Li, Shudong; Zhang, Yan; Gu, Yaodong; Ren, James
Due to the limitations of experimental approaches, comparison of the internal deformation and stresses of the human man foot between forefoot and rearfoot landing is not fully established. The objective of this work is to develop an effective FE modelling approach to comparatively study the stresses and energy in the foot during forefoot strike (FS) and rearfoot strike (RS). The stress level and rate of stress increase in the Metatarsals are established and the injury risk between these two landing styles is evaluated and discussed. A detailed subject specific FE foot model is developed and validated. A hexahedral dominated meshing scheme was applied on the surface of the foot bones and skin. An explicit solver (Abaqus/Explicit) was used to stimulate the transient landing process. The deformation and internal energy of the foot and stresses in the metatarsals are comparatively investigated. The results for forefoot strike tests showed an overall higher average stress level in the metatarsals during the entire landing cycle than that for rearfoot strike. The increase rate of the metatarsal stress from the 0.5 body weight (BW) to 2 BW load point is 30.76% for forefoot strike and 21.39% for rearfoot strike. The maximum rate of stress increase among the five metatarsals is observed on the 1st metatarsal in both landing modes. The results indicate that high stress level during forefoot landing phase may increase potential of metatarsal injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Peglow, S. G.; Molitoris, J. D.
The Pre/Post-Strike Atmospheric Assessment System was proposed to show the importance of local meteorological conditions in the vicinity of a site suspected of storing or producing toxic agents and demonstrate a technology to measure these conditions, specifically wind fields. The ability to predict the collateral effects resulting from an attack on a facility containing hazardous materials is crucial to conducting effective military operations. Our study approach utilized a combination of field measurements with dispersion modeling to better understand which variables in terrain and weather were most important to collateral damage predictions. To develop the PAAS wind-sensing technology, we utilized a combination of emergent and available technology from micro-Doppler and highly coherent laser systems. The method used for wind sensing is to probe the atmosphere with a highly coherent laser beam. As the beam probes, light is back-scattered from particles entrained in the air to the lidar transceiver and detected by the instrument. Any motion of the aerosols with a component along the beam axis leads to a Doppler shift of the received light. Scanning in a conical fashion about the zenith results in a more accurate and two-dimensional measurement of the wind velocity. The major milestones in the benchtop system development were to verify the design by demonstrating the technique in the laboratory, then scale the design down to a size consistent with a demonstrator unit which could be built to take data in the field. The micro-Doppler heterodyne system we developed determines absolute motion by optically mixing a reference beam with the return signal and has shown motion sensitivity to better than 1 cm/s. This report describes the rationale, technical approach and laboratory testing undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of a system to provide local meteorological data and predict atmospheric particulate motion. The work described herein was funded by
Byard, Roger W; Winskog, Calle; Machado, Aaron; Boardman, Wayne
Assessment of injuries in marine mammals may be required to help authorities determine whether human activity was involved. Three cases of marine animal deaths involving propeller blade strikes are reported to demonstrate characteristic features of such cases and diagnostic difficulties that may occur. Case 1: A juvenile New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) suffered two parallel linear incised wounds of the flank and died following small intestinal herniation. Case 2: An Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin neonate (Tursiops aduncus) died from a deeply incised wound of the left side of the head with shattering of the skull and laceration of the underlying brain.Case 3: An adult female Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (T. aduncus) died from two parallel chop wounds to the torso with opening of the thoracic and abdominal cavities with fractures of the ribs and vertebrae. Given that some animals may recover, and that the carcasses of those that are killed may simply not be found or reported, it is impossible to provide an estimate of the incidence of this type of injury amongst wild sea mammals. In cases that do come to forensic attention accurate evaluation of the type of injury may potentially have great medicolegal significance. Post-mortem putrefaction and post-mortem feeding by other sea animals may complicate assessments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Poirier, Michael R.
Previous Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) tank mixing studies performed for the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) project have shown that 3 Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) installed in Tank 41 are sufficient to support actinide removal by MST sorption as well as subsequent resuspension and removal of settled solids. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is pursuing MST addition into Tank 21 as part of the Large Tank Strike (LTS) project. The preliminary scope for LTS involves the use of three standard slurry pumps (installed in N, SE, and SW risers) in a Type IV tank. Due to the differences in tank size, internal interferences, and pump design, a separate mixing evaluation is required to determine if the proposed configuration will allow for MST suspension and strontium and actinide sorption. The author performed the analysis by reviewing drawings for Tank 21 [W231023] and determining the required cleaning radius or zone of influence for the pumps. This requirement was compared with previous pilot-scale MST suspension data collected for SCIX that determined the cleaning radius, or zone of influence, as a function of pump operating parameters. The author also reviewed a previous Tank 50 mixing analysis that examined the ability of standard slurry pumps to suspend sludge particles. Based on a review of the pilot-scale SCIX mixing tests and Tank 50 pump operating experience, three standard slurry pumps should be able to suspend sludge and MST to effectively sorb strontium and actinides onto the MST. Using the SCIX data requires an assumption about the impact of cooling coils on slurry pump mixing. The basis for this assumption is described in this report. Using the Tank 50 operating experience shows three standard slurry pumps should be able to suspend solids if the shear strength of the settled solids is less than 160 Pa. Because Tank 21 does not contain cooling coils, the shear strength could be larger.
A rapid assessment of species-specific bird strike risk at the Kotoka International Airport in Accra, Ghana. ... We conclude that wildlife management to avert the risk of bird strikes could be successfully achieved by adopting both proactive and reactive measures to reduce the presence of problem species at the aerodrome.
Full Text Available The presence of wildlife in airport areas poses substantial hazards to aviation. Wildlife aircraft collisions (hereafter wildlife strikes cause losses in terms of human lives and direct monetary losses for the aviation industry. In recent years, wildlife strikes have increased in parallel with air traffic increase and species habituation to anthropic areas. In this paper, we used an ecological approach to wildlife strike risk assessment to eight Italian international airports. The main achievement is a site-specific analysis that avoids flattening wildlife strike events on a large scale while maintaining comparable airport risk assessments. This second version of the Birdstrike Risk Index (BRI2 is a sensitive tool that provides different time scale results allowing appropriate management planning. The methodology applied has been developed in accordance with the Italian Civil Aviation Authority, which recognizes it as a national standard implemented in the advisory circular ENAC APT-01B.
Godbout, P.; Brais, A.
The possibilities of an aircraft striking a Canadian nuclear power plant in the vicinity of an airport and of inducing structural failure modes have been evaluated. This evaluation, together with other studies, may enhance decisions in the development of general criteria for the siting of reactors near airports. The study made use, for assessment, of the probabilistic approach and made judicious applications of the finite Canadian, French, German, American and English resources that were available. The tools, techniques and methods used for achieving the above, form what may be called an integrated approach. This method of approach requires that the study be made in six consecutive steps as follows: the qualitative evaluation of having an aircraft strike on a site situated near an airport with the use of the logic model technique; the statistical data gathering on aircraft movements and accidents; evaluating the probability distribution and calculating the basic event probabilities; evaluating the probability of an aircraft strike and the application of the sensitivity approach; generating the probability density distribution versus strike impact energy, that is, the evaluation of the energy envelope; and the probabilistic evaluation of structural failure mode inducements
Full Text Available Hydropower is the largest renewable energy source in the world. However, in the Columbia and Snake River basins, several species of Pacific salmon and steelhead have been listed for protection under the Endangered Species Act due to significant declines of fish population. Dam operators and design engineers are thus faced with the task of making hydroelectric facilities more fish friendly through changes in hydro-turbine design and operation. Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, Washington, applied for relicensing from the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to replace the 10 turbines at Wanapum Dam with advanced hydropower turbines that were designed to increase power generation and improve fish passage conditions. We applied both deterministic and stochastic blade-strike models to compare fish passage performance of the newly installed advanced turbine to an existing turbine. Modeled probabilities were compared to the results of a large-scale live-fish survival study and a Sensor Fish study under the same operational parameters. Overall, injury rates predicted by the deterministic model were higher than experimental rates of injury, while those predicted by the stochastic model were in close agreement with experimental results. Fish orientation at the time of entry into the plane of the leading edges of the turbine runner blades was an important factor contributing to uncertainty in modeled results. The advanced design turbine had slightly higher modeled injury rates than the existing turbine design; however, no statistical evidence suggested significant differences in blade-strike injuries between the two turbines, thus the hypothesis that direct fish survival rate through the advanced hydropower turbine is equal to or higher than that for fish passing through the conventional turbine could not be rejected.
Zhang, B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Wichita State University, 1845 Fairmount St., Wichita, KS 67260-0133 (United States); Soltani, S.A. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Wichita State University, 1845 Fairmount St., Wichita, KS 67260-0133 (United States); Le, L.N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Wichita State University, 1845 Fairmount St., Wichita, KS 67260-0133 (United States); Asmatulu, R., E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Wichita State University, 1845 Fairmount St., Wichita, KS 67260-0133 (United States)
A thin flexible coating made of pristine graphene was fabricated and applied on the surface of a commercial carbon fiber epoxy prepreg laminate to protect it against the lightning strike. To assess the coating’s effectiveness, the coated laminate was subjected to the simulated lightning strike as well as the electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI SE) testing. It was observed that the damaged area and volume in the coated laminate were reduced by 94% and 96%, respectively, as compared to the laminate without the coating. Moreover, the coated laminate had an average EMI SE of 51 dB over 100–2000 MHz range, 55 dB over 8–12 GHz range, and 60 dB over 12–18 GHz range marking 22%, 44%, and 49% improvement in EMI SE for each frequency range, respectively. The results indicate a great potential for the developed coating to protect the commercially available prepreg composites against the lightning strike.
Rodríguez-Pérez, Q.; Ottemöller, L.
Seismic source parameters of oceanic transform zone earthquakes have been relatively poorly studied. Previous studies showed that this type of earthquakes has unique characteristics such as not only the relatively common occurrence of slow events with weak seismic radiation at high frequencies but also the occurrence of some events that have high apparent stress indicating strong high frequency radiation. We studied 5 strike-slip earthquakes in the Jan Mayen fracture zone with magnitudes in the range of 5.9 centroid time delay compared to other oceanic transform fault earthquakes.
Although cyfluthrin is used in many applications, both indoor and for agricultural crop protection, there is no EPA registration for outdoor noncropland...Sterling 1972, Barrett 1968). Carbaryl is severely toxic to predatory mites , but less toxic to phytophagous mites (Bartlett 1968). LAFB Strike Risk...and feces. Workers occupationally exposed by inhalation to carbaryl dust excreted 74% of the inhaled dose in the urine in the form of a breakdown
Full Text Available In this short paper, we study the asymptotics for the price of call options for very large strikes and put options for very small strikes. The stock price is assumed to follow the Black–Scholes models. We analyze European, Asian, American, Parisian and perpetual options and conclude that the tail asymptotics for these option types fall into four scenarios.
Kummer, Lizette; Stevens, Jennifer
There is no way the PIC's could have seen any current' was the gist of Mike Griffin's assessment. Griffin was the NASA Administrator at the time. The buck stopped at his desk. Holding a napkin out to Pat Lampton, Griffin showed Lampton the calculations he'd made over dinner that predicted that the Pyrotechnic Initiator Controllers (PIC's) at the base of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) were fine. A lightning strike the day before, the worst ever experienced with a Space Shuttle on the launch pad, caused a halt to the launch count down as technicians, engineers, and managers scrambled identify any damage to the launch system. SRB technicians and engineers assessed the data against their Lightning Strike Re-Test Requirements, determining that all but one of the requirements could be checked if they resumed the countdown. For the one remaining requirement, testing the integrity of the PIC's would require 96 hours to set up, test, and reassemble. The engineers were convinced that there was no way to do calculations to show the PIC's were okay. The only option was to stand down. It was SRB Deputy Project Manager (PM) Pat Lampton's responsibility to decide what the SRB project position needed to be to certify that their hardware was safe to fly. He had to communicate that decision to the Mission Management Team (MMT) as a Go or No Go position to resume the count down. If the answer was Go they could still meet a delayed, but acceptable launch schedule. If the answer was No Go, rescheduling the launch would be a grueling shuffling of hardware, personnel, and mission timelines to accommodate Russian missions to the Space Station, supplies for the launch, and personnel manning launch operations. On top of that, Hurricane Ernesto was spinning off the coast of Florida, threatening the need for the Shuttle to roll back to the hangar if they waited too long.
Neto, Osmar Pinto; Magini, Marcio; Pacheco, Marcos T T
IN MARTIAL ARTS AND CONTACT SPORTS, STRIKES ARE OFTEN TRAINED IN TWO DIFFERENT WAYS: with and without impacts. This study aims to compare the electromyographical activity (EMG) of the triceps brachii (TB), biceps brachii (BB) and brachioradialis (BR) muscles during strikes with and without impacts. Eight Yau-Man Kung Fu practitioners participated in the experiment. Each participant performed 5 sequences of 5 consecutive KF Yau-Man palm strikes with no impact intercalated with 5 sequences of 5 repetitions targeting a KF training shield. Surface EMG signals were obtained from the TB, BB, and RB for 3.0 seconds using an eight-channel module with a total amplifier gain of 2000 and sampled at 3500 Hz. The EMG analyses were done in the time (rms) and frequency (wavelet) domains. For the frequency domain, Morlet wavelet power spectra were obtained and an original method was used to quantify statistically significant regions on the power spectra. The results both in the time and frequency domains indicate a higher TB and BR muscle activity for the strikes with impacts. No significant difference was found for the BB in the two different scenarios. In addition, the results show that the wavelet power spectra pattern for the three analysed muscles obtained from the strikes with and without impacts were similar. Key pointsEMG analysis of a sequence of Kung Fu strikes demonstrates higher Triceps Brachii and Brachioradialis muscle activity for strikes with impact than strikes without impact.An original reliable method for quantifying EMG wavelet transform results is presented.EMG wavelet power spectra describe muscle roles during a Kung Fu sequence of strikes.
Wong, Pei-Syuan; Lin, Ming-Lang
According to investigation of recent earthquakes, ground deformation and surface rupture are used to map the influenced range of the active fault. The zones of horizontal and vertical surface displacements and different features of surface rupture are investigated in the field, for example, the Greendale Fault 2010, MW 7.1 Canterbury earthquake. The buildings near the fault rotated and displaced vertically and horizontally due to the ground deformation. Besides, the propagation of fault trace detoured them because of the higher rigidity. Consequently, it's necessary to explore the ground deformation and mechanism of the foundation induced by strike-slip faulting for the safety issue. Based on previous study from scaled analogue model of strike-slip faulting, the ground deformation is controlled by material properties, depth of soil, and boundary condition. On the condition controlled, the model shows the features of ground deformation in the field. This study presents results from shear box experiment on small-scale soft clay models subjected to strike-slip faulting and placed shallow foundations on it in a 1-g environment. The quantifiable data including sequence of surface rupture, topography and the position of foundation are recorded with increasing faulting. From the result of the experiment, first en echelon R shears appeared. The R shears rotated to a more parallel angle to the trace and cracks pulled apart along them with increasing displacements. Then the P shears crossed the basement fault in the opposite direction appears and linked R shears. Lastly the central shear was Y shears. On the other hand, the development of wider zones of rupture, higher rising surface and larger the crack area on surface developed, with deeper depth of soil. With the depth of 1 cm and half-box displacement 1.2 cm, en echelon R shears appeared and the surface above the fault trace elevated to 1.15 mm (Dv), causing a 1.16 cm-wide zone of ground-surface rupture and deformation
Full Text Available Restrictions on the rights of public officers to strike are permitted by the Constitutions of Lesotho, Botswana and South Africa, where such limitations are reasonable, necessary and justifiable in a democratic society. The limitation of this right in the context of public servants is endorsed by the ILO in the Freedom of Association Digest of Decisions and Principles which holds that "[t]he right to strike can be restricted or even prohibited in the public service or in essential services in so far as a strike there could cause serious hardship to the national community and provided that these limitations are accompanied by certain compensatory guarantees". Public officers in Lesotho are deprived of the right to join trade unions or to strike, without exception or justification. Furthermore in Lesotho no dispute resolution mechanism exists to effectively facilitate the final resolution of disputes of interest in the public sector. This paper considers whether the limitations imposed on the freedom and right to strike of public officers in Lesotho are in breach of international obligations and are reasonable and justifiable in a free and democratic society committed to the rule of law. In so doing a comparative analysis of the jurisdictions of South Africa and Botswana is undertaken. It concludes that Lesotho is in breach of its obligations as a member state of the ILO and its constitutional commitment to freedom of association and needs to be urgently addressed.
Osmar Pinto Neto
Full Text Available In martial arts and contact sports, strikes are often trained in two different ways: with and without impacts. This study aims to compare the electromyographical activity (EMG of the triceps brachii (TB, biceps brachii (BB and brachioradialis (BR muscles during strikes with and without impacts. Eight Yau-Man Kung Fu practitioners participated in the experiment. Each participant performed 5 sequences of 5 consecutive KF Yau-Man palm strikes with no impact intercalated with 5 sequences of 5 repetitions targeting a KF training shield. Surface EMG signals were obtained from the TB, BB, and RB for 3.0 seconds using an eight-channel module with a total amplifier gain of 2000 and sampled at 3500 Hz. The EMG analyses were done in the time (rms and frequency (wavelet domains. For the frequency domain, Morlet wavelet power spectra were obtained and an original method was used to quantify statistically significant regions on the power spectra. The results both in the time and frequency domains indicate a higher TB and BR muscle activity for the strikes with impacts. No significant difference was found for the BB in the two different scenarios. In addition, the results show that the wavelet power spectra pattern for the three analysed muscles obtained from the strikes with and without impacts were similar
P. V. Kriksin
Full Text Available The article presents the results of the development of new methods aimed at more accurate interval estimate of the experimental values of voltages on grounding devices of substations and circuits in the control cables, that occur when lightning strikes to lightning rods; the abovementioned estimate made it possible to increase the accuracy of the results of the study of lightning noise by 28 %. A more accurate value of interval estimation were achieved by developing a measurement model that takes into account, along with the measured values, different measurement errors and includes the special processing of the measurement results. As a result, the interval of finding the true value of the sought voltage is determined with an accuracy of 95 %. The methods can be applied to the IK-1 and IKP-1 measurement complexes, consisting in the aperiodic pulse generator, the generator of high-frequency pulses and selective voltmeters, respectively. To evaluate the effectiveness of the developed methods series of experimental voltage assessments of grounding devices of ten active high-voltage substation have been fulfilled in accordance with the developed methods and traditional techniques. The evaluation results confirmed the possibility of finding the true values of voltage over a wide range, that ought to be considered in the process of technical diagnostics of lightning protection of substations when the analysis of the measurement results and the development of measures to reduce the effects of lightning are being fulfilled. Also, a comparative analysis of the results of measurements made in accordance with the developed methods and traditional techniques has demonstrated that the true value of the sought voltage may exceed the measured value at an average of 28 %, that ought to be considered in the further analysis of the parameters of lightning protection at the facility and in the development of corrective actions. The developed methods have been
Goodkind, M.E.; Klimczak, C.A.; Munyon, W.J.
Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) is a Department of Energy (DOE)-owned, contractor-operated national laboratory located 22 miles southwest of downtown Chicago on a wooded, 1700-acre site. The principal nuclear facilities at ANL include a large fast neutron source (Intense Pulse Neutron Source) in which high-energy protons strike a uranium target to produce neutrons for research studies; 60 Co irradiation sources; chemical and metallurgical plutonium laboratories, some of which are currently being decommissioned; several large hot cell facilities designed for work with multicurie quantities of actinide elements and irradiated reactor fuel materials; a few small research reactors currently in different phases of being decommissioned; and a variety of research laboratories handling many different sources in various chemical and physical forms. The hazards analysis for the ANL site shows that tornado strikes are a serious threat. The site has been struck twice in the past 20 yr, receiving only minor building damage and no release of radioactivity to the environment. Although radioactive materials in general are handled in areas that provide good tornado protection, ANL is prepared to address the problems that would occur should there be a loss of control of radioactive materials due to severe building damage
Ron, Hagai; Nur, Amos; Eyal, Y.
In many strike slip tectonic settings, large rotations of crust blocks about vertical axes have been inferred from paleomagnetic data. These blocks are bounded by sets of parallel faults which presumably accommodate the relative motion between the blocks as regional deformation progress. A mechanical model by Nur et al., (1986) suggests that rotations greater than phi sub c equals 25 to 45 degrees must be accommodated by more than one set of faults, with angle phi sub c between their direction; consequently the sum of the angles between sets must be roughly equal to the total tectonic material rotation. To test this model, the authors investigated the fault geometry and field relation of fault sets in the Mt. Hermon area in northern Israel, where paleomagnetic declination implies data 69 degrees plus or minus 13 degrees counter-clockwise block rotation. The statistical and field relation analysis of over 315 faults shows that the faulting is predominantly right lateral strike slip consisting of three distinct sets. The oldest set strikes 253 degrees, the second oldest set strikes 293 degrees and the youngest strikes 339 degrees. This last direction is consistent also with the current north-south direction of the maximum principle stress axis. The angle phi sub c between the first and second sets is 39 degrees and between the second and third sets 46 degrees, in good agreement with the phi sub c angle predicted from mechanical considerations. The sum of the two angles is 85 degrees, in good agreement with the 69 degrees plus or minus 13 degrees CCW paleomagnetically derived rotation. The results suggest specifically that the sequential development of multiple intersecting fault sets is responsible for the faulting in the Mt. Hermon area; and generally that the model of block rotation with multiple faults provides very good simple rules for analyzing very complex fault patterns.
Wang, Qian; Spence, Charles
We report two experiments designed to investigate the consequences of manipulating the harmonic content of background music on taste perception. The participants in the present study evaluated samples of mixed fruit juice whilst listening to soundtracks that had either been harmonised with consonant or dissonant musical intervals. Each sample of juice was rated on three computer-based scales: One scale was anchored with the words sour and sweet, while the other two scales involved hedonic ratings of the music and of the juice. The results of an internet-based pre-test revealed that participants reliably associated the consonant soundtracks with sweetness and the dissonant soundtracks with sourness. The results of the on-site experiments demonstrated that participants rated the juices as tasting significantly sweeter in the consonant than in the dissonant music condition, irrespective of the melody or instrumentation that were evaluated. These results therefore provide empirical support for the claim that the crossmodal correspondence between a higher level musical attribute (namely, harmony) and basic taste can be used to modify the evaluation of the taste of a drink.
Smith, Thomas J.; Robblee, Michael B.; Wanless, Harold R.; Doyle, Thomas W.
The track of Hurricane Andrew carried it across one of the most extensive mangrove for ests in the New World. Although it is well known that hurricanes affect mangrove forests, surprisingly little quantitative information exists concerning hurricane impact on forest structure, succession, species composition, and dynamics of mangrove-dependent fauna or on rates of eco-system recovery (see Craighead and Gilbert 1962, Roth 1992, Smith 1992, Smith and Duke 1987, Stoddart 1969).After Hurricane Andrew's passage across south Florida, we assessed the environmental damage to the natural resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks. Quantitative data collected during subsequent field trips (October 1992 to July 1993) are also provided. We present measurements of initial tree mortality by species and size class, estimates of delayed (or continuing) tree mortality, and observations of geomorphological changes along the coast and in the forests that could influence the course of forest recovery. We discuss a potential interaction across two differing scales of disturbance within mangrove forest systems: hurricanes and lightning strikes.
Tánczos, Tímea; Zádori, Dénes; Jakab, Katalin; Hnyilicza, Zsuzsanna; Klivényi, Péter; Keresztes, László; Engelhardt, József; Németh, Dezső; Vécsei, László
Lightning-related injuries most often involve impairment of the functions of the central and peripheral nervous systems, usually including cognitive dysfunctions. We evaluated the cognitive deficit of a patient who had survived a lightning strike and measured the improvement after her cognitive training. This therapeutic method appears to be a powerful tool in the neurorehabilitation treatment. The aim of this case study was to prove the beneficial effects of cognitive training as part of the neurorehabilitation after a lightning strike. Six neuropsychological functions were examined in order to test the cognitive status of the patient before and after the 2-month cognitive training: phonological short-term memory (digit span test and word repetitions test), visuo-spatial short-term memory (Corsi Block Tapping Test), working memory (backward digit span test and listening span test), executive functions (letter and semantic fluencies), language functions (non-word repetition test, Pléh-Palotás-Lörik (PPL) test and sentence repetition test) and episodic memory (Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test and Mini Mental State Examination). We also utilized these tests in aged-matched healthy individuals so as to be able to characterize the domains of the observed improvements more precisely. The patient exhibited a considerable improvement in the backward digit span, semantic fluency, non-word repetition, PPL, sentence repetition and Rivermead Behavioral Memory tests. The cognitive training played an important role in the neurorehabilitation treatment of this lightning injury patient. It considerably improved her quality of life through the functional recovery.
Contrary to popular misconception, lightning often strikes the same place twice. Certain conditions are just ripe for a bolt of electricity to come zapping down; and a lightning strike is powerful enough to do a lot of damage wherever it hits. NASA created the Accurate Location of Lightning Strikes technology to determine the ground strike point of lightning and prevent electrical damage in the immediate vicinity of the Space Shuttle launch pads at Kennedy Space Center. The area surrounding the launch pads is enmeshed in a network of electrical wires and components, and electronic equipment is highly susceptible to lightning strike damage. The accurate knowledge of the striking point is important so that crews can determine which equipment or system needs to be retested following a strike. Accurate to within a few yards, this technology can locate a lightning strike in the perimeter of the launch pad. As an added bonus, the engineers, then knowing where the lightning struck, can adjust the variables that may be attracting the lightning, to create a zone that will be less susceptible to future strikes.
Park, John J; Murray, Scott A
Last year in June, British doctors went on strike for the first time since 1975. Amidst a global economic downturn and with many health systems struggling with reduced finances, around the world the issue of public health workers going on strike is a very real one. Almost all doctors will agree that we should always follow the law, but often the law is unclear or does not cover a particular case. Here we must appeal to ethical discussion. The General Medical Council, in its key guidance document for practising doctors, Good Medical Practice, claims that 'Good doctors make the care of their patients their first concern'. Is this true? And if so, how is this relevant to the issue of striking? One year on since the events, we carefully reflect and argue whether it was right for doctors to pursue strike action, and call for greater discussion of ethical issues such as the recent strikes, particularly among younger members of the profession.
Kelloway, E Kevin; Francis, Lori; Catano, Victor M; Dupré, Kathryne E
Labor strikes are often seen as battles for public support. Members of the public are asked to show respect for a strike by refusing to cross the picket line or by joining strikers on the picket line. Such public support may affect the morale of strikers and influence the strike's duration. Despite the perceived importance of the public in labor disputes, members of third parties have not been considered in previous strike research. In 2 studies, the authors show that a new measure of third-party strike support is unidimensional and highly reliable. In both cases, union attitudes and perceptions of distributive justice were significant predictors of support for strike action. Those who are more supportive of unions in general and believe that the contract offered to the strikers was unfair were more likely to support the strike by engaging in such actions as conversing with strikers, writing letters, and refusing to cross the picket line.
Gafni-Lachter, Liat; Admi, Hanna; Eilon, Yael; Lachter, Jesse
Strikes are means to influence policies related to working conditions, yet raise ethical dilemmas for healthcare workers. Nurse strikes have become more prominent around the world. To assess the change in Israeli nurses' attitudes towards strikes in light of two physician strikes that have preceded a nursing strike. An anonymous survey was administered once in 2000 (N = 106) and again in 2011 (n = 175) following 110 days of a physician strike, to assess nurses' attitudes towards the strike and resulting ethical issues. A statistically significant change (p working conditions related to professional and public health agendas.
Proliferation Treaty OSINT Open Source Intelligence SAFF Safing, Arming, Fuzing, Firing SIAM Situational Influence Assessment Module SME Subject...assisting with the framework for this venture during our influence modeling class. The thoughtful insight provided by the group when we first worked... framework for modeling conflict in general, the near-term objective is to produce a model that provides a simplistic input and a single output to
Jennings, K; Western, G
During 1995, there was a major shift in the United Kingdom in the debate of whether it is right for nurses to strike. The Royal College of Nursing, the former advocate of a non-industrial action policy, moved towards the UNISON position that industrial action is ethical in some circumstances, as well as the necessary thing to do. The authors, both nurses and UNISON officials, look at the reasons for this change and why UNISON's historical position sees industrial action as an effective weapon in defending services, as well as wages and jobs. It can be right to strike.
Täna algab Eestis, Lätis ja Leedus Ameerika Ühendriikide Euroopa väekoondise õppus "Saber Strike", mille eesmärk on maaväeüksuste koostöö harjutamine. Õppusest võtab osa üle 2000 kaitseväelase Baltimaadest, USAst, Ühendkuningriigist, Taanist, Norrast, Soomest ja Saksamaalt. Eestist osaleb õppusel ligi 400 kaitseväelast
...) positions within the Federal Aviation Administration for more than 3 decades. This study was designed to assess the relationship between personality characteristics of a group of post-strike applicants (1984...
Lewis, Mark J.
Beginning in the 1940's, the United States has pursued the development of hypersonic technologies, enabling atmospheric flight in excess of five times the speed of sound. Hypersonic flight has application to a range of military and civilian applications, including commercial transport, space access, and various weapons and sensing platforms. A number of flight tests of hypersonic vehicles have been conducted by countries around the world, including the United States, Russia, and China, that could lead the way to future hypersonic global strike weapon systems. These weapons would be especially effective at penetrating conventional defenses, and could pose a significant risk to national security.
Fazzito, Sabrina Y.; Rapalini, Augusto E.; Cortés, José M.; Terrizzano, Carla M.
Palaeomagnetic data from poorly consolidated to non-consolidated late Cenozoic sediments along the central segment of the active El Tigre Fault (Central-Western Precordillera of the San Juan Province, Argentina) demonstrate broad cumulative deformation up to 450 m from the fault trace and reveal clockwise and anticlockwise vertical-axis rotations of variable magnitude. This deformation has affected in different amounts Miocene to late Pleistocene samples and indicates a complex kinematic pattern. Several inherited linear structures in the shear zone that are oblique to the El Tigre Fault may have acted as block boundary faults. Displacement along these faults may have resulted in a complex pattern of rotations. The maximum magnitude of rotation is a function of the age of the sediments sampled, with largest values corresponding to middle Miocene-lower Pliocene deposits and minimum values obtained from late Pleistocene deposits. The kinematic study is complemented by low-field anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data to show that the local strain regime suggests a N-S stretching direction, subparallel to the strike of the main fault.
Ahmedani, Brian K.; Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Kessler, Ronald C.; de Graaf, Ron; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Zarkov, Zahari; Viana, Maria Carmen; Huang, Y.Q.; Hu, Chiyi; Posada-Villa, Jose A.; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Karam, Aimee N.; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Gureje, Oye; Ferry, Finola; Sagar, Rajesh; Anthony, James C.
Background This global study seeks to estimate the degree to which a family member might feel embarrassed when a close relative is suffering from an alcohol, drug, or mental health condition (ADMC) versus a general medical condition (GMC). To date, most studies have considered embarrassment and stigma in society and internalized by the afflicted individual, but have not assessed family embarrassment in a large scale study. Method In 16 sites of the World Mental Health Surveys (WMHS), standardized assessments were completed including items on family embarrassment. Site matching was used to constrain local socially shared determinants of stigma-related feelings, enabling a conditional logistic regression model that estimates the embarrassment close relatives may hold in relation to family members affected by an ADMC, GMC, or both conditions. Results There was a statistically robust association such that subgroups with an ADMC-affected relative were more likely to feel embarrassed as compared to subgroups with a relative affected by a GMC (p<0.001), even with covariate adjustments for age and sex. Conclusions The pattern of evidence from this research is consistent with conceptual models for interventions that target individual- and family-level stigma-related feelings of embarrassment as might be part of the obstacles to effective early intervention and treatment for ADMC conditions. Macro-level interventions are underway, but micro-level interventions also may be required among family members, along with care for each person with an ADMC. PMID:23298443
Full Text Available An expert swordsman struck a target with a kendo sword. The velocity and force of the strike were measured. The relationship between the strike velocity, impact force and effective mass of the sword was investigated. It was shown that the effective mass of the sword remains constant for typical strike velocities.
Akkerman, A.; Born, M.; Torenvlied, R.
This article studies how participation norms affect workers' willingness to strike. A factor analysis on the responses of 468 Dutch union members about appropriate behavior during a strike produces two factors. The first factor reflects a "solidarity norm" favoring group solidarity; the second
Scheuer, Steen; Ibsen, Flemming; Høgedahl, Laust
This article looks at strikes by employees in the public sector, discusses the theoretical background to these conflicts and shows – based on a case study of three strikes in the Danish public sector – how different union strategies lead to very different outcomes in terms of economic gains......, while public sector unions trying to move up the wage hierarchy cannot expect much help from fellow public sector unions, often quite the reverse....
Damage Area*• GPS / INS Navigation + SAL Terminal • Precise əm CEP • Low Probability of Collateral Damage • GPS Extends Glide Range to 10+km • Agile...Page 311 Mar 09 Unclassified Unclassified Viper Strike Lineage Viper Strike SAL Seeker Proof of Principle Demos I & II Hunter-Viper Strike Quick...Information Management • CCA - Clinger Cohen Act • RIT- Rapid Improvement Team • BMMP – Business Management Modernization Program • BTA/ERAM – Business
Metz, I.C.; Ellerbroek, J.; Muhlhausen, Thorsten; Kügler, D.; Hoekstra, J.M.
This paper presents a fast-time simulation environment for assessing the risk of bird strikes in aviation. An existing air traffic simulator was enhanced in order to simulate air and bird traffic simultaneously and to recognize collisions between birds and aircraft. Furthermore, a method was
Roper, Jenevieve Lynn; Doerfler, Deborah; Kravitz, Len; Dufek, Janet S; Mermier, Christine
Gait retraining is a method for management of patellofemoral pain, which is a common ailment among recreational runners. The present study investigated the effects of gait retraining from rearfoot strike to forefoot strike on running economy, heart rate, and respiratory exchange ratio immediately post-retraining and one-month post-retraining in recreational runners with patellofemoral pain. Knee pain was also measured. Sixteen participants (n=16) were randomly placed in the control (n=8) or experimental (n=8) group. A 10-minute treadmill RE test was performed by all subjects. The experimental group performed eight gait retraining running sessions where foot strike pattern was switched from rearfoot strike to forefoot strike, while the control group received no intervention. There were no significant differences for running economy (p=0.26), respiratory exchange ratio (p=0.258), or heart rate (p=0.248) between the groups. Knee pain reported on a visual analog scale was also significantly reduced (p<0.05) as a result of retraining. The present study demonstrates that retraining from rearfoot strike to forefoot strike did not affect running economy up to one-month post-retraining while reducing running-related patellofemoral pain. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Caniven, Y.; Dominguez, S.; Soliva, R.; Cattin, R.; Peyret, M.; Marchandon, M.; Romano, C.; Strak, V.
Nowadays, technological advances in satellite imagery measurements as well as the development of dense geodetic and seismologic networks allow for a detailed analysis of surface deformation associated with active fault seismic cycle. However, the study of earthquake dynamics faces several limiting
Full Text Available This study will try to give an overview and assess the international and European standards regarding the management of hunger strikes. We will analyse the international and European standards regarding the force-feeding a prisoner on a hunger strike. The paper will focus on the study of the ECtHR judgements regarding the force-feeding of hunger strikers. Also, we will address the U.S. case and the force-feeding of prisoners which is considered to be, in certain cases, an act of torture based on the international human rights standards. To close with, the study will attempt to go through the recent developments in the Romanian legislation, analysing the legislation and its conformity with the European principles and recommendations, bearing in mind the prohibition, in absolute terms, of torture or inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
Suenderhauf, Claudia; Walter, Anna; Lenz, Claudia; Lang, Undine E; Borgwardt, Stefan
Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic, and strongly disabling neuropsychiatric disorder, characterized by cognitive decline, positive and negative symptoms. Positive symptoms respond well to antipsychotic medication and psycho-social interventions, in contrast to negative symptoms and neurocognitive impairments. Cognitive deficits have been linked to a poorer outcome and hence specific cognitive remediation therapies have been proposed. Their effectiveness is nowadays approved and neurobiological correlates have been reconfirmed by brain imaging studies. Interestingly, recent MRI work showed that commercial video games modified similar brain areas as these specialized training programs. If gray matter increases and functional brain modulations would translate in better cognitive and every day functioning, commercial video game training could be an enjoyable and economically interesting treatment option for patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. This systematic review summarizes advances in the area with emphasis on imaging studies dealing with brain changes upon video game training and contrasts them to conventional cognitive remediation. Moreover, we discuss potential challenges therapeutic video game development and research would have to face in future treatment of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Kolemen, E.; Gates, D.A.; Rowley, C.W.; Kasdin, N.J.; Kallman, J.; Gerhardt, S.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Mueller, D.
This paper presents the first control algorithm for the inner and outer strike point position for a Spherical Torus (ST) fusion experiment and the performance analysis of the controller. A liquid lithium divertor (LLD) will be installed on NSTX which is believed to provide better pumping than lithium coatings on carbon PFCs. The shape of the plasma dictates the pumping rate of the lithium by channeling the plasma to LLD, where strike point location is the most important shape parameter. Simulations show that the density reduction depends on the proximity of strike point to LLD. Experiments were performed to study the dynamics of the strike point, design a new controller to change the location of the strike point to desired location and stabilize it. The most effective PF coils in changing inner and outer strike points were identified using equilibrium code. The PF coil inputs were changed in a step fashion between various set points and the step response of the strike point position was obtained. From the analysis of the step responses, PID controllers for the strike points were obtained and the controller was tuned experimentally for better performance. The strike controller was extended to include the outer-strike point on the inner plate to accommodate the desired low outer-strike points for the experiment with the aim of achieving 'snowflake' divertor configuration in NSTX.
Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Mailand, Mikkel
and electrical contracting industries of Denmark, Spain and the UK to assess this link. In line with prior research, the article finds that Danish agreements contribute significantly to flexicurity. Somewhat against conventional expectations, however, are findings in the UK and Spain. In the UK, agreements...
Nur, Amos; Boccaletti, Mario
An international workshop cosponsored by the Department of Geology, University of Florence, Italy and the Department of Geophysics, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., was held in Florence, Italy, April 18-20, 1989,on the topic of active and recent strike-slip tectonics in the continental crust. Workshop participants from Turkey, Ethiopia, Israel, Greece, and various universities in Italy, Spain, West Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Brazil, and the United States reported on a broad range of studies involving strike-slip faulting in continental crustal setting. As it turned out, much of the work reported on involved aspects of strike-slip faulting that are only poorly understood, especially crustal deformation, which is distributed over a multiplicity of faults, or even fault domains.One of the rewarding aspects of this workshop was the diversity of geographic areas and geological settings covered by the reporters. The north and east Anatolian faults, the Dead Sea transform zone, western Turkey, north and central Greece, Malta, Sicily, southern Italy, the bethic Cordillera in southern Spain, Tunisia, Tibet and southwest China, offshore Brazil, Alaska, Nevada, and California. A recurring observation reported for all those areas was mixed mode faulting, i.e., the coterminous or sequential occurrence of strike-slip and normal faulting, or strike-slip and thrust, and in many instances also strikeslip, normal and thrust faulting in a single tectonic setting.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Continental U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster is our most popular poster which is updated annually. The poster includes all hurricanes that affected the U.S. since...
Dobson Honorary Editor, Ken
recommendations which will need very careful and intelligent management if they are to be both workable and beneficial; unfortunately recent history tells us that the Government's agencies responsible for educational management are insensitive to the advice of practitioners and work to hidden political agendas based on prejudgement if not downright prejudice. The Report's recommendations certainly provide a challenge for post-16 physics, especially for A-level. It is to be hoped that the new structures and initiatives of the Institute of Physics will be able to play a full part in ensuring that changes are beneficial and workable. Firstly, Sir Ron wants A-levels to provide opportunities and contexts for the development of some general skills, identified as communication (both written and oral), numeracy and in information technology, with a less clear reference to an ability to work as part of a team. Challenge 1: find good contexts in physics for these - and a valid assessment system. Secondly, the curriculum should be broadened by a kind of two-phase approach to post-16 studies. Potential A-level students would spend a year studying as many as six Advanced Subsidiary level subjects, chosen from four main areas: science, maths and technology; modern languages; arts and humanities; `the way the community works' (business, economics, law, psychology etc). Each new-style AS would be the first half of an A-level course. The second phase would allow specialization into, say, three A-levels as at present, or to a combination of A and AS courses. Challenge 2: design a half course that makes sense, and is as useful to potential lawyers as to potential physicists. Thirdly, there should be an increase in the size of the A-level subject cores. Challenge 3: design such an extended core that is less boringly old-fashioned than the current one (not too difficult, that) and is capable of useful fission (see Challenge 2). This is a good opportunity to consider the nature of a `core' in physics
and lexical information, they are also supplying guidelines for the ‘right’ interpretation and translation of the text. Following Gerard Genette’s notion of paratext (1997 ), the author’s comments and suggestions are defined as important ‘thresholds’ in the work’s way to the reader, ‘thresholds......Many internationally published writers supply their translators with additional comments on the work to be translated. The aim of this paper is to study the kind of information that authors choose to convey to their translators, and to reflect on the degree in which, besides conveying factual......’ that might be seen too as the author’s attempt to counterbalance the threat of losing authorship inherent in the translation process....
Glick, Shimon; Schwarzfuchs, Dan
Strikes in general represent a solution based on a form of coercion. Historically, the striker caused direct damage to his employer, who was responsible for the perceived unfair treatment of the employee. In the case of strikes in the public sector, the employer is generally not harmed, but innocent citizens suffer in order to pressure the government agencies, a questionable practice from an ethical viewpoint. Physicians' strikes have more serious ethical problems. They cause suffering and death to innocent citizens. They violate the ethical codes to which physicians have committed themselves as professionals, and they seriously impair the trust of the public in physicians. Better and more ethical ways to provide fair compensation for physicians must be employed, perhaps like those used for judges and members of the IDF.
Neto, Osmar Pinto; Silva, Jansen Henrique; Marzullo, Ana Carolina de Miranda; Bolander, Richard P; Bir, Cynthia A
The main goal of this study was to compare dominant and non-dominant martial arts palm strikes under different circumstances that usually happen during martial arts and combative sports applications. Seven highly experienced (10±5 years) right hand dominant Kung Fu practitioners performed strikes with both hands, stances with left or right lead legs, and with the possibility or not of stepping towards the target (moving stance). Peak force was greater for the dominant hand strikes (1593.76±703.45 N vs. 1042.28±374.16 N; p<.001), whereas no difference was found in accuracy between the hands (p=.141). Additionally, peak force was greater for the strikes with moving stance (1448.75±686.01 N vs. 1201.80±547.98 N; p=.002) and left lead leg stance (1378.06±705.48 N vs. 1269.96±547.08 N). Furthermore, the difference in peak force between strikes with moving and stationary stances was statistically significant only for the strikes performed with a left lead leg stance (p=.007). Hand speed was higher for the dominant hand strikes (5.82±1.08 m/s vs. 5.24±0.78 m/s; p=.001) and for the strikes with moving stance (5.79±1.01 m/s vs. 5.29±0.90 m/s; p<.001). The difference in hand speed between right and left hand strikes was only significant for strikes with moving stance. In summary, our results suggest that the stronger palm strike for a right-handed practitioner is a right hand strike on a left lead leg stance moving towards the target. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hales, Christy; Ring, Robert
Within seconds after liftoff of the Space Shuttle during mission STS-114, a turkey vulture impacted the vehicle's external tank. The contact caused no apparent damage to the Shuttle, but the incident led NASA to consider the potential consequences of bird strikes during a Shuttle launch. The environment at Kennedy Space Center provides unique bird strike challenges due to the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge and the Atlantic Flyway bird migration routes. NASA is currently refining risk assessment estimates for the probability of bird strike to space launch vehicles. This paper presents an approach for analyzing the risks of bird strikes to space launch vehicles and presents an example. The migration routes, types of birds present, altitudes of those birds, exposed area of the launch vehicle, and its capability to withstand impacts affect the risk due to bird strike. A summary of significant risk contributors is discussed.
Fayeulle, Stéphanie; Renou, Frédéric; Protais, Emmanuel; Hédouin, Valéry; Wartel, Guillaume; Yvin, Jean-Luc
Entering prison can feed pre-existent behavior of demands or generate them. Several means of expression are then used. Hunger strike is an average privileged act. It belongs to prison culture. Estimate how practitioners working in prison take care of the hunger strikers. The study, realised in 2008, was led with all the Units of Consultations and Ambulatory Care in France. It is a declarative investigation where a medical testimony by unit was asked. From 174 "maisons d'arrêt" and establishments for punishment in France, 95 answers were obtained. This situation was already seen by 98,8% of the doctors. The motives for hunger strike were mainly judicial for "maisons d'arrêt" (70,1%) and prison motives for detention centers (68,7%). Mainly, doctors opted for a neutral attitude (63% of the cases). The hunger strikes were mostly brief (less than a week in 85% of the cases). Only 5,5% of the doctors proposed written information concerning the risks incurred during a fast. A doctor in 4 approximately (23%) was already witness to complications due to fasting. The fact that a patient may refuse care makes the medical approach difficult. Faced with such a situation, 45% of the doctors privileged their duty of care, 28% respected the patient's wishes, and 27% did not pronounce. From a therapeutic point of view, the place of treatment using vitamins was rarely recognized (32,7%). Hunger strike is rarely severe, but it is rather frequent in prison so that every doctor working there will be confronted with it. The refeeding syndrome seems often ignored. The coverage of hunger strike is governed by the law, but ethical questions stay in the appreciation of every doctor. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Neto, Osmar Pinto; Marzullo, Ana Carolina de Miranda
In martial arts and contact sports strikes are performed at near maximum speeds. For that reason, electromyography (EMG) analysis of such movements is non-trivial. This paper has three main goals: firstly, to investigate the differences in the EMG activity of muscles during strikes performed with and without impacts; secondly, to assess the advantages of using Sum of Significant Power (SSP) values instead of root mean square (rms) values when analyzing EMG data; and lastly to introduce a new method of calculating median frequency values using wavelet transforms (WMDF). EMG data of the deltoid anterior (DA), triceps brachii (TB) and brachioradialis (BR) muscles were collected from eight Kung Fu practitioners during strikes performed with and without impacts. SSP results indicated significant higher muscle activity (p = 0.023) for the strikes with impact. WMDF results, on the other hand, indicated significant lower values (p = 0. 007) for the strikes with impact. SSP results presented higher sensitivity than rms to quantify important signal differences and, at the same time, presented lower inter-subject coefficient of variations. The result of increase in SSP values and decrease in WMDF may suggest better synchronization of motor units for the strikes with impact performed by the experienced Kung Fu practitioners. Key PointsThe results show higher muscle activity and lower electromyography median frequencies for strikes with impact compared to strikes without.SSP results presented higher sensitivity and lower inter-subject coefficient of variations than rms results.Kung Fu palm strikes with impact may present better motor units' synchronization than strikes without.
Since two years the representatives of the employers in the ILO, a tripartite multilateral body responsible for guaranteeing the correct application of an international labour code, try to weaken the global work regulations. On the occasion of the Global Day of Action for the right to strike at the invitation of the Geneva community of Union action (Communauté genevoise d’action syndicale) and the Swiss Trade Union Association (Union syndicale suisse) around noon on Wednesday 18th February some fifty staff representatives of international organizations gathered on the place des Nations in Geneva to reaffirm the importance of this fundamental right, too often flouted. A delegation of the CERN Staff Association was also present. In a short speech, the Staff Association said that, while being one of the fundamental human rights, to be efficient the right to strike must be used intelligently. It must be implemented taking into account the sensitivities of the professional environment and r...
Sárvári, Miklós; Hrabovszky, Erik; Kalló, Imre; Solymosi, Norbert; Likó, István; Berchtold, Nicole; Cotman, Carl; Liposits, Zsolt
The intricate interactions between the immune, endocrine and central nervous systems shape the innate immune response of the brain. We have previously shown that estradiol suppresses expression of immune genes in the frontal cortex of middle-aged ovariectomized rats, but not in young ones reflecting elevated expression of these genes in middle-aged, ovarian hormone deficient animals. Here, we explored the impact of menopause on the microglia phenotype capitalizing on the differential expression of macrophage-associated genes in quiescent and activated microglia. We selected twenty-three genes encoding phagocytic and recognition receptors expressed primarily in microglia, and eleven proinflammatory genes and followed their expression in the rat frontal cortex by real-time PCR. We used young, middle-aged and middle-aged ovariectomized rats to reveal age- and ovariectomy-related alterations. We analyzed the expression of the same set of genes in the postcentral and superior frontal gyrus of pre- and postmenopausal women using raw microarray data from our previous study. Ovariectomy caused up-regulation of four classic microglia reactivity marker genes including Cd11b, Cd18, Cd45 and Cd86. The change was reversible since estradiol attenuated transcriptional activation of the four marker genes. Expression of genes encoding phagocytic and toll-like receptors such as Cd11b, Cd18, C3, Cd32, Msr2 and Tlr4 increased, whereas scavenger receptor Cd36 decreased following ovariectomy. Ovarian hormone deprivation altered the expression of major components of estrogen and neuronal inhibitory signaling which are involved in the control of microglia reactivity. Strikingly similar changes took place in the postcentral and superior frontal gyrus of postmenopausal women. Based on the overlapping results of rat and human studies we propose that the microglia phenotype shifts from the resting toward the reactive state which can be characterized by up-regulation of CD11b, CD14, CD18, CD45
Full Text Available Abstract Background The intricate interactions between the immune, endocrine and central nervous systems shape the innate immune response of the brain. We have previously shown that estradiol suppresses expression of immune genes in the frontal cortex of middle-aged ovariectomized rats, but not in young ones reflecting elevated expression of these genes in middle-aged, ovarian hormone deficient animals. Here, we explored the impact of menopause on the microglia phenotype capitalizing on the differential expression of macrophage-associated genes in quiescent and activated microglia. Methods We selected twenty-three genes encoding phagocytic and recognition receptors expressed primarily in microglia, and eleven proinflammatory genes and followed their expression in the rat frontal cortex by real-time PCR. We used young, middle-aged and middle-aged ovariectomized rats to reveal age- and ovariectomy-related alterations. We analyzed the expression of the same set of genes in the postcentral and superior frontal gyrus of pre- and postmenopausal women using raw microarray data from our previous study. Results Ovariectomy caused up-regulation of four classic microglia reactivity marker genes including Cd11b, Cd18, Cd45 and Cd86. The change was reversible since estradiol attenuated transcriptional activation of the four marker genes. Expression of genes encoding phagocytic and toll-like receptors such as Cd11b, Cd18, C3, Cd32, Msr2 and Tlr4 increased, whereas scavenger receptor Cd36 decreased following ovariectomy. Ovarian hormone deprivation altered the expression of major components of estrogen and neuronal inhibitory signaling which are involved in the control of microglia reactivity. Strikingly similar changes took place in the postcentral and superior frontal gyrus of postmenopausal women. Conclusions Based on the overlapping results of rat and human studies we propose that the microglia phenotype shifts from the resting toward the reactive state
Usanov, K. M.; Volgin, A. V.; Chetverikov, E. A.; Kargin, V. A.; Moiseev, A. P.; Ivanova, Z. I.
When implementing the processes of dynamic sensing of soils and pulsed nonexplosive seismic exploration, the most common and effective method is the strike one, which is provided by a variety of structure and parameters of pneumatic, hydraulic, electrical machines of strike action. The creation of compact portable strike machines which do not require transportation and use of mechanized means is important. A promising direction in the development of strike machines is the use of pulsed electromagnetic actuator characterized by relatively low energy consumption, relatively high specific performance and efficiency, and providing direct conversion of electrical energy into mechanical work of strike mass with linear movement trajectory. The results of these studies allowed establishing on the basis of linear electromagnetic motors the electromagnetic pulse machines with portable performance for dynamic sensing of soils and land seismic pulse of small depths.
A heel-strike real-time auditory feedback device to promote motor learning in children who have cerebral palsy: a pilot study to test device accuracy and feasibility to use a music and dance-based learning paradigm.
Pitale, Jaswandi Tushar; Bolte, John H
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a developmental disorder of movement and posture that occurs due to damage to the developing nervous system. As part of therapy, wearable sensors that trigger interactive feedback may provide multi-sensory guidance and motivation. A prototype of a heel-strike real-time feedback system has been developed which records the number of heel strikes during gait and indicates successful heel contact through real-time auditory feedback. The first aim of this feasibility study was to test the prototype accuracy.Since the end user for this device is a child, the device should be esthetically appealing and sufficiently motivating for children to perform repetitive challenging therapeutic movements. The second aim of this study was to collect feedback from the subjects with regard to the device usability and understand if the bell sound used as feedback used was motivating enough for children to continue using the prototype. This would help us in developing the next generation of the device. The prototype was tested with typically developing children and children who have CP. The accuracy in detecting heel strikes was calculated. As part of the study, the subjects were also asked questions to test the device compliance and acceptability of the musical beats with the pediatric population. The device accuracy in identifying heel strikes is 97.44% (95% CI 96.31, 98.88%). The subjects did not show any hesitation to put on the device and the sound feedback motivated them to move. Based on this pilot study, a minimum age limit of 5 years is appropriate and the intervention study should be conducted for no more than 30 min per week. The pilot study showed that a main study can be conducted to test auditory feedback as an intervention to promote motor learning in children who have cerebral palsy. No adverse event or safety issues were reported in the feasibility study.
Augustin, A J; Koch, F; Böker, T
Two men with recent history of lightining strike were referred to our hospital. Both patients complained of metamorphosia in one eye and reduced visual acuity. Funduscopy revealed target-like alterations at the fovea. Fluorescein angiography showed window defects of the central retinal pigment epithelium in both patients. One patient developed an anterior subcapsular cataract. If the eye is part of the current-circuit, the melanin granules of the iris, pigment epithelium, and choroid might act as a resistor. The resulting accumulation of heat may lead to damage of the surrounding tissues.
Matabos, M.; Cuvelier, D.; Brouard, J.; Shillito, B.; Ravaux, J.; Zbinden, M.; Barthelemy, D.; Sarradin, P. M.; Sarrazin, J.
Identifying the factors driving community dynamics in hydrothermal vent communities, and in particular biological interactions, is challenged by our ability to make direct observations and the difficulty to conduct experiments in those remote ecosystems. As a result, we have very limited knowledge on species' behaviour and interactions in these communities and how they in turn influence community dynamics. Interactions such as competition or predation significantly affect community structure in vent communities, and video time-series have successfully been used to gain insights in biological interactions and species behaviour, including responses to short-term changes in temperature or feeding strategies. In this study, we combined in situ and ex situ approaches to characterise the behaviour and interactions among two key species encountered along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR): the shrimp Mirocaris fortunata and the crab Segonzacia mesatlantica. In situ, species small-scale distribution, interactions and behaviour were studied using the TEMPO observatory module deployed on the seafloor at the base of the active Eiffel Tower edifice in the Lucky Strike vent field as part of the EMSO-Açores MoMAR observatory. TEMPO sampled 2 min of video four times a day from July 2011 to April 2012. One week of observations per month was used for 'long-term' variations, and a full video data set was analysed for January 2012. In addition, observations of crab and shrimp individuals maintained for the first time under controlled conditions in atmospheric pressure (classic tank) and pressurised (AbyssBox) aquaria allowed better characterisation and description of the different types of behaviour and interactions observed in nature. While the identified in situ spatial distribution pattern was stable over the nine months, both species displayed a significant preference for mussel bed and anhydrite substrata, and preferentially occupied the area located directly in the fluid flow axis
Goss, Donald L; Lewek, Michael; Yu, Bing; Ware, William B; Teyhen, Deydre S; Gross, Michael T
The injury incidence rate among runners is approximately 50%. Some individuals have advocated using an anterior-foot-strike pattern to reduce ground reaction forces and injury rates that they attribute to a rear-foot-strike pattern. The proportion of minimalist shoe wearers who adopt an anterior-foot-strike pattern remains unclear. To evaluate the accuracy of self-reported foot-strike patterns, compare negative ankle- and knee-joint angular work among runners using different foot-strike patterns and wearing traditional or minimalist shoes, and describe average vertical-loading rates. Descriptive laboratory study. Research laboratory. A total of 60 healthy volunteers (37 men, 23 women; age = 34.9 ± 8.9 years, height = 1.74 ± 0.08 m, mass = 70.9 ± 13.4 kg) with more than 6 months of experience wearing traditional or minimalist shoes were instructed to classify their foot-strike patterns. Participants ran in their preferred shoes on an instrumented treadmill with 3-dimensional motion capture. Self-reported foot-strike patterns were compared with 2-dimensional video assessments. Runners were classified into 3 groups based on video assessment: traditional-shoe rear-foot strikers (TSR; n = 22), minimalist-shoe anterior-foot strikers (MSA; n = 21), and minimalist-shoe rear-foot strikers (MSR; n = 17). Ankle and knee negative angular work and average vertical-loading rates during stance phase were compared among groups. Only 41 (68.3%) runners reported foot-strike patterns that agreed with the video assessment (κ = 0.42, P shoes.
Novaković, Nada G.
The author, in a sociological way, describes and analyzes the concepts of transition, privatization and strikes in Serbia, particularly the place of women in it. It examines the most important economic and social causes and consequences of these phenomena. The main hypothesis is: women's strikes in the Serbian transition are less efficient than strikes and public protests of women in the developed world and the second Yugoslavia. A strike is a class conflict, in which the workers are fighting...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lightning strike. 35.38 Section 35.38... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.38 Lightning strike. The applicant must demonstrate, by... lightning strike without causing a major or hazardous propeller effect. The limit to which the propeller has...
E Loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta T Olive ridley sea turtle Lepidochelys oliveacea T Leatherback sea turtle Dermochelys coriacea E Notes...Sea Turtle Lapidochelys olivacea T, RS Leatherback Sea Turtle Dermochelys coriacea E, RS Hawksbill Sea Turtle Eretmochelys imbricata E, RS Birds
Full Text Available From biomechanical point of view, strike pattern plays an important role in preventing potential injury risk in running. Traditionally, strike pattern determination was conducted by using 3D motion analysis system with cameras. However, the procedure is costly and not convenient. With the rapid development of technology, sensors have been applied in sport science field lately. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the algorithm that can identify landing strategies with a wearable sensor. Six healthy male participants were recruited to perform heel and forefoot strike strategies at 7, 10, and 13 km/h speeds. The kinematic data were collected by Vicon 3D motion analysis system and 2 inertial measurement units (IMU attached on the dorsal side of both shoes. The data of each foot strike were gathered for pitch angle and strike index analysis. Comparing the strike index from IMU with the pitch angle from Vicon system, our results showed that both signals exhibited highly correlated changes between different strike patterns in the sagittal plane (r=0.98. Based on the findings, the IMU sensors showed potential capabilities and could be extended beyond the context of sport science to other fields, including clinical applications.
Full Text Available In this article author deals with main characteristics of strikes in Serbia within the period 2000–2005. Analysis starts with thesis that strike is open class conflict within class divided society. Therefore strike is radical form of trade union struggle for workers rights. Main questions in the analysis were: on social structure as a background of strikes, on organizations and trade unions included in it, on effects of strikes in Serbia in the given period. Main thesis of the article is that every power dislike strikes and is ready to do everything to diminish them. Main reason lies in the class nature of social conflict that underlie them. Main processes that underlie strike phenomena in Serbia since 2000. are the processes of originally capital accumulation. These bring about the formation of new capitalist class and proletariat of all professions. Author gives a brief analysis of privatization process, as well as of restructuring of public sector and deregulation of economy trying to show the role of all of it in origins of strikes. Main conclusion is that there are large number of strikes in all parts of society, that are well organized, with support of one or more trade unions. For these in power they are factor of obstacle on the way of successful transition. As for the reasons and outcomes these strikes are akin to the strikes at the beginning of 19th century.
,8% expressed mixed views as to whether strike action by nurses is right or wrong. Some respondents (15,7% also reflected confusion regarding the enactment of strike action and the removal of the strike clause from the nursing legislation. Although this study does not claim external validity due to inappropriate representation of the nursing profession, the nurse of today opposes strike action. It is recommended that the study be replicated at national level and that the values be entrenched and published in position papers of and by the regulatory and organised nursing profession.
Ana Carolina de Miranda Marzullo
Full Text Available In martial arts and contact sports strikes are performed at near maximum speeds. For that reason, electromyography (EMG analysis of such movements is non-trivial. This paper has three main goals: firstly, to investigate the differences in the EMG activity of muscles during strikes performed with and without impacts; secondly, to assess the advantages of using Sum of Significant Power (SSP values instead of root mean square (rms values when analyzing EMG data; and lastly to introduce a new method of calculating median frequency values using wavelet transforms (WMDF. EMG data of the deltoid anterior (DA, triceps brachii (TB and brachioradialis (BR muscles were collected from eight Kung Fu practitioners during strikes performed with and without impacts. SSP results indicated significant higher muscle activity (p = 0.023 for the strikes with impact. WMDF results, on the other hand, indicated significant lower values (p = 0. 007 for the strikes with impact. SSP results presented higher sensitivity than rms to quantify important signal differences and, at the same time, presented lower inter-subject coefficient of variations. The result of increase in SSP values and decrease in WMDF may suggest better synchronization of motor units for the strikes with impact performed by the experienced Kung Fu practitioners
Amita N Bhargava
Full Text Available We describe a patient who presented with a history of lightning strike injury. Following the injury, he sustained acute right upper limb weakness with pain. Clinically, the lesion was located to the upper and middle trunk of the right brachial plexus, and the same confirmed with electrophysiological studies. Nerve damage due to lightning injuries is considered very rare, and a plexus damage has been described infrequently, if ever. Thus, the proposed hypothesis that lightning rarely causes neuropathy, as against high-voltage electric current, due to its shorter duration of exposure not causing severe burns which lead to nerve damage, needs to be reconsidered.
Kuhman, Daniel; Melcher, Daniel; Paquette, Max R
The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction of foot strike and common speeds on sagittal plane ankle and knee joint kinetics in competitive rear foot strike (RFS) runners when running with a RFS pattern and an imposed forefoot strike (FFS) pattern. Sixteen competitive habitual male RFS runners ran at two different speeds (i.e. 8 and 6 min mile(-1)) using their habitual RFS and an imposed FFS pattern. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess a potential interaction between strike pattern and speed for selected ground reaction force (GRF) variables and, sagittal plane ankle and knee kinematic and kinetic variables. No foot strike and speed interaction was observed for any of the kinetic variables. Habitual RFS yielded a greater loading rate of the vertical GRF, peak ankle dorsiflexor moment, peak knee extensor moment, peak knee eccentric extensor power, peak dorsiflexion and sagittal plane knee range of motion compared to imposed FFS. Imposed FFS yielded greater maximum vertical GRF, peak ankle plantarflexor moment, peak ankle eccentric plantarflexor power and sagittal plane ankle ROM compared to habitual RFS. Consistent with previous literature, imposed FFS in habitual RFS reduces eccentric knee extensor and ankle dorsiflexor involvement but produce greater eccentric ankle plantarflexor action compared to RFS. These acute differences between strike patterns were independent of running speeds equivalent to typical easy and hard training runs in competitive male runners. Current findings along with previous literature suggest differences in lower extremity kinetics between habitual RFS and imposed FFS running are consistent among a variety of runner populations.
Jansen, Giedo; Sluiter, Roderick; Akkerman, Agnes
This study examines the extent to which strikes diffuse across sectors and to what extent this diffusion of strikes can be explained by similarities and interdependencies between sectors. For this purpose, the authors examine a unique temporally disaggregated and dyadic database on strikes in Dutch
Sabo, Ann M.; Hagemeyer, Natasha D.G.; Lahey, Ally S.
Up to a billion birds die per year in North America as a result of striking windows. Both transparent and reflective glass panes are a cause for concern, misleading birds by either acting as invisible, impenetrable barriers to desired resources, or reflecting those resources over a large surface area. A high number of window strikes occur during migration, but little is known about the factors of susceptibility, or whether particular avian taxa are more vulnerable than others. We report on a study of window strikes and mist-netting data at the Virginia Zoological Park (Norfolk, Virginia, USA), conducted in the autumn of 2013 and 2014. We focused on three factors likely to contribute to an individual’s predisposition to collide with windows: (i) taxonomic classification, (ii) age, and (iii) migrant vs. resident status. Thrushes, dominated by the partial migrant American Robin (Turdus migratorius), were significantly less likely to strike glass than be sampled in mist nets (χ2 = 9.21, p = 0.002), while wood-warblers (Parulidae) were more likely to strike than expected (χ2 = 13.55, p windows (45.4%) was not significantly different (χ2 = 0.05, p = 0.827) than the population of juvenile birds naturally occurring at the zoo (48.8%). Migrants, however, were significantly more susceptible to window strikes than residents (χ2 = 6.35, p = 0.012). Our results suggest that resident birds are able to learn to avoid and thus reduce their likelihood of striking windows; this intrinsic risk factor may help explain the apparent susceptibility of certain taxa to window strikes. PMID:27366656
Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Halstead, Brian J.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Laughlin, James A.
Radar systems designed to detect avian activity at airfields are useful in understanding factors that influence the risk of bird and aircraft collisions (bird strikes). We used an avian radar system to measure avian activity at Beale Air Force Base, California, USA, during 2008 and 2009. We conducted a 2-part analysis to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological and time-dependent factors. We found that avian activity around the airfield was greater at times when bird strikes occurred than on average using a permutation resampling technique. Second, we developed generalized linear mixed models of an avian activity index (AAI). Variation in AAI was first explained by seasons that were based on average migration dates of birds at the study area. We then modeled AAI by those seasons to further explain variation by meteorological factors and daily light levels within a 24-hour period. In general, avian activity increased with decreased temperature, wind, visibility, precipitation, and increased humidity and cloud cover. These effects differed by season. For example, during the spring bird migration period, most avian activity occurred before sunrise at twilight hours on clear days with low winds, whereas during fall migration, substantial activity occurred after sunrise, and birds generally were more active at lower temperatures. We report parameter estimates (i.e., constants and coefficients) averaged across models and a relatively simple calculation for safety officers and wildlife managers to predict AAI and the relative risk of bird strike based on time, date, and meteorological values. We validated model predictability and assessed model fit. These analyses will be useful for general inference of avian activity and risk assessment efforts. Further investigation and ongoing data collection will refine these inference models and improve our understanding of factors that influence avian activity, which is necessary to inform
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bird strike. 29.631 Section 29.631... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.631 Bird strike. The... safe landing (for Category B) after impact with a 2.2-lb (1.0 kg) bird when the velocity of the...
Moore, Craig [Tlingit-Haida Regional Housing Authority, Juneau, AK (United States)
Project to assess 46 low-income multifamily residences owned and managed by THRHA in up to 14 southeast Alaska communities. The Objective of project was to identify efficiency measures to reduce energy costs by 30% for low-income multifamily housing by; 1. Decreasing energy demand by increasing multifamily housing energy efficiency; 2. Reducing household energy consumption through energy conservation education and installation of energy upgrades; and 3. Projecting energy savings based on fossil fuel reduction to environmentally and economically benefit Tribal southeast communities
Berdahl, J. Scott
Recent advances in lightning detection networks allow for detailed mapping of lightning flash locations. Longstanding rumors of geological influence on cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning distribution and recent commercial claims based on such influence can now be tested empirically. If present, such influence could represent a new, cheap and efficient geophysical tool with applications in mineral, hydrothermal and oil exploration, regional geological mapping, and infrastructure planning. This project applies statistical analysis to lightning data collected by the United States National Lightning Detection Network from 2006 through 2015 in order to assess whether the huge range in electrical conductivities of geological materials plays a role in the spatial distribution of CG lightning. CG flash densities are mapped for twelve areas in the contiguous United States and compared to elevation and geology, as well as to the locations of faults, railroads and tall towers including wind turbines. Overall spatial randomness is assessed, along with spatial correlation of attributes. Negative and positive polarity lightning are considered separately and together. Topography and tower locations show a strong influence on CG distribution patterns. Geology, faults and railroads do not. This suggests that ground conductivity is not an important factor in determining lightning strike location on scales larger than current flash location accuracies, which are generally several hundred meters. Once a lightning channel is established, however, ground properties at the contact point may play a role in determining properties of the subsequent stroke.
Galster, Kellen; Hodnick, Ryan; Berkeley, Ross P
Injuries from lightning strikes are an infrequent occurrence, and are only rarely noted to involve pregnant victims. Only 13 cases of lightning strike in pregnancy have been previously described in the medical literature, along with 7 additional cases discovered within news media reports. This case report presents a novel case of lightning-associated injury in a patient in the third trimester of pregnancy, resulting in fetal ischemic brain injury and long-term morbidity, and reviews the mechanics of lightning strikes along with common injury patterns of which emergency providers should be aware. Copyright © 2016 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Osis, Sean T; Hettinga, Blayne A; Leitch, Jessica; Ferber, Reed
As 3-dimensional (3D) motion-capture for clinical gait analysis continues to evolve, new methods must be developed to improve the detection of gait cycle events based on kinematic data. Recently, the application of principal component analysis (PCA) to gait data has shown promise in detecting important biomechanical features. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to define a new foot strike detection method for a continuum of striking techniques, by applying PCA to joint angle waveforms. In accordance with Newtonian mechanics, it was hypothesized that transient features in the sagittal-plane accelerations of the lower extremity would be linked with the impulsive application of force to the foot at foot strike. Kinematic and kinetic data from treadmill running were selected for 154 subjects, from a database of gait biomechanics. Ankle, knee and hip sagittal plane angular acceleration kinematic curves were chained together to form a row input to a PCA matrix. A linear polynomial was calculated based on PCA scores, and a 10-fold cross-validation was performed to evaluate prediction accuracy against gold-standard foot strike as determined by a 10 N rise in the vertical ground reaction force. Results show 89-94% of all predicted foot strikes were within 4 frames (20 ms) of the gold standard with the largest error being 28 ms. It is concluded that this new foot strike detection is an improvement on existing methods and can be applied regardless of whether the runner exhibits a rearfoot, midfoot, or forefoot strike pattern. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hutchins, Susan G; Kemple, William G; Kleinman, David L; Hocevar, Susan P
An Expeditionary Strike Group (ESG) is a new capability mix that combines the combat power of three surface combatants and one submarine with an Amphibious Readiness Group/ Marine Expeditionary Unit...
Shuffelton, Amy B.
This article considers the 2012 Chicago Teachers Strike in light of John Dewey's "The Public and Its Problems." It engages Dewey's conceptualization of practical reason to challenge the educational reform movement's commitment to technocratic decision-making.
Ploskey, Gene R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, Thomas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
This study is the initial stage of further investigation into the dynamics of injury to fish during passage through a turbine runner. As part of the study, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) estimated the probability of blade strike, and associated injury, as a function of fish length and turbine operating geometry at two adjacent turbines in Powerhouse 1 of Bonneville Dam. Units 5 and 6 had identical intakes, stay vanes, wicket gates, and draft tubes, but Unit 6 had a new runner and curved discharge ring to minimize gaps between the runner hub and blades and between the blade tips and discharge ring. We used a mathematical model to predict blade strike associated with two Kaplan turbines and compared results with empirical data from biological tests conducted in 1999 and 2000. Blade-strike models take into consideration the geometry of the turbine blades and discharges as well as fish length, orientation, and distribution along the runner. The first phase of this study included a sensitivity analysis to consider the effects of difference in geometry and operations between families of turbines on the strike probability response surface. The analysis revealed that the orientation of fish relative to the leading edge of a runner blade and the location that fish pass along the blade between the hub and blade tip are critical uncertainties in blade-strike models. Over a range of discharges, the average prediction of injury from blade strike was two to five times higher than average empirical estimates of visible injury from shear and mechanical devices. Empirical estimates of mortality may be better metrics for comparison to predicted injury rates than other injury measures for fish passing at mid-blade and blade-tip locations.
Chassagne, François; Rojas Rojas, Teresa; Bertani, Stéphane; Bourdy, Geneviève; Eav, Sokha; Ruiz, Eloy; Pineau, Pascal; Deharo, Eric
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the main type of primary liver cancer (PLC) worldwide, but cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) may be predominant in some specific regions of Southeast Asia. The aim of the present study was to delineate a pattern of Cambodian PLC patients attending the Calmette Hospital in the Cambodian capital Phnom Penh. A total of 553 medical charts diagnosing PLCs from January 2003 to May 2015 were obtained from both the Oncology and Hepato-Gastroenterology Departments of the Calmette Hospital. HCC was the predominant type of PLC recorded, with 511 cases (92.4%), whereas CCA represented merely 7.6% (42 cases) of the overall series. Hepatitis B virus (HBV; 44.3%) and hepatitis C virus (HCV; 43%) infection rates were similar among the HCC patients, while small subsets of CCA patients were infected with HBV (15.4%) or HCV (11.5%). Most HCC (84%) and CCA (73.8%) patients received palliative treatment only. The present study indicates that HCC is the main form of primary hepatic neoplasm among PLC patients attending a hospital in Cambodia. HBV and HCV infections represented equivalent burdens and major contributing factors to HCC. Therefore, the implementation of prevention programs for these infectious agents should become a priority for health policy makers in the country. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Novaković Nada G.
Full Text Available The author, in a sociological way, describes and analyzes the concepts of transition, privatization and strikes in Serbia, particularly the place of women in it. It examines the most important economic and social causes and consequences of these phenomena. The main hypothesis is: women's strikes in the Serbian transition are less efficient than strikes and public protests of women in the developed world and the second Yugoslavia. A strike is a class conflict, in which the workers are fighting for their social and economic rights, threatened by the capitalist class. Elites in government and state authorities protect the interests of big capital at the detriment of the interests of the majority of workers. Exploring women's strikes in transition reveals the nature of the social and political system. Their strikes in enterprises, the blocking of public spaces and public protests are systemic, ie. class determined. As the transition was very fast, the resistance of the strikers was inefficient, and the protests of women became an expression of desperation against the loss of jobs and basic resources for lifehood. In short, this research is about the main causes, the organizational forms and the consequences of strikes in which the majority were women. For this purpose, the author chose to describe an array of strikes in the industries and the companies where women are most employed. The choice of strikes in the economic sector is not accidental, but a consequence of the fact that the women there were the most vulnerable. Women in public institutions and companies had much higher financial and social position. They are less likely to strike and publicly protested. After 2000, these strikes were more successful than worker's strikes in textile, food processing, manufacturing and trade. Relationship between the government and the public towards them was tainted by self-interest and selective. The main criterion for the selection of companies and
Studies the nature of the torts liability incurred in strikes and the extent of existing immunities bestowed on strikers and their organizers, and explores the principles that should govern liability and immunity. Available from Israel Law Review Association, c/o Faculty of Law, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus, P.O.B. 24100, Jerusalem…
and its effect on the productivity of the tight reservoirs. The study will not only guide. 95 the oil-gas ..... 5 Effect of tectonic extension and compression on coal reservoir productivity. 288. 5.1 Strike-slip compression and ..... staff of all the authors that cooperated in performing the analyses. We are also. 425 grateful to the ...
Assemblage of strike-slip faults and tectonic. 1 extension and compression analysis: A case. 2 study of a Lower Permian commercial coal. 3 reservoir in China. 4. 5. Shuai Yina,*, Dawei Lvb, Zhonghu Wu c .... high-quality reservoirs, and tectonic action is a leading factor for oil and gas. 70 enrichment. Therefore, it is of great ...
This study was conducted to test the potential of paclobutrazol and uniconazole used at the propagation stage as a plant growth retardant (PGR) of kalanchoe cultivars Rako and Gold Strike. Three node terminal cuttings were soaked in 500 mL of 0.05, 0.25, or 0.50 mg·L-1 paclobutrazol or uniconazole solution for 2 h.
Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 42, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Striking Inside Angola with 32 ...
Basagaña, Xavier; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Agis, David; Pérez, Noemí; Reche, Cristina; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier
Public transport strikes can lead to an increase of the number of private vehicle trips, which in turn can increase air pollution levels. We aimed to estimate the change in air pollution concentrations during public transport strikes in the city of Barcelona (Spain). Data on strikes of the metro, train or bus systems were collected from government records (2005-2016). We collected daily concentrations of NOx; particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10μm (PM10), 2.5μm (PM2.5), and 1μm (PM1); particle number concentration (N); black carbon (BC) and CO from research and official monitoring stations. We fitted linear regression models for each pollutant with the strike indicator as an independent variable, and models were adjusted for day of the week, month, year, and holiday periods. During the study period, there were 208days affected by a strike of the metro (28), train (106) or bus (91) systems. Half of the strikes were partial, most of them were single-day strikes, there was little overlap between strikes of the different transport systems, and all strikes had to comply with mandatory minimal services. When pooling all types of strikes, NOx and BC showed higher levels during strike days in comparison with non-strike days (increase between 4.1% and 7.7%, with higher increases for NO). The increases in these concentrations were more evident during full day and multiday metro strikes. In conclusion, alterations in public transport have consequences on air quality. This highlights the importance of public transport in reducing air pollution concentrations in cities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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Solano, Emilia R.; Jachmich, S.; Villone, F.; Hawkes, N.; Guenther, K.; Korotkov, A.; Stamp, M.; Andrew, P.; Conboy, J.; Mattews, G.F.; Corre, Y.; Loarte, A.; Pitts, R.A.; Cenedese, A.; Kempenaars, M.; Bolzonella, T.; Rachlew, E.
Plasma equilibria before and after ELMs in JET are investigated. ELMs could be associated with fragile equilibria and separatrix instabilities: previously closed field lines would open up, releasing plasma current and leading to the formation of a new, smaller separatrix. This model could explain experimental observations of sudden jumps and shifts in strike point positions. Novel instability mechanisms are discussed to explain the large transient jumps observed in the strike point position: positive X-point instability, due to positive toroidal current density at the X-point and diamagnetic instability, due to negative inboard toroidal current density. (author)
Neto, Osmar Pinto; Bolander, Richard; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu Tavares; Bir, Cynthia
The goal was to compare values of force, precision, and reaction time of several martial arts punches and palm strikes performed by advanced and intermediate Kung Fu practitioners, both men and women. 13 Kung Fu practitioners, 10 men and three women, participated. Only the men, three advanced and seven intermediate, were considered for comparisons between levels. Reaction time values were obtained using two high speed cameras that recorded each strike at 2500 Hz. Force of impact was measured by a load cell. For comparisons of groups, force data were normalized by participant's body mass and height. Precision of the strikes was determined by a high speed pressure sensor. The results show that palm strikes were stronger than punches. Women in the study presented, on average, lower values of reaction time and force but higher values of precision than men. Advanced participants presented higher forces than intermediate participants. Significant negative correlations between the values of force and precision and the values of force and reaction time were also found.
Eichelberger, M; Joray, M L; Perrig, M; Bodmer, M; Stanga, Z
Hunger strikers resuming nutritional intake may develop a life-threatening refeeding syndrome (RFS). Consequently, hunger strikers represent a core challenge for the medical staff. The objective of the study was to test the effectiveness and safety of evidence-based recommendations for prevention and management of RFS during the refeeding phase. This was a retrospective, observational data analysis of 37 consecutive, unselected cases of prisoners on a hunger strike during a 5-y period. The sample consisted of 37 cases representing 33 individual patients. In seven cases (18.9%), the hunger strike was continued during the hospital stay, in 16 episodes (43.2%) cessation of the hunger strike occurred immediately after admission to the security ward, and in 14 episodes (37.9%) during hospital stay. In the refeed cases (n = 30), nutritional replenishment occurred orally, and in 25 (83.3%) micronutrients substitutions were made based on the recommendations. The gradual refeeding with fluid restriction occurred over 10 d. Uncomplicated dyselectrolytemia was documented in 12 cases (40%) within the refeeding phase. One case (3.3%) presented bilateral ankle edemas as a clinical manifestation of moderate RFS. Intensive medical treatment was not necessary and none of the patients died. Seven episodes of continued hunger strike were observed during the entire hospital stay without medical complications. Our data suggested that seriousness and rate of medical complications during the refeeding phase can be kept at a minimum in a hunger strike population. This study supported use of recommendations to optimize risk management and to improve treatment quality and patient safety in this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Andrew D. Nordin
Conclusion: Loading rate–time assessment identified contrasting impact characteristics in each direction and the 3D resultant following foot-strike manipulations, with potential implications for lower extremity structures in running.
Recent actions of British teachers suggest an alternative to the teacher strike. Those teachers dramatically demonstrated their grievances by withholding the voluntary extra services they customarily perform. American teachers could accomplish the same end by collectively refusing to perform extraneous administrative services: collecting money,…
The chances of lightning striking twice are infinitesimal, at best. What are the odds, in middle age, of being struck with a jarring bolt of figurative lightning, then a few months later being an eyewitness as the same sizzle in the sky jolts a group of students--those decision-makers of tomorrow? The author describes two experiences that proved…
Mortelmans, Luc J M; Van Springel, Gert L J; Van Boxstael, Sam; Herrijgers, Jan; Hoflacks, Stefaan
Two regional hospitals were struck by lightning during a one-month period. The first hospital, which had 236 beds, suffered a direct strike to the building. This resulted in a direct spread of the power peak and temporary failure of the standard power supply. The principle problems, after restoring standard power supply, were with the fire alarm system and peripheral network connections in the digital radiology systems. No direct impact on the hardware could be found. Restarting the servers resolved all problems. The second hospital, which had 436 beds, had a lightning strike on the premises and mainly experienced problems due to induction. All affected installations had a cable connection from outside in one way or another. The power supplies never were endangered. The main problem was the failure of different communication systems (telephone, radio, intercom, fire alarm system). Also, the electronic entrance control went out. During the days after the lightening strike, multiple software problems became apparent, as well as failures of the network connections controlling the technical support systems. There are very few ways to prepare for induction problems. The use of fiber-optic networks can limit damage. To the knowledge of the authors, these are the first cases of lightning striking hospitals in medical literature.
Spencer, McKayka M.; Lardner, Bjorn; Mazurek, M.J.; Reed, Robert N.
Striking is a typical antipredator defense exhibited by many species of snakes. While trapping Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) on Guam, we observed that snakes most frequently struck at an approaching person at a site where snakes had been trapped, marked, and handled in the past. Using a combination of between-sites and within-site comparisons, we assessed if the propensity to strike was correlated with capture histories (both recent and long-term), snake size, body condition (a proxy to nutritional stress), sex, or tail condition (broken or intact), while controlling for confounding variables. We confirmed that propensity to strike was higher at the site where we had been conducting capture-mark-recapture for several years. However, we were unable to demonstrate a correlation between striking tendencies and individual recent or long-term capture histories. The only morphological covariate that had an effect on strike propensity was sex, with females striking more often than males. After removing the site effect from our model, we found that snakes missing parts of their tails were more likely to strike than snakes with intact tails. We have yet to identify the factor(s) that cause the pronounced difference across sites in snake propensity to strike, and data from additional sites might help elucidate any geographical patterns.
Full Text Available With the growing popularity of Mixed Martial Arts (MMA as a competitive sport, questions regarding the dynamic response and properties of MMA gloves arise. High-energy impacts from punches are very similar to boxing yet MMA competition requires the use of 4 oz fingerless glove, compared to the larger full enclosure boxing glove. This work assessed the kinetic properties and strike dynamics of MMA gloves and compared findings with traditional boxing gloves. Gloves mounted on a molded fist were impacted repetitively on an instrumental anvil designed for impact, over a 5 hour period resulting in 10,000 continuous and consistent strikes. Kinetic data from impacts were sampled at the beginning of the data collection and subsequently every 30 minutes (every 1,000 strikes. MMA gloves produced 4-5 times greater peak force and 5 times faster load rate compared to the boxing glove. However, MMA gloves also showed signs of material fatigue, with peak force increasing by 35% and rate of loading increasing by 60% over the duration of the test. Boxing glove characteristics did deteriorate but to a lesser extent. In summary, the kinetic properties of MMA glove differed substantially from the boxing glove resulting in impacts characterized by higher peak forces and more rapid development of force. Material properties including stiffness and thickness play a role in the kinetic characteristics upon impact, and can be inferred to alter injury mechanisms of blunt force trauma.
Thommes, Kirsten; Akkerman, Agnes; Torenvlied, René; Born, Marieke
This paper studies how employees anticipate change in social relations after a strike in their organisation. We hypothesise that two group norms affect employees' fear that a strike deteriorates the social relations with their colleagues. We distinguish between two different norms associated with a
Thommes, K; Akkerman, A.; Torenvlied, R.
This paper studies how employees anticipate change in social relations after a strike in their organisation. We hypothesise that two group norms affect employees' fear that a strike deteriorates the social relations with their colleagues. We distinguish between two different norms associated with a
Daniel E. Lieberman
Conclusion: These data reinforce earlier studies that there is variation among foot strike patterns among minimally shod runners, but also support the hypothesis that foot stiffness and important aspects of running form, including foot strike, differ between runners who grow up using minimal versus modern, conventional footwear.
As an analogy, a prototype of "bell-striking" is proposed in the present paper for exploring the basic properties, major elements, and potential mechanisms of acupuncture stimulation. On the strength of analysis on the physiological basis of acupuncture effect, several fundamental aspects of acupuncture are summarized as a) the body-surface stimulating characters, b) general and local effects, and c) triggering the auto-regulative function of the organism, which mimics the "bell-striking" response. Namely, when stroke, bell will chime, otherwise, chiming will not be heard. During analyzing special contents of acupuncture theory, its formative background should not be separated, and it is improper to take, modern medical theory of the human body as the guiding thinking way for researching the ancient Chinese medical literature.
Parsaik, Ajay K; Ahlskog, J Eric; Singer, Wolfgang; Gelfman, Russell; Sheldon, Seth H; Seime, Richard J; Craft, Jennifer M; Staab, Jeffrey P; Kantor, Birgit; Low, Phillip A
To describe and review autonomic complications of lightning strike. Case report and laboratory data including autonomic function tests in a subject who was struck by lightning. A 24-year-old man was struck by lightning. Following that, he developed dysautonomia, with persistent inappropriate sinus tachycardia and autonomic storms, as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and functional neurologic problems. The combination of persistent sinus tachycardia and episodic exacerbations associated with hypertension, diaphoresis, and agitation was highly suggestive of a central hyperadrenergic state with superimposed autonomic storms. Whether the additional PTSD and functional neurologic deficits were due to a direct effect of the lightning strike on the central nervous system or a secondary response is open to speculation.
Marinovic, Welber; Iizuka, Cristina Akiko; Freudenheim, Andrea Michele
This study investigated how 7 skilled table tennis players controlled velocity of a forehand drive stroke when the ball's trajectory, velocity, and spin were modified. They hit a target in response to balls launched under four different conditions. The relative and absolute times used in the backswing phase showed no significant differences among conditions. When subjects hit fastballs, there was a significant change in the time required for them to reach the peak of velocity in the forward swing phase. In addition, players decreased the velocity of their strokes to hit fast-approaching balls. These results indicate that highly skilled table tennis players need to adjust the striking velocity and striking time (relative and absolute) required to reach the peak of velocity in the forward swing phase for these task modifications. Since they used slower movement velocities to hit faster-approaching balls, skilled table tennis players may override this speed-coupling process.
Larson, Peter; Higgins, Erin; Kaminski, Justin; Decker, Tamara; Preble, Janine; Lyons, Daniela; McIntyre, Kevin; Normile, Adam
Although the biomechanical properties of the various types of running foot strike (rearfoot, midfoot, and forefoot) have been studied extensively in the laboratory, only a few studies have attempted to quantify the frequency of running foot strike variants among runners in competitive road races. We classified the left and right foot strike patterns of 936 distance runners, most of whom would be considered of recreational or sub-elite ability, at the 10 km point of a half-marathon/marathon road race. We classified 88.9% of runners at the 10 km point as rearfoot strikers, 3.4% as midfoot strikers, 1.8% as forefoot strikers, and 5.9% of runners exhibited discrete foot strike asymmetry. Rearfoot striking was more common among our sample of mostly recreational distance runners than has been previously reported for samples of faster runners. We also compared foot strike patterns of 286 individual marathon runners between the 10 km and 32 km race locations and observed increased frequency of rearfoot striking at 32 km. A large percentage of runners switched from midfoot and forefoot foot strikes at 10 km to rearfoot strikes at 32 km. The frequency of discrete foot strike asymmetry declined from the 10 km to the 32 km location. Among marathon runners, we found no significant relationship between foot strike patterns and race times.
Lieberman, Daniel E; Castillo, Eric R; Otarola-Castillo, Erik; Sang, Meshack K; Sigei, Timothy K; Ojiambo, Robert; Okutoyi, Paul; Pitsiladis, Yannis
Runners are often categorized as forefoot, midfoot or rearfoot strikers, but how much and why do individuals vary in foot strike patterns when running on level terrain? This study used general linear mixed-effects models to explore both intra- and inter-individual variations in foot strike pattern among 48 Kalenjin-speaking participants from Kenya who varied in age, sex, body mass, height, running history, and habitual use of footwear. High speed video was used to measure lower extremity kinematics at ground contact in the sagittal plane while participants ran down 13 meter-long tracks with three variables independently controlled: speed, track stiffness, and step frequency. 72% of the habitually barefoot and 32% of the habitually shod participants used multiple strike types, with significantly higher levels of foot strike variation among individuals who ran less frequently and who used lower step frequencies. There was no effect of sex, age, height or weight on foot strike angle, but individuals were more likely to midfoot or forefoot strike when they ran on a stiff surface, had a high preferred stride frequency, were habitually barefoot, and had more experience running. It is hypothesized that strike type variation during running, including a more frequent use of forefoot and midfoot strikes, used to be greater before the introduction of cushioned shoes and paved surfaces.
Daniel E Lieberman
Full Text Available Runners are often categorized as forefoot, midfoot or rearfoot strikers, but how much and why do individuals vary in foot strike patterns when running on level terrain? This study used general linear mixed-effects models to explore both intra- and inter-individual variations in foot strike pattern among 48 Kalenjin-speaking participants from Kenya who varied in age, sex, body mass, height, running history, and habitual use of footwear. High speed video was used to measure lower extremity kinematics at ground contact in the sagittal plane while participants ran down 13 meter-long tracks with three variables independently controlled: speed, track stiffness, and step frequency. 72% of the habitually barefoot and 32% of the habitually shod participants used multiple strike types, with significantly higher levels of foot strike variation among individuals who ran less frequently and who used lower step frequencies. There was no effect of sex, age, height or weight on foot strike angle, but individuals were more likely to midfoot or forefoot strike when they ran on a stiff surface, had a high preferred stride frequency, were habitually barefoot, and had more experience running. It is hypothesized that strike type variation during running, including a more frequent use of forefoot and midfoot strikes, used to be greater before the introduction of cushioned shoes and paved surfaces.
Rahmani, Seyed Hesam; Faridaalaee, Gholamreza; Jahangard, Samira
According to data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,in the years from 1959 to 1994, lightning was responsible for more than 3000 deaths and nearly 10,000 casualties. The most important characteristic features of lightning injuries are multisystem involvement and widely variable severity. Lightning strikes are primarily a neurologic injury that affects all 3 components of the nervous system: central, autonomic,and peripheral. Neurologic complications of lightning strikes vary from transient benign symptoms to permanent disability. Many patients experience a temporary paralysis called keraunoparalysis. Here we reported a 22-year-old mountaineer man with complaining of left sided hemiparesis after being hit by a lightning strike in the mountain 3 hours ago. There was no loss of consciousness at hitting time. On arrival the patient was alert, awake and hemodynamically stable. In neurologic examination cranial nerves were intact, left sided upper and lower extremity muscle force was I/V with a combination of complete sensory loss, and right-sided muscle force and sensory examination were normal. There is not any evidence of significant vascular impairment in the affected extremities. Brain MRI and CT scan and cervical MRI were normal. During 2 days of admission, with intravenous hydration, heparin 5000 unit SC q12hr and physical therapy of the affected limbs, motor and sensory function improved and was normal except mild paresthesia. He was discharged 1 day later for outpatient follow up while vitamin B1 100mg orally was prescribed.Paresthesia improved after 3 days without further sequels.
To survive the intense electromagnetic fields associated with a lightning strike, proper design of aircraft electrical control systems requires knowledge of the transient current pulse associated with a lightning strike...
Pagli, C.; Yun, S. H.; Ebinger, C.; Keir, D.; Wang, H.
The kinematics of triple junction linkage and the initiation of transforms in magmatic rifts remain debated. Strain patterns from the Afar triple junction provide tests of current models of how rifts grow to link in area of incipient oceanic spreading. Here we present a combined analysis of seismicity, InSAR and GPS derived strain rate maps to reveal that the plate boundary deformation in Afar is accommodated primarily by extensional tectonics in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifts, and does not require large rotations about vertical axes (bookshelf faulting). Additionally, models of stress changes and seismicity induced by recent dykes in one sector of the Afar triple junction provide poor fit to the observed strike-slip earthquakes. Instead we explain these patterns as rift-perpendicular shearing at the tips of spreading rifts where extensional strains terminate against less stretched lithosphere. Our results demonstrate that rift-perpendicular strike-slip faulting between rift segments achieves plate boundary linkage during incipient seafloor spreading.
The time and rate of bird strike incidences, species composition and number of birds involved in strikes, and the behaviour of birds were recorded at Bole International Airport from December 1994 to December 1995. The gut contents of the birds struck by aircraft were analyzed. A total of 33 bird strikes were recorded during ...
Metz, I.C.; Mühlhausen, T; Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.
Bird strikes have operational impacts and cause economic loss to the aviation industry. In the worst case, the damages resulting from bird strikes lead to crashes. The highest risk for bird strikes lies in the area below 3000 ft and thus mainly in airport environments. Despite intense efforts from
productivity as in most cases strike cost (wages and salaries as well as other unavoidable payments) are paid during the .... Many times the Nigeria Labour Congress (NLC) and students have had to strike against ... the direct compensation package and other conditions of service. This is the most popular cause of strike in ...
Rovida, Andrea; Tibaldi, Alessandro
This study contributes to the understanding of shear failure development on the basis of macroscopic field data collected in latest Pleistocene-Holocene pyroclastic and fluvio-lacustrine deposits in the Pasto Valley, SW Colombia. Here there is a pervasive system of microfaults and joints. Right-lateral strike-slip microfaults strike N065°, whereas left-lateral strike-slip microfaults strike N120°. Three main joint sets strike N, N065° and N020° in decreasing order of frequency. Stress computation gives a horizontal σ1 trending ˜N060° and a horizontal σ3 trending ˜N150°, consistent with earthquake focal mechanisms and stress inversion of main faults. Synthetic shears dominate resulting from nucleation of older cracks. In the basement cropping out northeast of Pasto, the NE- to ENE-striking Buesaco, Aranda and Pasto Faults show evidence of latest Pleistocene-Holocene right-lateral strike-slip motions. The structures in the Pasto Valley can be interpreted as a Mode III damage zone representing the up-dip propagation of the main faults across the young volcano-sedimentary deposits.
The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.
In Nigeria, from the colonial period to the present, the employment of strikes and protests by nationalists, Nigerian workers and civil society groups has been established as one of the potent means of conveying viewpoints, positions as well as the demand for equality, fairness, social justice and reforms. It has been used as ...
Headrick, Jonathon; Renshaw, Ian; Pinder, Ross A; Davids, Keith
This study examined the perceptual attunement of relatively skilled individuals to the physical properties of striking implements in the sport of cricket. We also sought to assess whether utilizing bats with different physical properties would influence performance of a specific striking action: the front foot straight drive. Eleven skilled male cricketers (mean age = 16.6 ± 0.3 years) from an elite school cricket development program consented to participate in the study. While blindfolded, participants wielded six bats exhibiting different mass and moment of inertia (MOI) characteristics and were asked to identify the three bats they preferred the most for hitting a ball to a maximum distance by performing a front foot straight drive (a common shot in cricket). Next, participants actually attempted to hit balls projected from a ball machine using each of the six bat configurations to enable kinematic analysis of front foot straight drive performance with each implement. Results revealed that, on first choice, the two bats with the smallest mass and MOI values (1 and 2) were most preferred by almost two thirds (63.7 %) of the participants. Kinematic analysis of movement patterns revealed that bat velocity, step length, and bat-ball contact position measures significantly differed between bats. Data revealed how skilled youth cricketers were attuned to the different bat characteristics and harnessed movement system degeneracy to perform this complex interceptive action.
Schweizer, Peter E [ORNL; Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL
to animal populations could occur directly (e.g., from strike mortality of individuals) or indirectly (e.g., if the loss of prey species to strike reduces food for predators). Although actively swimming or passively drifting animals may collide with any of the physical structures associated with hydrokinetic devices, turbine rotors are the most likely sources for risk of strike or significant collision (DOE 2009). It is also possible that during a close encounter with a HK device no physical contact will be made between the device and the organism, either because the animal avoids the device by successfully changing its direction of movement, or by successfully evading any moving parts of the device. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waterpower Program to evaluate strike potential and consequences for Marine and Hydrokinetic (MHK) technologies in rivers and estuaries of the United States. We will use both predictive models and laboratory/field experiments to evaluate the likelihood and consequences of strike at HK projects in rivers. Efforts undertaken at ORNL address three objectives: (1) Assess strike risk for marine and freshwater organisms; (2) Develop experimental procedures to assess the risk and consequences of strike; and (3) Conduct strike studies in experimental flumes and field installations of hydrokinetic devices. During the first year of the study ORNL collected information from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) MHK database about geographical distribution of proposed hydrokinetic projects (what rivers or other types of systems), HK turbine design (horizontal axis, vertical axis, other), description of proposed axial turbine (number of blades, size of blades, rotation rate, mitigation measures), and number of units per project. Where site specific information was available, we compared the location of proposed projects rotors within the channel (e.g., along cutting edge bank, middle
Katunin, Andrzej; Krukiewicz, Katarzyna; Turczyn, Roman; Sul, Przemysław; Bilewicz, Marcin
Aircraft elements, especially elements of exterior fuselage, are subjected to damage caused by lightning strikes. Due to the fact that these elements are manufactured from polymeric composites in modern aircraft, and thus, they cannot conduct electrical charges, the lightning strikes cause burnouts in composite structures. Therefore, the effective lightning strike protection for such structures is highly desired. The solution presented in this paper is based on application of organic conductive fillers in the form of intrinsically conducting polymers and carbon fabric in order to ensure electrical conductivity of whole composite and simultaneously retain superior mechanical properties. The presented studies cover synthesis and manufacturing of the electrically conductive composite as well as its characterization with respect to mechanical and electrical properties. The performed studies indicate that the proposed material can be potentially considered as a constructional material for aircraft industry, which characterizes by good operational properties and low cost of manufacturing with respect to current lightning strike protection materials solutions.
Lee, Benjamin; McGill, Stuart
Ballistic limb motion is enabled by proximal "core" stiffness. However, controversy exists regarding the best method of training this characteristic. This study sought to determine the most effective core training method to enhance distal limb athleticism. A total of 12 participants (24 ± 3 years, 1.8 ± 0.05 m, 76.8 ± 9.7 kg) consisting of Muay Thai athletes performed a core training protocol (Isometric vs. Dynamic, with Control) for 6 weeks, using a repeated measures design to assess performance (peak strike velocity, peak impact force, muscular activation) in various strikes. Isometric training increased impact force in Jab (554.4 ± 70.1 N), Cross (1895.2 ± 203.1 N), Combo (616.8 ± 54.9 N), and Knee (1240.0 ± 89.1 N) trials (P < 0.05). Dynamic training increased strike velocity in Jab (1.3 ± 0.2 m · s -1 ), Cross (5.5 ± 0.9 m · s -1 ), Combo (0.7 ± 0.1, 2.8 ± 0.3 m · s -1 ), and Knee (3.2 ± 0.3 m · s -1 ) trials (P < 0.05). Isometric training increased Combo impact force 935.1 ± 100.3 N greater than Dynamic and 931.6 ± 108.5 N more than Control (P < 0.05). Dynamic training increased Jab strike velocity 1.3 ± 0.1 m · s -1 greater than Isometric and 0.8 ± 0.1 m · s -1 more than Control (P < 0.05). It appears that both static and dynamic approaches to core training are needed to enhance both velocity and force in distal limbs.
Keith, S N
UNLIKE EMPLOYEES IN OTHER SECTORS OF THE ECONOMY, HEALTH CARE WORKERS ARE DIRECTED TOWARD ONE ULTIMATE GOAL: making people well and keeping them healthy. The development of collective bargaining and union activities during this century has had a great impact on all industries in the United States and the western world. However, only in recent years have workers in the health care sector been affected by the organized labor movement. The history of collective bargaining and strikes among physicians, the key decision-makers in the health care sector, is even more recent. Because of their central position, physicians' collective activity has had and will continue to have tremendous implications for the viability of the present health care system and the quality of patient care. Even though most physicians continue to function as individual, entrepreneurial service providers and "professionals," physicians as a group are more frequently being seen as members of a utility like industry. Their importance to individuals and society as a whole, it can be argued, is second to none; if physicians refuse to work there can be no worse set of outcomes. To estimate the potential future impact of growing collective action on the part of physicians, this article explores the general historical developments.
Mok, A.; Nelson, E. A.; Murphy, J.; Hampson, A.; Hendriks, J. H.
The issue of children on hunger strike (voluntary total fasting) has not been reported before. The World Medical Association Declaration of Tokyo 1975 and the Declaration of Malta 1991 (revised 1992) provide clinicians with guidelines for the management of adult patients on hunger strike but do not mention children. We report the management of 14 Vietnamese children, aged 1 to 12 years, who took part in a hunger strike at a refugee detention centre in Hong Kong. PMID:8597690
Mok, A.; Nelson, E. A.; Murphy, J.; Hampson, A.; Hendriks, J. H.
The issue of children on hunger strike (voluntary total fasting) has not been reported before. The World Medical Association Declaration of Tokyo 1975 and the Declaration of Malta 1991 (revised 1992) provide clinicians with guidelines for the management of adult patients on hunger strike but do not mention children. We report the management of 14 Vietnamese children, aged 1 to 12 years, who took part in a hunger strike at a refugee detention centre in Hong Kong.
Lemmer, Hermanus H
Batting performance measures containing strike rate adjustments take into account the important fact that if two batsmen had scored the same number of runs in a match, the one with the better strike rate had performed best. But match conditions can influence the batting and bowling performances of cricket players. On a good pitch a batsman can get a good score at a high strike rate, but if the pitch was bad, a similar good score is normally accompanied by a much lower strike rate. The main objective of this study is to propose a method that can be used to make batsmen's scores comparable despite the fact that playing conditions might have been very different. The number of runs scored by a batsman is adjusted by comparing his strike rate with the overall strike rate of all the players in the specific match. These adjusted runs are then used in the most appropriate formula to calculate the average of the batsman. The method is illustrated by using the results of the Indian Premier League 2009 Twenty20 Series played during May and June 2009. The main conclusion is that the traditional average is not the most appropriate measure to compare batsmen's performances after conclusion of a short series. Key pointsIt is unfair to compare the score of a batsman obtained on a good pitch under ideal batting conditions with that of a batsman who had to battle under severe conditions.By comparing a batsman's strike rate with the overall strike rate of the players in the specific match, his score can be adjusted to get a better figure for his true performance.The results demonstrate clearly that the use of adjusted scores lead to rankings that differ from those based on the traditional measures.
Viano, David C; Pellman, Elliot J
Concussive impacts in professional football were simulated in laboratory tests to determine the collision mechanics resulting in injury to the struck player and the biomechanics of the striking players, who were not concussed or neck-injured in the tackle. Twenty-seven helmet-to-helmet collisions were reconstructed in laboratory tests using Hybrid III dummies. The head impact velocity, direction, and kinematics matched game video. Translational and rotational head accelerations and six-axis upper neck loads and moments were used to evaluate how the striking player delivered the concussive blow. The neck injury criterion, Nij, was calculated to assess neck injury risks in the striking player. The time-averaged impact force reached 6372 +/- 2486 N at 7.2 milliseconds because of 46.8 +/- 21.7 g head acceleration and 3624 +/- 1729 N neck compression force in the striking player. Fifty-seven percent of the load was contributed by neck compression. The striking players had their heads down and lined up the impact axis through their necks and torsos. This allowed momentum transfer with minimal neck bending and increased the effective mass of the striking player to 1.67 times that of the struck player at peak load. The impact caused 94.3 +/- 27.5 g head acceleration in the concussed players and 67.9 +/- 14.5 g without concussion (t = 2.06, df = 25, P = 0.025). The striking player's Nij was greater than tolerance in 9 of 27 cases by exceeding the 4000 N neck compression limit. For these cases, the average neck compression force was 6631 +/- 977 N (range, 5210-8194 N). Nij was 1.25 +/- 0.16 for eight cases above the tolerance Nij = 1.0. In the NFL, striking players line up their heads, necks, and torsos to deliver maximum force to the other player in helmet-to-helmet impacts. The concussive force is from acceleration of the striking player's head and torso load through the neck. Even though neck responses exceeded tolerances, no striking player experienced neck injury or
Penning, David A; Sawvel, Baxter; Moon, Brad R
To survive, organisms must avoid predation and acquire nutrients and energy. Sensory systems must correctly differentiate between potential predators and prey, and elicit behaviours that adjust distances accordingly. For snakes, strikes can serve both purposes. Vipers are thought to have the fastest strikes among snakes. However, strike performance has been measured in very few species, especially non-vipers. We measured defensive strike performance in harmless Texas ratsnakes and two species of vipers, western cottonmouths and western diamond-backed rattlesnakes, using high-speed video recordings. We show that ratsnake strike performance matches or exceeds that of vipers. In contrast with the literature over the past century, vipers do not represent the pinnacle of strike performance in snakes. Both harmless and venomous snakes can strike with very high accelerations that have two key consequences: the accelerations exceed values that can cause loss of consciousness in other animals, such as the accelerations experienced by jet pilots during extreme manoeuvres, and they make the strikes faster than the sensory and motor responses of mammalian prey and predators. Both harmless and venomous snakes can strike faster than the blink of an eye and often reach a target before it can move. © 2016 The Author(s).
Hermanus H. Lemmer
Full Text Available Batting performance measures containing strike rate adjustments take into account the important fact that if two batsmen had scored the same number of runs in a match, the one with the better strike rate had performed best. But match conditions can influence the batting and bowling performances of cricket players. On a good pitch a batsman can get a good score at a high strike rate, but if the pitch was bad, a similar good score is normally accompanied by a much lower strike rate. The main objective of this study is to propose a method that can be used to make batsmen's scores comparable despite the fact that playing conditions might have been very different. The number of runs scored by a batsman is adjusted by comparing his strike rate with the overall strike rate of all the players in the specific match. These adjusted runs are then used in the most appropriate formula to calculate the average of the batsman. The method is illustrated by using the results of the Indian Premier League 2009 Twenty20 Series played during May and June 2009. The main conclusion is that the traditional average is not the most appropriate measure to compare batsmen's performances after conclusion of a short series.
Ayadi, A.; Maouche, S.; Harbi, A.; Meghraoui, M.; Beldjoudi, H.; Oussadou, F.; Mahsas, A.; Benouar, D.; Heddar, A.; Rouchiche, Y.; Kherroubi, A.; Frogneux, M.; Lammali, K.; Benhamouda, F.; Sebaï, A.; Bourouis, S.; Alasset, P. J.; Aoudia, A.; Cakir, Z.; Merahi, M.; Nouar, O.; Yelles, A.; Bellik, A.; Briole, P.; Charade, O.; Thouvenot, F.; Semane, F.; Ferkoul, A.; Deramchi, A.; Haned, S. A.
On 21 May 2003, a damaging earthquake of Mw 6.8 struck the region of Boumerdes 40 km east of Algiers in northern Algeria (Figure 1). The mainshock, which lasted ~ 36-40 s, had devastating effects and claimed about 2300 victims, caused more than 11,450 injuries, and left about 200,000 people homeless. It destroyed and seriously damaged around 180,000 housing units and 6000 public buildings with losses estimated at $5 billion. The mainshock was widely felt within a radius of ~ 400 km in Algeria. To the north, the earthquake was felt in southeastern Spain, including the Balearic Islands, and also in Sardinia and in southern France. The mainshock location, which was calculated at 36.91°N, 3.58°E (15 km offshore of Zemmouri; Figure 1), and the local magnitude (Md 6.4) are from seismic records of local stations. International seismological centers obtained Mw 6.8 (NEIC) with a thrust focal mechanism solution and 1.83 × 1026 dyne.cm for the seismic moment. A sequence of aftershocks affected the epicentral area with two strong shocks reaching Mw 5.8 on 27 and 29 May 2003. Field investigations allowed us to assign a maximum intensity X (European Macroseismic Scale 98) and to report rockfalls, minor surface cracks, and liquefaction phenomena. The mainshock was not associated with inland surface faulting, but one of the most striking coseismic effects is the coastal uplift and the backwash along the littoral of the Mitidja basin.
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the current study was fourfold: to identify bird strike reporting trends at Part 139 airports in Indiana (2001-2014 for comparison to national data; to determine which quarter of the year yields the most bird strike data; to gain a clearer understanding of the relationship between altitude and bird strikes, and to develop information based upon the data analyzed that can be used for the safety management of birds including comparisons to national data. Design/methodology: The researchers in this study answered the research questions by reviewing, sorting, and analyzing existing data. The data collection took place from March 01 to May 02, 2016. Two data sets were utilized for data collection. The National Wildlife Strike Database (NWSD and the FAA Air Traffic Activity System (ATADS. Findings: When compared to national data, Indiana Part 139 airports have seen a faster increase in bird strike reporting during 2012 and 2014. Aggregate data indicated June through September (Quarter 3 had a significantly higher frequency of bird strikes reported. When examining bird strikes and altitude of occurrences, the exponential equation explained 95 % of the variation in number of strikes by 1,000-foot intervals from 1000 to 10,000 feet. Not surprisingly, the risk of bird strikes appears to decrease as altitude increases. Originality/value: This study adds to the body of knowledge by addressing the lack of published bird strike report analyses at a regional level. It also connects data analyses to safety management system (SMS concepts and Wildlife Hazards Management Programs (WHMP. The aviation community can use regional bird strike data and information to develop or enhance existing wildlife hazard management programs, increase pilot awareness, and offers airport managerial implications.
Peurach, Suzanne C.; Dove, Carla J.; Stepko, Laura
From 1997 through 2007, 821 bat strikes were reported to the U.S. Air Force (USAF) Safety Center by aircraft personnel or ground crew and sent to the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, for identification. Many samples were identified by macroscopic and or microscopic comparisons with bat specimens housed in the museum and augmented during the last 2 years by DNA analysis. Bat remains from USAF strikes during this period were received at the museum from 40 states in the United States and from 20 countries. We confirmed that 46% of the strikes were caused by bats, but we did not identify them further; we identified 5% only to the family or genus level, and 49% to the species level. Fifty-five of the 101 bat-strike samples submitted for DNA analysis have been identified to the species level. Twenty-five bat species have been recorded striking USAF planes worldwide. The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis; n = 173) is the species most commonly identified in USAF strike impacts, followed by the red bat (Lasiurus borealis; n = 83). Bat strikes peak during the spring and fall, with >57% occurring from August through October; 82% of the reports that included time of strike were recorded between 2100 and 0900 hours. More than 12% of the bat strikes were reported at >300 m above ground level (AGL). Although $825,000 and >50% of this sum was attributable to 5 bat-strike incidents. Only 5 bats from the 10 most damaging bat strikes were identified to the species level, either because we did not receive remains with the reports or the sample was insufficient for identification.
Ineme, Kubiat M.; Ineme, Mfon E.
The Nigerian tertiary educational system has been ravaged by incessant strike action, which appears to defy all attempts to find solutions. This paper reports on a study that examines the impact of job satisfaction and burnout on attitudes towards strike actions among employees of a Nigerian university. A total of 576 employees participated in the…
At Namibia's two major airports, Hosea Kutako International and Eros (domestic), 117 bird strike collision incidents were recorded between 2006 and 2010. A risk assessment, which included a proposed risk weighting methodology, was conducted at Hosea Kutako and Eros airports, which estimated the probability of an ...
MMPA Pygmy killer whale Feresa attenuata MMPA Dwarf sperm whale Kogia sima MMPA Pygmy sperm whale Kogia breviceps MMPA Melon -headed whale...macrorhynchus MMPA Melon Headed Whale Peponocephala electra MMPA Pygmy Killer Whale Feresa attenuata MMPA Killer Whale Orcinus orca MMPA Blainville’s...American butterflies. El Segundo blue butterfly adults mate, nectar , lay eggs, perch, and in most cases probably die on flower heads (Mattoni 1990
The Great Railroad Strike of 1877, a national catastrophe and the major news story of the year, was the first national labor strike in U.S. history. Because of the ideological bias of the press, specifically its implicit commitment to capitalism and to objectivity (itself a "myth" of social order), newspapers of the period could be…
The strength of the associations was determined by Cramer's V. Results. Results revealed strong opinions among the population regarding strikes, numerous misapprehensions when it comes to striking and rights, a poor awareness of other healthcare-related rights and the perception of poor treatment at public hospitals.
Chang, Seung Ho; Lee, Jihyun
Object control (OC) skills are a part of fundamental motor skills and basic functional skills, which work as a prerequisite to becoming a skilled performer in many sports. Of various OC skills, striking is one of the most difficult to master due to a variety of interrelated movement components. A form of vertical or underarm striking is a more…
Oct 6, 2014 ... employment. Kidnapping has been affecting virtually every sector of the Nigerian economy. Thus it is not the right of any health worker to embark on strike. Rather the right to strike can be derived from the principle of collective bargaining, which according to Ahmed (2014) is an essential principle. Workers ...
After months of negotiation between the police force and the minister of the interior on the renewal of the collective agreement, the police trade unions began threatening industrial action and strikes in December 2007. The courts were divided on the issue, with some ruling out strikes as a means of
Neto, Osmar Pinto; Marzullo, Ana Carolina De Miranda; Bolander, Richard P; Bir, Cynthia A
The goal of this paper was to investigate the possible trade-off between peak hand acceleration and accuracy and consistency of hand strikes performed by martial artists of different training experiences. Ten male martial artists with training experience ranging from one to nine years volunteered to participate in the experiment. Each participant performed 12 maximum effort goal-directed strikes. Hand acceleration during the strikes was obtained using a tri-axial accelerometer block. A pressure sensor matrix was used to determine the accuracy and consistency of the strikes. Accuracy was estimated by the radial distance between the centroid of each subject's 12 strikes and the target, whereas consistency was estimated by the square root of the 12 strikes mean squared distance from their centroid. We found that training experience was significantly correlated to hand peak acceleration prior to impact (r(2)=0.456, p =0.032) and accuracy (r(2)=0. 621, p=0.012). These correlations suggest that more experienced participants exhibited higher hand peak accelerations and at the same time were more accurate. Training experience, however, was not correlated to consistency (r(2)=0.085, p=0.413). Overall, our results suggest that martial arts training may lead practitioners to achieve higher striking hand accelerations with better accuracy and no change in striking consistency.
Hollander, Karsten; de Villiers, Johanna Elsabe; Venter, Ranel; Sehner, Susanne; Wegscheider, Karl; Braumann, Klaus-Michael; Zech, Astrid
Effects of early and permanent footwear use are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of habituation to footwear on foot strike patterns of children and adolescents. Healthy habitually barefoot and shod participants (aged 6-18 years) from South Africa (n=288) and Germany (n=390) performed multiple 20-m jogging and running trials with and without shoes. Each foot strike was captured using a high-speed camera to determine a rearfoot or non-rearfoot strike. The probability of a rearfoot strike in both cohorts and each age was analyzed by using a mixed-effects logistic regression adjusted for possible confounders. Habitually barefoot children showed a higher probability of using rearfoot strikes than habitually shod children (p<0.001). The probability was age-dependent and decreased in habitually barefoot children with age (OR barefoot-jogging =0.82, 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.96, p=0.014; OR barefoot-running =0.58, 95% CI, 0.50 to 0.67, p<0.001 and OR shod-running =0.68, 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.79, p<0.001). In habitually shod children, the probability increased significantly for shod jogging (OR=1.19, 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.35, p=0.006). To conclude, foot strike patterns of children are influenced by habituation to footwear. Younger habitually barefoot children show higher rates of rearfoot strikes for shod and barefoot running, and it converges in later adolescence. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Parkison, Paul T.
Utilizing a participant observer research model, a case study of the efficacy of a collaborative assessment methodology within a middle school social studies class was conducted. A review of existing research revealed that students' perceptions of assessment, evaluation, and accountability influence their intrinsic motivation to learn. A…
Thompson, Stephen L; Salmon, J Warren
Current conditions surrounding the house of medicine-including corporate and government cost-containment strategies, increasing market-penetration schemes in health care, along with clinical scrutiny and the administrative control imposed under privatization by managed care firms, insurance companies, and governments-have spurred an upsurge in physician unionization, which requires a revisiting of the issue of physician strikes. Strikes by physicians have been relatively rare events in medical history. When they have occurred, they have aroused intense debate over their ethical justification among professionals and the public alike, notwithstanding what caused the strikes. As physicians and other health care providers increasingly find employment within organizations as wage-contract employees and their work becomes more highly rationalized, more physicians will join labor organizations to protect both their economic and their professional interests. As a result, these physicians will have to come to terms with the use of the strike weapon. On the surface, many health care strikes may not ever seem justifiable, but in certain defined situations a strike would be not only permissible but an ethical imperative. With an exacerbation of labor strife in the health sector in many nations, it is crucial to explore the question of what constitutes an ethical physician strike.
van Waes, Oscar J F; van de Woestijne, Pieter C; Halm, Jens A
Lightning strike victims are rarely presented at an emergency department. Burns are often the primary focus. This case report describes the improvised explosive device like-injury to the thorax due to lightning strike and its treatment, which has not been described prior in (kerauno)medicine. Penetrating injury due to blast from lightning strike is extremely rare. These "shrapnel" injuries should however be ruled out in all patients struck by lightning. Copyright © 2013 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cimadoro, Giuseppe; Mahaffey, Ryan; Babault, Nicolas
Muay Thai fighters strongly rely on the use of the roundhouse kick due to its effectiveness (i.e. power) and implications on the final score. Therefore, different striking tempos at full power are used during training as a method to enhance kicking power. However, the neuromuscular responses are unknown. Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate neuromuscular responses to a single bout of shorter (every second = H1) and longer (every 3s = H3) kick striking time intervals, measured with the countermovement jump (CMJ). Nine professional Muay Thai fighters participated in this randomized, cross-over trial. CMJs were measured on force plates before and after (post 0min, post 5min, post 10min, post 20min and post 30min) two striking (1set x 20reps) conditions (H1; H3). Although no difference was observed between H1 and H3 values, neuromuscular fatigue parameters displayed different patterns over time. CMJ height decreased immediately after H3 striking (PMuay Thai and conditioning coaches should focus on hard striking with both long and slow pacing during specific heavy bag or pad work.
Boyer, Elizabeth R; Derrick, Timothy R
Some frontal plane and transverse plane variables have been associated with running injury, but it is not known if they differ with foot strike style or as stride length is shortened. To identify if step width, iliotibial band strain and strain rate, positive and negative free moment, pelvic drop, hip adduction, knee internal rotation, and rearfoot eversion differ between habitual rearfoot and habitual mid-/forefoot strikers when running with both a rearfoot strike (RFS) and a mid-/forefoot strike (FFS) at 3 stride lengths. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 42 healthy runners (21 habitual rearfoot, 21 habitual mid-/forefoot) ran overground at 3.35 m/s with both a RFS and a FFS at their preferred stride lengths and 5% and 10% shorter. Variables did not differ between habitual groups. Step width was 1.5 cm narrower for FFS, widening to 0.8 cm as stride length shortened. Iliotibial band strain and strain rate did not differ between foot strikes but decreased as stride length shortened (0.3% and 1.8%/s, respectively). Pelvic drop was reduced 0.7° for FFS compared with RFS, and both pelvic drop and hip adduction decreased as stride length shortened (0.8° and 1.5°, respectively). Peak knee internal rotation was not affected by foot strike or stride length. Peak rearfoot eversion was not different between foot strikes but decreased 0.6° as stride length shortened. Peak positive free moment (normalized to body weight [BW] and height [h]) was not affected by foot strike or stride length. Peak negative free moment was -0.0038 BW·m/h greater for FFS and decreased -0.0004 BW·m/h as stride length shortened. The small decreases in most variables as stride length shortened were likely associated with the concomitant wider step width. RFS had slightly greater pelvic drop, while FFS had slightly narrower step width and greater negative free moment. Shortening one's stride length may decrease or at least not increase propensity for running injuries based on the variables
Neely, J. S.; Huang, Y.; Furlong, K.
Subduction-Transform Edge Propagator (STEP) faults, produced by the tearing of a subducting plate, allow us to study the development of a transform plate boundary and improve our understanding of both long-term geologic processes and short-term seismic hazards. The 280 km long San Cristobal Trough (SCT), formed by the tearing of the Australia plate as it subducts under the Pacific plate near the Solomon and Vanuatu subduction zones, shows along-strike variations in earthquake behaviors. The segment of the SCT closest to the tear rarely hosts earthquakes > Mw 6, whereas the SCT sections more than 80 - 100 km from the tear experience Mw7 earthquakes with repeated rupture along the same segments. To understand the effect of cumulative displacement on SCT seismicity, we analyze b-values, centroid-time delays and corner frequencies of the SCT earthquakes. We use the spectral ratio method based on Empirical Green's Functions (eGfs) to isolate source effects from propagation and site effects. We find high b-values along the SCT closest to the tear with values decreasing with distance before finally increasing again towards the far end of the SCT. Centroid time-delays for the Mw 7 strike-slip earthquakes increase with distance from the tear, but corner frequency estimates for a recent sequence of Mw 7 earthquakes are approximately equal, indicating a growing complexity in earthquake behavior with distance from the tear due to a displacement-driven transform boundary development process (see figure). The increasing complexity possibly stems from the earthquakes along the eastern SCT rupturing through multiple asperities resulting in multiple moment pulses. If not for the bounding Vanuatu subduction zone at the far end of the SCT, the eastern SCT section, which has experienced the most displacement, might be capable of hosting larger earthquakes. When assessing the seismic hazard of other STEP faults, cumulative fault displacement should be considered a key input in
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Continental U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster is our most popular poster which is updated annually. The poster includes all hurricanes that affected the U.S. since...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2005 Significant U.S. Hurricane Strikes poster is one of two special edition posters for the Atlantic Hurricanes. This beautiful poster contains two sets of...
Alempijevic, Djordje; Pavlekic, Snezana; Jecmenica, Dragan; Nedeljkov, Aleksandra; Jankovic, Milos
Hunger strike of prisoners and detainees remains a major human rights and ethical issue for medical professionals. We are reporting on a case of a 48-year-old male sentenced prisoner, intravenous heroin user, who went on a hunger strike and died 15 days later. Throughout the fasting period, the prisoner, who was capable of decision making, refused any medical examination. Autopsy findings were not supporting prolonged starvation, while toxicology revealed benzodiazepines and opiates in blood and urine. Cause of death was given as "heroin intoxication" in keeping with detection of 6-MAM. Legal and ethical issues pertinent to medical examination and treatment of prisoners on hunger strike are explored in accordance with legislation and professional ethical standards in Serbia. A recommendation for the best autopsy practice in deaths following hunger strike has been made. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Carter, Rosemary M
.... Nuclear first strike is the policy that reserves the right to use nuclear weapons against an enemy before that enemy employs a like weapon without any constraints on the decision to employ the weapon...
Heerkens, Johannes M.G.
Focuses on the potential growth of the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) market in Europe. Competition between Lockheed Martin and Boeing for the fighter's design contract; Disadvantages of the fighter plane; Stealth performance of JSF.
Neto, Osmar Pinto; Magini, Marcio; Saba, Marcelo M F; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu Tavares
This paper presents a comparison of force, power, and efficiency values calculated from Kung Fu Yau-Man palm strikes, when performed by 7 experienced and 6 novice men. They performed 5 palm strikes to a freestanding basketball, recorded by high-speed camera at 1000 Hz. Nonparametric comparisons and correlations showed experienced practitioners presented larger values of mean muscle force, mean impact force, mean muscle power, mean impact power, and mean striking efficiency, as is noted in evidence obtained for other martial arts. Also, an interesting result was that for experienced Kung Fu practitioners, muscle power was linearly correlated with impact power (p = .98) but not for the novice practitioners (p = .46).
This slide presentation summarizes three case studies EPA conducted in partnership with Boston, Kansas City, and Tucson, to assess the potential benefits of employing travel efficiency strategies in these areas.
Kelly, John; Datta, Anusua
This study uses California crime statistics for the years 1984-2004, to determine what effect, if any, the increased sentencing standards under the three-strikes legislation in California have had in deterring crime. This study follows a new approach in differentiating between the incapacitation effect and the deterrent effect of the law.…
Fisher, B. D.; Brown, P. W.; Plumer, J. A.
The lightning strike condition data gathered in the 1980-1984 period are presented, together with the lightning attachment point analysis for the NASA F-106B research aircraft are presented. The analysis of the experienced 637 direct lightning strikes shows that the highest strike rates (2.1 strikes/min and 13 strikes/penetration) occurred at altitudes between 38,000 and 40,000 ft. The regions of highest risk for an aircraft to experience a direct lightning strike were the areas of thunderstorms where the ambient temperature was colder than -40 C and where the relative turbulence and precipitation intensities were characterized as negligible to light. The presence and location of lightning, therefore, did not necessarily indicate the presence and location of hazardous precipitation and turbulence. The total onboard data show that the lightning attachment patterns on this aircraft fall into four general categories, although the 1984 data suggest that the entire surface of the F-106B may be susceptible to lightning attachment.
Harbert, S.; Duvall, A. R.; Tucker, G. E.
Geomorphic landforms, such as shutter ridges, offset river terraces, and deflected stream channels, are often used to assess the activity and slip rates of strike-slip faults. However, in some systems, such as parts of the Marlborough Fault System (South Island, NZ), an active strike-slip fault does not leave a strong landscape signature. Here we explore the factors that dampen or enhance the landscape signature of strike-slip faulting using the Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development model (CHILD). We focus on variables affecting the length of channel offsets, which enhance the signature of strike-slip motion, and the frequency of stream captures, which eliminate offsets and reduce this signature. We model a strike-slip fault that passes through a mountain ridge, offsetting streams that drain across this fault. We use this setup to test the response of channel offset length and capture frequency to fault characteristics, such as slip rate and ratio of lateral to vertical motion, and to landscape characteristics, such as relief contrasts controlled by erodibility. Our experiments show that relief downhill of the fault, whether generated by differential uplift across the fault or by an erodibility contrast, has the strongest effect on offset length and capture frequency. This relief creates shutter ridges, which block and divert streams while being advected along a fault. Shutter ridges and the streams they divert have long been recognized as markers of strike-slip motion. Our results show specifically that the height of shutter ridges is most responsible for the degree to which they create long channel offsets by preventing stream captures. We compare these results to landscape metrics in the Marlborough Fault System, where shutter ridges are common and often lithologically controlled. We compare shutter ridge length and height to channel offset length in order to assess the influence of relief on offset channel features in a real landscape. Based on our
Powell, Edward M.
The speaker establishes himself in opposition to teacher strikes, outlines the scope of teacher strikes, discusses arguments for and against the right of teachers to strike, presents the kinds of strikes that are possible, outlines what a board and the administration can do to head off a strike, and presents the American Association of School…
LIDDLE, GORDON P.; ROCKWELL, ROBERT E.
IN A 10 YEAR STUDY OF 1,200 CHILDREN LIVING IN A MIDWESTERN CITY, IT WAS FOUND THAT THOSE FROM DEPRIVED BACKGROUNDS MISSED ABOUT THREE TIMES AS MANY DAYS OF SCHOOL AS THEIR CLASSMATES FROM UPPER-MIDDLE-CLASS FAMILIES. REASONS FOR THIS SITUATION WERE POOR DIET, UNCARED-FOR ILLNESSES AND ACCIDENTS. ALSO THE FEELINGS THAT CHILD HAD ABOUT HIMSELF…
Southard, Dan L.
Purpose: The purposes of this study were to: (a) examine the effect of experience and goal constraints (speed, accuracy) on kicking patterns; (b) determine if effective striking mass was independent of ankle velocity at impact; and (c) determine the accuracy of kicks relative to independent factors. Method: Twenty participants were recruited to…
In 2002, approximately two thirds of school teachers in the Canadian province of Alberta went on strike. Drawing on media, government and union documents, this case study reveals some contours of the political economy of labor relations in education that are normally hidden from view. Among these features are that the state can react to worker…
Schoene, Jens Daniel
The interaction of direct and nearby rocket-triggered lightning with two unenergized three-phase power distribution lines of about 800 m length was studied at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing in Florida. A horizontally-configured line was tested in 1999 and 2000, a vertically-configured line in 2001, 2002, and 2003, and a vertically-configured line with overhead ground wire in 2004. All lines were equipped with arresters and, additionally, in 2003, the vertical line had a polemounted transformer. During the 2000, 2001, and 2002 direct strike experiments, arresters frequently failed, but there was no arrester failures either during the 2003 direct strike experiment when the transformer was on the line or during the 2004 direct strike experiment when the lightning current was injected into the overhead ground wire. All line configurations except the one tested in 2004 commonly exhibited flashovers. The division of return stroke currents for the vertically-configured line was initially similar to the division on the horizontally-configured line (that is, the arresters closest to the strike point conducted the bulk of the impulsive current). After some tens of microseconds the currents in all arresters on the vertically-configured line equalized, while the close arrester currents on the horizontally-configured line still conducted significantly more current than the remote arresters. The lightning current division for direct strikes to a phase conductor is successfully modeled with the Electromagnetic Transient Program (EMTP) for the vertically-configured line and, if the residual voltage of the close arresters is reduced by 20%, successfully modeled for the horizontally-configured line. Currents on the vertically-configured line induced by nearby lightning strikes were measured and compared to results calculated using the LIOV-EMTP96 code. It was found that during a lightning strike 11 m from a grounded line pole, a significant fraction of
Preliminary Studies On The Limnological Stock Assessment, Productivity And Potential Fish Yield Of Ojirami Reservoir, Edo State, Nigeria. ... Tropical Freshwater Biology ... This report has only provided preliminary data on the reservoir but it is hoped that future studies would benefit from this initial benchmark information.
Full Text Available In most of the surviving patients after a lightning strike, audiovestibular abnormalities have been reported. The most frequently reported type of abnormalities is a tympanic membrane perforation with hearing loss and external ear canal burn. However a sensor neural hearing loss and mixed type hearing loss can also occur, but these occur rarely. A nineteen-year-old female patient had, after a lightning strike, serious burns on the left ear, behind the ear, and on the chest and neck. She also had in her left ear 108 dB hearing loss with irregular central perforation and in her right ear 52 dB sensorineural hearing loss. There was no hearing loss before the strike. A hearing aid was recommended for the right ear and good care and follow-up were recommended for the left ear. A lightning strike can cause serious audiological damage. Therefore, it is necessary to make a careful audiovestibular evaluation of the patients. Although there exist rarely healed cases from sensorineural hearing loss after lightning strike in literature, in our case hearing loss occurred bilaterally and then it healed unilaterally. This condition is quite rare in literature.
Full Text Available This study applies a Poisson regression model to annual Turkish strikes data of the period of 1964-1998. The Poisson regression model is preferable when the dependent variable is count data. Economical and social variables are used as determinants of the number of strikes. Empirical results show that the unemployment rate and a dummy variable that takes 0 before 1980 1 otherwise are significantly affects the number of strikes.
Olga Maria Lage
Full Text Available Planctomycetes are part of the complex microbial biofilm community of a wide range of macroalgae. Recently, some studies began to unveil the great diversity of Planctomycetes present in this microenvironment and the interactions between the two organisms. Culture dependent and independent methods revealed the existence of a great number of species but, so far, only less than ten species have been isolated. Planctomycetes comprise the genera Rhodopirellula, Blastopirellula and Planctomyces, Phycisphaera and the uncultured class OM190 and some other taxa have only been found in this association.Several factors favour the colonization of macroalgal surfaces by planctomycetes. Many species possess holdfasts for attachment. The macroalgae secrete various sulphated polysaccharides that are the substrate for the abundant sulfatases produced by planctomycetes. Specificity between planctomycetes and macroalgae seem to exist which may be related to the chemical nature of the polysaccharides produced by each macroalga. Furthermore, the peptidoglycan-free cell wall of planctomycetes allows them to resist the action of several antimicrobial compounds produced by the macroalgae or other bacteria in the biofilm community that are effective against biofouling by other microorganisms.Despite the increase in our knowledge on the successful planctomycetes-macroalgae association, a great effort to fully understand this interaction is needed.
Latorre-Román, Pedro Á; Párraga-Montilla, Juan A; Guardia-Monteagudo, Ignacio; García-Pinillos, Felipe
This study aims to determine the foot strike patterns (FSPs) and neutral support (no inversion [INV]/eversion [EVE] and no foot rotation) in preschool children, as well as to determine the influence of shod/unshod conditions and sex. A total of 1356 children aged 3-6 years (673 boys and 683 girls) participated in this study. A sagittal and frontal-plane video (240 Hz) was recorded using a high-speed camcorder to record the following variables: rearfoot strike (RFS), midfoot strike (MFS), forefoot strike (FFS), inversion/ eversion (INV/EVE) and foot rotation on initial contact. There were no between-sex significant differences in both shod and unshod conditions in RFS. In the unshod condition, there was a significant reduction (p < 0.001) of RFS prevalence in both boys (shod condition = 44.2% vs. 34.7% unshod condition) and girls (shod condition = 48.5% vs. 36.1% unshod condition). As for neutral support, there were no between-sex differences in both shod and unshod conditions or in the shod-unshod comparison. In preschool children, no between-sex differences were found in relation to prevalence of RFS and neutral support (no INV/EVE). Shod running alters FSP of running barefoot, producing a significant increase of RFS prevalence.
Katunin, A.; Krukiewicz, K.; Turczyn, R.; Sul, P.; Łasica, A.; Catalanotti, G.; Bilewicz, M.
Lightning strike protection is one of the important issues in the modern maintenance problems of aircraft. This is due to a fact that the most of exterior elements of modern aircraft is manufactured from polymeric composites which are characterized by isolating electrical properties, and thus cannot carry the giant electrical charge when the lightning strikes. This causes serious damage of an aircraft structure and necessity of repairs and tests before returning a vehicle to operation. In order to overcome this problem, usually metallic meshes are immersed in the polymeric elements. This approach is quite effective, but increases a mass of an aircraft and significantly complicates the manufacturing process. The approach proposed by the authors is based on a mixture of conducting and dielectric polymers. Numerous modeling studies which are based on percolation clustering using kinetic Monte Carlo methods, finite element modeling of electrical and mechanical properties, and preliminary experimental studies, allow achieving an optimal content of conducting particles in a dielectric matrix in order to achieve possibly the best electrical conductivity and mechanical properties, simultaneously. After manufacturing the samples with optimal content of a conducting polymer, mechanical and electrical characterization as well as high-voltage testing was performed. The application of such a material simplifies manufacturing process and ensures unique properties of aircraft structures, which allows for minimizing damage after lightning strike, as well as provide electrical bounding and grounding, interference shielding, etc. The proposed solution can minimize costs of repair, testing and certification of aircraft structures damaged by lightning strikes.
For START III level forces, strike allocations and magnitudes vary little with L, but first strike costs vary directly with L, which means that for K reflecting a preference for the survival of high value targets over their destruction and a preference for high value over military targets, the costs of action are far greater than those of inaction for a wide range of values of damage preference L. Thus, if both sides have much greater preferences for the survival of their high value targets than for military targets or destruction, they do not see a net incentive to strike, and crises are terminated by inaction. Recent decades suggest strong preferences for the survival of high value and that this has contributed to the lack of direct conflict during that period
. Despite this display of serpentine power, the snake experts still questioned the ability of a Siberian snake to overcome all depolarization problems at TeV energies. At very high energies, the depolarizing resonances may become so strong that they are even wider than their normal 523 MeV separation, and would then overlap. The snake team decided to study overlapping depolarizing resonances by building a 25 kV radiofrequency solenoid magnet to create an depolarizing resonance in the Indiana Cooler Ring. This new resonance was then forced to overlap with the nearby imperfection depolarizing resonance by varying the solenoid's frequency. The experimenters found a sharp destructive interference between the two overlapping resonances; while this still cannot be calculated theoretically, such effects are well known in physics. Fortunately the Siberian snake was powerful enough to overcome completely both overlapping resonances and all their interference effects, keeping the beam fully polarized. The potency of these serpents is being closely followed at accelerator laboratories around the world. Meanwhile, Krisch and his colleagues assembled the SPIN Collaboration to encourage the use of Siberian snakes at TeV accelerators. This Collaboration (Michigan/Indiana/ Fermilab/North Carolina/IHEPProtvino/ J IN R-Dubna/Moscow/I N RTroitsk/ KEK/Kyoto) contains about 40 accelerator experts, 40 spin experimenters and one theorist. The SSC's 20 TeV lattices could include more than 50 empty straight sections, typically 20 metres long, for subsequent installation of many Siberian snakes. For Fermilab, SPIN produced a 146-page report - Accelerating Polarized Protons to 150 GeV in the Fermilab Main Injector- and has just started work for a similar report on the possibilities for accelerating and storing polarized protons in the Tevatron Collider
Faber, Stine Thidemann; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen
The aim of this national case study report is to take a closer look at the use of Gender Impact Assessments in Denmark in order to describe the Danish implementation of this specific Gender Mainstreaming method. By way of analyzing two selected cases (two law proposals put forward by The Danish...
Environmental Impacts Assessment has been developed as a critically substantial approach to determine, predict and interpret the ecological impact on the environment, public hygiene and healthy ecosystems. This study aims to introduce and systematically investigate the environmental issues during important ...
In contrast to the position of the World Medical Association and the Ethics Council of the Israel Medical Association, the author argues for forced-feeding of hunger-striking prisoners when their condition reaches a stage of danger of death or permanent injury. This position is based on the priority of human life over autonomy, and of a communitarian ethic. This position is supported by a District Court decision ordering the feeding of a hunger-striking prisoner, by a Supreme Court decision imposing surgery on a non-consenting prisoner, and in line with Israel's Patient's Right Law.
Full Text Available The relationship between the location at which a drum membrane was struck and the quality of sound produced was investigated by striking the drum at several distances between the center and the rim. Through analyzing the harmonics of the wave produced from the impact, it was shown that as the striking location changes, the relative amplitudes of different modes of vibration also changes. It was found that sound of a higher pitch is produced at the rim of the drum than anywhere else on the drum head due to higher modes of vibration becoming dominant.
Paul L. Butterworth
Full Text Available On August 3, 1981, 13,000 air traffic controllers walked off the job. Under US law, the strike was illegal. President Ronald Reagan ordered the strikers as a group to return to work; when they did not, he ordered individual strikers to return, and again they refused. Two days later the president fired the strikers. Reagan's action transformed relations between organized labor and American management, and created the worst turbulence to hit the American airways in recent history. “More Than a Labor Dispute” examines the work stoppage and aftermath through the eyes of two controllers and a pilot, all of whom worked during the strike.
Mulder, Monique Borgerhoff; Msalu, Lameck; Caro, Tim; Salerno, Jonathan
Livingstone's second mission site on the shore of Lake Malawi suffers very high rates of consequential lightning strikes. Comprehensive interviewing of victims and their relatives in seven Traditional Authorities in Nkhata Bay District, Malawi revealed that the annual rate of consequential strikes was 419/million, more than six times higher than that in other developing countries; the rate of deaths from lightning was 84/million/year, 5.4 times greater than the highest ever recorded. These remarkable figures reveal that lightning constitutes a significant stochastic source of mortality with potential life history consequences, but it should not deflect attention away from the more prominent causes of mortality in this rural area.
Azevedo, Marco C.; Alves, Tiago M.; Fonseca, Paulo E.; Moore, Gregory F.
Previous studies have suggested predominant extensional tectonics acting, at present, on the Nankai Accretionary Prism (NAP), and following a parallel direction to the convergence vector between the Philippine Sea and Amur Plates. However, a complex set of thrusts, pop-up structures, thrust anticlines and strike-slip faults is observed on seismic data in the outer wedge of the NAP, hinting at a complex strain distribution across SE Japan. Three-dimensional (3D) seismic data reveal three main families of faults: (1) NE-trending thrusts and back-thrusts; (2) NNW- to N-trending left-lateral strike-slip faults; and (3) WNW-trending to E-W right-lateral strike-slip faults. Such a fault pattern suggests that lateral slip, together with thrusting, are the two major styles of deformation operating in the outer wedge of the NAP. Both styles of deformation reflect a transpressional tectonic regime in which the maximum horizontal stress is geometrically close to the convergence vector. This work is relevant because it shows a progressive change from faults trending perpendicularly to the convergence vector, to a broader partitioning of strain in the form of thrusts and conjugate strike-slip faults. We suggest that similar families of faults exist within the inner wedge of the NAP, below the Kumano Basin, and control stress accumulation and strain accommodation in this latter region.
Neto, O P; Magini, Marcio
A kinematic and electromyographic analysis of Kung Fu (KF) Yau-Man palm strikes without impact is presented. An empirical model applied to data obtained by a high-speed camera describes the kinematic characteristics of the movement. The electromyographic patterns of the biceps brachii, brachioradialis and triceps brachii muscles were studied during the strike in the time (root mean square) and frequency (wavelet transform) domains. Eight KF practitioners participated in the investigation. A wooden board was placed in front of the subjects, and they were asked to perform the strike imagining a target above the board. The results show that the Yau-Man KF palm strike has very similar kinematic characteristics to a simple moderate speed elbow extension movement. All practitioners positioned themselves in relation to the wooden board in a way to achieve their highest hand speeds in the instant their hands crossed the board. The analyses of the electromyography data shows a well developed muscle coordination of the practitioners in agreement with kinematic results. The results of this paper are important not only for improving the performance of practitioners but also to demonstrate the applicability of KF in the process of motor control development.
Cohen, J.M.; Silva, M.L.; Caini, S.; Ciblak, M.A.; Mosnier, A.; Daviaud, I.; Matias, G.; Badur, S.; Valette, M.; Enouf, V.; Paget, J.; Fleming, D.M.
Influenza B represents a high proportion of influenza cases in some seasons (even over 50%). The Influenza B study in General Practice (IBGP) is a multicenter study providing information about the clinical, demographic and socio-economic characteristics of patients affected by lab-confirmed
Plagiarism - time to strike at the epidemic. Lukman Yusuf1, Abraham Aseffa2. We live in a globalized world where information is instantly shared across continents. The number of biomedical journals available for reference is quite enormous and there is a sudden huge surge of free open access journals in the last few years ...
of nine preselected points of interest. Although subject to change the points currently listed within the program are: Acapulco, Mazatlan, Puerto ... Vallarta , La Paz, San Diego, Hilo, Honolulu, Johnston Island and Midway Island. The strike probabilities, computed upon receipt of each 6-hourly warning
The author reinvestigates the relationship between the organizational power of trade unions and strikes based on data from the European Company Survey 2009 (ECS-2009) and the Institutional Characteristics of Trade Unions, Wage Setting, State Intervention and Social Pacts (ICTWSS) database, which
Mata, Carlos; Medelius, Pedro
A software tool has been designed to quantify the lightning exposure at launch sites of the stack at the pads under different configurations. In order to predict lightning strikes to generic structures, this model uses leaders whose origins (in the x-y plane) are obtained from a 2D random, normal distribution.
Four of your readers panellists were asked if the RCN should be affiliated to the Trades Union Congress (reflections April 4). One of them said the RCN needs to modernise and join the wider trade union movement, but 'should keep the "no strike" policy that has always served it so well'.
The history of Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU)'s strike can be traced back to 1978, the period of the beginning of the decline in the oil boom, when the country faced the consequences of the failure by its rulers to use the oil wealth to generate production and a social welfare system. Military dictatorship had ...
Houba, H.E.D.; Wen, Q.
This paper provides a thorough equilibrium analysis of a wage contract negotiation model where the union must choose between strike and holdout between offers and counter-offers. When the union and the firm have different discount factors, delay in reaching an agreement may Pareto dominate many
Jun 5, 2012 ... These include staff training and retraining, developing good data bank based on .... wildlife is very important in bird control. Successful habitat ... Designated staff patrols the airside areas using chemical repellants, propane cannons, distress call. Birds/Wildlife Strikes Control for Safer Air .................Usman et ...
Oct 6, 2014 ... MDCN Code of ethics intends to give right for cessation of work by workers in the health sector of the economy. Thus under the Common Law, a strike, especially in the essential services is a breach of the contract of employment. The Trade. Union (amendment) Act (Federal Republic of. Nigeria, 2005) ...
This paper provides an overview of career planning assessments. Background on key career concepts is first introduced. A number of career planning assessments are then examined. These assessments included reviewing ones personal history, interest inventories, values assessments, personality assessments, and aptitude tests. The importance and limitations of these career assessments is then discussed.
Thompson, Shannon N; Wilson, Zachary W; Cole, Christopher B; Kennedy, Andrew R; Aycock, Ryan D
Although lightning strikes are a rare occurrence, their significance cannot be ignored given military operations in the field during all types of weather. With proper medical management, patients with lightning injuries can return to duty. Information for this case report comes from eyewitness account at the 6th Ranger Training Battalion and from review of physician documentation from the 96th Medical Group, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. A lightning strike injured 44 Ranger School participants during a training exercise on August 12, 2015, at Camp Rudder, Florida. These patients were triaged in the field and transported to emergency department of Eglin Air Force Base. Of the 44 casualties, 20 were admitted. All were returned to duty the following day. One patient had cardiac arrest. This patient, along with two others, was admitted to the intensive care unit. Seventeen other patients were admitted for observation for rhabdomyolysis and/or cardiac arrhythmias. One patient was admitted with suspected acute kidney injury indicated by an elevated creatinine. All patients, including those admitted to the intensive care unit, were released on the day following the lightning strike without restrictions and were allowed to return to duty with increased medical monitoring. This case report highlights the need for proper triage and recognition of lightning strike injury, coordination of care between field operations and emergency department personnel, and close follow-up for patients presenting with lightning injury. Symptoms, physical exam, and laboratory findings from rigorous training can be difficult to distinguish from those resulting from lightning injury. Secondary injuries resulting from blunt trauma from falls may have been prevented by the use of the lightning strike posture. Further analysis of procedures and standard operating protocols to mitigate risk during thunderstorms may be required to prevent lightning's effects on large groups of military personnel
Li, Zhengfang; Zhou, Bengang
A statistical analysis was completed on the rupture data of 29 historical strike-slip earthquakes across the world. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of fault steps on the rupture termination of these events. The results show good correlations between the type and length of steps with the seismic rupture and a poor correlation between the step number and seismic rupture. For different magnitude intervals, the smallest widths of the fault steps (Lt) that can terminate the rupture propagation are variable: Lt = 3 km for Ms 6.5 6.9, Lt = 4 km for Ms 7.0 7.5, Lt = 6 km for Ms 7.5 8.0, and Lt = 8 km for Ms 8.0 8.5. The dilational fault step is easier to rupture through than the compression fault step. The smallest widths of the fault step for the rupture arrest can be used as an indicator to judge the scale of the rupture termination of seismic faults. This is helpful for research on fault segmentation, as well as estimating the magnitude of potential earthquakes, and is thus of significance for the assessment of seismic risks.
Full Text Available General strike (also known as hartal is used as a mode of protest by organizations and political parties in India. It is generally thought that hartals negatively impact the healthcare delivery in a society. We used the Right to Information Act to obtain data from government health centers in Kerala state in India for four hartal days (H-day and two control days (A-day and B-day for each H-day, from sixteen health centers including 6 Community Health Center (CHC, 6 Secondary Health Center (SHC, and 4 Tertiary Health Center (THC. Data on emergency room visits was available for six HCs. 15 HCs had a statistically significant decrease in the number of outpatient visits on H-day. There was no difference in the number of outpatient visits between the two control days (A and B in 15 HCs, suggesting the lack of a posthartal surge in visits. Median decrease in outpatient visits in CHCs, SHCs, and THCs was 50.4%, 59.5%, and 47.4%, respectively. Hartal did not impact the number of emergency room visits in 6 out of 7 health centers assessed. Our study identified a significant harmful impact on government healthcare delivery due to hartals in Kerala. These findings have major public health implications.
Shin, Mirim; Heard, Rob; Suo, Chao; Chow, Chin Moi
Digital game playing engages people for long periods of time. The pleasure offered by digital games may explain the players' consumption of this activity. Games may elicit both positive and negative emotions, which can be measured by encephalography (EEG). The EEG alpha asymmetry index (AI) is different in positive and negative emotions and so may be used to distinguish positive from negative emotions that occur during gaming. We hypothesized that the "Counter-Strike" (CS) game (Valve Software, Bellevue, WA) is pleasurable and demonstrable with a positive EEG AI. Twelve male participants ages 18-30 years underwent EEG recordings continuously during and postgame. EEG was also recorded pregame for control conditions of baseline (sitting on a chair staring at a blank wall), movement (moving fingers on the computer keyboard with a blank screen), sound (listening to the sound of the CS game with a blank screen), and screen (watching the CS game without playing). Self-ratings of emotional responses were completed at pre-, during, and postgame. A significant decrease in the EEG AI was observed under the screen condition compared with baseline, whereas an increase was observed postgame compared with the screen condition. The participants demonstrated a positive EEG AI following the "shoot" events (shoot opponents) and negative emotions after the "being shot" events. Subjective ratings of emotional response indicated happiness during and postgame, but anger and arousal were reported only during the game. The overall results are consistent with the hypothesis that predominantly positive emotional reactions are elicited from playing the CS game and concur with positive subjective ratings of happiness. Future studies may explore the relationship of game pleasure and obsessive game play.
Adavbiele, J. A.
This paper was designed to x-ray the implications of incessant strike actions on the implementation of Technical education programme in Nigeria. The paper took an exploratory view on the concept of strike actions in Nigeria with particular references on notable strike actions that have occurred in Nigeria. The types of strike were explained and…
It is well known that China possesses a second- strike capability, but a great deal of uncertainty persists on the subject. Over the last few years, without officially adjusting its doctrine, China has nonetheless defined its objectives. In April 2010, the People's Liberation Army Daily indicated that China needed such a capability and contended that ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) would constitute the safest means of delivery. In the same year, the IISS estimated that the People's Liberation Army was in possession of 90 ICBMs (66 ground-based missiles and 24 SLBMs) and 400 IRBM mainly aimed at Taiwan and Japan. The Pentagon's 2012 report proposed 50-75 ICBMs and 80 -120 IRBM and MRBM. While it is established that the People's Liberation Army is developing Jin class submarines (type-094, of which there are currently two in service, which will soon rise to five) and is developing solid-propellant missiles, which could be activated more quickly, not a great deal is known about the progress of these two projects. The JL-2 (7400 km), which is mounted on SSBNs, is still being tested. In parallel, the traditional principle to which China adheres - no first use of nuclear weapons - seems to have been slightly dented. Thus, in January 2011, the Japanese press agency Kyodo (relayed by Stratfor) reported that the People's Liberation Army had lowered the threshold for use of its strategic weapons: it could henceforth envisage a preventive nuclear strike against a nuclear power that had by conventional means destroyed key strategic targets on its territory, such as a nuclear power station, a dam, or a large city, having provided prior warning to the aggressor. But what most worries the U.S. and its Asian allies, particularly the Japanese, is the quasi-total opacity of the Chinese military nuclear programme. While in April 2010, the United States and Russia signed a treaty limiting their number of strategic weapons to 1550 by 2018, China considers
Direct lightning strikes melt metal parts of various systems, like fuel and propellant tanks of rockets and airplanes, at the point of strike. Responsible for this melting are the impulse current and, if occurring, the long duration current, both carrying a remarkable charge Q. For studying these meltings the simulation in the laboratory has to be based on the parameters of natural lightnings. International standards exist defining certain threat levels of natural lightnings and giving possible generator circuits for the simulation. The melting caused by both types of lightning currents show different appearance. Their characteristics, their differences in melting and heating of metal sheets are investigated. Nevertheless the simulation of lightning in the laboratory is imperfect. While natural lightning is a discharge without a counter electrode, the simulation always demands a close counter electrode. The influence of this counter electrode is studied.
A. J. Scholtz
Full Text Available Blowfly strike and the methods used to combat blowfly strike were recorded on 33 properties in the Rûens area of South Africa during 2003/2004. Data were recorded on Merino and Dohne Merino hoggets (n = 4951 with at least 3 months’ wool growth. The following data were captured: presence or absence of strike, site of the strike (body or breech, presence or absence of dermatophilosis as well as subjective scores for wool quality and wool colour. Control measures recorded include: chemical treatment (preventative and spot treatment, crutching, mulesing and the use of the Lucitrap® system. Blowfly strike was not significantly influenced by gender or breed. Hoggets suffering from dermatophilosis were more likely to be struck, compared with contemporaries not suffering from the skin disorder (0.057 vs 0.027; P < 0.05. Merino hoggets generally had higher scores than their Dohne Merino contemporaries for wool quality (32.6 vs 27.4; P<0.05 and wool colour (29.0 vs 27.2; P<0.05. There was an indication that the Lucitrap® system may have reduced flystrike, but the effect was not statistically significant (P = 0.19 for overall strikes and P = 0.12 for body strike. The Mules operation benefited overall flystrike (0.013 vs 0.110; P < 0.05; mainly through an effect on breech strike (0.010 vs 0.109; P < 0.05. The proportion of fly strikes increased with wool length, and declined with an increase in farm size in wool colour score. None of the ethically acceptable control measures assessed could substantially reduce blowfly strike on their own, and an integrated pest management programme was proposed.
Monique Borgerhoff Mulder
Full Text Available Livingstone's second mission site on the shore of Lake Malawi suffers very high rates of consequential lightning strikes. Comprehensive interviewing of victims and their relatives in seven Traditional Authorities in Nkhata Bay District, Malawi revealed that the annual rate of consequential strikes was 419/million, more than six times higher than that in other developing countries; the rate of deaths from lightning was 84/million/year, 5.4 times greater than the highest ever recorded. These remarkable figures reveal that lightning constitutes a significant stochastic source of mortality with potential life history consequences, but it should not deflect attention away from the more prominent causes of mortality in this rural area.
Strauss, S A
The 'right to die' is not of an absolute character but is subject to definite qualification. There are legal and social interests reflecting profound ethical values which militate against an absolute right on the part of a prisoner to die by means of a hunger strike. The declared policy of the South African authorities is that a prisoner who resorts to a hunger strike may not be subjected to force-feeding. This is in accordance with the 1975 Tokyo Declaration. Unfortunately the Declaration is silent on the question of whether a doctor may provide medical treatment once a hunger striker has reached the point where he is no longer capable of rational thought. In this article it is submitted that a doctor would be legally entitled to do so.
Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Starr, Stanley O. (Inventor)
An embodiment of the present invention uses a single detection system to approximate a location of lightning strikes. This system is triggered by a broadband RF detector and measures a time until the arrival of a leading edge of the thunder acoustic pulse. This time difference is used to determine a slant range R from the detector to the closest approach of the lightning. The azimuth and elevation are determined by an array of acoustic sensors. The leading edge of the thunder waveform is cross-correlated between the various acoustic sensors in the array to determine the difference in time of arrival, AT. A set of AT S is used to determine the direction of arrival, AZ and EL. The three estimated variables (R, AZ, EL) are used to locate a probable point of the lightning strike.
In this master thesis project the possibility to model the response of a wing when subjected to bird strike using finite elements is analyzed. Since this transient event lasts only a few milliseconds the used solution method is explicit time integration. The wing is manufactured using carbon fiber laminate. Carbon fiber laminates have orthotropic material properties with different stiffness in different directions. Accordingly, there are damage mechanisms not considered when using metal that ...
Pollution of groundwater is a primary issue because aquifers are susceptible to contamination from land use and anthropogenic impacts. Groundwater susceptibility is intrinsic and specific. Intrinsic vulnerability refers to an aquifer that is susceptible to pollution and to the geological and hydrogeological features. Vulnerability assessment is an essential step in assessing groundwater contamination. This approach provides a visual analysis for helping planners and decision makers to achieve the sustainable management of water resources. Comparative studies are applying different methodologies to result in the basic evaluation of the groundwater vulnerability. Based on the comparison of methods, there are several advantages and disadvantages. SI can be overlaid on DRASTIC and Pesticide DRASTIC to extract the divergence in sensitivity. DRASTIC identifies low susceptibility and underestimates the pollution risk while Pesticide DRASTIC and SI represents better risk and is recommended for the future. SINTACS method generates very high vulnerability zones with surface waters and aquifer interactions. GOD method could be adequate for vulnerability mapping in karstified carbonate aquifers at small-moderate scales, and EPIK method can be used for large scale. GOD method is suitable for designing large area such as land management while DRASTIC has good accuracy and more real use in geoenvironmental detailed studies.
Conceição Maria de Oliveira
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: assess the implementation of child mortality surveillance in Recife/PE. Methods: an analytical evaluative study was conducted on its implementation. It was a single-case study that correlated degree of implementation with the of the result indicators surveillance. A logic model on this strategy and a matrix of indicators and judgments according to model components were drawn up. The degree of implementation was obtained from structure and process indicators and this was then correlated with result indicators, in a deductive approach based on intervention theory. Results: the structure approach presented superior results to the process in all evaluated components. This strategy was considered to have been partially implemented (75. 7%, however, the components of 'identification of deaths' (85.7%, 'epidemiological research' (88.1% and 'referral of proposals for promotion and health care and correction of official statistics' (95.8% were classified implemented. Regarding the relation of the degree of implantation of the surveillance and its results with the logical model, only one of the 17 indicators was considered inconsistent. Conclusions: this strategy was considered to have been partially implemented. The model of child mortality surveillance and its assessment were shown to be adequate for signaling the consistency of the interrelations between the activities proposed and the effects expected, and would be reproducible within other scenarios.
Swaddle, John P; Ingrassia, Nicole M
Each year, billions of birds collide with large human-made structures, such as building, towers, and turbines, causing substantial mortality. Such bird-strike, which is projected to increase, poses risks to populations of birds and causes significant economic costs to many industries. Mitigation technologies have been deployed in an attempt to reduce bird-strike, but have been met with limited success. One reason for bird-strike may be that birds fail to pay adequate attention to the space directly in front of them when in level, cruising flight. A warning signal projected in front of a potential strike surface might attract visual attention and reduce the risks of collision. We tested this idea in captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) that were trained to fly down a long corridor and through an open wooden frame. Once birds were trained, they each experienced three treatments at unpredictable times and in a randomized order: a loud sound field projected immediately in front of the open wooden frame; a mist net (i.e., a benign strike surface) placed inside the wooden frame; and both the loud sound and the mist net. We found that birds slowed their flight approximately 20% more when the sound field was projected in front of the mist net compared with when the mist net was presented alone. This reduction in velocity would equate to a substantial reduction in the force of any collision. In addition to slowing down, birds increased the angle of attack of their body and tail, potentially allowing for more maneuverable flight. Concomitantly, the only cases where birds avoided the mist net occurred in the sound-augmented treatment. Interestingly, the sound field by itself did not demonstrably alter flight. Although our study was conducted in a limited setting, the alterations of flight associated with our sound field has implications for reducing bird-strike in nature and we encourage researchers to test our ideas in field trials. © The Author 2017. Published by
The effect of a firm heel counter in the shoe was studied in 11 athletes during submaximal heel-strike running on a treadmill under standardized conditions. The runners were tested in identical shoes with and without the distal 2 cm of the firm heel counter. Body load was expressed by absolute and relative VO2, surface EMG on the right leg, and g-force registration from an accelerometer below the right tibial tuberosity. The heel counter caused a 2.4% significant decrease in VO2, a reduction in musculoskeletal transients, and a decrease in the activity of the triceps surae and quadriceps muscles at heel strike. The changes found are expressions of kinematic adaptations in the body to increased or decreased load and provide functional evidence for the loading factor in the pathophysiology of overuse injuries.
Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup
This paper presents theory and application examples of a mathematical model for rapid prediciton of damage to both the side structure of a struck vessel and the bow of a striking vessel in a collision event.The geometry of the bow of the striking ship is idealised such that it can be described...... by only few parameters, still covering with sufficient accuracy almost all existing ship bows with and without bulbs.The model for the internal mechanics of the struck ship side is based on a set of so-called superelements. Each super-element represents an assembly of structural components and contains...... solutions for the structural behaviour of this assembly under deep collapse. By suming up the crushing force of each super-element, it is possible to determine the total contact load between the two involved ships.A number of parameter studies are presented where the sensitivity of the damage to the loading...
Valenzuela, Kevin A; Lynn, Scott K; Mikelson, Lisa R; Noffal, Guillermo J; Judelson, Daniel A
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of foot strike patterns and converted foot strike patterns on lower limb kinematics and kinetics at the hip, knee, and ankle during a shod condition. Subjects were videotaped with a high speed camera while running a 5km at self-selected pace on a treadmill to determine natural foot strike pattern on day one. Preferred forefoot group (PFFG, n = 10) and preferred rear foot group (PRFG, n = 11) subjects were identified through slow motion video playback (n = 21, age = 22.8±2.2 years, mass = 73.1±14.5 kg, height 1.75 ± 0.10 m). On day two, subjects performed five overground run trials in both their natural and unnatural strike patterns while motion and force data were collected. Data were collected over two days so that foot strike videos could be analyzed for group placement purposes. Several 2 (Foot Strike Pattern -forefoot strike [FFS], rearfoot strike [RFS]) x 2 (Group - PFFG, PRFG) mixed model ANOVAs (p plane hip and knee moments, ankle dorsiflexion ROM, and sagittal plane hip and knee ROM. There were no significant interactions or between group differences for any of the measured variables. Within subject effects demonstrated that the RFS condition had significantly lower (VGRF) (RFS = 2.58 ± .21 BW, FFS = 2.71 ± 0.23 BW), dorsiflexion moment (RFS = -2.6 1± 0.61 Nm·kg(-1), FFS = -3.09 ± 0.32 Nm·kg(-1)), and dorsiflexion range of motion (RFS = 17.63 ± 3.76°, FFS = 22.10 ± 5.08°). There was also a significantly higher peak plantarflexion moment (RFS = 0.23 ± 0.11 Nm·kg(-1), FFS = 0.01 ± 0.01 Nm·kg(-1)), peak knee moment (RFS = 2.61 ± 0.54 Nm·kg(-1), FFS = 2.39 ± 0.61 Nm·kg(-1)), knee ROM (RFS = 31.72 ± 2.79°, FFS = 29.58 ± 2.97°), and hip ROM (RFS = 42.72 ± 4.03°, FFS = 41.38 ± 3.32°) as compared with the FFS condition. This research suggests that acute changes in foot strike patterns during shod running can create alterations in certain lower limb kinematic and kinetic measures that
Lam, K.L.; Wilson, T.L.; Travis, J.R.
This report documents some calculations performed to assess the Hydrogen Mixing Studies (HMS) code. Results are presented first for some analytical test problems, including laminar flow and mass diffusion. The von Karman vortex street problem and the Sandia FLAME Facility and Heiss Dampf Reaktor (HDR) containment facility test problems are then discussed. For the analytical problems, the code gave results that agree exceptionally well with the analytical solutions. Calculations for the von Karman vortex street problem were performed at selected Reynolds numbers for several obstacle types. The computed flow patterns agree well with experimental observations-specifically the occurrence of a vortex street (double row of vortices) above a critical Reynolds number. Calculations for the von Karman vortex street problem were performed at selected Reynolds numbers for several obstacle types. The computed flow patterns agree well with experimental observations-specifically the occurrence of a vortex street (double row of vortices) above a critical Reynolds number. The last assessment problem involves modeling the experiment T31.5. The experiment was carried out in the HDR containment building, which is a large, multi-compartment facility (11 300 m 3 free volume in 72 compartments). In the experiment, a steam-water mixture was first injected into the containment to simulate a large-break blowdown of a pressure vessel, and then superheated steam was injected that was followed by a release of helium-hydrogen light gas. The calculated results (pressure, temperature, and gas concentrations) agree reasonably well with the experimental data
EPA has released an external review draft entitled, An Exploratory Study: Assessment of Modeled Dioxin Exposure in Ceramic Art Studios(External Review Draft). The public comment period and the external peer-review workshop are separate processes that provide opportunities for all interested parties to comment on the document. In addition to consideration by EPA, all public comments submitted in accordance with this notice will also be forwarded to EPA’s contractor for the external peer-review panel prior to the workshop. EPA has realeased this draft document solely for the purpose of pre-dissemination peer review under applicable information quality guidelines. This document has not been formally disseminated by EPA. It does not represent and should not be construed to represent any Agency policy or determination. The purpose of this report is to describe an exploratory investigation of potential dioxin exposures to artists/hobbyists who use ball clay to make pottery and related products.
Yoshida, Naruto; Kunugi, Shun; Mashimo, Sonoko; Okuma, Yoshihiro; Masunari, Akihiko; Miyazaki, Shogo; Hisajima, Tatsuya; Miyakawa, Shumpei
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of different strike forms, during cutting, on knee joint angle and lower limb muscle activity. Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activity in individuals performing cutting manoeuvres involving either rearfoot strikes (RFS) or forefoot strikes (FFS). Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to calculate changes in knee angles, during cutting, and to determine the relationship between muscle activity and knee joint angle. Force plates were synchronized with electromyography measurements to compare muscle activity immediately before and after foot strike. The valgus angle tends to be smaller during FFS cutting than during RFS cutting. Just prior to ground contact, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle activities were significantly greater during FFS cutting than during RFS cutting; tibialis anterior muscle activity was greater during RFS cutting. Immediately after ground contact, biceps femoris and lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle activities were significantly greater during FFS cutting than during RFS cutting; tibialis anterior muscle activity was significantly lower during FFS cutting. The results of the present study suggest that the hamstrings demonstrate greater activity, immediately after foot strike, during FFS cutting than during RFS cutting. Thus, FFS cutting may involve a lower risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury than does RFS cutting.
Frasca, Gianluca; Gueydan, Frédéric; Brun, Jean-Pierre
In the framework of the Africa-Europe convergence, the Mediterranean system presents a complex interaction between subduction rollback and upper subduction plate deformation since 30 Ma. The western end of the system shows an arcuate geometry across the Gibraltar arc, the Betico-Rifean belt, in which the relationship between slab dynamics and onshore tectonics is poorly constrained. The present study focuses on the Western Betics, which is characterized by two major thrusts: 1/ the Alboran Front limits the metamorphic domain (Alboran Domain) from the fold-and-thrust belts involving the Mesozoic cover of the Iberian margin (Subbetics Domain); 2/ the Alboran Internal Thrust allows the juxtaposition of a strongly attenuated lithosphere section, containing the large Ronda subcontinental mantle bodies, on top of crustal rocks. New structural data show that two major E-W strike-slip corridors controlled the deformation pattern of the Alboran Domain, in which E-W dextral strike-slip faults, N60° thrusts and N140° normal faults developed simultaneously during dextral strike-slip simple shear. The Alozaina piggy-back Basin, mainly formed by olistotromic deposits of Lower Miocene age, provides an age estimate for the continuous westward translation of the Alboran Domain, with reference to Iberia, that is accommodated mainly by an E-W lateral strike-slip ramp and a N60° frontal thrust ramp. In this context, a thrust sequence led to the piling up of thrust units in the Western Betics and to the crustal emplacement of the Ronda Peridotites bodies.
Guo Zhaojie; Zhang Zhicheng; Zhang Chen; Liu Chang; Zhang Yu; Wang Ju; Chen Weiming
The remote sensing images and geological features of Beishan area indicate that the Altyn Tagh fault, Sanweishan-Shuangta fault, Daquan fault and Hongliuhe fault are distributed in Beishan area from south to north. The faults are all left-lateral strike-slip faults with trending of NE40-50°, displaying similar distribution pattern. The secondary branch faults are developed at the end of each main strike-slip fault with nearly east to west trending form dendritic oblique crossings at the angle of 30-50°. Because of the left-lateral slip of the branch faults, the granites or the blocks exposed within the branch faults rotate clockwisely, forming 'Domino' structures. So the structural style of Beishan area consists of the Altyn Tagh fault, Sanweishan-Shuangta fault, Daquan fault, Hongliuhe fault and their branch faults and rotational structures between different faults. Sedimentary analysis on the fault valleys in the study area and ESR chronological test of fault clay exhibit that the Sanweishan-Shuangta fault form in the late Pliocene (N2), while the Daquan fault displays formation age of l.5-1.2 Ma, and the activity age of the relevant branch faults is Late Pleistocene (400 ka). The ages become younger from the Altyn Tagh fault to the Daquan fault and strike-slip faults display NW trending extension, further revealing the lateral growth process of the strike-slip boundary at the northern margin during the Cenozoic uplift of Tibetan Plateau. The displacement amounts on several secondary faults caused by the activities of the faults are slight due to the above-mentioned structural distribution characteristics of Beishan area, which means that this area is the most stable active area with few seismic activities. We propose the main granitic bodies in Beishan area could be favorable preselected locations for China's high level radioactive waste repository. (authors)
Qiu Aijin; Guo Lingzhi; Shu Liangshu
Xiangshan volcanic basin is one of the famous uranium-producing volcanic basins in China. Emplacement mechanism of Xiangshan uranium-producing volcanic basin is discussed on the basis of the latest research achievements of deep geology in Xiangshan area and the theory of continental dynamics. The study shows that volcanic activity in Xiangshan volcanic basin may be divided into two cycles, and its emplacement is controlled by strike-ship pull-apart process originated from the deep regional faults. Volcanic apparatus in the first cycle was emplaced in EW-trending structure activated by clockwise strike-slipping of NE-trending deep fault, forming the EW-trending fissure-type volcanic effusion belt. Volcanic apparatus in the second cycle was emplaced at junction points of SN-trending pull-apart structure activated by sinistral strike-slipping of NE-trending deep faults and EW-trending basement faults causing the center-type volcanic magma effusion and extrusion. Moreover, the formation mechanism of large-rich uranium deposits is discussed as well
Fuller, Daniel; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Cummins, Steven; Ogilvie, David
To investigate the immediate and sustained effects of two London Underground strikes on use of a public bicycle share program. An interrupted time series design was used to examine the impact of two 24 hour strikes on the total number of trips per day and mean trip duration per day on the London public bicycle share program. The strikes occurred on September 6th and October 4th 2010 and limited service on the London Underground. The mean total number of trips per day over the whole study period was 14,699 (SD=5390) while the mean trip duration was 18.5 minutes (SD=3.7). Significant increases in daily trip count were observed following strike 1 (3864: 95% CI 125 to 7604) and strike 2 (11,293: 95% CI 5169 to 17,416). Events that greatly constrain the primary motorised mode of transportation for a population may have unintended short-term effects on travel behaviour. These findings suggest that limiting transportation options may have the potential to increase population levels of physical activity by promoting the use of cycling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shropshire, David; Piet, Steve; Soelberg, Nick; Cherry, Robert; Henry, Roger; Meikrantz, David; Teske, Greg; Shaber, Eric; Pereira, Candido
This Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) study has developed new analysis methods to examine old and new technology options toward the goal of improving fuel cycle systems. We have integrated participants and information from AFCI Systems Analysis, Transmutation Fuels, Separations, and Waste Form Campaigns in the Systems Losses and Assessment Trade Study. The initial objectives of this study were to (1) increase understanding of system interdependencies and thereby identify system trade-offs that may yield important insights, (2) define impacts of separations product purity on fuel manufacture and transmutation reactivity, (3) define impacts from transuranic (TRU) losses to waste, (4) identify the interrelationships involved in fuels and separations technology performance, and (5) identify system configuration adjustments with the greatest potential for influencing system losses. While bounding and analyzing this initial problem, we also identified significantly higher-level programmatic drivers with broad implications to the current fuel cycle research charter and the general issue of a DOE complex wide need for a comprehensive and integrated nuclear material management as addressed by the new DOE Order 410.2 titled 'Management of Nuclear Materials'. The initial modeling effort developed in this study for a much smaller subset of material (i.e., commercial fuel) and a selected transmutation scheme (i.e., fast reactor recycling) is a necessary first step towards examining a broader set of nuclear material management options, dispositioning strategies and integrated waste management options including potential areas of research leverage. The primary outcome from this initial study has been an enhanced integration among Campaigns and associated insights and analysis methods. Opportunities for improved understanding between the groups abound. The above lanthanide-actinide example highlights the importance of evaluating options via integration across the Campaigns
David Shropshire; Steve Piet; Nick Soelberg; Robert Cherry; Roger Henry; David Meikrantz; Greg Teske; Eric Shaber; Candido Pereira
This Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) study has developed new analysis methods to examine old and new technology options toward the goal of improving fuel cycle systems. We have integrated participants and information from AFCI Systems Analysis, Transmutation Fuels, Separations, and Waste Form Campaigns in the Systems Losses and Assessment Trade Study. The initial objectives of this study were to 1) increase understanding of system interdependencies and thereby identify system trade-offs that may yield important insights, 2) define impacts of separations product purity on fuel manufacture and transmutation reactivity, 3) define impacts from transuranic (TRU) losses to waste, 4) identify the interrelationships involved in fuels and separations technology performance, and 5) identify system configuration adjustments with the greatest potential for influencing system losses. While bounding and analyzing this initial problem, we also identified significantly higher-level programmatic drivers with broad implications to the current fuel cycle research charter and the general issue of a DOE complex wide need for a comprehensive and integrated nuclear material management as addressed by the new DOE Order 410.2 titled “Management of Nuclear Materials”. The initial modeling effort developed in this study for a much smaller subset of material (i.e., commercial fuel) and a selected transmutation scheme (i.e., fast reactor recycling) is a necessary first step towards examining a broader set of nuclear material management options, dispositioning strategies and integrated waste management options including potential areas of research leverage. The primary outcome from this initial study has been an enhanced integration among Campaigns and associated insights and analysis methods. Opportunities for improved understanding between the groups abound. The above lanthanide-actinide example highlights the importance of evaluating options via integration across the Campaigns
Norcross, John C; Hailstorks, Robin; Aiken, Leona S; Pfund, Rory A; Stamm, Karen E; Christidis, Peggy
The undergraduate curriculum in psychology profoundly reflects and shapes the discipline. Yet, reliable information on the undergraduate psychology curriculum has been difficult to acquire due to insufficient research carried out on unrepresentative program samples with disparate methods. In 2014, APA launched the first systematic effort in a decade to gather national data on the psychology major and program outcomes. We surveyed a stratified random sample of department chairs/coordinators of accredited colleges and universities in the United States that offer undergraduate courses and programs in psychology. A total of 439 undergraduate psychology programs (45.2%) completed the survey. This article summarizes, for both associate and baccalaureate programs, the results of the Undergraduate Study in Psychology. Current practices concerning the introductory course, the courses offered, core requirements, the psychology minor, and tracks/concentrations are presented. The frequency of formal program reviews and program-level assessment methods are also addressed. By extending prior research on the undergraduate curriculum, we chronicle longitudinal changes in the psychology major over the past 20 years. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Koone, Neil; Condren, Brian
Surges and arcs from lightning can pose hazards to personnel and sensitive equipment, and processes. Steel reinforcement in structures can act as a Faraday cage mitigating lightning effects. Knowing a structure's response to a lightning strike allows hazards associated with lightning to be analyzed. A model of lightning's response in a steel reinforced structure has been developed using PSpice (a commercial circuit simulation). Segments of rebar are modeled as inductors and resistors in series. A program has been written to take architectural information of a steel reinforced structure and 'build' a circuit network that is analogous to the network of reinforcement in a facility. A severe current waveform (simulating a 99th percentile lightning strike), modeled as a current source, is introduced in the circuit network, and potential differences within the structure are determined using PSpice. A visual three-dimensional model of the facility displays the voltage distribution across the structure using color to indicate the potential difference relative to the floor. Clear air arcing distances can be calculated from the voltage distribution using a conservative value for the dielectric breakdown strength of air. Potential validation tests for the model will be presented
Vladimir G. Trifonov
In all of the cases mentioned above, strike-slip deformation was expressed only or mainly during strong earthquakes. At other times, the rate of its accumulation was small and the dominant stress conditions led to transverse shortening, rarely resulting in local lengthening of the tectonic zone. These variations are caused by the tectonic peculiarities of these zones. The sinistral component of the deformation is related to the shift of the Arabian Plate relative to the African one, but also the transverse component is related to the continental slope and is expressed by the Coastal range shortening that exists in the El Ghab segment zone. There is not only a dextral deformation component, but also a transverse component, expressed by shortening of the Fergana and Talas ranges existing in the Talas-Fergana fault zone. In both zones, the shortening component became appreciable or dominant when the strike-slip deformation rate decreased. Similar, but more local, relationships were expressed in the epicentral area of the 2003 Altai earthquake and in the Western Palmyrides.
Time series analysis of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data, GPS measurements, and fi eld observations reveal that the central section of the Izmit (Turkey) fault that slipped with a supershear rupture velocity in the A.D. 1999, Mw7.4, Izmit earthquake began creeping aseismically following the earthquake. Rapid initial postseismic afterslip decayed logarithmically with time and appears to have reached a steady rate comparable to the preearthquake full fault-crossing rate, suggesting that it may continue for decades and possibly until late in the earthquake cycle. If confi rmed by future monitoring, these observations identify postseismic afterslip as a mechanism for initiating creep behavior along strike-slip faults. Long-term afterslip and/or creep has signifi cant implications for earthquake cycle models, recurrence intervals of large earthquakes, and accordingly, seismic hazard estimation along mature strike-slip faults, in particular for Istanbul which is believed to lie adjacent to a seismic gap along the North Anatolian fault in the Sea of Marmara. © 2012 Geological Society of America.
Alsop, G. I.; Weinberger, R.; Marco, S.; Levi, T.
The trends of faults and fractures in overburden next to a salt diapir are generally considered to be either parallel to the salt margin to form concentric patterns, or at right angles to the salt contact to create an overall radial distribution around the diapir. However, these simple diapir-related patterns may become more complex if regional tectonics influences the siting and growth of a diapir. Using the Sedom salt wall in the Dead Sea Fault system as our case study, we examine the influence of regional strike-slip faulting on fracture patterns around a salt diapir. This type of influence is important in general as the distribution and orientation of fractures on all scales may influence permeability and hence control fluid and hydrocarbon flow. Fractures adjacent to the N-S trending salt wall contain fibrous gypsum veins and injected clastic dykes, attesting to high fluid pressures adjacent to the diapir. Next to the western flank of the salt wall, broad (∼1000 m) zones of upturn or 'drape folds' are associated with NW-SE striking conjugate extensional fractures within the overburden. Within 300 m of the salt contact, fracture patterns in map view display a progressive ∼30°-35° clockwise rotation with more NNW-SSE strikes immediately adjacent to the salt wall. While some extensional faults display growth geometries, indicating that they were syn-depositional and initiated prior to tilting of beds associated with drape folding, other fractures display increasing dips towards the salt, suggesting that they have formed during upturn of bedding near the diapir. These observations collectively suggest that many fractures developed to accommodate rotation of beds during drape folding. Extensional fractures in the overburden define a mean strike that is ∼45° anticlockwise (counter-clockwise) of the N-S trending salt wall, and are therefore consistent with sinistral transtension along the N-S trending Sedom Fault that underlies the salt wall. Our outcrop
Baba, Yoshihiro; Rakov, Vladimir A.
Using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, we have calculated vertical electric field Ez, horizontal (radial) electric field Eh, and azimuthal magnetic field Hϕ produced on the ground surface by lightning strikes to 160-m- and a 553-m-high conical strike objects representing the Peissenberg tower (Germany) and the CN Tower (Canada), respectively. The fields were computed for a typical subsequent stroke at distances d' from the bottom of the object ranging from 5 to 100 m for the 160-m tower and from 10 to 300 m for the 553-m tower. Grounding of the 160-m object was assumed to be accomplished by its underground basement represented by a 10-m-radius and 8-m-long perfectly conducting cylinder with or without a reference ground plane located 2 m below. The reference ground plane simulates, to some extent, a higher-conducting ground layer that is expected to exist below the water table. The configuration without reference ground plane actually means that this plane is present, but is located at an infinitely large depth. Grounding of the 553-m object was modeled in a similar manner but in the absence of reference ground plane only. In all cases considered, waveforms of Eh and Hϕ are not much influenced by the presence of strike object, while waveforms of Ez are. Waveforms of Ez are essentially unipolar (as they are in the absence of strike object) when the ground conductivity σ is 10 mS/m (the equivalent transient grounding impedance is several ohms) or greater. Thus, for the CN Tower, for which σ ≥ 10 mS/m, the occurrence of Ez polarity change is highly unlikely. For the 160-m tower and for σ = 1 and 0.1 mS/m, waveforms of Ez become bipolar (exhibit polarity change) at d' ≤ 10 m and d' ≤ 50 m, respectively, regardless of the presence of the reference ground plane. The corresponding equivalent transient grounding impedances are about 30 and 50 Ω in the absence of the reference ground plane and smaller than 10 Ω in the presence of the reference
Irene S. Davis
Full Text Available It is believed that human ancestors evolved the ability to run bipedally approximately 2 million years ago. This form of locomotion may have been important to our survival and likely has influenced the evolution of our body form. As our bodies have adapted to run, it seems unusual that up to 79% of modern day runners are injured annually. The etiology of these injuries is clearly multifactorial. However, 1 aspect of running that has significantly changed over the past 50 years is the footwear we use. Modern running shoes have become increasingly cushioned and supportive, and have changed the way we run. In particular, they have altered our footstrike pattern from a predominantly forefoot strike (FFS landing to a predominantly rearfoot strike (RFS landing. This change alters the way in which the body is loaded and may be contributing to the high rate of injuries runners experience while engaged in an activity for which they were adapted. In this paper, we will examine the benefits of barefoot running (typically an FFS pattern, and compare the lower extremity mechanics between FFS and RFS. The implications of these mechanical differences, in terms of injury, will be discussed. We will then provide evidence to support our contention that FFS provides an optimal mechanical environment for specific foot and ankle structures, such as the heel pad, the plantar fascia, and the Achilles tendon. The importance of footwear will then be addressed, highlighting its interaction with strike pattern on mechanics. This analysis will underscore why footwear matters when assessing mechanics. Finally, proper preparation and safe transition to an FFS pattern in minimal shoes will be emphasized. Through the discussion of the current literature, we will develop a justification for returning to running in the way for which we were adapted to reduce running-related injuries.
Sterret, Grace; Aboud, Antone
Since the 1960s, the number of strikes by public employees, especially local government employees, has increased, and the number of employees belonging to unions or associations has about tripled. Recently, attention has been focused on strikes by public employees as a result of the strike in 1981 by air traffic controllers and their subsequent…
Full Text Available This report discusses the occurrence of falls of ground in strike gullies. Falls of hangingwall over strike gullies on the up-dip side of strike stabilizing pillars in longwall mining systems were investigated. Gullies were examined in both...
Butter, den F.A.G.; Koppes, S.Y.
Strikes as a consequence of labour conflicts occur about 28 times as much in France as in the Netherlands. This paper examines the institutional differences underlying these differences in strike activity. Our empirical analysis shows that strike activity is high in France if workers were successful
This book focuses on strategies and procedures for assessing the academic language ability of students entering an English-medium university, so that those with significant needs can have access to opportunities to enhance their language skills.
Shin, Je Ha; Kwon, Oh Yang; Seo, Seong Wook
Nanoparticles-coated and impact-damaged carbon-fiber reinforced plastics(CFRP) laminates were tested under compression-after-impact(CAI) mode and the propagation of damage due to compressive loading has been monitored by acoustic emission(AE). The impact damage was induced not by mechanical loading but by a simulated lightning strike. CFRP laminates were made of carbon prepregs prepared by coating of conductive nano-particles directly on the fibers and the coupons were subjected to simulated lightning strikes with a high voltage/current impulse of 10∼40 kA within a few microseconds. The effects of nano-particles coating and the degree of damage induced by the simulated lightning strikes on the AE activities were examined, and the relationship between the compressive residual strength and AE behavior has been evaluated in terms of AE event counts and the onset of AE activity with the compressive loading. The degree of impact damage was also measured in terns of damage area by using ultrasonic C-scan images. From the results assessed during the CAI tests of damaged CFRP showed that AE monitoring appeared to be very useful to differentiate the degree of damage hence the mechanical integrity of composite structures damaged by lightning strikes
Gomila, R.; Arancibia, G.; Nehler, M.; Bracke, R.; Morata, D.
Fault zones and their related structural permeability are a key aspect in the migration of fluids through the continental crust. Therefore, the estimation of the hydraulic properties (palaeopermeability conditions; k) and the spatial distribution of the fracture mesh within the damage zone (DZ) are critical in the assessment of fault zones behavior for fluids. The study of the real spatial distribution of the veinlets of the fracture mesh (3D), feasible with the use of µCT analyses, is a first order factor to unravel both, the real structural permeability conditions of a fault-zone, and the validation of previous (and classical) estimations made in 2D analyses in thin-sections. This work shows the results of a fault-related fracture mesh and its 3D spatial distribution in the damage-zone of the Jorgillo Fault (JF), an ancient subvertical left-lateral strike-slip fault exposed in the Atacama Fault System in northern Chile. The JF is a ca. 20 km long NNW-striking strike-slip fault with sinistral displacement of ca. 4 km. The methodology consisted of drilling 5 mm vertically oriented plugs at several locations within the JF damage zone. Each specimen was scanned with an X-Ray µCT scanner, to assess the fracture mesh, with a voxel resolution of ca. 4.5 µm in the 3D reconstructed data. Tensor permeability modeling, using Lattice-Boltzmann Method, through the segmented microfracture mesh show GMkmin (geometric mean values) of 2.1x10-12 and 9.8x10-13 m2, and GMkmax of 6.4x10-12 and 2.1x10-12 m2. A high degree of anisotropy of the DZ permeability tensor both sides of the JF (eastern and western side, respectively) is observed, where the k values in the kmax plane are 2.4 and 1.9 times higher than the kmin direction at the time of fracture sealing. This style of anisotropy is consistent with the obtained for bedded sandstones supporting the idea that damage zones have an analogous effect - but vertically orientated - on bulk permeability (in low porosity rocks) as
This article aims to assess the potential environmental impact of an electrical grinder during its life cycle. The Life Cycle Inventory Analysis was conducted based on the Simplified Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) Drivers that calculated from the Valuation of Social Cost and Simplified Life Cycle Assessment Model (VSSM). The detailed results for LCI can be found under Appendix II. The Life Cycle Impact Assessment was performed based on Eco-indicator 99 method. The analysis results indicated that the major contributor to the environmental impact as it accounts for over 60% overall SLCA output. In which, 60% of the emission resulted from the logistic required for the maintenance activities. This was measured by conducting the hotspot analysis. After performing sensitivity analysis, it is evidenced that changing fuel type results in significant decrease environmental footprint. The environmental benefit can also be seen from the negative output values of the recycling activities. By conducting Life Cycle Assessment analysis, the potential environmental impact of the electrical grinder was investigated.
Berntson, K.; Kozak, A.; Malcolm, J. S.
In early 2003, Bruce Power restarted two of its previously laid up units in the Bruce A generating station, Units 3 and 4. However, due to challenges relating to the availability of personnel with active Shift Manager licenses, an alternate shift structure was proposed to ensure the safe operation of the station. This alternate structure resulted in a redistribution of responsibility, and a need to assess the resulting changes in workload. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited was contracted to perform a workload assessment based on the new shift structure, and to provide recommendations, if necessary, to ensure Shift Managers had sufficient resources available to perform their required duties. This paper discusses the performance of that assessment, and lessons learned as a result of the work performed during the Restart project. (authors)
Franco, Manuel Uriel
Silicon is the backbone to today's modern society and used in everything from children's toys to mission sensitive electronics in the form of semiconductors. It is because of its usefulness that silicon is extremely well studied, and has found applications in a variety of fields of study and harsh working environments. Semiconductors see use in the depths of space and the interior of reactor containment building to name just two potential harsh working environments. In these environments, it is very important to predict the degradation exhibited by electronics due to radiation damage. This allows one to know when failure will occur or keep track of other potential problems. Currently the study of displacement damage effects on semiconductors due to ion strikes is focused on the research at the macroscale. Minimal work exists investigating the same phenomena at the microscale. This research aims to expand the available literature by modeling how diffraction peaks in reciprocal space change when a single ion strike occurs in single crystal silicon. LAMMPS is a molecular dynamics code that will be used to model displacement damage due to ion strike at the atomistic level. It also generates virtual electron diffraction patterns to investigate the impact of radiation on reciprocal space. By characterizing the changes in peak broadening and peak shifting due to macro or micro strains, the planes in real space most affected by radiation damage are determined. In this study, it was found that in general low order planes are affected the most by peak broadening. In addition, high order planes are affected the most by peak shifting.
Szatkowski, George N.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Mielnik, John J.
The growing application of composite materials in commercial aircraft manufacturing has significantly increased the risk of aircraft damage from lightning strikes. Composite aircraft designs require new mitigation strategies and engineering practices to maintain the same level of safety and protection as achieved by conductive aluminum skinned aircraft. Researchers working under the NASA Aviation Safety Program s Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project are investigating lightning damage on composite materials to support the development of new mitigation, diagnosis & prognosis techniques to overcome the increased challenges associated with lightning protection on composite aircraft. This paper provides an overview of the electrical characterizations being performed to support IVHM lightning damage diagnosis research on composite materials at the NASA Langley Research Center.
Huddleston, Lisa L.; Roeder, William p.; Merceret, Francis J.
A new probabilistic facility-centric approach to lightning strike location has been developed. This process uses the bivariate Gaussian distribution of probability density provided by the current lightning location error ellipse for the most likely location of a lightning stroke and integrates it to determine the probability that the stroke is inside any specified radius of any location, even if that location is not centered on or even with the location error ellipse. This technique is adapted from a method of calculating the probability of debris collisionith spacecraft. Such a technique is important in spaceport processing activities because it allows engineers to quantify the risk of induced current damage to critical electronics due to nearby lightning strokes. This technique was tested extensively and is now in use by space launch organizations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Future applications could include forensic meteorology.
Full Text Available Self-propagating waves of cerebral neuronal firing, known as spreading depolarisations, are believed to be at the roots of migraine attacks. We propose that the start of spreading depolarisations corresponds to a critical transition that occurs when dynamic brain networks approach a tipping point. We show that this hypothesis is consistent with current pathogenetic insights and observed dynamics. Our view implies that migraine strikes when modulating factors further raise the neuronal excitability in genetically predisposed subjects to a level where even minor perturbations can trigger spreading depolarisations. A corollary is that recently discovered generic early warning indicators for critical transitions may be used to predict the onset of migraine attacks even before patients are clinically aware. This opens up new avenues for dissecting the mechanisms for the onset of migraine attacks and for identifying novel prophylactic treatment targets for the prevention of attacks.
Prins, Frans; Sluijsmans, Dominique; Kirschner, Paul A.; Strijbos, Jan Willem
In this case study our aim was to gain more insight in the possibilities of qualitative formative peer assessment in a computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environment. An approach was chosen in which peer assessment was operationalized in assessment assignments and assessment tools that
Full Text Available Training through the Internet poses a series of technical problems and pedagogical issues. Traditional training is not indiscriminate but takes on different forms according to the needs of the subject being trained and the context where such training occurs. In order to make the systems adaptable in this way, a model of the studentÃ¢Â€Â™s characteristics - the student model - has to be set up, maintained and updated. However, there are many difficulties involved in obtaining sufficient information to create an accurate student model. One way to solve this problem is to involve students in the student modeling process, stimulating them to provide the necessary information by means of a dialog in which the student and system build the student model according to a collaborative process. The present work describes a cooperative student modeling method (Cooperative Student Assessment - CSA which builds a joint system-student assessment of studentÃ¢Â€Â™s activities on the basis of the studentÃ¢Â€Â™s self-assessment ability estimation and a prototype system for children, addressing the learning of fractions, in which CSA is implemented. The article also reports the result of an experimentation carried out with learners attending primary school aiming at evaluating the effectiveness of involving students in the assessment process by comparing two versions of the same system: one using cooperative student modeling and the other the traditional overlay model.
National Alliance of Business, Inc., Washington, DC.
CertainTeed's Precision Strike training program was designed to close the gaps between the current status of its workplace and where that work force needed to be to compete successfully in global markets. Precision Strike included Skills and Knowledge in Lifelong Learning (SKILL) customized, computerized lessons in basic skills, one-on-one…
van Hengstrum, Peter J.; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Fall, Patricia L.; Toomey, Michael; Albury, Nancy A.; Kakuk, Brian
Most Atlantic hurricanes form in the Main Development Region between 9°N to 20°N along the northern edge of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Previous research has suggested that meridional shifts in the ITCZ position on geologic timescales can modulate hurricane activity, but continuous and long-term storm records are needed from multiple sites to assess this hypothesis. Here we present a 3000 year record of intense hurricane strikes in the northern Bahamas (Abaco Island) based on overwash deposits in a coastal sinkhole, which indicates that the ITCZ has likely helped modulate intense hurricane strikes on the western North Atlantic margin on millennial to centennial-scales. The new reconstruction closely matches a previous reconstruction from Puerto Rico, and documents a period of elevated intense hurricane activity on the western North Atlantic margin from 2500 to 1000 years ago when paleo precipitation proxies suggest that the ITCZ occupied a more northern position. Considering that anthropogenic warming is predicted to be focused in the northern hemisphere in the coming century, these results provide a prehistoric analog that an attendant northern ITCZ shift in the future may again return the western North Atlantic margin to an active hurricane interval.
Giandolini, M; Horvais, N; Rossi, J; Millet, G Y; Morin, J-B; Samozino, P
Minimizing musculo-skeletal damage and fatigue is considered paramount for performance in trail running. Our purposes were to investigate the effects of the foot strike pattern and its variability on (a) muscle activity during a downhill trail run and (b) immediate and delayed neuromuscular fatigue. Twenty-three runners performed a 6.5-km run (1264 m of negative elevation change). Electromyographic activity of lower-limb muscles was recorded continuously. Heel and metatarsal accelerations were recorded to identify the running technique. Peripheral and central fatigue was assessed in knee extensors (KE) and plantar flexors (PF) at Pre-, Post-, and 2 days post downhill run (Post2d). Anterior patterns were associated with (a) higher gastrocnemius lateralis activity and lower tibialis anterior and vastus lateralis activity during the run and (b) larger decreases in KE high-frequency stimulus-evoked torque Post and larger decrements in KE MVC Post2d. High patterns variability during the run was associated with (a) smaller decreases in KE Db100 Post and MVC Post2d and (b) smaller decreases in PF MVC Post and Post2d. Anterior patterns increase the severity of KE peripheral fatigue. However, high foot strike pattern variability during the run reduced acute and delayed neuromuscular fatigue in KE and PF. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Nigam, S.; Thomas, N. P.
The linear trend in twentieth-century surface air temperature (SAT)—a key secular warming signal— exhibits striking seasonal variations over Northern Hemisphere continents; SAT trends are pronounced in winter and spring but notably weaker in summer and fall. The SAT trends in historical twentieth-century climate simulations informing the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change's Fifth Assessment show varied (and often unrealistic) strength and structure, and markedly weaker seasonal variation. The large intra-ensemble spread of winter SAT trends in some historical simulations was surprising, especially in the context of century-long linear trends, with implications for the detection of the secular warming signal. The striking seasonality of observed secular warming over northern continents warrants an explanation and the representation of related processes in climate models. Here, the seasonality of SAT trends over North America is shown to result from land surface-hydroclimate interactions and, to an extent, also from the secular change in low-level atmospheric circulation and related thermal advection. It is argued that the winter dormancy and summer vigor of the hydrologic cycle over middle- to high-latitude continents permit different responses to the additional incident radiative energy from increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. The seasonal cycle of climate, despite its monotony, provides an expanded phase space for the exposition of the dynamical and thermodynamical processes generating secular warming, and an exceptional cost-effective opportunity for benchmarking climate projection models.
Moreno, Á. C.; Carrascal, Luis M.; Delgado, A.; Suárez, V.; Seoane, J.
[ES] Striking resilience of an island–endemic bird to a severe perturbation: the case of the Gran Canaria blue chaffinch. Evidence regarding population trends of endangered species in special protection areas and their recovery ability from catastrophic disturbances is scarce. We assessed the population trend of the Gran Canaria blue chaffinch (Fringilla polatzeki), a habitat specialist endemic to the pine forest of Inagua in the Canary Islands, following a devastating wildfire in July 2007. ...
Cynthia A. Bir
Full Text Available Almost all cultures have roots in some sort of self defence system and yet there is relatively little research in this area, outside of a sports related environment. This project investigated different applications of strikes from Kung Fu practitioners that have not been addressed before in the literature. Punch and palm strikes were directly compared from different heights and distances, with the use of a load cell, accelerometers, and high speed video. The data indicated that the arm accelerations of both strikes were similar, although the force and resulting acceleration of the target were significantly greater for the palm strikes. Additionally, the relative height at which the strike was delivered was also investigated. The overall conclusion is that the palm strike is a more effective strike for transferring force to an object. It can also be concluded that an attack to the chest would be ideal for maximizing impact force and moving an opponent off balance
Caniven, Y.; Dominguez, S.; Soliva, R.; Cattin, R.; Peyret, M.; Chéry, J.; Romano, C.
The average seismic cycle duration extends from hundred to a few thousands years but geodetic measurements and seismological data extend over less than one century. This short time observation scale renders difficult to constrain the role of key parameters such as fault friction and geometry, crust rheology, stress and strain rate that control the kinematics and mechanics of active faults. To solve this time scale issue, we have developed a new experimental set-up that reproduces scaled micro-earthquakes and several hundreds of seismic cycles along a strike-slip fault. The model is constituted by two polyurethane foam plates laterally in contact, lying on a basal silicone layer, which simulate the mechanical behaviour of an elastoplastic upper crust over a ductile lower crust, respectively. To simulate the boundary conditions of a strike-slip fault, a computerized motoreductor system moves the two compartments on an opposite sens at a constant low velocity (a few μm/s). The model scaling, deduces from analog material physical parameters, implies that 1 cm in the model represents 2-3 km in the nature and 1 s is equivalent to 5-15 years. Surface-horizontal strain field is quantified by sub-pixel correlation of digital camera pictures recorded every 16 μm of displacement. We record about 2000 horizontal-velocity field measurements for each experiment. The analysis of model-interseismic and coseismic surface displacements and their comparison to seismogenic natural faults demonstrate that our analog model reproduces correctly both near and far-field surface strains. To compare the experiments, we have developed several algorithms that allow studying the main spatial and temporal evolution of the physical parameters and surface deformation processes that characterise the seismic cycle (magnitudes, stress, strain, friction coefficients, interseismic locking depth, recurrence time, ...). We also performed surface-velocity field inversions to assess the spatial
Abrahamsson, Carl Sebastian; Danyi, Endre
Drawing on Judith Butler’s work and a series of studies associated with actor–network theory (ANT), this paper engages with political agency through the concept of performativity. Based on the empirical analysis of a hunger strike that took place in Brussels in 2012 and involved 23 illegal...... immigrants, we aim to achieve three things. First, we foreground physical bodies as political entities caught up in multiple modes of doing politics. Second, we show how such modes relate to one another, reinforcing citizenship, activism and party politics as specific performances of agency associated...
Christopher Evan Buddenhagen
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is widespread interest in biofuel crops as a solution to the world's energy needs, particularly in light of concerns over greenhouse-gas emissions. Despite reservations about their adverse environmental impacts, no attempt has been made to quantify actual, relative or potential invasiveness of terrestrial biofuel crops at an appropriate regional or international scale, and their planting continues to be largely unregulated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a widely accepted weed risk assessment system, we analyzed a comprehensive list of regionally suitable biofuel crops to show that seventy percent have a high risk of becoming invasive versus one-quarter of non-biofuel plant species and are two to four times more likely to establish wild populations locally or be invasive in Hawaii or in other locations with a similar climate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because of climatic and ecological similarities, predictions of biofuel crop invasiveness in Hawaii are applicable to other vulnerable island and subtropical ecosystems worldwide. We demonstrate the utility of an accessible and scientifically proven risk assessment protocol that allows users to predict if introduced species will become invasive in their region of interest. Other evidence supports the contention that propagule pressure created by extensive plantings will exacerbate invasions, a scenario expected with large-scale biofuel crop cultivation. Proactive measures, such as risk assessments, should be employed to predict invasion risks, which could then be mitigated via implementation of appropriate planting policies and adoption of the "polluter-pays" principle.
Full Text Available Recently, the "hot hand" phenomenon regained interest due to the availability and accessibility of large scale data sets from the world of sports. In support of common wisdom and in contrast to the original conclusions of the seminal paper about this phenomenon by Gilovich, Vallone and Tversky in 1985, solid evidences were supplied in favor of the existence of this phenomenon in different kinds of data. This came after almost three decades of ongoing debates whether the "hot hand" phenomenon in sport is real or just a mis-perception of human subjects of completely random patterns present in reality. However, although this phenomenon was shown to exist in different sports data including basketball free throws and bowling strike rates, a somehow deeper question remained unanswered: are these non random patterns results of causal, short term, feedback mechanisms or simply time fluctuations of athletes performance. In this paper, we analyze large amounts of data from the Professional Bowling Association(PBA. We studied the results of the top 100 players in terms of the number of available records (summed into more than 450,000 frames. By using permutation approach and dividing the analysis into different aggregation levels we were able to supply evidence for the existence of the "hot hand" phenomenon in the data, in agreement with previous studies. Moreover, by using this approach, we were able to demonstrate that there are, indeed, significant fluctuations from game to game for the same player but there is no clustering of successes (strikes and failures (non strikes within each game. Thus we were lead to the conclusion that bowling results show correlation to recent past results but they are not influenced by them in a causal manner.
This case study application workshop will build on fundamental concepts and techniques in risk assessment presented and archived at previous TRAC meeting workshops. Practical examples from publicly available, peer reviewed risk assessments will be used as teaching aids. Course ...
Burberry, C. M.
It is a well-known phenomenon that deformation style varies in space; both along the strike of a deformed belt and along the strike of individual structures within that belt. This variation in deformation style is traditionally visualized with a series of closely spaced 2D cross-sections. However, the use of 2D section lines implies plane strain along those lines, and the true 3D nature of the deformation is not necessarily captured. By using a combination of remotely sensed data, analog modeling of field datasets and this remote data, and numerical and digital visualization of the finished model, a 3D understanding and restoration of the deformation style within the region can be achieved. The workflow used for this study begins by considering the variation in deformation style which can be observed from satellite images and combining this data with traditional field data, in order to understand the deformation in the region under consideration. The conceptual model developed at this stage is then modeled using a sand and silicone modeling system, where the kinematics and dynamics of the deformation processes can be examined. A series of closely-spaced cross-sections, as well as 3D images of the deformation, are created from the analog model, and input into a digital visualization and modeling system for restoration. In this fashion, a valid 3D model is created where the internal structure of the deformed system can be visualized and mined for information. The region used in the study is the Sawtooth Range, Montana. The region forms part of the Montana Disturbed Belt in the Front Ranges of the Rocky Mountains, along strike from the Alberta Syncline in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Interpretation of satellite data indicates that the deformation front structures include both folds and thrust structures. The thrust structures vary from hinterland-verging triangle zones to foreland-verging imbricate thrusts along strike, and the folds also vary in geometry along
Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Jong Kyung; Shin, Chang Ho; Seo, Bo Kyun
The fast neutron fluence at the Reactor Pressure Vessel(RPV) of KNGR designed for 60 years lifetime was calculated by full-scope Monte Carlo simulation for reactor vessel integrity assessment. KNGR core geometry was modeled on a three-dimensional representation of the one-sixteenth of the reactor in-vessel component. Each fuel assemblies were modeled explicitly, and each fuel pins were axially divided into 5 segments. The maximum flux of 4.3 x 10 10 neutrons/cm 2 . sec at the RPV was obtained by tallying neutrons crossing the beltline of inner surface of the RPV
Serianni, G., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Brombin, M.; Cervaro, V.; Chitarin, G.; Delogu, R.; Fasolo, D.; Fonnesu, N.; Franchin, L.; Ghiraldelli, R.; Molon, F.; Pasqualotto, R.; Tollin, M.; Veltri, P. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA) (Italy); Bonomo, F. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA) (Italy); Istituto Gas Ionizzati del CNR, Corso Stati Uniti, 4, I-35127, Padova (Italy); Cristofaro, S. [Università degli Studi di Padova, Via 8 Febbraio 2, I-35122 Padova (Italy); De Muri, M. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA) (Italy); INFN-LNL, v.le dell' Università 2, I-35020, Legnaro (PD) Italy (Italy); Franzen, P.; Ruf, B.; Schiesko, L. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Muraro, A. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma (IFP-CNR) – Via Cozzi 53, 20125, Milano (Italy)
The ITER project requires additional heating provided by two injectors of neutral beams resulting from the neutralisation of accelerated negative ions. To study and optimise negative ion production, the SPIDER test facility (particle energy 100keV; beam current 50A) is under construction in Padova, with the aim of testing beam characteristics and to verify the source proper operation. The SPIDER beam will be characterised by the instrumented calorimeter STRIKE, whose main components are one-directional carbon fibre carbon composite tiles. Some prototype tiles have been employed in 2012 as a small-scale version (mini-STRIKE) of the entire system to investigate the features of the beam from BATMAN at IPP-Garching. As the BATMAN beamlets are superposed at the measurement position, about 1m from the grounded grid, an actively cooled copper mask is located in front of the tiles; holes in the mask create an artificial beamlet structure. Recently the mini-STRIKE has been updated, taking into account the results obtained in the first campaign. In particular the spatial resolution of the system has been improved by increasing the number of the copper mask holes. Moreover a custom measurement system has been realized for the thermocouple signals and employed in BATMAN in view of its use in SPIDER. The present contribution gives a description of the new design of the system as well as of the thermocouple measurements system and its field test. A new series of measurements has been carried out in BATMAN. The BATMAN beam characterisation in different experimental conditions is presented.
Wu, Hao-Che; Lindell, Michael K; Prater, Carla S; Samuelson, Charles D
Although evacuation is one of the best strategies for protecting citizens from hurricane threat, the ways that local elected officials use hurricane data in deciding whether to issue hurricane evacuation orders is not well understood. To begin to address this problem, we examined the effects of hurricane track and intensity information in a laboratory setting where participants judged the probability that hypothetical hurricanes with a constant bearing (i.e., straight line forecast track) would make landfall in each of eight 45 degree sectors around the Gulf of Mexico. The results from 162 participants in a student sample showed that the judged strike probability distributions over the eight sectors within each scenario were, unsurprisingly, unimodal and centered on the sector toward which the forecast track pointed. More significantly, although strike probability judgments for the sector in the direction of the forecast track were generally higher than the corresponding judgments for the other sectors, the latter were not zero. Most significantly, there were no appreciable differences in the patterns of strike probability judgments for hurricane tracks represented by a forecast track only, an uncertainty cone only, or forecast track with an uncertainty cone-a result consistent with a recent survey of coastal residents threatened by Hurricane Charley. The study results suggest that people are able to correctly process basic information about hurricane tracks but they do make some errors. More research is needed to understand the sources of these errors and to identify better methods of displaying uncertainty about hurricane parameters. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.
Romero Gomez, Pedro DJ; Richmond, Marshall C.
The study reported here evaluated the occurrence, frequency, and intensity of blade strike of fish on an axial-flow marine hydrokinetic turbine by using two modeling approaches: a conventional kinematic formulation and a proposed Lagrangian particle- based scheme. The kinematic model included simplifying assumptions of fish trajectories such as distribution and velocity. The proposed method overcame the need for such simplifications by integrating the following components into a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model: (i) advanced eddy-resolving flow simulation, (ii) generation of ambient turbulence based on field data, (iii) moving turbine blades in highly transient flows, and (iv) Lagrangian particles to mimic the potential fish pathways. The test conditions to evaluate the blade-strike probability and fish survival rate were: (i) the turbulent environment, (ii) the fish size, and (iii) the approaching flow velocity. The proposed method offered the ability to produce potential fish trajectories and their interaction with the rotating turbine. Depending upon the scenario, the percentile of particles that registered a collision event ranged from 6% to 19% of the released sample size. Next, by using a set of experimental correlations of the exposure-response of living fish colliding with moving blades, the simulated collision data were used as input variables to estimate the survival rate of fish passing through the operating turbine. The resulting survival rates were greater than 96% in all scenarios, which is comparable to or better than known survival rates for conventional hydropower turbines. The figures of strike probability and mortality rate were amplified by the kinematic model. The proposed method offered the advantage of expanding the evaluation of other mechanisms of stress and injury on fish derived from hydrokinetic turbines and related devices.
Serianni, G.; Brombin, M.; Cervaro, V.; Chitarin, G.; Delogu, R.; Fasolo, D.; Fonnesu, N.; Franchin, L.; Ghiraldelli, R.; Molon, F.; Pasqualotto, R.; Tollin, M.; Veltri, P.; Bonomo, F.; Cristofaro, S.; De Muri, M.; Franzen, P.; Ruf, B.; Schiesko, L.; Muraro, A.
The ITER project requires additional heating provided by two injectors of neutral beams resulting from the neutralisation of accelerated negative ions. To study and optimise negative ion production, the SPIDER test facility (particle energy 100keV; beam current 50A) is under construction in Padova, with the aim of testing beam characteristics and to verify the source proper operation. The SPIDER beam will be characterised by the instrumented calorimeter STRIKE, whose main components are one-directional carbon fibre carbon composite tiles. Some prototype tiles have been employed in 2012 as a small-scale version (mini-STRIKE) of the entire system to investigate the features of the beam from BATMAN at IPP-Garching. As the BATMAN beamlets are superposed at the measurement position, about 1m from the grounded grid, an actively cooled copper mask is located in front of the tiles; holes in the mask create an artificial beamlet structure. Recently the mini-STRIKE has been updated, taking into account the results obtained in the first campaign. In particular the spatial resolution of the system has been improved by increasing the number of the copper mask holes. Moreover a custom measurement system has been realized for the thermocouple signals and employed in BATMAN in view of its use in SPIDER. The present contribution gives a description of the new design of the system as well as of the thermocouple measurements system and its field test. A new series of measurements has been carried out in BATMAN. The BATMAN beam characterisation in different experimental conditions is presented
Jørgensen, U; Ekstrand, J
Shock absorption (SA) is a simple way to reduce the body load and can be used in the prevention and treatment of injuries. The heel pad is the most important shock absorber in the shoe heel complex. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the SA at heel strike can be increased by heel support in people and shoes with high or low SA. The impact forces at heel strike were measured on an AMTI (R) force platform. Fourteen legs were tested in seven persons (nine with normal and five with low heel pad SA) in gait analysis and in human drop tests. The tests were performed barefooted, and in a soccer and a running shoe (selected by shoe drop test), with and without the distal 2 cm of the heel counter. The heel pad confinement produced by the heel counter (the heel counter effect) increased the SA in both shoe types significantly in both impact situations. The mean increase in SA was 8.8% (range 5.8%-15.5%). The heel counter effect was in all situations significantly higher in persons with low heel pad shock absorbency (LHPSA) than in those with normal heel pads. The barefoot impact peak force per kg body weight was significantly higher (6% mean) on the side with LHPSA. The running shoe provided the significantly greatest SA compared with the soccer shoe. It is concluded that the shock absorbency at heel strike can be increased significantly by heel support, with highest effect in persons with LHPSA, both in shoes with high and low SA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Serianni, G.; Bonomo, F.; Brombin, M.; Cervaro, V.; Chitarin, G.; Cristofaro, S.; Delogu, R.; De Muri, M.; Fasolo, D.; Fonnesu, N.; Franchin, L.; Franzen, P.; Ghiraldelli, R.; Molon, F.; Muraro, A.; Pasqualotto, R.; Ruf, B.; Schiesko, L.; Tollin, M.; Veltri, P.
The ITER project requires additional heating provided by two injectors of neutral beams resulting from the neutralisation of accelerated negative ions. To study and optimise negative ion production, the SPIDER test facility (particle energy 100keV; beam current 50A) is under construction in Padova, with the aim of testing beam characteristics and to verify the source proper operation. The SPIDER beam will be characterised by the instrumented calorimeter STRIKE, whose main components are one-directional carbon fibre carbon composite tiles. Some prototype tiles have been employed in 2012 as a small-scale version (mini-STRIKE) of the entire system to investigate the features of the beam from BATMAN at IPP-Garching. As the BATMAN beamlets are superposed at the measurement position, about 1m from the grounded grid, an actively cooled copper mask is located in front of the tiles; holes in the mask create an artificial beamlet structure. Recently the mini-STRIKE has been updated, taking into account the results obtained in the first campaign. In particular the spatial resolution of the system has been improved by increasing the number of the copper mask holes. Moreover a custom measurement system has been realized for the thermocouple signals and employed in BATMAN in view of its use in SPIDER. The present contribution gives a description of the new design of the system as well as of the thermocouple measurements system and its field test. A new series of measurements has been carried out in BATMAN. The BATMAN beam characterisation in different experimental conditions is presented.
Himematsu, Yuji; Furuya, Masato
In July 2007, an earthquake swarm initiated in northern Tanzania near Lake Natron and lasted for about two months. Mt. Oldoinyo Lengai, located to the southwest of the swarm, began to erupt effusively about a month prior to the swarm, and increased its eruption intensity on September when the swarm almost ceased. Several previous studies have already reported the crustal deformation signals associated with the swarm using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). However, nearly all the published data are based on the C-band ENVISAT/ASAR images acquired only from the descending path. We use the L-band ALOS/PALSAR images acquired from both ascending and descending paths, which allow us to examine the deformation signals in more detail. In addition to the InSAR data, we employ the offset-tracking technique to detect the signals along the azimuth direction. Using InSAR and offset-tracking data, we obtain the full 3D displacement fields associated with the episode. Besides the horizontal extension and subsidence signals due to the dike intrusion as already reported, the inferred full 3D displacements further indicate that the subsiding zone was horizontally moving by ~ 48 cm toward SSW. To explain the displacements, we performed fault source modeling, assuming an elastic half space. The fault slip distribution indicates that the contribution of the strike-slip component is about 20% of total moment release. Because almost all the focal mechanisms of earthquakes during the 2007 event indicate nearly pure normal faulting, aseismic strike-slip must have been responsible for the horizontal movement of the subsiding zone. The strike-slip at the shallowest depths suggests the presence of transtensive stress, which seems to be reasonable to generate the relay zones that are widely observed in the East African Rift. We also confirmed that the stress changes due to the dike intrusion were consistent with the inferred fault slip distributions.
Culham Center for Fusion Energy (CCFE) in UK has been contracted to undertake a second Deuterium-Tritium Experiment (DTE2) using Join European Torus (JET) in 2017, in support of technical developments for the ITER project. In order to manage risks of delay or early project termination CCFE has adopted a risk based inspection (RBI) process to identify the systems which could influence the successful delivery of DTE2 and in turn to identify by a basic risk assessment process those systems or components which require mitigating action in order to minimize risk. In this context, the primary purpose of the RBI is to address issues of reliability and satisfactory functionality in a similar way to that which a power plant operator would take to address its commercial risks in the event of loss of generating capacity. The objective of this presentation is describe the activities developed for Idom to deliver the survey, interviews and risk assessment of different systems of JET with the aim to identify the critical components and system that could affect the operation of JET during the DTE2 experiment. (Author)
This mosaic of the south polar region of Jupiter's moon Europa shows the northern 290 kilometers (180 miles) of a strike-slip fault named Astypalaea Linea. The entire fault is about 810 kilometers (500 miles) long, about the size of the California portion of the San Andreas fault, which runs from the California-Mexico border north to the San Francisco Bay. In a strike-slip fault, two crustal blocks move horizontally past one another, similar to two opposing lanes of traffic. Overall motion along the fault seems to have followed a continuous narrow crack along the feature's entire length, with a path resembling steps on a staircase crossing zones that have been pulled apart. The images show that about 50 kilometers (30 miles) of displacement have taken place along the fault. The fault's opposite sides can be reconstructed like a puzzle, matching the shape of the sides and older, individual cracks and ridges broken by its movements. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] The red line marks the once active central crack of the fault. The black line outlines the fault zone, including material accumulated in the regions which have been pulled apart. Bends in the fault have allowed the surface to be pulled apart. This process created openings through which warmer, softer ice from below Europa's brittle ice shell surface, or frozen water from a possible subsurface ocean, could reach the surface. This upwelling of material formed large areas of new ice within the boundaries of the original fault. A similar pulling-apart phenomenon can be observed in the geological trough surrounding California's Salton Sea, in Death Valley and the Dead Sea. In those cases, the pulled-apart regions can include upwelled materials, but may be filled mostly by sedimentary and eroded material from above. One theory is that fault motion on Europa is induced by the pull of variable daily tides generated by Jupiter's gravitational tug on Europa. Tidal tension opens the fault and
Fuller, Matthew; Henderson, Susan; Bustamante, Rebecca
Institutional cultures of assessment are praised as beneficial to student learning. Yet, extant studies have not explored the theoretical foundations and pragmatic approaches to shaping cultures of assessment. The researchers used the Delphi method to explore 10 higher education assessment leaders' attitudes and theoretical perspectives regarding…
This dissertation is a narrative history and organizational study of the formative years of Women Strike for Peace (1961-1963) and its campaign for a nuclear test ban treaty. WSP, a grass roots, participatory movement of American Women, was born on November 1, 1961 when an estimated 50,000 women in 60 communities across the nation walked out of their kitchens and off their jobs in a one day protest against Russian and American nuclear policies. In the process of transforming this one day strike into a national woman's movement, WSP developed a feminine political style characterized by an anti-heirarchical, anti-organizational format, simple, womanly rhetoric, and spontaneous, innovative national and international direct action. At a time when foreign policy dissenters were dismissed by the press and the public either as commies or kooks, the image that WSP projected to respectable middle-class, middle-aged peace mothers wearing white gloves and flowered hats while picketing the White House to save their children from nuclear holocaust caught the favorable attention of large sections of the media, the public, and even the President. Through an investigation of the program, internal debates, rhetoric, organizational structure, and tactics of WSP, along with the backgrounds of its leaders and members, this study uncovers the political and gender consciousness of the women who joined the movement
Phan, Xuan; Grisbrook, Tiffany L; Wernli, Kevin; Stearne, Sarah M; Davey, Paul; Ng, Leo
This study aimed to determine if a quantifiable relationship exists between the peak sound amplitude and peak vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) and vertical loading rate during running. It also investigated whether differences in peak sound amplitude, contact time, lower limb kinematics, kinetics and foot strike technique existed when participants were verbally instructed to run quietly compared to their normal running. A total of 26 males completed running trials for two sound conditions: normal running and quiet running. Simple linear regressions revealed no significant relationships between impact sound and peak vGRF in the normal and quiet conditions and vertical loading rate in the normal condition. t-Tests revealed significant within-subject decreases in peak sound, peak vGRF and vertical loading rate during the quiet compared to the normal running condition. During the normal running condition, 15.4% of participants utilised a non-rearfoot strike technique compared to 76.9% in the quiet condition, which was corroborated by an increased ankle plantarflexion angle at initial contact. This study demonstrated that quieter impact sound is not directly associated with a lower peak vGRF or vertical loading rate. However, given the instructions to run quietly, participants effectively reduced peak impact sound, peak vGRF and vertical loading rate.
Arena, P.; Fortuna, L.; Bruno, M.; Vagliasindi, G.; Murari, A.; Andrew, P.; Mazzitelli, G.
At JET, the potential of fast image processing for real-time purposes is thoroughly investigated. Particular attention is devoted to smart sensors based on system on chip technology. The data of the infrared cameras were processed with a chip implementing a cellular nonlinear network (CNN) structure so as to support and complement the magnetic diagnostics in the real-time localization of the strike-point position in the divertor. The circuit consists of two layers of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor components, the first being the sensor and the second implementing the actual CNN. This innovative hardware has made it possible to determine the position of the maximum thermal load with a time resolution of the order of 30 ms. Good congruency has been found with the measurement from the thermocouples in the divertor, proving the potential of the infrared data in locating the region of the maximum thermal load. The results are also confirmed by JET magnetic codes, both those used for the equilibrium reconstructions and those devoted to the identification of the plasma boundary.
Arena, P.; Fortuna, L.; Bruno, M.; Vagliasindi, G.; Murari, A.; Andrew, P.; Mazzitelli, G.
At JET, the potential of fast image processing for real-time purposes is thoroughly investigated. Particular attention is devoted to smart sensors based on system on chip technology. The data of the infrared cameras were processed with a chip implementing a cellular nonlinear network (CNN) structure so as to support and complement the magnetic diagnostics in the real-time localization of the strike-point position in the divertor. The circuit consists of two layers of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor components, the first being the sensor and the second implementing the actual CNN. This innovative hardware has made it possible to determine the position of the maximum thermal load with a time resolution of the order of 30 ms. Good congruency has been found with the measurement from the thermocouples in the divertor, proving the potential of the infrared data in locating the region of the maximum thermal load. The results are also confirmed by JET magnetic codes, both those used for the equilibrium reconstructions and those devoted to the identification of the plasma boundary
Prabowo Aditya Rio
Full Text Available Demands for water transportation modes are continuously increasing as rapid economic and industrial growths in the recent decade. Ship as representative of the water transportation is generally needed to carry various products from one location to another. Besides as product carrier, ship also acts as public facility to transport human across islands for number of reasons, such as tourism and vehicle. Considering its importance, structural damage due to accidental loads or so-called impact can cause unacceptable casualties which threat ship passenger, shipping industry and maritime environment in same time. The most frequent impact phenomena occur in forms of collision and grounding, which are targeting side structure and double bottom consecutively. However, since responses of the impacts on structure are highly nonlinear and vary due to development of ship structures, sustainable analysis as an update of pioneer calculation can be beneficial as rational reference for improving safety and navigational instruments. This work aims to assess failures of the side structures subjected to penetration of striking bow in ship-ship collision scenario. Locations of impact are idealized to happen on after-end, midsection and fore-end to provide complete assessment. Striking bow is to be deployed by varying input velocity to observe significance of the fractures on the side structure. This configuration is implemented on the designed collision scenario, and later calculated using nonlinear finite element method (NLFEM. Summary of the solution indicated that the midsection produced the highest resistance against side collision. Breaching of the inner shell was successfully avoided on the fore-end, but the critical damage to the cargo was observed during bow penetration to the after-end region. This location was recommended to be added by longitudinal framing to increase its resistance against ship collision.
Prabowo, Aditya Rio; Muttaqie, Teguh; Sohn, Jung Min; Bae, Dong Myung; Setiyawan, Agus
Demands for water transportation modes are continuously increasing as rapid economic and industrial growths in the recent decade. Ship as representative of the water transportation is generally needed to carry various products from one location to another. Besides as product carrier, ship also acts as public facility to transport human across islands for number of reasons, such as tourism and vehicle. Considering its importance, structural damage due to accidental loads or so-called impact can cause unacceptable casualties which threat ship passenger, shipping industry and maritime environment in same time. The most frequent impact phenomena occur in forms of collision and grounding, which are targeting side structure and double bottom consecutively. However, since responses of the impacts on structure are highly nonlinear and vary due to development of ship structures, sustainable analysis as an update of pioneer calculation can be beneficial as rational reference for improving safety and navigational instruments. This work aims to assess failures of the side structures subjected to penetration of striking bow in ship-ship collision scenario. Locations of impact are idealized to happen on after-end, midsection and fore-end to provide complete assessment. Striking bow is to be deployed by varying input velocity to observe significance of the fractures on the side structure. This configuration is implemented on the designed collision scenario, and later calculated using nonlinear finite element method (NLFEM). Summary of the solution indicated that the midsection produced the highest resistance against side collision. Breaching of the inner shell was successfully avoided on the fore-end, but the critical damage to the cargo was observed during bow penetration to the after-end region. This location was recommended to be added by longitudinal framing to increase its resistance against ship collision.
Yates, Thomas; Wilson, Jay; Purton, Kendra
The purpose of this study was to determine the methods of experiential assessment in use at a Canadian university and the extent to which they are used. Exploring experiential assessment will allow identification of commonly used methods and facilitate the development of best practices of assessment in the context of experiential learning (EL) at…
Povinec, P.P.; Togawa, O.
A growing number of sources of radioactivity from human activities are found in the marine environment. They are known to include global nuclear fallout following atmospheric weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, discharges of radionuclides from nuclear installations, past dumping of radioactive wastes, nuclear submarine accidents, contributions from nuclear testing sites, loss of radioactive sources, and the burn-up of satellites using radioisotopes as power sources. Overall, the world's marine environment contains radionuclides that differ from one region to another. Differences are due to dynamic marine environmental processes and the particular source of radionuclides in a region. Scientific assessments of marine radioactivity, therefore, require knowledge of both the source terms and oceanic processes. Radioactivity now is deposited unevenly over the world's oceans. Global fallout is known to be mainly due to nuclear weapon tests carried out in the 1960s. On the other hand, discharges from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants or past dumping of liquid and solid radioactive wastes generally are confined to more localized areas. Even so, soluble radionuclides have been transported over long distances by prevailing ocean currents. To estimate radionuclide inputs from local sources, scientists need to better understand the distribution of radionuclides throughout the world's oceans and seas. The understanding is important for analysing the results from scientific investigations of localized areas, such as part dumping sites, which then can be reviewed more thoroughly. As a contribution to fuller understanding of the marine environment, the IAEA's Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL) started a five-year project in 1996 entitled ''Research on Worldwide Marine Radioactivity (MARS)''. The work is supported by Japan's Science and Technology Agency (STA). This article briefly review this project, and describes related research activities and scientific investigations of MEL
Epidemiologic studies of the late effects of ionizing radiation have utilized the entire spectrum of situations in which man has been exposed. These studies have provided insights into the dependence of human effects upon not only dose to target tissues but also other dimensions of exposure, host characteristics, and time following exposure. Over the past three decades studies have progressed from the mere identification of effects to their measurement. Because investigators of human effects have no control over the exposure situation, validity must be sought in the consistency of findings among independent studies and with accepted biologic principles. Because exposure may be confounded with factors that are hidden from view, bias may enter into any study of human exposure. Avoidance of bias and attainment of sufficient power to detect relationships that are real are methodologic challenges. Many methodologic issues, e.g., those associated with the definition and measurement of specific end-points, or with the selection of appropriate controls, permeate epidemiologic work in all fields. Others, especially those concerned with the measurement of exposure, the patterning of events in time after exposure, and the prediction of events beyond the scope of existing observations give radiation epidemiology its distinctive character
Greatrex-White, Sheila; Moxey, Helen
The purpose of this study was to ascertain how well different wound assessment tools meet the needs of nurses in carrying out general wound assessment and whether current tools are fit for purpose. The methodology employed was evaluation research. In order to conduct the evaluation, a literature review was undertaken to identify the criteria of an optimal wound assessment tool which would meet nurses’ needs. Several freely available wound assessment tools were selected based on predetermin...
Felder, Frank A. [Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 33 Livingston Avenue, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States)
A comparison of two studies conducted ten years apart on energy accidents provides important insights into methodological issues and policy implications. Recommendations for further improvements in energy accident studies are developed including accounting for differences between average and incremental accident damages, testing for appropriate levels of aggregation of accidents, making references and databases publicly available, more precisely defining and reporting different types of economic damages, accounting for involuntary and voluntary risks, reporting normalized damages, raising broader public policy and planning implications and updating existing accident databases. (author)
Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.
The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume of the Systems Design Study contain four Appendixes that were part of the study. Appendix A is an EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., report that represents a review and compilation of previous reports describing the wastes and quantities disposed in the Subsurface Disposal Area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Appendix B contains the process flowsheets considered in this study, but not selected for detailed analysis. Appendix C is a historical tabulation of radioactive waste incinerators. Appendix D lists Department of Energy facilities where cementation stabilization systems have been used
Silver Bullet? Asking the Right Questions About Conventional Prompt Global Strike (Washington, DC: Carneige Endowment for International Peace, 2013), pp...124 James M. Acton, Silver Bullet? Asking the Right Questions About Prompt Global Strike (Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2013), pp. 120-129. ...Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues Amy F. Woolf Specialist in Nuclear Weapons Policy
Full Text Available Death or injury to whales from vessel strike is one of the primary threats to whale populations worldwide. However, quantifying the rate of occurrence of these collisions is difficult because many incidents are not detected (particularly from large vessels and therefore go unreported. Furthermore, varying reporting biases occur related to species identification, spatial coverage of reports and type of vessels involved. The International Whaling Commission (IWC has compiled a database of the worldwide occurrence of vessel strikes to cetaceans, within which Australia constitutes ~7% (35 reports of the reported worldwide (~471 reports vessel strike records involving large whales. Worldwide records consist largely of modern reports within the last two decades and historical evaluation of ship strike reports has mainly focused on the Northern Hemisphere. To address this we conducted a search of historical national and international print media archive databases to discover reports of vessel strikes globally, although with a focus on Australian waters. A significant number of previously unrecorded reports of vessel strikes were found for both Australia (76 and worldwide (140, resulting in a revised estimate of ~15% of global vessel strikes occurring in Australian waters. This detailed collation and analysis of vessel strike data in an Australian context has contributed to our knowledge of the worldwide occurrence of vessel strikes and challenges the notion that vessel strikes were historically rare in Australia relative to the rest of the world. The work highlights the need to examine historical records to provide context around current anthropogenic threats to marine fauna and demonstrates the importance of formalized reporting structures for effective collation of vessel strike reports. This paper examines the issues and biases in analysis of vessel strike data in general that would apply to any jurisdiction. Using the Australian data as an example
The Nairobi General Strike  was the culmination of Kenya’s post war strike wave and urban upheaval. An unprecedented upsurge occurred with the general strikes in Mombasa  led by the African Workers Federation [A.W.F.] and in Nairobi by the East African Trades Union Congress [E.A.T.U.C.]. While this has been termed and treated as a city wide strike, there is enough evidence to suggest a movement that went some way beyond Nairobi. The extent of the cohesion and reciprocal impacts am...
Huff, William M
...). The paper describes the operational functions required from the appointed operational commander and his staff to achieve synergism through the combination of special operations and precision strike...
Casali, Livia; Covele, Brent; Guo, Houyang
The new Small Angle Slot (SAS) divertor in DIII-D is characterized by a shallow-angle target enclosed by a slot structure about the strike point (SP). SOLPS modelling results of SAS have demonstrated divertor closure's utility in widening the range of acceptable densities for adequate heat handling. An extensive database of runs has been built to study the detachment dependence on SP location in SAS. Density scans show that lower Te at lower upstream density occur when the SP is at the critical location in the slot. The cooling front spreads across the entire target at higher densities, in agreement with experimental Langmuir probe measurements. A localized increase of the atomic and molecular density takes place near the SP, which reduces the target incident power density and facilitates detachment at lower upstream density. Systematic scans of variables such as power, transport, and viscosity have been carried out to assess the detachment sensitivity. Therein, a positive role of the viscosity is found. This work supported by DOE Contract Number DE-FC02-04ER54698.
Full Text Available Traditional geological mapping may be hindered by rough terrain and dense vegetation resulting in obscured geological details. The advent of airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR provides a very precise three-dimensional (3D digital terrain model (DTM. However, its full potential in complementing traditional geological mapping remains to be explored using 3D rendering techniques. This study uses two types of 3D images which differ in imaging principles to further explore the finer details of sedimentary terrain. Our purposes are to demonstrate detailed geological mapping with 3D rendering techniques, to generate LiDAR-derived 3D strata boundaries that are advantageous in generating 2D geological maps and cross sections, and to develop a new practice in deriving the strike and dip of bedding with LiDAR data using an example from the north bank of the Keelung River in northern Taiwan. We propose a geological mapping practice that improves efficiency and meets a high-precision mapping standard with up to 2 m resolution using airborne LiDAR data. Through field verification and assessment, LiDAR data manipulation with relevant 3D visualization is shown to be an effective approach in improving the details of existing geological maps, specifically in sedimentary terrain.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The quantification of uncertainty and variability is a key component of quantitative risk analysis. Recent advances in Bayesian statistics make it ideal for integrating multiple sources of information, of different types and quality, and providing a realistic estimate of the combined uncertainty in the final risk estimates. Methods We present two case studies related to foodborne microbial risks. In the first, we combine models to describe the sequence of events resulting in illness from consumption of milk contaminated with VTEC O157. We used Monte Carlo simulation to propagate uncertainty in some of the inputs to computer models describing the farm and pasteurisation process. Resulting simulated contamination levels were then assigned to consumption events from a dietary survey. Finally we accounted for uncertainty in the dose-response relationship and uncertainty due to limited incidence data to derive uncertainty about yearly incidences of illness in young children. Options for altering the risk were considered by running the model with different hypothetical policy-driven exposure scenarios. In the second case study we illustrate an efficient Bayesian sensitivity analysis for identifying the most important parameters of a complex computer code that simulated VTEC O157 prevalence within a managed dairy herd. This was carried out in 2 stages, first to screen out the unimportant inputs, then to perform a more detailed analysis on the remaining inputs. The method works by building a Bayesian statistical approximation to the computer code using a number of known code input/output pairs (training runs. Results We estimated that the expected total number of children aged 1.5-4.5 who become ill due to VTEC O157 in milk is 8.6 per year, with 95% uncertainty interval (0,11.5. The most extreme policy we considered was banning on-farm pasteurisation of milk, which reduced the estimate to 6.4 with 95% interval (0,11. In the second
Full Text Available Assessment of muscle function after an injury or during recovery is of great importance in the veterinary field. Accelerometry, bioimpedance analysis and mechanomyography/acoustic myography have been used to assess human muscular problems, but have not been applied to the veterinary clinic. We report the clinical use of these techniques in a 12-year-old Danish Warmblood horse presenting with recurring and shifting lameness. Acoustic myography, assessing both the amplitude and frequency of active muscles, was employed to locate the specific area of muscle injury, the right hip, which exhibited minimal fibre recruitment giving rise to considerable weakness. This specific region was assessed by accelerometry which revealed a normal step interval for the injured leg when compared with the contralateral, but a weaker acceleration and strike force. Finally, an assessment of muscle resistance (R and reactance (Xc using bioimpedance confirmed a regional loss of muscle mass and a loss of cellular integrity compared with the contralateral limb.
Full Text Available This paper is inscribed within studies on the history of the labor movement during the years '60 and '70 in Argentina and aims to analyze the cycle of general strikes and labor conflictivity that took place more specifically between the years 1969-1972 on a particular region: the Gran La Plata. Through a qualitative and quantitative analysis we will approach the dynamics of general strikes and their impact on our study region, as a kind of struggle that allows us to analyze the different tendencies and forms assumed by the conflict, the degrees of unity within the labor movement, the dynamics of trade unions, alliances with other social forces and the relationship with the state. Therefore, this article contributes to study not only certain specific dynamics of labor conflictivity in our study region, but also the more general cycle of social protest and political radicalization that took place in Argentina during the sixties and seventies
Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.
The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each. This volume contains the descriptions and other relevant information of the four subsystems required for most of the ex situ processing systems. This volume covers the metal decontamination and sizing subsystem, soils processing subsystem, low-level waste subsystem, and retrieval subsystem
Mayberry, J.L.; Quapp, W.J.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.
The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic (TRU) waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's (RWMC's) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. The SDS results are published in eight volumes. Volume 1 contains an executive summary. The SDS summary and analysis of results are presented in volume 2. Volumes 3 through 7 contain detailed descriptions of twelve system and four subsystem concepts. Volume 8 contains the appendices. 3 figs., 3 tabs
Sartorelli, Vittorio; Andersen, Helle Raun; Angerer, Jürgen
. In order to predict the systemic risk of dermally absorbed chemicals and to enable agencies to set safety standards, data is needed on the rates of percutaneous penetration of important chemicals. Standardization of in vitro tests and comparison of their results with the in vivo data could produce...... internationally accepted penetration rates and/or absorption percentages very useful for regulatory toxicology. The work of the Percutaneous Penetration Subgroup of EC Dermal Exposure Network has been focussed on the standardization and validation of in vitro experiments, necessary to obtain internationally...... accepted penetration rates for regulatory purposes. The members of the Subgroup analyzed the guidelines on percutaneous penetration in vitro studies presented by various organizations and suggested a standardization of in vitro models for percutaneous penetration taking into account their individual...
Mayberry, J.L.; Quapp, W.J.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.
The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. The SDS results are published in eight volumes. Volume 1 contains an executive summary. The SDS summary and analysis of results are presented in Volume 2. Volumes 3 through 7 contain detailed descriptions of twelve system and four subsystem concepts. Volume 8 contains the appendixes. 23 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs
Kerdijk, Wouter; Tio, Rene A.; Mulder, B. Florentine; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke
Background: It has been asserted that assessment can and should be used to drive students' learning. In the current study, we present a cumulative assessment program in which test planning, repeated testing and compensation are combined in order to influence study effort. The program is aimed at
On the basis of a compilation of paleoseismological data from the Wasatch and San Andreas faults, Schwartz and Coppersmith (1984) proposed that both plate boundary and intraplate faults tend to generate essentially same size earthquakes having a relatively narrow range of magnitudes near the maximum. They referred to these earthquakes as "characteristic earthquakes". Their hypothesis suggests that the historical record of earthquakes documented for periods of time ranging from centuries to millennia in different parts of the world that could allow predictions of future ruptures. The characteristic earthquake model works surprisingly well for major strike-slip faults like the North Anatolian fault of Turkey and the North Tabriz strike-slip fault in Iran which both show a progressive, uni-direction pattern of rupture starting at one point and "unzippering" over a distance of hundreds of kilometers in a series of earthquakes. This regular periodicity has been attributed to systematic changes in Coulomb failure stress on individual faults or interconnected fault networks defined by distinctive changes in fault strike, or stepover faults, or by the intersection of a neighboring fault. However, studies of the San Andreas, Wasatch, and Dead Sea faults show that earthquake ruptures are not periodic and instead form clusters of events with no obvious "recurrence interval" as predicted by the characteristic earthquake model. Some of these hard-to-forecast "uncharacteristic" earthquakes initiate as blind thrust faults formed at deeper levels in the crust near the brittle-plastic transition zone as illustrated by the 1989 M 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake of California. Such events would produce little or no surface rupture of the main fault plane so the effects of this type of earthquake would remain impossible for future paleoseismologists to discern (other than from shaking effects and the broad vertical uplift related to vertical motions on deeply buried faults). More recently
Greatrex-White, Sheila; Moxey, Helen
The purpose of this study was to ascertain how well different wound assessment tools meet the needs of nurses in carrying out general wound assessment and whether current tools are fit for purpose. The methodology employed was evaluation research. In order to conduct the evaluation, a literature review was undertaken to identify the criteria of an optimal wound assessment tool which would meet nurses' needs. Several freely available wound assessment tools were selected based on predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria and an audit tool was developed to evaluate the selected tools based on how well they met the criteria of the optimal wound assessment tool. The results provide a measure of how well the selected wound assessment tools meet the criteria of the optimal wound assessment tool. No tool was identified which fulfilled all the criteria, but two (the Applied Wound Management tool and the National Wound Assessment Form) met the most criteria of the optimal tool and were therefore considered to best meet nurses' needs in wound assessment. The study provides a mechanism for the appraisal of wound assessment tools using a set of optimal criteria which could aid practitioners in their search for the best wound assessment tool. © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal published by Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
João P. S. Catalão
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the protection of wind energy systems against the direct effects of lightning. As wind power generation undergoes rapid growth, lightning damages involving wind turbines have come to be regarded as a serious problem. Nevertheless, very few studies exist yet in Portugal regarding lightning protection of wind energy systems using numerical codes. A new case study is presented in this paper, based on a wind turbine with an interconnecting transformer, for the analysis of transient phenomena due to a direct lightning strike to the blade. Comprehensive simulation results are provided by using models of the Restructured Version of the Electro-Magnetic Transients Program (EMTP, and conclusions are duly drawn.
While the South African Constitution enshrines both children's right to a basic education and teachers' right to strike, conflict between these two often occurs when the way in which teachers' unions conduct strike actions detracts from learners' education. This article identifies the parties affected by industrial action in the ...
Muller, Sean; Abernethy, Bruce
Expert performers in striking sports can hit objects moving at high speed with incredible precision. Exceptionally well developed anticipation skills are necessary to cope with the severe constraints on interception. In this paper, we provide a review of the empirical evidence regarding expert interception in striking sports and propose a…
Deacon, H. J.
While the South African Constitution enshrines both children's right to a basic education and teachers' right to strike, conflict between these two often occurs when the way in which teachers' unions conduct strike actions detracts from learners' education. This article identifies the parties affected by industrial action in the school context,…
Lisella, Carmine; Schwartz, Patricia
Strikes are generally accepted as legitimate prerogatives of employees bargaining with employers in the private sector. Two broad questions must be answered when considering whether the right to strike should be granted public employees, including teachers. First, what are the distinctions between the public and private sectors that can reasonably…
Though physicians strike provides an opportunity to generate more knowledge about the process in which legitimacy of an organization can be restored, it meets with a great deal of resistance not only by the public but from within the medical profession. This paper critically examines the legitimacy of strike by medical ...
BACKGROUND: Lightning has been viewed as a sign of the anger of the “gods” from Greek mythology. Among Yorubas, thunderstorm is regarded as anger from the god of thunder, “Sango” who could strike anybody anywhere to vent his anger at someone who has committed some form of atrocity. When lightning strikes, it ...
When played in their standard form, striking/fielding games are often a favorite among elementary students; yet they allow for only limited participation, which is contradictory to quality physical education. This article presents a sequence of lessons leading to Batter's Choice, a modified striking/fielding game, designed to maximize the…
Views November–December 2012 Air & Space Power Journal | 137 Lightning Strikes and Thunder Claps The Strategic Bomber and Air Superiority Maj Wade S...2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lightning Strikes and Thunder Claps: The Strategic Bomber and Air Superiority 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b
Shenkar, Miriam; Shenkar, Oded
Teachers often embed their labor demands within a broader context to claim high moral ground and build community support. We analyze a recent teachers' strike in Israel, looking at how the strike played out in a country where the challenges of globalization collided with a socialist legacy in the face of an existential threat. The analysis reveals…
Here we describe a comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA) approach for two case studies of nano-titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) in real world applications: water treatment and sunscreen. CEA combines a product life cycle framework with the risk assessment paradigm.
Oakerson, Peggy Fast
A study skills course was evaluated for effects on results from the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) (D. Mealy, 1988). Subjects were students in a freshman level college study skills course. At pretest, there were 29 students in the treatment condition, and by the post-test 25 students remained. In a followup telephone survey, 21…
Li, Su-Ting T; Srinivasan, Malathi; Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Kravitz, Richard L; Wilkes, Michael S
Worldwide, health care providers use strikes and job actions to influence policy. For health care providers, especially physicians, strikes create an ethical tension between an obligation to care for current patients (e.g., to provide care and avoid abandonment) and an obligation to better care for future patients by seeking system improvements (e.g., improvements in safety, to access, and in the composition and strength of the health care workforce). This tension is further intensified when the potential benefit of a strike involves professional self-interest and the potential risk involves patient harm or death. By definition, trainees are still forming their professional identities and values, including their opinions on fair wages, health policy, employee benefits, professionalism, and strikes. In this article, the authors explore these ethical tensions, beginning with a discussion of reactions to a potential 2005 nursing strike at the University of California, Davis, Medical Center. The authors then propose a conceptual model describing factors that may influence health care providers' decisions to strike (including personal ethics, personal agency, and strike-related context). In particular, the authors explore the relationship between training level and attitudes toward taking a job action, such as going on strike. Because trainees' attitudes toward strikes continue to evolve during training, the authors maintain that open discussion around the ethics of health care professionals' strikes and other methods of conflict resolution should be included in medical education to enhance professionalism and systems-based practice training. The authors include sample case vignettes to help initiate these important discussions. Copyright © by the Association of American medical Colleges.
Preuss, S.; van Dinther, Y.; Ampuero, J. P.; Herrendoerfer, R.; Gerya, T.
Strike-slip fault systems are capable of producing large earthquakes on both their main fault and on secondary and potentially unknown faults. A recent example is the 2016 Mw 7.8 Kaikōura earthquake that resulted in surface ruptures along at least 12 major crustal faults. Strike-slip faults are surrounded by inelastic off-fault deformation zones whose displacement accounts for up to 60% of the total displacement. Secondary faults in California accommodate up to 43% of the total fault slip rate of mapped faults taken from the SCEC catalog, while unknown faults arguably accommodate up to 30% of the long-term strain. To better understand these complexities and the long-term evolution of branching fault structures, we quantify the parameters influencing branching structure with a particular focus on the role of seismicity. We incorporate the relevant dynamics of both long-term fault evolution and short-term seismogenesis using the continuum visco-elasto-plastic tools of Seismo-Thermo-Mechanical (STM) modeling approach (van Dinther et al., 2013, Herrendörfer et al., in prep). Long-term fault evolution is governed by Drucker-Prager plasticity and plastic strain weakening of cohesion, while frictional weakening and rapid slip is governed by either strongly rate-dependent (RDF) or rate-and-state friction (RSF). We use a 2D, plane view, natural scale model setup (1200 km x 1000 km), which contains the end of a dextral mature strike-slip fault on one side. Episodic slip events on this pre-existing fault patch propagate into the undamaged host rock. As faults grow they develop a fan-like plastic strain envelope, whose width keeps growing with fault length and accumulated on-fault slip. We interpret this zone as a splay-fault network, which is typically seen ahead of propagating fault tips. We analyze the evolving faults in terms of dissipated strain energy GC, accumulated slip D and fault length L. Results show that a single event is capable of producing a several hundreds
Darryl W Hondorp
Full Text Available Channelization for navigation and flood control has altered the hydrology and bathymetry of many large rivers with unknown consequences for fish species that undergo riverine migrations. In this study, we investigated whether altered flow distributions and bathymetry associated with channelization attracted migrating Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens into commercial navigation channels, potentially increasing their exposure to ship strikes. To address this question, we quantified and compared Lake Sturgeon selection for navigation channels vs. alternative pathways in two multi-channel rivers differentially affected by channelization, but free of barriers to sturgeon movement. Acoustic telemetry was used to quantify Lake Sturgeon movements. Under the assumption that Lake Sturgeon navigate by following primary flow paths, acoustic-tagged Lake Sturgeon in the more-channelized lower Detroit River were expected to choose navigation channels over alternative pathways and to exhibit greater selection for navigation channels than conspecifics in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River. Consistent with these predictions, acoustic-tagged Lake Sturgeon in the more-channelized lower Detroit River selected the higher-flow and deeper navigation channels over alternative migration pathways, whereas in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River, individuals primarily used pathways alternative to navigation channels. Lake Sturgeon selection for navigation channels as migratory pathways also was significantly higher in the more-channelized lower Detroit River than in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River. We speculated that use of navigation channels over alternative pathways would increase the spatial overlap of commercial vessels and migrating Lake Sturgeon, potentially enhancing their vulnerability to ship strikes. Results of our study thus demonstrated an association between channelization and the path use of migrating Lake Sturgeon that could prove
Koshida, S; Matsuda, T; Kawada, K
The aim of this study was to demonstrate the kinematics and kinetics of the lower extremity during the kendo strike-thrust motion in experienced kendo athletes. Fifteen experienced kendo athletes (age 20.4±1.2 years; height 171.5±4 cm; weight 73.9±9.1 kg; the kendo experience 11.1±3.1 years) volunteered to participate in the study. The three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data was collected by the motion analysis system with eight cameras and with a force platform. We instructed the participants to perform three sets of kendo motion at the distances of 1.8 m, 2 m, and 2.2 m to the target. We then obtained the joint kinematic and kinetic data of the ankle dorsiflexion-planterflexion, foot pronation-supination, knee flexion-extension, and hip flexion-extension during the single support phase. The peak foot pronation angle and the range of motion (ROM) of foot pronation were also calculated. The result demonstrated the high intra-subject repeatability of the joint angle and the torque curve of the left lower extremity during the single support phase in the kendo motion. Our result also showed that as for the peak foot pronation angle and the pronation ROM there was no significant difference between different distances to the target. We provided the basic biomechanical information during the kendo strike-thrust motion, and the result will help us to understand the Achilles tendon injury occurrence in kendo athletes.
Full Text Available Shifting from teacher-centred to student-centred practices requires teachers to understand strategies to interact with students in science classes. Formative assessment strategies are very critical component of classroom interaction where teachers obtain information about student learning wherever possible. Traditionally, however, teachers ask questions and evaluate student responses but without investigating student contributions to the classroom interaction. This qualitative study aimed at developing teachers’ knowledge of formative assessment strategies when teaching science-based inquiry in Saudi Arabia. 12 teachers were observed when teaching science and details of one teachers’ practices of formative assessment is presented in this study. Formative assessment framework that describes assessment conversations is used and modified to observe teachers’ assessment practices. Assessment conversation consists of four-step cycles, where the teacher elicits information from students through questioning, the student responds, the teacher recognizes the student’s response, and then uses the information to develop further inquiry. Findings indicate that teachers ask questions and receive responses but rarely allow students to share their own ideas or discuss their own thinking. The study underlines the importance of integrating formative assessment strategies during scientific inquiry teaching for professional development as a way to increase student participation and allow opportunities for students’ inquiry in science classes.
This presentation, Assessing Neurodevelopment in Parallel Animal and Human Studies, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Neurodevelopment held on Sept. 9, 2015.
Out of pocket spending for healthcare services: a study assessing the relationship between payment methods and perceived satisfaction with the quality of care in a tertiary health facility in Delta State, Nigeria.
The Federal Railroad Administration funded the BNSF San Bernardino Case Study to verify its Generalized Train Movement : Simulator (GTMS) risk assessment capabilities on a planned implementation of the I-ETMS PTC system. The analysis explicitly : sim...
The objective of this study is to describe and analyze the hydrologic, : institutional, legal, and economic issues involved in assessing and interpreting : estimates of water availability for synfuels development in four major river : basins: (1) Upp...
Pilot study for assessment of prevalence of intrafamilial hepatitis C transmission in relation to salivary viral load among infected patients with and without chronic renal failure. H El Tayeb, NA El Nakeeb, MM Sayed, WA Yousry, SHA Agwa ...
Family Medicine needs assessment: Studying the clinical work of general practitioners in Ethiopia. J Philpott, S Shiferaw, K Rouleau, D Cole, E Nicolle, K Bezanson, N Pimlott, C Meaney, G Nasmith, M Abbyad, M Derbew, A Mekasha ...
Squadrone, Roberto; Rodano, Renato; Hamill, Joseph; Preatoni, Ezio
Despite the growing interest in minimalist shoes, no studies have compared the efficacy of different types of minimalist shoe models in reproducing barefoot running patterns and in eliciting biomechanical changes that make them differ from standard cushioned running shoes. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of different footwear models, marketed as "minimalist" by their manufacturer, on running biomechanics. Six running shoes marketed as barefoot/minimalist models, a standard cushioned shoe and the barefoot condition were tested. Foot-/shoe-ground pressure and three-dimensional lower limb kinematics were measured in experienced rearfoot strike runners while they were running at 3.33 m · s⁻¹ on an instrumented treadmill. Physical and mechanical characteristics of shoes (mass, heel and forefoot sole thickness, shock absorption and flexibility) were measured with laboratory tests. There were significant changes in foot strike pattern (described by the strike index and foot contact angle) and spatio-temporal stride characteristics, whereas only some among the other selected kinematic parameters (i.e. knee angles and hip vertical displacement) changed accordingly. Different types of minimalist footwear models induced different changes. It appears that minimalist footwear with lower heel heights and minimal shock absorption is more effective in replicating barefoot running.
Sharma, Arun; Tyagi, Rishi
ABSTRACT In children, dental anxiety and fear of dental treatment have been recognized as a source of problems in patient management for many years, which can affect the quality of care. Aims : The aim of the study was to assess the behavior of children during their dental visit and to determine the effect of behavior management techniques on children. Materials and Methods : A retrospective study was done by analyzing the records of 328 children to assess their behavior during dental visits....
Rodrigo Medel Sierralta
Full Text Available From the return to democracy to the present, illegal strikes have acquired a prominent role in Chile’s labor conflicts, mainly due to the fact that many more workers mobilize, compared to those who participate in legal strikes. Nevertheless, existing studies on the subject focus on descriptions and general tendencies, thus neglecting the in-depth analysis of the factors determining the specific occurrence of the extralegal strikes. Consequently, the factors that might be contributing to the possibility of illegal strikes remain unknown. If labor strikes are construed as analytical events that are fundamental in order to understand power relations in capitalist enterprises, the review of the international literature on the subject helps us solve that problem, since it proposes statistical analysis models to study the economy at the national level (economic cycles, trade union organization (membership and size of unions, and work regime (fragmentation and job insecurity, as well as a further company-level analysis of the last two models. On the basis of statistics regarding the strikes that took place in Chile between 1990 and 2015 and a binary logistic regression analysis, we analyzed the weight of each one of those statistical models separately and that of all of them taken together, in the private sector of the economy (in which it is possible to opt for one or the other strike modality in the Chilean case. The results show that the trade union organization and the work regime models have a greater power to determine illegal strikes, and that the economic model loses meaning when its variables are included in the complete model. Finally, the article presents the conclusions regarding the relevance of the distinction between legal and illegal strikes for the Chilean case, in terms of workers that not only represent subjects without rights, but also actors with a certain autonomy regarding legality. In this sense, these
Full Text Available The right to strike is recognized in the Constitution and the Labor Code of the Russian Federation as a means to resolve collective labor disputes. However, in Russia labor protests come up for discussion much more frequently than strikes. In recent years the number of labor protests in Russia, including various forms of work stoppage, has increased significantly compared to previous years, but the number of legally constituted collective labor disputes and strikes has remained very low. The legislation on resolution of collective labor disputes and mounting strikes is quite restrictive in Russia, and its enforcement also encourages employees to seek alternative ways to settle collective labor conflicts. There is little empirical research on the judicial implementation of these norms and its influence on the enforcement of legislation. Therefore, this paper analyses the reasoning of courts in cases on the legality of strikes, their interpretations of the law, and the impact these decisions have on the enforcement of the legislation on resolution of collective labor disputes and strikes. Our conclusion is that the courts act as another restrictive influence on the resolution of collective labor disputes and the exercise of the right to strike in Russia.
Giandolini, Marlène; Poupard, Thibaut; Gimenez, Philippe; Horvais, Nicolas; Millet, Guillaume Y; Morin, Jean-Benoît; Samozino, Pierre
Identifying foot strike patterns in running is an important issue for sport clinicians, coaches and footwear industrials. Current methods allow the monitoring of either many steps in laboratory conditions or only a few steps in the field. Because measuring running biomechanics during actual practice is critical, our purpose is to validate a method aiming at identifying foot strike patterns during continuous field measurements. Based on heel and metatarsal accelerations, this method requires two uniaxial accelerometers. The time between heel and metatarsal acceleration peaks (THM) was compared to the foot strike angle in the sagittal plane (αfoot) obtained by 2D video analysis for various conditions of speed, slope, footwear, foot strike and state of fatigue. Acceleration and kinematic measurements were performed at 1000Hz and 120Hz, respectively, during 2-min treadmill running bouts. Significant correlations were observed between THM and αfoot for 14 out of 15 conditions. The overall correlation coefficient was r=0.916 (Pfoot strike except for extreme forefoot strike during which the heel rarely or never strikes the ground, and for different footwears and states of fatigue. We proposed a classification based on THM: FFS<-5.49ms
Hollingsworth, J.; Walker, R.; Jackson, J.; Bolourchi, M. J.; Eshraghi, S. A.
The East Alborz mountains of NE Iran are actively deforming as a result of Arabia-Eurasia collision. We combine observations of the geomorphology made using high resolution satellite, topographic and field data, with historical and recent seismicity to map major active faults in this poorly studied region. Deformation on the north side of the range occurs by range-normal shortening on the Khazar thrust fault, which separates Central Iran from the South Caspian. South of the range, deformation involves both left-lateral slip on the previously undocumented Shahrud fault system, which comprises several range-bounding fault segments, and shortening on (probably minor) thrust faults. Faulting south of the range is responsible for major historical earthquakes at Damghan (856AD) and Shahrud (1890). Deformation accommodated across the East Alborz is estimated from the difference in GPS velocities north and south of the range. South of the Alborz, northward GPS velocities across Central Iran decrease eastwards and the strike of the deforming belt changes to become more sub-parallel to the direction of South Caspian- Iran relative motion. This reduces the shortening component across the East Alborz, resulting in lower elevations between 54--57°E. West of 55.5°E, the more arc-normal shortening is achieved by partitioning of deformation onto the Khazar thrust (~1 mm/yr) and the Astaneh and Firuzkuh strike-slip faults (~3 mm/yr). East of 55.5°E, the Khazar fault ends and East Alborz deformation is accommodated primarily on the left-lateral Shahrud fault system, which may slip up to 3~mm/yr. Due to the long gap in seismicity along the eastern Shahrud fault system, the city of Jajarm (15,000 pop.) is considered at high risk from future earthquakes.
Cornwell, David; Thompson, David; Papaleo, Elvira; Rost, Sebastian; Houseman, Gregory; Kahraman, Metin; Turkelli, Niyazi; Teoman, Ugur; Altuncu Poyraz, Selda; Gulen, Levent; Utkucu, Murat
As part of the multi-disciplinary Faultlab project, we present new detailed images in a geologically complex region where the crust and upper mantle is bisected by a major continental strike-slip fault system. Our study region samples the north Anatolian fault zone (NAFZ) near the epicentres of two large earthquakes that occurred in 1999 at Izmit (M7.5) and Düzce (M7.2) and where estimates of present day slip rate are 20-25 mm/yr. Using recordings of teleseismic earthquakes from a rectangular seismometer array spanning the NAFZ with 66 stations at a nominal inter-station spacing of 7 km and 7 additional stations further afield, we build a detailed 3-D image of structure and anisotropy using receiver functions, tomography and shear wave splitting and illuminate major changes in the architecture and properties of the upper crust, lower crust and upper mantle, both across and along the two branches of the NAFZ, at length scales of less than 20 km. We show that the northern NAFZ branch depth extent varies from the mid-crust to the upper mantle and it is likely to be less than 10 km wide. A high velocity lower crust and a region of crustal underthrusting appear to add strength to a heterogeneous crust and play a role in dictating the variation in faulting style and postseismic deformation. Sharp changes in lithospheric mantle velocity and anisotropy are constrained as the NAFZ is crossed, whereas crustal structure and anisotropy vary considerably both parallel and perpendicular to the faulting. We use our observations to test current models of the localisation of strike-slip deformation and develop new ideas to explain how narrow fault zones develop in extremely heterogeneous lithosphere.
Liou, Saou-Hsing; Tsai, Candace S. J.; Pelclova, Daniela; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Schulte, Paul A.
The results of early animal studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and air pollution epidemiology suggest that it is important to assess the health of ENM workers. Initial epidemiological studies of workers’ exposure to ENMs (<100 nm) are reviewed and characterized for their study designs, findings, and limitations. Of the 15 studies, 11 were cross-sectional, 4 were longitudinal (1 was both cross-sectional and longitudinal in design), and 1 was a descriptive pilot study. Generally, the studies used biologic markers as the dependent variables. All 11 cross-sectional studies showed a positive relationship between various biomarkers and ENM exposures. Three of the four longitudinal studies showed a negative relationship; the fourth showed positive findings after a 1-year follow-up. Each study considered exposure to ENMs as the independent variable. Exposure was assessed by mass concentration in 10 studies and by particle count in six studies. Six of them assessed both mass and particle concentrations. Some of the studies had limited exposure data because of inadequate exposure assessment. Generally, exposure levels were not very high in comparison to those in human inhalation chamber studies, but there were some exceptions. Most studies involved a small sample size, from 2 to 258 exposed workers. These studies represent the first wave of epidemiological studies of ENM workers. They are limited by small numbers of participants, inconsistent (and in some cases inadequate) exposure assessments, generally low exposures, and short intervals between exposure and effect. Still, these studies are a foundation for future work; they provide insight into where ENM workers are experiencing potentially adverse effects that might be related to ENM exposures
Liou, Saou-Hsing, E-mail: email@example.com [National Health Research Institutes, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (China); Tsai, Candace S. J. [Colorado State University, Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Science (United States); Pelclova, Daniela [Charles University in Prague, Department of Occupational Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine (Czech Republic); Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Schulte, Paul A. [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (United States)
The results of early animal studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and air pollution epidemiology suggest that it is important to assess the health of ENM workers. Initial epidemiological studies of workers’ exposure to ENMs (<100 nm) are reviewed and characterized for their study designs, findings, and limitations. Of the 15 studies, 11 were cross-sectional, 4 were longitudinal (1 was both cross-sectional and longitudinal in design), and 1 was a descriptive pilot study. Generally, the studies used biologic markers as the dependent variables. All 11 cross-sectional studies showed a positive relationship between various biomarkers and ENM exposures. Three of the four longitudinal studies showed a negative relationship; the fourth showed positive findings after a 1-year follow-up. Each study considered exposure to ENMs as the independent variable. Exposure was assessed by mass concentration in 10 studies and by particle count in six studies. Six of them assessed both mass and particle concentrations. Some of the studies had limited exposure data because of inadequate exposure assessment. Generally, exposure levels were not very high in comparison to those in human inhalation chamber studies, but there were some exceptions. Most studies involved a small sample size, from 2 to 258 exposed workers. These studies represent the first wave of epidemiological studies of ENM workers. They are limited by small numbers of participants, inconsistent (and in some cases inadequate) exposure assessments, generally low exposures, and short intervals between exposure and effect. Still, these studies are a foundation for future work; they provide insight into where ENM workers are experiencing potentially adverse effects that might be related to ENM exposures.
Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the problems experienced by immediate families in caring for children affected with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) seen at University Teaching Hospital (UTH) Lusaka, Zambia. Design: The study was a cross sectional descriptive study conducted at the SCD outpatient clinic ...
We set out to look at the knowledge, attitudes and assessment of GS courses by students of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi campus whose courses of study are related to human health. It is hoped that the information gained from this study will help the School of General Studies (SGS) improve the set of GS courses ...
Full Text Available Assessment and evaluation are among the essential functions performed by an educator. What is more, they are closely related to the communication of the teaching process efficiency in terms of verification of learner and educator expectations, determination of learning and teaching quality achievement, and generalization of educational activities. The present study aims at the analysis of assessment techniques applied in the master degree linguistic studies. Initially, a brief theoretical overview of both formal and informal assessment me- thods is provided, with the focus on their distinctive features and ways of application in the light of Bloom’s taxonomy and Dublin description representing the competence requirements set for the gain of definite skills. Further, the results of the survey (conducted at Kaunas Faculty of Humanities, Vilnius University are described. Finally, the eligible assessment techniques serving the purpose of efficient educational process in the second-cycle study process are identified.
Arfaoui, Aymen; Soumaya, Abdelkader; Ben Ayed, Noureddine; Delvaux, Damien; Ghanmi, Mohamed; Kadri, Ali; Zargouni, Fouad
Three major compressional events characterized by folding, thrusting and strike-slip faulting occurred in the Eocene, Late Miocene and Quaternary along the NE Tunisian domain between Bou Kornine-Ressas-Msella and Cap Bon Peninsula. During the Plio-Quaternary, the Grombalia and Mornag grabens show a maximum of collapse in parallelism with the NNW-SSE SHmax direction and developed as 3rd order distensives zones within a global compressional regime. Using existing tectonic and geophysical data supplemented by new fault-kinematic observations, we show that Cenozoic deformation of the Mesozoic sedimentary sequences is dominated by first order N-S faults reactivation, this sinistral wrench system is responsible for the formation of strike-slip duplexes, thrusts, folds and grabens. Following our new structural interpretation, the major faults of N-S Axis, Bou Kornine-Ressas-Messella (MRB) and Hammamet-Korbous (HK) form an N-S first order compressive relay within a left lateral strike-slip duplex. The N-S master MRB fault is dominated by contractional imbricate fans, while the parallel HK fault is characterized by a trailing of extensional imbricate fans. The Eocene and Miocene compression phases in the study area caused sinistral strike-slip reactivation of pre-existing N-S faults, reverse reactivation of NE-SW trending faults and normal-oblique reactivation of NW-SE faults, creating a NE-SW to N-S trending system of east-verging folds and overlaps. Existing seismic tomography images suggest a key role for the lithospheric subvertical tear or STEP fault (Slab Transfer Edge Propagator) evidenced below this region on the development of the MRB and the HK relay zone. The presence of extensive syntectonic Pliocene on top of this crustal scale fault may be the result of a recent lithospheric vertical kinematic of this STEP fault, due to the rollback and lateral migration of the Calabrian slab eastward.
Sasnett, P.; Quigley, M.; Cruden, A. R.; Boutelier, D. A.; Villamor, P.
Analog modeling of strike-slip faulting provides insight into the development and behavior of surface ruptures with progressive slip, with relevance for understanding how coseismic displacements from fault ruptures are recorded in paleoseismic trenches. Patterns of surface deformation were investigated in analogue experiments using cohesive and non-cohesive granular materials above a vertical, planar, strike-slip basement fault. Surface deformation during the experiments was monitored by 3D PIV (Particle Imaging Velocimetry) and 2D time-lapse photography. Analysis of the experiments focused on fault zone morphology and development, as well as comparisons between the models and surface deformation observed along the Greendale Fault that resulted from the 2010 Darfield earthquake, New Zealand. Complex surface rupture patterns with similar characteristics to the Greendale Fault (en echelon fractures, Riedel shears, pop-up structures, etc.) were generated by a simple fault plane of uniform dip, slip, and frictional properties. The main controls on surface rupture morphology were found to be the properties and thickness of the overburden, the nature of the material surface, and the overall displacement of the underlying fault. Mapping the evolution of fracture patterns with progressive shear strain reveals that Riedel shears, striking 0-30° from the underlying basement fault, are more frequently reactivated during multiple displacement (earthquake) cycles, and are thus most likely to provide reliable paleoseismic records. This information will assist in the identification of suitable locations for paleoseismic trenches and in the interpretation of trench records from the Greendale Fault and other active, strike-slip faults in analogous geologic settings. The results also highlight the tendency of trenching studies of faults of this type to underestimate the number of and displacements on previous ruptures, which potentially leads to an underestimate of the magnitude
Full Text Available This article includes a study that examines how formative assessment in dance education is constituted in three Swedish upper secondary schools. The starting-point for the study is life-world phenomenology. A phenomenological way of thinking entails that the human being is intersubjective, linked with and within the world and that learning requires the bodily subject´s active experience. To turn towards the things themselves and to be open and adherent to things in the world is a basic rule and the starting point for research within phenomenology. This study is based on empirical material from observations of the phenomenon formative assessment in dance. Spiegelberg´s philosophical method was used as a base for phenomenological analysis. The analysis results in three themes: modes of communication, dance-related knowledge and function of formative assessment. Formative assessment was observed in the study to commonly involve teachers´ verbal communication and visualisation. The assessment practice is a continuous activity and very rarely involves any kind of self-assessment or tests. The results were discussed and related to a life-world phenomenological view of learning and earlier research.
Beckwith, K. [College Wooster, Wooster, OH (United States)
This article develops the concept of gender frame for understanding major transformations in the collective action repertoires of social movements. Focusing on the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) strike against the Pittston Coal Group (1989-90), the article discusses the UMWA's traditional collective action repertoire and its innovation of nonviolent protest, widely employed during the strike. Interviews with major activists and UMWA staff and officers illustrate how the UMWA employed a gender frame of mining masculinities to initiate the new nonviolent strike action. The article concludes by suggesting how collective action repertoires and framing are linked and encouraging future research on gender frames in social movements.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the methods of experiential assessment in use at a Canadian university and the extent to which they are used. Exploring experiential assessment will allow identification of commonly used methods and facilitate the development of best practices of assessment in the context of experiential learning (EL at an institutional level. The origins of EL are found in the work of Dewey (1938, later modified by Kolb and Fry (1975. Experiential methods include: experiential education, service learning problem-based learning and others such as action learning, enquiry-based learning, and case studies. Faculty currently involved in EL at the participating university were invited to complete an online survey about their teaching and assessment methods. This paper will share the results and analysis of the EL inventory survey.
Caniven, Yannick; Dominguez, Stéphane; Soliva, Roger; Peyret, Michel; Cattin, Rodolphe; Maerten, Frantz
We use a strike-slip fault analog model to study experimentally the role played by along-fault non-uniform and asymmetric applied normal stress on both coseismic slip and long-term fault behavior. Our model is based on a visco-elasto-plastic multi-layered rheology that allows to produce several hundreds of scaled analog microquakes and associated seismic cycles. Uniform or heterogeneous applied normal stress along the fault plane is imposed and maintained constant during the whole experiment durations. Our results suggest that coseismic slip patterns are strongly controlled by spatial normal stress variations and subsequent accumulated shear stress along fault strike. Major microquakes occur preferentially in zones of major shear stress asperities. Coseismic slip distributions exhibit a pattern similar to the along-fault applied normal stress distribution. The occurrence of isolated low to moderate microquakes where residual stresses persist around secondary stress asperities, indicates that stress conditions along the fault also control the whole variability of fault slip events. Moreover, when fault slip stability conditions are modulated by normal stress distribution, our experiments suggest that the along-fault stress heterogeneity influences the seismic cycle regularity and, consequently, long-term fault slip behavior. Uniform applied normal stress favors irregular seismic cycles and the occurrence of earthquakes clustering, whereas non-uniform normal stress with a single high amplitude stress asperity generates strong characteristic microquake events with stable return periods. Together our results strengthen the assumption that coseismic slip distribution and earthquake variability along an active fault may provide relevant information on long term tectonic stress and could thus improve seismic hazard assessment.
Russell, Brian E.
The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model of solo music performance assessment. Specifically, this study investigates the influence of technique and musical expression on perceptions of overall performance quality. The Aural Musical Performance Quality (AMPQ) measure was created to measure overall performance quality, technique,…
van Halem, Nicolette; Goei, Sui Lin; Akkerman, Sanne F.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the extent of systematic examination of students’ educational (support) needs by teachers participating in lesson study (LS) meetings within a framework of formative assessment (FA). Design/methodology/approach: The study took place in the context of
...) to augment or replace the current defenses of Expeditionary Strike Groups (ESG). Specifically, LCS's ability to help defend an ESGs in an anti-access scenario against a high-density small boat attack is simulated. Numbers of CRUDES...
... as, emergent contingency operations, and major theater wars. In the near future they will accomplish this mission while deployed around the globe under the new concept of Expeditionary Strike Groups (ESG...
This thesis analyzes the potential effectiveness of preventive war, preventive strikes, and interdiction as tools for the United States to counter the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD...
.... This annotated bibliography of bird hazards to aircraft, termed ABBHA, is a compilation of citations with abstracts on a wide range of related topics such as bird strike tolerance engineering, bird...
...: Identification of Bird Remains as Part of the Bird Strike Reporting Procedure Birdstrikes - Helicopter in GAF Collisions with Birds of Prey in the Alps The Bird Strike Reporting System in Swiss Air...
Touchie, Claire; Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Varpio, Lara
Graduating Internal Medicine residents must possess sufficient skills to perform a variety of medical procedures. Little is known about resident experiences of acquiring procedural skills proficiency, of practicing these techniques, or of being assessed on their proficiency. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively investigate resident 1) experiences of the acquisition of procedural skills and 2) perceptions of procedural skills assessment methods available to them. Focus groups were conducted in the weeks following an assessment of procedural skills incorporated into an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Using fundamental qualitative description, emergent themes were identified and analyzed. Residents perceived procedural skills assessment on the OSCE as a useful formative tool for direct observation and immediate feedback. This positive reaction was regularly expressed in conjunction with a frustration with available assessment systems. Participants reported that proficiency was acquired through resident directed learning with no formal mechanism to ensure acquisition or maintenance of skills. The acquisition and assessment of procedural skills in Internal Medicine programs should move toward a more structured system of teaching, deliberate practice and objective assessment. We propose that directed, self-guided learning might meet these needs.
The strategic and operational use of preemptive strikes has transitioned from the traditional tactic of air raids to the use of covert cyber attacks like...Stuxnet, operational planners can gain an understanding of the evolution of preemption as a concept. Examining this shift from air strikes to cyber ... attacks through the lens of U.S. Army Doctrine and the tenets of Unified Land Operations (Depth, Synchronization, Integration, Adaptability, Flexibility
Liu, Jun; Li, Yulong; Gao, Xiaosheng; Yu, Xiancheng
In order to examine the potential of using the coupled smooth particles hydrodynamic (SPH) and finite element (FE) method to predict the dynamic responses of aircraft structures in bird strike events, bird-strike tests on the sidewall structure of an aircraft nose are carried out and numerically simulated. The bird is modeled with SPH and described by the Murnaghan equation of state, while the structure is modeled with finite elements. A coupled SPH–FE method is developed to simulate the bird...
Krider, E. Philip; Wetmore, Ralph H.
A lightning strike to the center of three 78-m radio transmission towers produced upward discharges with lengths of 40 and 79 m from each of the neighboring towers. This strike also caused a number of insulators on guy wires that supported the tower to flash over, and the locations of these points and the two-dimensional geometry of the discharge channels are projected onto a vertical plane that is centered on the tower.
Evgeniya G. Blosfeld
Full Text Available The author analyses the left labourites’ attitude to the interaction of the Labour Party and trade unions and use of general strike as a means of the social struggle. Besides the article analyses the left labourites’ estimation of 1926 general strike and the causes of the defeat, and the strike of the miners who decided to continue it. The left labourites defended the branch principle of the trade unions’ organization based on the shopstewards’ model which was better adopted for the strike struggle. The left labourites took into account that the general structure of the labour movement would remain the same, but the Labour Party would take over the leadership from trade unions. The left labourites supported the peaceful way of transition to socialism and they considered the general strike to be analogy of social revolution or a means of pressure of the government for nationalization of the main economic branches and the improvement of the workers’ life conditions. Under extreme circumstances, the general strike was considered to be a means to prevent antidemocratic revolution. Evaluating the general strike of 1926, the author marks the absence of unity in the leadership, hesitations and inconsistency of the left labourites themselves. They didn’t give a single proposal about the improvement of the working-class movement organization except of state British Trade Unions Congress. As a result, the criticism of the General Council’s renegade position was bestowed upon the leadership of the Miners Federation who didn’t submit to the General Council order to stop the strike.
Throughout strike fighter squadrons, the TOPGUN manual is the bible, "TOPGUN recommends ... " is the gospel , and Strike Fighter Instructors (SFTI) are the...34. 60 Ibid, 7. 61 Ibid, 34. 62 Lambeth, 2. 63 Ibid .. 64 Ibid, 3 . . 65 Matthew Klam, "Status is ... for Navy Fighter Pilots; An Air-to-Air...Naval War College, 2004. Klain, Matthew . "Status is ... for Navy Fighter Pilots; An Air-to-Air Kill". NYTIMES. COM, November 15, 1998. http
Tabak, N; Wagner, N
The purpose of this article is to deliberate the moral and legal dilemma entailed in the weapon of the labour strike as a pressure tactic on the Israeli Finance Ministry regarding job slots, budgets and, in effect, violating the collective agreement signed by the nurses and impairing patients' treatment, as opposed to refraining from striking and suffering the heavy burden of work, the lack of trained personnel, low wages, and the inability to give patients proper, high quality treatment.
Veal, M L
Case study design was used in this investigation of the pupil assessment theories of two middle school physical education teachers whose program was identified as a good program in which pupil assessment was taking place. An assumption guiding the study was that teachers' actions are rational and are designed to produce desired results. Therefore, a comparison is made only between two theories of action (espoused and enacted) rather than between theory and practice. Informal and semistructured interviews were employed to elicit teachers' espoused theories, and enacted theories were identified during field visits over a semester in which classes were observed and school documents examined. Teachers' theories of assessment are identified for the categories of participation, effort, and improvement; grading; written tests; fitness testing; performance tests; and formative recordkeeping. Espoused and enacted theories are then examined for congruency. The highest level of incongruency was found in the areas of performance tests and formative recordkeeping. Barriers to the use of pupil assessment techniques in this program include organizational, knowledge, and contextual factors. Change in the assessment practices of secondary teachers may be facilitated, however, through the identification and examination of teachers' theories of assessment by both preservice and inservice teachers.
Henshaw, J.; Hoch, A.; Sharland, S.M.
A preliminary assessment of the performance of the Advanced Cold Process Canister (ACPC) was carried out recently by Marsh. The aim of the study presented in this report is to re-examine the validity of some of the assumptions made, and re-evaluate the canister performance as appropriate. Two areas were highlighted in the preliminary study as requiring more detailed quantitative evaluation. 1) Assessment of the risk of internal stress-corrosion cracking induced by irradiation of moist air inside the canister if, under fault conditions, significant water was carried into the canister before sealing. 2) Evaluation of the corrosion behaviour subsequent to first breach of outer container. (author)
Posey, Virginia K.; Henderson, Barbara W.
Introduction: This exploratory study determined whether transcribing selected test items on an adult life and work skills reading test into braille could maintain the same approximate scale-score range and maintain fitness within the item response theory model as used by the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (CASAS) for developing…
Chen, Pei; Hou, Kang; Chang, Yue; Li, Xuxiang; Zhang, Yunwei
The basic elements of human survival are based on the ecological environment. The development of social economic and the security of the ecological environment are closely linked and interact with each other. The fragility of the environment directly affects the stability of the regional ecosystem and the sustainable development of the ecological environment. As part of the division of the national ecological security, the assessment of ecological fragility has become a hot and difficult issue in environmental research, and researchers at home and abroad have systematically studied the causes and states of ecological fragility. The assessment of regional ecological fragility is a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the unbalanced distribution of ecological environment factors caused by human socio-economic activities or changes in ecosystems. At present, researches on ecological fragility has not formed a complete and unified index assessment system, and the unity of the assessment model has a direct impact on the accuracy of the index weights. Therefore, the discussion on selection of ecological fragility indexes and the improvement of ecological fragility assessment model is necessary, which is good for the improvement of ecological fragility assessment system in China.
An increasing number of studies suggest that organisational citizenship behaviours (OCBs) may produce both positive and negative results for organisations and individuals. Few empirical studies, however, evaluate when OCBs are likely to be most or least effective. Based on a sample of 210 participants, and drawing on ...
Guldbrand Nielsen, Dorte; Jensen, Signe Lichtenstein; O'Neill, Lotte
Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is a widely used cardiac imaging technique that all cardiologists should be able to perform competently. Traditionally, TTE competence has been assessed by unstructured observation or in test situations separated from daily clinical practice. An instrument for assessment of clinical TTE technical proficiency including a global rating score and a checklist score has previously shown reliability and validity in a standardised setting. As clinical test situations typically have several sources of error giving rise to variance in scores, a more thorough examination of the generalizability of the assessment instrument is needed. Nine physicians performed a TTE scan on the same three patients. Then, two raters rated all 27 TTE scans using the TTE technical assessment instrument in a fully crossed, all random generalizability study. Estimated variance components were calculated for both the global rating and checklist scores. Finally, dependability (phi) coefficients were also calculated for both outcomes in a decision study. For global rating scores, 66.6% of score variance can be ascribed to true differences in performance. For checklist scores this was 88.8%. The difference was primarily due to physician-rater interaction. Four random cases rated by one random rater resulted in a phi value of 0.81 for global ratings and two random cases rated by one random rater showed a phi value of 0.92 for checklist scores. Using the TTE checklist as opposed to the TTE global rating score had the effect of minimising the largest source of error variance in test scores. Two cases rated by one rater using the TTE checklist are sufficiently reliable for high stakes examinations. As global rating is less time consuming it could be considered performing four global rating assessments in addition to the checklist assessments to account for both reliability and content validity of the assessment.
The overall assessment methodologies and models utilized for the first project under the Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program are described. Detailed descriptions are given of the methodologies used by lead laboratories for the quantification of the impacts of an energy scenario on one or more media (e.g., air, water, land, human and ecology), and by all laboratories to assess the regional impacts on all media. The research and assessments reflected in this document were performed by the following national laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report contains five chapters. Chapter 1 briefly describes the overall study methodology and introduces the technical participants. Chapter 2 is a summary of the energy policy scenario selected for the RIIA I study and Chapter 3 describes how this scenario was translated into a county-level siting pattern of energy development. The fourth chapter is a detailed description of the individual methodologies used to quantify the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the scenario while Chapter 5 describes how these impacts were translated into comprehensive regional assessments for each Federal Region.
0.630, p=0.068 and p=0.047, respectively) (Table 2). A comparative study assessing a new tool for occluding parenchymal blood flow during liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma. S Zhou, X-J Xue, R-R Li, D-F Chen, W-Y Chen, G-X Liu, ...
The author delved into the results of a flipped classroom pilot conducted for an operations management course module. It assessed students' perception of a flipped learning environment after making them experience it in real time. The classroom environment was construed using a case research approach and students' perceptions were studied using…
This paper reviews: (i) trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) assessment instruments currently in use and (ii) trauma and PTSD studies in South African children and adolescents. Rates of trauma exposure in South African children and adolescents range from 40% to 100% and rates of PTSD range from 6% to ...
Volkwein, J. Fredericks
Assessing student attainment in the major field of study is increasingly important to employers and accrediting bodies alike. Construction and manufacturing firms do not like engineers who design faulty bridges and airplanes. Marketing firms want to hire students who understand the difference between a niche market and a global market. School…
ABSTRACT. This study was carried out to survey the biotic community of Challawa river water in Kano, Nigeria, using Biological Monitoring Working Party Score (BMWP) and Average Score Per Taxa (ASPT) assessment tools to evaluate the water quality in the field. Using standardized sampling technique insects, insects' ...
Hasson, Natalie; Dodd, Barbara
Dynamic assessments (DA) of language have been shown to be a useful addition to the battery of tests used to diagnose language impairments in children, and to evaluate their skills. The current article explores the value of the information gained from a DA in planning intervention for a child with language impairment. A single case study was used…
Background: Honey, a product of honeybees is a natural and viscous liquid that is said to be a highly nutritive. It varies in physical and chemical properties depending on the temperature, method of cultivation and other elements. It was the aim of this study to assess possible changes in some hematological indices in ...
mathematics exerted a significant effect on achievement. However, many ... objectives. General Objective. The general objective of this study is to assess the mathematical competency of students in the case of Dire-Dawa. University. Specific Objectives .... assured and privacy was maintained. Methods of Data Analysis.
Beck, Robert J.; Skinner, William F.; Schwabrow, Lynsey A.
A study of sustainable assessment theory in nine tutorial courses at four colleges demonstrated that three long-term learning outcomes improved: Independence, Intellectual Maturity and Creativity. Eight of 10 traits associated with these outcomes were validated through internal reliability, faculty and student rubrics, and faculty case studies…
ISSN 1996-0786X ©2011 Academic Journals. Full Length Research Paper. A preliminary study on limnological stock assessment, productivity and potential fish yield of Omi Dam,. Nigeria. Solomon Iboko Ovie, Richard Lema Bwala* and Olarewaju Ajayi. National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research (NIFFR), P. M. B. ...
Background: Stroke is a leading cause of disability and predicting functional outcome early at presentation would guide treatment and rehabilitation plans. The aim of this study was to assess baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score as predictor of functional outcome. Methods: Ninety consecutive ...
Thompson, Lynn E.; Kenyon, Dorry M.; Rhodes, Nancy C.
This study validated the Student Oral Proficiency Assessment (SOPA), an oral proficiency instrument designed for students in elementary foreign language programs. Elementary students who were tested with the SOPA were also administered other instruments designed to measure proficiency. These instruments included the Stanford Foreign Language Oral…
Walsh, Mary; Reeves, Pauline; Scott, Susan
Forensic radiography is a vital tool utilised in the many facets of Forensic Medicine. This paper investigates the role of the forensic radiographer in a mass disaster situation; it also explores the psychological impact of this type of work on radiographers. A literature review indicated that limited work had been documented on the role of the radiographer in mass disasters. This ultimately creates doubt about whether or not the radiographer is acknowledged for the vital role he/she plays and if proper provisions were in place to assess any emotional damage in the aftermath of an emotionally and physically straining situation. A qualitative method of research was used (semi-structured interviews) in order to elicit radiographers' feelings and perceptions. This method is best suited to this research topic because it is a delicate subject. Four interviews were carried out and the responses are presented in themes including emergency versus mass grave experiences (including issues of time and preparation). Other themes include the role of the radiographer and interaction with other members of the team, as well as a discussion of the aftermath of their experiences, including the feelings of pride experienced
Setaelae, S. [Association for the Pulmonary Disabled, Helsinki (Finland); Jaakkola, J.J.K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Public Health
A main source of outdoor air pollution is road traffic, which produces a complex mixture of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile hydrocarbons, airborne particles and some other compounds. Traffic exhaust affects also the concentrations of ozone and other photo chemical oxidants. In earlier studies those components have had remarkable health effects. Several studies on occupational exposure to automobile exhaust have been published and several studies have been observed an association between both outdoor and indoor pollutant levels and health outcomes. However, there are only a few epidemiological studies in which traffic exhaust, a complex mixture, has been studied in its entirety. During recent years, interesting epidemiological studies of the health effects of this complex mixture have been published. Human exposure assessment for traffic exhaust can be categorized according to the environment of exposure (indoors, outdoors, in-traffic) or to the method of exposure assessment (direct or indirect methods). In this presentation the methods are further categorized into (1) traffic activity, (2) air concentration measurements, and (3) dispersion models, in order to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches. The objective of this presentation is to make a critical review of exposure assessments in the epidemiological studies on health effects of traffic exhaust. (author)
Barberio, Grazia; Scalbi, Simona; Buttol, Patrizia; Masoni, Paolo; Righi, Serena
In this paper the authors propose a framework for combining life cycle assessment (LCA) and Risk Assessment (RA) to support the sustainability assessment of emerging technologies. This proposal includes four steps of analysis: technological system definition; data collection; risk evaluation and impacts quantification; results interpretation. This scheme has been applied to a case study of nanofluid alumina production in two different pilot lines, "single-stage" and "two-stage". The study has been developed in the NanoHex project (enhanced nano-fluid heat exchange). Goals of the study were analyzing the hotspots and highlighting possible trade-off between the results of LCA, which identifies the processes having the best environmental performance, and the results of RA, which identifies the scenarios having the highest risk for workers. Indeed, due to lack of data about exposure limits, exposure-dose relationships and toxicity of alumina nanopowders (NPs) and nanofluids (NF), the workplace exposure has been evaluated by means of qualitative risk assessment, using Stoffenmanager Nano. Though having different aims, LCA and RA have a complementary role in the description of impacts of products/substances/technologies. Their combined use can overcome limits of each of them and allows a wider vision of the problems to better support the decision making process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Haswell-Elkins, Melissa; Satarug, Soisungwan; O'Rourke, Peter; Moore, Michael; Ng, Jack; McGrath, Victor; Walmby, Maria
Objectives: Indigenous people of the Torres Strait (Australia) have greater potential for cadmium exposure and renal damage than other Australians due to high cadmium in some traditional seafood and a high prevalence of Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and obesity. This study explored associations between albuminuria and an index of cadmium exposure (urinary cadmium excretion) in the presence and absence of Type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods: Two population-based, cross-sectional studies were undertaken in the Torres Strait to obtain data on body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, chronic disease, smoking, urinary cadmium, and albumin creatinine ratio (ACR). Results: Age- and BMI-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were significantly higher (p<0.01) among people with diabetes and albuminuria (n=22, geometric mean (GM) 1.91 μg Cd/g creatinine) compared to those with diabetes and normal ACR (n=21, GM 0.74 μg Cd/g creatinine). Urinary cadmium was also strongly associated (p<0.001) with ACR among people with diabetes in regression models and remained significant after controlling for age, sex, BMI, smoking status, and hypertension (or continuous systolic and diastolic measurements). Conclusions: While the study has methodological limitations and the nature of the association is unclear, the striking dose-dependent links between markers of cadmium exposure and of Type 2 diabetic nephropathy highlight the need for further definitive research on the health effects of cadmium in the presence of diabetes
Price, H.E.; Van Cott, H.P.
A study was done to assess the need for human factors research, development, and regulatory action in the Atomic Energy Control Board. Further study or development in nine human factors areas is proposed. The urgency, schedule, and resources judged to be necessary for the proposed efforts are estimated. Special emphasis is placed on the need for task analysis information, for the evaluation of control room and maintenance human engineering, and for the development of an improved human error reporting system
Kesten, Karen S; Brown, Helen F; Meeker, Meaghan C
Assessment and evaluation of competency for advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) is a challenge facing educators, regulators, and consumers of health care. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of using simulation to assess and evaluate APRN student competence in managing complex cases. Students were videotaped in the simulation laboratory at four separate intervals; two independent reviewers used the APRN Competency Evaluation Tool to review the simulation. Results showed statistically significant improvement in all categories of evaluation following increased exposure to simulation of complex cases. Student competence increased for managing complex patients, use of evidence-based guidelines, patient safety, leadership, prioritization, delegation, collaboration, communication, and professionalism.
Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nawaz, Kathleen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
This case study reviews South Africa’s experience in considering the impacts of climate change action on development goals, focusing on the South African energy sector and development impact assessments (DIAs) that have and could be used to influence energy policy or inform the selection of energy activities. It includes a review of assessments—conducted by government ministries, technical partners, and academic institutes and non-governmental organizations (NGOs)—that consider employment, health, and water implications of possible energy sector actions, as well as multi-criteria impact assessments.
remote Pech Valley to work alongside the tribesmen, build a local defense force, and attempt to bring stability to a contentious area.70 These...fighting positions, reduced an improvised explosive device and discovered thirty pounds of high-grade ammonium nitrate.”79 These operations, along...rebuilding infrastructure, increasing legitimacy of the local government, and bringing rule of law to the area).”103 This formula saw success in
Investigations of the stomach contents of leatherback sea tllltles revealed that a substantial percentage (44 percent of the 16 cases examined...pelagic stages, Kemp’s ridley sea tlutles are largely cancrivorous (crab eating), with a preference for portunid crabs (Bjomdal 1997). Stomach ...gut blockage, decreased absorption efficiency, absorption of toxins, effects of general intestinal blockage (such as local necrosis or ulceration
8An increasing number of studies suggest that organisational citizenship behaviours (OCBs) may ... Mr P.P. Khaola is a PhD student in the School of Economic and Management Sciences and Prof. D.A. Coldwell a profes- ... 95) aptly redefines OCB as 'performance that supports the social and psychological environment in ...
Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 42, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file ...
The evolution of fault scarps, deformed rivers, marine terraces and the morphology of the moun- tain fronts have been studied for understanding neotectonic evolution of an area (Morisawa and. Hack 1985; Merritts and Hesterberg 1994; Keller and Printer 1996). Tricart (1974) discussed long- term effects of faulting and ...
Senior Specialist: Forensic Pathologist. Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Pretoria. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Abstract. An adult giraffe was struck dead by ... meticulous and scientific observations in future case studies. Case History. An adult giraffe was found dead in the South African lowveld (broad-.
The detailed analysis of landforms,drainages and geology of the area between the rivers Amaravati and Karjan was carried out in order to understand the tectonic history of the lower Narmada basin. Movement along the various faults in the area was studied on the basis of the drainage offsetting. Horizontal offsetting of ...
Biermans, M.C.J.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Verheij, R.A.; Bakker, D.H. de; Vries Robbe, P.F. de; Zielhuis, G.A.
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to detect striking trends based on a new strategy for monitoring public health. METHODS: We used data over 4 years from electronic medical records of a large, nationally representative network of general practices. Episodes were either directly recorded by general
Biermans, M.C.J.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Verheij, R.A.; Bakker, D.H. de; Vries Robbé, P.F. de; Zielhuis, G.A.
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to detect striking trends based on a new strategy for monitoring public health. METHODS: We used data over 4 years from electronic medical records of a large, nationally representative network of general practices. Episodes were either directly recorded by general
Orok-Duke, Orok Ekpo; Sackey, Jacob; Usiabulu, Michael; Bassey, Okpa Inah
The purpose of this study was to find out the impact of incessant strike actions and industrial disputes in Cross River University of Technology and its effect on students' motivation to learning. Over the years, a considerable amount of effort has been put on ground in order to run the Cross River University of Technology devoid of financial…
Ring, Nicola; Jepson, Ruth; Ritchie, Karen
Synthesizing qualitative research is an important means of ensuring the needs, preferences, and experiences of patients are taken into account by service providers and policy makers, but the range of methods available can appear confusing. This study presents the methods for synthesizing qualitative research most used in health research to-date and, specifically those with a potential role in health technology assessment. To identify reviews conducted using the eight main methods for synthesizing qualitative studies, nine electronic databases were searched using key terms including meta-ethnography and synthesis. A summary table groups the identified reviews by their use of the eight methods, highlighting the methods used most generally and specifically in relation to health technology assessment topics. Although there is debate about how best to identify and quality appraise qualitative research for synthesis, 107 reviews were identified using one of the eight main methods. Four methods (meta-ethnography, meta-study, meta-summary, and thematic synthesis) have been most widely used and have a role within health technology assessment. Meta-ethnography is the leading method for synthesizing qualitative health research. Thematic synthesis is also useful for integrating qualitative and quantitative findings. Four other methods (critical interpretive synthesis, grounded theory synthesis, meta-interpretation, and cross-case analysis) have been under-used in health research and their potential in health technology assessments is currently under-developed. Synthesizing individual qualitative studies has becoming increasingly common in recent years. Although this is still an emerging research discipline such an approach is one means of promoting the patient-centeredness of health technology assessments.
Albert, María José; Escudero, Adrián; Iriondo, José María
Erodium paularense is a threatened plant species that is subject to seed predation by the granivorous ant Messor capitatus. In this paper we assessed the intensity and pattern of ant seed predation and looked for possible adaptive strategies at the seed and plant levels to cope with this predation. Seed predation was estimated in 1997 and 1998 at the population level by comparing total seed production and ant consumption, assessed by counting seed hulls in refuse piles. According to this method, ant seed predation ranged between 18% and 28%. A more detailed and direct assessment conducted in 1997 raised this estimate to 43%. In this assessment spatial and temporal patterns of seed predation by ants were studied by mapping all nest entrances in the studied area and marking the mature fruits of 109 reproductive plants with a specific colour code throughout the seed dispersal period. Intact fruit coats were later recovered from the refuse piles, and their mother plants and time of dispersal were identified. Seeds dispersed at the end of the dispersal period had a greater probability of escaping from ant seed predation. Similarly, in plants with late dispersal a greater percentage of seeds escaped from ant predation. Optimum dispersal time coincided with the maximum activity of granivorous ants because, at this time, ants focused their harvest on other plant species of the community. It was also observed that within-individual seed dispersal asynchrony minimised seed predation. From a conservation perspective, results show that the granivorous ant-plant interaction cannot be assessed in isolation and that the intensity of its effects basically depends on the seed dispersal pattern of the other members of the plant community. Furthermore, this threat must be assessed by considering the overall situation of the target population. Thus, in E. paularense, the strong limitation of safe-sites for seedling establishment reduces the importance of seed predation.
Al-Kadri, Hanan M.; Al-Moamary, Mohamed S.; Al-Takroni, Habib; Roberts, Chris; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.
Background Self-assessment is recognized as a necessary skill for lifelong learning. It is widely reported to offer numerous advantages to the learner. The research evaluated the impact of students’ and supervisors’ self-assessment and feedback training on students’ perceptions and practices of self-assessment. Moreover, it evaluated the effect of self-assessment process on students’ study strategies within a community of clinical practice. Methods We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study from May 2008 to December 2009. We held 37 semi-structured individual interviews with three different cohorts of undergraduate medical students until we reached data saturation. The cohorts were exposed to different contexts while experiencing their clinical years’ assessment program. In the interviews, students’ perceptions and interpretations of ‘self-assessment practice’ and ‘supervisor-provided feedback’ within different contexts and the resulting study strategies were explored. Results The analysis of interview data with the three cohorts of students yielded three major themes: strategic practice of self-assessment, self-assessment and study strategies, and feedback and study strategies. It appears that self-assessment is not appropriate within a summative context, and its implementation requires cultural preparation. Despite education and orientation on the two major components of the self-assessment process, feedback was more effective in enhancing deeper study strategies. Conclusion This research suggests that the theoretical advantages linked to the self-assessment process are a result of its feedback component rather than the practice of self-assessment isolated from feedback. Further research exploring the effects of different contextual and personal factors on students’ self-assessment is needed. PMID:22355241
Lieu, Judith E Cho; Piccirillo, Jay F
Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) has become the procedure of choice for surgical treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis. Does the published literature support the claims of greater efficacy than medical treatment alone or older sinus procedures? To analyze the methodology of the published literature regarding the efficacy of ESS. MEDLINE search for primary studies published in 1987 through 2001, written in the English language, reporting results on more than 100 patients, using the MeSH (medical subject headings) terms sinusitis [subheadings surgery or therapy] and endoscopy. Of 512 studies initially identified, 29 studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria for further assessment of methodologic criteria. An additional 6 studies were found when the reference lists of reviews or included studies were searched. Articles were evaluated for 4 core (inclusion/exclusion criteria, control group, intervention, and clear outcome measure) methodologic criteria essential to the determination of efficacy of ESS. Eight additional methodologic criteria were also used to rate the articles. Three studies met all 4 core methodologic criteria. Only 4 of 35 studies used a control group to evaluate efficacy of ESS to treat chronic sinusitis. Mean number of criteria met was 7.2, with a range of 2 to 11. Absence of a control group is the most important reason that studies are unable to scientifically assess the comparative efficacy of ESS to medical therapy or other sinus procedures. The methodologic criteria described here can be used to evaluate studies of interventions for other disorders.
Caniven, Yannick; Dominguez, Stéphane; Soliva, Roger; Cattin, Rodolphe; Peyret, Michel; Chéry, Jean; Romano, Christian
The average seismic cycle duration extends from hundred to a few thousands years but geodetic measurements, including trilateration, GPS, Insar and seismological data extend over less than one century. This short time observation scale renders difficult, then, to constrain the role of key parameters such as fault friction and geometry, crust rheology, stress and strain rate that control the kinematics and mechanics of active faults. To solve this time scale issue, we have developed a new experimental set-up that reproduces scaled micro-earthquakes and several hundreds of seismic cycles along a strike-slip fault. The model is constituted by two polyurethane foam plates laterally in contact, lying on a basal silicone layer, which simulate the mechanical behaviour of an elastoplastic upper crust over a ductile lower crust, respectively. To simulate the boundary conditions of a strike-slip fault, a computerized motoreductor system moves the two compartments on an opposite sens and at a constant very low velocity (a few µm/s). The model spatial and temporal scaling, deduces from analog material physical and mechanical parameters, implies that 1 cm in the model represents 2-3 km in the nature and 1 s is equivalent to 5-15 years. Surface-horizontal strain field is quantified by sub-pixel correlation of digital camera pictures recorded every 16 µm of displacement. For each experience about 2000 horizontal-velocity field measurements are recorded. The analysis of model-interseismic and coseismic surface displacements and their comparison to seismogenic natural faults demonstrate that our analog model reproduces correctly both near and far-field surface strains. To compare the experiences, we have developed several algorithms that allow studying the main spatial and temporal evolution of the physical parameters and surface deformation processes that characterise the seismic cycle (magnitudes, stress, strain, friction coefficients, interseismic locking depth, recurrence
Markowska, Renata [Bialystok Technical University (Poland)], E-mail: email@example.com
The paper presents the results of numerical calculations of lightning surge currents and voltages in the low voltage power mains system connected to a free standing GSM base station. Direct lightning strike to GSM tower was studied. The analysis concerned the current that flows to the transformer station through AC power mains, the potential difference between the grounding systems of the GSM and the transformer stations and the voltage differences between phase and PE conductors of the power mains underground cable at both the GSM and the transformer sides. The calculations were performed using a numerical program based on the electromagnetic field theory and the method of moments. (author)
Sharma, Arun; Tyagi, Rishi
In children, dental anxiety and fear of dental treatment have been recognized as a source of problems in patient management for many years, which can affect the quality of care. Aims : The aim of the study was to assess the behavior of children during their dental visit and to determine the effect of behavior management techniques on children. Materials and Methods : A retrospective study was done by analyzing the records of 328 children to assess their behavior during dental visits. Behavior assessment was done using Frankl's behavior rating scale. All children were exposed to live modeling and tell-show-do behavior management technique. Statistical analysis : The analysis was carried out using SPSS version 10. The comparison between visits was carried out by applying Friedman test. Results and conclusion : Children showed improvement in their behavior with every subsequent visits. Proper assessment of children's behavior helps the dentist to execute a required treatment plan in the most appropriate manner. Techniques like live modeling and tell-show-do are very effective in modifying a child's behavior.
Stige, Signe Hjelen; Sveaass, Nora
As the number of migrants,- forced or voluntary,- increases, there is a growing need to understand how negative events in the country of origin influence those residing abroad. This issue has been actualized by the recent earthquakes in Haiti and Chile. Persons in exile have frequently been exposed to severe human rights violations and other stressors prior to emigration. The present study explored possible associations between ongoing and former stressors and mental health problems among persons living in exile as the Tsunami disaster of 2004 struck their country of origin. The contribution of former exposure and exilerelated difficulties in explaining current mental health problems was explored together with Tsunami related bereavement and social support. Following the Tsunami disaster of 2004 a questionnaire was administered to individuals of Tamil and Acehnese origin residing in Norway. The results suggest an independent contribution of exilerelated difficulties, former exposure and social support in explaining current mental health problems in this group. The study also disclosed methodological challenges involved both in relation to recruiting participants and in isolating the contribution of a particular stressor in populations with high levels of former exposure as well as ongoing stress.
Arnold, S E; Gur, R E; Shapiro, R M; Fisher, K R; Moberg, P J; Gibney, M R; Gur, R C; Blackwell, P; Trojanowski, J Q
The purpose of this study was to characterize the neuropsychiatric profile of elderly patients with schizophrenia and establish a patient registry for prospective ante-mortem and post-mortem studies. Medical records of all chronically institutionalized patients in eight state hospitals who were over the age of 65 and had a chart diagnosis of schizophrenia (N = 528) were reviewed. Of the potential subjects, 192 were excluded because of clinical histories inconsistent with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, 56 because of insufficient information to establish a psychiatric diagnosis, and 122 because of family members' refusal to give consent for autopsy in the event of death. To date, 81 of the remaining 158 patients have undergone neuropsychiatric evaluation with standard assessment instruments. Mini-Mental State scores of the 81 patients indicated severe dementia, and Functional Assessment Scale scores showed that patients required assistance with activities of daily living. All patients were rated as severely ill on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Ratings on the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms and the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms indicated a predominance of negative symptoms over positive. Of 30 patients who have died to date, research autopsies have been conducted on 26. Establishing a well characterized, prospective patient registry for clinicopathologic studies of schizophrenia is feasible but labor intensive. Diagnosis of schizophrenia with a high degree of confidence can be achieved by means of detailed chart review and assessment of current neuropsychiatric functioning with standard rating instruments. These data provide a basis for correlations of clinicopathologic factors.
H J (Jaco Deacon
Full Text Available While the South African Constitution enshrines both children's right to a basic education and teachers' right to strike, conflict between these two often occurs when the way in which teachers' unions conduct strike actions detracts from learners' education. This article identifies the parties affected by industrial action in the school context, and then proceeds to examine educators' right to strike as defined by the provisions of the Labour Relations Act. The unique implications of picketing in the education environment are then discussed, covering relevant questions such as where pickets may be held, the issue of picketing rules as well as unprotected pickets. Even though we are faced with a qualified right to strike as opposed to an unqualified right to education, the South African reality seems to be that striking teachers are handled with kid gloves. It is therefore concluded that the vast range of existing laws regulating protest action should be applied more effectively. One of the most important aspects should be the picketing rules, which should clearly determine whether picketing in fact contributes to resolution of the dispute, and how learners' interests and rights may best be actualised.
Yin, J. J.; Li, S. L.; Yao, X. L.; Chang, F.; Li, L. K.; Zhang, X. H.
In order to analyze the lightning strike ablation damage characteristic of composite laminate with fastener, based on the energy-balance relationship in lightning strike, mathematical analysis model of ablation damage of composite laminate with fastener was constructed. According to the model, an effective three dimensional thermal-electrical coupling analysis finite element model of composite laminate with fastener suffered from lightning current was established based on ABAQUS, and lightning strike ablation damage characteristic was analyzed. Analytical results reveal that lightning current could conduct through the thickness direction of the laminate due to the existence of metallic fastener, and then distribute to all layers, finally conducted in-the-plane of each layer, conductive ability of different layup orientations depend on potential distribution and in-the-plane electrical conductivity along potential gradient declining direction; different potential boundaries correspond to different potential distribution in each layer, and result in conductive ability of different layup orientations was changed, then caused different lightning strike ablation damage distribution. According to the investigation in this paper, we can recognize the lightning strike ablation damage characteristic of composite laminate with fastener qualitatively.
Winslow, M.A.; McCann, W.R.
The Septentrional fault system in the northeastern Dominican Republic marks the zone where the North American-Carribean plate boundary is evolving from subduction to strike-slip motion, and where terranes appear to be forming and migrating laterally in a subduction complex/forearc region. On the Island of Hispaniola, slip vectors are oblique to the strike of the Puerto Rico trench, and oblique subduction thrusts the upper plate over normal seafloor. The offshore geology and seismicity of the northern Caribbean suggest that uplift, broad crustal warping, thrusting, and strike-slip faulting (ie. collisional tectonics) should be present in the northern part of the Dominican Republic. The high topography (>1000m), high levels of seismicity, and large earthquakes support the hypothesis of contemporary deformation in Hispaniola. In this region, the subduction regime dies out toward the west, and deformation is transferred to onshore, oblique-slip faults. As this change in tectonic style has occurred in Neogene to Recent times, we are investigating the modern evolution of a plate boundary. We have already documented: (1) the presence of a strike-slip faulting in the northeastern Dominican Republic; (2) an anomalous push-up structure; and (3) a region of numerous splay faults. In conclusion, recent seismicity suggest a wide zone of deformation and variations in interplate motions near Hispaniola. This island lies at the western limit of active underthrusting and at the eastern limit of onshore faulting, i.e., at an important transition from a subduction to strike-slip regime.
Morero, Betzabet; Rodriguez, María B; Campanella, Enrique A
This work presents a comparison between an environmental impact assessment (EIA) and a life cycle assessment (LCA) using a case study: upgrading of biogas. The upgrading of biogas is studied using three solvents: water, physical solvent and amine. The EIA follows the requirements of the legislation of Santa Fe Province (Argentina), and the LCA follows ISO 14040. The LCA results showed that water produces a minor impact in most of the considered categories whereas the high impact in the process with amines is the result of its high energy consumptions. The positive results obtained in the EIA (mainly associated with the cultural and socioeconomic components) make the project feasible and all the negative impacts can be mitigated by preventive and remedial measures. From the strengths and weaknesses of each tool, it is inferred that the EIA is a procedure that can complement the LCA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gong, Wei; Jiang, Xiaodian; Guo, Yufan; Xing, Junhui; Li, Congying; Sun, Yang
The geological processes in the northernmost Philippine Sea plate, which is bounded by the Suruga and Sagami troughs, are a typical example of an active collision zone. We attempt to illustrate the stress field through seismic estimations and geodetic analysis and propose the kinematic mode of the northernmost tip of the Philippine Sea plate. Seven events (M ≥ 4.0) are chosen for waveform inversion by the ISOLA software to distinguish the stress field. In particular, six of the chosen events, which exhibit strike-slip motion, are distributed in the eastern area, where few focal mechanisms have been reported by previous studies. According to the available focal mechanisms, strike-slip faults with similar P and T axes are widely distributed in the study area. The stress inversion suggests that the northern area is characterized by a NW-SE compression and a NE-SW extension stress regime, although some spatial differences exist. As indicated by an analysis of the geodesy, epicenters, focal mechanisms, gravity anomalies and velocity structure, the deformation in the northernmost tip is mainly accommodated by several conjugate strike-slip fault systems with steep dips that center on the Izu volcanic line. Generally, the maximum principal stress of the kinematics is derived from the collision between the Philippine Sea plate and Central Japan. Because of the different subduction angles, rates and directions of the down-going plate, diverging slab-pull forces along the Suruga and Sagami troughs may be causing the NE-NNE extension in most of the areas that are bounded by the two troughs. The extension propagates southwards along the Izu volcanic line and reaches the area adjacent to Miyake-jima.
significantly more frequent among women. Ten percent of the women had been exposed to strangulation attempts. DISCUSSION: The findings support former studies that HNF injuries might be considered as markers of violence. Thus, the staff at A&E Departments must consider anyone with these types of injuries...... as potential victims of violence. The A&E Department may be the primary entrance for the victims and the main way in which to offer help. The high incidence of women who had been assaulted with strangulation, which is a potentially very dangerous trauma mechanism, intensifies the importance of conducting...... a careful medical examination, in part, because of the possible legal implications. CONCLUSION: HNF injuries are characteristic among victims of violence, although significant differences exist in the type of injuries, the location, and the trauma mechanism between men and women....
Solé, Magali; Brandt, Wolfgang; Arnold, Ulrich
Unfolding by chemical denaturants and the linear extrapolation method are widely used to determine the free energy of proteins. Ribonuclease 3 from bullfrog shows an extraordinary behavior in guanidinium hydrochloride in comparison to its homologues ribonuclease A and onconase with a high transition midpoint of denaturation but an apparently low cooperativity. The analysis of the interdependence of thermal, urea-, and guanidine hydrochloride-induced unfolding revealed that whereas addition of urea resulted in the expected destabilization of all three proteins, guanidine hydrochloride acted diversely: in contrast to ribonuclease A and onconase, both of which were destabilized as expected, low concentrations of guanidine hydrochloride significantly stabilize ribonuclease 3 from bullfrog. This stabilizing effect was endorsed by in silico docking studies. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Makel, Matthew C; Kell, Harrison J; Lubinski, David; Putallaz, Martha; Benbow, Camilla P
The educational, occupational, and creative accomplishments of the profoundly gifted participants (IQs ⩾ 160) in the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY) are astounding, but are they representative of equally able 12-year-olds? Duke University's Talent Identification Program (TIP) identified 259 young adolescents who were equally gifted. By age 40, their life accomplishments also were extraordinary: Thirty-seven percent had earned doctorates, 7.5% had achieved academic tenure (4.3% at research-intensive universities), and 9% held patents; many were high-level leaders in major organizations. As was the case for the SMPY sample before them, differential ability strengths predicted their contrasting and eventual developmental trajectories-even though essentially all participants possessed both mathematical and verbal reasoning abilities far superior to those of typical Ph.D. recipients. Individuals, even profoundly gifted ones, primarily do what they are best at. Differences in ability patterns, like differences in interests, guide development along different paths, but ability level, coupled with commitment, determines whether and the extent to which noteworthy accomplishments are reached if opportunity presents itself. © The Author(s) 2016.
Shankman, Cory; Kavelaars, J. J.; Bannister, Michele T.; Gladman, Brett J.; Lawler, Samantha M.; Chen, Ying-Tung; Jakubik, Marian; Kaib, Nathan; Alexandersen, Mike; Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Petit, Jean-Marc; Volk, Kathryn
The accumulating but small set of large semimajor axis trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) shows an apparent clustering in the orientations of their orbits. This clustering must either be representative of the intrinsic distribution of these TNOs, or else have arisen as a result of observation biases and/or statistically expected variations for such a small set of detected objects. The clustered TNOs were detected across different and independent surveys, which has led to claims that the detections are therefore free of observational bias. This apparent clustering has led to the so-called “Planet 9” hypothesis that a super-Earth currently resides in the distant solar system and causes this clustering. The Outer Solar System Origins Survey (OSSOS) is a large program that ran on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope from 2013 to 2017, discovering more than 800 new TNOs. One of the primary design goals of OSSOS was the careful determination of observational biases that would manifest within the detected sample. We demonstrate the striking and non-intuitive biases that exist for the detection of TNOs with large semimajor axes. The eight large semimajor axis OSSOS detections are an independent data set, of comparable size to the conglomerate samples used in previous studies. We conclude that the orbital distribution of the OSSOS sample is consistent with being detected from a uniform underlying angular distribution.
Aydin, A.; Berryman, J.G.
Increases in the dimensions of strike-slip faults including fault length, thickness of fault rock and the surrounding damage zone collectively provide quantitative definition of fault growth and are commonly measured in terms of the maximum fault slip. The field observations indicate that a common mechanism for fault growth in the brittle upper crust is fault lengthening by linkage and coalescence of neighboring fault segments or strands, and fault rock-zone widening into highly fractured inner damage zone via cataclastic deformation. The most important underlying mechanical reason in both cases is prior weakening of the rocks surrounding a fault's core and between neighboring fault segments by faulting-related fractures. In this paper, using field observations together with effective medium models, we analyze the reduction in the effective elastic properties of rock in terms of density of the fault-related brittle fractures and fracture intersection angles controlled primarily by the splay angles. Fracture densities or equivalent fracture spacing values corresponding to the vanishing Young's, shear, and quasi-pure shear moduli were obtained by extrapolation from the calculated range of these parameters. The fracture densities or the equivalent spacing values obtained using this method compare well with the field data measured along scan lines across the faults in the study area. These findings should be helpful for a better understanding of the fracture density/spacing distribution around faults and the transition from discrete fracturing to cataclastic deformation associated with fault growth and the related instabilities.
Melgar, Diego; Ganas, Athanassios; Geng, Jianghui; Liang, Cunren; Fielding, Eric J.; Kassaras, Ioannis
We present a kinematic slip model from the inversion of 1 Hz GPS, strong motion, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data for the 2015 Mw6.5 Lefkada, Greece, earthquake. We will show that most of the slip during this event is updip of the hypocenter (10.7 km depth) with substantial slip (>0.5 m) between 5 km depth and the surface. The peak slip is 1.6 m, and the inverted rake angles show predominantly strike-slip motion. Slip concentrates mostly to the south of the hypocenter, and the source time function indicates a total duration of 17 s with peak moment rate at 6 s. We will show that a 65° dipping geometry is the most plausible due to a lack of polarity reversals in the InSAR data and good agreement with Coulomb stress modeling, aftershock locations, and regional moment tensors. We also note that there was an 20 cm peak-to-peak tsunami observed at one tide gauge station 300 km away from the earthquake. We will discuss tsunami modeling results and study the possible source of the amplitude discrepancy between the modeled and the observed data at far-field tide gauges.
Full Text Available Plants being sessile can often be judged as passive acceptors of their environment. However, plants are actually even more active in responding to the factors from their surroundings. Plants do not have eyes, ears or vestibular system like animals, still they “know” which way is up and which way is down? This is facilitated by receptor molecules within plant which perceive changes in internal and external conditions such as light, touch, obstacles; and initiate signaling pathways that enable the plant to react. Plant responses that involve a definite and specific movement are called “tropic” responses. Perhaps the best known and studied tropisms are phototropism, i.e., response to light, and geotropism, i.e., response to gravity. A robust root system is vital for plant growth as it can provide physical anchorage to soil as well as absorb water, nutrients and essential minerals from soil efficiently. Gravitropic responses of both primary as well as lateral root thus become critical for plant growth and development. The molecular mechanisms of root gravitropism has been delved intensively, however, the mechanism behind how the potential energy of gravity stimulus converts into a biochemical signal in vascular plants is still unknown, due to which gravity sensing in plants still remains one of the most fascinating questions in molecular biology. Communications within plants occur through phytohormones and other chemical substances produced in plants which have a developmental or physiological effect on growth. Here, we review current knowledge of various intrinsic signaling mechanisms that modulate root gravitropism in order to point out the questions and emerging developments in plant directional growth responses. We are also discussing the roles of sugar signals and their interaction with phytohormone machinery, specifically in context of root directional responses.
Nennewitz, Markus; Thiede, Rasmus; Bookhagen, Bodo
The location and magnitude of the active deformation of the Himalaya has been debated for decades, but several aspects remain unknown. For instance, the spatial distribution of the deformation and the shortening that ultimately sustains Himalayan topography and the activity of major fault zones are not well constrained neither for the present day and nor for Holocene and Quarternary timescales. Because of these weakly constrained factors, many previous studies have assumed that the structural setting and the fault geometry of the Himalaya is continuous along strike and similar to fault geometries of central Nepal. Thus, the sub-surface structural information from central Nepal have been projected along strike, but have not been verified at other locations. In this study we use digital topographic analysis of the NW Himalaya. We obtained catchment-averaged, normalized steepness indexes of longitudinal river profiles with drainage basins ranging between 5 and 250km2 and analyzed the relative change in their spatial distribution both along and across strike. More specific, we analyzed the relative changes of basins located in the footwall and in the hanging wall of major fault zones. Under the assumption that along strike changes in the normalized steepness index are primarily controlled by the activity of thrust segments, we revealed new insights in the tectonic deformation and uplift pattern. Our results show three different segments along the northwest Himalaya, which are located, from east to west, in Garwhal, Chamba and Kashmir Himalaya. These have formed independent orogenic segments characterized by significant changes in their structural architecture and fault geometry. Moreover, their topographic changes indicate strong variations on fault displacement rates across first-order fault zones. With the help of along- and across-strike profiles, we were able to identify fault segments of pronounced fault activity across MFT, MBT, and the PT2 and identify the
Geibel, M.A.; Schreiber, E.S.; Bracher, A.K.; Rasche, V.; Hell, E.; Ulrici, J.; Sailer, L.K.; Ozpeynirci, Y.
The purpose of this clinical feasibility study was to evaluate the applicability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of apical periodontitis in direct comparison with cone beam CT (CBCT). 19 consecutive patients (average age 43 ± 13 years) with 34 lesions in total (13 molars, 14 premolars and 7 front teeth) were enrolled in this feasibility study. Periapical lesions were defined as periapical radiolucencies (CBCT) or structural changes in the spongy bone signal (MRI), which were connected with the apical part of a root and with at least twice the width of the periodontal ligament space. The location and dimension of the lesions were compared between MRI and CBCT. While mainly mineralized tissue components such as teeth and bone were visible with CBCT, complimentary information of the soft tissue components was assessable with MRI. The MRI images provided sufficient diagnostic detail for the assessment of the main structures of interest. Heterogeneous contrast was observed within the lesion, with often a clear enhancement close to the apical foramen and the periodontal gap. No difference for lesion visibility was observed between MRI and CBCT. The lesion dimensions corresponded well, but were slightly but significantly overestimated with MRI. A heterogeneous lesion appearance was observed in several patients. Four patients presented with a well circumscribed hyperintense signal in the vicinity of the apical foramen. The MRI capability of soft tissue characterization may facilitate detailed analysis of periapical lesions. This clinical study confirms the applicability of multi-contrast MRI for the identification of periapical lesions.
Geibel, M.A. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; Schreiber, E.S.; Bracher, A.K.; Rasche, V. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Internal Medicine II; Hell, E.; Ulrici, J. [Sirona Dental Systems GmbH, Bensheim (Germany). Dental Imaging; Sailer, L.K. [DOC Praxisklinik im Wiley, Neu-Ulm (Germany). MKG; Ozpeynirci, Y. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology
The purpose of this clinical feasibility study was to evaluate the applicability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of apical periodontitis in direct comparison with cone beam CT (CBCT). 19 consecutive patients (average age 43 ± 13 years) with 34 lesions in total (13 molars, 14 premolars and 7 front teeth) were enrolled in this feasibility study. Periapical lesions were defined as periapical radiolucencies (CBCT) or structural changes in the spongy bone signal (MRI), which were connected with the apical part of a root and with at least twice the width of the periodontal ligament space. The location and dimension of the lesions were compared between MRI and CBCT. While mainly mineralized tissue components such as teeth and bone were visible with CBCT, complimentary information of the soft tissue components was assessable with MRI. The MRI images provided sufficient diagnostic detail for the assessment of the main structures of interest. Heterogeneous contrast was observed within the lesion, with often a clear enhancement close to the apical foramen and the periodontal gap. No difference for lesion visibility was observed between MRI and CBCT. The lesion dimensions corresponded well, but were slightly but significantly overestimated with MRI. A heterogeneous lesion appearance was observed in several patients. Four patients presented with a well circumscribed hyperintense signal in the vicinity of the apical foramen. The MRI capability of soft tissue characterization may facilitate detailed analysis of periapical lesions. This clinical study confirms the applicability of multi-contrast MRI for the identification of periapical lesions.
Hunger strike is a common form of protest in prisons and is a potential cause of many types of problems, both for the prison administration and the doctors who care for prisoners who participate in one. Issues of conflict of rights and obligations involved, and how to treat people who are subject to the Administration, which in this case takes the position of guarantor, have created major controversies over doctrine. Conscientious objection and the conflict of dual loyalty of doctors working in prisons are also issues closely linked to a prison hunger strike. In this paper we review the solution given to the problem of treatment of a prison hunger strike from three perspectives: ethics, ethical and legal.
Heunis, C; Pelser, A J
It is often argued that because the public sector provides essential services, it is intolerable that the citizenry be denied its entitlement because of a domestic dispute between civil servants (such as nurses) and the state. In this contribution an attempt is made to unravel a number of ideological, legislative and ethical issues relating to the right of the public sector nurse to strike. Notwithstanding the merits of opposite contentions, it is argued that public sector nurses should, in fact, have the right to strike. If this right is to be legitimized, however, due consideration should be given to problems relating to nurses' labour organisation and preventative measures to ensure minimal harm to patients in the planning and in the course of strike action.
Deng, Z. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ploskey, G. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richmond, M. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Bio-indexing of hydro turbines has been identified as an important means to optimize passage conditions for fish by identifying operations for existing and new design turbines that minimize the probability of injury. Cost-effective implementation of bio-indexing requires the use of tools such as numerical and physical turbine models to generate hypotheses for turbine operations that can be tested at prototype scales using live fish. Blade strike has been proposed as an index variable for the biological performance of turbines. Report reviews an evaluation of the use of numerical blade-strike models as a means with which to predict the probability of blade strike and injury of juvenile salmon smolt passing through large Kaplan turbines on the mainstem Columbia River.
Akın, Alper; Bilici, Meki; Demir, Fikri; Gözü Pirinççioğlu, Ayfer; Yıldırım, Ahmet
Lightning strikes may cause injury to the heart, ranging from slight electrocardiographic changes to fatal damage. As heart injury is the most important cause of mortality in these patients, cardiac monitoring is crucial. Even though various ECG changes have been reported, published data on pathologic ST-segment changes is scarce. Herein, we present a seven-year old patient with ST-segment elevation following a lightning strike. There is not sufficient data regarding lightning-related myocardial ischemia. However, because of the similar effects of lightning strikes and high-voltage electric shocks, we believe myocardial injury related to lightning may be managed in the same manner as is cardiac involvement associated with electric shock.
Hinkelbein, J; Spelten, O; Wetsch, W A
Up to 32.2% of patients in a burn center suffer from electrical injuries. Of these patients, 2-4% present with lightning injuries. In Germany, approximately 50 people per year are injured by a lightning strike and 3-7 fatally. Typically, people involved in outdoor activities are endangered and affected. A lightning strike usually produces significantly higher energy doses as compared to those in common electrical injuries. Therefore, injury patterns vary significantly. Especially in high voltage injuries and lightning injuries, internal injuries are of special importance. Mortality ranges between 10 and 30% after a lightning strike. Emergency medical treatment is similar to common electrical injuries. Patients with lightning injuries should be transported to a regional or supraregional trauma center. In 15% of all cases multiple people may be injured. Therefore, it is of outstanding importance to create emergency plans and evacuation plans in good time for mass gatherings endangered by possible lightning.
Full Text Available U.S. officials have recently claimed that the CIA has sharply reduced the number of civilian casualties resulting from covert Predator and Reaper drone strikes in the Taliban-controlled agencies of Northwest Pakistan. Critics, especially in Pakistan, along with human rights NGOs have, however, questioned these claims. This article examines independent databases tracking the drone strikes and finds that there is significant support for the U.S. officials’ claims, or at least for their more moderate assertions. It also briefly reviews the explanations that have been offered for the declining civilian death toll from drone strikes. It shows that there is reason to believe that this development is the deliberate result of adjustments to CIA targeting procedures and improvements in spy networks and technology, and thus is likely to prove broadly sustainable at least for the immediate future.
The purpose of this report is to summarize selected lightning issues concerning the Hanford Waste Tanks. These issues include the probability of lightning discharge striking the area immediately adjacent to a tank including a riser, the consequences of significant energy deposition from a lightning strike in a tank, and mitigating actions that have been or are being taken. The major conclusion of this report is that the probability of a lightning strike depositing sufficient energy in a tank to cause an effect on employees or the public is unlikely;but there are insufficient, quantitative data on the tanks and waste to prove that. Protection, such as grounding of risers and air terminals on existing light poles, is recommended.
Sarih, S.; Quiquerez, A.; Allemand, P.; Garcia, J. P.; El Hariri, K.
The purpose of this study is to document the along-strike early syn-rift history of the Lower Jurassic Carbonate basin of the Central High Atlas (Morocco) by combining sedimentological observations and high-resolution biostratigraphy. Six sections, each from the Sinemurian to the Upper Pliensbachian, were investigated along a 75 km-long transect at the hanging wall of a major fault of the Lower Jurassic Basin (i.e. the Tizi n' Firest fault). Depositional geometries of the early syn-rift deposits were reconstructed from the correlation between eight main timelines dated by biochronological markers for a time span covering about 6 Ma. Depocentre migration was examined and accommodation rates were calculated at the sub-zone timescale to discuss the along-strike-fault behavior of the Lower Jurassic basin formation. The early stages of extension are marked by contrasted along-strike variations in depositional geometry thickness, depocentre migration and accommodation rates, leading to the growth of three independent sub-basins (i.e. western, central, and eastern), ranging in size from 30 to 50 km, and displaying three contrasted tectono-sedimentary histories. Our results suggest that, during the early rifting phase, tectonic activity was not a continuous and progressive process evolving towards a rift climax stage, but rather a series of acceleration periods that alternated with periods of much reduced activity. The length of active fault segments is estimated at about 15-20 km, with a lifespan of a few ammonite sub-zones (> 2-3 Ma).
Munoz Blasco, J.; Goicoechea Sanchez, F.J.
This study falls within the framework of the incorporation of quantitative risk assessment to the activities planned for the ESA-HERMES project (ESA/ CNES). The main objective behind the study was the analysis and evaluation of the potential contribution of so-called probabilistic or quantitative safety analysis to the optimization of the safety development process for the systems carrying out the safety functions required by the new and complex HERMES Space Vehicle. For this purpose, a pilot study was considered a good start in quantitative safety assessments (QSA), as this approach has been frequently used in the past to establish a solid base in large-scale QSA application programs while avoiding considerable economic risks. It was finally decided to select the HERMES docking/berthing system with Man Tender Free Flyer as the case-study. This report describes the different steps followed in the study, along with the main insights obtained and the general conclusions drawn from the study results. (author)
attempt has been made to capture the new trends in the regulations, to the extent they are known. There have over the last 10-15 years been published a few textbooks on risk assessment, most of them are devoted to relatively generic topics. Some are also focused on the risk management aspects, in general and with offshore applicability. None are known to address the needs and topics of the use of QRA studies by the offshore industry in particular. The present work is trying to bridge this gap. The use of QRA studies is somewhat special in Northern Europe, and par- cularly in Norway. The use of
Bornkessel, C; Blettner, M; Breckenkamp, J
In the framework of an epidemiological study, dosemeters were used for the assessment of radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure. To check the correct dosemeter's performance in terms of consistency of recorded field values over the entire study period, a quality control strategy...... was developed. In this paper, the concept of quality control and its results is described. From the 20 dosemeters used, 19 were very stable and reproducible, with deviations of a maximum of +/-1 dB compared with their initial state. One device was found to be faulty and its measurement data had to be excluded...
Christensen, Thomas Kjær; Hounisen, Jens Peder
Rapporten udgør en opdatering af Teknisk anvisning nr. 23 fra DMU (Christensen & Hounisen 2006), omhandlende risikovurdering for bird strikes (kollisioner mellem fugle og fly) i danske lufthavne ved etablering af vådområder nær disse. Rapporten analyserer relationen mellem ændrede forekomster af...... søer og enge/moser indenfor lufthavnenes sikkerhedszoner på 13 km og forekomsten af bird strikes i perioden 2006-2013. Anbefalinger til placering og størrelse af vådområder i lufthavnenes sikkerhedszoner er opdateret på baggrund af rapportens resultater....
Alliot, J. C.; Grando, J.; Muller, J. D.; Ferrieres, X.
Experimental transient electromagnetic field measurements were performed on a Transall C160 aircraft during in-flight lightning strikes. The data allow a test of the predictive capabilities of a three dimensional time domain finite difference code (ALICE) developed at ONERA in order to investigate lightning-aircraft interactions. Using a transfer function technique in the 3D code, it is shown that a bi-leader attached to an aircraft can be simulated by a linear model, and so the electromagnetic fields can be calculated anywhere on the vehicle. Comparison of experimental and numerical results were made for several lightning strikes. Skin current density and electromagnetic field distributions are discussed in detail.
Full Text Available Lightning faults occupy in the majority of instantaneous fault and reclosing can usually be successful, so power supply can be restored without immediate patrol in many cases. Firstly, this paper introduces the lightning fault positioning and identifying method. Then test electrical performance of insulators after lightning strike from 110kV lines. Data shows that lightning strike has little effect on the electric performance of insulator. Finally, illustrating disposal process of the 110 kV transmission line after lightning fault, certifying that the power supply reliability be ensured without line patrol.
Gonzalez, F. I.; Geist, E. L.; Synolakis, C.; Titov, V. V.
A pilot study of Seaside, Oregon is underway, to develop methodologies for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessments that can be incorporated into Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) developed by FEMA's National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). Current NFIP guidelines for tsunami hazard assessment rely on the science, technology and methodologies developed in the 1970s; although generally regarded as groundbreaking and state-of-the-art for its time, this approach is now superseded by modern methods that reflect substantial advances in tsunami research achieved in the last two decades. In particular, post-1990 technical advances include: improvements in tsunami source specification; improved tsunami inundation models; better computational grids by virtue of improved bathymetric and topographic databases; a larger database of long-term paleoseismic and paleotsunami records and short-term, historical earthquake and tsunami records that can be exploited to develop improved probabilistic methodologies; better understanding of earthquake recurrence and probability models. The NOAA-led U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP), in partnership with FEMA, USGS, NSF and Emergency Management and Geotechnical agencies of the five Pacific States, incorporates these advances into site-specific tsunami hazard assessments for coastal communities in Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon and Washington. NTHMP hazard assessment efforts currently focus on developing deterministic, "credible worst-case" scenarios that provide valuable guidance for hazard mitigation and emergency management. The NFIP focus, on the other hand, is on actuarial needs that require probabilistic hazard assessments such as those that characterize 100- and 500-year flooding events. There are clearly overlaps in NFIP and NTHMP objectives. NTHMP worst-case scenario assessments that include an estimated probability of occurrence could benefit the NFIP; NFIP probabilistic assessments of 100- and 500-yr
Teo, Yik Y; Fry, Andrew E; Sanjoaquin, Miguel A; Pederson, Bonnie; Small, Kerrin S; Rockett, Kirk A; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; Clark, Taane G
Family-based association tests such as the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) are dependent on the successful ascertainment of true nuclear family trios. Relationship misspecification inevitably occurs in a proportion of trios collected for genotyping which undetected can lead to a loss of power and increased Type I error due to biases in over-transmission of common alleles. Here, we introduce a method for evaluating the authenticity of nuclear family trios. Operating in a Bayesian framework, our approach assesses the extent of pedigree inconsistent genotype configurations in the presence of genotyping errors. Unlike other approaches, our method: (i) utilizes information from three individuals collectively (the whole trio) rather than consider two independent pairwise relationships; (ii) down-weighs SNPs with poor performance; (iii) does not require the user to pre-define a rate of genotyping error, which is often unknown to the user and seldom fixed across the different SNPs considered which available methods unrealistically assumed. Simulation studies and comparisons with a real set of data showed that our approach is more likely to correctly identify the presence of true and misspecified trios compared to available software, accurately infers the extent of relationship misspecification in a trio and accurately estimates the genotyping error rates. Assessing relationship misspecification depends on the fidelity of the genotype data used. Available algorithms are not optimised for genotyping technology with varying rates of errors across the markers. Through our comparison studies, our approach is shown to outperform available methods for assessing relationship misspecifications. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Kronenberger, William G; Castellanos, Irina; Pisoni, David B
Delays in the development of executive functioning skills are frequently observed in pediatric neuropsychology populations and can have a broad and significant impact on quality of life. As a result, assessment of executive functioning is often relevant for the development of formulations and recommendations in pediatric neuropsychology clinical work. Questionnaire-based measures of executive functioning behaviors in everyday life have unique advantages and complement traditional neuropsychological measures of executive functioning. Two case studies of children with spina bifida are presented to illustrate the clinical use of a new questionnaire measure of executive and learning-related functioning, the Learning, Executive, and Attention Functioning Scale (LEAF). The LEAF emphasizes clinical utility in assessment by incorporating four characteristics: brevity in administration, breadth of additional relevant content, efficiency of scoring and interpretation, and ease of availability for use. LEAF results were consistent with another executive functioning checklist in documenting everyday behavior problems related to working memory, planning, and organization while offering additional breadth of assessment of domains such as attention, processing speed, and novel problem-solving. These case study results demonstrate the clinical utility of questionnaire-based measurement of executive functioning in pediatric neuropsychology and provide a new measure for accomplishing this goal.
If a nuclear weapon were struck by a powerful lightning flash, what would happen Scientists have assembled a simulator to produce exceptionally powerful discharges to try to find the answer to this question by practical test. The Sandia facility enables the extremely powerful lightning discharges which occur only once in every hundred lightning strokes to be duplicated. A bolt is composed of a series of strokes between two clouds or between one cloud and the earth. The simulator consists of four circuits, an inductor, a resistor and a special crowbar-switch developed at Sandia. The crowbar is for accuracy in the simulation of a lightning stroke. The test data is conveyed to computers for analysis by means of fibre-optic links. The first series of tests involve the warhead for the Air-Launched Cruise Missile
Like all music performance, percussion playing requires high control over timing and sound properties. Specific to percussionists, however, is the need to adjust the movement to different instruments with varying physical properties and tactile feedback to the player. Furthermore, the well define...
Lin, A.; Yan, B.
Knowledges on the activity of the strike-slip fault zones on the Tibetan Plateau have been promoted greatly by the interpretation of remote sensing images (Molnar and Tapponnier, 1975; Tapponnier and Molnar, 1977). The active strike-slip Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang Fault System (XXFS), with the geometry of an arc projecting northeastwards, plays an important role in the crustal deformation of the Tibetan Plateau caused by the continental collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates. The Xianshuihe Fault Zone (XFZ) is located in the central segment of the XXFS and extends for 370 km, with a maximum sinistral offset of 60 km since 13‒5 Ma. In this study, we investigated the tectonic landforms and slip rate along the central segment of the left-lateral strike-slip XFZ. Field investigations and analysis of ttectonic landforms show that horizontal offset has been accumulated on the topographical markers of different scales that developed since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The central segment of the XFZ is composed of three major faults: Yalahe, Selaha, and Zheduotang faults showing a right-stepping echelon pattern, that is characterized by systematical offset of drainages, alluvial fans and terrace risers with typical scissoring structures, indicating a structural feature of left-lateral strike-slip fault. Based on the offset glacial morphology and radiocarbon dating ages, we estimate the Late Pleistocene-Holocene slip rate to be 10 mm/yr for the central segment of the XFZ, which is consistent with that estimated from the GPS observations and geological evidence as reported previously. Across the central segment of the XFZ, the major Selaha and Zheduotang faults participate a slip rate of 5.8 mm/yr and 3.4 mm/yr, respectively. Detailed investigations of tectonic landforms are essential for the understanding the activity of active faults. Our findings suggest that the left-lateral slipping of the XFZ partitions the deformation of eastward extrusion and northeastward
Nenna, F. A.; Aydin, A.
. This study will aid understanding of the occurrence of coeval pressure solution and joint formation in naturally deformed sandstone/siltstone turbidites and their simultaneous shearing leading to the initiation and development of strike-slip faults and their damage zones.
Full Text Available Collisions between birds and aircraft are one of the most dangerous threats to flight safety. In this study, smoothed particles hydrodynamics (SPH method is used for simulating the bird strike to an airplane wing leading edge structure. In order to verify the model, first, experiment of bird strike to a flat aluminum plate is simulated, and then bird impact on an airplane wing leading edge structure is investigated. After that, considering dimensions of wing internal structural components like ribs, skin and spar as design variables, we try to minimize structural mass and wing skin deformation simultaneously. To do this, bird strike simulations to 18 different wing structures are made based on Taguchi’s L18 factorial design of experiment. Then grey relational analysis is used to minimize structural mass and wing skin deformation due to the bird strike. The analysis of variance (ANOVA is also applied and it is concluded that the most significant parameter for the performance of wing structure against impact is the skin thickness. Finally, a validation simulation is conducted under the optimal condition to show the improvement of performance of the wing structure.
There are likely as many approaches to teaching assessment as there are people teaching assessment. Graduate courses on assessment can be structured with a singular focus, such as learning outcomes assessment, or along a competencies-based framework. Such frameworks include the Assessment Skills and Knowledge (ASK) Standards developed by College…
Fišter Svetlana L.
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of cytogenetic studies in sheep from the region of Bujanovac that was contaminated by depleted uranium during the NATO air strikes in 1999. The study was conducted on sheep blood lymphocytes, in order to determine the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and to assess the presence of genetic risk as a result of the possible impact of depleted uranium. Blood samples for lymphocyte cultures were taken at random from the 20 animals of the households in the village of Borovac, near Bujanovac. The animals were chosen because they were pastured, fed, and watered in the NATO bombing area. With the purpose of comparing the results two control groups were cytogenetically analyzed, each consisted of 20 sheep from Zemun and Ovča, two northern localities that were not contaminated with depleted uranium. The established structural chromosomal changes were of breaks and gap types, and their frequencies in sheep of all surveyed localities were within the range of basic level values that are commonly found in the sheep lymphocyte cultures analyses. Significant differences are apparent between the values defined in the sheep from Bujanovac compared to those obtained in the sheep from the northern locality (Zemun, probably as a result of breeding of animals in the farm conditions and their being less exposed to the impact of environmental agents. There were neither elevated values of polyploid and aneuploid cells nor significant differences between the sites. According to earlier known data, depleted uranium was below the detection limit of the method applied both in the soil and feed given to cytogenetically analyzed animals. Based on the low-level changes that are in the range of the basic level changes, commonly observed in sheep lymphocytes control cultures, it cannot be said with certainty that it was depleted uranium that caused the changes, or that it is wide-spread in the region of Bujanovac. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke
Christiana A. Naaktgeboren
Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe approaches used in systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies for assessing variability in estimates of accuracy between studies and to provide guidance in this area. Methods Meta-analyses of diagnostic test accuracy studies published between May and September 2012 were systematically identified. Information on how the variability in results was investigated was extracted. Results Of the 53 meta-analyses included in the review, most (n=48; 91 % presented variability in diagnostic accuracy estimates visually either through forest plots or ROC plots and the majority (n=40; 75 % presented a test or statistical measure for the variability. Twenty-eight reviews (53 % tested for variability beyond chance using Cochran’s Q test and 31 (58 % reviews quantified it with I2. 7 reviews (13 % presented between-study variance estimates (τ2 from random effects models and 3 of these presented a prediction interval or ellipse to facilitate interpretation. Half of all the meta-analyses specified what was considered a significant amount of variability (n=24; 49 %. Conclusions Approaches to assessing variability in estimates of accuracy varied widely between diagnostic test accuracy reviews and there is room for improvement. We provide initial guidance, complemented by an overview of the currently available approaches.
Rivero, Mariah [BEC Environmental, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)
In March 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded White Pine County, Nevada, a grant to assess the feasibility of renewable resource-related economic development activities in the area. The grant project included a public outreach and training component and was to include a demonstration project; however, the demonstration project was not completed due to lack of identification of an entity willing to locate a project in White Pine County. White Pine County completed the assessment of renewable resources and a feasibility study on the potential for a renewable energy-focused economic sector within the County. The feasibility study concluded "all resources studied were present and in sufficient quantity and quality to warrant consideration for development" and there were varying degrees of potential economic impact based on the resource type and project size. The feasibility study and its components were to be used as tools to attract potential developers and other business ventures to the local market. White Pine County also marketed the County’s resources to the renewable energy business community in an effort to develop contracts for demonstration projects. The County also worked to develop partnerships with local educational institutions, including the White Pine County School District, conducted outreach and training for the local community.
The most commonly used test standards for performing Charpy impact tests (ISO 148 and ASTM E 23) envisage the use of strikers having different radii of the striking edge, i.e. 2 mm (ISO) and 8 mm (ASTM). The effect of striker geometry on Charpy results was extensively studied in the past in terms of absorbed energy measured by the machine encoder, but few investigations are available on the influence of striker configuration on the results of instrumented Charpy tests (characteristic forces, displacements and integrated energy). In this paper, these effects are investigated based on the analysis of published results from three interlaboratory studies and some unpublished Charpy data obtained at SCK-CEN. The instrumented variables which are the most sensitive to the radius of the striking edge are the maximum force and its corresponding displacement, with 8mm-strikers providing systematically higher values. Absorbed energies, obtained both from the instrumented trace and from the pendulum encoder, are almost insensitive to the type of striker up to 200 J. For higher energy levels, the values obtained from 8mm strikers become progressively larger. Data scatter is generally higher for 2mm-strikers.
In August 1978, the United States Department of Energy and the Turlock Irrigation District entered into a cooperative agreement for a Joint District's Low-Head Hydropower Assessment Study. The purpose of the agreement was to carry out a study of the hydropower potential at sites within the borders of the Turlock, Merced, South San Joaquin, and Oakdale Irrigation Districts in California. The required data were gathered and analyzed. The results of this study indicate the total potential small hydropower capacity with the Joint Districts is 19,560 kW installed with an annual energy generation of 68,561,800 kWh. This is equivalent to oil-savings of 118,616 barrels per y.
Hannaman, G.W.; Spurgin, A.J.; Lukic, Y.
This paper summarizes the status of a research project sponsored by EPRI as part of the Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) technology improvement program and conducted by NUS Corporation to develop a model of Human Cognitive Reliability (HCR). The model was synthesized from features identified in a review of existing models. The model development was based on the hypothesis that the key factors affecting crew response times are separable. The inputs to the model consist of key parameters the values of which can be determined by PRA analysts for each accident situation being assessed. The output is a set of curves which represent the probability of control room crew non-response as a function of time for different conditions affecting their performance. The non-response probability is then a contributor to the overall non-success of operating crews to achieve a functional objective identified in the PRA study. Simulator data and some small scale tests were utilized to illustrate the calibration of interim HCR model coefficients for different types of cognitive processing since the data were sparse. The model can potentially help PRA analysts make human reliability assessments more explicit. The model incorporates concepts from psychological models of human cognitive behavior, information from current collections of human reliability data sources and crew response time data from simulator training exercises
Full Text Available Structural health assessment is one of the key activities in maintaining the performance of a tunnel during its service life. Due to the development of modern detection technology, comprehensive structural health assessment system is being established for operating tunnels. To evaluate the actual operational state of Shitigou tunnel, overall detection of the liner crack, tunnel seepage, and liner void was conducted by employing the modern detection technology, such as crack width monitoring technology, concrete strength monitoring technology, and electromagnetic wave nondestructive monitoring technology. Through the statistical analysis of the detection results, the distribution characteristic, development law, and damage grade of structural defects were obtained. Tunnel liner cracks are mainly located on the middle wall; serious water leakage is encountered on the side wall, middle wall, and vault; the strength of foundation and liner structure of left tunnel does not meet the design requirement; the liner voids are mostly located at the tunnel entrance section, especially, on the tunnel vault; and the proportion of influence factors of structural defects should be considered. The research results presented for this study can serve as references for effective design and health assessment of existing multiarch tunnel projects.
The establishment of the Framework Convention on Climate change has motivated a large number of mitigation costing studies of developing countries. A variety of modelling approaches and input assumptions have been employed, and studies have been carried out by a range of institutions, including international research institutions, consultants and national organisations. This paper attempts to bring together the main results and characteristics of some of the major recent studies. In spite of the diversity of teams involved in the studies, the similarities in scenario definitions and in the bottom-up approach used for the energy sector analysis, enable some key macro indicators and results of the studies to be compared. Two main coordinated country study efforts have been carried out: by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and by UNEP collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE). The results and methodological framework of these country studies are assessed in relation to similar country study activities for China, West Africa and South East Asia in order to evaluate possible common conclusions. (au) 13 refs
Santolaria Otin, Pablo; Harris, Lyal; Casas, Antonio; Soto, Ruth
Using a new centrifuge analogue modelling approach, 38 models were performed to study the influence of along and across strike thickness variations of a ductile-brittle layered sequence on the kinematics and deformation style of fold-and-thrust belts. Four different series, changing the brittle-ductile thickness ratio in models with i) constant thickness, ii) across strike varying thickness, iii) along strike varying thickness and iv) along and across-strike varying thickness, were performed. The brittle sedimentary cover was simulated by "Moon Sand™", regular fine-grained quartz sand coated by polymer and synthetic rubber binders, allowing layers to be placed vertically in the centrifuge (impossible with normal sand). The ductile décollement (evaporites) was simulated by silicone putty (Crazy Aaron Enterprise's Thinking Putty™). Models were run step by step in a high-acceleration centrifuge attaining 900 g, what allows to drastically reduce the experimental time. In addition to surface observation and serial cross-sections at the end of the models, CT scans portray the progressive 3- and 4-dimensional evolution of several models. With constant thickness, the increase of the brittle-ductile ratio results in the decrease of the number of structures where shortening is accommodated and the development of structures does not follow a linear sequence. Across-strike thickness variations trigger the location of deformation towards the wedge front, precluding the emplacement of structures in the hinterland. Along-strike thickness changes result in the lateral variation of the number of structure and a differential displacement of the deformation front. The occurrence of oblique structures is enhanced in wedges with across and along strike thickness variations where, in addition, rotational domains are observed. Comparison with the South Pyrenean Central Unit, in the Southern Pyrenees, characterized by a west- and southward thinning of the pretectonic Mesozoic series
Verger, Eric O; Armstrong, Patrice; Nielsen, Trine
BACKGROUND: The European study MetaCardis aims to investigate the role of the gut microbiota in health and cardiometabolic diseases in France, Germany, and Denmark. To evaluate long-term diet-disease relationships, a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was found to be the most relevant dietary...... of the MetaCardis FFQ was based on the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk FFQ and the content was based on relevant European FFQs. Portion size and nutrient composition were derived from national food consumption surveys and food composition databases. To assess the validity...... of the French MetaCardis FFQ, a cross-sectional study design was utilized. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: The validation study included 324 adults recruited between September 2013 and June 2015 from different hospitals in Paris, France. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Food intakes were measured with both the French Meta...
Full Text Available The inherent complexity of environmental performance measurement makes it difficult to be gauged, sending it forth to methodologies supported on assessments of the various factors that could influence the overall performance. In association with the environmental performance lies the need to create methods that allows the assessment over the time in order to facilitate comparisons amongst different organizations or operations of a same company. Measurement of environmental performance comes from several sources thus a dominant approach widely recognized and accepted by the academic community and organizations can not be singled out. The purpose of this review is to test a method for assessing environmental performance in a manufacturer organization, performing a case study in the paper industry. The results can be compared with other operations and can be used, cumulatively, in supply chains. The specific objectives are (i to model the environmental performance of the transaction, (ii to use the model to measure performance, and (iii to interpret the results and come to a conclusion. It begins with a review of the environmental performance measurement and then proceeds to the description of the research methodology and the results of its application. The method consists of five constructs, assessed by managers and processes experts according to their potential of environmental performance's improvement: solid waste, wastewater, gas emissions, deployment of natural resources, and legal compliance. The constructs are perceived by qualitative indicators categorically evaluated. The final result is an index of 76.69%, which represents the environmental performance of the operation.
Dubois, A; Michelon, C; Rattaz, C; Zabalia, M; Baghdadli, A
This study aims to broaden knowledge about pain expression and assessment in daily life situations in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The goals are to provide a description of the responses of the GED-DI, the French version of the NCCPC, and to test the internal structure validity of this scale. Thirty five children with ASD were included in this study (mean age=58months; mean developmental age=32months). The French version of the NCCPC was filled in by parents. Descriptive analysis of responses shows that children with ASD express pain through varied and common behaviours, related to different expressive markers (vocal, facial, activity, etc.). Behaviours more specific to the symptomology and disturbances of ASD are also displayed. A four-factor solution (negative emotional reaction, idiosyncratic expression, hyper-vigilance reaction, pain expression) emerges from an exploratory factor analysis that explains 54.4% of the total variance. Correlation coefficients show good psychometric qualities in terms of internal consistency, factorial validity and discriminant validity. This study provides new data about pain expression in daily life situations and shows that the French version of NCCPC adjusted to ASD children is relevant to assess pain in daily life situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the method of assembly precision reliability assessment for industrial sensing devices. The part variation is formulated by small displacement torsor. The assembly error model is developed through the approach of pose transformation matrix, then the error transfer between the parts is analyzed and the assembly error is calculated. The concept of assembly precision reliability is proposed. Monte Carlo simulation is adopted to calculate the reliability, after that the procedure of assembly precision reliability is determined. Case study of a laser sensor is provided therefore the effectiveness of the proposed models is verified.
Full Text Available This study focuses on the assessment of goodwill in the hotel business, an entity which brings together both tangible and intangible elements. Even though tangible elements are relatively easy to measure by typical accounting methods, the intangible part (which defines the most important feature of services is rather difficult, if not impossible to measure. That is mainly the reason why the immaterial side, which defines famous businesses, brings the recognition of the image, advertisement, logo, emblem, fame or, in other words, all the elements that attract clients.
Hornbach, Matthew J.; Braudy, Nicole; Briggs, Richard W.; Cormier, Marie-Helene; Davis, Marcy B.; Diebold, John B.; Dieudonne, Nicole; Douilly, Roby; Frohlich, Cliff; Gulick, Sean P.S.; Johnson, Harold E.; Mann, Paul; McHugh, Cecilia; Ryan-Mishkin, Katherine; Prentice, Carol S.; Seeber, Leonardo; Sorlien, Christopher C.; Steckler, Michael S.; Symithe, Steeve Julien; Taylor, Frederick W.; Templeton, John
Earthquakes on strike-slip faults can produce devastating natural hazards. However, because they consist predominantly of lateral motion, these faults are rarely associated with significant uplift or tsunami generation. And although submarine slides can generate tsunami, only a few per cent of all tsunami are believed to be triggered in this way. The 12 January Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake exhibited primarily strike-slip motion but nevertheless generated a tsunami. Here we present data from a comprehensive field survey that covered the onshore and offshore area around the epicentre to document that modest uplift together with slope failure caused tsunamigenesis. Submarine landslides caused the most severe tsunami locally. Our analysis suggests that slide-generated tsunami occur an order-of-magnitude more frequently along the Gonave microplate than global estimates predict. Uplift was generated because of the earthquake's location, where the Caribbean and Gonave microplates collide obliquely. The earthquake also caused liquefaction at several river deltas that prograde rapidly and are prone to failure. We conclude that coastal strike-slip fault systems such as the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault produce relief conducive to rapid sedimentation, erosion and slope failure, so that even modest predominantly strike-slip earthquakes can cause potentially catastrophic slide-generated tsunami - a risk that is underestimated at present.
Kites and hawks were found to be responsible for 57% of reported strikes. Several factors including lack of adequate data, shortage of funds, inadequate training of staff and lack of public awareness about bird/wildlife hazard were found to be militating against effective control in Nigeria. The paper concludes by making ...
van Jaarsveld, H.W.L.; Grootenboer, H.J.; de Vries, J.
The acceleration in the sagittal plane of the prosthetic tube at heel strike in normal walking was measured in five healthy amputees with their definitive below-knee prosthesis, every subject using six different prosthetic feet, wearing sport shoes as well as leather shoes. The experiments were
Full Text Available The vertical coupling between the troposphere and the ionosphere presents some remarkable features. Under intense tropospheric convection, gravity waves may be generated, and once they reach the ionosphere, these waves may seed instabilities and spread F and equatorial plasma bubble events may take place. Additionally, there is a close association between severe tropospheric convection and lightning strikes. In this work an investigation covering an equinox period (September–October during the deep solar minimum (2009 presents the relation between lightning strike activity and spread F (equatorial plasma bubble detected over a low-latitude Brazilian region. The results show a considerable correlation between these two phenomena. The common element in the center of this conformity seems to be the gravity waves. Once gravity waves and lightning strikes share the same source (intense tropospheric convection and the effects of such gravity waves in the ionosphere include the seeding of instabilities according to the gravity waves magnitude, the monitoring of the lightning strike activity seems to offer some information about the subsequent development of spread F over the equatorial region.
Today's movement in support of the 99 percent is a reminder that throughout U.S. history, a major engine of change has been grass-roots organizing and solidarity. Major history textbooks, however, downplay the role of ordinary people in shaping events--especially those who formed labor unions and used the strike to assert their rights. One of the…
ballistic missiles or caches of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) might allow the United States to destroy these weapons before an adversary could... coherent force structure. Hence, although the Air Force considered the NPR objective of integrating nuclear and conventional strike forces as a
This is because health sector strikes reflect a loss of the values of professional ethics by health workers. Discussions in bioethics among health workers can redress this loss by targeting the affective domain in health workers' learning during training. Keywords: Compliance, Deliberate acts, Duty, Health workers, Obligation.
The nature of the limitations to the right to strike in essential and public services in the nine sub-regional countries of Southern Africa – South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, Swaziland, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe – is examined in this contribution. While all of these countries share common influences ...
Media coverage of a strike at the Irving Oil Refinery in Saint John, New Brunswick which began in 1994 and lasted until 1996 is used as a background for the examination of ideology, used here in the more inclusive sense, one in which the term suggests a frame of mind without the coherence and easily recognized label usually associated with political ideology. Central issues such as monopoly ownership of the New Brunswick media by the Irving Group of Companies (also owners of the refinery) , the ideological presentation of strikes in general, and the representation of changing labour relations in a post-industrial, globally-oriented society are analyzed to show how these issues influenced media coverage. Four New Brunswick dailies as well as selected English-language dailies from other parts of Canada have been scrutinized in an effort to determine their ideological stand. It was found that restrictive ideologies such as liberalism or conservatism are on the decline; instead, more inclusive ideologies like defeatism and individualism were prominently featured especially by the St. John Telegraph-Journal in New Brunswick and other papers outside the province. The most striking finding was that if the media coverage of the Irving Refinery strike is representative of public opinion, the current organization of the provincial political economy is accepted as 'natural' by a majority of New Brunswickers.
Reports on a tenure controversy within the Indiana University department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures that has involved possible death threats, a hunger strike, and controversy over the department's continued existence. For now the professor, an expert on Islamic philosophy, remains at the institution, other faculty have left, and…
Morell, K. D.; Ahmad, T.; Sandiford, M.; Codilean, A. T.; Fulop, R. H.
The spatial distribution of channel steepness, erosion rate, and physiographic data highlight pronounced along-strike changes in active strain accumulation in the northwest Himalaya. In particular, the data suggest that the mid-crustal ramp of the Main Himalayan Thrust could merge along-strike with an active portion of the Main Boundary Thrust near longitude ~77º E. This along-strike change in active fault geometry also coincides with the lateral termination of both lesser and greater Himalayan sequences, a significant reduction in total shortening within the wedge, and pronounced variations in regional seismicity. Recent activity along extensional structures in the high Himalaya of this same region appears to have led to significant reorganization, modification and capture of the Sutlej River basin, one of the largest Himalayan river systems. Given the recent 2015 Gorkha earthquake along a comparable section ~500-km along strike, these new constraints on active fault architecture could have regional implications for how strain is partitioned along seismogenic faults in the northwest Himalaya.
mic deformation. Several researchers have devel- oped models of coseismic lithospheric deformation. Rybicki (1971) found a closed-form analytical solu- tion for the problem of a long vertical strike-slip fault in a two-layer model of the earth. Chinnery and Jovanovich (1972) extended the solution to a three-layer model.
Restrictions on the rights of public officers to strike are permitted by the Constitutions of Lesotho, Botswana and South Africa, where such limitations are reasonable, necessary and justifiable in a democratic society. The limitation of this right in the context of public servants is endorsed by the ILO in the Freedom of ...
Marko, F.; Andriessen, P.A.M.; Tomek, Č.; Bezák, V.; Fojtíková, Lucia; Bošanský, M.; Piovarči, M.; Reichenwalder, P.
703-704, APR 22 (2017), s. 119-134 ISSN 0040-1951 Grant - others:Slovak Foundation Grant(SK) VEGA 2/0188/15 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : extrusion * Neo-alpine evolution * strike-slip faulting * uplift history * Western Carpathians Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 2.693, year: 2016
The main thrust of this paper is to analyse and discuss the socio-economic implications of industrial conflicts, particularly strikes, in Nigeria. Industrial conflict was identified as the discord that occurs when the goals, interest or values of different individuals or groups in an industrial setting are incompatible. This conflict is ...
BACKGROUND: Tall fescue containing a selected strain of the fungal endophyte Epichlöe coenophiala purported to express high levels of bioactive alkaloids (Avanex®) was recently commercialized for reducing airport bird strike hazard. We compared bioactivity of Avanex and KY 31, a ubiquitous cultivar...
In nature, these set ups roughly simulate a major strike slip basement fault system with a package of sedimentary rocks deforming by basement-induced wrenching and/or transpression. Models were made up of clay mixed with water in the ratio 3:1. Approximate undrained shear strength of the clay paste was around 2 KPa ...
Full Text Available In order to examine the potential of using the coupled smooth particles hydrodynamic (SPH and finite element (FE method to predict the dynamic responses of aircraft structures in bird strike events, bird-strike tests on the sidewall structure of an aircraft nose are carried out and numerically simulated. The bird is modeled with SPH and described by the Murnaghan equation of state, while the structure is modeled with finite elements. A coupled SPH–FE method is developed to simulate the bird-strike tests and a numerical model is established using a commercial software PAM-CRASH. The bird model shows no signs of instability and correctly modeled the break-up of the bird into particles. Finally the dynamic response such as strains in the skin is simulated and compared with test results, and the simulated deformation and fracture process of the sidewall structure is compared with images recorded by a high speed camera. Good agreement between the simulation results and test data indicates that the coupled SPH–FE method can provide a very powerful tool in predicting the dynamic responses of aircraft structures in events of bird strike.
R D Kaplay
Jul 21, 2017 ... cO Indian Academy of Sciences. DOI 10.1007/s12040-017-0853-8. E–W strike slip shearing of Kinwat granitoid at South East. Deccan ...... shear zone, Sutlej section-structural geology and extrusion mechanism by various combinations of simple shear, pure shear and channel flow in shifting modes; Int. J.
de Koning, A.
This article examines one crucial period of contestation in colonial Suriname, the years 1941 and 1942, when sustained labour unrest in the bauxite town of Moengo led to the establishment of the first mining unions. It argues that these strikes laid the groundwork for future relations between
missiles at terrorist training camps in Afghanistan and a pharmaceutical plant in Sudan. This strike was justified because passive support had been...Accessed November 15, 2015. http://www.deseret news.com/article/933571/ Colombia -troops-seize-model-planes-in-bomb- plot.html?pg=all. ______. 2015. A
Sousasantos, Jonas; Sobral, José Humberto Andrade; Alam Kherani, Esfhan; Magalhães Fares Saba, Marcelo; Rodolfo de Campos, Diovane
The vertical coupling between the troposphere and the ionosphere presents some remarkable features. Under intense tropospheric convection, gravity waves may be generated, and once they reach the ionosphere, these waves may seed instabilities and spread F and equatorial plasma bubble events may take place. Additionally, there is a close association between severe tropospheric convection and lightning strikes. In this work an investigation covering an equinox period (September-October) during the deep solar minimum (2009) presents the relation between lightning strike activity and spread F (equatorial plasma bubble) detected over a low-latitude Brazilian region. The results show a considerable correlation between these two phenomena. The common element in the center of this conformity seems to be the gravity waves. Once gravity waves and lightning strikes share the same source (intense tropospheric convection) and the effects of such gravity waves in the ionosphere include the seeding of instabilities according to the gravity waves magnitude, the monitoring of the lightning strike activity seems to offer some information about the subsequent development of spread F over the equatorial region.
services rendered according to our country's labour laws, which makes extreme exploitation very difficult. These circumstances make it clear that a strike shifts the emphasis from the child as first priority with regard to education to the problems of teachers with teaching authorities. The aim of picketing should thus be ...
Discusses potential ethical conflicts social workers face in a strike: whether priority should be given to patient welfare or to the individual's civil rights to participate in union activities. Notes standards of professional behavior conflict with union requirements. Concludes the social work profession should examine labor unions in the 1980s…
Bolkcom, Christopher; Murch, Anthony
The Defense Department's F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) is one of three aircraft modernization programs in tactical aviation, the others being the Air Force F-22A fighter and the Navy F/A-18E/F fighter/attack plane...
The Defense Department's F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) is one of three aircraft modernization programs in tactical aviation, the others being the Air Force F-22A fighter and the Navy F/A-18E/F fighter/attack plane...
Murch, Anthony; Bolkcom, Christopher
The Defense Department's F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) is one of three aircraft modernization programs in tactical aviation, the others being the Air Force F-22A fighter and the Navy F/A-18E/F fighter/attack plane...
Conclusion: Unlike other habitually barefoot populations which prefer FFS while running, Hadza men preferred MFS, and Hadza women and juveniles preferred RFS. Sex and age differences in foot strike behavior among Hadza adults may reflect differences in running experience, with men learning to prefer MFS as they accumulate more running experience.
Rhoden, Alyssa Rose; Wurman, Gilead; Huff, Eric M.; Manga, Michael; Hurford, Terry A.
We introduce a new mechanical model for producing tidally-driven strike-slip displacement along preexisting faults on Europa, which we call shell tectonics. This model differs from previous models of strike-slip on icy satellites by incorporating a Coulomb failure criterion, approximating a viscoelastic rheology, determining the slip direction based on the gradient of the tidal shear stress rather than its sign, and quantitatively determining the net offset over many orbits. This model allows us to predict the direction of net displacement along faults and determine relative accumulation rate of displacement. To test the shell tectonics model, we generate global predictions of slip direction and compare them with the observed global pattern of strike-slip displacement on Europa in which left-lateral faults dominate far north of the equator, right-lateral faults dominate in the far south, and near-equatorial regions display a mixture of both types of faults. The shell tectonics model reproduces this global pattern. Incorporating a small obliquity into calculations of tidal stresses, which are used as inputs to the shell tectonics model, can also explain regional differences in strike-slip fault populations. We also discuss implications for fault azimuths, fault depth, and Europa's tectonic history.
International comparative research has found that strike incidence is higher where two or more unions bargain with an employer (“multi-unionism”), as is common in most European countries, than where only one union does, all else equal. Two proposed explanations for this relationship, both invoking
Caley, Peter; Hosack, Geoffrey R; Barry, Simon C
Wildlife collision data are ubiquitous, though challenging for making ecological inference due to typically irreducible uncertainty relating to the sampling process. We illustrate a new approach that is useful for generating inference from predator data arising from wildlife collisions. By simply conditioning on a second prey species sampled via the same collision process, and by using a biologically realistic numerical response functions, we can produce a coherent numerical response relationship between predator and prey. This relationship can then be used to make inference on the population size of the predator species, including the probability of extinction. The statistical conditioning enables us to account for unmeasured variation in factors influencing the runway strike incidence for individual airports and to enable valid comparisons. A practical application of the approach for testing hypotheses about the distribution and abundance of a predator species is illustrated using the hypothesized red fox incursion into Tasmania, Australia. We estimate that conditional on the numerical response between fox and lagomorph runway strikes on mainland Australia, the predictive probability of observing no runway strikes of foxes in Tasmania after observing 15 lagomorph strikes is 0.001. We conclude there is enough evidence to safely reject the null hypothesis that there is a widespread red fox population in Tasmania at a population density consistent with prey availability. The method is novel and has potential wider application.
Full Text Available Wildlife collision data are ubiquitous, though challenging for making ecological inference due to typically irreducible uncertainty relating to the sampling process. We illustrate a new approach that is useful for generating inference from predator data arising from wildlife collisions. By simply conditioning on a second prey species sampled via the same collision process, and by using a biologically realistic numerical response functions, we can produce a coherent numerical response relationship between predator and prey. This relationship can then be used to make inference on the population size of the predator species, including the probability of extinction. The statistical conditioning enables us to account for unmeasured variation in factors influencing the runway strike incidence for individual airports and to enable valid comparisons. A practical application of the approach for testing hypotheses about the distribution and abundance of a predator species is illustrated using the hypothesized red fox incursion into Tasmania, Australia. We estimate that conditional on the numerical response between fox and lagomorph runway strikes on mainland Australia, the predictive probability of observing no runway strikes of foxes in Tasmania after observing 15 lagomorph strikes is 0.001. We conclude there is enough evidence to safely reject the null hypothesis that there is a widespread red fox population in Tasmania at a population density consistent with prey availability. The method is novel and has potential wider application.
Walker, James R.
The 1987 NFL players' strike provided an opportunity to evaluate the importance of media gratification and viewing involvement in the development of audience reactions to a major sports labor conflict that produced gratification denial. Two groups of viewers of professional football--183 adult males in the Memphis, Tennessee area, interviewed by…
Aug 21, 2010 ... physicians and academics and the national government should contribute before a final deliberation to go on strike is made. The intricacies ..... Chile, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, India, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Korea, Malta, New Zealand, Peru, Serbia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Romania, USA and. UK to name ...
Chinnery and Jovanovich (1972) extended the solution to a three-layer model. Savage and Prescott (1978) constructed a simple two-dimensional model of an earthquake cycle that takes place on a transform fault. Singh and Rani (1994) obtained an analytical solution for the problem of a long inclined strike- slip fault in an ...
below), which would qualify it as a major defense acquisition program in its own right . F-35 Joint Strike Fighter Block 4 Development Costs Increase...F-35 JOINT STRIKE FIGHTER Continued Oversight Needed as Program Plans to Begin Development of New Capabilities...Accountability Office Highlights of GAO-16-390, a report to congressional committees April 2016 F-35 JOINT STRIKE FIGHTER Continued Oversight
Duan Huabo; Eugster, Martin; Hischier, Roland; Streicher-Porte, Martin; Li Jinhui
Associated with the tremendous prosperity in world electronic information and telecommunication industry, there continues to be an increasing awareness of the environmental impacts related to the accelerating mass production, electricity use, and waste management of electronic and electric products (e-products). China's importance as both a consumer and supplier of e-products has grown at an unprecedented pace in recent decade. Hence, this paper aims to describe the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the environmental performance of Chinese e-products from a global level. A desktop personal computer system has been selected to carry out a detailed and modular LCA which follows the ISO 14040 series. The LCA is constructed by SimaPro software version 7.0 and expressed with the Eco-indicator'99 life cycle impact assessment method. For a sensitivity analysis of the overall LCA results, the so-called CML method is used in order to estimate the influence of the choice of the assessment method on the result. Life cycle inventory information is complied by ecoinvent 1.3 databases, combined with literature and field investigations on the present Chinese situation. The established LCA study shows that that the manufacturing and the use of such devices are of the highest environmental importance. In the manufacturing of such devices, the integrated circuits (ICs) and the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) are those parts contributing most to the impact. As no other aspects are taken into account during the use phase, the impact is due to the way how the electricity is produced. The final process steps - i.e. the end of life phase - lead to a clear environmental benefit if a formal and modern, up-to-date technical system is assumed, like here in this study
Majhosev, Andon; Denkova, Jadranka
The right to strike is a universal democratic right of all employees, regardless of where they are employed: Real or public sector. Depending on the degree of realization of this right in a state, it is accordingly evaluated on the scale of democracy. Therefore, we can say that the right to strike is a fundamental measure of democratic values of a society. There is no real democracy without the right to strike. The right to strike is governed by international legal instruments (acts) of the U...
Bloemen, M.C.T.; Boekema, B.K.H.L.; Vlig, M.; van Zuijlen, P.P.M.; Middelkoop, E.
To evaluate the progress in wound healing, wound assessment is mandatory. Epithelialization is traditionally assessed subjectively by the clinician. In a previous study, subjective assessment of epithelialization was shown to be reliable. In this study, reliability of epithelialization measured by
Kelly, Luke A; Farris, Dominic J; Lichtwark, Glen A; Cresswell, Andrew G
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of foot-strike technique on longitudinal arch mechanics and intrinsic foot muscle function during running. Thirteen healthy participants ran barefoot on a force-instrumented treadmill at 2.8 ms with a forefoot (FFS) and rearfoot (RFS; habitual) running technique, whereas kinetic, kinematic, and electromyographic data from the intrinsic foot muscles were collected simultaneously. The longitudinal arch was modeled as a single "midfoot" joint representing motion of the rearfoot (calcaneus) relative to the forefoot (metatarsals). An inverse dynamic analysis was performed to estimate joint moments generated about the midfoot, as well as mechanical work and power. The midfoot was more plantar flexed (higher arch) at foot contact when running with a forefoot running technique (RFS 0.2 ± 1.8 vs FFS 6.9 ± 3.0°, effect size (ES) = 2.7); however, there was no difference in peak midfoot dorsiflexion in stance (RFS -11.6 ± 3.0 vs FFS -11.4 ± 3.4°, ES = 0.63). When running with a forefoot technique, participants generated greater moments about the midfoot (27% increase, ES = 1.1) and performed more negative work (240% increase, ES = 2.2) and positive work (42% increase, ES = 1.1) about the midfoot. Average stance-phase muscle activation was greater for flexor digitorum brevis (20% increase, ES = 0.56) and abductor hallucis (17% increase, ES = 0.63) when running with a forefoot technique. Forefoot running increases loading about the longitudinal arch and also increases the mechanical work performed by the intrinsic foot muscles. These findings have substantial implications in terms of injury prevention and management for runners who transition from a rearfoot to a forefoot running technique.
Full Text Available This study investigates the present-day seismicity along the strike-slip fault system on the Thailand-Myanmar border. Using the earthquake catalogue the earthquake parameters representing seismic activities were evaluated in terms of the possible maximum magnitude, return period and earthquake occurrence probabilities. Three different hazardous areas could be distinguished from the obtained results. The most seismic-prone area was located along the northern segment of the fault system and can generate earthquakes of magnitude 5.0, 5.8, and 6.8 mb in the next 5, 10, and 50 years, respectively. The second most-prone area was the southern segment where earthquakes of magnitude 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 mb might be generated every 18, 60, and 300 years, respectively. For the central segment, there was less than 30 and 10% probability that 6.0- and 7.0-mb earthquakes will be generated in the next 50 years. With regards to the significant infrastructures (dams in the vicinity, the operational Wachiralongkorn dam is situated in a low seismic hazard area with a return period of around 30 - 3000 years for a 5.0 - 7.0 mb earthquake. In contrast, the Hut Gyi, Srinakarin and Tha Thung Na dams are seismically at risk for earthquakes of mb 6.4 - 6.5 being generated in the next 50 years. Plans for a seismic-retrofit should therefore be completed and implemented while seismic monitoring in this region is indispensable.
El Bouami, Souhail; Habak, Malek; Velasco, Raphaël; Santos, Baptise Dos; Franz, Gérald; Vantomme, Pascal
One-shot drilling of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer materials with a Lightning Strike Protection (LSP)/metal stacks is a challenging task due to the inherent difference physical and mechanical properties and processing mechanisms of each component. The objective of the present work is to optimize tool geometry width in drilling of CFRP/Al-Li with a LSP. Firstly, a set of conventional uncoated carbide drills which are commercially available for the drilling of aeronautic composites was used to study the effect of tool geometry on drilled-hole quality. The set encompasses a twist drill bit, a step drill bit and a point spur drill bit. Based on references and cutting conditions recommended by drill manufacturers, the drilling tests performed are based on full-factorial experimental design using three cutting speeds and two feed rates. Results showed that, on the one hand, spur drill gave the best results causing small damage extension in the hole perimeter but we noticed a rapid tool wear at the spur which increases with feed. On the other hand, step drill presented higher LSP delamination located at the hole entrance but reduces the level of thrust force. The choice of tool geometry process should be a compromise in drilling aluminium as well as drilling carbon fiber with LSP. In the second phase of the current work, three different new uncoated carbide geometries were developed: a Spur Step Drill, a Three Steps Drill and a Square Step Drill. Same cutting conditions were used for the three drills. Results showed a rapid tool wear for the Spur Step Drill at the spur. In terms of LSP delamination, burr and drill wear, the drill adapted to drilling CFRP/Al-Li with LSP stacks is the three steps drill.
Yong, Ken-Tye; Law, Wing-Cheung; Hu, Rui; Ye, Ling; Liu, Liwei; Swihart, Mark T; Prasad, Paras N
Tremendous research efforts have been devoted to fabricating high quality quantum dots (QDs) for applications in biology and medicine. Much of this research was pursued with an ultimate goal of using QDs in clinical applications. However, a great deal of concern has been voiced about the potential hazards of QDs due to their heavy-metal content. Many studies have demonstrated toxicity of various QDs in cell culture studies. However, in a smaller number of studies using small animal models (mice and rats), no abnormal behaviour or tissue damage was noticed over periods of months after the systemic administration of QDs. Nevertheless, the correlation of these results with the potential for negative effects of QD on humans remains unclear. Many urgent questions must be answered before the QDs community moves into the clinical research phase. This review provides an overview of the toxicity assessment of QDs, ranging from cell culture studies to animal models and discusses their findings. Guidelines for using various nonhuman primate models for QD toxicity studies are highlighted. This review article is intended to promote the awareness of current developments of QD applications in biology, the potential toxicity of QDs, and approaches to minimizing toxicity.
Maziak, Wasim; Ben Taleb, Ziyad; Jawad, Mohammed; Afifi, Rima; Nakkash, Rima; Akl, Elie A; Ward, Kenneth D; Salloum, Ramzi G; Barnett, Tracey E; Primack, Brian A; Sherman, Scott; Cobb, Caroline O; Sutfin, Erin L; Eissenberg, Thomas
Numerous epidemiological accounts suggest that waterpipe smoking (aka hookah, shisha, narghile) has become a global phenomenon, especially among youth. The alarming spread of waterpipe and accumulating evidence of its addictive and harmful effects represent a new threat in the global fight to limit tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. In response to waterpipe's alarming trends, major public health and tobacco control organisations have started or are considering systematic collection of data about waterpipe smoking to monitor its trends and assess its harmful effects in different societies. Such plans require coordination and agreement on epidemiological measurement tools that reflect the uniqueness of this tobacco use method, and at the same time allow comparison of waterpipe trends across time and place, and with other tobacco use methods. We started a decade ago our work to develop standardised measures and definitions for the assessment of waterpipe smoking in epidemiological studies. In this communication, we try to expand and update these assessment tools in light of our increased knowledge and understanding of waterpipe use patterns, its context and marketing, as well as the need for evidence-guided policies and regulations to curb its spread. We have assembled for this purpose a group of leading waterpipe researchers worldwide, and worked through an iterative process to develop the suggested instruments and definitions based on what we know currently about the waterpipe epidemic. While the suggested measures are by no means comprehensive, we hope that they can provide the building blocks for standard and comparable surveillance of waterpipe smoking globally. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Bertoldi, Carlo; Forabosco, Andrea; Lalla, Michele; Cortellini, Pierpaolo
It is reputed that periodontal indices remain unchanged over a 24-hour period, with great clinical significance. This preliminary study analyzes daily index changes. In 56 selected patients, full-mouth plaque score (FMPS), full-mouth bleeding score (FMBS), periodontal screening and recording (PSR) indices, and periodontal risk assessment (PRA) were recorded at baseline and three times per day (check-I: 08.30, check-II: 11.30, and check-III: 14.30), after appropriate cause-related therapy. Correlation between variables was statistically analyzed by Stata. All periodontal indices improved at the examination phase. Statistical differences were detected for FMPS comparing all thrice daily checks. Statistical differences were detected for FMBS and PRA comparing check-III with check-I and check-II. PSR showed no significant changes. The worst baseline indices produced the widest daily fluctuation at the examination phase. Significant variation of indices is directly related to clinical severity of periodontal conditions at baseline. Patients affected by severe periodontal disease may show significantly greater index changes. As indices are routinely recorded only once per day, the index daily variation has clinical significance. This greatly affects therapeutic strategy as correct periodontal assessment requires multiple evaluations at standardized times, particularly when baseline conditions are severe. PMID:28828006
Full Text Available Background: Nursing as a clinical discipline is developing in the emergency wards. Health care systems should continuously assess and prioritize indicators of clinical competency in these wards. The lack of clear standards of clinical competency indicators challenges evaluation. The purpose of this study was to determine clinical competency indicators and its priority based on nurses' views in educational and therapeutic centers in Guilan. Materials and Methods: The Q methodology was conducted in three phases, that is, phase I (determining the clinical competency indicators, phase II (classifying clinical competency indicators by an expert panel, and phase III (prioritizing clinical competency indicators. The subjects were selected by convenience sampling among nurses working in the emergency wards of teaching hospitals affiliated to Guilan in 2013. Finally, clinical competency indicators were prioritized using exploratory factor analysis. Results: In the prioritizing phase, data were collected from 710 nurses over two months. Five factors with 30 general competencies were found in three domains: communication, professional maturity, and personality characteristics. Six factors with 37 specific competencies were also found in two domains: scientific and technical capabilities and basic clinical skills that can provide a structured instrument for assessing clinical competence in emergency nurses. Conclusions: Achieved competencies can be used as a reference for nursing education and practice in emergency. Further research on health care system is needed in order to achieve a reliable and valid instrument.
Louer, Amy L; Simon, Denise N; Switkowski, Karen M; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily
A high proportion of children have overweight and obesity in the United States and other countries. Accurate assessment of anthropometry is essential to understand health effects of child growth and adiposity. Gold standard methods of measuring adiposity, such as dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), may not be feasible in large field studies. Research staff can, however, complete anthropometric measurements, such as body circumferences and skinfold measurements, using inexpensive portable equipment. In this protocol we detail how to obtain manual anthropometric measurements from children, including standing and sitting height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, mid-upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, and subscapular skinfold thickness, and procedures to assess the quality of these measurements. To demonstrate accuracy of these measurements, among 1,110 school-aged children in the pre-birth cohort Project Viva we calculated Spearman correlation coefficients comparing manual anthropometric measurements with a gold standard measure of body fat, DXA fat mass 1 . To address reliability, we evaluate intra-rater technical error of measurement at a quality control session conducted on adult female volunteers.
Full Text Available It is reputed that periodontal indices remain unchanged over a 24-hour period, with great clinical significance. This preliminary study analyzes daily index changes. In 56 selected patients, full-mouth plaque score (FMPS, full-mouth bleeding score (FMBS, periodontal screening and recording (PSR indices, and periodontal risk assessment (PRA were recorded at baseline and three times per day (check-I: 08.30, check-II: 11.30, and check-III: 14.30, after appropriate cause-related therapy. Correlation between variables was statistically analyzed by Stata. All periodontal indices improved at the examination phase. Statistical differences were detected for FMPS comparing all thrice daily checks. Statistical differences were detected for FMBS and PRA comparing check-III with check-I and check-II. PSR showed no significant changes. The worst baseline indices produced the widest daily fluctuation at the examination phase. Significant variation of indices is directly related to clinical severity of periodontal conditions at baseline. Patients affected by severe periodontal disease may show significantly greater index changes. As indices are routinely recorded only once per day, the index daily variation has clinical significance. This greatly affects therapeutic strategy as correct periodontal assessment requires multiple evaluations at standardized times, particularly when baseline conditions are severe.
Yadav, Pooja; Samadder, Sukha Ranjan
The goal of this study is to use life cycle assessment (LCA) tool to assess possible environmental impacts of different municipal solid waste management (MSWM) scenarios on various impact categories for the study area Dhanbad City, India. The scenarios included in the present study are collection and transportation (denoted as S1); baseline scenario consisting of recycling, open burning, open dumping, and finally unsanitary landfilling without energy recovery (denoted by S2); composting and landfilling (denoted by S3); and recycling and composting followed by landfilling of inert waste without energy recovery (denoted by S4). One ton of municipal solid waste (MSW) was selected as the functional unit. The primary data were collected through sampling, surveys, and literatures. Background data were obtained from Eco-invent data of SimaPro 8.1 libraries. The scenarios were compared using the CML 2 baseline 2000 method, and the results indicated that the scenario S1 had the highest impact on marine aquatic ecotoxicity (1.86E + 04 kg 1,4-DB eq.) and abiotic depletion (2.09E + 02 kg Sb eq.). S2 had the highest impact on global warming potential (9.42E + 03 kg CO 2 eq.), acidification (1.15E + 01 kg SO 2 eq.), eutrophication (2.63E + 00 kg PO 4 3- eq.), photochemical oxidation (2.12E + 00 kg C 2 H 4 eq.), and human toxicity (2.25E + 01 kg 1,4-DB eq.). However, S3 had the highest impact on abiotic depletion (fossil fuels) (2.71E + 02 MJ), fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity (6.54E + 00 kg 1,4-DB eq.), terrestrial ecotoxicity (3.36E - 02 kg 1,4-DB eq.), and ozone layer depletion (2.73E - 06 kg CFC-11 eq.). But S4 did not have the highest impact on any of the environmental impact categories due to recycling of packaging waste and landfilling of inert waste. Landfilling without energy recovery of mixed solid waste was found as the worst disposal alternative. The scenario S4 was found as the most environmentally suitable technology for the study
van Houwelingen Hans C
Full Text Available Abstract Background In haplotype-based candidate gene studies a problem is that the genotype data are unphased, which results in haplotype ambiguity. The measure 1 quantifies haplotype predictability from genotype data. It is computed for each individual haplotype, and for a measure of global relative efficiency a minimum value is suggested. Alternatively, we developed methods directly based on the information content of haplotype frequency estimates to obtain global relative efficiency measures: and based on A- and D-optimality, respectively. All three methods are designed for single populations; they can be applied in cases only, controls only or the whole data. Therefore they are not necessarily optimal for haplotype testing in case-control studies. Results A new global relative efficiency measure was derived to maximize power of a simple test statistic that compares haplotype frequencies in cases and controls. Application to real data showed that our proposed method gave a clear and summarizing measure for the case-control study conducted. Additionally this measure might be used for selection of individuals, who have the highest potential for improving power by resolving phase ambiguity. Conclusion Instead of using relative efficiency measure for cases only, controls only or their combined data, we link uncertainty measure to case-control studies directly. Hence, our global efficiency measure might be useful to assess whether data are informative or have enough power for estimation of a specific haplotype risk.
The concept of User System Architectures (USA) is introduced as part of the overall systems architecture. A USA is defined as a set of ergonomics information and knowledge assembled to represent system structure and content. It is described in the context of the system development lifecycle. The characteristics associated with a USA are outlined. These include layers of description, viewpoints, coherency and traceability. The concept of coherency between layers and the techniques for tracing the design characteristics back to the requirements (i.e. traceability) are discussed with their implications for ergonomics. Two studies (one design and one assessment) are used to demonstrate the use of USA techniques. The benefits, shortfalls and costs of using the USA technique are outlined for each case, and in a more general range of applications. The validity and reliability of the representations are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Eben, Dennis M.; Saemisch, Michael K.
Providing a program in the concept development phase with a method of determining system safety benefits of potential concepts has always been a challenge. Lockheed Martin Space and Strategic Missiles has developed a methodology for developing a relative system safety ranking using the potential hazards of each concept. The resulting output supports program decisions with system safety as an evaluation criterion with supporting data for evaluation. This approach begins with a generic hazards list that has been tailored for the program being studied and augmented with an initial hazard analysis. Each proposed concept is assessed against the list of program hazards and ranked in three derived areas. The hazards can be weighted to show those that are of more concern to the program. Sensitivities can be also be determined to test the robustness of the conclusions
Sen, P.; Chakraborty, K.
Surface coal mines being the largest contributor to the national coal production, the study of environmental impacts due to this becomes mandatory as it will help in proper planning and safe operations of the mine in an environmentally compatible manner. Within the scope of this paper, a model for preparation of comprehensive environmental impact assessment (EIA) by utilising a new evaluation methodology leading to determination of Environmental Quality Designation an index has been developed and this model has been validated by using data from a running surface coal mine in Wardha Valley Coalfield. Based on this exercise, the overall impact of the surface coal mine under consideration on environment indicates a medium level and accordingly the control measures have to be planned. Thus repair to the environment has to be made a concurrent activity with mining i.e. to say we have to design with nature not against it
Ponomarchuk M. A.
Full Text Available Competitive wage policy is considered as the main tool for solving the problem of attracting, retaining and promoting qualified personnel, which is relevant for domestic organizations. The article defines the main stages and purposes of evaluation of the competitiveness of the wage policy. The authors studied the use of an estimation of the wage policy competitiveness by the Russian organizations and identified practical need for and methods of assessing the competitiveness of the wage policy. Objective and subjective factors influencing the direction of the wage policy are identified, as well as the trends in wages under the influence of the crisis conditions. The main indicators of mobility and personnel turnover, the average wage in the Irkutsk region are considered. The description of the external conditions of functioning of the organizations in the Irkutsk region is presented.
Ligia Moreira Almeida
Full Text Available Considering pregnancy and motherhood as periods of increased vulnerability in migrant women, to characterize the healthcare provided to this collective, we sought to identify and understand patterns of satisfaction and demand of maternal and child healthcare, assessing women’s perceptions about its quality. The study followed a qualitative methodology (semi-structured interviews for collecting and analysing data (content analysis and was conducted in Porto, the second largest city of Portugal. Participants were 25 recent immigrant mothers from Eastern European countries, Brazil, Portuguese-speaking African countries and six native Portuguese recent mothers (for comparison, contacted through social associations and institutions. Data suggests that healthcare depends not only on accessibility but especially on social opportunities. Equitable public health action must provide individuals and groups the equal opportunity to meet their needs, which may not be achieved by providing the same standard if care to all.
be filled in mostly by sedimentary and erosional material deposited from above. Comparisons between faults on Europa and Earth may generate ideas useful in the study of terrestrial faulting. One theory is that fault motion on Europa is induced by the pull of variable daily tides generated by Jupiter's gravitational tug on Europa. The tidal tension opens the fault; subsequent tidal stress causes it to move lengthwise in one direction. Then the tidal forces close the fault up again. This prevents the area from moving back to its original position. If it moves forward with the next daily tidal cycle, the result is a steady accumulation of these lengthwise offset motions. Unlike Europa, here on Earth, large strike-slip faults such as the San Andreas are set in motion not by tidal pull, but by plate tectonic forces from the planet's mantle. North is to the top of the picture. The Earth picture (left) shows a LandSat Thematic Mapper image acquired in the infrared (1.55 to 1.75 micrometers) by LandSat5 on Friday, October 20th 1989 at 10:21 am. The original resolution was 28.5 meters per picture element. The Europa picture (right)is centered at 66 degrees south latitude and 195 degrees west longitude. The highest resolution frames, obtained at 40 meters per picture element with a spacecraft range of less than 4200 kilometers (2600 miles), are set in the context of lower resolution regional frames obtained at 200 meters per picture element and a range of 22,000 kilometers (13,600 miles). The images were taken on September 26, 1998 by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL HTTP://www.j
be filled in mostly by sedimentary and erosional material deposited from above. Comparisons between faults on Europa and Earth may generate ideas useful in the study of terrestrial faulting. One theory is that fault motion on Europa is induced by the pull of variable daily tides generated by Jupiter's gravitational tug on Europa. The tidal tension opens the fault; subsequent tidal stress causes it to move lengthwise in one direction. Then the tidal forces close the fault up again. This prevents the area from moving back to its original position. If it moves forward with the next daily tidal cycle, the result is a steady accumulation of these lengthwise offset motions. Unlike Europa, here on Earth, large strike-slip faults such as the San Andreas are set in motion not by tidal pull, but by plate tectonic forces from the planet's mantle. North is to the top of the picture. The Earth picture (left) shows a LandSat Thematic Mapper image acquired in the infrared (1.55 to 1.75 micrometers) by LandSat5 on Friday, October 20th 1989 at 10:21 am. The original resolution was 28.5 meters per picture element. The Europa picture (right)is centered at 66 degrees south latitude and 195 degrees west longitude. The highest resolution frames, obtained at 40 meters per picture element with a spacecraft range of less than 4200 kilometers (2600 miles), are set in the context of lower resolution regional frames obtained at 200 meters per picture element and a range of 22,000 kilometers (13,600 miles). The images were taken on September 26, 1998 by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL HTTP://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo
Shah, Gulzar H
The 2015 Informatics Needs and Capacity of Local Health Departments (LHDs) survey is the most recent comprehensive source of quantitative data on LHD informatics. Conducted by the National Association of County & City Health Officials (NACCHO), this is the third nationally representative quantitative study of LHD informatics since 2009. The previous 2 comprehensive quantitative assessments were conducted by NACCHO in 2009-2010 and 2011. Given that public health informatics is rapidly evolving, the 2015 Informatics survey is a much-needed country-wide assessment of the current informatics needs and capacities of LHDs. This article outlines detailed methodology used in the 2015 Informatics survey, including instrument development, pretesting, sampling design and sample size, survey administration, and sampling weights. A 9-member advisory committee representing federal, state, and local health agency representatives guided the design and implementation of this study. The survey instrument was organized into 6 topic areas: demographics, physical infrastructure, skills and capacity available, public health workforce development needs, electronic health records, and health information exchange. The instrument was pretested with a sample of 20 LHDs and subsequently pilot-tested with 30 LHDs. The survey was administered via the Qualtrics survey software to the sample of 650 LHDs, selected using stratified random sampling. The survey was fielded for approximately 8 weeks and 324 usable responses were received, constituting a response rate of 50%. Statistical weights were developed to account for 3 factors: (a) disproportionate response rate by population size (using 7 population strata), (b) oversampling of LHDs with larger population sizes, and (c) sampling rather than a census approach.
D. M. McEligot; G. E. McCreery
The objective of this report is to document scaling studies and conceptual designs for flow and heat transfer experiments intended to assess CFD codes and their turbulence models proposed for application to prismatic NGNP concepts. The general approach of the project is to develop new benchmark experiments for assessment in parallel with CFD and coupled CFD/systems code calculations for the same geometry. Two aspects of the complex flow in an NGNP are being addressed: (1) flow and thermal mixing in the lower plenum ("hot streaking" issue) and (2) turbulence and resulting temperature distributions in reactor cooling channels ("hot channel" issue). Current prismatic NGNP concepts are being examined to identify their proposed flow conditions and geometries over the range from normal operation to decay heat removal in a pressurized cooldown. Approximate analyses have been applied to determine key non-dimensional parameters and their magnitudes over this operating range. For normal operation, the flow in the coolant channels can be considered to be dominant turbulent forced convection with slight transverse property variation. In a pressurized cooldown (LOFA) simulation, the flow quickly becomes laminar with some possible buoyancy influences. The flow in the lower plenum can locally be considered to be a situation of multiple hot jets into a confined crossflow -- with obstructions. Flow is expected to be turbulent with momentumdominated turbulent jets entering; buoyancy influences are estimated to be negligible in normal full power operation. Experiments are needed for the combined features of the lower plenum flows. Missing from the typical jet experiments available are interactions with nearby circular posts and with vertical posts in the vicinity of vertical walls - with near stagnant surroundings at one extreme and significant crossflow at the other. Two types of heat transfer experiments are being considered. One addresses the "hot channel" problem, if necessary