Running barefoot with a forefoot strike resulted in a significantly lower damping coefficient than a forefoot strike when wearing shoes (pstrike showed lower damping compared to a barefoot rearfoot strike (p<0.001). While rearfoot striking showed lower vibration frequencies in shod and barefoot running, it did not consistently result in lower damping coefficients. This study showed that the use of a preferred movement resulted in lower damping coefficients of running related soft tissue vibrations. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Is the foot striking pattern more important than barefoot or shod conditions in running?
Shih, Yo; Lin, Kuan-Lun; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang
2013-07-01
People have advocated barefoot running, claiming that it is better suited to human nature. Humans usually run barefoot using a forefoot strike and run shod using a heel strike. The striking pattern was thought to be a key factor that contributes to the benefit of barefoot running. The purpose of this study is to use scientific data to prove that the striking pattern is more important than barefoot or shod conditions for runners on running injuries prevention. Twelve habitually male shod runners were recruited to run under four varying conditions: barefoot running with a forefoot strike, barefoot running with a heel strike, shod running with a forefoot strike, and shod running with a heel strike. Kinetic and kinematic data and electromyography signals were recorded during the experiments. The results showed that the lower extremity can gain more compliance when running with a forefoot strike. Habitually shod runners can gain more shock absorption by changing the striking pattern to a forefoot strike when running with shoes and barefoot conditions. Habitually shod runners may be subject to injuries more easily when they run barefoot while maintaining their heel strike pattern. Higher muscle activity in the gastrocnemius was observed when running with a forefoot strike, which may imply a greater training load on the muscle and a tendency for injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Patellofemoral joint stress during running with alterations in foot strike pattern.
Vannatta, Charles Nathan; Kernozek, Thomas W
2015-05-01
This study aimed to quantify differences in patellofemoral joint stress that may occur when healthy runners alter their foot strike pattern from their habitual rearfoot strike to a forefoot strike to gain insight on the potential etiology and treatment methods of patellofemoral pain. Sixteen healthy female runners completed 20 running trials in a controlled laboratory setting under rearfoot strike and forefoot strike conditions. Kinetic and kinematic data were used to drive a static optimization technique to estimate individual muscle forces to input into a model of the patellofemoral joint to estimate joint stress during running. Peak patellofemoral joint stress and the stress-time integral over stance phase decreased by 27% and 12%, respectively, in the forefoot strike condition (P forefoot strike condition (P forefoot strike (P forefoot strike condition (P strike pattern to a forefoot strike results in consistent reductions in patellofemoral joint stress independent of changes in step length. Thus, implementation of forefoot strike training programs may be warranted in the treatment of runners with patellofemoral pain. However, it is suggested that the transition to a forefoot strike pattern should be completed in a graduated manner.
Global Strike 2035: Considerations for Enabling Effective Command and Control
2012-02-16
reach places .1 Broadly grouped under the moniker Global Strike,2 this family-of-systems capability should mature by 2035 leading to the realization of...and] ‘micro-actors with massive impact,’…[combine] with new technology and new or transfigured ways of war, but the old threats also remain and have...as the Joint Time-Sensitive Targets Manager (JTSTM),38 “operators and analysts [could] access the same dynamic common operating picture…to provide
Principles Governing the Mechanics and Control of Snake Strikes
2015-06-26
small, potentially evasive target with an impact sufficient for prey capture but without 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13...strike a small, potentially evasive target with an impact sufficient for prey capture but without damaging their lightly-built skull. Although the...p o rt io n o f To ta l M as s Segment Number Boa/Python Mean Colubrid Mean Viper Mean Figure 3 – Proportion of body mass in each of 10 equal-length
The role of trade union organization in solving labor disputes and strikes in Vietnam
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nguen T.H.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available the article describes the role of the trade union organization in solving labor disputes and strikes and the legal basis of the role of trade union organization in solving labor disputes and strikes in Vietnam.
Empirical research through design
Keyson, D.V.; Bruns, M.
2009-01-01
This paper describes the empirical research through design method (ERDM), which differs from current approaches to research through design by enforcing the need for the designer, after a series of pilot prototype based studies, to a-priori develop a number of testable interaction design hypothesis
Essays in empirical microeconomics
Péter, A.N.
2016-01-01
The empirical studies in this thesis investigate various factors that could affect individuals' labor market, family formation and educational outcomes. Chapter 2 focuses on scheduling as a potential determinant of individuals' productivity. Chapter 3 looks at the role of a family factor on
Worship, Reflection, Empirical Research
Ding Dong,
2012-01-01
In my youth, I was a worshipper of Mao Zedong. From the latter stage of the Mao Era to the early years of Reform and Opening, I began to reflect on Mao and the Communist Revolution he launched. In recent years I’ve devoted myself to empirical historical research on Mao, seeking the truth about Mao and China’s modern history.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bang, Peter Fibiger
2007-01-01
This articles seeks to establish a new set of organizing concepts for the analysis of the Roman imperial economy from Republic to late antiquity: tributary empire, port-folio capitalism and protection costs. Together these concepts explain better economic developments in the Roman world than the...
Empirically sampling Universal Dependencies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schluter, Natalie; Agic, Zeljko
2017-01-01
Universal Dependencies incur a high cost in computation for unbiased system development. We propose a 100% empirically chosen small subset of UD languages for efficient parsing system development. The technique used is based on measurements of model capacity globally. We show that the diversity o...
THE EFFECT OF STEP RATE MANIPULATION ON FOOT STRIKE PATTERN OF LONG DISTANCE RUNNERS.
Allen, Darrell J; Heisler, Hollie; Mooney, Jennifer; Kring, Richard
2016-02-01
Running gait retraining to change foot strike pattern in runners from a heel strike pattern to a non heel- strike pattern has been shown to reduce impact forces and may help to reduce running related injuries. Step rate manipulation above preferred is known to help decrease step length, foot inclination angle, and vertical mass excursion, but has not yet been evaluated as a method to change foot strike pattern. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of step rate manipulation on foot strike pattern in shod recreational runners who run with a heel strike pattern. A secondary purpose was to describe the effect of step rate manipulation at specific percentages above preferred on foot inclination angle at initial contact. Forty volunteer runners, who were self-reported heel strikers and had a weekly running mileage of at least 10 miles, were recruited. Runners were confirmed to be heel strikers during the warm up period on the treadmill. The subject's step rate was determined at their preferred running pace. A metronome was used to increase step rate above the preferred step rate by 5%, 10% and 15%. 2D video motion analysis was utilized to determine foot strike pattern and to measure foot inclination angle at initial contact for each step rate condition. There was a statistically significant change in foot strike pattern from a heel strike pattern to a mid-foot or forefoot strike pattern at both 10% and 15% step rates above preferred. Seven of the 40 subjects (17.5%) changed from a heel- strike pattern to a non- heel strike pattern at +10% and 12 of the 40 subjects (30%) changed to a non-heel strike pattern at +15%. Mean foot inclination angle at initial contact showed a statistically significant change (reduction) as step rate increased. Step rate manipulation of 10% or greater may be enough to change foot strike pattern from a heel strike to a mid-foot or forefoot strike pattern in a small percentage of recreational runners who run in traditional
Onset of aseismic creep on major strike-slip faults
Ç akir, Ziyadin; Ergintav, Semih; Ö zener, Haluk; Doǧan, Uǧur; Akoglu, Ahmet; Meghraoui, Mustapha; Reilinger, Robert E.
2012-01-01
Time series analysis of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data, GPS measurements, and fi eld observations reveal that the central section of the Izmit (Turkey) fault that slipped with a supershear rupture velocity in the A.D. 1999, Mw7.4, Izmit earthquake began creeping aseismically following the earthquake. Rapid initial postseismic afterslip decayed logarithmically with time and appears to have reached a steady rate comparable to the preearthquake full fault-crossing rate, suggesting that it may continue for decades and possibly until late in the earthquake cycle. If confi rmed by future monitoring, these observations identify postseismic afterslip as a mechanism for initiating creep behavior along strike-slip faults. Long-term afterslip and/or creep has signifi cant implications for earthquake cycle models, recurrence intervals of large earthquakes, and accordingly, seismic hazard estimation along mature strike-slip faults, in particular for Istanbul which is believed to lie adjacent to a seismic gap along the North Anatolian fault in the Sea of Marmara. © 2012 Geological Society of America.
Onset of aseismic creep on major strike-slip faults
Çakir, Ziyadin
2012-10-02
Time series analysis of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data, GPS measurements, and fi eld observations reveal that the central section of the Izmit (Turkey) fault that slipped with a supershear rupture velocity in the A.D. 1999, Mw7.4, Izmit earthquake began creeping aseismically following the earthquake. Rapid initial postseismic afterslip decayed logarithmically with time and appears to have reached a steady rate comparable to the preearthquake full fault-crossing rate, suggesting that it may continue for decades and possibly until late in the earthquake cycle. If confi rmed by future monitoring, these observations identify postseismic afterslip as a mechanism for initiating creep behavior along strike-slip faults. Long-term afterslip and/or creep has signifi cant implications for earthquake cycle models, recurrence intervals of large earthquakes, and accordingly, seismic hazard estimation along mature strike-slip faults, in particular for Istanbul which is believed to lie adjacent to a seismic gap along the North Anatolian fault in the Sea of Marmara. © 2012 Geological Society of America.
PSpice Model of Lightning Strike to a Steel Reinforced Structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koone, Neil; Condren, Brian
2003-01-01
Surges and arcs from lightning can pose hazards to personnel and sensitive equipment, and processes. Steel reinforcement in structures can act as a Faraday cage mitigating lightning effects. Knowing a structure's response to a lightning strike allows hazards associated with lightning to be analyzed. A model of lightning's response in a steel reinforced structure has been developed using PSpice (a commercial circuit simulation). Segments of rebar are modeled as inductors and resistors in series. A program has been written to take architectural information of a steel reinforced structure and 'build' a circuit network that is analogous to the network of reinforcement in a facility. A severe current waveform (simulating a 99th percentile lightning strike), modeled as a current source, is introduced in the circuit network, and potential differences within the structure are determined using PSpice. A visual three-dimensional model of the facility displays the voltage distribution across the structure using color to indicate the potential difference relative to the floor. Clear air arcing distances can be calculated from the voltage distribution using a conservative value for the dielectric breakdown strength of air. Potential validation tests for the model will be presented
SparseBeads data: benchmarking sparsity-regularized computed tomography
Jørgensen, Jakob S.; Coban, Sophia B.; Lionheart, William R. B.; McDonald, Samuel A.; Withers, Philip J.
2017-12-01
Sparsity regularization (SR) such as total variation (TV) minimization allows accurate image reconstruction in x-ray computed tomography (CT) from fewer projections than analytical methods. Exactly how few projections suffice and how this number may depend on the image remain poorly understood. Compressive sensing connects the critical number of projections to the image sparsity, but does not cover CT, however empirical results suggest a similar connection. The present work establishes for real CT data a connection between gradient sparsity and the sufficient number of projections for accurate TV-regularized reconstruction. A collection of 48 x-ray CT datasets called SparseBeads was designed for benchmarking SR reconstruction algorithms. Beadpacks comprising glass beads of five different sizes as well as mixtures were scanned in a micro-CT scanner to provide structured datasets with variable image sparsity levels, number of projections and noise levels to allow the systematic assessment of parameters affecting performance of SR reconstruction algorithms6. Using the SparseBeads data, TV-regularized reconstruction quality was assessed as a function of numbers of projections and gradient sparsity. The critical number of projections for satisfactory TV-regularized reconstruction increased almost linearly with the gradient sparsity. This establishes a quantitative guideline from which one may predict how few projections to acquire based on expected sample sparsity level as an aid in planning of dose- or time-critical experiments. The results are expected to hold for samples of similar characteristics, i.e. consisting of few, distinct phases with relatively simple structure. Such cases are plentiful in porous media, composite materials, foams, as well as non-destructive testing and metrology. For samples of other characteristics the proposed methodology may be used to investigate similar relations.
A regularized stationary mean-field game
Yang, Xianjin
2016-01-01
In the thesis, we discuss the existence and numerical approximations of solutions of a regularized mean-field game with a low-order regularization. In the first part, we prove a priori estimates and use the continuation method to obtain the existence of a solution with a positive density. Finally, we introduce the monotone flow method and solve the system numerically.
A regularized stationary mean-field game
Yang, Xianjin
2016-04-19
In the thesis, we discuss the existence and numerical approximations of solutions of a regularized mean-field game with a low-order regularization. In the first part, we prove a priori estimates and use the continuation method to obtain the existence of a solution with a positive density. Finally, we introduce the monotone flow method and solve the system numerically.
On infinite regular and chiral maps
Arredondo, John A.; Valdez, Camilo Ramírez y Ferrán
2015-01-01
We prove that infinite regular and chiral maps take place on surfaces with at most one end. Moreover, we prove that an infinite regular or chiral map on an orientable surface with genus can only be realized on the Loch Ness monster, that is, the topological surface of infinite genus with one end.
From recreational to regular drug use
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Järvinen, Margaretha; Ravn, Signe
2011-01-01
This article analyses the process of going from recreational use to regular and problematic use of illegal drugs. We present a model containing six career contingencies relevant for young people’s progress from recreational to regular drug use: the closing of social networks, changes in forms...
Automating InDesign with Regular Expressions
Kahrel, Peter
2006-01-01
If you need to make automated changes to InDesign documents beyond what basic search and replace can handle, you need regular expressions, and a bit of scripting to make them work. This Short Cut explains both how to write regular expressions, so you can find and replace the right things, and how to use them in InDesign specifically.
Regularization modeling for large-eddy simulation
Geurts, Bernardus J.; Holm, D.D.
2003-01-01
A new modeling approach for large-eddy simulation (LES) is obtained by combining a "regularization principle" with an explicit filter and its inversion. This regularization approach allows a systematic derivation of the implied subgrid model, which resolves the closure problem. The central role of
2010-07-01
... employee under subsection (a) or in excess of the employee's normal working hours or regular working hours... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR... not less than one and one-half times their regular rates of pay. Section 7(e) of the Act defines...
Foot strike and injury rates in endurance runners: a retrospective study.
Daoud, Adam I; Geissler, Gary J; Wang, Frank; Saretsky, Jason; Daoud, Yahya A; Lieberman, Daniel E
2012-07-01
This retrospective study tests if runners who habitually forefoot strike have different rates of injury than runners who habitually rearfoot strike. We measured the strike characteristics of middle- and long-distance runners from a collegiate cross-country team and quantified their history of injury, including the incidence and rate of specific injuries, the severity of each injury, and the rate of mild, moderate, and severe injuries per mile run. Of the 52 runners studied, 36 (69%) primarily used a rearfoot strike and 16 (31%) primarily used a forefoot strike. Approximately 74% of runners experienced a moderate or severe injury each year, but those who habitually rearfoot strike had approximately twice the rate of repetitive stress injuries than individuals who habitually forefoot strike. Traumatic injury rates were not significantly different between the two groups. A generalized linear model showed that strike type, sex, race distance, and average miles per week each correlate significantly (P strike have significantly higher rates of repetitive stress injury than those who mostly forefoot strike. This study does not test the causal bases for this general difference. One hypothesis, which requires further research, is that the absence of a marked impact peak in the ground reaction force during a forefoot strike compared with a rearfoot strike may contribute to lower rates of injuries in habitual forefoot strikers.
Causes of falls of hangingwall over gullies adjacent to stabilizing strike pillars
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Turner, PA
1987-08-01
Full Text Available This report discusses the occurrence of falls of ground in strike gullies. Falls of hangingwall over strike gullies on the up-dip side of strike stabilizing pillars in longwall mining systems were investigated. Gullies were examined in both...
Kernozek, Thomas W; Vannatta, Charles N; Gheidi, Naghmeh; Kraus, Sydnie; Aminaka, Naoko
2016-03-01
Characterize plantar loading parameters when habitually rear foot strike (RFS) runners change their pattern to a non-rear foot strike (NRFS). Experimental. University biomechanics laboratory. Twenty three healthy female runners (Age: 22.17 ± 1.64 yrs; Height: 168.91 ± 5.46 cm; Mass: 64.29 ± 7.11 kg). Plantar loading was measured using an in-sole pressure sensor while running down a 20-m runway restricted to a range of 3.52-3.89 m/s under two conditions, using the runner's typical RFS, and an adapted NRFS pattern. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance was performed to detect differences in loading between these two conditions. Force and pressure variables were greater in the forefoot and phalanx in NRFS and greater in the heel and mid foot in RFS pattern, but the total force imposed upon the whole foot and contact time remained similar between conditions. Total peak pressure was higher and contact area was lower during NRFS running. The primary finding of this investigation is that there are distinctly different plantar loads when changing from a RFS to NRFS during running. So, during a transition from RFS to a NRFS pattern; a period of acclimation should be considered to allow for adaptations to these novel loads incurred on plantar regions of the foot. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
An iterative method for Tikhonov regularization with a general linear regularization operator
Hochstenbach, M.E.; Reichel, L.
2010-01-01
Tikhonov regularization is one of the most popular approaches to solve discrete ill-posed problems with error-contaminated data. A regularization operator and a suitable value of a regularization parameter have to be chosen. This paper describes an iterative method, based on Golub-Kahan
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasch, Astrid
of the collective, but insufficient attention has been paid to how individuals respond to such narrative changes. This dissertation examines the relationship between individual and collective memory at the end of empire through analysis of 13 end of empire autobiographies by public intellectuals from Australia......Decolonisation was a major event of the twentieth century, redrawing maps and impacting on identity narratives around the globe. As new nations defined their place in the world, the national and imperial past was retold in new cultural memories. These developments have been studied at the level......, the Anglophone Caribbean and Zimbabwe. I conceive of memory as reconstructive and social, with individual memory striving to make sense of the past in the present in dialogue with surrounding narratives. By examining recurring tropes in the autobiographies, like colonial education, journeys to the imperial...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guillemoles, A.; Lazareva, A.
2008-01-01
Gazprom is conquering the world. The Russian industrial giant owns the hugest gas reserves and enjoys the privilege of a considerable power. Gazprom edits journals, owns hospitals, airplanes and has even built cities where most of the habitants work for him. With 400000 workers, Gazprom represents 8% of Russia's GDP. This inquiry describes the history and operation of this empire and show how its has become a masterpiece of the government's strategy of russian influence reconquest at the world scale. Is it going to be a winning game? Are the corruption affairs and the expected depletion of resources going to weaken the empire? The authors shade light on the political and diplomatic strategies that are played around the crucial dossier of the energy supply. (J.S.)
Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2012-11-19
Background: Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods.Results: To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods.Conclusion: The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications. 2012 Wang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Bensmail, Halima; Gao, Xin
2012-01-01
Background: Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods.Results: To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods.Conclusion: The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications. 2012 Wang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Hierarchical regular small-world networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boettcher, Stefan; Goncalves, Bruno; Guclu, Hasan
2008-01-01
Two new networks are introduced that resemble small-world properties. These networks are recursively constructed but retain a fixed, regular degree. They possess a unique one-dimensional lattice backbone overlaid by a hierarchical sequence of long-distance links, mixing real-space and small-world features. Both networks, one 3-regular and the other 4-regular, lead to distinct behaviors, as revealed by renormalization group studies. The 3-regular network is planar, has a diameter growing as √N with system size N, and leads to super-diffusion with an exact, anomalous exponent d w = 1.306..., but possesses only a trivial fixed point T c = 0 for the Ising ferromagnet. In turn, the 4-regular network is non-planar, has a diameter growing as ∼2 √(log 2 N 2 ) , exhibits 'ballistic' diffusion (d w = 1), and a non-trivial ferromagnetic transition, T c > 0. It suggests that the 3-regular network is still quite 'geometric', while the 4-regular network qualifies as a true small world with mean-field properties. As an engineering application we discuss synchronization of processors on these networks. (fast track communication)
Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking.
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Bensmail, Halima; Gao, Xin
2012-11-19
Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods. To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods. The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications.
Coupling regularizes individual units in noisy populations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ly Cheng; Ermentrout, G. Bard
2010-01-01
The regularity of a noisy system can modulate in various ways. It is well known that coupling in a population can lower the variability of the entire network; the collective activity is more regular. Here, we show that diffusive (reciprocal) coupling of two simple Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (O-U) processes can regularize the individual, even when it is coupled to a noisier process. In cellular networks, the regularity of individual cells is important when a select few play a significant role. The regularizing effect of coupling surprisingly applies also to general nonlinear noisy oscillators. However, unlike with the O-U process, coupling-induced regularity is robust to different kinds of coupling. With two coupled noisy oscillators, we derive an asymptotic formula assuming weak noise and coupling for the variance of the period (i.e., spike times) that accurately captures this effect. Moreover, we find that reciprocal coupling can regularize the individual period of higher dimensional oscillators such as the Morris-Lecar and Brusselator models, even when coupled to noisier oscillators. Coupling can have a counterintuitive and beneficial effect on noisy systems. These results have implications for the role of connectivity with noisy oscillators and the modulation of variability of individual oscillators.
Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Jim
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods. Results To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods. Conclusion The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications.
Magma storage in a strike-slip caldera.
Saxby, J; Gottsmann, J; Cashman, K; Gutiérrez, E
2016-07-22
Silicic calderas form during explosive volcanic eruptions when magma withdrawal triggers collapse along bounding faults. The nature of specific interactions between magmatism and tectonism in caldera-forming systems is, however, unclear. Regional stress patterns may control the location and geometry of magma reservoirs, which in turn may control the spatial and temporal development of faults. Here we provide new insight into strike-slip volcano-tectonic relations by analysing Bouguer gravity data from Ilopango caldera, El Salvador, which has a long history of catastrophic explosive eruptions. The observed low gravity beneath the caldera is aligned along the principal horizontal stress orientations of the El Salvador Fault Zone. Data inversion shows that the causative low-density structure extends to ca. 6 km depth, which we interpret as a shallow plumbing system comprising a fractured hydrothermal reservoir overlying a magmatic reservoir with vol% exsolved vapour. Fault-controlled localization of magma constrains potential vent locations for future eruptions.
Striking an interim balance of the ongoing climate debate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schoenwiese, C.D.
1995-01-01
After the Berlin UN conference of the signatory states to the Climate Change Convention it seems appropriate to strike an interim balance of the ongoing debate about the global climate change, as it has meanwhile evolved from an issue discussed among experts to an issue of public debate. Such a ''progress report'' seems to be opportune also because doubts are mounting in the face of proclaimed countermeasures. The article therefore reviews and summarizes facts and figures, discussing emissions and concentrations, the physical properties of greenhouse gases, as well as uncertainties of model calculations and of interpretations of measured data. The current situation calls for application of alternative models and concepts, and consideration of natural processes in competition with man-made impacts on the climate within the framework of optimized interpretation, in order to have probabilistic data at hand for decision-making. (orig.) [de
Migraine strikes as neuronal excitability reaches a tipping point.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marten Scheffer
Full Text Available Self-propagating waves of cerebral neuronal firing, known as spreading depolarisations, are believed to be at the roots of migraine attacks. We propose that the start of spreading depolarisations corresponds to a critical transition that occurs when dynamic brain networks approach a tipping point. We show that this hypothesis is consistent with current pathogenetic insights and observed dynamics. Our view implies that migraine strikes when modulating factors further raise the neuronal excitability in genetically predisposed subjects to a level where even minor perturbations can trigger spreading depolarisations. A corollary is that recently discovered generic early warning indicators for critical transitions may be used to predict the onset of migraine attacks even before patients are clinically aware. This opens up new avenues for dissecting the mechanisms for the onset of migraine attacks and for identifying novel prophylactic treatment targets for the prevention of attacks.
A Probabilistic, Facility-Centric Approach to Lightning Strike Location
Huddleston, Lisa L.; Roeder, William p.; Merceret, Francis J.
2012-01-01
A new probabilistic facility-centric approach to lightning strike location has been developed. This process uses the bivariate Gaussian distribution of probability density provided by the current lightning location error ellipse for the most likely location of a lightning stroke and integrates it to determine the probability that the stroke is inside any specified radius of any location, even if that location is not centered on or even with the location error ellipse. This technique is adapted from a method of calculating the probability of debris collisionith spacecraft. Such a technique is important in spaceport processing activities because it allows engineers to quantify the risk of induced current damage to critical electronics due to nearby lightning strokes. This technique was tested extensively and is now in use by space launch organizations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Future applications could include forensic meteorology.
Foot-strike haemolysis in an ultramarathon runner.
Fazal, Abid A; Whittemore, Mary S; DeGeorge, Katharine C
2017-12-13
This case report describes mild anaemia and intravascular haemolysis in an otherwise healthy 41-year-old ultramarathon runner. In long-distance endurance athletes, trace gastrointestinal bleeding and plasma volume expansion are recognised sources of mild anaemia, often found incidentally. However, repetitive forceful foot striking can lead to blood cell lysis in the feet, resulting in a mild macrocytic anaemia and intravascular haemolysis, as was demonstrated in the patient described herein. Mild anaemia in runners, often called 'runner's pseudoanaemia', is typically clinically insignificant and does not require intervention. However, an unexplained anaemia can cause undue worry for otherwise healthy patients and lead to costly further testing, providing an argument against routine testing with complete blood counts in healthy, asymptomatic patients. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
[Physiological changes and related nursing care issues during hunger strike].
Hsieh, Yeu-Shan; Chen, Shiu-Lien
2005-08-01
The use of hunger strike as a tool to assert grievances has been around for ages and has occasionally happened in the world. Hunger strikers' motives may differ, but their tool is the same--the voluntary refusal of food. Fasting not only results in body weight loss, but also in physiological and neurological function changes, and, of course, it may even threaten life. The health care of hunger strikers is complex. It involves medical staff, medical ethics and guidance for the management of the hunger strikers. Improper medical management may not only undermine the hunger striker's dignity but also risk further damage to his or her health. By understanding hunger strikers' physiological changes and related ethical issues, therefore, we aim to identify appropriate forms of nursing care management and guidance for the care of hunger strikers.
National Alliance of Business, Inc., Washington, DC.
CertainTeed's Precision Strike training program was designed to close the gaps between the current status of its workplace and where that work force needed to be to compete successfully in global markets. Precision Strike included Skills and Knowledge in Lifelong Learning (SKILL) customized, computerized lessons in basic skills, one-on-one…
Rietveld, P.; Exel, N.J.A.
2009-01-01
We conducted secondary analysis on data collected among rail users, days before and after a national rail strike in the Netherlands. Our aim was to compare anticipated and actual behavioural reactions to the rail strike, investigate associations with traveller and trip characteristics, and perceived
Diagrammatic methods in phase-space regularization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bern, Z.; Halpern, M.B.; California Univ., Berkeley
1987-11-01
Using the scalar prototype and gauge theory as the simplest possible examples, diagrammatic methods are developed for the recently proposed phase-space form of continuum regularization. A number of one-loop and all-order applications are given, including general diagrammatic discussions of the nogrowth theorem and the uniqueness of the phase-space stochastic calculus. The approach also generates an alternate derivation of the equivalence of the large-β phase-space regularization to the more conventional coordinate-space regularization. (orig.)
J-regular rings with injectivities
Shen, Liang
2010-01-01
A ring $R$ is called a J-regular ring if R/J(R) is von Neumann regular, where J(R) is the Jacobson radical of R. It is proved that if R is J-regular, then (i) R is right n-injective if and only if every homomorphism from an $n$-generated small right ideal of $R$ to $R_{R}$ can be extended to one from $R_{R}$ to $R_{R}$; (ii) R is right FP-injective if and only if R is right (J, R)-FP-injective. Some known results are improved.
Mixture models with entropy regularization for community detection in networks
Chang, Zhenhai; Yin, Xianjun; Jia, Caiyan; Wang, Xiaoyang
2018-04-01
Community detection is a key exploratory tool in network analysis and has received much attention in recent years. NMM (Newman's mixture model) is one of the best models for exploring a range of network structures including community structure, bipartite and core-periphery structures, etc. However, NMM needs to know the number of communities in advance. Therefore, in this study, we have proposed an entropy regularized mixture model (called EMM), which is capable of inferring the number of communities and identifying network structure contained in a network, simultaneously. In the model, by minimizing the entropy of mixing coefficients of NMM using EM (expectation-maximization) solution, the small clusters contained little information can be discarded step by step. The empirical study on both synthetic networks and real networks has shown that the proposed model EMM is superior to the state-of-the-art methods.
THE EFFECTS OF HEIGHT AND DISTANCE ON THE FORCE PRODUCTION AND ACCELERATION IN MARTIAL ARTS STRIKES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cynthia A. Bir
2009-11-01
Full Text Available Almost all cultures have roots in some sort of self defence system and yet there is relatively little research in this area, outside of a sports related environment. This project investigated different applications of strikes from Kung Fu practitioners that have not been addressed before in the literature. Punch and palm strikes were directly compared from different heights and distances, with the use of a load cell, accelerometers, and high speed video. The data indicated that the arm accelerations of both strikes were similar, although the force and resulting acceleration of the target were significantly greater for the palm strikes. Additionally, the relative height at which the strike was delivered was also investigated. The overall conclusion is that the palm strike is a more effective strike for transferring force to an object. It can also be concluded that an attack to the chest would be ideal for maximizing impact force and moving an opponent off balance
Bogrek, Muhammed Fatih
2017-01-01
This empirical study compared the organizational identification and professional identity of teachers in charter and regular public schools. The purpose of study was three-fold; the first was to investigate whether charter school teachers differ from their regular public school peers in the study variables (i.e. self-efficacy, perceived…
Tuncay, Caglar
2007-01-01
The physics of randomness and regularities for languages (mother tongues) and their lifetimes and family trees and for the second languages are studied in terms of two opposite processes; random multiplicative noise [1], and fragmentation [2], where the original model is given in the matrix format. We start with a random initial world, and come out with the regularities, which mimic various empirical data [3] for the present languages.
Generalized regular genus for manifolds with boundary
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paola Cristofori
2003-05-01
Full Text Available We introduce a generalization of the regular genus, a combinatorial invariant of PL manifolds ([10], which is proved to be strictly related, in dimension three, to generalized Heegaard splittings defined in [12].
Geometric regularizations and dual conifold transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Landsteiner, Karl; Lazaroiu, Calin I.
2003-01-01
We consider a geometric regularization for the class of conifold transitions relating D-brane systems on noncompact Calabi-Yau spaces to certain flux backgrounds. This regularization respects the SL(2,Z) invariance of the flux superpotential, and allows for computation of the relevant periods through the method of Picard-Fuchs equations. The regularized geometry is a noncompact Calabi-Yau which can be viewed as a monodromic fibration, with the nontrivial monodromy being induced by the regulator. It reduces to the original, non-monodromic background when the regulator is removed. Using this regularization, we discuss the simple case of the local conifold, and show how the relevant field-theoretic information can be extracted in this approach. (author)
Fast and compact regular expression matching
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bille, Philip; Farach-Colton, Martin
2008-01-01
We study 4 problems in string matching, namely, regular expression matching, approximate regular expression matching, string edit distance, and subsequence indexing, on a standard word RAM model of computation that allows logarithmic-sized words to be manipulated in constant time. We show how...... to improve the space and/or remove a dependency on the alphabet size for each problem using either an improved tabulation technique of an existing algorithm or by combining known algorithms in a new way....
Regular-fat dairy and human health
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Astrup, Arne; Bradley, Beth H Rice; Brenna, J Thomas
2016-01-01
In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort to......, cheese and yogurt, can be important components of an overall healthy dietary pattern. Systematic examination of the effects of dietary patterns that include regular-fat milk, cheese and yogurt on human health is warranted....
Deterministic automata for extended regular expressions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Syzdykov Mirzakhmet
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In this work we present the algorithms to produce deterministic finite automaton (DFA for extended operators in regular expressions like intersection, subtraction and complement. The method like “overriding” of the source NFA(NFA not defined with subset construction rules is used. The past work described only the algorithm for AND-operator (or intersection of regular languages; in this paper the construction for the MINUS-operator (and complement is shown.
Regularities of intermediate adsorption complex relaxation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manukova, L.A.
1982-01-01
The experimental data, characterizing the regularities of intermediate adsorption complex relaxation in the polycrystalline Mo-N 2 system at 77 K are given. The method of molecular beam has been used in the investigation. The analytical expressions of change regularity in the relaxation process of full and specific rates - of transition from intermediate state into ''non-reversible'', of desorption into the gas phase and accumUlation of the particles in the intermediate state are obtained
Online Manifold Regularization by Dual Ascending Procedure
Sun, Boliang; Li, Guohui; Jia, Li; Zhang, Hui
2013-01-01
We propose a novel online manifold regularization framework based on the notion of duality in constrained optimization. The Fenchel conjugate of hinge functions is a key to transfer manifold regularization from offline to online in this paper. Our algorithms are derived by gradient ascent in the dual function. For practical purpose, we propose two buffering strategies and two sparse approximations to reduce the computational complexity. Detailed experiments verify the utility of our approache...
Regularized image denoising based on spectral gradient optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lukić, Tibor; Lindblad, Joakim; Sladoje, Nataša
2011-01-01
Image restoration methods, such as denoising, deblurring, inpainting, etc, are often based on the minimization of an appropriately defined energy function. We consider energy functions for image denoising which combine a quadratic data-fidelity term and a regularization term, where the properties of the latter are determined by a used potential function. Many potential functions are suggested for different purposes in the literature. We compare the denoising performance achieved by ten different potential functions. Several methods for efficient minimization of regularized energy functions exist. Most are only applicable to particular choices of potential functions, however. To enable a comparison of all the observed potential functions, we propose to minimize the objective function using a spectral gradient approach; spectral gradient methods put very weak restrictions on the used potential function. We present and evaluate the performance of one spectral conjugate gradient and one cyclic spectral gradient algorithm, and conclude from experiments that both are well suited for the task. We compare the performance with three total variation-based state-of-the-art methods for image denoising. From the empirical evaluation, we conclude that denoising using the Huber potential (for images degraded by higher levels of noise; signal-to-noise ratio below 10 dB) and the Geman and McClure potential (for less noisy images), in combination with the spectral conjugate gradient minimization algorithm, shows the overall best performance
Using an Earthquake Simulator to Model Tremor Along a Strike Slip Fault
Cochran, E. S.; Richards-Dinger, K. B.; Kroll, K.; Harrington, R. M.; Dieterich, J. H.
2013-12-01
We employ the earthquake simulator, RSQSim, to investigate the conditions under which tremor occurs in the transition zone of the San Andreas fault. RSQSim is a computationally efficient method that uses rate- and state- dependent friction to simulate a wide range of event sizes for long time histories of slip [Dieterich and Richards-Dinger, 2010; Richards-Dinger and Dieterich, 2012]. RSQSim has been previously used to investigate slow slip events in Cascadia [Colella et al., 2011; 2012]. Earthquakes, tremor, slow slip, and creep occurrence are primarily controlled by the rate and state constants a and b and slip speed. We will report the preliminary results of using RSQSim to vary fault frictional properties in order to better understand rupture dynamics in the transition zone using observed characteristics of tremor along the San Andreas fault. Recent studies of tremor along the San Andreas fault provide information on tremor characteristics including precise locations, peak amplitudes, duration of tremor episodes, and tremor migration. We use these observations to constrain numerical simulations that examine the slip conditions in the transition zone of the San Andreas Fault. Here, we use the earthquake simulator, RSQSim, to conduct multi-event simulations of tremor for a strike slip fault modeled on Cholame section of the San Andreas fault. Tremor was first observed on the San Andreas fault near Cholame, California near the southern edge of the 2004 Parkfield rupture [Nadeau and Dolenc, 2005]. Since then, tremor has been observed across a 150 km section of the San Andreas with depths between 16-28 km and peak amplitudes that vary by a factor of 7 [Shelly and Hardebeck, 2010]. Tremor episodes, comprised of multiple low frequency earthquakes (LFEs), tend to be relatively short, lasting tens of seconds to as long as 1-2 hours [Horstmann et al., in review, 2013]; tremor occurs regularly with some tremor observed almost daily [Shelly and Hardebeck, 2010; Horstmann
New Empirical Earthquake Source‐Scaling Laws
Thingbaijam, Kiran Kumar S.
2017-12-13
We develop new empirical scaling laws for rupture width W, rupture length L, rupture area A, and average slip D, based on a large database of rupture models. The database incorporates recent earthquake source models in a wide magnitude range (M 5.4–9.2) and events of various faulting styles. We apply general orthogonal regression, instead of ordinary least-squares regression, to account for measurement errors of all variables and to obtain mutually self-consistent relationships. We observe that L grows more rapidly with M compared to W. The fault-aspect ratio (L/W) tends to increase with fault dip, which generally increases from reverse-faulting, to normal-faulting, to strike-slip events. At the same time, subduction-inter-face earthquakes have significantly higher W (hence a larger rupture area A) compared to other faulting regimes. For strike-slip events, the growth of W with M is strongly inhibited, whereas the scaling of L agrees with the L-model behavior (D correlated with L). However, at a regional scale for which seismogenic depth is essentially fixed, the scaling behavior corresponds to the W model (D not correlated with L). Self-similar scaling behavior with M − log A is observed to be consistent for all the cases, except for normal-faulting events. Interestingly, the ratio D/W (a proxy for average stress drop) tends to increase with M, except for shallow crustal reverse-faulting events, suggesting the possibility of scale-dependent stress drop. The observed variations in source-scaling properties for different faulting regimes can be interpreted in terms of geological and seismological factors. We find substantial differences between our new scaling relationships and those of previous studies. Therefore, our study provides critical updates on source-scaling relations needed in seismic–tsunami-hazard analysis and engineering applications.
Epistemology and Empirical Investigation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ahlström, Kristoffer
2008-01-01
Recently, Hilary Kornblith has argued that epistemological investigation is substantially empirical. In the present paper, I will ¿rst show that his claim is not contingent upon the further and, admittedly, controversial assumption that all objects of epistemological investigation are natural kinds....... Then, I will argue that, contrary to what Kornblith seems to assume, this methodological contention does not imply that there is no need for attending to our epistemic concepts in epistemology. Understanding the make-up of our concepts and, in particular, the purposes they ¿ll, is necessary...
San Andreas-sized Strike-slip Fault on Europa
1998-01-01
This mosaic of the south polar region of Jupiter's moon Europa shows the northern 290 kilometers (180 miles) of a strike-slip fault named Astypalaea Linea. The entire fault is about 810 kilometers (500 miles) long, about the size of the California portion of the San Andreas fault, which runs from the California-Mexico border north to the San Francisco Bay. In a strike-slip fault, two crustal blocks move horizontally past one another, similar to two opposing lanes of traffic. Overall motion along the fault seems to have followed a continuous narrow crack along the feature's entire length, with a path resembling steps on a staircase crossing zones that have been pulled apart. The images show that about 50 kilometers (30 miles) of displacement have taken place along the fault. The fault's opposite sides can be reconstructed like a puzzle, matching the shape of the sides and older, individual cracks and ridges broken by its movements. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] The red line marks the once active central crack of the fault. The black line outlines the fault zone, including material accumulated in the regions which have been pulled apart. Bends in the fault have allowed the surface to be pulled apart. This process created openings through which warmer, softer ice from below Europa's brittle ice shell surface, or frozen water from a possible subsurface ocean, could reach the surface. This upwelling of material formed large areas of new ice within the boundaries of the original fault. A similar pulling-apart phenomenon can be observed in the geological trough surrounding California's Salton Sea, in Death Valley and the Dead Sea. In those cases, the pulled-apart regions can include upwelled materials, but may be filled mostly by sedimentary and eroded material from above. One theory is that fault motion on Europa is induced by the pull of variable daily tides generated by Jupiter's gravitational tug on Europa. Tidal tension opens the fault and
Group-regularized individual prediction: theory and application to pain.
Lindquist, Martin A; Krishnan, Anjali; López-Solà, Marina; Jepma, Marieke; Woo, Choong-Wan; Koban, Leonie; Roy, Mathieu; Atlas, Lauren Y; Schmidt, Liane; Chang, Luke J; Reynolds Losin, Elizabeth A; Eisenbarth, Hedwig; Ashar, Yoni K; Delk, Elizabeth; Wager, Tor D
2017-01-15
Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) has become an important tool for identifying brain representations of psychological processes and clinical outcomes using fMRI and related methods. Such methods can be used to predict or 'decode' psychological states in individual subjects. Single-subject MVPA approaches, however, are limited by the amount and quality of individual-subject data. In spite of higher spatial resolution, predictive accuracy from single-subject data often does not exceed what can be accomplished using coarser, group-level maps, because single-subject patterns are trained on limited amounts of often-noisy data. Here, we present a method that combines population-level priors, in the form of biomarker patterns developed on prior samples, with single-subject MVPA maps to improve single-subject prediction. Theoretical results and simulations motivate a weighting based on the relative variances of biomarker-based prediction-based on population-level predictive maps from prior groups-and individual-subject, cross-validated prediction. Empirical results predicting pain using brain activity on a trial-by-trial basis (single-trial prediction) across 6 studies (N=180 participants) confirm the theoretical predictions. Regularization based on a population-level biomarker-in this case, the Neurologic Pain Signature (NPS)-improved single-subject prediction accuracy compared with idiographic maps based on the individuals' data alone. The regularization scheme that we propose, which we term group-regularized individual prediction (GRIP), can be applied broadly to within-person MVPA-based prediction. We also show how GRIP can be used to evaluate data quality and provide benchmarks for the appropriateness of population-level maps like the NPS for a given individual or study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Effect of public transport strikes on air pollution levels in Barcelona (Spain).
Basagaña, Xavier; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Agis, David; Pérez, Noemí; Reche, Cristina; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier
2018-01-01
Public transport strikes can lead to an increase of the number of private vehicle trips, which in turn can increase air pollution levels. We aimed to estimate the change in air pollution concentrations during public transport strikes in the city of Barcelona (Spain). Data on strikes of the metro, train or bus systems were collected from government records (2005-2016). We collected daily concentrations of NOx; particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10μm (PM10), 2.5μm (PM2.5), and 1μm (PM1); particle number concentration (N); black carbon (BC) and CO from research and official monitoring stations. We fitted linear regression models for each pollutant with the strike indicator as an independent variable, and models were adjusted for day of the week, month, year, and holiday periods. During the study period, there were 208days affected by a strike of the metro (28), train (106) or bus (91) systems. Half of the strikes were partial, most of them were single-day strikes, there was little overlap between strikes of the different transport systems, and all strikes had to comply with mandatory minimal services. When pooling all types of strikes, NOx and BC showed higher levels during strike days in comparison with non-strike days (increase between 4.1% and 7.7%, with higher increases for NO). The increases in these concentrations were more evident during full day and multiday metro strikes. In conclusion, alterations in public transport have consequences on air quality. This highlights the importance of public transport in reducing air pollution concentrations in cities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Evgeni I. Paunov
2014-04-01
Full Text Available This paper attempts to trace the distribution of unofficial dies for striking late Republican and early Imperial coins in Moesia and Thrace, discussing eleven dies and one hub (master die. It deals with the key issues concerning these rare numismatic finds , their occurrence in the Balkan provinces of Roman Empire and their interpretation as genuine monetary items or as forgers’ accessories. Such a large concentration of dies is found in a relatively constrained area, but so far understanding does not clearly revealed what their importance is. The problem appears to be essential for the comprehension of Roman political and military activities in the Balkans during the Augustan-Tiberian period, as well as for the general discussion on ancient coin techniques.
Empirical microeconomics action functionals
Baaquie, Belal E.; Du, Xin; Tanputraman, Winson
2015-06-01
A statistical generalization of microeconomics has been made in Baaquie (2013), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is modeled by an action functional-and the focus of this paper is to empirically determine the action functionals for different commodities. The correlation functions of the model are defined using a Feynman path integral. The model is calibrated using the unequal time correlation of the market commodity prices as well as their cubic and quartic moments using a perturbation expansion. The consistency of the perturbation expansion is verified by a numerical evaluation of the path integral. Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are studied and their market behavior is described by the model to an accuracy of over 90% using only six parameters. The paper empirically establishes the existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (2013).
Improvements in GRACE Gravity Fields Using Regularization
Save, H.; Bettadpur, S.; Tapley, B. D.
2008-12-01
The unconstrained global gravity field models derived from GRACE are susceptible to systematic errors that show up as broad "stripes" aligned in a North-South direction on the global maps of mass flux. These errors are believed to be a consequence of both systematic and random errors in the data that are amplified by the nature of the gravity field inverse problem. These errors impede scientific exploitation of the GRACE data products, and limit the realizable spatial resolution of the GRACE global gravity fields in certain regions. We use regularization techniques to reduce these "stripe" errors in the gravity field products. The regularization criteria are designed such that there is no attenuation of the signal and that the solutions fit the observations as well as an unconstrained solution. We have used a computationally inexpensive method, normally referred to as "L-ribbon", to find the regularization parameter. This paper discusses the characteristics and statistics of a 5-year time-series of regularized gravity field solutions. The solutions show markedly reduced stripes, are of uniformly good quality over time, and leave little or no systematic observation residuals, which is a frequent consequence of signal suppression from regularization. Up to degree 14, the signal in regularized solution shows correlation greater than 0.8 with the un-regularized CSR Release-04 solutions. Signals from large-amplitude and small-spatial extent events - such as the Great Sumatra Andaman Earthquake of 2004 - are visible in the global solutions without using special post-facto error reduction techniques employed previously in the literature. Hydrological signals as small as 5 cm water-layer equivalent in the small river basins, like Indus and Nile for example, are clearly evident, in contrast to noisy estimates from RL04. The residual variability over the oceans relative to a seasonal fit is small except at higher latitudes, and is evident without the need for de-striping or
MRI findings of Wernicke encephalopathy revisited due to hunger strike
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Unlu, Ercument [Department of Radiology, Trakya University School of Medicine, Mimar Sinan m, Muammer Aksoy c, Yorulmaz apt, No 50, D-1 22030 Edirne (Turkey)]. E-mail: drercument@yahoo.com; Cakir, Bilge [Department of Radiology, Trakya University School of Medicine, Mimar Sinan m, Muammer Aksoy c, Yorulmaz apt, No 50, D-1 22030 Edirne (Turkey); Asil, Talip [Department of Neurology, Trakya University School of Medicine, Edirne (Turkey)
2006-01-15
Background and Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings among a group of patients who presented with Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) due to the neurological complications of a long-term hunger strike (HS). Methods: MRI studies also including the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of six male patients with WE aged from 25 to 38 years (mean age 31 years) were evaluated. Results: In all subjects, T2-weighted sequences, FLAIR and DWI revealed a signal hyperintensity within the posteromedial thalami and surrounding the third ventricle. In particular, on coronal images, the hyperintense areas around the third ventricle showed a suggestive 'double wing' configuration. We observed an increased signal on proton-density and T2-weighted images in the mamillary bodies of three patients. Four patients demonstrated additional hyperintensities within the periaqueductal region and/or the tectal plate. At least one lesion area in five of six patients demonstrated contrast enhancement. Conclusion: The consistent imaging findings of our study suggest that MRI is a reliable means of diagnosing WE. Acute WE is sometimes underdiagnosed, yet early diagnosis and treatment of WE is crucial in order to avoid persistent brain damage. MRI, including postcontrast T1-weighted imaging, DWI beneath standardized T2-weighted imaging, and FLAIR sequences may prove to be a valuable adjunct to clinical diagnosis and to provide additional information in acute and/or subacute WE.
Accident scenarios triggered by lightning strike on atmospheric storage tanks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Necci, Amos; Argenti, Francesca; Landucci, Gabriele; Cozzani, Valerio
2014-01-01
Severe Natech accidents may be triggered by lightning strike affecting storage tanks containing relevant inventories of hazardous materials. The present study focused on the identification of event sequences and accident scenarios following lightning impact on atmospheric tanks. Reference event trees, validated using past accident analysis, are provided to describe the specific accident chains identified, accounting for reference protection and mitigation safety barriers usually adopted in current industrial practice. An overall methodology was outlined to allow the calculation of the expected frequencies of final scenarios following lightning impact on atmospheric storage tanks, taking into account the expected performance of available safety barriers. The methodology was applied to a case study in order to better understand the data that may be obtained and their importance in the framework of quantitative risk assessment (QRA) and of the risk management of industrial facilities with respect to external hazards due to natural events. - Highlights: • Event sequences following lightning impact on atmospheric tanks were identified. • Reference event trees including standard safety barriers were obtained. • Safety barriers applied in industrial practice were assessed to quantify event trees. • Frequencies of final scenarios following lightning impact on tanks were calculated. • Natech scenarios caused by lightning have an important influence on risk profiles
Electric converters of electromagnetic strike machine with capacitor supply
Usanov, K. M.; Volgin, A. V.; Kargin, V. A.; Moiseev, A. P.; Chetverikov, E. A.
2018-03-01
The application of pulse linear electromagnetic engines in small power strike machines (energy impact is 0.01...1.0 kJ), where the characteristic mode of rare beats (pulse seismic vibrator, the arch crash device bins bulk materials), is quite effective. At the same time, the technical and economic performance of such machines is largely determined by the ability of the power source to provide a large instantaneous power of the supply pulses in the winding of the linear electromagnetic motor. The use of intermediate energy storage devices in power systems of rare-shock LEME makes it possible to obtain easily large instantaneous powers, forced energy conversion, and increase the performance of the machine. A capacitor power supply of a pulsed source of seismic waves is proposed for the exploration of shallow depths. The sections of the capacitor storage (CS) are connected to the winding of the linear electromagnetic motor by thyristor dischargers, the sequence of activation of which is determined by the control device. The charge of the capacitors to the required voltage is made directly from the battery source, or through the converter from a battery source with a smaller number of batteries.
MRI findings of Wernicke encephalopathy revisited due to hunger strike
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Unlu, Ercument; Cakir, Bilge; Asil, Talip
2006-01-01
Background and Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings among a group of patients who presented with Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) due to the neurological complications of a long-term hunger strike (HS). Methods: MRI studies also including the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of six male patients with WE aged from 25 to 38 years (mean age 31 years) were evaluated. Results: In all subjects, T2-weighted sequences, FLAIR and DWI revealed a signal hyperintensity within the posteromedial thalami and surrounding the third ventricle. In particular, on coronal images, the hyperintense areas around the third ventricle showed a suggestive 'double wing' configuration. We observed an increased signal on proton-density and T2-weighted images in the mamillary bodies of three patients. Four patients demonstrated additional hyperintensities within the periaqueductal region and/or the tectal plate. At least one lesion area in five of six patients demonstrated contrast enhancement. Conclusion: The consistent imaging findings of our study suggest that MRI is a reliable means of diagnosing WE. Acute WE is sometimes underdiagnosed, yet early diagnosis and treatment of WE is crucial in order to avoid persistent brain damage. MRI, including postcontrast T1-weighted imaging, DWI beneath standardized T2-weighted imaging, and FLAIR sequences may prove to be a valuable adjunct to clinical diagnosis and to provide additional information in acute and/or subacute WE
Cellular nonlinear networks for strike-point localization at JET
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arena, P.; Fortuna, L.; Bruno, M.; Vagliasindi, G.; Murari, A.; Andrew, P.; Mazzitelli, G.
2005-01-01
At JET, the potential of fast image processing for real-time purposes is thoroughly investigated. Particular attention is devoted to smart sensors based on system on chip technology. The data of the infrared cameras were processed with a chip implementing a cellular nonlinear network (CNN) structure so as to support and complement the magnetic diagnostics in the real-time localization of the strike-point position in the divertor. The circuit consists of two layers of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor components, the first being the sensor and the second implementing the actual CNN. This innovative hardware has made it possible to determine the position of the maximum thermal load with a time resolution of the order of 30 ms. Good congruency has been found with the measurement from the thermocouples in the divertor, proving the potential of the infrared data in locating the region of the maximum thermal load. The results are also confirmed by JET magnetic codes, both those used for the equilibrium reconstructions and those devoted to the identification of the plasma boundary
What 'empirical turn in bioethics'?
Hurst, Samia
2010-10-01
Uncertainty as to how we should articulate empirical data and normative reasoning seems to underlie most difficulties regarding the 'empirical turn' in bioethics. This article examines three different ways in which we could understand 'empirical turn'. Using real facts in normative reasoning is trivial and would not represent a 'turn'. Becoming an empirical discipline through a shift to the social and neurosciences would be a turn away from normative thinking, which we should not take. Conducting empirical research to inform normative reasoning is the usual meaning given to the term 'empirical turn'. In this sense, however, the turn is incomplete. Bioethics has imported methodological tools from empirical disciplines, but too often it has not imported the standards to which researchers in these disciplines are held. Integrating empirical and normative approaches also represents true added difficulties. Addressing these issues from the standpoint of debates on the fact-value distinction can cloud very real methodological concerns by displacing the debate to a level of abstraction where they need not be apparent. Ideally, empirical research in bioethics should meet standards for empirical and normative validity similar to those used in the source disciplines for these methods, and articulate these aspects clearly and appropriately. More modestly, criteria to ensure that none of these standards are completely left aside would improve the quality of empirical bioethics research and partly clear the air of critiques addressing its theoretical justification, when its rigour in the particularly difficult context of interdisciplinarity is what should be at stake.
Regular Expression Matching and Operational Semantics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asiri Rathnayake
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Many programming languages and tools, ranging from grep to the Java String library, contain regular expression matchers. Rather than first translating a regular expression into a deterministic finite automaton, such implementations typically match the regular expression on the fly. Thus they can be seen as virtual machines interpreting the regular expression much as if it were a program with some non-deterministic constructs such as the Kleene star. We formalize this implementation technique for regular expression matching using operational semantics. Specifically, we derive a series of abstract machines, moving from the abstract definition of matching to increasingly realistic machines. First a continuation is added to the operational semantics to describe what remains to be matched after the current expression. Next, we represent the expression as a data structure using pointers, which enables redundant searches to be eliminated via testing for pointer equality. From there, we arrive both at Thompson's lockstep construction and a machine that performs some operations in parallel, suitable for implementation on a large number of cores, such as a GPU. We formalize the parallel machine using process algebra and report some preliminary experiments with an implementation on a graphics processor using CUDA.
Regularities, Natural Patterns and Laws of Nature
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stathis Psillos
2014-02-01
Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to sketch an empiricist metaphysics of laws of nature. The key idea is that there are regularities without regularity-enforcers. Differently put, there are natural laws without law-makers of a distinct metaphysical kind. This sketch will rely on the concept of a natural pattern and more significantly on the existence of a network of natural patterns in nature. The relation between a regularity and a pattern will be analysed in terms of mereology. Here is the road map. In section 2, I will briefly discuss the relation between empiricism and metaphysics, aiming to show that an empiricist metaphysics is possible. In section 3, I will offer arguments against stronger metaphysical views of laws. Then, in section 4 I will motivate nomic objectivism. In section 5, I will address the question ‘what is a regularity?’ and will develop a novel answer to it, based on the notion of a natural pattern. In section 6, I will raise the question: ‘what is a law of nature?’, the answer to which will be: a law of nature is a regularity that is characterised by the unity of a natural pattern.
The General Strike - An Artist Talk on the Work of Santiago Sierra & Claire Fontaine
Mansoor, Jaleh
2012-01-01
The General Strike, the organized refusal to work among a critical mass of laborers, has been attendant upon and responsive to the capitalist form of accumulation since the latter’s inception. Having variously emerged and receded as a broadly recognized means of resistance since the mid 19th century, the potential of a general strike to precipitate capitalism's inherent tendency to crisis was forcefully expressed by the anti-austerity movement in Greece and in Spain in 2012. A general strike ...
Peter Larson
2014-01-01
Background: Previous studies of foot strike patterns of distance runners in road races have typically found that the overwhelming majority of shod runners initially contact the ground on the rearfoot. However, none of these studies has attempted to quantify foot strike patterns of barefoot or minimally shod runners. This study classifies foot strike patterns of barefoot and minimally shod runners in a recreational road race. Methods: High-speed video footage was obtained of 169 barefoot an...
Fractional Regularization Term for Variational Image Registration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rafael Verdú-Monedero
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Image registration is a widely used task of image analysis with applications in many fields. Its classical formulation and current improvements are given in the spatial domain. In this paper a regularization term based on fractional order derivatives is formulated. This term is defined and implemented in the frequency domain by translating the energy functional into the frequency domain and obtaining the Euler-Lagrange equations which minimize it. The new regularization term leads to a simple formulation and design, being applicable to higher dimensions by using the corresponding multidimensional Fourier transform. The proposed regularization term allows for a real gradual transition from a diffusion registration to a curvature registration which is best suited to some applications and it is not possible in the spatial domain. Results with 3D actual images show the validity of this approach.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Obregon, Octavio; Quevedo, Hernando; Ryan, Michael P.
2004-01-01
We construct a family of time and angular dependent, regular S-brane solutions which corresponds to a simple analytical continuation of the Zipoy-Voorhees 4-dimensional vacuum spacetime. The solutions are asymptotically flat and turn out to be free of singularities without requiring a twist in space. They can be considered as the simplest non-singular generalization of the singular S0-brane solution. We analyze the properties of a representative of this family of solutions and show that it resembles to some extent the asymptotic properties of the regular Kerr S-brane. The R-symmetry corresponds, however, to the general lorentzian symmetry. Several generalizations of this regular solution are derived which include a charged S-brane and an additional dilatonic field. (author)
Online Manifold Regularization by Dual Ascending Procedure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boliang Sun
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a novel online manifold regularization framework based on the notion of duality in constrained optimization. The Fenchel conjugate of hinge functions is a key to transfer manifold regularization from offline to online in this paper. Our algorithms are derived by gradient ascent in the dual function. For practical purpose, we propose two buffering strategies and two sparse approximations to reduce the computational complexity. Detailed experiments verify the utility of our approaches. An important conclusion is that our online MR algorithms can handle the settings where the target hypothesis is not fixed but drifts with the sequence of examples. We also recap and draw connections to earlier works. This paper paves a way to the design and analysis of online manifold regularization algorithms.
EGG: Empirical Galaxy Generator
Schreiber, C.; Elbaz, D.; Pannella, M.; Merlin, E.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Bourne, N.; Boutsia, K.; Cullen, F.; Dunlop, J.; Ferguson, H. C.; MichaÅowski, M. J.; Okumura, K.; Santini, P.; Shu, X. W.; Wang, T.; White, C.
2018-04-01
The Empirical Galaxy Generator (EGG) generates fake galaxy catalogs and images with realistic positions, morphologies and fluxes from the far-ultraviolet to the far-infrared. The catalogs are generated by egg-gencat and stored in binary FITS tables (column oriented). Another program, egg-2skymaker, is used to convert the generated catalog into ASCII tables suitable for ingestion by SkyMaker (ascl:1010.066) to produce realistic high resolution images (e.g., Hubble-like), while egg-gennoise and egg-genmap can be used to generate the low resolution images (e.g., Herschel-like). These tools can be used to test source extraction codes, or to evaluate the reliability of any map-based science (stacking, dropout identification, etc.).
Llewellyn, J. A.
1967-01-01
The Launch Complex 37 lightning strike of July 27, 1967, was reviewed and compared to a similar incident on the Gemini Program. Available data indicate little likelihood of damaging currents having been present in SA-204 Launch Vehicle or the ground equipment during the July 27th incident. Based on the results of subsystem and system testing after the strike, anticipated results of future testing, the six months elapsed time between the strike-and launch, and the fact that much of the critical airborne electrical/electronic equipment has been removed since the strike for other reasons, no new actions are considered necessary at this time in the Gemini case, significant failures occurred in both airborne and ground circuits. Due to the resultant semi, condlictor uncertainty, and the relatively' short time prior to planned launch, all critical airborne components containing semiconduetors were replaced, and a sophisticated data comparison task was implemented.
‘The Nairobi General Strike [1950]: from protest to insurgency’
Hyde, David
2002-01-01
The Nairobi General Strike [1950] was the culmination of Kenya’s post war strike wave and urban upheaval. An unprecedented upsurge occurred with the general strikes in Mombasa [1947] led by the African Workers Federation [A.W.F.] and in Nairobi by the East African Trades Union Congress [E.A.T.U.C.]. While this has been termed and treated as a city wide strike, there is enough evidence to suggest a movement that went some way beyond Nairobi. The extent of the cohesion and reciprocal impacts am...
A model of high-rate indentation of a cylindrical striking pin into a deformable body
Zalazinskaya, E. A.; Zalazinsky, A. G.
2017-12-01
Mathematical modeling of an impact and high-rate indentation to a significant depth of a flat-faced hard cylindrical striking pin into a massive deformable target body is carried out. With the application of the kinematic extreme theorem of the plasticity theory and the kinetic energy variation theorem, the phase trajectories of the striking pin are calculated, the initial velocity of the striking pin in the body, the limit values of the inlet duct length, and the depth of striking pin penetration into the target are determined.
The Chinese nuclear arsenal and its second-strike capability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cabestan, Jean-Pierre
2013-03-01
It is well known that China possesses a second- strike capability, but a great deal of uncertainty persists on the subject. Over the last few years, without officially adjusting its doctrine, China has nonetheless defined its objectives. In April 2010, the People's Liberation Army Daily indicated that China needed such a capability and contended that ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) would constitute the safest means of delivery. In the same year, the IISS estimated that the People's Liberation Army was in possession of 90 ICBMs (66 ground-based missiles and 24 SLBMs) and 400 IRBM mainly aimed at Taiwan and Japan. The Pentagon's 2012 report proposed 50-75 ICBMs and 80 -120 IRBM and MRBM. While it is established that the People's Liberation Army is developing Jin class submarines (type-094, of which there are currently two in service, which will soon rise to five) and is developing solid-propellant missiles, which could be activated more quickly, not a great deal is known about the progress of these two projects. The JL-2 (7400 km), which is mounted on SSBNs, is still being tested. In parallel, the traditional principle to which China adheres - no first use of nuclear weapons - seems to have been slightly dented. Thus, in January 2011, the Japanese press agency Kyodo (relayed by Stratfor) reported that the People's Liberation Army had lowered the threshold for use of its strategic weapons: it could henceforth envisage a preventive nuclear strike against a nuclear power that had by conventional means destroyed key strategic targets on its territory, such as a nuclear power station, a dam, or a large city, having provided prior warning to the aggressor. But what most worries the U.S. and its Asian allies, particularly the Japanese, is the quasi-total opacity of the Chinese military nuclear programme. While in April 2010, the United States and Russia signed a treaty limiting their number of strategic weapons to 1550 by 2018, China considers that its programme cannot
Regular transport dynamics produce chaotic travel times.
Villalobos, Jorge; Muñoz, Víctor; Rogan, José; Zarama, Roberto; Johnson, Neil F; Toledo, Benjamín; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro
2014-06-01
In the hope of making passenger travel times shorter and more reliable, many cities are introducing dedicated bus lanes (e.g., Bogota, London, Miami). Here we show that chaotic travel times are actually a natural consequence of individual bus function, and hence of public transport systems more generally, i.e., chaotic dynamics emerge even when the route is empty and straight, stops and lights are equidistant and regular, and loading times are negligible. More generally, our findings provide a novel example of chaotic dynamics emerging from a single object following Newton's laws of motion in a regularized one-dimensional system.
Regularity of difference equations on Banach spaces
Agarwal, Ravi P; Lizama, Carlos
2014-01-01
This work introduces readers to the topic of maximal regularity for difference equations. The authors systematically present the method of maximal regularity, outlining basic linear difference equations along with relevant results. They address recent advances in the field, as well as basic semigroup and cosine operator theories in the discrete setting. The authors also identify some open problems that readers may wish to take up for further research. This book is intended for graduate students and researchers in the area of difference equations, particularly those with advance knowledge of and interest in functional analysis.
PET regularization by envelope guided conjugate gradients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaufman, L.; Neumaier, A.
1996-01-01
The authors propose a new way to iteratively solve large scale ill-posed problems and in particular the image reconstruction problem in positron emission tomography by exploiting the relation between Tikhonov regularization and multiobjective optimization to obtain iteratively approximations to the Tikhonov L-curve and its corner. Monitoring the change of the approximate L-curves allows us to adjust the regularization parameter adaptively during a preconditioned conjugate gradient iteration, so that the desired solution can be reconstructed with a small number of iterations
Matrix regularization of embedded 4-manifolds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trzetrzelewski, Maciej
2012-01-01
We consider products of two 2-manifolds such as S 2 ×S 2 , embedded in Euclidean space and show that the corresponding 4-volume preserving diffeomorphism algebra can be approximated by a tensor product SU(N)⊗SU(N) i.e. functions on a manifold are approximated by the Kronecker product of two SU(N) matrices. A regularization of the 4-sphere is also performed by constructing N 2 ×N 2 matrix representations of the 4-algebra (and as a byproduct of the 3-algebra which makes the regularization of S 3 also possible).
Positive Emotions Associated with "Counter-Strike" Game Playing.
Shin, Mirim; Heard, Rob; Suo, Chao; Chow, Chin Moi
2012-10-01
Digital game playing engages people for long periods of time. The pleasure offered by digital games may explain the players' consumption of this activity. Games may elicit both positive and negative emotions, which can be measured by encephalography (EEG). The EEG alpha asymmetry index (AI) is different in positive and negative emotions and so may be used to distinguish positive from negative emotions that occur during gaming. We hypothesized that the "Counter-Strike" (CS) game (Valve Software, Bellevue, WA) is pleasurable and demonstrable with a positive EEG AI. Twelve male participants ages 18-30 years underwent EEG recordings continuously during and postgame. EEG was also recorded pregame for control conditions of baseline (sitting on a chair staring at a blank wall), movement (moving fingers on the computer keyboard with a blank screen), sound (listening to the sound of the CS game with a blank screen), and screen (watching the CS game without playing). Self-ratings of emotional responses were completed at pre-, during, and postgame. A significant decrease in the EEG AI was observed under the screen condition compared with baseline, whereas an increase was observed postgame compared with the screen condition. The participants demonstrated a positive EEG AI following the "shoot" events (shoot opponents) and negative emotions after the "being shot" events. Subjective ratings of emotional response indicated happiness during and postgame, but anger and arousal were reported only during the game. The overall results are consistent with the hypothesis that predominantly positive emotional reactions are elicited from playing the CS game and concur with positive subjective ratings of happiness. Future studies may explore the relationship of game pleasure and obsessive game play.
Assessment of performing an MST strike in Tank 21H
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poirier, Michael R.
2014-09-29
Previous Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) tank mixing studies performed for the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) project have shown that 3 Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) installed in Tank 41 are sufficient to support actinide removal by MST sorption as well as subsequent resuspension and removal of settled solids. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is pursuing MST addition into Tank 21 as part of the Large Tank Strike (LTS) project. The preliminary scope for LTS involves the use of three standard slurry pumps (installed in N, SE, and SW risers) in a Type IV tank. Due to the differences in tank size, internal interferences, and pump design, a separate mixing evaluation is required to determine if the proposed configuration will allow for MST suspension and strontium and actinide sorption. The author performed the analysis by reviewing drawings for Tank 21 [W231023] and determining the required cleaning radius or zone of influence for the pumps. This requirement was compared with previous pilot-scale MST suspension data collected for SCIX that determined the cleaning radius, or zone of influence, as a function of pump operating parameters. The author also reviewed a previous Tank 50 mixing analysis that examined the ability of standard slurry pumps to suspend sludge particles. Based on a review of the pilot-scale SCIX mixing tests and Tank 50 pump operating experience, three standard slurry pumps should be able to suspend sludge and MST to effectively sorb strontium and actinides onto the MST. Using the SCIX data requires an assumption about the impact of cooling coils on slurry pump mixing. The basis for this assumption is described in this report. Using the Tank 50 operating experience shows three standard slurry pumps should be able to suspend solids if the shear strength of the settled solids is less than 160 Pa. Because Tank 21 does not contain cooling coils, the shear strength could be larger.
Kowalski, Erik; Li, Jing Xian
2016-11-01
This study investigated the normal and parallel ground reaction forces during downhill and uphill running in habitual forefoot strike and habitual rearfoot strike (RFS) runners. Fifteen habitual forefoot strike and 15 habitual RFS recreational male runners ran at 3 m/s ± 5% during level, uphill and downhill overground running on a ramp mounted at 6° and 9°. Results showed that forefoot strike runners had no visible impact peak in all running conditions, while the impact peaks only decreased during the uphill conditions in RFS runners. Active peaks decreased during the downhill conditions in forefoot strike runners while active loading rates increased during downhill conditions in RFS runners. Compared to the level condition, parallel braking peaks were larger during downhill conditions and parallel propulsive peaks were larger during uphill conditions. Combined with previous biomechanics studies, our findings suggest that forefoot strike running may be an effective strategy to reduce impacts, especially during downhill running. These findings may have further implications towards injury management and prevention.
On a correspondence between regular and non-regular operator monotone functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gibilisco, P.; Hansen, Frank; Isola, T.
2009-01-01
We prove the existence of a bijection between the regular and the non-regular operator monotone functions satisfying a certain functional equation. As an application we give a new proof of the operator monotonicity of certain functions related to the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information....
Eugene N. Anderson
2016-01-01
The Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous empire the world has ever known, had, among other things, a goodly number of falconers, poultry raisers, birdcatchers, cooks, and other experts on various aspects of birding. We have records of this, largely in the Yinshan Zhengyao, the court nutrition manual of the Mongol empire in China (the Yuan Dynasty). It discusses in some detail 22 bird taxa, from swans to chickens. The Huihui Yaofang, a medical encyclopedia, lists ten taxa used medicinally. Ma...
Regularity and irreversibility of weekly travel behavior
Kitamura, R.; van der Hoorn, A.I.J.M.
1987-01-01
Dynamic characteristics of travel behavior are analyzed in this paper using weekly travel diaries from two waves of panel surveys conducted six months apart. An analysis of activity engagement indicates the presence of significant regularity in weekly activity participation between the two waves.
Regular and context-free nominal traces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Degano, Pierpaolo; Ferrari, Gian-Luigi; Mezzetti, Gianluca
2017-01-01
Two kinds of automata are presented, for recognising new classes of regular and context-free nominal languages. We compare their expressive power with analogous proposals in the literature, showing that they express novel classes of languages. Although many properties of classical languages hold ...
Faster 2-regular information-set decoding
Bernstein, D.J.; Lange, T.; Peters, C.P.; Schwabe, P.; Chee, Y.M.
2011-01-01
Fix positive integers B and w. Let C be a linear code over F 2 of length Bw. The 2-regular-decoding problem is to find a nonzero codeword consisting of w length-B blocks, each of which has Hamming weight 0 or 2. This problem appears in attacks on the FSB (fast syndrome-based) hash function and
Complexity in union-free regular languages
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Jirásková, G.; Masopust, Tomáš
2011-01-01
Roč. 22, č. 7 (2011), s. 1639-1653 ISSN 0129-0541 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Union-free regular language * one-cycle-free-path automaton * descriptional complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.379, year: 2011 http://www.worldscinet.com/ijfcs/22/2207/S0129054111008933.html
Regular Gleason Measures and Generalized Effect Algebras
Dvurečenskij, Anatolij; Janda, Jiří
2015-12-01
We study measures, finitely additive measures, regular measures, and σ-additive measures that can attain even infinite values on the quantum logic of a Hilbert space. We show when particular classes of non-negative measures can be studied in the frame of generalized effect algebras.
Regularization of finite temperature string theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leblanc, Y.; Knecht, M.; Wallet, J.C.
1990-01-01
The tachyonic divergences occurring in the free energy of various string theories at finite temperature are eliminated through the use of regularization schemes and analytic continuations. For closed strings, we obtain finite expressions which, however, develop an imaginary part above the Hagedorn temperature, whereas open string theories are still plagued with dilatonic divergences. (orig.)
A Sim(2 invariant dimensional regularization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Alfaro
2017-09-01
Full Text Available We introduce a Sim(2 invariant dimensional regularization of loop integrals. Then we can compute the one loop quantum corrections to the photon self energy, electron self energy and vertex in the Electrodynamics sector of the Very Special Relativity Standard Model (VSRSM.
Continuum regularized Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadun, L.A.
1987-01-01
Using the machinery of stochastic quantization, Z. Bern, M. B. Halpern, C. Taubes and I recently proposed a continuum regularization technique for quantum field theory. This regularization may be implemented by applying a regulator to either the (d + 1)-dimensional Parisi-Wu Langevin equation or, equivalently, to the d-dimensional second order Schwinger-Dyson (SD) equations. This technique is non-perturbative, respects all gauge and Lorentz symmetries, and is consistent with a ghost-free gauge fixing (Zwanziger's). This thesis is a detailed study of this regulator, and of regularized Yang-Mills theory, using both perturbative and non-perturbative techniques. The perturbative analysis comes first. The mechanism of stochastic quantization is reviewed, and a perturbative expansion based on second-order SD equations is developed. A diagrammatic method (SD diagrams) for evaluating terms of this expansion is developed. We apply the continuum regulator to a scalar field theory. Using SD diagrams, we show that all Green functions can be rendered finite to all orders in perturbation theory. Even non-renormalizable theories can be regularized. The continuum regulator is then applied to Yang-Mills theory, in conjunction with Zwanziger's gauge fixing. A perturbative expansion of the regulator is incorporated into the diagrammatic method. It is hoped that the techniques discussed in this thesis will contribute to the construction of a renormalized Yang-Mills theory is 3 and 4 dimensions
Gravitational lensing by a regular black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eiroa, Ernesto F; Sendra, Carlos M
2011-01-01
In this paper, we study a regular Bardeen black hole as a gravitational lens. We find the strong deflection limit for the deflection angle, from which we obtain the positions and magnifications of the relativistic images. As an example, we apply the results to the particular case of the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy.
Gravitational lensing by a regular black hole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eiroa, Ernesto F; Sendra, Carlos M, E-mail: eiroa@iafe.uba.ar, E-mail: cmsendra@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2011-04-21
In this paper, we study a regular Bardeen black hole as a gravitational lens. We find the strong deflection limit for the deflection angle, from which we obtain the positions and magnifications of the relativistic images. As an example, we apply the results to the particular case of the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy.
Analytic stochastic regularization and gange invariance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdalla, E.; Gomes, M.; Lima-Santos, A.
1986-05-01
A proof that analytic stochastic regularization breaks gauge invariance is presented. This is done by an explicit one loop calculation of the vaccum polarization tensor in scalar electrodynamics, which turns out not to be transversal. The counterterm structure, Langevin equations and the construction of composite operators in the general framework of stochastic quantization, are also analysed. (Author) [pt
Annotation of regular polysemy and underspecification
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martínez Alonso, Héctor; Pedersen, Bolette Sandford; Bel, Núria
2013-01-01
We present the result of an annotation task on regular polysemy for a series of seman- tic classes or dot types in English, Dan- ish and Spanish. This article describes the annotation process, the results in terms of inter-encoder agreement, and the sense distributions obtained with two methods...
Stabilization, pole placement, and regular implementability
Belur, MN; Trentelman, HL
In this paper, we study control by interconnection of linear differential systems. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for regular implementability of a-given linear, differential system. We formulate the problems of stabilization and pole placement as problems of finding a suitable,
12 CFR 725.3 - Regular membership.
2010-01-01
... UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.3 Regular membership. (a) A natural person credit....5(b) of this part, and forwarding with its completed application funds equal to one-half of this... 1, 1979, is not required to forward these funds to the Facility until October 1, 1979. (3...
Supervised scale-regularized linear convolutionary filters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Loog, Marco; Lauze, Francois Bernard
2017-01-01
also be solved relatively efficient. All in all, the idea is to properly control the scale of a trained filter, which we solve by introducing a specific regularization term into the overall objective function. We demonstrate, on an artificial filter learning problem, the capabil- ities of our basic...
On regular riesz operators | Raubenheimer | Quaestiones ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The r-asymptotically quasi finite rank operators on Banach lattices are examples of regular Riesz operators. We characterise Riesz elements in a subalgebra of a Banach algebra in terms of Riesz elements in the Banach algebra. This enables us to characterise r-asymptotically quasi finite rank operators in terms of adjoint ...
Regularized Discriminant Analysis: A Large Dimensional Study
Yang, Xiaoke
2018-04-28
In this thesis, we focus on studying the performance of general regularized discriminant analysis (RDA) classifiers. The data used for analysis is assumed to follow Gaussian mixture model with different means and covariances. RDA offers a rich class of regularization options, covering as special cases the regularized linear discriminant analysis (RLDA) and the regularized quadratic discriminant analysis (RQDA) classi ers. We analyze RDA under the double asymptotic regime where the data dimension and the training size both increase in a proportional way. This double asymptotic regime allows for application of fundamental results from random matrix theory. Under the double asymptotic regime and some mild assumptions, we show that the asymptotic classification error converges to a deterministic quantity that only depends on the data statistical parameters and dimensions. This result not only implicates some mathematical relations between the misclassification error and the class statistics, but also can be leveraged to select the optimal parameters that minimize the classification error, thus yielding the optimal classifier. Validation results on the synthetic data show a good accuracy of our theoretical findings. We also construct a general consistent estimator to approximate the true classification error in consideration of the unknown previous statistics. We benchmark the performance of our proposed consistent estimator against classical estimator on synthetic data. The observations demonstrate that the general estimator outperforms others in terms of mean squared error (MSE).
Complexity in union-free regular languages
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Jirásková, G.; Masopust, Tomáš
2011-01-01
Roč. 22, č. 7 (2011), s. 1639-1653 ISSN 0129-0541 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Union-free regular language * one-cycle-free- path automaton * descriptional complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.379, year: 2011 http://www.worldscinet.com/ijfcs/22/2207/S0129054111008933.html
Bit-coded regular expression parsing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Lasse; Henglein, Fritz
2011-01-01
the DFA-based parsing algorithm due to Dub ´e and Feeley to emit the bits of the bit representation without explicitly materializing the parse tree itself. We furthermore show that Frisch and Cardelli’s greedy regular expression parsing algorithm can be straightforwardly modified to produce bit codings...
Tetravalent one-regular graphs of order 4p2
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Feng, Yan-Quan; Kutnar, Klavdija; Marusic, Dragan
2014-01-01
A graph is one-regular if its automorphism group acts regularly on the set of its arcs. In this paper tetravalent one-regular graphs of order 4p2, where p is a prime, are classified.......A graph is one-regular if its automorphism group acts regularly on the set of its arcs. In this paper tetravalent one-regular graphs of order 4p2, where p is a prime, are classified....
Hughes, J R; Bowes, S G; Leeman, A L; O'Neill, C J; Deshmukh, A A; Nicholson, P W; Dobbs, S M; Dobbs, R J
1990-01-01
1. Normally during walking, the heel strikes the ground before the forefoot. Abnormalities of foot strike in idiopathic Parkinson's disease may be amenable to therapy: objective measurements may reveal response which is not clinically apparent. Occult changes in foot strike leading to instability may parallel the normal, age-related loss of striatal dopamine. 2. The nature of foot strike was studied using pedobarography in 160 healthy volunteers, aged 15 to 91 years. Although 16% of strikes w...
Pre/post-strike atmospheric assessment system (PAAS)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peglow, S. G.; Molitoris, J. D.
1997-01-01
The Pre/Post-Strike Atmospheric Assessment System was proposed to show the importance of local meteorological conditions in the vicinity of a site suspected of storing or producing toxic agents and demonstrate a technology to measure these conditions, specifically wind fields. The ability to predict the collateral effects resulting from an attack on a facility containing hazardous materials is crucial to conducting effective military operations. Our study approach utilized a combination of field measurements with dispersion modeling to better understand which variables in terrain and weather were most important to collateral damage predictions. To develop the PAAS wind-sensing technology, we utilized a combination of emergent and available technology from micro-Doppler and highly coherent laser systems. The method used for wind sensing is to probe the atmosphere with a highly coherent laser beam. As the beam probes, light is back-scattered from particles entrained in the air to the lidar transceiver and detected by the instrument. Any motion of the aerosols with a component along the beam axis leads to a Doppler shift of the received light. Scanning in a conical fashion about the zenith results in a more accurate and two-dimensional measurement of the wind velocity. The major milestones in the benchtop system development were to verify the design by demonstrating the technique in the laboratory, then scale the design down to a size consistent with a demonstrator unit which could be built to take data in the field. The micro-Doppler heterodyne system we developed determines absolute motion by optically mixing a reference beam with the return signal and has shown motion sensitivity to better than 1 cm/s. This report describes the rationale, technical approach and laboratory testing undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of a system to provide local meteorological data and predict atmospheric particulate motion. The work described herein was funded by
Empirical techniques in finance
Bhar, Ramaprasad
2005-01-01
This book offers the opportunity to study and experience advanced empi- cal techniques in finance and in general financial economics. It is not only suitable for students with an interest in the field, it is also highly rec- mended for academic researchers as well as the researchers in the industry. The book focuses on the contemporary empirical techniques used in the analysis of financial markets and how these are implemented using actual market data. With an emphasis on Implementation, this book helps foc- ing on strategies for rigorously combing finance theory and modeling technology to extend extant considerations in the literature. The main aim of this book is to equip the readers with an array of tools and techniques that will allow them to explore financial market problems with a fresh perspective. In this sense it is not another volume in eco- metrics. Of course, the traditional econometric methods are still valid and important; the contents of this book will bring in other related modeling topics tha...
Are physicians' strikes ever morally justifiable? A call for a return to ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Though physicians strike provides an opportunity to generate more knowledge about the process in which legitimacy of an organization can be restored, it meets with a great deal of resistance not only by the public but from within the medical profession. This paper critically examines the legitimacy of strike by medical ...
The balancing act between the constitutional right to strike and the ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
While the South African Constitution enshrines both children's right to a basic education and teachers' right to strike, conflict between these two often occurs when the way in which teachers' unions conduct strike actions detracts from learners' education. This article identifies the parties affected by industrial action in the ...
Spencer, McKayka M.; Lardner, Bjorn; Mazurek, M.J.; Reed, Robert N.
2015-01-01
Striking is a typical antipredator defense exhibited by many species of snakes. While trapping Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) on Guam, we observed that snakes most frequently struck at an approaching person at a site where snakes had been trapped, marked, and handled in the past. Using a combination of between-sites and within-site comparisons, we assessed if the propensity to strike was correlated with capture histories (both recent and long-term), snake size, body condition (a proxy to nutritional stress), sex, or tail condition (broken or intact), while controlling for confounding variables. We confirmed that propensity to strike was higher at the site where we had been conducting capture-mark-recapture for several years. However, we were unable to demonstrate a correlation between striking tendencies and individual recent or long-term capture histories. The only morphological covariate that had an effect on strike propensity was sex, with females striking more often than males. After removing the site effect from our model, we found that snakes missing parts of their tails were more likely to strike than snakes with intact tails. We have yet to identify the factor(s) that cause the pronounced difference across sites in snake propensity to strike, and data from additional sites might help elucidate any geographical patterns.
Effects of Foot Strike and Step Frequency on Achilles Tendon Stress During Running.
Lyght, Michael; Nockerts, Matthew; Kernozek, Thomas W; Ragan, Robert
2016-08-01
Achilles tendon (AT) injuries are common in runners. The AT withstands high magnitudes of stress during running which may contribute to injury. Our purpose was to examine the effects of foot strike pattern and step frequency on AT stress and strain during running utilizing muscle forces based on a musculoskeletal model and subject-specific ultrasound-derived AT cross-sectional area. Nineteen female runners performed running trials under 6 conditions, including rearfoot strike and forefoot strike patterns at their preferred cadence, +5%, and -5% preferred cadence. Rearfoot strike patterns had less peak AT stress (P forefoot strike pattern. A reduction in peak AT stress and strain were exhibited with a +5% preferred step frequency relative to the preferred condition using a rearfoot (P forefoot (P=.005) strike pattern. Strain rate was not different (P > .05) between step frequencies within each foot strike condition. Our results suggest that a rearfoot pattern may reduce AT stress, strain, and strain rate. Increases in step frequency of 5% above preferred frequency, regardless of foot strike pattern, may also lower peak AT stress and strain.
Strike type variation among Tarahumara Indians in minimal sandals versus conventional running shoes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel E. Lieberman
2014-06-01
Conclusion: These data reinforce earlier studies that there is variation among foot strike patterns among minimally shod runners, but also support the hypothesis that foot stiffness and important aspects of running form, including foot strike, differ between runners who grow up using minimal versus modern, conventional footwear.
Variation in Foot Strike Patterns among Habitually Barefoot and Shod Runners in Kenya.
Lieberman, Daniel E; Castillo, Eric R; Otarola-Castillo, Erik; Sang, Meshack K; Sigei, Timothy K; Ojiambo, Robert; Okutoyi, Paul; Pitsiladis, Yannis
2015-01-01
Runners are often categorized as forefoot, midfoot or rearfoot strikers, but how much and why do individuals vary in foot strike patterns when running on level terrain? This study used general linear mixed-effects models to explore both intra- and inter-individual variations in foot strike pattern among 48 Kalenjin-speaking participants from Kenya who varied in age, sex, body mass, height, running history, and habitual use of footwear. High speed video was used to measure lower extremity kinematics at ground contact in the sagittal plane while participants ran down 13 meter-long tracks with three variables independently controlled: speed, track stiffness, and step frequency. 72% of the habitually barefoot and 32% of the habitually shod participants used multiple strike types, with significantly higher levels of foot strike variation among individuals who ran less frequently and who used lower step frequencies. There was no effect of sex, age, height or weight on foot strike angle, but individuals were more likely to midfoot or forefoot strike when they ran on a stiff surface, had a high preferred stride frequency, were habitually barefoot, and had more experience running. It is hypothesized that strike type variation during running, including a more frequent use of forefoot and midfoot strikes, used to be greater before the introduction of cushioned shoes and paved surfaces.
Variation in Foot Strike Patterns among Habitually Barefoot and Shod Runners in Kenya.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel E Lieberman
Full Text Available Runners are often categorized as forefoot, midfoot or rearfoot strikers, but how much and why do individuals vary in foot strike patterns when running on level terrain? This study used general linear mixed-effects models to explore both intra- and inter-individual variations in foot strike pattern among 48 Kalenjin-speaking participants from Kenya who varied in age, sex, body mass, height, running history, and habitual use of footwear. High speed video was used to measure lower extremity kinematics at ground contact in the sagittal plane while participants ran down 13 meter-long tracks with three variables independently controlled: speed, track stiffness, and step frequency. 72% of the habitually barefoot and 32% of the habitually shod participants used multiple strike types, with significantly higher levels of foot strike variation among individuals who ran less frequently and who used lower step frequencies. There was no effect of sex, age, height or weight on foot strike angle, but individuals were more likely to midfoot or forefoot strike when they ran on a stiff surface, had a high preferred stride frequency, were habitually barefoot, and had more experience running. It is hypothesized that strike type variation during running, including a more frequent use of forefoot and midfoot strikes, used to be greater before the introduction of cushioned shoes and paved surfaces.
Footwear Matters: Influence of Footwear and Foot Strike on Load Rates during Running.
Rice, Hannah M; Jamison, Steve T; Davis, Irene S
2016-12-01
Running with a forefoot strike (FFS) pattern has been suggested to reduce the risk of overuse running injuries, due to a reduced vertical load rate compared with rearfoot strike (RFS) running. However, resultant load rate has been reported to be similar between foot strikes when running in traditional shoes, leading to questions regarding the value of running with a FFS. The influence of minimal footwear on the resultant load rate has not been considered. This study aimed to compare component and resultant instantaneous loading rate (ILR) between runners with different foot strike patterns in their habitual footwear conditions. Twenty-nine injury-free participants (22 men, seven women) ran at 3.13 m·s along a 30-m runway, with their habitual foot strike and footwear condition. Ground reaction force data were collected. Peak ILR values were compared between three conditions; those who habitually run with an RFS in standard shoes, with an FFS in standard shoes, and with an FFS in minimal shoes. Peak resultant, vertical, lateral, and medial ILR were lower (P strike. When running with an FFS, peak posterior ILR were lower (P strike. Therefore, it appears that footwear alters the load rates during running, even with similar foot strike patterns.
The initiation and linkage of surface fractures above a buried strike ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
a buried strike-slip fault: An experimental approach. N Ghosh and A ... conditions viz., (i) heterogeneous simple shear of the cover rocks above a buried strike slip fault. (wrench .... (iii) study of fracture types in the damage zones from Gozo .... was dominant, the results may vary from a true ... For example, as shown in figure 5 ...
Law and ethics of strikes in the Nigerian health system | Mcfubara ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Despite that health services are essential, health sector strikes have continued. The purpose here was to examine the legal and ethical justification of strikes in the Nigerian health sector. Documentary analysis and literature reviews were carried out. It was found that the Trade Disputes Act and the National Health Act do not ...
Human Power Empirically Explored
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jansen, A.J.
2011-01-18
Harvesting energy from the users' muscular power to convert this into electricity is a relatively unknown way to power consumer products. It nevertheless offers surprising opportunities for product designers; human-powered products function independently from regular power infrastructure, are convenient and can be environmentally and economically beneficial. This work provides insight into the knowledge required to design human-powered energy systems in consumer products from a scientific perspective. It shows the developments of human-powered products from the first introduction of the BayGen Freeplay radio in 1995 till current products and provides an overview and analysis of 211 human-powered products currently on the market. Although human power is generally perceived as beneficial for the environment, this thesis shows that achieving environmental benefit is only feasible when the environmental impact of additional materials in the energy conversion system is well balanced with the energy demands of the products functionality. User testing with existing products showed a preference for speeds in the range of 70 to 190 rpm for crank lengths from 32 to 95 mm. The muscular input power varied from 5 to 21 W. The analysis of twenty graduation projects from the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering in the field of human-powered products, offers an interesting set of additional practice based design recommendations. The knowledge based approach of human power is very powerful to support the design of human-powered products. There is substantial potential for improvements in the domains energy conversion, ergonomics and environment. This makes that human power, when applied properly, is environmentally and economically competitive over a wider range of applications than thought previously.
Developing personal values: trainees' attitudes toward strikes by health care providers.
Li, Su-Ting T; Srinivasan, Malathi; Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Kravitz, Richard L; Wilkes, Michael S
2011-05-01
Worldwide, health care providers use strikes and job actions to influence policy. For health care providers, especially physicians, strikes create an ethical tension between an obligation to care for current patients (e.g., to provide care and avoid abandonment) and an obligation to better care for future patients by seeking system improvements (e.g., improvements in safety, to access, and in the composition and strength of the health care workforce). This tension is further intensified when the potential benefit of a strike involves professional self-interest and the potential risk involves patient harm or death. By definition, trainees are still forming their professional identities and values, including their opinions on fair wages, health policy, employee benefits, professionalism, and strikes. In this article, the authors explore these ethical tensions, beginning with a discussion of reactions to a potential 2005 nursing strike at the University of California, Davis, Medical Center. The authors then propose a conceptual model describing factors that may influence health care providers' decisions to strike (including personal ethics, personal agency, and strike-related context). In particular, the authors explore the relationship between training level and attitudes toward taking a job action, such as going on strike. Because trainees' attitudes toward strikes continue to evolve during training, the authors maintain that open discussion around the ethics of health care professionals' strikes and other methods of conflict resolution should be included in medical education to enhance professionalism and systems-based practice training. The authors include sample case vignettes to help initiate these important discussions. Copyright © by the Association of American medical Colleges.
Final Empirical Test Case Specification
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per
This document includes the empirical specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one....
Empirical study of the impact of corruption on entrepreneurship in transition economies
Duong, Phuong Thanh
2015-01-01
In this study, we attempt to understand the current level of corruption and the development of entrepreneurship in transition economies. Based on that knowledge, we strike to develop concrete empirical results revealing the impacts of corruption on entrepreneurship in these special economies. After that, recommendations to address the issues are proposed. In particular, we focus on promoting structural and institutional reforms emphasizing on the importance of the privatization process. Our i...
Save, H.; Bettadpur, S. V.
2013-12-01
It has been demonstrated before that using Tikhonov regularization produces spherical harmonic solutions from GRACE that have very little residual stripes while capturing all the signal observed by GRACE within the noise level. This paper demonstrates a two-step process and uses Tikhonov regularization to remove the residual stripes in the CSR regularized spherical harmonic coefficients when computing the spatial projections. We discuss methods to produce mass anomaly grids that have no stripe features while satisfying the necessary condition of capturing all observed signal within the GRACE noise level.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert Aldrich
2010-03-01
Full Text Available This paper argues that the colonial legacy is ever present in contemporary Europe. For a generation, most Europeans largely tried, publicly, to forget the colonial past, or remembered it only through the rose-coloured lenses of nostalgia; now the pendulum has swung to memory of that past – even perhaps, in the views of some, to a surfeit of memory, where each group agitates for its own version of history, its own recognition in laws and ceremonies, its own commemoration in museums and monuments, the valorization or repatriation of its own art and artefacts. Word such as ‘invasion,’ ‘racism’ and ‘genocide’ are emotional terms that provoke emotional reactions. Whether leaders should apologize for wrongs of the past – and which wrongs – remains a highly sensitive issue. The ‘return of the colonial’ thus has to do with ethics and politics as well as with history, and can link to statements of apology or recognition, legislation about certain views of history, monetary compensation, repatriation of objects, and—perhaps most importantly—redefinition of national identity and policy. The colonial flags may have been lowered, but many barricades seem to have been raised. Private memories—of loss of land, of unacknowledged service, of political, economic, social and cultural disenfranchisement, but also on the other side of defeat, national castigation and self-flagellation—have been increasingly public. Monuments and museums act not only as sites of history but as venues for political agitation and forums for academic debate – differences of opinion that have spread to the streets. Empire has a long after-life.
Empirical tests of Zipf's law mechanism in open source Linux distribution.
Maillart, T; Sornette, D; Spaeth, S; von Krogh, G
2008-11-21
Zipf's power law is a ubiquitous empirical regularity found in many systems, thought to result from proportional growth. Here, we establish empirically the usually assumed ingredients of stochastic growth models that have been previously conjectured to be at the origin of Zipf's law. We use exceptionally detailed data on the evolution of open source software projects in Linux distributions, which offer a remarkable example of a growing complex self-organizing adaptive system, exhibiting Zipf's law over four full decades.
Empirical Support for Perceptual Conceptualism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicolás Alejandro Serrano
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to show that perceptual conceptualism can be understood as an empirically meaningful position and, furthermore, that there is some degree of empirical support for its main theses. In order to do this, I will start by offering an empirical reading of the conceptualist position, and making three predictions from it. Then, I will consider recent experimental results from cognitive sciences that seem to point towards those predictions. I will conclude that, while the evidence offered by those experiments is far from decisive, it is enough not only to show that conceptualism is an empirically meaningful position but also that there is empirical support for it.
Empire as a Geopolitical Figure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parker, Noel
2010-01-01
This article analyses the ingredients of empire as a pattern of order with geopolitical effects. Noting the imperial form's proclivity for expansion from a critical reading of historical sociology, the article argues that the principal manifestation of earlier geopolitics lay not in the nation...... but in empire. That in turn has been driven by a view of the world as disorderly and open to the ordering will of empires (emanating, at the time of geopolitics' inception, from Europe). One implication is that empires are likely to figure in the geopolitical ordering of the globe at all times, in particular...... after all that has happened in the late twentieth century to undermine nationalism and the national state. Empire is indeed a probable, even for some an attractive form of regime for extending order over the disorder produced by globalisation. Geopolitics articulated in imperial expansion is likely...
Extreme values, regular variation and point processes
Resnick, Sidney I
1987-01-01
Extremes Values, Regular Variation and Point Processes is a readable and efficient account of the fundamental mathematical and stochastic process techniques needed to study the behavior of extreme values of phenomena based on independent and identically distributed random variables and vectors It presents a coherent treatment of the distributional and sample path fundamental properties of extremes and records It emphasizes the core primacy of three topics necessary for understanding extremes the analytical theory of regularly varying functions; the probabilistic theory of point processes and random measures; and the link to asymptotic distribution approximations provided by the theory of weak convergence of probability measures in metric spaces The book is self-contained and requires an introductory measure-theoretic course in probability as a prerequisite Almost all sections have an extensive list of exercises which extend developments in the text, offer alternate approaches, test mastery and provide for enj...
Stream Processing Using Grammars and Regular Expressions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Ulrik Terp
disambiguation. The first algorithm operates in two passes in a semi-streaming fashion, using a constant amount of working memory and an auxiliary tape storage which is written in the first pass and consumed by the second. The second algorithm is a single-pass and optimally streaming algorithm which outputs...... as much of the parse tree as is semantically possible based on the input prefix read so far, and resorts to buffering as many symbols as is required to resolve the next choice. Optimality is obtained by performing a PSPACE-complete pre-analysis on the regular expression. In the second part we present...... Kleenex, a language for expressing high-performance streaming string processing programs as regular grammars with embedded semantic actions, and its compilation to streaming string transducers with worst-case linear-time performance. Its underlying theory is based on transducer decomposition into oracle...
Describing chaotic attractors: Regular and perpetual points
Dudkowski, Dawid; Prasad, Awadhesh; Kapitaniak, Tomasz
2018-03-01
We study the concepts of regular and perpetual points for describing the behavior of chaotic attractors in dynamical systems. The idea of these points, which have been recently introduced to theoretical investigations, is thoroughly discussed and extended into new types of models. We analyze the correlation between regular and perpetual points, as well as their relation with phase space, showing the potential usefulness of both types of points in the qualitative description of co-existing states. The ability of perpetual points in finding attractors is indicated, along with its potential cause. The location of chaotic trajectories and sets of considered points is investigated and the study on the stability of systems is shown. The statistical analysis of the observing desired states is performed. We focus on various types of dynamical systems, i.e., chaotic flows with self-excited and hidden attractors, forced mechanical models, and semiconductor superlattices, exhibiting the universality of appearance of the observed patterns and relations.
Chaos regularization of quantum tunneling rates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pecora, Louis M.; Wu Dongho; Lee, Hoshik; Antonsen, Thomas; Lee, Ming-Jer; Ott, Edward
2011-01-01
Quantum tunneling rates through a barrier separating two-dimensional, symmetric, double-well potentials are shown to depend on the classical dynamics of the billiard trajectories in each well and, hence, on the shape of the wells. For shapes that lead to regular (integrable) classical dynamics the tunneling rates fluctuate greatly with eigenenergies of the states sometimes by over two orders of magnitude. Contrarily, shapes that lead to completely chaotic trajectories lead to tunneling rates whose fluctuations are greatly reduced, a phenomenon we call regularization of tunneling rates. We show that a random-plane-wave theory of tunneling accounts for the mean tunneling rates and the small fluctuation variances for the chaotic systems.
Least square regularized regression in sum space.
Xu, Yong-Li; Chen, Di-Rong; Li, Han-Xiong; Liu, Lu
2013-04-01
This paper proposes a least square regularized regression algorithm in sum space of reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHSs) for nonflat function approximation, and obtains the solution of the algorithm by solving a system of linear equations. This algorithm can approximate the low- and high-frequency component of the target function with large and small scale kernels, respectively. The convergence and learning rate are analyzed. We measure the complexity of the sum space by its covering number and demonstrate that the covering number can be bounded by the product of the covering numbers of basic RKHSs. For sum space of RKHSs with Gaussian kernels, by choosing appropriate parameters, we tradeoff the sample error and regularization error, and obtain a polynomial learning rate, which is better than that in any single RKHS. The utility of this method is illustrated with two simulated data sets and five real-life databases.
Contour Propagation With Riemannian Elasticity Regularization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjerre, Troels; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Sapru, W.
2011-01-01
Purpose/Objective(s): Adaptive techniques allow for correction of spatial changes during the time course of the fractionated radiotherapy. Spatial changes include tumor shrinkage and weight loss, causing tissue deformation and residual positional errors even after translational and rotational image...... the planning CT onto the rescans and correcting to reflect actual anatomical changes. For deformable registration, a free-form, multi-level, B-spline deformation model with Riemannian elasticity, penalizing non-rigid local deformations, and volumetric changes, was used. Regularization parameters was defined...... on the original delineation and tissue deformation in the time course between scans form a better starting point than rigid propagation. There was no significant difference of locally and globally defined regularization. The method used in the present study suggests that deformed contours need to be reviewed...
Thin accretion disk around regular black hole
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
QIU Tianqi
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The Penrose′s cosmic censorship conjecture says that naked singularities do not exist in nature.So,it seems reasonable to further conjecture that not even a singularity exists in nature.In this paper,a regular black hole without singularity is studied in detail,especially on its thin accretion disk,energy flux,radiation temperature and accretion efficiency.It is found that the interaction of regular black hole is stronger than that of the Schwarzschild black hole. Furthermore,the thin accretion will be more efficiency to lost energy while the mass of black hole decreased. These particular properties may be used to distinguish between black holes.
Convex nonnegative matrix factorization with manifold regularization.
Hu, Wenjun; Choi, Kup-Sze; Wang, Peiliang; Jiang, Yunliang; Wang, Shitong
2015-03-01
Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) has been extensively applied in many areas, including computer vision, pattern recognition, text mining, and signal processing. However, nonnegative entries are usually required for the data matrix in NMF, which limits its application. Besides, while the basis and encoding vectors obtained by NMF can represent the original data in low dimension, the representations do not always reflect the intrinsic geometric structure embedded in the data. Motivated by manifold learning and Convex NMF (CNMF), we propose a novel matrix factorization method called Graph Regularized and Convex Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (GCNMF) by introducing a graph regularized term into CNMF. The proposed matrix factorization technique not only inherits the intrinsic low-dimensional manifold structure, but also allows the processing of mixed-sign data matrix. Clustering experiments on nonnegative and mixed-sign real-world data sets are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A short proof of increased parabolic regularity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephen Pankavich
2015-08-01
Full Text Available We present a short proof of the increased regularity obtained by solutions to uniformly parabolic partial differential equations. Though this setting is fairly introductory, our new method of proof, which uses a priori estimates and an inductive method, can be extended to prove analogous results for problems with time-dependent coefficients, advection-diffusion or reaction diffusion equations, and nonlinear PDEs even when other tools, such as semigroup methods or the use of explicit fundamental solutions, are unavailable.
Regular black hole in three dimensions
Myung, Yun Soo; Yoon, Myungseok
2008-01-01
We find a new black hole in three dimensional anti-de Sitter space by introducing an anisotropic perfect fluid inspired by the noncommutative black hole. This is a regular black hole with two horizons. We compare thermodynamics of this black hole with that of non-rotating BTZ black hole. The first-law of thermodynamics is not compatible with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy.
Sparse regularization for force identification using dictionaries
Qiao, Baijie; Zhang, Xingwu; Wang, Chenxi; Zhang, Hang; Chen, Xuefeng
2016-04-01
The classical function expansion method based on minimizing l2-norm of the response residual employs various basis functions to represent the unknown force. Its difficulty lies in determining the optimum number of basis functions. Considering the sparsity of force in the time domain or in other basis space, we develop a general sparse regularization method based on minimizing l1-norm of the coefficient vector of basis functions. The number of basis functions is adaptively determined by minimizing the number of nonzero components in the coefficient vector during the sparse regularization process. First, according to the profile of the unknown force, the dictionary composed of basis functions is determined. Second, a sparsity convex optimization model for force identification is constructed. Third, given the transfer function and the operational response, Sparse reconstruction by separable approximation (SpaRSA) is developed to solve the sparse regularization problem of force identification. Finally, experiments including identification of impact and harmonic forces are conducted on a cantilever thin plate structure to illustrate the effectiveness and applicability of SpaRSA. Besides the Dirac dictionary, other three sparse dictionaries including Db6 wavelets, Sym4 wavelets and cubic B-spline functions can also accurately identify both the single and double impact forces from highly noisy responses in a sparse representation frame. The discrete cosine functions can also successfully reconstruct the harmonic forces including the sinusoidal, square and triangular forces. Conversely, the traditional Tikhonov regularization method with the L-curve criterion fails to identify both the impact and harmonic forces in these cases.
Analytic stochastic regularization and gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdalla, E.; Gomes, M.; Lima-Santos, A.
1987-04-01
We prove that analytic stochatic regularization braks gauge invariance. This is done by an explicit one loop calculation of the two three and four point vertex functions of the gluon field in scalar chromodynamics, which turns out not to be geuge invariant. We analyse the counter term structure, Langevin equations and the construction of composite operators in the general framework of stochastic quantization. (author) [pt
Preconditioners for regularized saddle point matrices
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Axelsson, Owe
2011-01-01
Roč. 19, č. 2 (2011), s. 91-112 ISSN 1570-2820 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : saddle point matrices * preconditioning * regularization * eigenvalue clustering Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.533, year: 2011 http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jnma.2011.19.issue-2/jnum.2011.005/jnum.2011.005. xml
Analytic stochastic regularization: gauge and supersymmetry theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdalla, M.C.B.
1988-01-01
Analytic stochastic regularization for gauge and supersymmetric theories is considered. Gauge invariance in spinor and scalar QCD is verified to brak fown by an explicit one loop computation of the two, theree and four point vertex function of the gluon field. As a result, non gauge invariant counterterms must be added. However, in the supersymmetric multiplets there is a cancellation rendering the counterterms gauge invariant. The calculation is considered at one loop order. (author) [pt
Regularized forecasting of chaotic dynamical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bollt, Erik M.
2017-01-01
While local models of dynamical systems have been highly successful in terms of using extensive data sets observing even a chaotic dynamical system to produce useful forecasts, there is a typical problem as follows. Specifically, with k-near neighbors, kNN method, local observations occur due to recurrences in a chaotic system, and this allows for local models to be built by regression to low dimensional polynomial approximations of the underlying system estimating a Taylor series. This has been a popular approach, particularly in context of scalar data observations which have been represented by time-delay embedding methods. However such local models can generally allow for spatial discontinuities of forecasts when considered globally, meaning jumps in predictions because the collected near neighbors vary from point to point. The source of these discontinuities is generally that the set of near neighbors varies discontinuously with respect to the position of the sample point, and so therefore does the model built from the near neighbors. It is possible to utilize local information inferred from near neighbors as usual but at the same time to impose a degree of regularity on a global scale. We present here a new global perspective extending the general local modeling concept. In so doing, then we proceed to show how this perspective allows us to impose prior presumed regularity into the model, by involving the Tikhonov regularity theory, since this classic perspective of optimization in ill-posed problems naturally balances fitting an objective with some prior assumed form of the result, such as continuity or derivative regularity for example. This all reduces to matrix manipulations which we demonstrate on a simple data set, with the implication that it may find much broader context.
Minimal length uncertainty relation and ultraviolet regularization
Kempf, Achim; Mangano, Gianpiero
1997-06-01
Studies in string theory and quantum gravity suggest the existence of a finite lower limit Δx0 to the possible resolution of distances, at the latest on the scale of the Planck length of 10-35 m. Within the framework of the Euclidean path integral we explicitly show ultraviolet regularization in field theory through this short distance structure. Both rotation and translation invariance can be preserved. An example is studied in detail.
Regularity and chaos in cavity QED
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bastarrachea-Magnani, Miguel Angel; López-del-Carpio, Baldemar; Chávez-Carlos, Jorge; Lerma-Hernández, Sergio; Hirsch, Jorge G
2017-01-01
The interaction of a quantized electromagnetic field in a cavity with a set of two-level atoms inside it can be described with algebraic Hamiltonians of increasing complexity, from the Rabi to the Dicke models. Their algebraic character allows, through the use of coherent states, a semiclassical description in phase space, where the non-integrable Dicke model has regions associated with regular and chaotic motion. The appearance of classical chaos can be quantified calculating the largest Lyapunov exponent over the whole available phase space for a given energy. In the quantum regime, employing efficient diagonalization techniques, we are able to perform a detailed quantitative study of the regular and chaotic regions, where the quantum participation ratio (P R ) of coherent states on the eigenenergy basis plays a role equivalent to the Lyapunov exponent. It is noted that, in the thermodynamic limit, dividing the participation ratio by the number of atoms leads to a positive value in chaotic regions, while it tends to zero in the regular ones. (paper)
Solution path for manifold regularized semisupervised classification.
Wang, Gang; Wang, Fei; Chen, Tao; Yeung, Dit-Yan; Lochovsky, Frederick H
2012-04-01
Traditional learning algorithms use only labeled data for training. However, labeled examples are often difficult or time consuming to obtain since they require substantial human labeling efforts. On the other hand, unlabeled data are often relatively easy to collect. Semisupervised learning addresses this problem by using large quantities of unlabeled data with labeled data to build better learning algorithms. In this paper, we use the manifold regularization approach to formulate the semisupervised learning problem where a regularization framework which balances a tradeoff between loss and penalty is established. We investigate different implementations of the loss function and identify the methods which have the least computational expense. The regularization hyperparameter, which determines the balance between loss and penalty, is crucial to model selection. Accordingly, we derive an algorithm that can fit the entire path of solutions for every value of the hyperparameter. Its computational complexity after preprocessing is quadratic only in the number of labeled examples rather than the total number of labeled and unlabeled examples.
Regularizations: different recipes for identical situations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gambin, E.; Lobo, C.O.; Battistel, O.A.
2004-03-01
We present a discussion where the choice of the regularization procedure and the routing for the internal lines momenta are put at the same level of arbitrariness in the analysis of Ward identities involving simple and well-known problems in QFT. They are the complex self-interacting scalar field and two simple models where the SVV and AVV process are pertinent. We show that, in all these problems, the conditions to symmetry relations preservation are put in terms of the same combination of divergent Feynman integrals, which are evaluated in the context of a very general calculational strategy, concerning the manipulations and calculations involving divergences. Within the adopted strategy, all the arbitrariness intrinsic to the problem are still maintained in the final results and, consequently, a perfect map can be obtained with the corresponding results of the traditional regularization techniques. We show that, when we require an universal interpretation for the arbitrariness involved, in order to get consistency with all stated physical constraints, a strong condition is imposed for regularizations which automatically eliminates the ambiguities associated to the routing of the internal lines momenta of loops. The conclusion is clean and sound: the association between ambiguities and unavoidable symmetry violations in Ward identities cannot be maintained if an unique recipe is required for identical situations in the evaluation of divergent physical amplitudes. (author)
Parekh, Ankit
Sparsity has become the basis of some important signal processing methods over the last ten years. Many signal processing problems (e.g., denoising, deconvolution, non-linear component analysis) can be expressed as inverse problems. Sparsity is invoked through the formulation of an inverse problem with suitably designed regularization terms. The regularization terms alone encode sparsity into the problem formulation. Often, the ℓ1 norm is used to induce sparsity, so much so that ℓ1 regularization is considered to be `modern least-squares'. The use of ℓ1 norm, as a sparsity-inducing regularizer, leads to a convex optimization problem, which has several benefits: the absence of extraneous local minima, well developed theory of globally convergent algorithms, even for large-scale problems. Convex regularization via the ℓ1 norm, however, tends to under-estimate the non-zero values of sparse signals. In order to estimate the non-zero values more accurately, non-convex regularization is often favored over convex regularization. However, non-convex regularization generally leads to non-convex optimization, which suffers from numerous issues: convergence may be guaranteed to only a stationary point, problem specific parameters may be difficult to set, and the solution is sensitive to the initialization of the algorithm. The first part of this thesis is aimed toward combining the benefits of non-convex regularization and convex optimization to estimate sparse signals more effectively. To this end, we propose to use parameterized non-convex regularizers with designated non-convexity and provide a range for the non-convex parameter so as to ensure that the objective function is strictly convex. By ensuring convexity of the objective function (sum of data-fidelity and non-convex regularizer), we can make use of a wide variety of convex optimization algorithms to obtain the unique global minimum reliably. The second part of this thesis proposes a non-linear signal
Sparsity regularization for parameter identification problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jin, Bangti; Maass, Peter
2012-01-01
The investigation of regularization schemes with sparsity promoting penalty terms has been one of the dominant topics in the field of inverse problems over the last years, and Tikhonov functionals with ℓ p -penalty terms for 1 ⩽ p ⩽ 2 have been studied extensively. The first investigations focused on regularization properties of the minimizers of such functionals with linear operators and on iteration schemes for approximating the minimizers. These results were quickly transferred to nonlinear operator equations, including nonsmooth operators and more general function space settings. The latest results on regularization properties additionally assume a sparse representation of the true solution as well as generalized source conditions, which yield some surprising and optimal convergence rates. The regularization theory with ℓ p sparsity constraints is relatively complete in this setting; see the first part of this review. In contrast, the development of efficient numerical schemes for approximating minimizers of Tikhonov functionals with sparsity constraints for nonlinear operators is still ongoing. The basic iterated soft shrinkage approach has been extended in several directions and semi-smooth Newton methods are becoming applicable in this field. In particular, the extension to more general non-convex, non-differentiable functionals by variational principles leads to a variety of generalized iteration schemes. We focus on such iteration schemes in the second part of this review. A major part of this survey is devoted to applying sparsity constrained regularization techniques to parameter identification problems for partial differential equations, which we regard as the prototypical setting for nonlinear inverse problems. Parameter identification problems exhibit different levels of complexity and we aim at characterizing a hierarchy of such problems. The operator defining these inverse problems is the parameter-to-state mapping. We first summarize some
Are physicians strikes ever morally justifiable? A call for a return to tradition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Munyaradzi Mawere
2010-08-01
Full Text Available Though physicians strike provides an opportunity to generate more knowledge about the process in which legitimacy of an organization can be restored, it meets with a great deal of resistance not only by the public but from within the medical profession. This paper critically examines the legitimacy of strike by medical doctors heretofore referred to as physicians. Though critically reflecting on strikes of physicians in general, the paper makes more emphasis on Africa where physician strikes are rampant. More importantly, the paper argues that strike implies a failure for everyone in the organization (including the strikers themselves, not only the responsible government or authority. This is because when a strike occurs, an organization/fraternity is subjected to questions, scrutiny and slander. It becomes difficult to decouple what is said, decided and done. Traditionally, all medical fraternities the world-over are committed to acting comfortably to external demands- guaranteeing the patients lives and public health. By paying attention to external reactions, the medical fraternity adapts and learns what ought and should be done so that it is never again caught in the same messy. At the same time, the fraternity prepares itself for the future strikes. When the fraternity and those outside consider it is doing up to the external expectations, its lost legitimacy is restored. When legitimacy is restored, external pressure like once disturbed water returns to normal
Bowersock, Collin D; Willy, Richard W; DeVita, Paul; Willson, John D
2017-10-01
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of step length and foot strike pattern along with their interaction on tibiofemoral joint (TFJ) and medial compartment TFJ kinetics during running. Nineteen participants ran with a rear foot strike pattern at their preferred speed using a short (-10%), preferred, and long (+10%) step length. These step length conditions were then repeated using a forefoot strike pattern. Regardless of foot strike pattern, a 10% shorter step length resulted in decreased peak contact force, force impulse per step, force impulse per kilometre, and average loading rate at the TFJ and medial compartment, while a 10% increased step length had the opposite effects (all P forefoot strike pattern significantly lowered TFJ and medial compartment TFJ average loading rates compared with a rear foot strike pattern (both forefoot strike pattern produced the greatest reduction in peak medial compartment contact force (P < 0.05). Knowledge of these running modification effects may be relevant to the management or prevention of TFJ injury or pathology among runners.
Yong, Jennifer R; Silder, Amy; Montgomery, Kate L; Fredericson, Michael; Delp, Scott L
2018-05-18
Tibial stress fractures are a common and debilitating injury that occur in distance runners. Runners may be able to decrease tibial stress fracture risk by adopting a running pattern that reduces biomechanical parameters associated with a history of tibial stress fracture. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that converting to a forefoot striking pattern or increasing cadence without focusing on changing foot strike type would reduce injury risk parameters in recreational runners. Running kinematics, ground reaction forces and tibial accelerations were recorded from seventeen healthy, habitual rearfoot striking runners while running in their natural running pattern and after two acute retraining conditions: (1) converting to forefoot striking without focusing on cadence and (2) increasing cadence without focusing on foot strike. We found that converting to forefoot striking decreased two risk factors for tibial stress fracture: average and peak loading rates. Increasing cadence decreased one risk factor: peak hip adduction angle. Our results demonstrate that acute adaptation to forefoot striking reduces different injury risk parameters than acute adaptation to increased cadence and suggest that both modifications may reduce the risk of tibial stress fractures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Variation in foot strike patterns during running among habitually barefoot populations.
Hatala, Kevin G; Dingwall, Heather L; Wunderlich, Roshna E; Richmond, Brian G
2013-01-01
Endurance running may have a long evolutionary history in the hominin clade but it was not until very recently that humans ran wearing shoes. Research on modern habitually unshod runners has suggested that they utilize a different biomechanical strategy than runners who wear shoes, namely that barefoot runners typically use a forefoot strike in order to avoid generating the high impact forces that would be experienced if they were to strike the ground with their heels first. This finding suggests that our habitually unshod ancestors may have run in a similar way. However, this research was conducted on a single population and we know little about variation in running form among habitually barefoot people, including the effects of running speed, which has been shown to affect strike patterns in shod runners. Here, we present the results of our investigation into the selection of running foot strike patterns among another modern habitually unshod group, the Daasanach of northern Kenya. Data were collected from 38 consenting adults as they ran along a trackway with a plantar pressure pad placed midway along its length. Subjects ran at self-selected endurance running and sprinting speeds. Our data support the hypothesis that a forefoot strike reduces the magnitude of impact loading, but the majority of subjects instead used a rearfoot strike at endurance running speeds. Their percentages of midfoot and forefoot strikes increased significantly with speed. These results indicate that not all habitually barefoot people prefer running with a forefoot strike, and suggest that other factors such as running speed, training level, substrate mechanical properties, running distance, and running frequency, influence the selection of foot strike patterns.
Variation in foot strike patterns during running among habitually barefoot populations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kevin G Hatala
Full Text Available Endurance running may have a long evolutionary history in the hominin clade but it was not until very recently that humans ran wearing shoes. Research on modern habitually unshod runners has suggested that they utilize a different biomechanical strategy than runners who wear shoes, namely that barefoot runners typically use a forefoot strike in order to avoid generating the high impact forces that would be experienced if they were to strike the ground with their heels first. This finding suggests that our habitually unshod ancestors may have run in a similar way. However, this research was conducted on a single population and we know little about variation in running form among habitually barefoot people, including the effects of running speed, which has been shown to affect strike patterns in shod runners. Here, we present the results of our investigation into the selection of running foot strike patterns among another modern habitually unshod group, the Daasanach of northern Kenya. Data were collected from 38 consenting adults as they ran along a trackway with a plantar pressure pad placed midway along its length. Subjects ran at self-selected endurance running and sprinting speeds. Our data support the hypothesis that a forefoot strike reduces the magnitude of impact loading, but the majority of subjects instead used a rearfoot strike at endurance running speeds. Their percentages of midfoot and forefoot strikes increased significantly with speed. These results indicate that not all habitually barefoot people prefer running with a forefoot strike, and suggest that other factors such as running speed, training level, substrate mechanical properties, running distance, and running frequency, influence the selection of foot strike patterns.
Manipulation of Foot Strike and Footwear Increases Achilles Tendon Loading During Running.
Rice, Hannah; Patel, Mubarak
2017-08-01
The Achilles tendon is the most common site of tendon overuse injury in humans. Running with a forefoot strike pattern and in minimal shoes is a topic of recent interest, yet evidence is currently limited regarding the combined influence of foot strike and footwear on Achilles tendon loading. To investigate the influence of both foot strike and footwear on Achilles tendon loading in habitual rearfoot strike runners. Controlled laboratory study. Synchronized kinematic and force data were collected from 22 habitual rearfoot strikers (11 male), who habitually ran in nonminimal running shoes, during overground running at 3.6 m·s -1 . Participants ran in 3 different footwear conditions (standard running shoe, minimal running shoe, and barefoot) with both a rearfoot strike (RFS) and an imposed forefoot strike (FFS) in each footwear condition. Achilles tendon loading was estimated by use of inverse dynamics, where the Achilles tendon moment arm was determined with a regression equation. A 2-way, repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare conditions. Achilles tendon impulse was greater when subjects ran with an FFS rather than an RFS in minimal shoes. Achilles tendon loading rates were higher when subjects ran either in minimal shoes or barefoot than in standard shoes, regardless of foot strike. In runners who habitually rearfoot strike in standard running shoes, running in minimal shoes or barefoot increased the rate of tendon loading, and running with a forefoot strike in minimal shoes increased the magnitude of tendon loading. Transitioning to these running conditions may increase the risk of tendinopathy.
Learning Sparse Visual Representations with Leaky Capped Norm Regularizers
Wangni, Jianqiao; Lin, Dahua
2017-01-01
Sparsity inducing regularization is an important part for learning over-complete visual representations. Despite the popularity of $\\ell_1$ regularization, in this paper, we investigate the usage of non-convex regularizations in this problem. Our contribution consists of three parts. First, we propose the leaky capped norm regularization (LCNR), which allows model weights below a certain threshold to be regularized more strongly as opposed to those above, therefore imposes strong sparsity and...
Temporal regularity of the environment drives time perception
van Rijn, H; Rhodes, D; Di Luca, M
2016-01-01
It’s reasonable to assume that a regularly paced sequence should be perceived as regular, but here we show that perceived regularity depends on the context in which the sequence is embedded. We presented one group of participants with perceptually regularly paced sequences, and another group of participants with mostly irregularly paced sequences (75% irregular, 25% regular). The timing of the final stimulus in each sequence could be var- ied. In one experiment, we asked whether the last stim...
Discriminative semi-supervised feature selection via manifold regularization.
Xu, Zenglin; King, Irwin; Lyu, Michael Rung-Tsong; Jin, Rong
2010-07-01
Feature selection has attracted a huge amount of interest in both research and application communities of data mining. We consider the problem of semi-supervised feature selection, where we are given a small amount of labeled examples and a large amount of unlabeled examples. Since a small number of labeled samples are usually insufficient for identifying the relevant features, the critical problem arising from semi-supervised feature selection is how to take advantage of the information underneath the unlabeled data. To address this problem, we propose a novel discriminative semi-supervised feature selection method based on the idea of manifold regularization. The proposed approach selects features through maximizing the classification margin between different classes and simultaneously exploiting the geometry of the probability distribution that generates both labeled and unlabeled data. In comparison with previous semi-supervised feature selection algorithms, our proposed semi-supervised feature selection method is an embedded feature selection method and is able to find more discriminative features. We formulate the proposed feature selection method into a convex-concave optimization problem, where the saddle point corresponds to the optimal solution. To find the optimal solution, the level method, a fairly recent optimization method, is employed. We also present a theoretic proof of the convergence rate for the application of the level method to our problem. Empirical evaluation on several benchmark data sets demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed semi-supervised feature selection method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eugene N. Anderson
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous empire the world has ever known, had, among other things, a goodly number of falconers, poultry raisers, birdcatchers, cooks, and other experts on various aspects of birding. We have records of this, largely in the Yinshan Zhengyao, the court nutrition manual of the Mongol empire in China (the Yuan Dynasty. It discusses in some detail 22 bird taxa, from swans to chickens. The Huihui Yaofang, a medical encyclopedia, lists ten taxa used medicinally. Marco Polo also made notes on Mongol bird use. There are a few other records. This allows us to draw conclusions about Mongol ornithology, which apparently was sophisticated and detailed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dustin Kai Yan Lau
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Background Unlike alphabetic languages, Chinese uses a logographic script. However, the pronunciation of many character’s phonetic radical has the same pronunciation as the character as a whole. These are considered regular characters and can be read through a lexical non-semantic route (Weekes & Chen, 1999. Pseudocharacters are another way to study this non-semantic route. A pseudocharacter is the combination of existing semantic and phonetic radicals in their legal positions resulting in a non-existing character (Ho, Chan, Chung, Lee, & Tsang, 2007. Pseudocharacters can be pronounced by direct derivation from the sound of its phonetic radical. Conversely, if the pronunciation of a character does not follow that of the phonetic radical, it is considered as irregular and can only be correctly read through the lexical-semantic route. The aim of the current investigation was to examine reading aloud in normal adults. We hypothesized that the regularity effect, previously described for alphabetical scripts and acquired dyslexic patients of Chinese (Weekes & Chen, 1999; Wu, Liu, Sun, Chromik, & Zhang, 2014, would also be present in normal adult Chinese readers. Method Participants. Thirty (50% female native Hong Kong Cantonese speakers with a mean age of 19.6 years and a mean education of 12.9 years. Stimuli. Sixty regular-, 60 irregular-, and 60 pseudo-characters (with at least 75% of name agreement in Chinese were matched by initial phoneme, number of strokes and family size. Additionally, regular- and irregular-characters were matched by frequency (low and consistency. Procedure. Each participant was asked to read aloud the stimuli presented on a laptop using the DMDX software. The order of stimuli presentation was randomized. Data analysis. ANOVAs were carried out by participants and items with RTs and errors as dependent variables and type of stimuli (regular-, irregular- and pseudo-character as repeated measures (F1 or between subject
Convergence and fluctuations of Regularized Tyler estimators
Kammoun, Abla; Couillet, Romain; Pascal, Frederic; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2015-01-01
This article studies the behavior of regularized Tyler estimators (RTEs) of scatter matrices. The key advantages of these estimators are twofold. First, they guarantee by construction a good conditioning of the estimate and second, being a derivative of robust Tyler estimators, they inherit their robustness properties, notably their resilience to the presence of outliers. Nevertheless, one major problem that poses the use of RTEs in practice is represented by the question of setting the regularization parameter p. While a high value of p is likely to push all the eigenvalues away from zero, it comes at the cost of a larger bias with respect to the population covariance matrix. A deep understanding of the statistics of RTEs is essential to come up with appropriate choices for the regularization parameter. This is not an easy task and might be out of reach, unless one considers asymptotic regimes wherein the number of observations n and/or their size N increase together. First asymptotic results have recently been obtained under the assumption that N and n are large and commensurable. Interestingly, no results concerning the regime of n going to infinity with N fixed exist, even though the investigation of this assumption has usually predated the analysis of the most difficult N and n large case. This motivates our work. In particular, we prove in the present paper that the RTEs converge to a deterministic matrix when n → ∞ with N fixed, which is expressed as a function of the theoretical covariance matrix. We also derive the fluctuations of the RTEs around this deterministic matrix and establish that these fluctuations converge in distribution to a multivariate Gaussian distribution with zero mean and a covariance depending on the population covariance and the parameter.
Convergence and fluctuations of Regularized Tyler estimators
Kammoun, Abla
2015-10-26
This article studies the behavior of regularized Tyler estimators (RTEs) of scatter matrices. The key advantages of these estimators are twofold. First, they guarantee by construction a good conditioning of the estimate and second, being a derivative of robust Tyler estimators, they inherit their robustness properties, notably their resilience to the presence of outliers. Nevertheless, one major problem that poses the use of RTEs in practice is represented by the question of setting the regularization parameter p. While a high value of p is likely to push all the eigenvalues away from zero, it comes at the cost of a larger bias with respect to the population covariance matrix. A deep understanding of the statistics of RTEs is essential to come up with appropriate choices for the regularization parameter. This is not an easy task and might be out of reach, unless one considers asymptotic regimes wherein the number of observations n and/or their size N increase together. First asymptotic results have recently been obtained under the assumption that N and n are large and commensurable. Interestingly, no results concerning the regime of n going to infinity with N fixed exist, even though the investigation of this assumption has usually predated the analysis of the most difficult N and n large case. This motivates our work. In particular, we prove in the present paper that the RTEs converge to a deterministic matrix when n → ∞ with N fixed, which is expressed as a function of the theoretical covariance matrix. We also derive the fluctuations of the RTEs around this deterministic matrix and establish that these fluctuations converge in distribution to a multivariate Gaussian distribution with zero mean and a covariance depending on the population covariance and the parameter.
The use of regularization in inferential measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hines, J. Wesley; Gribok, Andrei V.; Attieh, Ibrahim; Uhrig, Robert E.
1999-01-01
Inferential sensing is the prediction of a plant variable through the use of correlated plant variables. A correct prediction of the variable can be used to monitor sensors for drift or other failures making periodic instrument calibrations unnecessary. This move from periodic to condition based maintenance can reduce costs and increase the reliability of the instrument. Having accurate, reliable measurements is important for signals that may impact safety or profitability. This paper investigates how collinearity adversely affects inferential sensing by making the results inconsistent and unrepeatable; and presents regularization as a potential solution (author) (ml)
Regularization ambiguities in loop quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perez, Alejandro
2006-01-01
One of the main achievements of loop quantum gravity is the consistent quantization of the analog of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation which is free of ultraviolet divergences. However, ambiguities associated to the intermediate regularization procedure lead to an apparently infinite set of possible theories. The absence of an UV problem--the existence of well-behaved regularization of the constraints--is intimately linked with the ambiguities arising in the quantum theory. Among these ambiguities is the one associated to the SU(2) unitary representation used in the diffeomorphism covariant 'point-splitting' regularization of the nonlinear functionals of the connection. This ambiguity is labeled by a half-integer m and, here, it is referred to as the m ambiguity. The aim of this paper is to investigate the important implications of this ambiguity. We first study 2+1 gravity (and more generally BF theory) quantized in the canonical formulation of loop quantum gravity. Only when the regularization of the quantum constraints is performed in terms of the fundamental representation of the gauge group does one obtain the usual topological quantum field theory as a result. In all other cases unphysical local degrees of freedom arise at the level of the regulated theory that conspire against the existence of the continuum limit. This shows that there is a clear-cut choice in the quantization of the constraints in 2+1 loop quantum gravity. We then analyze the effects of the ambiguity in 3+1 gravity exhibiting the existence of spurious solutions for higher representation quantizations of the Hamiltonian constraint. Although the analysis is not complete in 3+1 dimensions - due to the difficulties associated to the definition of the physical inner product - it provides evidence supporting the definitions quantum dynamics of loop quantum gravity in terms of the fundamental representation of the gauge group as the only consistent possibilities. If the gauge group is SO(3) we find
Effort variation regularization in sound field reproduction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stefanakis, Nick; Jacobsen, Finn; Sarris, Ioannis
2010-01-01
In this paper, active control is used in order to reproduce a given sound field in an extended spatial region. A method is proposed which minimizes the reproduction error at a number of control positions with the reproduction sources holding a certain relation within their complex strengths......), and adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS), both under free-field conditions and in reverberant rooms. It is shown that effort variation regularization overcomes the problems associated with small spaces and with a low ratio of direct to reverberant energy, improving thus the reproduction accuracy...
New regularities in mass spectra of hadrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kajdalov, A.B.
1989-01-01
The properties of bosonic and baryonic Regge trajectories for hadrons composed of light quarks are considered. Experimental data agree with an existence of daughter trajectories consistent with string models. It is pointed out that the parity doubling for baryonic trajectories, observed experimentally, is not understood in the existing quark models. Mass spectrum of bosons and baryons indicates to an approximate supersymmetry in the mass region M>1 GeV. These regularities indicates to a high degree of symmetry for the dynamics in the confinement region. 8 refs.; 5 figs
Total-variation regularization with bound constraints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chartrand, Rick; Wohlberg, Brendt
2009-01-01
We present a new algorithm for bound-constrained total-variation (TV) regularization that in comparison with its predecessors is simple, fast, and flexible. We use a splitting approach to decouple TV minimization from enforcing the constraints. Consequently, existing TV solvers can be employed with minimal alteration. This also makes the approach straightforward to generalize to any situation where TV can be applied. We consider deblurring of images with Gaussian or salt-and-pepper noise, as well as Abel inversion of radiographs with Poisson noise. We incorporate previous iterative reweighting algorithms to solve the TV portion.
Bayesian regularization of diffusion tensor images
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frandsen, Jesper; Hobolth, Asger; Østergaard, Leif
2007-01-01
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a powerful tool in the study of the course of nerve fibre bundles in the human brain. Using DTI, the local fibre orientation in each image voxel can be described by a diffusion tensor which is constructed from local measurements of diffusion coefficients along...... several directions. The measured diffusion coefficients and thereby the diffusion tensors are subject to noise, leading to possibly flawed representations of the three dimensional fibre bundles. In this paper we develop a Bayesian procedure for regularizing the diffusion tensor field, fully utilizing...
Indefinite metric and regularization of electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaudin, M.
1984-06-01
The invariant regularization of Pauli and Villars in quantum electrodynamics can be considered as deriving from a local and causal lagrangian theory for spin 1/2 bosons, by introducing an indefinite metric and a condition on the allowed states similar to the Lorentz condition. The consequences are the asymptotic freedom of the photon's propagator. We present a calcultion of the effective charge to the fourth order in the coupling as a function of the auxiliary masses, the theory avoiding all mass divergencies to this order [fr
Strategies for regular segmented reductions on GPU
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Rasmus Wriedt; Henriksen, Troels
2017-01-01
We present and evaluate an implementation technique for regular segmented reductions on GPUs. Existing techniques tend to be either consistent in performance but relatively inefficient in absolute terms, or optimised for specific workloads and thereby exhibiting bad performance for certain input...... is in the context of the Futhark compiler, the implementation technique is applicable to any library or language that has a need for segmented reductions. We evaluate the technique on four microbenchmarks, two of which we also compare to implementations in the CUB library for GPU programming, as well as on two...
Empirical Legality and Effective Reality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hernán Pringe
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The conditions that Kant’s doctrine establishes are examined for the predication of the effective reality of certain empirical objects. It is maintained that a for such a predication, it is necessary to have not only perception but also a certain homogeneity of sensible data, and b the knowledge of the existence of certain empirical objects depends on the application of regulative principles of experience.
Empirical logic and quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foulis, D.J.; Randall, C.H.
1976-01-01
This article discusses some of the basic notions of quantum physics within the more general framework of operational statistics and empirical logic (as developed in Foulis and Randall, 1972, and Randall and Foulis, 1973). Empirical logic is a formal mathematical system in which the notion of an operation is primitive and undefined; all other concepts are rigorously defined in terms of such operations (which are presumed to correspond to actual physical procedures). (Auth.)
Empirical Research In Engineering Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ahmed, Saeema
2007-01-01
Increasingly engineering design research involves the use of empirical studies that are conducted within an industrial environment [Ahmed, 2001; Court 1995; Hales 1987]. Research into the use of information by designers or understanding how engineers build up experience are examples of research...... of research issues. This paper describes case studies of empirical research carried out within industry in engineering design focusing upon information, knowledge and experience in engineering design. The paper describes the research methods employed, their suitability for the particular research aims...
A Physical Analog Model of Strike-Slip Faulting for Model-Based Inquiry in the Classroom
Curren, I. S.; Glesener, G.
2013-12-01
Geoscience educators often use qualitative physical analog models to demonstrate natural processes; while these are effective teaching tools, they often neglect the fundamental scientific practices that make up the core of scientific work. Physical analog models with dynamic properties that can be manipulated and measured quantitatively in real-time, on the other hand, can give students the opportunity to explore, observe and empirically test their own ideas and hypotheses about the relevant target concepts within a classroom setting. Providing classroom content for inquiry, such as a hands-on physical analog model, which fosters students' production and refinement of their mental models in participatory and discursive activities have been argued by many education researchers to help students build a deeper understanding of science and scientific reasoning. We present a physical analog model that was originally developed by UCLA's Modeling and Educational Demonstrations Laboratory (MEDL) for the purpose of engaging students in the study of elastic rebound on a strike-slip fault; it was later modified to accommodate research of complex tectonic processes associated with strike-slip faulting, which are currently debated by scientists in both the geology and geophysics disciplines. During experimentation, it became clear that this new design could be used as a relevant resource for inquiry from which students would be able to make and discuss real-time empirical measurements and observations to help them infer causal accounts of theoretical and/or unobservable dynamic processes within the Earth's crust. In our poster session, we will: 1) demonstrate the physical analog model; 2) describe various real-time data collection tools, as well as quantitative methods students can use to process their data; and 3) describe the surficial, structural and relational similarities between the physical analog model and the target concepts intended for students to explore in the
Electrically conductive carbon fibre-reinforced composite for aircraft lightning strike protection
Katunin, Andrzej; Krukiewicz, Katarzyna; Turczyn, Roman; Sul, Przemysław; Bilewicz, Marcin
2017-05-01
Aircraft elements, especially elements of exterior fuselage, are subjected to damage caused by lightning strikes. Due to the fact that these elements are manufactured from polymeric composites in modern aircraft, and thus, they cannot conduct electrical charges, the lightning strikes cause burnouts in composite structures. Therefore, the effective lightning strike protection for such structures is highly desired. The solution presented in this paper is based on application of organic conductive fillers in the form of intrinsically conducting polymers and carbon fabric in order to ensure electrical conductivity of whole composite and simultaneously retain superior mechanical properties. The presented studies cover synthesis and manufacturing of the electrically conductive composite as well as its characterization with respect to mechanical and electrical properties. The performed studies indicate that the proposed material can be potentially considered as a constructional material for aircraft industry, which characterizes by good operational properties and low cost of manufacturing with respect to current lightning strike protection materials solutions.
Annotated Bibliography of Bird Hazards to Aircraft: Bird Strike Committee Citations 1967-1997
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Short, Jeffrey
1998-01-01
.... This annotated bibliography of bird hazards to aircraft, termed ABBHA, is a compilation of citations with abstracts on a wide range of related topics such as bird strike tolerance engineering, bird...
Counterproliferation Strategy: The Role of Preventive War, Preventive Strikes, and Interdiction
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Rak, Claire
2003-01-01
This thesis analyzes the potential effectiveness of preventive war, preventive strikes, and interdiction as tools for the United States to counter the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD...
Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine
... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Summer 2013 ... removed. That is the most common form of skin cancer and not as dangerous as melanoma. Photo: ...
Combat Pair: The Evolution of Air Force-Navy Integration in Strike Warfare
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Lambeth, Benjamin
2007-01-01
This report documents the exceptional cross-service harmony that the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy have steadily developed in their conduct of integrated strike operations since the first Persian Gulf War in 1991...
Three-dimensional impact kinetics with foot-strike manipulations during running
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrew D. Nordin
2017-12-01
Conclusion: Loading rate–time assessment identified contrasting impact characteristics in each direction and the 3D resultant following foot-strike manipulations, with potential implications for lower extremity structures in running.
Origin and structure of major orogen-scale exhumed strike-slip
Cao, Shuyun; Neubauer, Franz
2016-04-01
The formation of major exhumed strike-slip faults represents one of the most important dynamic processes affecting the evolution of the Earth's lithosphere and surface. Detailed models of the potential initiation and properties and architecture of orogen-scale exhumed strike-slip faults and how these relate to exhumation are rare. In this study, we deal with key properties controlling the development of major exhumed strike-slip fault systems, which are equivalent to the deep crustal sections of active across fault zones. We also propose two dominant processes for the initiation of orogen-scale exhumed strike-slip faults: (1) pluton-controlled and (2) metamorphic core complex-controlled strike-slip faults. In these tectonic settings, the initiation of faults occurs by rheological weakening along hot-to-cool contacts and guides the overall displacement and ultimate exhumation. These processes result in a specific thermal and structural architecture of such faults. These types of strike-slip dominated fault zones are often subparallel to mountain ranges and expose a wide variety of mylonitic, cataclastic and non-cohesive fault rocks, which were formed at different structural levels of the crust during various stages of faulting. The high variety of distinctive fault rocks is a potential evidence for recognition of these types of strike-slip faults. Exhumation of mylonitic rocks is, therefore, a common feature of such reverse oblique-slip strike-slip faults, implying major transtensive and/or transpressive processes accompanying pure strike-slip motion during exhumation. Some orogen-scale strike-slip faults nucleate and initiate along rheologically weak zones, e.g. at granite intrusions, zones of low-strength minerals, thermally weakened crust due to ascending fluids, and lateral borders of hot metamorphic core complexes. A further mechanism is the juxtaposition of mechanically strong mantle lithosphere to hot asthenosphere in continental transform faults (e.g., San
Emotion regulation deficits in regular marijuana users.
Zimmermann, Kaeli; Walz, Christina; Derckx, Raissa T; Kendrick, Keith M; Weber, Bernd; Dore, Bruce; Ochsner, Kevin N; Hurlemann, René; Becker, Benjamin
2017-08-01
Effective regulation of negative affective states has been associated with mental health. Impaired regulation of negative affect represents a risk factor for dysfunctional coping mechanisms such as drug use and thus could contribute to the initiation and development of problematic substance use. This study investigated behavioral and neural indices of emotion regulation in regular marijuana users (n = 23) and demographically matched nonusing controls (n = 20) by means of an fMRI cognitive emotion regulation (reappraisal) paradigm. Relative to nonusing controls, marijuana users demonstrated increased neural activity in a bilateral frontal network comprising precentral, middle cingulate, and supplementary motor regions during reappraisal of negative affect (P marijuana users relative to controls. Together, the present findings could reflect an unsuccessful attempt of compensatory recruitment of additional neural resources in the context of disrupted amygdala-prefrontal interaction during volitional emotion regulation in marijuana users. As such, impaired volitional regulation of negative affect might represent a consequence of, or risk factor for, regular marijuana use. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4270-4279, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Efficient multidimensional regularization for Volterra series estimation
Birpoutsoukis, Georgios; Csurcsia, Péter Zoltán; Schoukens, Johan
2018-05-01
This paper presents an efficient nonparametric time domain nonlinear system identification method. It is shown how truncated Volterra series models can be efficiently estimated without the need of long, transient-free measurements. The method is a novel extension of the regularization methods that have been developed for impulse response estimates of linear time invariant systems. To avoid the excessive memory needs in case of long measurements or large number of estimated parameters, a practical gradient-based estimation method is also provided, leading to the same numerical results as the proposed Volterra estimation method. Moreover, the transient effects in the simulated output are removed by a special regularization method based on the novel ideas of transient removal for Linear Time-Varying (LTV) systems. Combining the proposed methodologies, the nonparametric Volterra models of the cascaded water tanks benchmark are presented in this paper. The results for different scenarios varying from a simple Finite Impulse Response (FIR) model to a 3rd degree Volterra series with and without transient removal are compared and studied. It is clear that the obtained models capture the system dynamics when tested on a validation dataset, and their performance is comparable with the white-box (physical) models.
Multiple graph regularized nonnegative matrix factorization
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2013-10-01
Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) has been widely used as a data representation method based on components. To overcome the disadvantage of NMF in failing to consider the manifold structure of a data set, graph regularized NMF (GrNMF) has been proposed by Cai et al. by constructing an affinity graph and searching for a matrix factorization that respects graph structure. Selecting a graph model and its corresponding parameters is critical for this strategy. This process is usually carried out by cross-validation or discrete grid search, which are time consuming and prone to overfitting. In this paper, we propose a GrNMF, called MultiGrNMF, in which the intrinsic manifold is approximated by a linear combination of several graphs with different models and parameters inspired by ensemble manifold regularization. Factorization metrics and linear combination coefficients of graphs are determined simultaneously within a unified object function. They are alternately optimized in an iterative algorithm, thus resulting in a novel data representation algorithm. Extensive experiments on a protein subcellular localization task and an Alzheimer\\'s disease diagnosis task demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Accelerating Large Data Analysis By Exploiting Regularities
Moran, Patrick J.; Ellsworth, David
2003-01-01
We present techniques for discovering and exploiting regularity in large curvilinear data sets. The data can be based on a single mesh or a mesh composed of multiple submeshes (also known as zones). Multi-zone data are typical to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. Regularities include axis-aligned rectilinear and cylindrical meshes as well as cases where one zone is equivalent to a rigid-body transformation of another. Our algorithms can also discover rigid-body motion of meshes in time-series data. Next, we describe a data model where we can utilize the results from the discovery process in order to accelerate large data visualizations. Where possible, we replace general curvilinear zones with rectilinear or cylindrical zones. In rigid-body motion cases we replace a time-series of meshes with a transformed mesh object where a reference mesh is dynamically transformed based on a given time value in order to satisfy geometry requests, on demand. The data model enables us to make these substitutions and dynamic transformations transparently with respect to the visualization algorithms. We present results with large data sets where we combine our mesh replacement and transformation techniques with out-of-core paging in order to achieve significant speed-ups in analysis.
Multiview Hessian regularization for image annotation.
Liu, Weifeng; Tao, Dacheng
2013-07-01
The rapid development of computer hardware and Internet technology makes large scale data dependent models computationally tractable, and opens a bright avenue for annotating images through innovative machine learning algorithms. Semisupervised learning (SSL) therefore received intensive attention in recent years and was successfully deployed in image annotation. One representative work in SSL is Laplacian regularization (LR), which smoothes the conditional distribution for classification along the manifold encoded in the graph Laplacian, however, it is observed that LR biases the classification function toward a constant function that possibly results in poor generalization. In addition, LR is developed to handle uniformly distributed data (or single-view data), although instances or objects, such as images and videos, are usually represented by multiview features, such as color, shape, and texture. In this paper, we present multiview Hessian regularization (mHR) to address the above two problems in LR-based image annotation. In particular, mHR optimally combines multiple HR, each of which is obtained from a particular view of instances, and steers the classification function that varies linearly along the data manifold. We apply mHR to kernel least squares and support vector machines as two examples for image annotation. Extensive experiments on the PASCAL VOC'07 dataset validate the effectiveness of mHR by comparing it with baseline algorithms, including LR and HR.
EIT image reconstruction with four dimensional regularization.
Dai, Tao; Soleimani, Manuchehr; Adler, Andy
2008-09-01
Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) reconstructs internal impedance images of the body from electrical measurements on body surface. The temporal resolution of EIT data can be very high, although the spatial resolution of the images is relatively low. Most EIT reconstruction algorithms calculate images from data frames independently, although data are actually highly correlated especially in high speed EIT systems. This paper proposes a 4-D EIT image reconstruction for functional EIT. The new approach is developed to directly use prior models of the temporal correlations among images and 3-D spatial correlations among image elements. A fast algorithm is also developed to reconstruct the regularized images. Image reconstruction is posed in terms of an augmented image and measurement vector which are concatenated from a specific number of previous and future frames. The reconstruction is then based on an augmented regularization matrix which reflects the a priori constraints on temporal and 3-D spatial correlations of image elements. A temporal factor reflecting the relative strength of the image correlation is objectively calculated from measurement data. Results show that image reconstruction models which account for inter-element correlations, in both space and time, show improved resolution and noise performance, in comparison to simpler image models.
The Left Labourites and the General Strike of 1926 in the UK
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Evgeniya G. Blosfeld
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The author analyses the left labourites’ attitude to the interaction of the Labour Party and trade unions and use of general strike as a means of the social struggle. Besides the article analyses the left labourites’ estimation of 1926 general strike and the causes of the defeat, and the strike of the miners who decided to continue it. The left labourites defended the branch principle of the trade unions’ organization based on the shopstewards’ model which was better adopted for the strike struggle. The left labourites took into account that the general structure of the labour movement would remain the same, but the Labour Party would take over the leadership from trade unions. The left labourites supported the peaceful way of transition to socialism and they considered the general strike to be analogy of social revolution or a means of pressure of the government for nationalization of the main economic branches and the improvement of the workers’ life conditions. Under extreme circumstances, the general strike was considered to be a means to prevent antidemocratic revolution. Evaluating the general strike of 1926, the author marks the absence of unity in the leadership, hesitations and inconsistency of the left labourites themselves. They didn’t give a single proposal about the improvement of the working-class movement organization except of state British Trade Unions Congress. As a result, the criticism of the General Council’s renegade position was bestowed upon the leadership of the Miners Federation who didn’t submit to the General Council order to stop the strike.
Physicians and strikes: can a walkout over the malpractice crisis be ethically justified?
Fiester, Autumn
2004-01-01
Malpractice insurance rates have created a crisis in American medicine. Rates are rising and reimbursements are not keeping pace. In response, physicians in the states hardest hit by this crisis are feeling compelled to take political action, and the current action of choice seems to be physician strikes. While the malpractice insurance crisis is acknowledged to be severe, does it justify the extreme action of a physician walkout? Should physicians engage in this type of collective action, and what are the costs to patients and the profession when such action is taken? I will offer three related arguments against physician strikes that constitute a prima facie prohibition against such action: first, strikes are intended to cause harm to patients; second, strikes are an affront to the physician-patient relationship; and, third, strikes risk decreasing the public's respect for the medical profession. As with any prima facie obligation, there are justifying conditions that may override the moral prohibition, but I will argue that the current malpractice crisis does not rise to the level of such a justifying condition. While the malpractice crisis demands and justifies a political response on the part of the nation's physicians, strikes and slow-downs are not an ethically justified means to the legitimate end of controlling insurance costs.
Changes in foot and shank coupling due to alterations in foot strike pattern during running.
Pohl, Michael B; Buckley, John G
2008-03-01
Determining if and how the kinematic relationship between adjacent body segments changes when an individual's gait pattern is experimentally manipulated can yield insight into the robustness of the kinematic coupling across the associated joint(s). The aim of this study was to assess the effects on the kinematic coupling between the forefoot, rearfoot and shank during ground contact of running with alteration in foot strike pattern. Twelve subjects ran over-ground using three different foot strike patterns (heel strike, forefoot strike, toe running). Kinematic data were collected of the forefoot, rearfoot and shank, which were modelled as rigid segments. Coupling at the ankle-complex and midfoot joints was assessed using cross-correlation and vector coding techniques. In general good coupling was found between rearfoot frontal plane motion and transverse plane shank rotation regardless of foot strike pattern. Forefoot motion was also strongly coupled with rearfoot frontal plane motion. Subtle differences were noted in the amount of rearfoot eversion transferred into shank internal rotation in the first 10-15% of stance during heel strike running compared to forefoot and toe running, and this was accompanied by small alterations in forefoot kinematics. These findings indicate that during ground contact in running there is strong coupling between the rearfoot and shank via the action of the joints in the ankle-complex. In addition, there was good coupling of both sagittal and transverse plane forefoot with rearfoot frontal plane motion via the action of the midfoot joints.
A simple field method to identify foot strike pattern during running.
Giandolini, Marlène; Poupard, Thibaut; Gimenez, Philippe; Horvais, Nicolas; Millet, Guillaume Y; Morin, Jean-Benoît; Samozino, Pierre
2014-05-07
Identifying foot strike patterns in running is an important issue for sport clinicians, coaches and footwear industrials. Current methods allow the monitoring of either many steps in laboratory conditions or only a few steps in the field. Because measuring running biomechanics during actual practice is critical, our purpose is to validate a method aiming at identifying foot strike patterns during continuous field measurements. Based on heel and metatarsal accelerations, this method requires two uniaxial accelerometers. The time between heel and metatarsal acceleration peaks (THM) was compared to the foot strike angle in the sagittal plane (αfoot) obtained by 2D video analysis for various conditions of speed, slope, footwear, foot strike and state of fatigue. Acceleration and kinematic measurements were performed at 1000Hz and 120Hz, respectively, during 2-min treadmill running bouts. Significant correlations were observed between THM and αfoot for 14 out of 15 conditions. The overall correlation coefficient was r=0.916 (Pstrike except for extreme forefoot strike during which the heel rarely or never strikes the ground, and for different footwears and states of fatigue. We proposed a classification based on THM: FFS<-5.49ms
de Almeida, Matheus Oliveira; Saragiotto, Bruno Tirotti; Yamato, Tiê Parma; Lopes, Alexandre Dias
2015-02-01
To determine the distribution of the foot strike patterns among recreational shod runners and to compare the personal and training characteristics between runners with different foot strike patterns. Cross-sectional study. Areas of running practice in São Paulo, Brazil. 514 recreational shod runners older than 18 years and free of injury. Foot strike patterns were evaluated with a high-speed camera (250 Hz) and photocells to assess the running speed of participants. Personal and training characteristics were collected through a questionnaire. The inter-rater reliability of the visual foot strike pattern classification method was 96.7% and intra-rater reliability was 98.9%. 95.1% (n = 489) of the participants were rearfoot strikers, 4.1% (n = 21) were midfoot strikers, and four runners (0.8%) were forefoot strikers. There were no significant differences between strike patterns for personal and training characteristics. This is the first study to demonstrate that almost all recreational shod runners were rearfoot strikers. The visual method of evaluation seems to be a reliable and feasible option to classify foot strike pattern. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Foot strike patterns and collision forces in habitually barefoot versus shod runners.
Lieberman, Daniel E; Venkadesan, Madhusudhan; Werbel, William A; Daoud, Adam I; D'Andrea, Susan; Davis, Irene S; Mang'eni, Robert Ojiambo; Pitsiladis, Yannis
2010-01-28
Humans have engaged in endurance running for millions of years, but the modern running shoe was not invented until the 1970s. For most of human evolutionary history, runners were either barefoot or wore minimal footwear such as sandals or moccasins with smaller heels and little cushioning relative to modern running shoes. We wondered how runners coped with the impact caused by the foot colliding with the ground before the invention of the modern shoe. Here we show that habitually barefoot endurance runners often land on the fore-foot (fore-foot strike) before bringing down the heel, but they sometimes land with a flat foot (mid-foot strike) or, less often, on the heel (rear-foot strike). In contrast, habitually shod runners mostly rear-foot strike, facilitated by the elevated and cushioned heel of the modern running shoe. Kinematic and kinetic analyses show that even on hard surfaces, barefoot runners who fore-foot strike generate smaller collision forces than shod rear-foot strikers. This difference results primarily from a more plantarflexed foot at landing and more ankle compliance during impact, decreasing the effective mass of the body that collides with the ground. Fore-foot- and mid-foot-strike gaits were probably more common when humans ran barefoot or in minimal shoes, and may protect the feet and lower limbs from some of the impact-related injuries now experienced by a high percentage of runners.
Accretion onto some well-known regular black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jawad, Abdul; Shahzad, M.U.
2016-01-01
In this work, we discuss the accretion onto static spherically symmetric regular black holes for specific choices of the equation of state parameter. The underlying regular black holes are charged regular black holes using the Fermi-Dirac distribution, logistic distribution, nonlinear electrodynamics, respectively, and Kehagias-Sftesos asymptotically flat regular black holes. We obtain the critical radius, critical speed, and squared sound speed during the accretion process near the regular black holes. We also study the behavior of radial velocity, energy density, and the rate of change of the mass for each of the regular black holes. (orig.)
Accretion onto some well-known regular black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jawad, Abdul; Shahzad, M.U. [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)
2016-03-15
In this work, we discuss the accretion onto static spherically symmetric regular black holes for specific choices of the equation of state parameter. The underlying regular black holes are charged regular black holes using the Fermi-Dirac distribution, logistic distribution, nonlinear electrodynamics, respectively, and Kehagias-Sftesos asymptotically flat regular black holes. We obtain the critical radius, critical speed, and squared sound speed during the accretion process near the regular black holes. We also study the behavior of radial velocity, energy density, and the rate of change of the mass for each of the regular black holes. (orig.)
Accretion onto some well-known regular black holes
Jawad, Abdul; Shahzad, M. Umair
2016-03-01
In this work, we discuss the accretion onto static spherically symmetric regular black holes for specific choices of the equation of state parameter. The underlying regular black holes are charged regular black holes using the Fermi-Dirac distribution, logistic distribution, nonlinear electrodynamics, respectively, and Kehagias-Sftesos asymptotically flat regular black holes. We obtain the critical radius, critical speed, and squared sound speed during the accretion process near the regular black holes. We also study the behavior of radial velocity, energy density, and the rate of change of the mass for each of the regular black holes.
Heel–toe running: A new look at the influence of foot strike pattern on impact force
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John A. Mercer
2015-06-01
Conclusion: The unique observation of this study was that impact force was different when participants were instructed to run with either an Obvious-HS or a Subtle-HS at contact. Both these foot strike patterns would have been considered rear foot strike patterns, suggesting that something other than which specific part of the foot strikes the ground initially influenced impact force.
Laplacian embedded regression for scalable manifold regularization.
Chen, Lin; Tsang, Ivor W; Xu, Dong
2012-06-01
Semi-supervised learning (SSL), as a powerful tool to learn from a limited number of labeled data and a large number of unlabeled data, has been attracting increasing attention in the machine learning community. In particular, the manifold regularization framework has laid solid theoretical foundations for a large family of SSL algorithms, such as Laplacian support vector machine (LapSVM) and Laplacian regularized least squares (LapRLS). However, most of these algorithms are limited to small scale problems due to the high computational cost of the matrix inversion operation involved in the optimization problem. In this paper, we propose a novel framework called Laplacian embedded regression by introducing an intermediate decision variable into the manifold regularization framework. By using ∈-insensitive loss, we obtain the Laplacian embedded support vector regression (LapESVR) algorithm, which inherits the sparse solution from SVR. Also, we derive Laplacian embedded RLS (LapERLS) corresponding to RLS under the proposed framework. Both LapESVR and LapERLS possess a simpler form of a transformed kernel, which is the summation of the original kernel and a graph kernel that captures the manifold structure. The benefits of the transformed kernel are two-fold: (1) we can deal with the original kernel matrix and the graph Laplacian matrix in the graph kernel separately and (2) if the graph Laplacian matrix is sparse, we only need to perform the inverse operation for a sparse matrix, which is much more efficient when compared with that for a dense one. Inspired by kernel principal component analysis, we further propose to project the introduced decision variable into a subspace spanned by a few eigenvectors of the graph Laplacian matrix in order to better reflect the data manifold, as well as accelerate the calculation of the graph kernel, allowing our methods to efficiently and effectively cope with large scale SSL problems. Extensive experiments on both toy and real
Hughes, Sean; De Houwer, Jan; Perugini, Marco
2016-06-01
Over the last 30 years, researchers have identified several types of procedures through which novel preferences may be formed and existing ones altered. For instance, regularities in the presence of a single stimulus (as in the case of mere exposure) or 2 or more stimuli (as in the case of evaluative conditioning) have been shown to influence liking. We propose that intersections between regularities represent a previously unrecognized class of procedures for changing liking. Across 4 related studies, we found strong support for the hypothesis that when environmental regularities intersect with one another (i.e., share elements or have elements that share relations with other elements), the evaluative properties of the elements of those regularities can change. These changes in liking were observed across a range of stimuli and procedures and were evident when self-report measures, implicit measures, and behavioral choice measures of liking were employed. Functional and mental explanations of this phenomenon are offered followed by a discussion of how this new type of evaluative learning effect can accelerate theoretical, methodological, and empirical development in attitude research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Regular exercise is associated with emotional resilience to acute stress in healthy adults
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emma eChilds
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Physical activity has long been considered beneficial to health and regular exercise is purported to relieve stress. However empirical evidence demonstrating these effects is limited. In this study, we compared psychophysiological responses to an acute psychosocial stressor between individuals who did, or did not, report regular physical exercise. Healthy men and women (N=111 participated in two experimental sessions, one with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST and one with a non-stressful control task. We measured heart rate, blood pressure, cortisol and self-reported mood before and at repeated times after the tasks.Individuals who reported physical exercise at least once per week exhibited lower heart rate at rest than non-exercisers, but the groups did not differ in their cardiovascular responses to the TSST. Level of habitual exercise did not influence self-reported mood before the tasks, but non-exercisers reported a greater decline in positive affect after the TSST in comparison to exercisers. These findings provide modest support for claims that regular exercise protects against the negative emotional consequences of stress, and suggest that exercise has beneficial effects in healthy individuals. These findings are limited by their correlational nature, and future prospective controlled studies on the effects of regular exercise on response to acute stress are needed.
The Environmental Kuznets Curve. An empirical analysis for OECD countries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Georgiev, E.
2008-09-15
This paper tests the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis for four local (SOx, NOx, CO, VOC) and two global (CO2, GHG) air pollutants. Using a new panel data set of thirty OECD countries, the paper finds that the postulated inverted U-shaped relationship between income and pollution does not hold for all gases. A meaningful Environmental Kuznets Curve exists only for CO, VOC and NOx, where for CO2 the curve is monotonically increasing. For GHG there is indication of an inverted U-shaped relationship between income and pollution, but still most countries are on the increasing path of the curve and hence the future development of the curve is uncertain. For SOx it was found that emissions follow an U-shaped curve. Based on the empirical results, the paper concludes that the Environmental Kuznets Curve does not hold for all gases, it is rather an empirical artefact than a regularity.
The Environmental Kuznets Curve. An empirical analysis for OECD countries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Georgiev, E.
2008-09-01
This paper tests the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis for four local (SOx, NOx, CO, VOC) and two global (CO2, GHG) air pollutants. Using a new panel data set of thirty OECD countries, the paper finds that the postulated inverted U-shaped relationship between income and pollution does not hold for all gases. A meaningful Environmental Kuznets Curve exists only for CO, VOC and NOx, where for CO2 the curve is monotonically increasing. For GHG there is indication of an inverted U-shaped relationship between income and pollution, but still most countries are on the increasing path of the curve and hence the future development of the curve is uncertain. For SOx it was found that emissions follow an U-shaped curve. Based on the empirical results, the paper concludes that the Environmental Kuznets Curve does not hold for all gases, it is rather an empirical artefact than a regularity.
Constrained least squares regularization in PET
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choudhury, K.R.; O'Sullivan, F.O.
1996-01-01
Standard reconstruction methods used in tomography produce images with undesirable negative artifacts in background and in areas of high local contrast. While sophisticated statistical reconstruction methods can be devised to correct for these artifacts, their computational implementation is excessive for routine operational use. This work describes a technique for rapid computation of approximate constrained least squares regularization estimates. The unique feature of the approach is that it involves no iterative projection or backprojection steps. This contrasts with the familiar computationally intensive algorithms based on algebraic reconstruction (ART) or expectation-maximization (EM) methods. Experimentation with the new approach for deconvolution and mixture analysis shows that the root mean square error quality of estimators based on the proposed algorithm matches and usually dominates that of more elaborate maximum likelihood, at a fraction of the computational effort
Regularities of radiorace formation in yeasts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korogodin, V.I.; Bliznik, K.M.; Kapul'tsevich, Yu.G.; Petin, V.G.; Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Obninsk. Nauchno-Issledovatel'skij Inst. Meditsinskoj Radiologii)
1977-01-01
Two strains of diploid yeast, namely, Saccharomyces ellipsoides, Megri 139-B, isolated under natural conditions, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 5a x 3Bα, heterozygous by genes ade 1 and ade 2, were exposed to γ-quanta of Co 60 . The content of cells-saltants forming colonies with changed morphology, that of the nonviable cells, cells that are respiration mutants, and cells-recombinants by gene ade 1 and ade 2, has been determined. A certain regularity has been revealed in the distribution among the colonies of cells of the four types mentioned above: the higher the content of cells of some one of the types, the higher that of the cells having other hereditary changes
Regularization destriping of remote sensing imagery
Basnayake, Ranil; Bollt, Erik; Tufillaro, Nicholas; Sun, Jie; Gierach, Michelle
2017-07-01
We illustrate the utility of variational destriping for ocean color images from both multispectral and hyperspectral sensors. In particular, we examine data from a filter spectrometer, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar Partnership (NPP) orbiter, and an airborne grating spectrometer, the Jet Population Laboratory's (JPL) hyperspectral Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM) sensor. We solve the destriping problem using a variational regularization method by giving weights spatially to preserve the other features of the image during the destriping process. The target functional penalizes the neighborhood of stripes (strictly, directionally uniform features) while promoting data fidelity, and the functional is minimized by solving the Euler-Lagrange equations with an explicit finite-difference scheme. We show the accuracy of our method from a benchmark data set which represents the sea surface temperature off the coast of Oregon, USA. Technical details, such as how to impose continuity across data gaps using inpainting, are also described.
The Regularity of Optimal Irrigation Patterns
Morel, Jean-Michel; Santambrogio, Filippo
2010-02-01
A branched structure is observable in draining and irrigation systems, in electric power supply systems, and in natural objects like blood vessels, the river basins or the trees. Recent approaches of these networks derive their branched structure from an energy functional whose essential feature is to favor wide routes. Given a flow s in a river, a road, a tube or a wire, the transportation cost per unit length is supposed in these models to be proportional to s α with 0 measure is the Lebesgue density on a smooth open set and the irrigating measure is a single source. In that case we prove that all branches of optimal irrigation trees satisfy an elliptic equation and that their curvature is a bounded measure. In consequence all branching points in the network have a tangent cone made of a finite number of segments, and all other points have a tangent. An explicit counterexample disproves these regularity properties for non-Lebesgue irrigated measures.
Singular tachyon kinks from regular profiles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Copeland, E.J.; Saffin, P.M.; Steer, D.A.
2003-01-01
We demonstrate how Sen's singular kink solution of the Born-Infeld tachyon action can be constructed by taking the appropriate limit of initially regular profiles. It is shown that the order in which different limits are taken plays an important role in determining whether or not such a solution is obtained for a wide class of potentials. Indeed, by introducing a small parameter into the action, we are able circumvent the results of a recent paper which derived two conditions on the asymptotic tachyon potential such that the singular kink could be recovered in the large amplitude limit of periodic solutions. We show that this is explained by the non-commuting nature of two limits, and that Sen's solution is recovered if the order of the limits is chosen appropriately
Two-pass greedy regular expression parsing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grathwohl, Niels Bjørn Bugge; Henglein, Fritz; Nielsen, Lasse
2013-01-01
We present new algorithms for producing greedy parses for regular expressions (REs) in a semi-streaming fashion. Our lean-log algorithm executes in time O(mn) for REs of size m and input strings of size n and outputs a compact bit-coded parse tree representation. It improves on previous algorithms...... by: operating in only 2 passes; using only O(m) words of random-access memory (independent of n); requiring only kn bits of sequentially written and read log storage, where k ... and not requiring it to be stored at all. Previous RE parsing algorithms do not scale linearly with input size, or require substantially more log storage and employ 3 passes where the first consists of reversing the input, or do not or are not known to produce a greedy parse. The performance of our unoptimized C...
Regularities in hadron systematics, Regge trajectories and a string quark model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chekanov, S.V.; Levchenko, B.B.
2006-08-01
An empirical principle for the construction of a linear relationship between the total angular momentum and squared-mass of baryons is proposed. In order to examine linearity of the trajectories, a rigorous least-squares regression analysis was performed. Unlike the standard Regge-Chew-Frautschi approach, the constructed trajectories do not have non-linear behaviour. A similar regularity may exist for lowest-mass mesons. The linear baryonic trajectories are well described by a semi-classical picture based on a spinning relativistic string with tension. The obtained numerical solution of this model was used to extract the (di)quark masses. (orig.)
Discriminative Elastic-Net Regularized Linear Regression.
Zhang, Zheng; Lai, Zhihui; Xu, Yong; Shao, Ling; Wu, Jian; Xie, Guo-Sen
2017-03-01
In this paper, we aim at learning compact and discriminative linear regression models. Linear regression has been widely used in different problems. However, most of the existing linear regression methods exploit the conventional zero-one matrix as the regression targets, which greatly narrows the flexibility of the regression model. Another major limitation of these methods is that the learned projection matrix fails to precisely project the image features to the target space due to their weak discriminative capability. To this end, we present an elastic-net regularized linear regression (ENLR) framework, and develop two robust linear regression models which possess the following special characteristics. First, our methods exploit two particular strategies to enlarge the margins of different classes by relaxing the strict binary targets into a more feasible variable matrix. Second, a robust elastic-net regularization of singular values is introduced to enhance the compactness and effectiveness of the learned projection matrix. Third, the resulting optimization problem of ENLR has a closed-form solution in each iteration, which can be solved efficiently. Finally, rather than directly exploiting the projection matrix for recognition, our methods employ the transformed features as the new discriminate representations to make final image classification. Compared with the traditional linear regression model and some of its variants, our method is much more accurate in image classification. Extensive experiments conducted on publicly available data sets well demonstrate that the proposed framework can outperform the state-of-the-art methods. The MATLAB codes of our methods can be available at http://www.yongxu.org/lunwen.html.
Regularization of Instantaneous Frequency Attribute Computations
Yedlin, M. J.; Margrave, G. F.; Van Vorst, D. G.; Ben Horin, Y.
2014-12-01
We compare two different methods of computation of a temporally local frequency:1) A stabilized instantaneous frequency using the theory of the analytic signal.2) A temporally variant centroid (or dominant) frequency estimated from a time-frequency decomposition.The first method derives from Taner et al (1979) as modified by Fomel (2007) and utilizes the derivative of the instantaneous phase of the analytic signal. The second method computes the power centroid (Cohen, 1995) of the time-frequency spectrum, obtained using either the Gabor or Stockwell Transform. Common to both methods is the necessity of division by a diagonal matrix, which requires appropriate regularization.We modify Fomel's (2007) method by explicitly penalizing the roughness of the estimate. Following Farquharson and Oldenburg (2004), we employ both the L curve and GCV methods to obtain the smoothest model that fits the data in the L2 norm.Using synthetic data, quarry blast, earthquakes and the DPRK tests, our results suggest that the optimal method depends on the data. One of the main applications for this work is the discrimination between blast events and earthquakesFomel, Sergey. " Local seismic attributes." , Geophysics, 72.3 (2007): A29-A33.Cohen, Leon. " Time frequency analysis theory and applications." USA: Prentice Hall, (1995).Farquharson, Colin G., and Douglas W. Oldenburg. "A comparison of automatic techniques for estimating the regularization parameter in non-linear inverse problems." Geophysical Journal International 156.3 (2004): 411-425.Taner, M. Turhan, Fulton Koehler, and R. E. Sheriff. " Complex seismic trace analysis." Geophysics, 44.6 (1979): 1041-1063.
Regularized Regression and Density Estimation based on Optimal Transport
Burger, M.; Franek, M.; Schonlieb, C.-B.
2012-01-01
for estimating densities and for preserving edges in the case of total variation regularization. In order to compute solutions of the variational problems, a regularized optimal transport problem needs to be solved, for which we discuss several formulations
Incremental projection approach of regularization for inverse problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Souopgui, Innocent, E-mail: innocent.souopgui@usm.edu [The University of Southern Mississippi, Department of Marine Science (United States); Ngodock, Hans E., E-mail: hans.ngodock@nrlssc.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory (United States); Vidard, Arthur, E-mail: arthur.vidard@imag.fr; Le Dimet, François-Xavier, E-mail: ledimet@imag.fr [Laboratoire Jean Kuntzmann (France)
2016-10-15
This paper presents an alternative approach to the regularized least squares solution of ill-posed inverse problems. Instead of solving a minimization problem with an objective function composed of a data term and a regularization term, the regularization information is used to define a projection onto a convex subspace of regularized candidate solutions. The objective function is modified to include the projection of each iterate in the place of the regularization. Numerical experiments based on the problem of motion estimation for geophysical fluid images, show the improvement of the proposed method compared with regularization methods. For the presented test case, the incremental projection method uses 7 times less computation time than the regularization method, to reach the same error target. Moreover, at convergence, the incremental projection is two order of magnitude more accurate than the regularization method.
Dimensional regularization and analytical continuation at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Xiangjun; Liu Lianshou
1998-01-01
The relationship between dimensional regularization and analytical continuation of infrared divergent integrals at finite temperature is discussed and a method of regularization of infrared divergent integrals and infrared divergent sums is given
Bounded Perturbation Regularization for Linear Least Squares Estimation
Ballal, Tarig; Suliman, Mohamed Abdalla Elhag; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.
2017-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of selecting the regularization parameter for linear least-squares estimation. We propose a new technique called bounded perturbation regularization (BPR). In the proposed BPR method, a perturbation with a bounded
Regular Generalized Star Star closed sets in Bitopological Spaces
K. Kannan; D. Narasimhan; K. Chandrasekhara Rao; R. Ravikumar
2011-01-01
The aim of this paper is to introduce the concepts of τ1τ2-regular generalized star star closed sets , τ1τ2-regular generalized star star open sets and study their basic properties in bitopological spaces.
Umayyad Relations with Byzantium Empire
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mansoor Haidari
2017-06-01
Full Text Available This research investigates the political and military relations between Umayyad caliphates with the Byzantine Empire. The aim of this research is to clarify Umayyad caliphate’s relations with the Byzantine Empire. We know that these relations were mostly about war and fight. Because there were always intense conflicts between Muslims and the Byzantine Empire, they had to have an active continuous diplomacy to call truce and settle the disputes. Thus, based on the general policy of the Umayyad caliphs, Christians were severely ignored and segregated within Islamic territories. This segregation of the Christians was highly affected by political relationships. It is worthy of mentioning that Umayyad caliphs brought the governing style of the Sassanid kings and Roman Caesar into the Islamic Caliphate system but they didn’t establish civil institutions and administrative organizations.
Fuh, Shi-Chie; Liu, Char-Shine; Lundberg, Neil; Reed, Donald L.
1997-06-01
Taiwan is the site of present-day oblique arc-continent collision between the Luzon arc of the Philippine Sea plate and the Chinese continental margin. The major structural pattern revealed from marine geophysical studies in the area offshore southern Taiwan is that of a doubly-vergent orogenic belt, bounded by significant zones of thrusting on the west and east of the submarine accretionary wedge. Due to the oblique collision process, strike-slip faults could play an important role in this convergent domain. Topographic lineaments revealed from new digital bathymetry data and seismic reflection profiles confirm the existence of three sets of strike-slip faults in the collision-subduction zone offshore southern Taiwan: the N-S-trending left-lateral strike-slip faults within the Luzon volcanic arc, the NE-SW-trending right-lateral strike-slip faults across the accretionary wedge, and the NNE-SSW-trending left-lateral strike-slip faults lie in the frontal portion of the accretionary wedge. These strike-slip faults overprint pre-existing folds and thrusts and may convert into oblique thrusts or thrusts as the forearc blocks accrete to the mountain belt. A bookshelf rotation model is used to explain the observed geometrical relationships of these strike-slip fault systems. Based on this model, the counter-clockwise rotation of the forearc blocks in the area offshore southern Taiwan could have caused extrusion of the accretionary wedge material into the forearc basin. The originally continuous forearc basin is thus deformed into several closed and separate proto-collisional basins such as the Southern Longitudinal Trough and Taitung Trough. A tectonic evolution model which emphasizes on the development of various structures at different stages of the oblique arc-continent collision for the Taiwan mountain belt is proposed.
Heel–toe running: A new look at the influence of foot strike pattern on impact force
John A. Mercer; Sarah Horsch
2015-01-01
Background/Objective: It is important to understand the factors that influence the impact force observed during running, since the impact force is likely to be related to overuse injuries. The purpose of this study was to compare the impact force during running when participants were instructed to use different foot strike patterns: obvious heel strike (Obvious-HS), subtle heel strike (Subtle-HS), midfoot strike (Mid-FS), and fore foot strike (Fore-FS) patterns. Methods: Participants (n = ...
Exclusion of children with intellectual disabilities from regular ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Study investigated why teachers exclude children with intellectual disability from the regular classrooms in Nigeria. Participants were, 169 regular teachers randomly selected from Oyo and Ogun states. Questionnaire was used to collect data result revealed that 57.4% regular teachers could not cope with children with ID ...
39 CFR 6.1 - Regular meetings, annual meeting.
2010-07-01
... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regular meetings, annual meeting. 6.1 Section 6.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE MEETINGS (ARTICLE VI) § 6.1 Regular meetings, annual meeting. The Board shall meet regularly on a schedule...
Recognition Memory for Novel Stimuli: The Structural Regularity Hypothesis
Cleary, Anne M.; Morris, Alison L.; Langley, Moses M.
2007-01-01
Early studies of human memory suggest that adherence to a known structural regularity (e.g., orthographic regularity) benefits memory for an otherwise novel stimulus (e.g., G. A. Miller, 1958). However, a more recent study suggests that structural regularity can lead to an increase in false-positive responses on recognition memory tests (B. W. A.…
5 CFR 551.421 - Regular working hours.
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regular working hours. 551.421 Section... Activities § 551.421 Regular working hours. (a) Under the Act there is no requirement that a Federal employee... distinction based on whether the activity is performed by an employee during regular working hours or outside...
20 CFR 226.35 - Deductions from regular annuity rate.
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deductions from regular annuity rate. 226.35... COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Computing a Spouse or Divorced Spouse Annuity § 226.35 Deductions from regular annuity rate. The regular annuity rate of the spouse and divorced...
20 CFR 226.34 - Divorced spouse regular annuity rate.
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Divorced spouse regular annuity rate. 226.34... COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Computing a Spouse or Divorced Spouse Annuity § 226.34 Divorced spouse regular annuity rate. The regular annuity rate of a divorced spouse is equal to...
20 CFR 226.14 - Employee regular annuity rate.
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee regular annuity rate. 226.14 Section... COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Computing an Employee Annuity § 226.14 Employee regular annuity rate. The regular annuity rate payable to the employee is the total of the employee tier I...
Foot strike patterns of recreational and sub-elite runners in a long-distance road race.
Larson, Peter; Higgins, Erin; Kaminski, Justin; Decker, Tamara; Preble, Janine; Lyons, Daniela; McIntyre, Kevin; Normile, Adam
2011-12-01
Although the biomechanical properties of the various types of running foot strike (rearfoot, midfoot, and forefoot) have been studied extensively in the laboratory, only a few studies have attempted to quantify the frequency of running foot strike variants among runners in competitive road races. We classified the left and right foot strike patterns of 936 distance runners, most of whom would be considered of recreational or sub-elite ability, at the 10 km point of a half-marathon/marathon road race. We classified 88.9% of runners at the 10 km point as rearfoot strikers, 3.4% as midfoot strikers, 1.8% as forefoot strikers, and 5.9% of runners exhibited discrete foot strike asymmetry. Rearfoot striking was more common among our sample of mostly recreational distance runners than has been previously reported for samples of faster runners. We also compared foot strike patterns of 286 individual marathon runners between the 10 km and 32 km race locations and observed increased frequency of rearfoot striking at 32 km. A large percentage of runners switched from midfoot and forefoot foot strikes at 10 km to rearfoot strikes at 32 km. The frequency of discrete foot strike asymmetry declined from the 10 km to the 32 km location. Among marathon runners, we found no significant relationship between foot strike patterns and race times.
Nugraheni, L. R.; Niasari, S. W.; Nukman, M.
2018-04-01
Geothermal manifestations located in the Tiris, Mount Lamongan, Probolinggo, consist of warm springs. These warm springs have temperature from 35° until 45°C. Tiris fault has NW-SE dominant orientation, similar to some lineaments of maars and cinder cones around Mount Lamongan. The Mount Lamongan geothermal area is situated between Bromo and Argapura volcanoes. This study aims to map the geo-electrical and geological strikes in the study area. Phase tensor analysis has been performed in this study to determine geo-electrical strike of study area. Geological field campaign has been conducted to measure geological strikes. Then, orientation of geo-electrical strike was compared to geological strike. The result presents that the regional geological strike of study area is NW-SE while the orientation of geo-electrical strike is N-S.
Select injury-related variables are affected by stride length and foot strike style during running.
Boyer, Elizabeth R; Derrick, Timothy R
2015-09-01
Some frontal plane and transverse plane variables have been associated with running injury, but it is not known if they differ with foot strike style or as stride length is shortened. To identify if step width, iliotibial band strain and strain rate, positive and negative free moment, pelvic drop, hip adduction, knee internal rotation, and rearfoot eversion differ between habitual rearfoot and habitual mid-/forefoot strikers when running with both a rearfoot strike (RFS) and a mid-/forefoot strike (FFS) at 3 stride lengths. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 42 healthy runners (21 habitual rearfoot, 21 habitual mid-/forefoot) ran overground at 3.35 m/s with both a RFS and a FFS at their preferred stride lengths and 5% and 10% shorter. Variables did not differ between habitual groups. Step width was 1.5 cm narrower for FFS, widening to 0.8 cm as stride length shortened. Iliotibial band strain and strain rate did not differ between foot strikes but decreased as stride length shortened (0.3% and 1.8%/s, respectively). Pelvic drop was reduced 0.7° for FFS compared with RFS, and both pelvic drop and hip adduction decreased as stride length shortened (0.8° and 1.5°, respectively). Peak knee internal rotation was not affected by foot strike or stride length. Peak rearfoot eversion was not different between foot strikes but decreased 0.6° as stride length shortened. Peak positive free moment (normalized to body weight [BW] and height [h]) was not affected by foot strike or stride length. Peak negative free moment was -0.0038 BW·m/h greater for FFS and decreased -0.0004 BW·m/h as stride length shortened. The small decreases in most variables as stride length shortened were likely associated with the concomitant wider step width. RFS had slightly greater pelvic drop, while FFS had slightly narrower step width and greater negative free moment. Shortening one's stride length may decrease or at least not increase propensity for running injuries based on the variables
Cimadoro, Giuseppe; Mahaffey, Ryan; Babault, Nicolas
2018-04-04
Muay Thai fighters strongly rely on the use of the roundhouse kick due to its effectiveness (i.e. power) and implications on the final score. Therefore, different striking tempos at full power are used during training as a method to enhance kicking power. However, the neuromuscular responses are unknown. Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate neuromuscular responses to a single bout of shorter (every second = H1) and longer (every 3s = H3) kick striking time intervals, measured with the countermovement jump (CMJ). Nine professional Muay Thai fighters participated in this randomized, cross-over trial. CMJs were measured on force plates before and after (post 0min, post 5min, post 10min, post 20min and post 30min) two striking (1set x 20reps) conditions (H1; H3). Although no difference was observed between H1 and H3 values, neuromuscular fatigue parameters displayed different patterns over time. CMJ height decreased immediately after H3 striking (PMuay Thai and conditioning coaches should focus on hard striking with both long and slow pacing during specific heavy bag or pad work.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H J (Jaco Deacon
2014-06-01
Full Text Available While the South African Constitution enshrines both children's right to a basic education and teachers' right to strike, conflict between these two often occurs when the way in which teachers' unions conduct strike actions detracts from learners' education. This article identifies the parties affected by industrial action in the school context, and then proceeds to examine educators' right to strike as defined by the provisions of the Labour Relations Act. The unique implications of picketing in the education environment are then discussed, covering relevant questions such as where pickets may be held, the issue of picketing rules as well as unprotected pickets. Even though we are faced with a qualified right to strike as opposed to an unqualified right to education, the South African reality seems to be that striking teachers are handled with kid gloves. It is therefore concluded that the vast range of existing laws regulating protest action should be applied more effectively. One of the most important aspects should be the picketing rules, which should clearly determine whether picketing in fact contributes to resolution of the dispute, and how learners' interests and rights may best be actualised.
Bruening, Dustin A; Pohl, Michael B; Takahashi, Kota Z; Barrios, Joaquin A
2018-05-17
Changes in running strike pattern affect ankle and knee mechanics, but little is known about the influence of strike pattern on the joints distal to the ankle. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of forefoot strike (FFS) and rearfoot strike (RFS) running patterns on foot kinematics and kinetics, from the perspectives of the midtarsal locking theory and the windlass mechanism. Per the midtarsal locking theory, we hypothesized that the ankle would be more inverted in early stance when using a FFS, resulting in decreased midtarsal joint excursions and increased dynamic stiffness. Associated with a more engaged windlass mechanism, we hypothesized that a FFS would elicit increased metatarsophalangeal joint excursions and negative work in late stance. Eighteen healthy female runners ran overground with both FFS and RFS patterns. Instrumented motion capture and a validated multi-segment foot model were used to analyze midtarsal and metatarsophalangeal joint kinematics and kinetics. During early stance in FFS the ankle was more inverted, with concurrently decreased midtarsal eversion (p strike pattern during running. However, the windlass mechanism appeared to be engaged to a greater extent during FFS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Warr, Bradley J; Fellin, Rebecca E; Sauer, Shane G; Goss, Donald L; Frykman, Peter N; Seay, Joseph F
2015-07-01
Characterize the distribution of foot-strike (FS) patterns in U.S. Army Soldiers and determine if FS patterns are related to self-reported running injuries and performance. 341 male Soldiers from a U.S. Army Combined Arms Battalion ran at their training pace for 100 meters, and FSs were recorded in the sagittal plane. Participants also completed a survey related to training habits, injury history, and run times. Two researchers classified FS patterns as heel strike (HS) or nonheel strike (NHS, combination of midfoot strike and forefoot strike patterns). Two clinicians classified the musculoskeletal injuries as acute or overuse. The relationship of FS type with two-mile run time and running-related injury was analyzed (p ≤ 0.05). The Soldiers predominately landed with an HS (87%) and only 13% were characterized as NHS. Running-related injury was similar between HS (50.3%) and NHS (55.6%) patterns (p = 0.51). There was no difference (p = 0.14) between overuse injury rates between an HS pattern (31.8%) and an NHS pattern (31.0%). Two-mile run times were also similar, with both groups averaging 14:48 minutes. Soldiers were mostly heel strikers (87%) in this U.S. Army Combined Arms Battalion. Neither FS pattern was advantageous for increased performance or decreased incidence of running-related injury. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Joint contact loading in forefoot and rearfoot strike patterns during running.
Rooney, Brandon D; Derrick, Timothy R
2013-09-03
Research concerning forefoot strike pattern (FFS) versus rearfoot strike pattern (RFS) running has focused on the ground reaction force even though internal joint contact forces are a more direct measure of the loads responsible for injury. The main purpose of this study was to determine the internal loading of the joints for each strike pattern. A secondary purpose was to determine if converted FFS and RFS runners can adequately represent habitual runners with regards to the internal joint loading. Using inverse dynamics to calculate the net joint moments and reaction forces and optimization techniques to estimate muscle forces, we determined the axial compressive loading at the ankle, knee, and hip. Subjects consisted of 15 habitual FFS and 15 habitual RFS competitive runners. Each subject ran at a preferred running velocity with their habitual strike pattern and then converted to the opposite strike pattern. Plantar flexor muscle forces and net ankle joint moments were greater in the FFS running compared to the RFS running during the first half of the stance phase. The average contact forces during this period increased by 41.7% at the ankle and 14.4% at the knee joint during FFS running. Peak ankle joint contact force was 1.5 body weights greater during FFS running (pstrike pattern. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yan, Xiao-Yong; Han, Xiao-Pu; Zhou, Tao; Wang, Bing-Hong
2011-12-01
We propose a simplified human regular mobility model to simulate an individual's daily travel with three sequential activities: commuting to workplace, going to do leisure activities and returning home. With the assumption that the individual has a constant travel speed and inferior limit of time at home and in work, we prove that the daily moving area of an individual is an ellipse, and finally obtain an exact solution of the gyration radius. The analytical solution captures the empirical observation well.
Valenzuela, Kevin A; Lynn, Scott K; Mikelson, Lisa R; Noffal, Guillermo J; Judelson, Daniel A
2015-03-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of foot strike patterns and converted foot strike patterns on lower limb kinematics and kinetics at the hip, knee, and ankle during a shod condition. Subjects were videotaped with a high speed camera while running a 5km at self-selected pace on a treadmill to determine natural foot strike pattern on day one. Preferred forefoot group (PFFG, n = 10) and preferred rear foot group (PRFG, n = 11) subjects were identified through slow motion video playback (n = 21, age = 22.8±2.2 years, mass = 73.1±14.5 kg, height 1.75 ± 0.10 m). On day two, subjects performed five overground run trials in both their natural and unnatural strike patterns while motion and force data were collected. Data were collected over two days so that foot strike videos could be analyzed for group placement purposes. Several 2 (Foot Strike Pattern -forefoot strike [FFS], rearfoot strike [RFS]) x 2 (Group - PFFG, PRFG) mixed model ANOVAs (p strike patterns during shod running can create alterations in certain lower limb kinematic and kinetic measures that are not dependent on the preferred foot strike pattern of the individual. This research also challenges the contention that the impact transient spike in the vertical ground reaction force curve is only present during a rear foot strike type of running gait. Key pointsFootstrike pattern changes should be individually considered and implemented based on individual histories/abilitiesForefoot strike patterns increase external dorsiflexion momentsRearfoot strike patterns increase external knee flexion momentsRecreational shod runners are able to mimic habitual mechanics of different foot strike patterns.
Accreting fluids onto regular black holes via Hamiltonian approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jawad, Abdul [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); Shahzad, M.U. [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); University of Central Punjab, CAMS, UCP Business School, Lahore (Pakistan)
2017-08-15
We investigate the accretion of test fluids onto regular black holes such as Kehagias-Sfetsos black holes and regular black holes with Dagum distribution function. We analyze the accretion process when different test fluids are falling onto these regular black holes. The accreting fluid is being classified through the equation of state according to the features of regular black holes. The behavior of fluid flow and the existence of sonic points is being checked for these regular black holes. It is noted that the three-velocity depends on critical points and the equation of state parameter on phase space. (orig.)
On the regularized fermionic projector of the vacuum
Finster, Felix
2008-03-01
We construct families of fermionic projectors with spherically symmetric regularization, which satisfy the condition of a distributional MP-product. The method is to analyze regularization tails with a power law or logarithmic scaling in composite expressions in the fermionic projector. The resulting regularizations break the Lorentz symmetry and give rise to a multilayer structure of the fermionic projector near the light cone. Furthermore, we construct regularizations which go beyond the distributional MP-product in that they yield additional distributional contributions supported at the origin. The remaining freedom for the regularization parameters and the consequences for the normalization of the fermionic states are discussed.
On the regularized fermionic projector of the vacuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finster, Felix
2008-01-01
We construct families of fermionic projectors with spherically symmetric regularization, which satisfy the condition of a distributional MP-product. The method is to analyze regularization tails with a power law or logarithmic scaling in composite expressions in the fermionic projector. The resulting regularizations break the Lorentz symmetry and give rise to a multilayer structure of the fermionic projector near the light cone. Furthermore, we construct regularizations which go beyond the distributional MP-product in that they yield additional distributional contributions supported at the origin. The remaining freedom for the regularization parameters and the consequences for the normalization of the fermionic states are discussed
MRI reconstruction with joint global regularization and transform learning.
Tanc, A Korhan; Eksioglu, Ender M
2016-10-01
Sparsity based regularization has been a popular approach to remedy the measurement scarcity in image reconstruction. Recently, sparsifying transforms learned from image patches have been utilized as an effective regularizer for the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) reconstruction. Here, we infuse additional global regularization terms to the patch-based transform learning. We develop an algorithm to solve the resulting novel cost function, which includes both patchwise and global regularization terms. Extensive simulation results indicate that the introduced mixed approach has improved MRI reconstruction performance, when compared to the algorithms which use either of the patchwise transform learning or global regularization terms alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gazprom the new russian empire
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cosnard, D.
2004-01-01
The author analyzes the economical and political impacts of the great Gazprom group, leader in the russian energy domain, in Russia. Already number one of the world gas industry, this Group is becoming the right-hand of the Kremlin. Thus the author wonders on this empire transparency and limits. (A.L.B.)
Phenomenology and the Empirical Turn
Zwier, Jochem; Blok, Vincent; Lemmens, Pieter
2016-01-01
This paper provides a phenomenological analysis of postphenomenological philosophy of technology. While acknowledging that the results of its analyses are to be recognized as original, insightful, and valuable, we will argue that in its execution of the empirical turn, postphenomenology forfeits
Empirical ethics as dialogical practice
Widdershoven, G.A.M.; Abma, T.A.; Molewijk, A.C.
2009-01-01
In this article, we present a dialogical approach to empirical ethics, based upon hermeneutic ethics and responsive evaluation. Hermeneutic ethics regards experience as the concrete source of moral wisdom. In order to gain a good understanding of moral issues, concrete detailed experiences and
Riet, Fred H. van
1990-01-01
A Dutch teacher presents reading, film viewing, and writing activities for "Empire of the Sun," J. G. Ballard's autobiographical account of life as a boy in Shanghai and in a Japanese internment camp during World War II (the subject of Steven Spielberg's film of the same name). Includes objectives, procedures, and several literature,…
Empirical Specification of Utility Functions.
Mellenbergh, Gideon J.
Decision theory can be applied to four types of decision situations in education and psychology: (1) selection; (2) placement; (3) classification; and (4) mastery. For the application of the theory, a utility function must be specified. Usually the utility function is chosen on a priori grounds. In this paper methods for the empirical assessment…
Empirical Productivity Indices and Indicators
B.M. Balk (Bert)
2016-01-01
textabstractThe empirical measurement of productivity change (or difference) by means of indices and indicators starts with the ex post profit/loss accounts of a production unit. Key concepts are profit, leading to indicators, and profitability, leading to indices. The main task for the productivity
EMPIRICAL RESEARCH AND CONGREGATIONAL ANALYSIS ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
empirical research has made to the process of congregational analysis. 1 Part of this ... contextual congegrational analysis – meeting social and divine desires”) at the IAPT .... methodology of a congregational analysis should be regarded as a process. ... essential to create space for a qualitative and quantitative approach.
Empirical processes: theory and applications
Venturini Sergio
2005-01-01
Proceedings of the 2003 Summer School in Statistics and Probability in Torgnon (Aosta, Italy) held by Prof. Jon A. Wellner and Prof. M. Banerjee. The topic presented was the theory of empirical processes with applications to statistics (m-estimation, bootstrap, semiparametric theory).
Empirical analysis of consumer behavior
Huang, Yufeng
2015-01-01
This thesis consists of three essays in quantitative marketing, focusing on structural empirical analysis of consumer behavior. In the first essay, he investigates the role of a consumer's skill of product usage, and its imperfect transferability across brands, in her product choice. It shows that
Manifold Regularized Experimental Design for Active Learning.
Zhang, Lining; Shum, Hubert P H; Shao, Ling
2016-12-02
Various machine learning and data mining tasks in classification require abundant data samples to be labeled for training. Conventional active learning methods aim at labeling the most informative samples for alleviating the labor of the user. Many previous studies in active learning select one sample after another in a greedy manner. However, this is not very effective because the classification models has to be retrained for each newly labeled sample. Moreover, many popular active learning approaches utilize the most uncertain samples by leveraging the classification hyperplane of the classifier, which is not appropriate since the classification hyperplane is inaccurate when the training data are small-sized. The problem of insufficient training data in real-world systems limits the potential applications of these approaches. This paper presents a novel method of active learning called manifold regularized experimental design (MRED), which can label multiple informative samples at one time for training. In addition, MRED gives an explicit geometric explanation for the selected samples to be labeled by the user. Different from existing active learning methods, our method avoids the intrinsic problems caused by insufficiently labeled samples in real-world applications. Various experiments on synthetic datasets, the Yale face database and the Corel image database have been carried out to show how MRED outperforms existing methods.
Regularization of the Coulomb scattering problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baryshevskii, V.G.; Feranchuk, I.D.; Kats, P.B.
2004-01-01
The exact solution of the Schroedinger equation for the Coulomb potential is used within the scope of both stationary and time-dependent scattering theories in order to find the parameters which determine the regularization of the Rutherford cross section when the scattering angle tends to zero but the distance r from the center remains finite. The angular distribution of the particles scattered in the Coulomb field is studied on rather a large but finite distance r from the center. It is shown that the standard asymptotic representation of the wave functions is inapplicable in the case when small scattering angles are considered. The unitary property of the scattering matrix is analyzed and the 'optical' theorem for this case is discussed. The total and transport cross sections for scattering the particle by the Coulomb center proved to be finite values and are calculated in the analytical form. It is shown that the effects under consideration can be important for the observed characteristics of the transport processes in semiconductors which are determined by the electron and hole scattering by the field of charged impurity centers
Color correction optimization with hue regularization
Zhang, Heng; Liu, Huaping; Quan, Shuxue
2011-01-01
Previous work has suggested that observers are capable of judging the quality of an image without any knowledge of the original scene. When no reference is available, observers can extract the apparent objects in an image and compare them with the typical colors of similar objects recalled from their memories. Some generally agreed upon research results indicate that although perfect colorimetric rendering is not conspicuous and color errors can be well tolerated, the appropriate rendition of certain memory colors such as skin, grass, and sky is an important factor in the overall perceived image quality. These colors are appreciated in a fairly consistent manner and are memorized with slightly different hues and higher color saturation. The aim of color correction for a digital color pipeline is to transform the image data from a device dependent color space to a target color space, usually through a color correction matrix which in its most basic form is optimized through linear regressions between the two sets of data in two color spaces in the sense of minimized Euclidean color error. Unfortunately, this method could result in objectionable distortions if the color error biased certain colors undesirably. In this paper, we propose a color correction optimization method with preferred color reproduction in mind through hue regularization and present some experimental results.
Wave dynamics of regular and chaotic rays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McDonald, S.W.
1983-09-01
In order to investigate general relationships between waves and rays in chaotic systems, I study the eigenfunctions and spectrum of a simple model, the two-dimensional Helmholtz equation in a stadium boundary, for which the rays are ergodic. Statistical measurements are performed so that the apparent randomness of the stadium modes can be quantitatively contrasted with the familiar regularities observed for the modes in a circular boundary (with integrable rays). The local spatial autocorrelation of the eigenfunctions is constructed in order to indirectly test theoretical predictions for the nature of the Wigner distribution corresponding to chaotic waves. A portion of the large-eigenvalue spectrum is computed and reported in an appendix; the probability distribution of successive level spacings is analyzed and compared with theoretical predictions. The two principal conclusions are: 1) waves associated with chaotic rays may exhibit randomly situated localized regions of high intensity; 2) the Wigner function for these waves may depart significantly from being uniformly distributed over the surface of constant frequency in the ray phase space
Regularities and irregularities in order flow data
Theissen, Martin; Krause, Sebastian M.; Guhr, Thomas
2017-11-01
We identify and analyze statistical regularities and irregularities in the recent order flow of different NASDAQ stocks, focusing on the positions where orders are placed in the order book. This includes limit orders being placed outside of the spread, inside the spread and (effective) market orders. Based on the pairwise comparison of the order flow of different stocks, we perform a clustering of stocks into groups with similar behavior. This is useful to assess systemic aspects of stock price dynamics. We find that limit order placement inside the spread is strongly determined by the dynamics of the spread size. Most orders, however, arrive outside of the spread. While for some stocks order placement on or next to the quotes is dominating, deeper price levels are more important for other stocks. As market orders are usually adjusted to the quote volume, the impact of market orders depends on the order book structure, which we find to be quite diverse among the analyzed stocks as a result of the way limit order placement takes place.
Library search with regular reflectance IR spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Staat, H.; Korte, E.H.; Lampen, P.
1989-01-01
Characterisation in situ for coatings and other surface layers is generally favourable, but a prerequisite for precious items such as art objects. In infrared spectroscopy only reflection techniques are applicable here. However for attenuated total reflection (ATR) it is difficult to obtain the necessary optical contact of the crystal with the sample, when the latter is not perfectly plane or flexible. The measurement of diffuse reflectance demands a scattering sample and usually the reflectance is very poor. Therefore in most cases one is left with regular reflectance. Such spectra consist of dispersion-like feature instead of bands impeding their interpretation in the way the analyst is used to. Furthermore for computer search in common spectral libraries compiled from transmittance or absorbance spectra a transformation of the reflectance spectra is needed. The correct conversion is based on the Kramers-Kronig transformation. This somewhat time - consuming procedure can be speeded up by using appropriate approximations. A coarser conversion may be obtained from the first derivative of the reflectance spectrum which resembles the second derivative of a transmittance spectrum. The resulting distorted spectra can still be used successfully for the search in peak table libraries. Experiences with both transformations are presented. (author)
Regularities of praseodymium oxide dissolution in acids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savin, V.D.; Elyutin, A.V.; Mikhajlova, N.P.; Eremenko, Z.V.; Opolchenova, N.L.
1989-01-01
The regularities of Pr 2 O 3 , Pr 2 O 5 and Pr(OH) 3 interaction with inorganic acids are studied. pH of the solution and oxidation-reduction potential registrated at 20±1 deg C are the working parameters of studies. It is found that the amount of all oxides dissolved increase in the series of acids - nitric, hydrochloric and sulfuric, in this case for hydrochloric and sulfuric acid it increases in the series of oxides Pr 2 O 3 , Pr 2 O 5 and Pr(OH) 3 . It is noted that Pr 2 O 5 has a high value of oxidation-reduction potential with a positive sign in the whole disslolving range. A low positive value of a redox potential during dissolving belongs to Pr(OH) 3 and in the case of Pr 2 O 3 dissloving redox potential is negative. The schemes of dissolving processes which do not agree with classical assumptions are presented
Regular expressions compiler and some applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saldana A, H.
1978-01-01
We deal with high level programming language of a Regular Expressions Compiler (REC). The first chapter is an introduction in which the history of the REC development and the problems related to its numerous applicatons are described. The syntactic and sematic rules as well as the language features are discussed just after the introduction. Concerning the applicatons as examples, an adaptation is given in order to solve numerical problems and another for the data manipulation. The last chapter is an exposition of ideas and techniques about the compiler construction. Examples of the adaptation to numerical problems show the applications to education, vector analysis, quantum mechanics, physics, mathematics and other sciences. The rudiments of an operating system for a minicomputer are the examples of the adaptation to symbolic data manipulaton. REC is a programming language that could be applied to solve problems in almost any human activity. Handling of computer graphics, control equipment, research on languages, microprocessors and general research are some of the fields in which this programming language can be applied and developed. (author)
Sparsity-regularized HMAX for visual recognition.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaolin Hu
Full Text Available About ten years ago, HMAX was proposed as a simple and biologically feasible model for object recognition, based on how the visual cortex processes information. However, the model does not encompass sparse firing, which is a hallmark of neurons at all stages of the visual pathway. The current paper presents an improved model, called sparse HMAX, which integrates sparse firing. This model is able to learn higher-level features of objects on unlabeled training images. Unlike most other deep learning models that explicitly address global structure of images in every layer, sparse HMAX addresses local to global structure gradually along the hierarchy by applying patch-based learning to the output of the previous layer. As a consequence, the learning method can be standard sparse coding (SSC or independent component analysis (ICA, two techniques deeply rooted in neuroscience. What makes SSC and ICA applicable at higher levels is the introduction of linear higher-order statistical regularities by max pooling. After training, high-level units display sparse, invariant selectivity for particular individuals or for image categories like those observed in human inferior temporal cortex (ITC and medial temporal lobe (MTL. Finally, on an image classification benchmark, sparse HMAX outperforms the original HMAX by a large margin, suggesting its great potential for computer vision.
Quantum implications of a scale invariant regularization
Ghilencea, D. M.
2018-04-01
We study scale invariance at the quantum level in a perturbative approach. For a scale-invariant classical theory, the scalar potential is computed at a three-loop level while keeping manifest this symmetry. Spontaneous scale symmetry breaking is transmitted at a quantum level to the visible sector (of ϕ ) by the associated Goldstone mode (dilaton σ ), which enables a scale-invariant regularization and whose vacuum expectation value ⟨σ ⟩ generates the subtraction scale (μ ). While the hidden (σ ) and visible sector (ϕ ) are classically decoupled in d =4 due to an enhanced Poincaré symmetry, they interact through (a series of) evanescent couplings ∝ɛ , dictated by the scale invariance of the action in d =4 -2 ɛ . At the quantum level, these couplings generate new corrections to the potential, as scale-invariant nonpolynomial effective operators ϕ2 n +4/σ2 n. These are comparable in size to "standard" loop corrections and are important for values of ϕ close to ⟨σ ⟩. For n =1 , 2, the beta functions of their coefficient are computed at three loops. In the IR limit, dilaton fluctuations decouple, the effective operators are suppressed by large ⟨σ ⟩, and the effective potential becomes that of a renormalizable theory with explicit scale symmetry breaking by the DR scheme (of μ =constant).
Regularities development of entrepreneurial structures in regions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julia Semenovna Pinkovetskaya
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Consider regularities and tendencies for the three types of entrepreneurial structures — small enterprises, medium enterprises and individual entrepreneurs. The aim of the research was to confirm the possibilities of describing indicators of aggregate entrepreneurial structures with the use of normal law distribution functions. Presented proposed by the author the methodological approach and results of construction of the functions of the density distribution for the main indicators for the various objects: the Russian Federation, regions, as well as aggregates ofentrepreneurial structures, specialized in certain forms ofeconomic activity. All the developed functions, as shown by the logical and statistical analysis, are of high quality and well-approximate the original data. In general, the proposed methodological approach is versatile and can be used in further studies of aggregates of entrepreneurial structures. The received results can be applied in solving a wide range of problems justify the need for personnel and financial resources at the federal, regional and municipal levels, as well as the formation of plans and forecasts of development entrepreneurship and improvement of this sector of the economy.
[Hunger striking in prisons: ethics and the ethical and legal aspects].
García-Guerrero, J
2013-01-01
Hunger strike is a common form of protest in prisons and is a potential cause of many types of problems, both for the prison administration and the doctors who care for prisoners who participate in one. Issues of conflict of rights and obligations involved, and how to treat people who are subject to the Administration, which in this case takes the position of guarantor, have created major controversies over doctrine. Conscientious objection and the conflict of dual loyalty of doctors working in prisons are also issues closely linked to a prison hunger strike. In this paper we review the solution given to the problem of treatment of a prison hunger strike from three perspectives: ethics, ethical and legal.
Hinkelbein, J; Spelten, O; Wetsch, W A
2013-01-01
Up to 32.2% of patients in a burn center suffer from electrical injuries. Of these patients, 2-4% present with lightning injuries. In Germany, approximately 50 people per year are injured by a lightning strike and 3-7 fatally. Typically, people involved in outdoor activities are endangered and affected. A lightning strike usually produces significantly higher energy doses as compared to those in common electrical injuries. Therefore, injury patterns vary significantly. Especially in high voltage injuries and lightning injuries, internal injuries are of special importance. Mortality ranges between 10 and 30% after a lightning strike. Emergency medical treatment is similar to common electrical injuries. Patients with lightning injuries should be transported to a regional or supraregional trauma center. In 15% of all cases multiple people may be injured. Therefore, it is of outstanding importance to create emergency plans and evacuation plans in good time for mass gatherings endangered by possible lightning.
12 weeks of simulated barefoot running changes foot-strike patterns in female runners.
McCarthy, C; Fleming, N; Donne, B; Blanksby, B
2014-05-01
To investigate the effect of a transition program of simulated barefoot running (SBR) on running kinematics and foot-strike patterns, female recreational athletes (n=9, age 29 ± 3 yrs) without SBR experience gradually increased running distance in Vibram FiveFingers SBR footwear over 12 weeks. Matched controls (n=10, age 30 ± 4 yrs) continued running in standard footwear. A 3-D motion analysis of treadmill running at 12 km/h(-1) was performed by both groups, barefoot and shod, pre- and post-intervention. Post-intervention data indicated a more-forefoot strike pattern in the SBR group compared to controls; both running barefoot (P>0.05), and shod (Pstrike (Pforefoot strike pattern and "barefoot" kinematics, regardless of preferred footwear. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Kuhman, Daniel; Melcher, Daniel; Paquette, Max R
2016-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction of foot strike and common speeds on sagittal plane ankle and knee joint kinetics in competitive rear foot strike (RFS) runners when running with a RFS pattern and an imposed forefoot strike (FFS) pattern. Sixteen competitive habitual male RFS runners ran at two different speeds (i.e. 8 and 6 min mile(-1)) using their habitual RFS and an imposed FFS pattern. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess a potential interaction between strike pattern and speed for selected ground reaction force (GRF) variables and, sagittal plane ankle and knee kinematic and kinetic variables. No foot strike and speed interaction was observed for any of the kinetic variables. Habitual RFS yielded a greater loading rate of the vertical GRF, peak ankle dorsiflexor moment, peak knee extensor moment, peak knee eccentric extensor power, peak dorsiflexion and sagittal plane knee range of motion compared to imposed FFS. Imposed FFS yielded greater maximum vertical GRF, peak ankle plantarflexor moment, peak ankle eccentric plantarflexor power and sagittal plane ankle ROM compared to habitual RFS. Consistent with previous literature, imposed FFS in habitual RFS reduces eccentric knee extensor and ankle dorsiflexor involvement but produce greater eccentric ankle plantarflexor action compared to RFS. These acute differences between strike patterns were independent of running speeds equivalent to typical easy and hard training runs in competitive male runners. Current findings along with previous literature suggest differences in lower extremity kinetics between habitual RFS and imposed FFS running are consistent among a variety of runner populations.