WorldWideScience

Sample records for striga seed-germination activity

  1. Differential activity of Striga hermonthica seed germination stimulants and Gigaspora rosea hyphal branching factors in rice and their contribution to underground communication.

    Catarina Cardoso

    Full Text Available Strigolactones (SLs trigger germination of parasitic plant seeds and hyphal branching of symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi. There is extensive structural variation in SLs and plants usually produce blends of different SLs. The structural variation among natural SLs has been shown to impact their biological activity as hyphal branching and parasitic plant seed germination stimulants. In this study, rice root exudates were fractioned by HPLC. The resulting fractions were analyzed by MRM-LC-MS to investigate the presence of SLs and tested using bioassays to assess their Striga hermonthica seed germination and Gigaspora rosea hyphal branching stimulatory activities. A substantial number of active fractions were revealed often with very different effect on seed germination and hyphal branching. Fractions containing (--orobanchol and ent-2'-epi-5-deoxystrigol contributed little to the induction of S. hermonthica seed germination but strongly stimulated AM fungal hyphal branching. Three SLs in one fraction, putative methoxy-5-deoxystrigol isomers, had moderate seed germination and hyphal branching inducing activity. Two fractions contained strong germination stimulants but displayed only modest hyphal branching activity. We provide evidence that these stimulants are likely SLs although no SL-representative masses could be detected using MRM-LC-MS. Our results show that seed germination and hyphal branching are induced to very different extents by the various SLs (or other stimulants present in rice root exudates. We propose that the development of rice varieties with different SL composition is a promising strategy to reduce parasitic plant infestation while maintaining symbiosis with AM fungi.

  2. Striga seed-germination activity of root exudates and compounds present in stems of Striga host and nonhost (trap crop) plants is reduced due to root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Lendzemo, V.W.; Kuyper, T.W.; Vierheilig, H.

    2009-01-01

    Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi reduces stimulation of seed germination of the plant parasite Striga (Orobanchaceae). This reduction can affect not only host plants for Striga, resulting in a lower parasite incidence, but also false hosts or trap crops, which induce suicidal

  3. N-Phthaloylglycine-derived strigol analogues. Influence of the D-ring on the seed germination activity of the parasitic weeds Striga hermonthica and Orobanche crenata

    Thuring, J.W.J.F.; Bitter, J.H.; Kok, M.M.K. de; Nefkens, G.H.L.; Riel, A.M.D.A. van; Zwanenburg, B.

    1997-01-01

    Several strigol analogues with modifications in the D-ring were synthesized and assayed for germination stimulatory activity of seeds of Striga hermothica and Orobanche crenata. All of these D-ring analogues are derived from N-phthaloylglycine as the common ABC-fragment. It was concluded that the

  4. Chemical modification of a phenoxyfuranone-type strigolactone mimic for selective effects on rice tillering or Striga hermonthica seed germination.

    Takahashi, Ikuo; Fukui, Kosuke; Asami, Tadao

    2016-11-01

    We previously reported that a series of phenoxyfuranone compounds, designated 'debranones', mimic strigolactone (SL) activity. 4-Bromodebranone (4BD) is a functionally selective SL mimic that reduces the number of shoot branches on rice more potently than GR24, a typical synthetic SL analogue, but does not induce seed germination in the root-parasitic plant Striga hermonthica. To enhance the selective activity of debranones in stimulating the seed germination of root-parasitic plants, we prepared several analogues of 4BD in which the chlorine atom was substituted with an H atom at the o-, m- or p-position on the phenyl ring (designated 2-, 3-, or 4-chlorodebranone, respectively) or had a bicyclic group instead of the phenyl ring. We evaluated the biological activities of the compounds with rice tillering assays and S. hermonthica seed germination assays. Both assays showed that the substituent position affected debranone efficiency, and among the monochlorodebranones, 2-chlorodebranone was more effective than the other two isomers in both assays. When the activities of the bicyclic debranones were compared in the same two assays, one was more active than GR24 in the rice tillering assay. This debranone also stimulated the germination of S. hermonthica seeds. Thus, some debranone derivatives induced the germination of S. hermonthica seeds, although their activities were still ∼1/20 that of GR24. These results strongly suggest that further and rigorous structure-activity relationship studies of the debranones will identify derivatives that more potently stimulate the suicidal germination of S. hermonthica seeds. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Salinity Inhibits Rice Seed Germination by Reducing α-Amylase Activity via Decreased Bioactive Gibberellin Content

    Li Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination plays important roles in the establishment of seedlings and their subsequent growth; however, seed germination is inhibited by salinity, and the inhibitory mechanism remains elusive. Our results indicate that NaCl treatment inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing the contents of bioactive gibberellins (GAs, such as GA1 and GA4, and that this inhibition can be rescued by exogenous bioactive GA application. To explore the mechanism of bioactive GA deficiency, the effect of NaCl on GA metabolic gene expression was investigated, revealing that expression of both GA biosynthetic genes and GA-inactivated genes was up-regulated by NaCl treatment. These results suggest that NaCl-induced bioactive GA deficiency is caused by up-regulated expression of GA-inactivated genes, and the up-regulated expression of GA biosynthetic genes might be a consequence of negative feedback regulation of the bioactive GA deficiency. Moreover, we provide evidence that NaCl-induced bioactive GA deficiency inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing α-amylase activity via down-regulation of α-amylase gene expression. Additionally, exogenous bioactive GA rescues NaCl-inhibited seed germination by enhancing α-amylase activity. Thus, NaCl treatment reduces bioactive GA content through promotion of bioactive GA inactivation, which in turn inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing α-amylase activity via down-regulation of α-amylase gene expression.

  6. Copper suppresses abscisic acid catabolism and catalase activity, and inhibits seed germination of rice.

    Ye, Nenghui; Li, Haoxuan; Zhu, Guohui; Liu, Yinggao; Liu, Rui; Xu, Weifeng; Jing, Yu; Peng, Xinxiang; Zhang, Jianhua

    2014-11-01

    Although copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for plants, a slight excess of Cu in soil can be harmful to plants. Unfortunately, Cu contamination is a growing problem all over the world due to human activities, and poses a soil stress to plant development. As one of the most important biological processes, seed germination is sensitive to Cu stress. However, little is known about the mechanism of Cu-induced inhibition of seed germination. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between Cu and ABA which is the predominant regulator of seed germination. Cu at a concentration of 30 µM effectively inhibited germination of rice caryopsis. ABA content in germinating seeds under copper stress was also higher than that under control conditions. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that Cu treatment reduced the expression of OsABA8ox2, a key gene of ABA catabolism in rice seeds. In addition, both malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 contents were increased by Cu stress in the germinating seeds. Antioxidant enzyme assays revealed that only catalase activity was reduced by excess Cu, which was consistent with the mRNA profile of OsCATa during seed germination under Cu stress. Together, our results demonstrate that suppression of ABA catabolism and catalase (CAT) activity by excess Cu leads to the inhibition of seed germination of rice. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Arabidopsis ABI5 plays a role in regulating ROS homeostasis by activating CATALASE 1 transcription in seed germination.

    Bi, Chao; Ma, Yu; Wu, Zhen; Yu, Yong-Tao; Liang, Shan; Lu, Kai; Wang, Xiao-Fang

    2017-05-01

    It has been known that ABA INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) plays a vital role in regulating seed germination. In the present study, we showed that inhibition of the catalase activity with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT) inhibits seed germination of Col-0, abi5 mutants and ABI5-overexpression transgenic lines. Compared with Col-0, the seeds of abi5 mutants showed more sensitive to 3-AT during seed germination, while the seeds of ABI5-overexpression transgenic lines showed more insensitive. H 2 O 2 showed the same effect on seed germination of Col-0, abi5 mutants and ABI5-overexpression transgenic lines as 3-AT. These results suggest that ROS is involved in the seed germination mediated by ABI5. Further, we observed that T-DNA insertion mutants of the three catalase members in Arabidopsis displayed 3-AT-insensitive or -hypersensitive phenotypes during seed germination, suggesting that these catalase members regulate ROS homeostasis in a highly complex way. ABI5 affects reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis by affecting CATALASE expression and catalase activity. Furthermore, we showed that ABI5 directly binds to the CAT1 promoter and activates CAT1 expression. Genetic evidence supports the idea that CAT1 functions downstream of ABI5 in ROS signaling during seed germination. RNA-sequencing analysis indicates that the transcription of the genes involved in ROS metabolic process or genes responsive to ROS stress is impaired in abi5-1 seeds. Additionally, expression changes in some genes correlative to seed germination were showed due to the change in ABI5 expression under 3-AT treatment. Together, all the findings suggest that ABI5 regulates seed germination at least partly by affecting ROS homeostasis.

  8. Stimulation of Orobanche ramosa seed germination by fusicoccin derivatives: a structure-activity relationship study.

    Evidente, Antonio; Andolfi, Anna; Fiore, Michele; Boari, Angela; Vurro, Maurizio

    2006-01-01

    A structure-activity relationship study was conducted assaying 25 natural analogues and derivatives of fusicoccin (FC), and cotylenol, the aglycone of cotylenins, for their ability to stimulate the seed germination of the parasitic species Orobanche ramosa. Some of the compounds tested proved to be highly active, being 8,9-isopropylidene of the corresponding FC aglycone and the dideacetyl derivative the most active FC derivatives. In both groups of glucosides and aglycones (including cotylenol), the most important structural feature to impart activity appears to be the presence of the primary hydroxy group at C-19. Furthermore, the functionalities and the conformation of the carbotricyclic ring proved to play a significant role. The dideacetyl derivative of FC, being easily and rapidly obtainable in high yield starting by FC, could be of interest for its practical application as a stimulant of Orobanche ramosa seed germination, inducing the "suicidal germination", an interesting approach for parasitic plant management.

  9. Chemical investigation of Cyperus distans L. and inhibitory activity of scabequinone in seed germination and seedling growth bioassays.

    Vilhena, Karyme S S; Guilhon, Giselle Maria Skelding Pinheiro; Zoghbi, Maria das Graças B; Santos, Lourivaldo Silva; Souza Filho, Antonio Pedro Silva

    2014-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the rhizomes of Cyperus distans (Cyperaceae) led to the identification of α-ciperone, cyperotundone and scabequinone, besides other common constituents. Complete assignment of the (13)C NMR data of scabequinone is being published for the first time. The inhibitory effects of C. distans extracts and scabequinone on the seed germination and seedling growth of Mimosa pudica, Senna obtusifolia and Pueraria phaseoloides were evaluated. Seed germination inhibition bioassay revealed that S. obtusifolia (52-53%) was more sensitive to the hexane and the methanol extracts at 1% than M. pudica (0-10%). Scabequinone at 250 mg L⁻¹ displayed seed germination inhibitions more than 50% and radicle growth reduction of more than 35% of the test species S. obtusifolia and P. phaseoloides, while the hypocotyl growth of M. pudica was significantly affected (>50%) by the quinone at the same concentration. These results demonstrate that scabequinone contributes to the overall inhibitory activities of C. distans.

  10. Agriculture--Agriculture Science--Seed Germination. Kit No. 51. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    Cooper, Samuel

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on seed germination are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  11. Effect of microwave irradiation on alfalfa seeds germination and nitrogenase activity of endophytic diazotrophs in seeds

    Zhang Shuqing; Li Jianfeng; Shi Shangli; Huo Pinghui; Zhu Xinqiang; Zhao Wenhan; Tao Rong

    2011-01-01

    Various microwave powers were used to irradiate alfalfa seeds with various time to study the effect of microwave irradiation on nitrogenase activity of endogenous azotobacter and germination of seeds. Germination rate, germination speed and nitrogenase activity of pure cultures that derived from seed-carried azotobacter were tested. The results indicate that : 800 W, 20 s and 500 W, 40 s are found with highest germination rate on the 1 st day, which is 122% and 88.9% times higher than the control group (P th day is 29.8% and 41.9% times longer than the control group, and more sensitive nitrogenase activity is found on condition of various time than various powers. Short time treatments on condition of the two irradiation powers can increase nitrogenase activity conspicuously, and the treatments that treated more than 32 s make nitrogenase activity lower than the control group, conspicuously. Nitrogenase activity is found 104.9% times higher than the control group on condition of 24 s. (authors)

  12. Effects of Cadmium Stress on Seed Germination, Seedling Growth and Seed Amylase Activities in Rice (Oryza sativa

    Jun-yu HE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two rice varieties, Xiushui 110 with high cadmium (Cd tolerance and Xiushui 11 with low Cd tolerance were used to study the effects of Cd stress on seed germination, seedling growth and amylase activities. The low cadmium concentration had little effect on seed germination rate. However, cadmium stress could significantly inhibit plumule and radicle growth, especially for radicle growth. Germination index, vigour index, radicle length and amylase activities of Xiushui 11 decreased more significantly with the increasing cadmium level compared with Xiushui 110. The cadmium content in seedlings of Xiushui 11 was higher than that in Xiushui 110 when the cadmium concentration exceeded 5 μmol/L, which caused lower mitotic index in root tips and amylase activities, and more serious cadmium toxicity in Xiushui 11.

  13. Allelopathic activity of some grass species on Phleum pratense seed germination subject to their density

    Halina Lipińska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficient utilization of allelopathy in the agricultural practice requires searching for some species and developmental stages when the allelopathic substances are generated in bioactive concentrations. That also requires the knowledge of allelopathy mechanisms and primarily its separation from the other aspects of plant activity, mainly from competition for environmental resources. This task, however, has remained vital in the studies on plant interference, being extremely difficult to perform under field conditions. Therefore, the studies were conducted in the laboratory. To determine the activity of an allelopathic agent of the selected grass species, the density dependent phytotoxicity model was employed. The model is based on the fact that an increase of acceptor plants density evokes a decrease of their response to the allelopathic compounds, whereas the negative effects of the competition become more intense. A higher rate of acceptor plants growth accompanying their density increase in the given object does not agree with the competition rules and thus, it may imply an allelopathic background of the observed changes. In the presented studies, the allelopathic properties of grasses - donors were evaluated by studying the effect of two densities of the emerging seeds and two- and four weeks aged seedlings of F. arundinacea, L. multiflorum, L. perenne and P. pratensis. The tested species - acceptor Ph. pratensis was sown in the density of 10 and 20 seeds in a pan. The results revealed that the germination of acceptor seeds was differentiated depending on their density in the pan, and on the species, density and the age of the donor. Inhibition of Ph. pratense seed germination in objects with a lover density may prove allelopathic effects of the studied donor grasses.

  14. Dose-response of seeds of the parasitic weeds Striga and Orobanche toward the synthetic germination stimulants GR24.

    Wigchert, S.C.M.; Kuiper, E.; Boelhouwer, G.J.; Nefkens, G.H.L.; Verkley, J.A.C.; Zwanenburg, B.

    1999-01-01

    Striga and Orobanche seeds germinate in response to a host-derived germination stimulant. Dose-response curves of the synthetic strigolactone analogues GR 24 and Nijmegen 1 were determined, and their activities were compared to that of the naturally occurring stimulant sorgolactone. Typical

  15. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) producing Pseudomonas isolates inhibit seed germination and α-amylase activity in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.)

    Tabatabaei, S.; Ehsanzadeh, P.; Etesami, H.; Alikhani, H.A.; Glick, B.R.

    2016-11-01

    The role of plant-associated bacteria in plant physiology and metabolism is well documented, but little has been known about the roles played by Pseudomonas in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) growth and development. An in vitroexperiment was conducted to observe the effect of the inoculation of four indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-producing Pseudomonas isolates and exogenous IAA on seed germination traits and α-amylase activity of durum wheat. The results showed inoculation with all bacterial isolates led to a decrease in the germination percent, although the extent of the depression varied with the isolate. A significant relationship between concentrations of bacterial IAA and the germination inhibition percent in durum wheat seeds by different bacteria strains was observed. The results of this assay showed the effect of bacterial isolates on α-amylase activity after six and 8 days of inoculation was significant, while effect of these isolates on α-amylase activity after two and 4 days of inoculation was not meaningful. In addition, the exogenously applied IAA displayed a concentration-dependent effect on seed germination attributes and α-amylase activity, consistent with the possibility that the inhibitory effect of bacterial inoculation on seed germination was in consequence of bacteria-produced IAA. Therefore, it may suggested that the inhibitory role of IAA in seed germination and α-amylase activity should be taken into account during the screening of IAA-producing Pseudomonas isolates for durum wheat growth promoting agents. (Author)

  16. seed germination and seedlings growth

    STORAGESEVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... The role of 20E in plant physiology including seed germination is not studied. ..... GA3, ABA and CKs on lettuce Lactuca sativa seed germination are ..... Practical uses for ecdysteroids in mammals and humans: an update. J.

  17. Allelopathic activity of medicinal plant essential oils on seed germination and vigor of lettuce achenes

    Cíntia Alvarenga Santos Fraga de Miranda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, essential oils have gained commercial interest in the agricultural area, mainly for their allelopathic, insecticidal, antifungal, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and, also for their natural compounds, which have generally displayed low toxicity, relatively low cost and rapid degradation in the environment. Medicinal plants have emerged as potential suppliers of essential oils because of their ethnopharmacological utility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic potential of essential oils extracted from fresh leaves of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus, wild basil (Ocimum gratissimum L. and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. with regard to their major constituents (citral, eugenol and cineol, respectively in different application forms (direct contact and the effect of volatile constituents on the germination and vigor of lettuce seeds (cultivar Regina SF 3500. The effects of the oils and their major components were evaluated with regard to the variables: first germination count, total germination, GVI (germination velocity index, seedling dry weight and average lengths of shoots and lettuce roots. The essential oils from lemon grass and basil displayed allelopathic potentials on seed germination and vigor of lettuce achenes that can be assigned to their respective major constituents citral and eugenol. On the other hand, the allelopathic effect of the essential oil from basil was a consequence of the combined effect of all the components, regardless the application method.

  18. Proteomics of Rice Seed Germination

    Dongli eHe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Seed is a condensed form of plant. Under suitable environmental conditions, it can resume the metabolic activity from physiological quiescent status, and mobilize the reserves, biosynthesize new proteins, regenerate organelles and cell membrane, eventually protrude the radicle and enter into seedling establishment. So far, how these activities are regulated in a coordinated and sequential manner is largely unknown. With the availability of more and more genome sequence information and the development of mass spectrometry (MS technology, proteomics has been widely applied in analyzing the mechanisms of different biological processes, and proved to be very powerful. Regulation of rice seed germination is critical for rice cultivation. In recent years, a lot of proteomic studies have been conducted in exploring the gene expression regulation, reserves mobilization and metabolisms reactivation, which brings us new insights on the mechanisms of metabolism regulation during this process. Nevertheless, it also invokes a lot of questions. In this mini-review, we summarized the progress in the proteomic studies of rice seed germination. The current challenges and future perspectives were also discussed, which might be helpful for the following studies.

  19. Ethylene, seed germination, and epinasty.

    Stewart, E R; Freebairn, H T

    1969-07-01

    Ethylene activity in lettuce seed (Lactuca satina) germination and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) petiole epinasty has been characterized by using heat to inhibit ethylene synthesis. This procedure enabled a separation of the production of ethylene from the effect of ethylene. Ethylene was required in tomato petioles to produce the epinastic response and auxin was found to be active in producing epinasty through a stimulation of ethylene synthesis with the resulting ethylene being responsible for the epinasty. In the same manner, it was shown that gibberellic acid stimulated ethylene synthesis in lettuce seeds. The ethylene produced then in turn stimulated the seeds to germinate. It was hypothesized that ethylene was the intermediate which caused epinasty or seed germination. Auxin and gibberellin primarily induced their response by stimulating ethylene production.

  20. Effect of low dose irradiation of 60Co γ-rays on seed germination, seedling growth and enzymes activity of Lactuca sativa

    Liu Xiuqing; Zhang Tie

    2012-01-01

    The seeds of Lactuca sativa were irradiated by different doses (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 Gy) of 60 Co γ-rays. The effects of low dose irradiation on seed germination, seedling growth and enzymes activity were investigated. The results indicated that low dose irradiation could promote germination rate, germinating viability, germination rate in the field, root length and height of seedling. The suitable dosage for low dose irradiation for Lactuca sativa was 30 Gy. POD activity after irradiation treatment in the range of 10 to 50 Gy and CAT activity after irradiation treatment in the range of 20 Gy to 40 Gy was lower than that of control. (authors)

  1. Enzyme activity and reserve mobilization during Macaw palm ( Acrocomia aculeata seed germination

    Elisa Monteze Bicalho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Reserve mobilization in seeds occurs after visible germination, which is marked by the protrusion of the radicle or cotyledonary petiole, as in species of Arecaceae. Acrocomia aculeata (macaw palm, usually produces hard seeds whose endosperm has mannan-rich cell walls. We investigated the composition of storage compounds in macaw palm seed and the roles of two enzymes (endo-β-mannanase, α-galactosidase during and after germination. The seeds were firstly submitted to pre-established protocol to overcome dormancy and promote germination. Enzyme activity in both embryo and endosperm were assayed from the initiation of germinative activities until leaf sheath appearance, and the status of seed structures and reserve compounds were evaluated. Protein content of the embryo decreased with the initiation of imbibition while the lipid content began decreasing six days after removal of the operculum. Increases in enzyme activity and starch content were both observed after visible germination. We suggest that endo-β-mannanase and α-galactosidase become active immediately at germination, facilitating haustorium expansion and providing carbohydrates for initial seedling development. Protein is the first storage compound mobilized during early imbibition, and the observed increase in the starch content of the haustorium was related to lipid degradation in that organ and mannan degradation in the adjacent endosperm.

  2. Allelopathic activity of some grass species on Phleum pratense seed germination subject to their density

    Halina Lipińska

    2012-01-01

    Efficient utilization of allelopathy in the agricultural practice requires searching for some species and developmental stages when the allelopathic substances are generated in bioactive concentrations. That also requires the knowledge of allelopathy mechanisms and primarily its separation from the other aspects of plant activity, mainly from competition for environmental resources. This task, however, has remained vital in the studies on plant interference, being extremely difficult to perfo...

  3. GABA content and Antioxidant activity of Thai waxy corn seeds germinated by hypoxia method

    Pisamai Polthum

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Germinated seeds have a greater amount of the naturally-occurring -aminobutyric acid (GABA which has many health benefits. Further, colored seeds have higher antioxidant activity. Thai waxy corn is widely consumed after cooking, due to its palatable glutinous texture. However, it is not commonly germinated before use. In this study, two varieties of Thai waxy corn, KKU-KND (purple seed and KKU-SLE (white seed, were germinated and converted to corn flour with the aim of investigating the effect of germination on GABA content and antioxidant activity. Further, the microstructure of starch granules was also examined. KKU-KND and KKU-SLE were grown and harvested in 2012. The seeds were soaked in distilled water for 6 hrs to attain a moisture content of 31-32%wb and then germinated by employing two methods, i in an open plastic box, and ii in a closed plastic box with a headspace of 3 cm for devoid oxygen (hypoxia method; the germination period varied between 12-48 hrs at 35±2°C in both cases. The germinated samples were then dried at 50°C to a moisture content of 10±2%wb. The results showed that non-germinated KKU-KND and KKU-SLE contained 2.68±0.77 and 1.58±0.05 mgGABA/ 100gdb, respectively, whereas the samples germinated by the hypoxia method contained significantly higher GABA which increased with germination time (p<0.05. The highest GABA contents found in KKU-KND and KKU-SLE were 37.20±3.27 and 54.47±2.08 mg/100gdb, respectively after 48 hrs of germination under the hypoxia method. In addition, the germinated KKU-KND gave ABTS and DPPH values of 388.32±0.53 and 140.29±0.57 mgTrolox/100gdb, whereas the germinated KKU-SLE gave ABTS and DPPH values of 183.69±1.75 and 38.43±1.64 mgTrolox/100gdb, respectively. The pictures of starch granules obtained by means of SEM displayed differences in the shape and size of the non-germinated and germinated granules in both verities. In conclusion, the hypoxia method is able to induce higher GABA

  4. Chickpea seeds germination rational parameters optimization

    Safonova, Yu A.; Ivliev, M. N.; Lemeshkin, A. V.

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents the influence of chickpea seeds bioactivation parameters on their enzymatic activity experimental results. Optimal bioactivation process modes were obtained by regression-factor analysis: process temperature - 13.6 °C, process duration - 71.5 h. It was found that in the germination process, the proteolytic, amylolytic and lipolytic enzymes activity increased, and the urease enzyme activity is reduced. The dependences of enzyme activity on chickpea seeds germination conditions were obtained by mathematical processing of experimental data. The calculated data are in good agreement with the experimental ones. This confirms the optimization efficiency based on experiments mathematical planning in order to determine the enzymatic activity of chickpea seeds germination optimal parameters of bioactivated seeds.

  5. Allelopathic activity of Leonurus siribicus L. on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat and identification of 4- hydroxy benzoic acid as an allelochemical by chromatography

    Sayed, M. A.; Imam, R.; Siddiqui, M.N.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the allelopathic effects of L. siribicus extract on seed germination and seedlings growth of wheat as well as to identify potential allelochemical. The different concentration (5, 10 and 15%) of aqueous extract were applied during the time of sowing and at 5 days after sowing of wheat seed. L. siribicus extract showed concentration and time - depending activity. Different concentration of aqueous extract inhibited seed germination, seedlings growth, when extracts were applied during the time of seed sowing. The stimulatory effect of seedlings growth were found for 5 % aqueous extract, in contrast 10 and 15% extract inhibited seedlings growth, when extracts were applied at 5 days after sowing. Apart from, 4-hydroxy benzoic acids affected seedlings growth irrespective of application time. The weight of dry matter of wheat seedlings were increased for 5% than 10 and 15% extracts. Thin layer chromatography suggested that the presence of 4-hydroxy benzoic acid including other allelopathic and growth regulatory compounds inhibited germination and seedlings growth. Mineral composition was determined and its might have some stimulatory effect on seedlings growth. It was interesting that 5% extract inhibited germination and seedlings growth, when it was applied during the time of seed sowing, but stimulated seedling growth, when it was applied at 5 days after sowing. The extract of this plants can be used either for bioherbicide as well as growth stimulatory agents for the organic farming system. To find out molecular mechanism behind it, further research is to be done. (author)

  6. Pulse seed germination improves antioxidative activity of phenolic compounds in stripped soybean oil-in-water emulsions.

    Xu, Minwei; Jin, Zhao; Peckrul, Allen; Chen, Bingcan

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate antioxidative activity of phenolic compounds extracted from germinated pulse seed including chickpeas, lentils and yellow peas. Phenolic compounds were extracted at different germination time and total phenolic content was examined by Folin Ciocalteu's reaction. Antioxidative activity of extracts was characterized by in vitro assay including 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity (DPPH), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), iron-binding assay, and in stripped soybean oil-in-water emulsions. The results suggested that germination time is critical for phenolic compounds production. The form variation of phenolic compounds influenced the antioxidative activity of phenolic compounds both in vitro assay and in emulsion systems. Soluble bound phenolic compounds showed higher antioxidative ability in emulsion system with the order of chickpea > yellow pea > lentil. On the basis of these results, soluble bound phenolic compounds may be considered as a promising natural antioxidant to prevent lipid oxidation in foods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of low dose gamma-ray radiation on the seed germination and physiological activity of vegetable crops

    Kim, J. S.; Baek, M. H.; Lee, Y. G. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, K. H. [Kyunghee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-10-01

    To determine the effect of low dose gamma-ray radiation on the germination rate and physiology of germinative seeds of Chinese cabbage(Brassica campestris L. cv. Hanyoreum) and radish(Raphanus sativus L. cv. Chungsukoungzoung). The germination rate of irradiation group was higher than that of the control. Especially it was highest at the early stage of induction. The germination rate of Chinese cabbage increased at 4 Gy-, 10 Gy- and 50 Gy irradiation group and that of radish increased at 2 Gy-, 6 Gy- and 10 Gy irradiation group. The seedling height of Chinese cabbage and radish increased positively in low dose irradiation group. The seedling height of Chinese cabbage was noticeably higher at 4 Gy and 10 Gy irradiation group and that of radish at 6 Gy irradiation group. The protein contents of seeds irradiated with low dose gamma-ray radiation was increased compared to that of the control especially at the early stage of induction. The enzyme activity of seeds irradiated with low dose of gamma-ray radiation was increased at 4 Gy and 10 Gy irradiation group. These results suggest that the germination and physiological activity of old seeds could be stimulated promisingly by the low dose gamma-ray radiation.

  8. The biomechanics of seed germination.

    Steinbrecher, Tina; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2017-02-01

    From a biomechanical perspective, the completion of seed (and fruit) germination depends on the balance of two opposing forces: the growth potential of the embryonic axis (radicle-hypocotyl growth zone) and the restraint of the seed-covering layers (endosperm, testa, and pericarp). The diverse seed tissues are composite materials which differ in their dynamic properties based on their distinct cell wall composition and water uptake capacities. The biomechanics of embryo cell growth during seed germination depend on irreversible cell wall loosening followed by water uptake due to the decreasing turgor, and this leads to embryo elongation and eventually radicle emergence. Endosperm weakening as a prerequisite for radicle emergence is a widespread phenomenon among angiosperms. Research into the biochemistry and biomechanics of endosperm weakening has demonstrated that the reduction in puncture force of a seed's micropylar endosperm is environmentally and hormonally regulated and involves tissue-specific expression of cell wall remodelling proteins such as expansins, diverse hydrolases, and the production of directly acting apoplastic reactive oxygen. The endosperm-weakening biomechanics and its underlying cell wall biochemistry differ between the micropylar (ME) and chalazal (CE) endosperm domains. In the ME, they involve cell wall loosening, cell separation, and programmed cell death to provide decreased and localized ME tissue resistance, autolysis, and finally the formation of an ME hole required for radicle emergence. Future work will further unravel the molecular mechanisms, environmental regulation, and evolution of the diverse biomechanical cell wall changes underpinning the control of germination by endosperm weakening. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Effect of Bacillus spp. on seed germination of selected species of the genus Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae

    Fatemeh Hadizadeh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Cuscuta are annual angiospermic rootless and leafless (achlorophyllous parasitic plants. Bacillus is an example of PGPR bacteria exhibiting plant growth promoting activity. In this study the effects of bacterial suspension on germination of dodder’s seed has been determinated. Seeds of three Cuscuta species were collected from field for evaluating effects of three different Bacillus on its germination. Results show that seed germination of the C. monogyna and C. campestris is inhibited by all three bacterial species. Based on Tukey analysis, the highest inhibitory activity on seed germination of C. monogyna was shown with B. pumilus (68.88%; as well as C. campestris with B. megaterium (95.76% and B. pumilus (91.53%, whilst seed germination of C. europaea was almost identically inhibited by all three bacterial species. This paper reports the variable effects of Bacillus species on the seed germination of selected Cuscuta species.

  10. Karrikins delay soybean seed germination by mediating abscisic acid and gibberellin biogenesis under shaded conditions

    Meng, Yongjie; Chen, Feng; Shuai, Haiwei; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ding, Jun; Tang, Shengwen; Xu, Shuanshuan; Liu, Jianwei; Liu, Weiguo; Du, Junbo; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Feng; Sun, Xin; Yong, Taiwen; Wang, Xiaochun; Feng, Yuqi; Shu, Kai; Yang, Wenyu

    2016-01-01

    Karrikins (KAR) are a class of signal compounds, discovered in wildfire smoke, which affect seed germination. Currently, numerous studies have focused on the model plant Arabidopsis in the KAR research field, rather than on crops. Thus the regulatory mechanisms underlying KAR regulation of crop seed germination are largely unknown. Here, we report that KAR delayed soybean seed germination through enhancing abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, while impairing gibberellin (GA) biogenesis. Interestingly, KAR only retarded soybean seed germination under shaded conditions, rather than under dark and white light conditions, which differs from in Arabidopsis. Phytohormone quantification showed that KAR enhanced ABA biogenesis while impairing GA biosynthesis during the seed imbibition process, and subsequently, the ratio of active GA4 to ABA was significantly reduced. Further qRT-PCR analysis showed that the transcription pattern of genes involved in ABA and GA metabolic pathways are consistent with the hormonal measurements. Finally, fluridone, an ABA biogenesis inhibitor, remarkably rescued the delayed-germination phenotype of KAR-treatment; and paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, inhibited soybean seed germination. Taken together, these evidences suggest that KAR inhibit soybean seed germination by mediating the ratio between GA and ABA biogenesis. PMID:26902640

  11. Proteomic dissection of seed germination and seedling establishment in Brassica napus

    Jianwei Gu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The success of seed germination and the establishment of a normal seedling are key determinants of plant species propagation. At present, only few studies have focused on the genetic control of the seed germination by proteomic approach in Brassica napus. In the present study, the protein expression pattern of seed germination was investigated using differential fluorescence two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE in B. napus. One hundred thirteen differentially expressed proteins (DEPs, which were mainly involved in storage proteins (23.4%, energy metabolism (18.9%, protein metabolism (16.2%, defense/disease (12.6%, seed maturation (11.7%, carbohydrate metabolism (4.5%, lipid metabolism (4.5%, amino acids metabolism (3.6%, cell growth/division (3.6%, and some unclear proteins (2.7% were observed by proteomic analysis. Seventeen genes corresponding to 11 DEPs were identified within or near the associated linkage disequilibrium regions related to seed germination and vigor quantitative traits reported in B. napus in previous studies. The expression pattern of proteins showed the heterotrophic metabolism could be activated in the process of seed germination and the onset of defense system might start during seed germination. These findings will help us more in-depth understanding of the mobilization of seed storage reserves and regulation mechanisms of germination process in B. napus.

  12. Karrikins delay soybean seed germination by mediating abscisic acid and gibberellin biogenesis under shaded conditions.

    Meng, Yongjie; Chen, Feng; Shuai, Haiwei; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ding, Jun; Tang, Shengwen; Xu, Shuanshuan; Liu, Jianwei; Liu, Weiguo; Du, Junbo; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Feng; Sun, Xin; Yong, Taiwen; Wang, Xiaochun; Feng, Yuqi; Shu, Kai; Yang, Wenyu

    2016-02-23

    Karrikins (KAR) are a class of signal compounds, discovered in wildfire smoke, which affect seed germination. Currently, numerous studies have focused on the model plant Arabidopsis in the KAR research field, rather than on crops. Thus the regulatory mechanisms underlying KAR regulation of crop seed germination are largely unknown. Here, we report that KAR delayed soybean seed germination through enhancing abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, while impairing gibberellin (GA) biogenesis. Interestingly, KAR only retarded soybean seed germination under shaded conditions, rather than under dark and white light conditions, which differs from in Arabidopsis. Phytohormone quantification showed that KAR enhanced ABA biogenesis while impairing GA biosynthesis during the seed imbibition process, and subsequently, the ratio of active GA4 to ABA was significantly reduced. Further qRT-PCR analysis showed that the transcription pattern of genes involved in ABA and GA metabolic pathways are consistent with the hormonal measurements. Finally, fluridone, an ABA biogenesis inhibitor, remarkably rescued the delayed-germination phenotype of KAR-treatment; and paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, inhibited soybean seed germination. Taken together, these evidences suggest that KAR inhibit soybean seed germination by mediating the ratio between GA and ABA biogenesis.

  13. on seed germination and growth of Garcinia kola

    SARAH

    2016-07-31

    Jul 31, 2016 ... Seed germination tests: After 72 h of fermentation in plastic bags, seeds were ... Models (GLM) procedure of the R statistical version 9.1 was used to identify traits .... L-1) had accelerated seed germination. Germination rates.

  14. on seed germination and growth of Garcinia kola

    SARAH

    2016-07-31

    Jul 31, 2016 ... Parameters related to seed germination and seedlings vigour was evaluated. Results indicated that substrate do not affect seed germination and plant vigour. However ..... Annual plant reviews California, USA, pp. 50-. 6.7.

  15. Seed germination behavior of swallow wort

    amir hosein pahlavani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The exotic plant, Swallow- wort, a twining perennial of the Milkweed family, has become increasingly invasive in some place of Iran, especially orchards. Increased knowledge of wort germination biology would facilitate development of an optimum control program. Germination of Swallow wort seeds as affected by environmental factors was studied under controlled-environment growth chamber conditions. The following studies were conducted in plant Pests & Diseases Research Institute during the years 2003-4: 1- Effect of constant temperature on germination that including 10, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40˚C; 2- Effect of light on constant germination; 3- Effect of temperature fluctuations on seed germination: 15/7, 20/12, 25/17 and 30/22˚C. All experiments were conducted with 8 replications. Swallow wort seeds showed no dormancy when detachment from mother plant. Seed germination was strongly influenced by temperature. Light did not play a crucial role on seed germination of this weed. Therefore Swallow wort seeds were not photoblastic and temperature fluctuations did not increase seed germination of Swallow wort. The above characteristics are very important in making swallowwort an invasive weed. Having precise information of these traits enables us to a better management and control of this troublesome weed.

  16. Proteomics of Arabidopsis seed germination and priming

    Gallardo, K.; Job, C.; Groot, S.P.C.; Puype, M.; Demol, H.; Vandekerckhove, J.; Job, D.

    2003-01-01

    To better understand seed germination, a complex developmental process, we developed a proteome analysis of the model plant Arabidopsis for which complete genome sequence is now available. Among about 1,300 total seed proteins resolved in two-dimensional gels, changes in the abundance (up- and

  17. High-throughput scoring of seed germination

    Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W.M.

    2017-01-01

    High-throughput analysis of seed germination for phenotyping large genetic populations or mutant collections is very labor intensive and would highly benefit from an automated setup. Although very often used, the total germination percentage after a nominated period of time is not very

  18. Diversity of organotrophic bacteria, activity of dehydrogenases and urease as well as seed germination and root growth Lepidium sativum, Sorghum saccharatum and Sinapis alba under the influence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Lipińska, Aneta; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga; Kucharski, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are organic compounds with highly toxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties, which adversely affect the basic biological parameters of the soil, including the count of microorganisms, and the enzymatic activity. In addition to disturbances to the biological activity of the soil, PAHs may also exhibit toxic effects on plants. In view of the above, the study involved testing aimed at the determination of the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a form of naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene and pyrene on the count, colony development (CD) index, ecophysiological (EP) diversity index of organotrophic bacteria, and the activity of soil dehydrogenases and soil urease. Moreover, an attempt was made to determine the soil's resistance based on the activity of the above-listed enzymes, and the effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on seed germination and root growth was assessed by Lepidium sativum, Sorghum saccharatum, and Sinapis alba. In addition, the species of bacteria found in a soil subjected to strong pressure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were isolated. The experiment was performed in a laboratory on samples of loamy sand. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were introduced into the soil in an amount of 0, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg kg(-1) of soil dry matter. Germination and growth of cress (L. sativum), white mustard (S. alba), and sweet sorghum (S. saccharatum) were determined using Phytotoxkit tests. It was found that the tested PAHs increased the average colony counts of organotrophic soil bacteria; pyrene did so to the greatest extent (2.2-fold relative to non-contaminated soil), phenanthrene to the smallest extent (1.4-fold relative to non-contaminated soil). None of the PAHs changed the value of the bacterial colony development (CD) index, while anthracene and pyrene increased the value of the eco-physiological (EP) diversity indicator. PAHs lowered the activity of the tested enzymes. The activity of

  19. Salt Stress Represses Soybean Seed Germination by Negatively Regulating GA Biosynthesis While Positively Mediating ABA Biosynthesis

    Kai Shu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is an important and staple oilseed crop worldwide. Salinity stress has adverse effects on soybean development periods, especially on seed germination and post-germinative growth. Improving seed germination and emergence will have positive effects under salt stress conditions on agricultural production. Here we report that NaCl delays soybean seed germination by negatively regulating gibberellin (GA while positively mediating abscisic acid (ABA biogenesis, which leads to a decrease in the GA/ABA ratio. This study suggests that fluridone (FLUN, an ABA biogenesis inhibitor, might be a potential plant growth regulator that can promote soybean seed germination under saline stress. Different soybean cultivars, which possessed distinct genetic backgrounds, showed a similar repressed phenotype during seed germination under exogenous NaCl application. Biochemical analysis revealed that NaCl treatment led to high MDA (malondialdehyde level during germination and the post-germinative growth stages. Furthermore, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase activities also changed after NaCl treatment. Subsequent quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis showed that the transcription levels of ABA and GA biogenesis and signaling genes were altered after NaCl treatment. In line with this, phytohormone measurement also revealed that NaCl considerably down-regulated active GA1, GA3, and GA4 levels, whereas the ABA content was up-regulated; and therefore ratios, such as GA1/ABA, GA3/ABA, and GA4/ABA, are decreased. Consistent with the hormonal quantification, FLUN partially rescued the delayed-germination phenotype caused by NaCl-treatment. Altogether, these results demonstrate that NaCl stress inhibits soybean seed germination by decreasing the GA/ABA ratio, and that FLUN might be a potential plant growth regulator that could promote soybean seed germination under salinity stress.

  20. Salt Stress Represses Soybean Seed Germination by Negatively Regulating GA Biosynthesis While Positively Mediating ABA Biosynthesis.

    Shu, Kai; Qi, Ying; Chen, Feng; Meng, Yongjie; Luo, Xiaofeng; Shuai, Haiwei; Zhou, Wenguan; Ding, Jun; Du, Junbo; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Feng; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Weiguo; Yong, Taiwen; Wang, Xiaochun; Feng, Yuqi; Yang, Wenyu

    2017-01-01

    Soybean is an important and staple oilseed crop worldwide. Salinity stress has adverse effects on soybean development periods, especially on seed germination and post-germinative growth. Improving seed germination and emergence will have positive effects under salt stress conditions on agricultural production. Here we report that NaCl delays soybean seed germination by negatively regulating gibberellin (GA) while positively mediating abscisic acid (ABA) biogenesis, which leads to a decrease in the GA/ABA ratio. This study suggests that fluridone (FLUN), an ABA biogenesis inhibitor, might be a potential plant growth regulator that can promote soybean seed germination under saline stress. Different soybean cultivars, which possessed distinct genetic backgrounds, showed a similar repressed phenotype during seed germination under exogenous NaCl application. Biochemical analysis revealed that NaCl treatment led to high MDA (malondialdehyde) level during germination and the post-germinative growth stages. Furthermore, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase activities also changed after NaCl treatment. Subsequent quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis showed that the transcription levels of ABA and GA biogenesis and signaling genes were altered after NaCl treatment. In line with this, phytohormone measurement also revealed that NaCl considerably down-regulated active GA 1 , GA 3 , and GA 4 levels, whereas the ABA content was up-regulated; and therefore ratios, such as GA 1 /ABA, GA 3 /ABA, and GA 4 /ABA, are decreased. Consistent with the hormonal quantification, FLUN partially rescued the delayed-germination phenotype caused by NaCl-treatment. Altogether, these results demonstrate that NaCl stress inhibits soybean seed germination by decreasing the GA/ABA ratio, and that FLUN might be a potential plant growth regulator that could promote soybean seed germination under salinity stress.

  1. Endophytic bacterial effects on seed germination and mobilization of reserves in ammodendron biofolium

    Zhu, Y.; She, X.P.

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to analyze the mobilization of storage reserves during seed germination of Ammodendron bifolium by host plant-endophytic bacteria interaction and to determine the contribution of endophytic bacteria in plant establishment. The seeds were inoculated with three different endophytic bacteria from A. bifolium, Staphylococcus sp. AY3, Kocuria sp. AY9 and Bacillus sp. AG18, and they were germinated in the dark. Fresh weight changes and early seedling growth were assessed, and the content of storage compounds was quantified using biochemical assays in all germinated and non-germinated seeds. To understand the mechanism promoting seed germination, the activities of extracellular enzymes of bacterial isolates were also analyzed by the plate assay method. The results showed that treatment with endophytic bacteria accelerated seed germination; promoted further water absorption and radicle growth; and also promoted degradation of sucrose, protein and lipids during the germination process. At the same time, our results also showed that strain AG18 was able to produce protease and amylase, strain AY9 had only amylase activity, and strain AY3 had no extracellular enzyme activity. In summary, our current study showed that (i) endophytic bacteria improved seed germination and post-germination seedling growth of A. bifolium; (ii) inoculation with endophytic bacteria could promote storage reserve mobilization during or following germination; (iii) the degradation of protein, lipids and sucrose could provide essential energy for post-germination growth; and (iv) three bacterial isolates might have different action mechanisms on seed germination. (author)

  2. Mathematical model of seed germination process

    Gładyszewska, B.; Koper, R.; Kornarzyński, K.

    1999-01-01

    An analytical model of seed germination process was described. The model based on proposed working hypothesis leads - by analogy - to a law corresponding with Verhulst-Pearl's law, known from the theory of population kinetics. The model was applied to describe the germination kinetics of tomato seeds, Promyk field cultivar, biostimulated by laser treatment. Close agreement of experimental and model data was obtained [pl

  3. [The research of Valeriana amurensis seed germination characteristics].

    Liu, Juan; Yang, Chun-Rong; Jiang, Bo; Fang, Min; Du, Juan

    2011-10-01

    To study the effect of different treatments on the Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate. Used different chemical reagents and seed soakings on the routine germination test and the orthogonal test of the Valeriana amurensis seed, calculated the germination rate under different germination condition. Valeriana amurensis treated with different chemical reagends had different germination rate. The suitable immersion time could enhance Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate. Different treatment time, different disposal temperature, different germination temperature would have an impact on the Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate. In order to raise the Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate, use appropriate treatment on the seed before plant seeds; The seed growing must under suitable time and temperature.

  4. Hormones and tomato seed germination

    Liu, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Using GA- and ABA-deficient mutants, exogenous gibberellins (GAs), abscisic acid (ABA) and osmoticum, we studied the roles of GAs and ABA in the induction of cell cycle activities, internal free space formation and changes in water relations during seed development and imbibition in tomato. First of

  5. Stimulation of lettuce seed germination by ethylene.

    Abeles, F B; Lonski, J

    1969-02-01

    Ethylene increased the germination of freshly imbibed lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Grand Rapids) seeds. Seeds receiving either red or far-red light or darkness all showed a positive response to the gas. However, ethylene was apparently without effect on dormant seeds, those which failed to germinate after an initial red or far-red treatment. Carbon dioxide, which often acts as a competitive inhibitor of ethylene, failed to clearly reverse ethylene-enhanced seed germination. While light doubled ethylene production from the lettuce seeds, its effect was not mediated by the phytochrome system since both red and far-red light had a similar effect.

  6. Preliminary studies on allelopatic effect of some woody plants on seed germination of rye-grass and tall fescue.

    Arouiee, H; Nazdar, T; Mousavi, A

    2010-11-01

    In order to investigation of allelopathic effects of some ornamental trees on seed germination of rye-grass (Lolium prenne) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae), this experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 3 replicates at the laboratory of Horticultural Sciences Department of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during 2008. In this research, we studied the effect of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Afghanistan pine (Pinus eldarica), arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica), black locust (Robinia psedue acacia) and box elder (Acer negundo) leaves that prepared in 1:5 ratio on seed germination percent and rate for two grasses. The results showed that all extracts decreased statistically seed germination in compared to control treatment. The highest germination percentage and germination rate of tested grass detected in control treatment. Hydro-alcoholic extracts of all woody plants (15, 30%) were completely inhibited seed germination of rye-grass and tall fescue. Also aqueous extract of arizona cypress was completely inhibited seed germination of tall fescue and had more inhibitory activity than other aqueous extracts on rye-grass. Between aqueous extracts, the highest and lowest seed germination of rye-grass was found in Afghanistan pine and arizona cypress, respectively.

  7. Investigating the Influence of Karrikins on Seed Germination

    de Beer, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has identified a karrikin (a butenolide derative) known as 3-methyl-2H-furo[2,3-c]pyran-2-one, formed from burning cellulose, that stimulates seed germination. Here, I present ideas on how to investigate the influence of karrikins on seed germination in the laboratory.

  8. Improving the seed germination of little bluestem with selection

    Rapid seed germination is an important characteristic when it comes to plant stand establishment under variable environmental conditions. This research was designed to improve the seed germination of six experimental Syn-0 lines of little bluestem [Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash]. Two cycle...

  9. Monte Carlo simulation of the seed germination process

    Gladyszewska, B.; Koper, R.

    2000-01-01

    Paper presented a mathematical model of seed germination process based on the Monte Carlo method and theoretical premises resulted from the physiology of seed germination suggesting three consecutive stages: physical, biochemical and physiological. The model was experimentally verified by determination of germination characteristics for seeds of ground tomatoes, Promyk cultivar, within broad range of temperatures (from 15 to 30 deg C)

  10. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    The present study was conducted to examine the influence of Lagenaria siceraria seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor. Three seed fermentation methods (fermented in ambient air, plastic bag stored in ambient or in plastic bag buried) were tested on two cultivars during two years. Seed germination and ...

  11. Determination of Kinetic and Thermodynamic Parameters that Describe Isothermal Seed Germination: A Student Research Project.

    Hageseth, Gaylord T.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a project for students to collect and fit data to a theoretical mathematical model that describes the rate of isothermal seed germination, including activation energy for substrate and produce and the autocatalytic reaction, and changes in enthalpy, entropy, and the Gibb's free energy. (Author/SK)

  12. Seed Germination of selected Taxa from Kachchh Desert, India

    Vinay Madhukar RAOLE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The district of Kachchh contains many culturally important plants. However, their conservation status is little known due to direct and indirect human activities. This study was undertaken with the aim of contributing to the conservation of the native species of these semi-arid regions through germination trials under laboratory conditions. Mature fruits of ten selected species were collected randomly from the known habitats to obtain viable seeds. These seeds were pre-treated with growth regulators singly or in combination after acid scarification or without scarification. Seeds were found to be dormant due to presence of thick seed coat or due to low level of endogenous hormonal level. Most of these seeds required different storage period to mature. Only seeds of Capparis cartilaginea germinated without treatment while the other species required treatments. Addition of growth regulators has enhanced seed germination in few taxa singly and in some plant cases in combination.

  13. Structure-activity relationships of N- and S-analogs of the seed germination inhibitor (3,4,5-trimethylfuran-2(5H)-one) for mode of action elucidation

    Pošta, Martin; Papenfus, H. B.; Light, M. E.; Beier, Petr; Van Staden, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 1 (2017), s. 47-53 ISSN 0167-6903 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : butenolide * Lactuca sativa * seed germination * smoke Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 2.646, year: 2016

  14. Effect of Salicylic Acid and Ethephon on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Wheat under Salt Stress

    Soheyla Shakeri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water or soil salinities are the most important factors that reduce the seed germination of plants. Ethephon can break seed dormancy in a variety of plants, such as cereals and speeds up germination. In some plants pretreatment of seeds with salicylic acid has increased the germination percentage. To study effect of salicylic acid and ethephon on seed germination of wheat (Seivand cultivar under salinity condition a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted at the Plant Research Laboratory of Neyshabur Branch of Islamic Azad University in 2011. Four salinity levels (0, 50, 100, 150 mM, three salicylic acid levels (0, 0.5, 1 mM and four ethephon levels (0, 0.5, 1, 2 mM were used. The results showed that at salinity condition seed germination rate and percentage, shoot and root length, their dry weight and α-amylase activity decreased and proline content increased. Pretreatment of seeds by salicylic acid increased seed germination percentage, some growth parameters, α-amylase activity and proline content under salinity condition. Moreover, pretreatment of seeds by ethephon decreased some growth parameters and increased proline content but its effect on germination and α-amylase activity were not significant. It seems that Salicylic acid as a plant growth regulator under salinity condition and ethephon convertion to ethylene, activated plant tolerance mechanisms to salinity condition and decrease damaging effect of salinity on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat.

  15. HFR1 Sequesters PIF1 to Govern the Transcriptional Network Underlying Light-Initiated Seed Germination in Arabidopsis[C][W][OPEN

    Shi, Hui; Zhong, Shangwei; Mo, Xiaorong; Liu, Na; Nezames, Cynthia D.; Deng, Xing Wang

    2013-01-01

    Seed germination is the first step for seed plants to initiate a new life cycle. Light plays a predominant role in promoting seed germination, where the initial phase is mediated by photoreceptor phytochrome B (phyB). Previous studies showed that PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR1 (PIF1) represses seed germination downstream of phyB. Here, we identify a positive regulator of phyB-dependent seed germination, LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FAR-RED1 (HFR1). HFR1 blocks PIF1 transcriptional activity by forming a heterodimer with PIF1 that prevents PIF1 from binding to DNA. Our whole-genomic analysis shows that HFR1 and PIF1 oppositely mediate the light-regulated transcriptome in imbibed seeds. Through the HFR1–PIF1 module, light regulates expression of numerous genes involved in cell wall loosening, cell division, and hormone pathways to initiate seed germination. The functionally antagonistic HFR1–PIF1 pair constructs a fail-safe mechanism for fine-tuning seed germination during low-level illumination, ensuring a rapid response to favorable environmental changes. This study identifies the HFR1–PIF1 pair as a central module directing the whole genomic transcriptional network to rapidly initiate light-induced seed germination. PMID:24179122

  16. Effects of animal's rumen juice on seed germination of Vicia ...

    DR TONUKARI NYEROVWO

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... To help understand the effects of grazing on seed germination characteristics of Vicia angustifolia L., we conducted a ... feed forage seeds or reproduction organs selectively and changes the ... The mean daily air temperature ...

  17. Studies on seed germination and in vitro shoot multiplication of ...

    Yomi

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... vitro seed germination and plantlet regeneration of this plant. ... Key words: Germination, gibberellic acid, growth regulators, node explants, Satureja ..... Abscisic Acid: A. Seed Maturation and Antistress Signal, 3rd ed. Sinauer ...

  18. Comparative metabolome analysis of wheat embryo and endosperm reveals the dynamic changes of metabolites during seed germination.

    Han, Caixia; Zhen, Shoumin; Zhu, Gengrui; Bian, Yanwei; Yan, Yueming

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we performed the first comparative metabolomic analysis of the wheat embryo and endosperm during seed germination using GC-MS/MS. In total, 82 metabolites were identified in the embryo and endosperm. Principal component analysis (PCA), metabolite-metabolite correlation and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) revealed distinct dynamic changes in metabolites between the embryo and endosperm during seed germination. Generally, the metabolite changes in the embryo were much greater than those in the endosperm, suggesting that the embryo is more active than the endosperm during seed germination. Most amino acids were upregulated in both embryo and endosperm, while polysaccharides and organic acids associated with sugars were mainly downregulated in the embryo. Most of the sugars showed an upregulated trend in the endosperm, but significant changes in lipids occurred only in the embryo. Our results suggest that the embryo mobilises mainly protein and lipid metabolism, while the endosperm mobilises storage starch and minor protein metabolism during seed germination. The primary energy was generated mainly in the embryo by glycolysis during seed imbibition. The embryo containing most of the genetic information showed increased nucleotides during seed germination process, indicating more active transcription and translation metabolisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. High-Throughput Scoring of Seed Germination.

    Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2017-01-01

    High-throughput analysis of seed germination for phenotyping large genetic populations or mutant collections is very labor intensive and would highly benefit from an automated setup. Although very often used, the total germination percentage after a nominated period of time is not very informative as it lacks information about start, rate, and uniformity of germination, which are highly indicative of such traits as dormancy, stress tolerance, and seed longevity. The calculation of cumulative germination curves requires information about germination percentage at various time points. We developed the GERMINATOR package: a simple, highly cost-efficient, and flexible procedure for high-throughput automatic scoring and evaluation of germination that can be implemented without the use of complex robotics. The GERMINATOR package contains three modules: (I) design of experimental setup with various options to replicate and randomize samples; (II) automatic scoring of germination based on the color contrast between the protruding radicle and seed coat on a single image; and (III) curve fitting of cumulative germination data and the extraction, recap, and visualization of the various germination parameters. GERMINATOR is a freely available package that allows the monitoring and analysis of several thousands of germination tests, several times a day by a single person.

  20. Effect of industrial pollution on seed germination

    Iqbal, M.Z.; Qadir, S.A.

    1973-01-01

    The germination behavior of seeds in polluted waters and polluted soil extracts was found to be identical, only a few species behaved differently. Prosopis juliflora, Haloxylon recurvum, Acacia senegal showed best germination in the two conditions but Prosopis juliflora was the most resistant to pollution. In Suaeda fruticosa no germination took place in the control treatment whereas highest germination (70%) was seen in treatment with polluted soil extract of EPLA. Blepharis sindica showed a stimulating effect of polluted water on germination, whereas low germination was observed when their seeds were treated with the soil extract of the same site. 40% germination of Suaeda monoica was seen in polluted water of Carbon and Ribbon Mfg. Co., whereas 30% germination was found in a control treatment. Low percentage of germination was found when the seeds of Cassia holosericea were treated with polluted waters of different industries as compared to soil extract treatments of the same industries. Datura alba showed 50, 30 and 10% seed germination in polluted soil extract of Carbon and Ribbon Mfg. Co., in control and in polluted water of Darbar Soap Works, respectively. 5 references, 1 table.

  1. Integration of Auxin and Salt Signals by the NAC Transcription Factor NTM2 during Seed Germination in Arabidopsis1[W

    Park, Jungmin; Kim, Youn-Sung; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Jung, Jae-Hoon; Woo, Je-Chang; Park, Chung-Mo

    2011-01-01

    Seed germination is regulated through elaborately interacting signaling networks that integrate diverse environmental cues into hormonal signaling pathways. Roles of gibberellic acid and abscisic acid in germination have been studied extensively using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants having alterations in seed germination. Auxin has also been implicated in seed germination. However, how auxin influences germination is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that auxin is linked via the IAA30 gene with a salt signaling cascade mediated by the NAM-ATAF1/2-CUC2 transcription factor NTM2/Arabidopsis NAC domain-containing protein 69 (for NAC with Transmembrane Motif1) during seed germination. Germination of the NTM2-deficient ntm2-1 mutant seeds exhibited enhanced resistance to high salinity. However, the salt resistance disappeared in the ntm2-1 mutant overexpressing the IAA30 gene, which was induced by salt in a NTM2-dependent manner. Auxin exhibited no discernible effects on germination under normal growth conditions. Under high salinity, however, whereas exogenous application of auxin further suppressed the germination of control seeds, the auxin effects were reduced in the ntm2-1 mutant. Consistent with the inhibitory effects of auxin on germination, germination of YUCCA 3-overexpressing plants containing elevated levels of active auxin was more severely influenced by salt. These observations indicate that auxin delays seed germination under high salinity through cross talk with the NTM2-mediated salt signaling in Arabidopsis. PMID:21450938

  2. Exogenous auxin represses soybean seed germination through decreasing the gibberellin/abscisic acid (GA/ABA) ratio.

    Shuai, Haiwei; Meng, Yongjie; Luo, Xiaofeng; Chen, Feng; Zhou, Wenguan; Dai, Yujia; Qi, Ying; Du, Junbo; Yang, Feng; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Wenyu; Shu, Kai

    2017-10-03

    Auxin is an important phytohormone which mediates diverse development processes in plants. Published research has demonstrated that auxin induces seed dormancy. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the effect of auxin on seed germination need further investigation, especially the relationship between auxins and both abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs), the latter two phytohormones being the key regulators of seed germination. Here we report that exogenous auxin treatment represses soybean seed germination by enhancing ABA biosynthesis, while impairing GA biogenesis, and finally decreasing GA 1 /ABA and GA 4 /ABA ratios. Microscope observation showed that auxin treatment delayed rupture of the soybean seed coat and radicle protrusion. qPCR assay revealed that transcription of the genes involved in ABA biosynthetic pathway was up-regulated by application of auxin, while expression of genes involved in GA biosynthetic pathway was down-regulated. Accordingly, further phytohormone quantification shows that auxin significantly increased ABA content, whereas the active GA 1 and GA 4 levels were decreased, resulting insignificant decreases in the ratiosGA 1 /ABA and GA 4 /ABA.Consistent with this, ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone reversed the delayed-germination phenotype associated with auxin treatment, while paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, inhibited soybean seed germination. Altogether, exogenous auxin represses soybean seed germination by mediating ABA and GA biosynthesis.

  3. Elucidating hormonal/ROS networks during seed germination: insights and perspectives

    Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Barba Espin, Gregorio; Hernández, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    ” technologies together with physiological and biochemical approaches have revealed that seed germination is a very complex process that depends on multiple biochemical and molecular variables. The pivotal role of phytohormones in promoting germination now appears to be interdependent with ROS metabolism......While authors have traditionally emphasized the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on seed biology, their role as signaling molecules during seed dormancy alleviation and germination is now the focus of many studies around the world. Over the last few years, studies using “-omics......, involving mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade activation, gene expression and post-translational protein modifications. This review is, thus, an attempt to summarize the new discoveries involving ROS and seed germination. The study of these interactions may supply markers of seed quality that might...

  4. Effect of gamma radiation on seed germination and seedling vigour in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.

    Thimmaiah, S.K.; Mahadevu, P; Srinivasappa, K.N.; Shankara, A.N.

    1998-01-01

    Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is regarded as hardy and one of the important tropical legumes. The plants respond differently to mutagenic treatments. Ionizing radiations affect a wide range of physiological and biochemical activities of plants. The purpose of this paper is to report the effect of gamma radiation on seed germination and seedling vigour of two important cowpea varieties viz., KBC-1 and TVX-994-02E in M 1 generation under laboratory conditions. (author)

  5. The pleiotropic effects of the seed germination inhibitor germostatin.

    Ye, Yajin; Zhao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Seed dormancy and germination are the most important adaptive traits of seed plants, which control the germination in a proper space and time. Internal genetic factors together with environmental cues govern seed dormancy and germination. Abscisic acid (ABA), a key phytohormone induces seed dormancy and inhibits seed germination through its molecular genetic signaling network responding the seed inherent physiological and environmental factors. Recently, auxin has been shown to be another phytohormone that induces seed dormancy. We have recently shown that germonstatin (GS), a small synthetic molecule identified by high through-put chemical genetic screenings, inhibits seed germination through up-regulating auxin signaling and inducing auxin biosynthesis. GERMOSTATIN RESISTANCE LOCUS 1 (GSR1) encodes a plant homeodomain (PHD) finger protein and is responsible for GS seed germination inhibition. Its knockdown mutant gsr1 displays decreased dormancy. In this report, we show that GS is not an ABA analog and provided 2 other GS-resistant mutants related to the chemical's function in seed germination inhibition other than gsr1, suggesting that GS may have pleiotropic effects through targeting different pathway governing seed germination.

  6. Omethoate treatment mitigates high salt stress inhibited maize seed germination.

    Yang, Kejun; Zhang, Yifei; Zhu, Lianhua; Li, Zuotong; Deng, Benliang

    2018-01-01

    Omethoate (OM) is a highly toxic organophophate insecticide, which is resistant to biodegradation in the environment and is widely used for pest control in agriculture. The effect of OM on maize seed germination was evaluated under salt stress. Salt (800mM) greatly reduced germination of maize seed and this could be reversed by OM. Additionally, H 2 O 2 treatment further improved the effect of OM on seed germination. Higher H 2 O 2 content was measured in OM treated seed compared to those with salt stress alone. Dimethylthiourea (DTMU), a specific scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibited the effect of OM on seed germination, as did IMZ (imidazole), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. Abscisic acid (ABA) inhibited the effect of OM on seed germination, whereas fluridone, a specific inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, enhanced the effect of OM. Taken together, these findings suggest a role of ROS and ABA in the promotion of maize seed germination by OM under salt stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Adverse effect of urease on salt stress during seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Bu, Yuanyuan; Kou, Jing; Sun, Bo; Takano, Testuo; Liu, Shenkui

    2015-05-22

    Seed germination is a critical stage in the development of crops that grow in saline soils. We noticed that seeds of an Arabidopsis urease mutant have significantly increased salt stress tolerance. To understand why, we treated the wild type (WT) with a urease inhibitor and found that its salt stress tolerance was also improved. We hypothesized that urease acting on urea generates NH₄⁺, which probably exacerbates salt stress. As expected, the urease inhibitor significantly decreased the NH₄⁺ level in WT seeds. These findings suggest that blocking urease activity improves salt tolerance during seed germination by lowering the concentration of NH₄⁺. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Trigoxazonane, a monosubstituted trioxazonane from Trigonella foenum-graecum root exudate, inhibits Orobanche crenata seed germination.

    Evidente, Antonio; Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Andolfi, Anna; Rubiales, Diego; Motta, Andrea

    2007-10-01

    Orobanche crenata is a major threat to grain legume production. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual legume that has been shown to effectively reduce O. crenata infection when intercropped with grain legumes. In this paper, we point that this can be attributed to allelopathy, through inhibition of the germination of O. crenata by fenugreek root exudates. The main inhibitory metabolite was isolated and characterized. Allelopathy was demonstrated in different bioassays, by inhibition of O. crenata seeds germination both by growing fenugreek and pea plants together (intercropped), and by application of fenugreek root exudates. Fenugreek root exudates were extracted with organic solvent and fractionated giving several fractions, two of which showed moderate (27%) and strong (54%) inhibition of O. crenata seed germination, respectively. The most active metabolite is a new monosubstituted trioxazonane, characterized by spectroscopic methods as the 2-butyl-[1,4,7,2]trioxazonane and named trigoxazonane.

  9. Dynamic Proteomics Emphasizes the Importance of Selective mRNA Translation and Protein Turnover during Arabidopsis Seed Germination*

    Galland, Marc; Huguet, Romain; Arc, Erwann; Cueff, Gwendal; Job, Dominique; Rajjou, Loïc

    2014-01-01

    During seed germination, the transition from a quiescent metabolic state in a dry mature seed to a proliferative metabolic state in a vigorous seedling is crucial for plant propagation as well as for optimizing crop yield. This work provides a detailed description of the dynamics of protein synthesis during the time course of germination, demonstrating that mRNA translation is both sequential and selective during this process. The complete inhibition of the germination process in the presence of the translation inhibitor cycloheximide established that mRNA translation is critical for Arabidopsis seed germination. However, the dynamics of protein turnover and the selectivity of protein synthesis (mRNA translation) during Arabidopsis seed germination have not been addressed yet. Based on our detailed knowledge of the Arabidopsis seed proteome, we have deepened our understanding of seed mRNA translation during germination by combining two-dimensional gel-based proteomics with dynamic radiolabeled proteomics using a radiolabeled amino acid precursor, namely [35S]-methionine, in order to highlight de novo protein synthesis, stability, and turnover. Our data confirm that during early imbibition, the Arabidopsis translatome keeps reflecting an embryonic maturation program until a certain developmental checkpoint. Furthermore, by dividing the seed germination time lapse into discrete time windows, we highlight precise and specific patterns of protein synthesis. These data refine and deepen our knowledge of the three classical phases of seed germination based on seed water uptake during imbibition and reveal that selective mRNA translation is a key feature of seed germination. Beyond the quantitative control of translational activity, both the selectivity of mRNA translation and protein turnover appear as specific regulatory systems, critical for timing the molecular events leading to successful germination and seedling establishment. PMID:24198433

  10. Abscisic acid regulates seed germination of Vellozia species in response to temperature.

    Vieira, B C; Bicalho, E M; Munné-Bosch, S; Garcia, Q S

    2017-03-01

    The relationship between the phytohormones, gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) and light and temperature on seed germination is still not well understood. We aimed to investigate the role of the ABA and GA on seed germination of Vellozia caruncularis, V. intermedia and V. alutacea in response to light/dark conditions on different temperature. Seeds were incubated in GA (GA 3 or GA 4 ) or ABA and their respective biosynthesis inhibitors (paclobutrazol - PAC, and fluridone - FLU) solutions at two contrasting temperatures (25 and 40 °C). Furthermore, endogenous concentrations of active GAs and those of ABA were measured in seeds of V. intermedia and V. alutacea during imbibition/germination. Exogenous ABA inhibited the germination of Vellozia species under all conditions tested. GA, FLU and FLU + GA 3 stimulated germination in the dark at 25 °C (GA 4 being more effective than GA 3 ). PAC reduced seed germination in V. caruncularis and V. alutacea, but did not affect germination of V. intermedia at 40 °C either under light or dark conditions. During imbibition in the dark, levels of active GAs decreased in the seeds of V. intermedia, but were not altered in those of V. alutacea. Incubation at 40 °C decreased ABA levels during imbibition in both V. caruncularis and V. alutacea. We conclude that the seeds of Vellozia species studied here require light or high temperature to germinate and ABA has a major role in the regulation of Vellozia seed germination in response to light and temperature. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  11. Proteome analysis reveals an energy-dependent central process for Populus×canadensis seed germination.

    Zhang, Hong; Zhou, Ke-Xin; Wang, Wei-Qing; Liu, Shu-Jun; Song, Song-Quan

    2017-06-01

    Poplar (Populus×canadensis) seeds rapidly germinated in darkness at 10, 15, and 20°C and reached 50% seed germination after about 22, 4.5, and 3.5h, respectively. Germination of poplar seeds was markedly inhibited by abscisic acid (ABA) at 50μM and cycloheximide (CHX) at 100μM, and these inhibitive roles were temperature-dependent. In the present study, mature poplar seeds were used to investigate the differentially changed proteome of seeds germinating in water, ABA, and CHX. A total of 130 protein spots showed a significant change (1.5-fold increase/decrease, Pgermination of poplar seeds is closely related with the increase in those proteins involved in amino acid and lipid metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and pentose phosphate pathway, protein synthesis and destination, cell defense and rescue, and degradation of storage proteins. ABA and CHX inhibit the germination of poplar seeds by decreasing the protein abundance associated with protein proteolysis, protein folding, and storage proteins. We conclude that poplar seed germination is an energy-dependent active process, and is accompanied by increasing amino acid activation, protein synthesis and destination, as well as cell defense and rescue, and degradation of storage proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of graphene on seed germination and seedling growth

    Zhang, Ming; Gao, Bin, E-mail: bg55@ufl.edu [University of Florida, Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering (United States); Chen, Jianjun [University of Florida, Department of Environmental Horticulture and Mid-Florida Research & Education Center (United States); Li, Yuncong [University of Florida, Soil and Water Science Department Tropical Research & Education Center (United States)

    2015-02-15

    The environmental impact of graphene has recently attracted great attention. In this work, we show that graphene at a low concentration affected tomato seed germination and seedling growth. Graphene-treated seeds germinated much faster than control seeds. Analytical results indicated that graphene penetrated seed husks. The penetration might break the husks to facilitate water uptake, resulting in faster germination and higher germination rates. At the stage of seedling growth, graphene was also able to penetrate root tip cells. Seedlings germinated from graphene-treated seeds had slightly lower biomass accumulation than the control, but exhibited significantly longer stems and roots than the control, which suggests that graphene, in contrast with other nanoparticles, had different effects on seedling growth. Taken together, our results imply that graphene played complicated roles in affecting the initial stage of seed germination and subsequent seedling growth.

  13. Effect of Estrogen and Progeterone on seed germination

    Nirmala

    Full Text Available Early pregnancy detection in dairy cattle is an integral part of a successful animal husbandry practice. A simple seed germination technique (Punyakoti test comprises observation of differential seed germination response of wheat seeds to diluted fresh urine samples as reflected by significant inhibition of germination percentage in pregnant cow urine when compared to non pregnant cow urine. Hormone metabolites excreted through urine might affect the seed germination in pregnant cow urine. In the present study an attempt was made to test the effect of hormones (in their natural forms at different concentrations of estrogen (17-ß estradiol and progesterone on wheat and green gram germination. Stock solutions of estrogen and progesterone were prepared in alcohol (1mg/ml and serial dilutions made using distilled water to get the concentrations of T1=10, T2=1, T3=0.1 and T4=0.01 μg/ml respectively in treatment groups. About 15 seeds each of wheat and green gram were taken in sterile Petri dishes into which 15ml of each test preparation was poured. The treatments were compared with distilled water and alcohol controls. The study was conducted for a period of five days during which seed germination was observed after 48 hrs and shoot lengths were also measured by the end of study. The average seed germination and shoot length in treatment groups did not vary significantly (P>0.05 when compared with that of control groups. Thus from the present study, it can be concluded that estrogen and progesterone in their natural form will not affect seed germination and shoot length. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(8.000: 241-242

  14. Enhancement of Salinity Tolerance during Rice Seed Germination by Presoaking with Hemoglobin

    Sheng Xu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress is an important environmental constraint limiting the productivity of many crops worldwide. In this report, experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of seed presoaking by bovine hemoglobin, an inducer of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, on salinity tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa plants. The results showed that different concentrations of the hemoglobin (0.01, 0.05, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 g/L differentially alleviated the inhibition of rice seed germination and thereafter seedling shoot growth caused by 100 mM NaCl stress, and the responses of 1.0 g/L hemoglobin was the most obvious. Further analyses showed that application of hemoglobin not only increased the HO-1 gene expression, but also differentially induced catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities or transcripts, thus decreasing the lipid peroxidation in germinating rice seeds subjected to salt stress. Compared with non-hemoglobin treatment, hemoglobin presoaking also increased the potassium (K to sodium (Na ratio both in the root and shoot parts after salinity stress. The effect is specific for HO-1 since the potent HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX blocked the positive actions of hemoglobin on seed germination and seedling shoot growth. Overall, these results suggested that hemoglobin performs an advantageous role in enhancement of salinity tolerance during rice seed germination.

  15. Induction of Haustorium Development by Sphaeropsidones in Radicles of the Parasitic Weeds Striga and Orobanche. A Structure-Activity Relationship Study.

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Masi, Marco; Maddau, Lucia; Cimmino, Alessio; Evidente, Marco; Rubiales, Diego; Evidente, Antonio

    2016-06-29

    Crop attack by parasitic weeds such as Striga and Orobanche occurs through developmental processes triggered by host chemodetection. Seeds of those weed species remain dormant in the soil until germination is triggered by host root exudates. The development of haustorium, a parasitic plant organ that invades the host to withdraw its nutrients, is also initiated in Orobanchaceae by host molecular cues. The induction of haustorium development by exogenous signals has previously been reported for Striga but not for Orobanche species. In this work, we demonstrate that sphaeropsidone and epi-sphaeropsidone, two phytotoxic cyclohexene oxides isolated from the fungus Diplodia cupressi, a causal agent of cypress canker, induce haustorium development in radicles of the parasitic weeds Striga hermonthica, Orobanche crenata, and Orobanche cumana. This is the first report of chemical stimulation of haustorium development in radicles of Orobanche in the absence of host. In addition, SAR studies were carried out by testing the haustorium-inducing activity of the natural cyclohexene oxides, seven already known and four new hemisynthetic derivatives, in O. cumana, O. crenata, and S. hermonthica, to find a molecular specificity model required for haustorium induction. The results suggested that the haustorium-inducing activity is due to the possibility to convert the natural sphaeropsidone and natural and hemisynthetic derivatives in the corresponding 3-methoxyquinone and that the stereochemistry at C-5 also seems to affect this activity.

  16. Seed germination and in vitro propagation of Piliostigma thonningii ...

    Piliostigma thonningii is a multipurpose tree of high priority for conservation in Nigeria. Almost all its parts are used in traditional medicine and its seeds are a good source of antioxidant micronutrients, rich in crude protein and carbohydrate. Its seeds are however dormant and the plant is uncultivated. Seed germination and ...

  17. Seed germination and seedling emergence of Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius)

    Timothy B. Harrington

    2009-01-01

    Scotch broom is a large, leguminous shrub that has invaded 27 U.S. states. The species produces seeds with a hard coat that remain viable in the soil for years. Growth-chamber studies were conducted to determine effects of temperature regime and cold-stratification period on seed germination. Seedling emergence, mortality, and biomass also were studied in response to...

  18. The effect of different treatments on improving seed germination ...

    Creating optimal conditions for germination of medicinal plants seed is essential for their cultivation. Therefore, to evaluate the effect of different treatments on seed germination of two medicinal species, Descurainia sophia and Plantago ovata collected in 2009 from Tehran Province, an experiment with a factorial ...

  19. Effects of animal's rumen juice on seed germination of Vicia ...

    To help understand the effects of grazing on seed germination characteristics of Vicia angustifolia L., we conducted a laboratory germination experiment of V. angustifolia L., which is a main companion species of Leguminosae family in alpine grassland of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, using Yak and Tibetan sheep rumen ...

  20. Studies on seed germination and in vitro shoot multiplication of ...

    Yomi

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... vitro seed germination and plantlet regeneration of this plant. ... medical books, a few varieties of herbs are described ... Seed viability was determined by tetrazolium (TZ) test. (Perry ..... Dictionary of Drugs and Difficult Terms of 'The Book of ... establishment of stem cuttings of oregano, pepermint and balm.

  1. Effect of gibberellic acid and potassium nitrate on seed germination ...

    Ramonda serbica and Ramonda nathaliae are rare resurrection plants, endemic and relict species from Balkan Peninsula. The effect of gibberellic acid (GA3) and potassium nitrate (KNO3) were conducted to determine the seed germination response for these two species. An experiment was conducted with four ...

  2. Asymbiotic seed germination and in vitro seedling development of ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... (M) and Knudson 'C' (KC) were evaluated for seed germination and early ... running tap water and Teepol. ... blade. The powdery seeds were inoculated on the surface of agar ... an interval of one week to trace different stages of development of .... round in shape and radially symmetrical that turned to.

  3. Proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis seed germination and priming

    Gallardo, K.; Job, C.; Groot, S.P.C.; Puype, M.; Demol, H.; Vandekerckhove, J.; Job, D.

    2001-01-01

    To better understand seed germination, a complex developmental process, we developed a proteome analysis of the model plant Arabidopsis for which complete genome sequence is now available. Among about 1,300 total seed proteins resolved in two-dimensional gels, changes in the abundance (up- and

  4. Extensive translational regulation during seed germination revealed by polysomal profiling

    Bai, Bing; Peviani, Alessia; Horst, van der Sjors; Gamm, Magdalena; Snel, Berend; Bentsink, Leónie; Hanson, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    This work investigates the extent of translational regulation during seed germination. The polysome occupancy of each gene is determined by genome-wide profiling of total mRNA and polysome-associated mRNA. This reveals extensive translational regulation during Arabidopsis thaliana seed

  5. Treatments for improving seed germination in eggplant and related species

    Gisbert, Carmina; Prohens, J.; Nuez, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    7 pages, 2 figures, 1 table, 19 references. Trabajo incluido en el Capítulo: Seed Genetics and Biotechnology, an Seed Germination and Vigour, presentado al Fith International Symposium on Seed, Transplant and Stand Establishment of Horticultural Crops, celebrado del 27/09 al 1/10 de 2009, en Murcia y Almería, España.

  6. Modelling the effect of temperature on seed germination in some ...

    USER

    2010-03-01

    Mar 1, 2010 ... utilizes temperature for predicting seed germination and the model can be applied to ... seeds were sprinkled on round filter papers (Watman No. 1) in a 9 cm Petri dish and ..... A review of research on seedbed preparation for ...

  7. Silicon improves seed germination and alleviates drought stress in lentil crops by regulating osmolytes, hydrolytic enzymes and antioxidant defense system.

    Biju, Sajitha; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Gupta, Dorin

    2017-10-01

    Silicon (Si) has been widely reported to have beneficial effect on mitigating drought stress in plants. However, the effect of Si on seed germination under drought conditions is still poorly understood. This research was carried out to ascertain the role of Si to abate polyethylene glycol-6000 mediated drought stress on seed germination and seedling growth of lentil. Results showed that drought stress significantly decreased the seed germination traits and increased the concentration of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine and soluble sugars), reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion) and lipid peroxides in lentil seedlings. The activities of hydrolytic enzymes and antioxidant enzymes increased significantly under osmotic stress. The application of Si significantly enhanced the plants ability to withstand drought stress conditions through increased Si content, improved antioxidants, hydrolytic enzymes activity, decreased concentration of osmolytes and reactive oxygen species. Multivariate data analysis showed statistically significant correlations among the drought-tolerance traits, whereas cluster analysis categorised the genotypes into distinct groups based on their drought-tolerance levels and improvements in expression of traits due to Si application. Thus, these results showed that Si supplementation of lentil was effective in alleviating the detrimental effects of drought stress on seed germination and increased seedling vigour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Ethylene evolution and endo-beta-mannanase activity during lettuce seed germination at high temperature Evolução de etileno e atividade da enzima endo-beta-mananase durante a germinação de sementes de alface sob altas temperaturas

    Warley Marcos Nascimento

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available High temperatures during lettuce seed imbibition can delay or completely inhibit germination and the endosperm layer appears to restrict the radicle protrusion. The role of endo-beta-mannanase during lettuce seed germination at 35°C and the influence of ethylene in endo-beta-mannanase regulation were investigated. Seeds of 'Dark Green Boston' (DGB and 'Everglades' (EVE were germinated in water, or 10 mmol L-1 of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC, or 10 mmol L-1 of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, or 20 mmol L-1 of silver thiosulphate (STS. Seeds were also primed in polyethylene glycol (PEG, or PEG + ACC, PEG + AVG, or PEG + STS. Untreated seeds germinated 100% at 20°C. At 35°C, EVE seeds germinated 100%, whereas DGB seeds germinated only 33%. Seed priming or adding ACC during incubation increased germination at 35°C. Higher ethylene evolution was detected in EVE than in DGB during germination at 35°C. AVG did not inhibit seed germination of DGB at 35°C, but STS did. Higher endo-beta-mannanase activity was observed in EVE compared with DGB seeds. Providing ACC either during priming or during germination increased endo-beta-mannanase activity, whereas AVG and STS led to decreased or no activity. Ethylene may overcome the inhibitory effect of high temperature in thermosensitive lettuce seeds due to increased endo-beta-mannanase, possibly leading to weakening of the endosperm.Altas temperaturas durante a embebição das sementes de alface podem atrasar ou inibir a germinação e o endosperma parece ser o responsável na restrição da protrusão da radícula. O envolvimento da enzima endo-beta-mananase durante a germinação de sementes de alface a 35°C e a influência do etileno na regulagem desta enzima foram estudados. Sementes das cultivares Dark Green Boston (DGB e Everglades (EVE foram germinadas em água ou em soluções de 10 mmol L-1 de 1-aminociclopropano-1-ácido carboxilico (ACC, 10 mmol L-1 de amino-etoxi-vinil-glicina (AVG

  9. Determination of kinetic and thermodynamic parameters that describe isothermal seed germination: A student research project

    Hageseth, Gaylord T.

    1982-02-01

    Students under the supervision of a faculty member can collect data and fit the data to the theoretical mathematical model that describes the rate of isothermal seed germination. The best-fit parameters are interpreted as an initial substrate concentration, product concentration, and the autocatalytic reaction rate. The thermodynamic model enables one to calculate the activation energy for the substrate and product, the activation energy for the autocatalytic reaction, and changes in enthalpy, entropy, and the Gibb's free energy. Turnip, lettuce, soybean, and radish seeds have been investigated. All data fit the proposed model.

  10. Ecophysiology of seed germination in Digitaria insularis ((L.) Fedde)

    Mendonça,Giovana Soares de; Martins,Cibele Chalita; Martins,Dagoberto; Costa,Neumárcio Vilanova da

    2014-01-01

    The invasive behaviour of sourgrass (Digitaria insularis) in cultivated areas is due to its strategy of aggressive regeneration, which is based on seed germination. Knowledge of the physiological ecology of this species can contribute to the development of management and control strategies. The aim of this research was to understand the effects of provenance, temperature and light on the germination of sourgrass seeds collected in the Brazilian state of São Paulo in the cities of Americana, B...

  11. Different modes of hydrogen peroxide action during seed germination

    Łukasz eWojtyla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide was initially recognized as a toxic molecule that causes damage at different levels of cell organization and thus losses in cell viability. From the 1990s, the role of hydrogen peroxide as a signaling molecule in plants has also been discussed. The beneficial role of H2O2 as a central hub integrating signaling network in response to biotic and abiotic stress and during developmental processes is now well established. Seed germination is the most pivotal phase of the plant life cycle, affecting plant growth and productivity. The function of hydrogen peroxide in seed germination and seed aging has been illustrated in numerous studies; however, the exact role of this molecule remains unknown. This review evaluates evidence that shows that H2O2 functions as a signaling molecule in seed physiology in accordance with the known biology and biochemistry of H2O2. The importance of crosstalk between hydrogen peroxide and a number of signaling molecules, including plant phytohormones such as abscisic acid, gibberellins and ethylene and reactive molecules such as nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide acting on cell communication and signaling during seed germination, is highlighted. The current study also focuses on the detrimental effects of H2O2 on seed biology, i.e., seed aging that leads to a loss of germination efficiency. The dual nature of hydrogen peroxide as a toxic molecule on one hand and as a signal molecule on the other is made possible through the precise spatial and temporal control of its production and degradation. Levels of hydrogen peroxide in germinating seeds and young seedlings can be modulated via pre-sowing seed priming/conditioning. This rather simple method is shown to be a valuable tool for improving seed quality and for enhancing seed stress tolerance during post-priming germination. In this review, we outline how seed priming/conditioning affects the integrative role of hydrogen peroxide in seed germination and

  12. Mechanism of fluridone-induced seed germination of cistanche tubulosa

    Chen, Q.L.; Tu, P.

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study disclosed that fluridone, a synthesis inhibitor of abscisic acid (ABA), could stimulate seed germination in the holoparasitic plant Cistanche tubulosa . Nonetheless, the underlying mechanisms have not been thoroughly elucidated. In the present study, an attempt was made to reveal the mechanism of fluridone breaking seed dormancy in C. tubulosa and to determine the contribution of hormones in this process. The ABA level in seeds initially decreased following fluridone treatment and was subsequently maintained at a concentration of 31 ng g/sup -1/ DW (dry weight) three days later. The contents of gibberellins (GAs) initially in creased and subsequently were maintained at a level of 40 ng g-1 DW after ten days. However, the increment of seed germination induced by fluridone was inhibited after the introduction of exogenous ABA or paclobutrazol (a synthesis inhibitor of GAs). Furthermore, inhibition from paclobutrazol was reversed by an additional treatment with exogenous GA3. When the ratio of endogenous GAs to ABA reached 4:3, C. tubulosa seeds initiated germination. By contrast, although the ratio of endogenous GAs to ABA content reached 2:1 by cold stratification, C. tubulosa seeds could not germinate unless exogenous GA3 was added. In summary, our current study revealed that (i) GAs and ABA play key roles for the seed germination of C. tubulosa , (ii) fluridone inhibited ABA biosynthesis but increased the concentration of GAs in seeds, and (iii) fluridone might initiate other processes associated with germination. (author)

  13. Ecophysiology of seed germination in Digitaria insularis ((L. Fedde

    Giovana Soares de Mendonça

    Full Text Available The invasive behaviour of sourgrass (Digitaria insularis in cultivated areas is due to its strategy of aggressive regeneration, which is based on seed germination. Knowledge of the physiological ecology of this species can contribute to the development of management and control strategies. The aim of this research was to understand the effects of provenance, temperature and light on the germination of sourgrass seeds collected in the Brazilian state of São Paulo in the cities of Americana, Botucatu and São José do Rio Preto and in the state of Paraná in the city of São Miguel do Iguaçu. The seeds were left to germinate at temperatures of 15, 25, 35 and 45 °C, both with and without light. The number of normal seedlings was recorded daily from seven to 60 days. After this period, the seeds together with substrate, were transferred to 25 ºC with light, and a daily count was made for all treatments until the end of germination (75 days after sowing. The seeds of D. insularis are positively photoblastic. Seed germination in this species depends on provenance. A temperature of 4 5 °C for germination is lethal to the seeds. The temperature of 35 °C in the presence of light is the most favourable condition for seed germination.

  14. Phytotoxicity of nanoparticles: Inhibition of seed germination and root growth

    Lin Daohui; Xing Baoshan

    2007-01-01

    Plants need to be included to develop a comprehensive toxicity profile for nanoparticles. Effects of five types of nanoparticles (multi-walled carbon nanotube, aluminum, alumina, zinc, and zinc oxide) on seed germination and root growth of six higher plant species (radish, rape, ryegrass, lettuce, corn, and cucumber) were investigated. Seed germination was not affected except for the inhibition of nanoscale zinc (nano-Zn) on ryegrass and zinc oxide (nano-ZnO) on corn at 2000 mg/L. Inhibition on root growth varied greatly among nanoparticles and plants. Suspensions of 2000 mg/L nano-Zn or nano-ZnO practically terminated root elongation of the tested plant species. Fifty percent inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 ) of nano-Zn and nano-ZnO were estimated to be near 50 mg/L for radish, and about 20 mg/L for rape and ryegrass. The inhibition occurred during the seed incubation process rather than seed soaking stage. These results are significant in terms of use and disposal of engineered nanoparticles. - Engineered nanoparticles can inhibit the seed germination and root growth

  15. Phytotoxicity of nanoparticles: Inhibition of seed germination and root growth

    Lin Daohui [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Stockbridge Hall, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Xing Baoshan [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Stockbridge Hall, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)], E-mail: bx@pssci.umass.edu

    2007-11-15

    Plants need to be included to develop a comprehensive toxicity profile for nanoparticles. Effects of five types of nanoparticles (multi-walled carbon nanotube, aluminum, alumina, zinc, and zinc oxide) on seed germination and root growth of six higher plant species (radish, rape, ryegrass, lettuce, corn, and cucumber) were investigated. Seed germination was not affected except for the inhibition of nanoscale zinc (nano-Zn) on ryegrass and zinc oxide (nano-ZnO) on corn at 2000 mg/L. Inhibition on root growth varied greatly among nanoparticles and plants. Suspensions of 2000 mg/L nano-Zn or nano-ZnO practically terminated root elongation of the tested plant species. Fifty percent inhibitory concentrations (IC{sub 50}) of nano-Zn and nano-ZnO were estimated to be near 50 mg/L for radish, and about 20 mg/L for rape and ryegrass. The inhibition occurred during the seed incubation process rather than seed soaking stage. These results are significant in terms of use and disposal of engineered nanoparticles. - Engineered nanoparticles can inhibit the seed germination and root growth.

  16. Optimal treatment increased the seed germination of Salvia verticillata L.

    ALALEH KHAKPOOR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Most seeds of the medicinal species are variable regarding their ecological compatibility with environmental conditions. Therefore, identifying the ecophysiological factors that affect dormancy and create optimal conditions for seed germination of medicinal plants is necessary for their culture and production. To evaluate the effect of different treatments on seed germination of medicinal species of Salvia verticillata, collected in the summer of 2010 in Eastern Azarbaijan, we have performed completely randomized experimental tests with 4 replications. The experimental design of treatment prior to growth included: scrape the skin with sandpaper, treatment with 500 ppm gibberellic acid for 24 and 48 h, treatment with citric acid for 10, 20 and 30 minutes, chilling for 2 and 4 weeks, treatment with warm water at 70°C and control treatment. Results showed that the effect of different treatments was significant on seed germination percent of the medicinal plant Salvia verticillata. Scrape the skin with sandpaper, citric acid treatment for 10, 20 and 30 minutes, and gibberellic acid treatment for 24 hours, increased the germination percentage compared to the control treatment. The most positive impact was observed on the dormancy breaking and germination of medicinal species Salvia verticillata.

  17. A Quick-Test for Biochar Effects on Seed Germination ...

    Biochar is being globally evaluated as a soil amendment to improve soil characteristics (e.g. soil water holding, nutrient exchange, microbiology, pesticides and chemical availability) to increase crop yields. Unfortunately, there are no quick tests to determine what biochar types are most effective at improving soil characteristics amenable for higher crop yields. Seed germination is a critical parameter for plant establishment and may be a quick indicator of biochar quality. We adapted Oregon State University Seed Laboratory procedures to develop a “quick-test” for screening the effects of biochar on seed germination. We used 11.0 cm rectangular x 3.5 cm deep containers fitted with blotter paper. The paper was premoistened with reverse-osmosis water, followed by placement of seeds (25 in a uniform 5 x 5 vacuum-assisted pattern, and biochar mixtures). A Norfolk and Coxville soil series from South Carolina were used. A total of 18 biochars were evaluated that were produced from 6 feedstocks (pine chips, poultry litter, swine solids, switchgrass, and two blends of pine chips and poultry litter); with biochar from each feedstock made by pyrolysis at 350, 500 and 700 ̊ C. Crops were cabbage, cucumber, onion, ryegrass and tomato. Preliminary results from the test indicated differences in seed germination due to soil type and possibly soil x biochar feedstock interactions. Other measurements including shoot dry weight per plate and pH of the soil+ biochar mixtur

  18. Karrikins delay soybean seed germination by mediating abscisic acid and gibberellin biogenesis under shaded conditions

    Meng, Yongjie; Chen, Feng; Shuai, Haiwei; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ding, Jun; Tang, Shengwen; Xu, Shuanshuan; Liu, Jianwei; Liu, Weiguo; Du, Junbo; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Feng; Sun, Xin; Yong, Taiwen; Wang, Xiaochun

    2016-01-01

    Karrikins (KAR) are a class of signal compounds, discovered in wildfire smoke, which affect seed germination. Currently, numerous studies have focused on the model plant Arabidopsis in the KAR research field, rather than on crops. Thus the regulatory mechanisms underlying KAR regulation of crop seed germination are largely unknown. Here, we report that KAR delayed soybean seed germination through enhancing abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, while impairing gibberellin (GA) biogenesis. Interest...

  19. Salt Stress Represses Soybean Seed Germination by Negatively Regulating GA Biosynthesis While Positively Mediating ABA Biosynthesis

    Kai Shu; Ying Qi; Feng Chen; Yongjie Meng; Xiaofeng Luo; Haiwei Shuai; Wenguan Zhou; Jun Ding; Junbo Du; Jiang Liu; Feng Yang; Qiang Wang; Weiguo Liu; Taiwen Yong; Xiaochun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Soybean is an important and staple oilseed crop worldwide. Salinity stress has adverse effects on soybean development periods, especially on seed germination and post-germinative growth. Improving seed germination and emergence will have positive effects under salt stress conditions on agricultural production. Here we report that NaCl delays soybean seed germination by negatively regulating gibberellin (GA) while positively mediating abscisic acid (ABA) biogenesis, which leads to a decrease i...

  20. Silicon improves seed germination and alleviates oxidative stress of bud seedlings in tomato under water deficit stress.

    Shi, Yu; Zhang, Yi; Yao, Hejin; Wu, Jiawen; Sun, Hao; Gong, Haijun

    2014-05-01

    The beneficial effects of silicon on plant growth and development under drought have been widely reported. However, little information is available on the effects of silicon on seed germination under drought. In this work, the effects of exogenous silicon (0.5 mM) on the seed germination and tolerance performance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) bud seedlings under water deficit stress simulated by 10% (w/v) polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) were investigated in four cultivars ('Jinpengchaoguan', 'Zhongza No.9', 'Houpi L402' and 'Oubao318'). The results showed that the seed germination percentage was notably decreased in the four cultivars under water stress, and it was significantly improved by added silicon. Compared with the non-silicon treatment, silicon addition increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and decreased the production of superoxide anion (O2·) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the radicles of bud seedlings under water stress. Addition of silicon decreased the total phenol concentrations in radicles under water stress, which might contribute to the decrease of peroxidase (POD) activity, as observed in the in vivo and in vitro experiments. The decrease of POD activity might contribute to a less accumulation of hydroxyl radical (·OH) under water stress. Silicon addition also decreased the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the radicles under stress, indicating decreased lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that exogenous silicon could improve seed germination and alleviate oxidative stress to bud seedling of tomato by enhancing antioxidant defense. The positive effects of silicon observed in a silicon-excluder also suggest the active involvement of silicon in biochemical processes in plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Proteomic analysis of Magnolia sieboldii K. Koch seed germination.

    Lu, Xiu-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Lin; Mei, Mei; Liu, Guang-Lin; Ma, Bei-Bei

    2016-02-05

    Magnolia sieboldii is a deciduous tree native to China. This species has a deep dormancy characteristic. To better understand seed germination, we used protein analysis of changes in seed protein at 0, 65, 110 and 150 d of stratification. Comparative 2DE analysis of M. sieboldii seed protein profiles at 0, 65, 110 and 150 d of stratification revealed 80 differentially abundance protein species. Comparative analysis showed that ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase small subunit was degraded during germination. In particular, it was degraded almost completely at 110 d of germination. Starch granules in the microstructure decreased after 65 d of stratification. Starch granules provided a sufficient amount of substrates and ATPs for subsequent germination. Four storage protein species were identified, of which all were down accumulated. Spots 44 and 46 had different MW and pI values, spots 36 and 46 had nearly the same MW with pI shift in the 2-DE gels, suggesting that they might be present as different isoforms of the same protein family and the post translational modification. Our results suggested that degradation of starch granules and storage protein species prepared the seed embryo for growth, as well as regulated seed germination. The present proteomics analysis provides novel insights into the mobilisation of nutrient reserves during the germination of M. sieboldii seeds. To better understand seed germination, a complex developmental process, we developed a proteome analysis of M. sieboldii seed. We performed the first comprehensive proteomic and microstructure analysis during different seed stratification stages of M. sieboldii. Among the 80 protein species, 26 were identified, 7 and 14 protein species were up or down accumulated significantly. Many of the identified key proteins were involved in embryo development, starch biosynthesis and energy metabolism, Microstructure of stratification seed analysis revealed degradation of starch was used for preparing the seed

  2. Temperature in the seeds germination of pitaya genotypes

    Alessandro Borini Lone

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The optimum temperature for germination of cacti vary with the species. With this work, we aimed to evaluate the seeds germination of pitaya genotypes under different temperatures. The used genotypes were: Hylocereus undatus (PB, H. polyrhizus (PV, Selenicereus megalanthus (PA, H. undatus x H. costaricensis (PH1 and H. costaricensis x H. undatus (PH2. For each genotype we used four replicates of 50 seeds, in a completely randomized design. The sowing was carried out on blotter paper in boxes type Gerbox ®, maintained at temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 oC constant and 15-25, 20-30 and 25-35 oC alternating with photoperiod 12 hours. The test lasted 30 days which were appraised the germination percentage, the germination speed index and the average time of germination. For seeds germination of PB, the result obtained in the temperature of 25 oC didn’t differ of the obtained to 30 and 20-30 oC, however it was superior to the others temperatures. In PV, the result at 25 oC didn’t differ of the obtained to 20 and 30 oC, being superior to the results of the others temperatures. For PA, the best result was obtained to 25 oC. In PH1, the temperatures of 25, 30 and 20-30 oC presented superiors results to the others. For PH2, the result obtained in 15-25oC didn’t differ of the obtained at 25 oC, however it was superior to the others temperatures. The constants temperatures of 25 and 30 °C and alternating 20-30 °C are suitable for germination of H. undatus and for the hybrid H. undatus x H. costaricensis. For H. polyrhizus, constant temperatures of 20, 25 to 30 °C are suitable for seed germination. The constant temperature of 25 °C is the most suitable for the germination of S. megalanthus. For the hybrid H. costaricensis x H. undatus, constant temperature of 25 °C and alternating 15-25°C are suitable for seed germination.

  3. Environmental effects of nanosilver: impact on castor seed germination, seedling growth, and plant physiology.

    Yasur, Jyothsna; Rani, Pathipati Usha

    2013-12-01

    Increasing use of nanoparticles in daily products is of great concern today, especially when their positive and negative impact on environment is not known. Hence, in current research, we have studied the impact of silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) application on seed germination, root, and shoot length of castor bean, Ricinus communis L. plant. Silver nanoparticles had no significant effects on seedling growth even at higher concentration of 4,000 mg L(-1), while the silver in bulk form as AgNO3 applied on the castor bean seeds inhibited the seed germination. Silver uptake in seedlings of the castor seeds on treatment with both the forms of silver was confirmed through atomic absorption spectroscopy studies. The silver nanoparticle and silver nitrate application to castor seeds also caused an enhanced enzymatic activity of ROS enzymes and phenolic content in castor seedlings. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of individual phenols indicated enhanced content of parahydroxy benzoic acid. These kinds of studies are of great interest in order to unveil the movement and accumulation of nanoparticles in plant tissues for assessing future applications in the field or laboratory.

  4. Effect of new organic supplement (Panchgavya) on seed germination and soil quality.

    Jain, Paras; Sharma, Ravi Chandra; Bhattacharyya, Pradip; Banik, Pabitra

    2014-04-01

    We studied the suitability of Panchgavya (five products of cow), new organic amendment, application on seed germination, plant growth, and soil health. After characterization, Panchgavya was mixed with water to form different concentration and was tested for seed germination, germination index, and root and shoot growth of different seedlings. Four percent solution of Panchgavya was applied to different plants to test its efficacy. Panchgavya and other two organic amendments were incorporated in soil to test the change of soil chemical and microbiological parameters. Panchgavya contained higher nutrients as compared to farm yard manure (FYM) and vermicompost. Its application on different seeds has positively influenced germination percentage, germination index, root and shoot length, and fresh and dry weight of the seedling. Water-soluble macronutrients including pH and metal were positively and negatively correlated with the growth parameters, respectively. Four percent solution of Panchgavya application on some plants showed superiority in terms of plant height and chlorophyll content. Panchgavya-applied soil had higher values of macro and micronutrients (zinc, copper, and manganese), microbial activity as compared to FYM, and vermicompost applied soils. Application of Panchgavya can be gainfully used as an alternative organic supplement in agriculture.

  5. Seed Priming with Melatonin Effects on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth in Maize under Salinity Stress

    Jiang, X.; Li, H.; Song, X.

    2016-01-01

    The effects on seed germination and seedling growth in maize under salinity stress by seed priming with melatonin were investigated. Seeds of maize cultivar Nonghua101 were soaked in 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 mM aerated solution of melatonin for 24 h, and primed seeds were germinated under the condition of 150 mM NaCl with paper media. The results showed seed priming with 0.8 mM melatonin was the best performance of all the treatments to seed germination and seedling growth in maize under salinity stress. Then primed with 0.8 mM melatonin or water for 24 h and unprimed seeds were germination under the condition of 150 mM NaCl with sand media. The results showed seed priming with 0.8 mM melatonin significantly improved germination energy, germination percentage, seedling vigor index, shoot and root lengths, seedling fresh and dry weights, K/sup +/ content, relative water content, proline and total phenolic contents, superoxide dismutase, catalase and phenylalanin ammonia lyase activities; and significantly decreased mean emergence time, Na/sup +/ content, electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde content compared with untreated seeds under salinity stress. These results suggest that seed priming with melatonin alleviates the salinity damage to maize and seed priming with melatonin may be an important alternative approach to decrease the impact of salinity stress in maize. (author)

  6. Simplified strigolactams as potent analogues of strigolactones for the seed germination induction of Orobanche cumana Wallr.

    Lumbroso, Alexandre; Villedieu-Percheron, Emmanuelle; Zurwerra, Didier; Screpanti, Claudio; Lachia, Mathilde; Dakas, Pierre-Yves; Castelli, Laure; Paul, Verity; Wolf, Hanno Christian; Sayer, Danielle; Beck, Andreas; Rendine, Stefano; Fonné-Pfister, Raymonde; De Mesmaeker, Alain

    2016-11-01

    Strigolactones play an important role in the rhizosphere as signalling molecules stimulating the seed germination of parasitic weed seeds and hyphal branching of arbuscular micorrhiza, and also act as hormones in plant roots and shoots. Strigolactone derivatives, e.g. strigolactams, could be used as suicidal germination inducers in the absence of a host crop for the decontamination of land infested with parasitic weed seeds. We report the stereoselective synthesis of novel strigolactams, together with some of their critical physicochemical properties, such as water solubility, hydrolytic stability, as well as their short soil persistence. In addition, we show that such strigolactams are potent germination stimulants of O. cumana parasitic weed seeds and do not affect the seed germination and the root growth of sunflower. The novel strigolactam derivatives described here compare favourably with the corresponding GR-28 strigolactones in terms of biological activity and physicochemical properties. However, we believe strigolactone and strigolactam derivatives require further structural optimisation to improve their soil persistence to demonstrate a potential for agronomical applications. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Role of Ethylene in Lactuca sativa cv ;Grand Rapids' Seed Germination.

    Abeles, F B

    1986-07-01

    Promotion of thermoinhibited (30 degrees C) lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv ;Grand Rapids') seed germination by ethylene is similar to the action of the gas in other hormonal systems. Ethylene was more active than propylene and ethane was inactive. An inhibitor of ethylene production, aminoethoxy-vinylglycine, reduced ethylene evolution and germination. Inhibitors of ethylene action such as, 5-methyl-7-chloro-4-ethoxycarbonylmethoxy-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole, 2,5-norbornadiene, and silver thiosulfate inhibited germination and the effect was reversed by the addition of ethylene to the gas phase. The action of ethylene appears to be due to the promotion of radial cell expansion in the embryonic hypocotyl. The action of N6-benzyladenine and fusiccocin, which also overcome thermoinhibition, appears to be due to a promotion of hypocotyl elongation. None of the germination promoters studied appeared to function by lowering the mechanical resistance of the endosperm to embryonic growth. Data presented here are consistent with the view that ethylene plays a role in lettuce seed germination under thermoinhibited and normal conditions.

  8. Cadmium and chromium effects on seed germination and root elongation in lettuce, spinach and Swiss chard

    Oscar V Bautista

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The La Ramada district and the Bogota River are the principal water resources used for horticultural crop production on the Bogota Plateau, which contain channel pollutant materials, including heavy metals due to domestic and industrial activities on the Plateau. These materials have effects on crop production in this zone. The present research, under laboratory conditions, aimed to evaluate the effect of three concentrations (25, 35 and 50 µM L-1 of cadmium (Cd and chromium (Cr on imbibition, seed germination and root elongation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. Batavia, Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla "White Ribbed", and spinach (Spinacia oleracea Hib. 424, three species widely cultivated on the Plateau. The three species used for evaluation showed a differential susceptibility response to Cd and Cr. In lettuce, fresh weight increase (imbibition was lower with all Cd concentrations at the last day of observation and at 25 µM L-1 of Cd in Swiss chard. Cadmium reduced seed germination by up to 46%, 97% and 8% in Swiss chard, lettuce and spinach, respectively. Also, root elongation decreased in Cd treatments by up to 57%, 89% and 56%, for Swiss chard, lettuce and spinach, respectively. Chromium, which showed fewer negative effects, decreased germination by up to 29% in Swiss chard, 6% in lettuce and 34% in spinach, as compared to the control

  9. Effects of Atmospheric Pressure Air Plasma Pretreatment on the Seed Germination and Early Growth of Andrographis paniculata

    Jiayun, Tong; Rui, He; Xiaoli, Zhang; Ruoting, Zhan; Weiwen, Chen [Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicinal Resource from Lingnan (Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine), Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Yang Size, E-mail: rayhe618@hotmail.com [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate whether air plasma can change the seed germination characteristics, seedling emergence, as well as biochemical reactivity, in Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata) seedlings by modifying the seed coat and finding a beneficial treatment dose. Eight treatment doses and one control were used to conduct electrical conductivity determination, a germination test, a seedling emergence test and a biochemical assay. The results showed that after being treated with air plasma excited at 5950 V for 10 s, the permeability of the seeds was improved significantly, resulting in the acceleration of seed germination and seedling emergence. In the meantime, the catalase activity and catalase isoenzyme expression were also improved, while the malondialdehyde content in the seedlings was decreased (which means greater counteraction with environmental stress). After being treated with 4250 V for 10 s and 5950 V for 20 s, the seed germination was enhanced, but without an obvious change in seedling emergence. However, after treatment with 3400 V for 20 s and 5100 V for 10 s, the permeability of the seeds was decreased, resulting in a delay in seedling emergence. These results indicate that air plasma can change the physiological and biochemical characteristics of Andrographis paniculata seeds by modifying the seed coat, combined with the effects of the active plasma species, and that different treating doses have different effects.

  10. Effects of Atmospheric Pressure Air Plasma Pretreatment on the Seed Germination and Early Growth of Andrographis paniculata

    Tong Jiayun; He Rui; Zhang Xiaoli; Zhan Ruoting; Chen Weiwen; Yang Size

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate whether air plasma can change the seed germination characteristics, seedling emergence, as well as biochemical reactivity, in Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata) seedlings by modifying the seed coat and finding a beneficial treatment dose. Eight treatment doses and one control were used to conduct electrical conductivity determination, a germination test, a seedling emergence test and a biochemical assay. The results showed that after being treated with air plasma excited at 5950 V for 10 s, the permeability of the seeds was improved significantly, resulting in the acceleration of seed germination and seedling emergence. In the meantime, the catalase activity and catalase isoenzyme expression were also improved, while the malondialdehyde content in the seedlings was decreased (which means greater counteraction with environmental stress). After being treated with 4250 V for 10 s and 5950 V for 20 s, the seed germination was enhanced, but without an obvious change in seedling emergence. However, after treatment with 3400 V for 20 s and 5100 V for 10 s, the permeability of the seeds was decreased, resulting in a delay in seedling emergence. These results indicate that air plasma can change the physiological and biochemical characteristics of Andrographis paniculata seeds by modifying the seed coat, combined with the effects of the active plasma species, and that different treating doses have different effects

  11. Dynamics of seed germination, seedling growth and physiological responses of sweet corn under peg-induced water stress

    Li, W.; Zhang, X.; Li, G.; Suo, H.; Ashraf, U.; Mo, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Stress induced variations in seed germination of various crops has been well reported but germination potential of sweet corn seeds under osmotic stress with relation to time dynamics is still elusive. Present study explored the water absorption, germination potential and physiological indices and of sweet corn seeds exposed to five different levels of PEG-induced water stress i.e., 0, -0.3, -0.6, -0.9 and -1.2 M Pa water potential (Psi /sub w/) with respect to time dynamics. Results showed that enhanced water stress for prolonged time period (96 h) led to substantial reduction in water absorption and seed moisture contents, seed germination and vigor index as well as seedlings growth and fresh and dry biomass. Osmotic stress triggered antioxidant defense system like super-oxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) and accumulation of soluble sugars, proline and protein contents considerably. Initially, activities of SOD and CAT were higher but then reduced as stress persisted, however, POD showed a linear increase with respect to stress exposure time. Water stress also increased MDA contents up to 36 h then declined. Further, alpha-amylase activity and soluble protein showed significant correlations with maize seed germination. Overall, germination potential decreased with increase in osmotic stress in sweet corn seeds. (author)

  12. Seed Germination and Cuttings Growth of Piper Aduncum

    Susanto, D.; Sudrajat; Suwinarti, W.; Amirta, R.

    2018-04-01

    Sirih hutan (Piper aduncum L) is one of group shurbs tropical species, has potential to be developed as raw material of biomass based electricity. The aim of this research was to know seed germination and cuttings growth of P. aduncum plant as the first step in cultivation of this plant. Observation of flowers and fruits were done in secondary forest, while seed germination and growth of shoot cuttings were done in the laboratory. The results showed that P. aduncum seeds can be germinated in a relatively short time of 17 to 25 days with a fairly high germination percentage of 90 ± 8.16% and germination rate of 4.7 ± 0.34%. The growth of seedlings at 2 months old was 4.78 ± 0.42 cm, plant height 3.97 ± 0.27 cm, and relative growth rate 0.33 ± 0.14%. The treatment of synthetic growth regulator had significant effect on shoot growth and root number on the plant stem cuttings. Preparation of seedlings ready to plant in a generative and vegetative for cultivation of these plants in the experimental plot.

  13. [Study on conditions of seed germination of Cistanche].

    Qiao, Xue-Yi; Wang, Hua-Lei; Guo, Yu-Hai

    2007-09-01

    To study the effect of fluridone concentration, stimulating period, temperature and salt on the seed germination of three species of Cistanche. The seeds were cultured in Petri dish, and the germination percentage was counted. The highest germination percentage was observed in Cistanche tubulosa, C. deserticola, C. sala seeds pre-treated by 0.1 mg x L(-1) fluridone for 24-29 h. The optimal temperature for the seeds germination of three species of Cistanche was at 20-30 degrees C, and the seeds did not germinate at sub-or supraoptimal temperatures (5 and 35 degrees C). The salt tolerance of C. sala seeds was strong, and the critical value of NaCl concentration was 0.04 mol x L(-1). By contrast, C. tubulosa and C. deserticola seeds were more sensitive to the salt stress, the critical value of NaCl concentration was 0.02 mol x L(-1). The optimal germination condition and the method of testing germination percentage of three species of Cistanche seeds are as follow: the seeds are pre-treated by 0.1 mg x L(-1) fluridone for 24 h and then cultured at 20-30 degrees C in salt solution which concentration is lower than 0.02 mol x L(-1).

  14. Optimization of jenipapo in vitro seed germination process

    Rafaela Ribeiro de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The in vitro seed germination is an effective alternative for quickly obtaining explants with sanitary quality. However, jenipapo seeds present slow and uneven germination. Therefore, internal and external factors to seed which directly interfere in the process, they must be identified, in order to adapt better techniques to obtain seedlings. In this sense, this work aimed to optimize the in vitro germination of Genipa americana L. seeds by evaluating different factors (light quality, GA3 treatment, pre-soaking in distilled water, growing media and stratification in the dark. It was found that the seed germination of G. americana was indifferent to light, however, the best results were obtained under conditions of continuous darkness; There was no effect of the application of exogenous GA3; The pre-soaking in distilled water for 48 h contributes to obtaining better germination rates; And the reduction in MS medium salts, and laminating the pretreatment in the dark maximizes the germination potential of seeds.Therefore, the optimal conditions for in vitro germination of G. americana L. seeds requires pre-soaking in distilled water for 48 hours and inoculation into culture media consisting of 1/2 MS + 15 g L-1 sucrose, with stratification in the dark for 16 days, followed by the transfer to growth chambers with lighting provided by white fluorescent lamps.

  15. Stilbenes from Deguelia rufescens var. urucu (Ducke) A. M. G. Azevedo leaves: effects on seed germination and plant growth

    Lobo, Livia T.; Silva, Geilson A. da; Freitas, Manolo C.C. de; Silva, Milton N. da; Arruda, Alberto C.; Guilhon, Giselle M.S.P.; Santos, Lourivaldo S.; Santos, Alberdan S.; Arruda, Mara S.P., E-mail: mspa@ufpa.b [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas e Naturais. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica; Souza Filho, Antonio Pedro S. [Centro de Pesquisa Agroflorestal da Amazonia Oriental (CPATU), Belem, PA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The Amazon biodiversity may provide plants whose chemical substances are capable of controlling weeds. In this study we report the isolation and identification of five stilbenes from the leaves of 'timbo vermelho' (Deguelia rufescens var. urucu): 4-methoxylonchocarpene (1); 3,5-dimethoxy-4'-hydroxy-3'-prenyl-trans-stilbene (2), lonchocarpene (3), 3,5-dimethoxy-4'-Oprenyl- trans-stilbene (4) and pterostilbene (5). Compounds 2 and 4 are new natural products although 2 has been previously cited as synthesis product. Potential allelopathic activity for 1, 2 and 4 was evaluated over seed germination and plant growth of Mimosa pudica weed. The observed effects on seed germination did not vary significantly (p > 0.05) when the analysis of phytotoxicity was performed with the substances alone, the maximum inhibition did not exceed 20%. The most intense inhibitions on radicle and hypocotyl development were found for compound 4 (p < 0.05). When tested in pairs, showed antagonism for seed germination and synergism for radicle and hypocotyl development. (author)

  16. Recurrent selection increases the seed germination of little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium)

    Rainfall is often inadequate for satisfactory seed germination and emergence under field conditions. This research was designed to improve the seed germination of six experimental lines of little bluestem [Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash]. Two cycle of recurrent selection were used to develo...

  17. Effect of pre-sowing treatments on seed germination and seedling ...

    Pre-sowing treatments were evaluated for Tetracarpidium conophorum. Mechanically scarified T. conophorum seeds soaked in indole acetic acid for 24 h yielded 90% seed germination. Smoked- and sun-dried seeds for 14 days yielded 73 and 33.3% seed germination, respectively. Poorest values were obtained from acid ...

  18. BIIDXI, the At4g32460 DUF642 gene, is involved in pectin methyl esterase regulation during Arabidopsis thaliana seed germination and plant development.

    Zúñiga-Sánchez, Esther; Soriano, Diana; Martínez-Barajas, Eleazar; Orozco-Segovia, Alma; Gamboa-deBuen, Alicia

    2014-12-02

    DUF642 proteins constitute a highly conserved family of proteins that are associated with the cell wall and are specific to spermatophytes. Transcriptome studies have suggested that members of this family are involved in seed development and germination processes. Previous in vitro studies have revealed that At4g32460- and At5g11420-encoded proteins interact with the catalytic domain of pectin methyl esterase 3 (AtPME3, which is encoded by At3g14310). PMEs play an important role in plant development, including seed germination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the function of the DUF642 gene At4g32460 during seed germination and plant development and to determine its relation to PME activity regulation. Our results indicated that the DUF642 proteins encoded by At4g32460 and At5g11420 could be positive regulators of PME activity during several developmental processes. Transgenic lines overexpressing these proteins showed increased PME activity during seed germination, and improved seed germination performance. In plants expressing At4g32460 antisense RNA, PME activity was decreased in the leaves, and the siliques were very short and contained no seeds. This phenotype was also present in the SALK_142260 and SALK_054867 lines for At4g32460. Our results suggested that the DUF642 family contributes to the complexity of the methylesterification process by participating in the fine regulation of pectin status during plant development.

  19. Effects of Atmospheric-Pressure N2, He, Air, and O2 Microplasmas on Mung Bean Seed Germination and Seedling Growth

    Zhou, Renwu; Zhou, Rusen; Zhang, Xianhui; Zhuang, Jinxing; Yang, Size; Bazaka, Kateryna; (Ken) Ostrikov, Kostya

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric-pressure N2, He, air, and O2 microplasma arrays have been used to investigate the effects of plasma treatment on seed germination and seedling growth of mung bean in aqueous solution. Seed germination and growth of mung bean were found to strongly depend on the feed gases used to generate plasma and plasma treatment time. Compared to the treatment with atmospheric-pressure O2, N2 and He microplasma arrays, treatment with air microplasma arrays was shown to be more efficient in improving both the seed germination rate and seedling growth, the effect attributed to solution acidification and interactions with plasma-generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Acidic environment caused by air discharge in water may promote leathering of seed chaps, thus enhancing the germination rate of mung bean, and stimulating the growth of hypocotyl and radicle. The interactions between plasma-generated reactive species, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitrogen compounds, and seeds led to a significant acceleration of seed germination and an increase in seedling length of mung bean. Electrolyte leakage rate of mung bean seeds soaked in solution activated using air microplasma was the lowest, while the catalase activity of thus-treated mung bean seeds was the highest compared to other types of microplasma.

  20. Effects of glyphosate acid and the glyphosate-commercial formulation (Roundup) on Dimorphandra wilsonii seed germination: Interference of seed respiratory metabolism.

    Gomes, Marcelo Pedrosa; da Silva Cruz, Fernanda Vieira; Bicalho, Elisa Monteze; Borges, Felipe Viègas; Fonseca, Marcia Bacelar; Juneau, Philippe; Garcia, Queila Souza

    2017-01-01

    Glyphosate-formulations are widely used in the Brazilian Cerrado (neotropical savanna) with little or no control, threatening population of the endangered species Dimorphandra wilsonii. We investigated the toxicity of different concentrations (0, 5, 25 and 50 mg l -1 ) of glyphosate acid and one of its formulations (Roundup ® ) on seed germination in D. wilsonii. Glyphosate acid and Roundup drastically decreased seed germination by decreasing seed respiration rates. The activation of antioxidant enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase and catalase assure no hydrogen peroxide accumulation in exposed seeds. Glyphosate acid and the Roundup-formulation negatively affected the activities of enzymes associated with the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), with Complex III as its precise target. The toxicity of Roundup-formulation was greater than that of glyphosate acid due to its greater effects on respiration. The herbicide glyphosate must impair D. wilsonii seed germination by disrupting the mitochondrial ETC, resulting in decreased energy (ATP) production. Our results therefore indicate the importance of avoiding (or closely regulating) the use of glyphosate-based herbicides in natural Cerrado habitats of D. wilsonni as they are toxic to seed germination and therefore threaten conservation efforts. It will likewise be important to investigate the effects of glyphosate on the seeds of other species and to investigate the impacts of these pesticides elsewhere in the world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of electron beam irradiation on seed germination

    Han, Seunghee; Bae, Youngmin [Changwon Univ., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Effect of electron beam irradiation on seed germination was investigated in this research. Electron beam of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy was irradiated to the seeds of lettuce, green onion and cucumber, and the irradiated seeds were incubated at 25 .deg. Cn Nitsch medium solidified with 0.2% Phytagel. Germination percentage and the length of the sprouts were determined after 72 hours. Germination percentage of lettuce seeds was greatly reduced by the irradiation, and that of the green onion and cucumber were moderately reduced or unchanged by the irradiation. Although average length of the lettuce sprouts was reduced severely, that of the green onion and cucumber was unchanged or moderately reduced. Conclusively, electron beam irradiation might be a useful way of disinfecting some plant seeds including green onion and cucumber.

  2. Study of homeopathic drugs on seed germination and fungal growth

    Hanif, A.; Dawar, S.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro, seeds of mungbean, sunflower, okra and mashbean were treated with homeopathic drugs namely Arnica montana and Thuja occidentalis (30C) were evaluated against root rot fungi. Different concentrations like 100, 75 and 50% v/v were tested to investigate seeds germination and inhibition of root rot fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. Results indicated that treated seeds of mungbean, sunflower, okra and mashbean with pure homeopathic drugs (100% v/v) by A. montana and T. occidentalis (30C) showed complete germination (100%), greater root length and excellent inhibition of root infecting pathogens. However, tested seeds treated with 75 and 50% v/v concentrations (prepared from 30C) by homeopathic drugs, respectively recorded significant increase in germination, root length and maximum zone of inhibition. (author)

  3. Effect of electron beam irradiation on seed germination

    Han, Seunghee; Bae, Youngmin

    2013-01-01

    Effect of electron beam irradiation on seed germination was investigated in this research. Electron beam of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy was irradiated to the seeds of lettuce, green onion and cucumber, and the irradiated seeds were incubated at 25 .deg. Cn Nitsch medium solidified with 0.2% Phytagel. Germination percentage and the length of the sprouts were determined after 72 hours. Germination percentage of lettuce seeds was greatly reduced by the irradiation, and that of the green onion and cucumber were moderately reduced or unchanged by the irradiation. Although average length of the lettuce sprouts was reduced severely, that of the green onion and cucumber was unchanged or moderately reduced. Conclusively, electron beam irradiation might be a useful way of disinfecting some plant seeds including green onion and cucumber

  4. Association mapping of soybean seed germination under salt stress.

    Kan, Guizhen; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Wenming; Ma, Deyuan; Zhang, Dan; Hao, Derong; Hu, Zhenbin; Yu, Deyue

    2015-12-01

    Soil salinity is a serious threat to agriculture sustainability worldwide. Seed germination is a critical phase that ensures the successful establishment and productivity of soybeans in saline soils. However, little information is available regarding soybean salt tolerance at the germination stage. The objective of this study was to identify the genetic mechanisms of soybean seed germination under salt stress. One natural population consisting of 191 soybean landraces was used in this study. Soybean seeds produced in four environments were used to evaluate the salt tolerance at their germination stage. Using 1142 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the molecular markers associated with salt tolerance were detected by genome-wide association analysis. Eight SNP-trait associations and 13 suggestive SNP-trait associations were identified using a mixed linear model and the TASSEL 4.0 software. Eight SNPs or suggestive SNPs were co-associated with two salt tolerance indices, namely (1) the ratio of the germination index under salt conditions to the germination index under no-salt conditions (ST-GI) and (2) the ratio of the germination rate under salt conditions to the germination rate under no-salt conditions (ST-GR). One SNP (BARC-021347-04042) was significantly associated with these two traits (ST-GI and ST-GR). In addition, nine possible candidate genes were located in or near the genetic region where the above markers were mapped. Of these, five genes, Glyma08g12400.1, Glyma08g09730.1, Glyma18g47140.1, Glyma09g00460.1, and Glyma09g00490.3, were verified in response to salt stress at the germination stage. The SNPs detected could facilitate a better understanding of the genetic basis of soybean salt tolerance at the germination stage, and the marker BARC-021347-04042 could contribute to future breeding for soybean salt tolerance by marker-assisted selection.

  5. Effects of Ge-132 and GeO2 on seed germination and seedling growth of Oenothera biennis L. under NaCl stress.

    Liu, Yan; Hou, Long-Yu; Li, Qing-Mei; Jiang, Ze-Ping; Gao, Wei-Dong; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Hai-Bo

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of β-carboxyethyl germanium sequioxide (Ge-132) and germanium dioxide (GeO 2 ) on improving salt tolerance of evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), seed germination, seedling growth, antioxidase and malondialdehyde (MDA) were observed under treatments of various concentrations (0, 5, 10, 20, 30 μM) of Ge in normal condition and in 50 mM NaCl solution. The results showed that both Ge-132 and GeO 2 treatments significantly increased seed germination percentage and shoot length in dose-dependent concentrations but inhibited early root elongation growth. 5-30 μM Ge-132 and 10, 20 μM GeO 2 treatments could significantly mitigate even eliminate harmful influence of salt, representing increased percentage of seed germination, root length, ratio between length of root and shoot, and decreased shoot length. These treatments also significantly decreased peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities and MDA content. The mechanism is likely that Ge scavenges reactive oxygen species - especially hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) - by its electron configuration 4S 2 4P 2 so as to reduce lipid peroxidation. This is the first report about the comparison of bioactivity effect of Ge-132 and GeO 2 on seed germination and seedling growth under salt stress. We conclude that Ge-132 is better than GeO 2 on promoting salt tolerance of seed and seedling.

  6. Cellulose Anionic Hydrogels Based on Cellulose Nanofibers As Natural Stimulants for Seed Germination and Seedling Growth.

    Zhang, Hao; Yang, Minmin; Luan, Qian; Tang, Hu; Huang, Fenghong; Xiang, Xia; Yang, Chen; Bao, Yuping

    2017-05-17

    Cellulose anionic hydrogels were successfully prepared by dissolving TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers in NaOH/urea aqueous solution and being cross-linked with epichlorohydrin. The hydrogels exhibited microporous structure and high hydrophilicity, which contribute to the excellent water absorption property. The growth indexes, including the germination rate, root length, shoot length, fresh weight, and dry weight of the seedlings, were investigated. The results showed that cellulose anionic hydrogels with suitable carboxylate contents as plant growth regulators could be beneficial for seed germination and growth. Moreover, they presented preferable antifungal activity during the breeding and growth of the sesame seed breeding. Thus, the cellulose anionic hydrogels with suitable carboxylate contents could be applied as soilless culture mediums for plant growth. This research provided a simple and effective method for the fabrication of cellulose anionic hydrogel and evaluated its application in agriculture.

  7. Effect of magnetic field on seed germination and seedling growth of sunflower

    Matwijczuk, A.; Kornarzyński, K.; Pietruszewski, S.

    2012-07-01

    The impact of a variable magnetic field, magnetically treated water and a combination of both these factors on the germination of seeds and the final mass at the initial stage of growth sunflower plants was presented. Investigations were carried out in pots filled with sand, tin an air-conditioned plant house with no access to daylight using fluorescent light as illumination. A statistical significance positive impact was achieved for the samples subjected to the interaction of both stimulating factors simultaneously, the magnetic field and the impact of treated water several times on the speed of seed germination and final plant mass. Negative impacts were obtained for the majority of the test cases, for the magnetically treated water, the short duration of activity of the magnetic field and for the connection of the magnetic field and low-flow times.

  8. Seed germination of Stenocereus thurberi (Cactaceae) under different solar irradiation levels

    Nolasco, H.; Vega-Villasante, F.; Diaz-Rondero, A.

    1997-01-01

    Germination of Stenocereus thurberi seeds was evaluated under different conditions of solar irradiation and humidity. Seed germination increased under higher humidity and low solar irradiation which provided cooler temperatures and higher water availability. Seedlings were also greener and more turgid under these conditions. Increased solar irradiation reduced seed germination and decreased seedling size and water content. The results of this study support the importance of natural shelter systems in the arid zones in providing better conditions for S. thurberi seeds germination and seedling establishment, particularly in the desert of Baja California. (author)

  9. OsRACK1 Is Involved in Abscisic Acid- and H2O2-Mediated Signaling to Regulate Seed Germination in Rice (Oryza sativa, L.)

    Zhang, Dongping; Chen, Li; Li, Dahong; Lv, Bing; Chen, Yun; Chen, Jingui; XuejiaoYan; Liang, Jiansheng

    2014-01-01

    The receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) is one member of the most important WD repeat–containing family of proteins found in all eukaryotes and is involved in multiple signaling pathways. However, compared with the progress in the area of mammalian RACK1, our understanding of the functions and molecular mechanisms of RACK1 in the regulation of plant growth and development is still in its infancy. In the present study, we investigated the roles of rice RACK1A gene (OsRACK1A) in controlling seed germination and its molecular mechanisms by generating a series of transgenic rice lines, of which OsRACK1A was either over-expressed or under-expressed. Our results showed that OsRACK1A positively regulated seed germination and negatively regulated the responses of seed germination to both exogenous ABA and H2O2. Inhibition of ABA biosynthesis had no enhancing effect on germination, whereas inhibition of ABA catabolism significantly suppressed germination. ABA inhibition on seed germination was almost fully recovered by exogenous H2O2 treatment. Quantitative analyses showed that endogenous ABA levels were significantly higher and H2O2 levels significantly lower in OsRACK1A-down regulated transgenic lines as compared with those in wildtype or OsRACK1A-up regulated lines. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that the transcript levels of OsRbohs and amylase genes, RAmy1A and RAmy3D, were significantly lower in OsRACK1A-down regulated transgenic lines. It is concluded that OsRACK1A positively regulates seed germination by controlling endogenous levels of ABA and H2O2 and their interaction. PMID:24865690

  10. The ascorbate peroxidase APX1 is a direct target of a zinc finger transcription factor ZFP36 and a late embryogenesis abundant protein OsLEA5 interacts with ZFP36 to co-regulate OsAPX1 in seed germination in rice.

    Huang, Liping; Jia, Jing; Zhao, Xixi; Zhang, MengYao; Huang, Xingxiu; E Ji; Ni, Lan; Jiang, Mingyi

    2018-01-01

    Seed germination is a vital developmental process. Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential repressor of seed germination, while ROS (reactive oxygen species) also plays a vital role in regulating seed germination. ABA could inhibit the production of ROS in seed germination, but the mechanism of ABA reduced ROS production in seed germination was hitherto unknown. Here, by ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation)-seq, we found that ZFP36, a rice zinc finger transcription factor, could directly bind to the promoter of OsAPX1, coding an ascorbate peroxidase (APX) which has the most affinity for H 2 O 2 (substrate; a type of ROS), and act as a transcriptional activator of OsAPX1 promoter. Moreover, ZFP36 could interact with a late embryogenesis abundant protein OsLEA5 to co-regulate the promoter activity of OsAPX1. The seed germination is highly inhibited in ZFP36 overexpression plants under ABA treatment, while an RNA interference (RNAi) mutant of OsLEA5 rice seeds were less sensitive to ABA, and exogenous ASC (ascorbate acid) could alleviate the inhibition induced by ABA. Thus, our conclusion is that OsAPX1 is a direct target of ZFP36 and OsLEA5 could interact with ZFP36 to co-regulate ABA-inhibited seed germination by controlling the expression of OsAPX1. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Effects of seed priming and water potential on seed germination and ...

    Administrator

    2011-05-23

    May 23, 2011 ... (without seed drying), primed and 12 h drying on seed germination of wheat .... completely with the lower half and the paper were rolled and placed ..... water stress and control of germination: a review. Plant Cell Environ.

  12. Effect of tannery effluents on seed germination and growth of two ...

    Effect of tannery effluents on seed germination and growth of two sunflower cultivars. ... oxygen demand (COD) values along with much higher concentrations of total ... Vegetative growth parameters like plant height and number of leaves per ...

  13. Can heavy metal pollution defend seed germination against heat stress? Effect of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Hg(2+)) on maize seed germination under high temperature.

    Deng, Benliang; Yang, Kejun; Zhang, Yifei; Li, Zuotong

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metal pollution, as well as greenhouse effect, has become a serious threat today. Both heavy metal and heat stresses can arrest seed germination. What response can be expected for seed germination under both stress conditions? Here, the effects of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Hg(2+)) on maize seed germination were investigated at 20 °C and 40 °C. Compared with 20 °C, heat stress induced thermodormancy. However, this thermodormancy could be significantly alleviated by the addition of a low concentration of heavy metals. Heavy metals, as well as heat stress induced H2O2 accumulation in germinating seeds. Interestingly, this low concentration of heavy metal that promoted seed germination could be partly blocked by DMTU (a specific ROS scavenger), irrespective of temperature. Accordingly, H2O2 addition reinforced this promoting effect on seed germination, which was induced by a low concentration of heavy metal. Furthermore, we found that the NADPH oxidase derived ROS was required for seed germination promoted by the heavy metals. Subsequently, treatment of seeds with fluridone (a specific inhibitor of ABA) or ABA significantly alleviated or aggravated thermodormancy, respectively. However, this alleviation or aggravation could be partly attenuated by a low concentration of heavy metals. In addition, germination that was inhibited by high concentrations of heavy metals was also partly reversed by fluridone. The obtained results support the idea that heavy metal-mediated ROS and hormone interaction can finally affect the thermodormancy release or not. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of mutagens on seed germination in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)

    Dhamayanthi, K.P.M.; Reddy, V.R.K.

    2002-01-01

    Seeds of chilli variety CO-2 (Coimbatore-2) were irradiated with gamma rays ranging from 10 kR to 35 kR at an interval of 5 kR and the effect on seed germination, seedling survival, percent lethality and seedling injury were studied. Lower doses were stimulative, while higher doses had inhibitory effect on seed germination and seedling survival. The highest percentage of seed germination (37.5) and seedling survival (31.3) was recorded at 10 kR as compared to 28 percent of germination and 3.3 percent seedling survival in control. Percent lethality (9.6%) and seedling injury (6.5%) were comparatively low than the lethality percentage and seedling injury of the higher dose treatments. In chemical mutagen treatments, the maximum seed germination (54.5%) and seedling survival (51.2%), seedling lethality (0.97%) and seedling injury (1.37%) were obtained in the treated seeds of EMS at 0.5% concentration followed by 39.5% seed germination and 30.0% seedling survival, seedling lethality (3.8%) and seedling injury (3.06%) of MMS. The stimulative effect of seed germination is more in chemical mutagens than the physical mutagen. There was a proportionate decrease in germination percentage and seedling survival with an increase in dose/concentration of both the chemicals. (author)

  15. EASTERN DODDER (CUSCUTA MONOGYNA VAHL.) SEED GERMINATION AFFECTED BY SOME HERBACEOUS DISTILLATES.

    Movassaghi, M; Hassannejad, S

    2015-01-01

    Eastern dodder (Cuscuta monogyna Vahl.) is one of the noxious parasitic weeds that infected many ornamental trees in green spaces and gardens. Our purpose is to find natural inhibitors for prevention of its seed germination. In order to reach this aim, laboratory studies were conducted by using of herbaceous distillates of Dracocephalum moldavica, Nasturtium officinalis, Malva neglecta, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Rosa damascene, Ziziphora tenuior, and Urtica dioica on seed germination of C. monogyna. Z. tenuior distillate stimulated C. monogyna seed germination, whereas others reduced this parasitic weed's seed germination. D. moldavica caused maximum inhibition on weed seed germination. Seedling growth of C. monogyna was more affected than its seed germination. All of these herbaceous distillates reduced C. monogyna seedling length so that the latter decreased from 28.2 mm in distilled water to 4.5, 3.97, 3.85, 3.67, 3.1, 2.87, 2.57, 1.9, and 1.17 in M. pulegium, M. piperita, F. officinalis, Z. tenuior, N. officinalis, M. neglecta, R. damascene, U. dioica and D. moldavica, respectively. By using these medicinal plants distillates instead of herbicides, the parasitic weed seedling length and host plant infection will reduce.

  16. Temperature and substrate on Plukenetia volubilis L. seed germination

    Givanildo Z. da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of temperature and substrate on the germination of P. volubilis seeds. Seeds harvested from 25 matrix plants were submitted, in two studies, to conditions of (i sowing in rolled paper towel at the temperatures of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, and 45 °C, for the evaluation of germination, first count of germination, germination speed index and mean time for germination, and (ii sowing in the substrates paper towel, sand, Bioplant®, Bioplant® and micron, superfine, fine, medium and coarse vermiculite. The same evaluations mentioned in the first study were conducted at the temperature of 30 oC, as well as plant growth. The treatment replicates were distributed in a completely randomized block design and the effects of temperature were compared by polynomial regression analysis. The substrates were compared by the Scott-Knott test at 0.05 probability level. The data show that the ideal range of temperature for the germination of P. volubilis is between 25 and 30 °C. The temperature of 20 °C is the minimum for germination and those above 35 °C are lethal to these seeds. The most favorable substrate for P. volubilis seed germination is micron or fine vermiculite.

  17. Factors Influencing in Vitro Seed Germination, Morphogenetic Potential and Correlation of Secondary Metabolism with Tissue Development in Prunella Vulgaris L

    Fazal, H.; Shinwari, Z. K.; Abbasi, B. H.; Ahmad, N.

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth regulators (PGRs), polyamines (PAs) and temperature regimes are the key factors that influence morphogenesis and plant architectural development; however, the understanding that how these factors control plant growth and development is still poor and needs further research in Prunella vulgaris. In this study, we monitored the effect of these factors on seed germination, morphogenetic potential and secondary metabolism. Different temperature regimes showed that 25 degree C is the most suitable temperature for seed germination (88.87±1.76 percent) on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium. The synergistic combinations of kinetin (Kn), 6-benzyladenine (BA) and putrescine (PUT; 2.0 mg l/sup -1/) promoted seed germination (90.22±4.51 percent) after 24 days of inoculation. A combination of Kn and PUT (1.0 mg l/sup -1/) encouraged mean shoot length (11.0±1.95 mm) with the optimum amount of chlorophyll content (23.73±1.8 micro g cm/sup -2/). However, maximum mean root length (13±0.65 mm) was observed on medium containing Kn and spermidine (SPD, 2.0 mg l-1). Maximum calli (71.56±2.63 percent) were obtained from root explants on 0.5 MS-medium containing indole butyric acid (IBA) and Alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA; 0.5 mg l/sup -1/). Higher number of shoots (78.5±3.75 percent) was obtained with Kn and PUT (1.0 mg l/sup -1/). IBA concentration of 1.0 mg l/sup -1/ was found effective for root formation (74.71±3.3 percent). Moreover, PGRs and PAs have a significant effect on accumulation of total phenolics, flavonoids and DPPH activity. This protocol is helpful for consistent plantlets and prunellin production in P. vulgaris L. (author)

  18. The Arabidopsis Phytocystatin AtCYS5 Enhances Seed Germination and Seedling Growth under Heat Stress Conditions.

    Song, Chieun; Kim, Taeyoon; Chung, Woo Sik; Lim, Chae Oh

    2017-08-01

    Phytocystatins (PhyCYSs) are plant-specific proteinaceous inhibitors that are implicated in protein turnover and stress responses. Here, we characterized a PhyCYS from Arabidopsis thaliana , which was designated AtCYS5. RT-qPCR analysis showed that the expression of AtCYS5 in germinating seeds was induced by heat stress (HS) and exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Analysis of the expression of the β -glucuronidase reporter gene under the control of the AtCYS5 promoter showed that AtCYS5 expression during seed germination was induced by HS and ABA. Constitutive overexpression of AtCYS5 driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter led to enhanced HS tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis , which was characterized by higher fresh weight and root length compared to wild-type (WT) and knockout ( cys5 ) plants grown under HS conditions. The HS tolerance of At-CYS5 -overexpressing transgenic plants was associated with increased insensitivity to exogenous ABA during both seed germination and post-germination compared to WT and cys5 . Although no HS elements were identified in the 5'-flanking region of AtCYS5 , canonical ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) were detected. AtCYS5 was upregulated in ABA-treated protoplasts transiently co-expressing this gene and genes encoding bZIP ABRE-binding factors (ABFs and AREB3). In the absence of ABA, ABF1 and ABF3 directly bound to the ABREs in the AtCYS5 promoter, which activated the transcription of this gene in the presence of ABA. These results suggest that an ABA-dependent pathway plays a positive role in the HS-responsive expression of AtCYS5 during seed germination and post-germination growth.

  19. Sinapic acid or its derivatives interfere with abscisic acid homeostasis during Arabidopsis thaliana seed germination.

    Bi, Baodi; Tang, Jingliang; Han, Shuang; Guo, Jinggong; Miao, Yuchen

    2017-06-06

    Sinapic acid and its esters have broad functions in different stages of seed germination and plant development and are thought to play a role in protecting against ultraviolet irradiation. To better understand the interactions between sinapic acid esters and seed germination processes in response to various stresses, we analyzed the role of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) in the regulation of sinapic acid esters involved in seed germination and early seedling growth. We found that exogenous sinapic acid promotes seed germination in a dose-dependent manner in Arabidopsis thaliana. High-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis showed that exogenous sinapic acid increased the sinapoylcholine content of imbibed seeds. Furthermore, sinapic acid affected ABA catabolism, resulting in reduced ABA levels and increased levels of the ABA-glucose ester. Using mutants deficient in the synthesis of sinapate esters, we showed that the germination of mutant sinapoylglucose accumulator 2 (sng2) and bright trichomes 1 (brt1) seeds was more sensitive to ABA than the wild-type. Moreover, Arabidopsis mutants deficient in either abscisic acid deficient 2 (ABA2) or abscisic acid insensitive 3 (ABI3) displayed increased expression of the sinapoylglucose:choline sinapoyltransferase (SCT) and sinapoylcholine esterase (SCE) genes with sinapic acid treatment. This treatment also affected the accumulation of sinapoylcholine and free choline during seed germination. We demonstrated that sinapoylcholine, which constitutes the major phenolic component in seeds among various minor sinapate esters, affected ABA homeostasis during seed germination and early seedling growth in Arabidopsis. Our findings provide insights into the role of sinapic acid and its esters in regulating ABA-mediated inhibition of Arabidopsis seed germination in response to drought stress.

  20. The effects of Fusarium oxysporum on broomrape (Orobanche egyptiaca) seed germination.

    Hasannejad, S; Zad, S Javad; Alizade, H Mohamad; Rahymian, H

    2006-01-01

    Broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca L.), one of the most important parasitic weeds in Iran, is a root parasitic plant that can attack several crops such as tobacco, sunflower, tomato and etc. Several methods were used for Orobanche control, however these methods are inefficient and very costly. Biological control is an additional recent tool for the control of parasitic weeds. In order to study of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum (biocontrol agent) effects on broomrape seed germination, two laboratory studies were conducted in Tehran University. In the first experiment, different concentration of GR60 (0, 1, 2 and 5 ppm) as stimulation factor for Orobanche seeds germination were experimented. Results showed that concentrations of GR60 had a significant effect on seed germination. The highest seed germination percent was obtained in 1 ppm. In the second experiment, the effect of Fusarium oxysporum was tested on O. aegyptiaca seeds germination. The fungus Fusarium oxysporum were isolated from infested and juvenile O. aegyptiaca ower stalks in tomato field in karaj. Fungus spores suspension in different concentrations (0 (Control), 10(5) (T1), 10(6) (T2), 10(7) (T3) and 3 x 10(7) (T4)) from potato dextrose agar (PDA) prepared and together with 1ppm of GR60 concentration were tested on O. aegyptiaca seeds. Results show that the highest inhibition of seed germination obtained in 10(5) spores/ml. With increasing of suspension concentrations, inhibition percent was reduced and mortality of seeds germ tube was increased. In this investigation, Fusarium oxysporum can be used to inhibit seed germination, stimulate the "suicidal germination" of seeds and reduce the Orobanche seed bank.

  1. Ecological implications and environment dependence of the seed germination of common species in cold deserts

    Yuan, S.Y.; Tong, L.; Chi, L.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Vegetation is increasingly affected by climate change in cold deserts. Nonetheless, research is limited regarding the natural environmental demands of seed germination in such deserts. This study was conducted in Gurbantunggut Desert as a research base and 17 common species as subjects to investigate the moisture and temperature needs of seed germination in artificial settings, as well as the relationship between characteristics of seed germination and the local distribution of dune and shrubs. Results showed:(1) all tested species generally display low germination percentages that range between 2.9% and 79.6%. Winter snow melt dictates seed germination in cold deserts. Moreover, the subsequent spring rainfall can increase the survival rate of seedlings and significantly affect the process of seed germination. (2) seeds start to germinate only two days after snow melts at the average daily temperature (day/night) of 3.5 degree C (6.7 degree C/-0.5 degree C) and at a soil volumetric water content of 24.2%. Fifteen days after snow melt, all species germinate when the soil volumetric water content is 6.0% and the average daily temperature is 12.9 degree C (18.3 degree C/7.1 degree C). (3) The seed germination of the tested species can be divided into four patterns: rapid, transitional, slow, and low. Low-pattern plants mainly grow on upper dunes and are significantly associated with shrubs. Rapid- and slow-pattern plants distribute in middle and lower dunes. A few of these plants are significantly associated with shrubs. Transitional-pattern plants generally develop in the low land between hills and middle dunes. This study provides a reference for the actual environmental needs of seed germination in cold deserts and for the temperature and moisture requirements of this process in future experimental settings. (author)

  2. The role of thioredoxin h in protein metabolism during wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed germination.

    Guo, Hongxiang; Wang, Shaoxin; Xu, Fangfang; Li, Yongchun; Ren, Jiangping; Wang, Xiang; Niu, Hongbin; Yin, Jun

    2013-06-01

    Thioredoxin h can regulate the redox environment in the cell and play an important role in the germination of cereals. In the present study, the thioredoxin s antisense transgenic wheat with down-regulation of thioredoxin h was used to study the role of thioredoxin h in protein metabolism during germination of wheat seeds, and to explore the mechanism of the thioredoxin s antisense transgenic wheat seeds having high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting. The qRT-PCR results showed that the expression of protein disulfide isomerase in the thioredoxin s antisense transgenic wheat was up-regulated, which induced easily forming glutenin macropolymers and the resistance of storage proteins to degradation. The expression of serine protease inhibitor was also up-regulated in transgenic wheat, which might be responsible for the decreased activity of thiocalsin during the germination. The expression of WRKY6 in transgenic wheat was down-regulated, which was consistent with the decreased activity of glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase. In transgenic wheat, the activities of glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase were down-regulated, indicating that the metabolism of amino acid was lower than that in wild-type wheat during seed germination. A putative model for the role of thioredoxin h in protein metabolism during wheat seed germination was proposed and discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. [Alleviation of salt stress during maize seed germination by presoaking with exogenous sugar].

    Zhao, Ying; Yang, Ke-jun; Li, Zuo-tong; Zhao, Chang-jiang; Xu, Jing-yu; Hu, Xue- wei; Shi, Xin-xin; Ma, Li-feng

    2015-09-01

    The maize variety Kenyu 6 was used to study the effects of exogenous glucose (Glc) and sucrose (Suc) on salt tolerance of maize seeds at germination stage under 150 mmol · L(-1) NaCl treatment. Results showed that under salt stress condition, 0.5 mmol · L(-1) exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking could promote seed germination and early seedling growth. Compared with the salt treatment, Glc presoaking increased the shoot length, radicle length and corresponding dry mass up to 1.5, 1.3, 2.1 and 1.8 times, and those of the Suc presoaking treatment increased up to 1.7, 1.3. 2.7 and 1.9 times, respectively. Exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking resulted in decreased levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content of maize shoot under salt stress, which were lowered by 24.9% and 20.6% respectively. Exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking could increase the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and induce glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity of maize shoot under salt stress. Compared with the salt treatment. Glc presoaking increased the activity of SOD, APX, GPX, GR and G6PDH by 66.2%, 62.9%, 32.0%, 38.5% and 50.5%, and those of the Suc presoaking increased by 67.5%, 59.8%, 30.0%, 38.5% and 50.4%, respectively. Glc and Suc presoaking also significantly increased the contents of ascorbic acid (ASA) and glutathione (GSH), ASA/DHA and GSH/GSSG. The G6PDH activity was found closely related with the strong antioxidation capacity induced by exogenous sugars. In addition, Glc and Suc presoaking enhanced K+/Na+ in maize shoot by 1.3 and 1.4 times of water soaking salt treatment, respectively. These results indicated that exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking could improve antioxidation capacity of maize seeds and maintain the in vivo K+/Na+ ion balance to alleviate the inhibitory effect of salt stress on maize seed germination.

  4. Abscisic acid and ethephon regulation of cellulase in the endosperm cap and radicle during lettuce seed germination.

    Chen, Bingxian; Ma, Jun; Xu, Zhenjiang; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of cellulase in endosperm cap weakening and radicle elongation during lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seed germination. The application of abscisic acid (ABA) or ethephon inhibits or promotes germination, respectively, by affecting endosperm cap weakening and radicle elongation. Cellulase activities, and related protein and transcript abundances of two lettuce cellulase genes, LsCEL1 and LsCEL2, increase in the endosperm cap and radicle prior to radicle protrusion following imbibition in water. ABA or ethephon reduce or elevate, respectively, cellulase activity, and related protein and transcript abundances in the endosperm cap. Taken together, these observations suggest that cellulase plays a role in endosperm cap weakening and radicle elongation during lettuce seed germination, and that the regulation of cellulase in the endosperm cap by ABA and ethephon play a role in endosperm cap weakening. However, the influence of ABA and ethephon on radicle elongation may not be through their effects on cellulase. © 2016 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. Cytokinins and Expression of SWEET, SUT, CWINV and AAP Genes Increase as Pea Seeds Germinate

    Paula E. Jameson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Transporter genes and cytokinins are key targets for crop improvement. These genes are active during the development of the seed and its establishment as a strong sink. However, during germination, the seed transitions to being a source for the developing root and shoot. To determine if the sucrose transporter (SUT, amino acid permease (AAP, Sugar Will Eventually be Exported Transporter (SWEET, cell wall invertase (CWINV, cytokinin biosynthesis (IPT, activation (LOG and degradation (CKX gene family members are involved in both the sink and source activities of seeds, we used RT-qPCR to determine the expression of multiple gene family members, and LC-MS/MS to ascertain endogenous cytokinin levels in germinating Pisum sativum L. We show that genes that are actively expressed when the seed is a strong sink during its development, are also expressed when the seed is in the reverse role of being an active source during germination and early seedling growth. Cytokinins were detected in the imbibing seeds and were actively biosynthesised during germination. We conclude that, when the above gene family members are targeted for seed yield improvement, a downstream effect on subsequent seed germination or seedling vigour must be taken into consideration.

  6. The Arabidopsis CROWDED NUCLEI genes regulate seed germination by modulating degradation of ABI5 protein.

    Zhao, Wenming; Guan, Chunmei; Feng, Jian; Liang, Yan; Zhan, Ni; Zuo, Jianru; Ren, Bo

    2016-07-01

    In Arabidopsis, the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a vital role in inhibiting seed germination and in post-germination seedling establishment. In the ABA signaling pathway, ABI5, a basic Leu zipper transcription factor, has important functions in the regulation of seed germination. ABI5 protein localizes in nuclear bodies, along with AFP, COP1, and SIZ1, and was degraded through the 26S proteasome pathway. However, the mechanisms of ABI5 nuclear body formation and ABI5 protein degradation remain obscure. In this study, we found that the Arabidopsis CROWDED NUCLEI (CRWN) proteins, predicted nuclear matrix proteins essential for maintenance of nuclear morphology, also participate in ABA-controlled seed germination by regulating the degradation of ABI5 protein. During seed germination, the crwn mutants are hypersensitive to ABA and have higher levels of ABI5 protein compared to wild type. Genetic analysis suggested that CRWNs act upstream of ABI5. The observation that CRWN3 colocalizes with ABI5 in nuclear bodies indicates that CRWNs might participate in ABI5 protein degradation in nuclear bodies. Moreover, we revealed that the extreme C-terminal of CRWN3 protein is necessary for its function in the response to ABA in germination. Our results suggested important roles of CRWNs in ABI5 nuclear body organization and ABI5 protein degradation during seed germination. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. Using In Situ Symbiotic Seed Germination to Restore Over-collected Medicinal Orchids in Southwest China.

    Shao, Shi-Cheng; Burgess, Kevin S; Cruse-Sanders, Jennifer M; Liu, Qiang; Fan, Xu-Li; Huang, Hui; Gao, Jiang-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Due to increasing demand for medicinal and horticultural uses, the Orchidaceae is in urgent need of innovative and novel propagation techniques that address both market demand and conservation. Traditionally, restoration techniques have been centered on ex situ asymbiotic or symbiotic seed germination techniques that are not cost-effective, have limited genetic potential and often result in low survival rates in the field. Here, we propose a novel in situ advanced restoration-friendly program for the endangered epiphytic orchid species Dendrobium devonianum , in which a series of in situ symbiotic seed germination trials base on conspecific fungal isolates were conducted at two sites in Yunnan Province, China. We found that percentage germination varied among treatments and locations; control treatments (no inoculum) did not germinate at both sites. We found that the optimal treatment, having the highest in situ seed germination rate (0.94-1.44%) with no significant variation among sites, supported a warm, moist and fixed site that allowed for light penetration. When accounting for seed density, percentage germination was highest (2.78-2.35%) at low densities and did not vary among locations for the treatment that supported optimal conditions. Similarly for the same treatment, seed germination ranged from 0.24 to 5.87% among seasons but also did vary among sites. This study reports on the cultivation and restoration of an endangered epiphytic orchid species by in situ symbiotic seed germination and is likely to have broad application to the horticulture and conservation of the Orchidaceae.

  8. Identification of Striga hermonthica-resistant Upland Rice Varieties in Sudan and Their Resistance Phenotypes

    Hiroaki eSamejima

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice has become a major staple cereal in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, upland rice cultivation is expanding particularly in rainfed areas where the root parasitic weed Striga hermonthica, a major constraint to cereal production, is endemic. Laboratory, pot, and semi-controlled open air experiments were performed to evaluate resistance of selected rice varieties in Sudan to a resident S. hermonthica population. In the laboratory, 27 varieties were screened for post-attachment resistance using the rhizotron technique. Varieties displaying high post-attachment resistance, Umgar, NERICA5, and NERICA13 together with NERICA4, NERICA18, and Nipponbare, a lowland rice variety, were further evaluated for performance and Striga resistance in pot and semi-controlled open air experiments and for germination inducing activity in a laboratory. In addition, comparative studies on reaction of Umgar, Kosti1 and Kosti2, released varieties for commercial production in Sudan, to the parasite were performed in two pot experiments. In the pot experiments Umgar and NERICA5, consistently, sustained the lowest Striga emergence (< 2.2 Striga plants per pot, while NERICA13 and NERICA4 supported 1.8–5.7 and 8.7–16.4 Striga plants per pot, respectively. In an artificially Striga-infested field, number of emergent Striga plants per 10 rice hills, at harvest, was 2.0, 2.0, 4.8, 13.5, 13.3, and 18.3 on Umgar, NERICA5, NERICA13, NERICA4, NERICA18, and Nipponbare, respectively. Striga had no adverse effects on total above-ground parts and panicle dry weight (DW in Umgar and NERICA5. Germination-inducing activity of root exudates, at 14 days after sowing onwards, was markedly lower for Umgar than for NERICA5, NERICA13, NERICA4, and NERICA18. Based on these findings, Umgar has both pre and post-attachment resistance to a resident Striga population in Sudan. Kosti1 and Kosti2, did not exhibit Striga-resistance at the same level as Umgar. Further the resistance of NERICA5, a

  9. Bio-herbicide effect of salt marsh tolerant Enterobacter sp. I-3 on weed seed germination and seedling growth

    Radhakrishan, R.; Lee, I.J.

    2017-01-01

    Weeds are major challenges in crop cultivation and cause yield loss. The bacteria based bio-herbicides are emerging against chemical herbicides. This study was aimed to explore the bio-herbicide effect of salt marsh tolerant Enterobacter sp. I-3 on various weed species. The efficacy of I-3 bacterial isolates against weed growth was compared with I-4-5 bacterial strain. The bacterial strains, I-3 and I-4-5 inhibited the seed germination of Cyperus microiria Maxim. Enterobacter sp. I-3 showed higher weed control activity than I-4-5. It was confirmed with growth reduction of C. microiria Maxim. The seed germination of Digitaria sanguinalis L. weed was accelerated during the interaction of I-4-5 and it was drastically declined by I-3 bacterial culture. However, Alopecurus aequalis Sobol. seeds treated with either I-3 or I-4-5 bacterial culture showed no significant germination inhibition. The results of this study suggested that salt marsh tolerant Enterobacter sp. I-3 can be applied as bacterial herbicides to control weeds in agricultural fields. (author)

  10. An evaluation of physical and mechanical scarification methods on seed germination of Vachellia macracantha (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. Seigler & Ebinger

    Francisco Maldonado-Arciniegas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The dry Andean forests are ecosystems with a high diversity of flora and fauna and are at high risk of extinction due to the pressure of human activity. V. macracantha is a native species of the dry Andean forest, which has potential for reforestation and also provides benefits in agroforestry systems, due to its nitrogen fixation capacity, the supply of organic matter, the production of shade and wind protection. The multiplication of this species is limited due to the low percentage of seed germination, which present dormancy. The aim of this research was to determine the most effective scarification method for seeds germination of V. macracantha. Two types of methods were tested, the immersion in strong acids (chemical scarification, and the seed bark through filing, cutting and soaking into hot water (physical scarification. A completely randomized block design with 3 replicates was used. For the chemical methods, sulfuric, nitric, and phosphoric acid (50% v/v were used at different exposure times: 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 minutes, respectively. Three variables were measured as follows: percentage of germination, the number of leaves and the plant height. The chemical methods did not present any significant difference in the percentage of germination. The physical method of seed filing, had achieved the highest percentage of germination with 46%, compared to control treatment, which had achieved 6%. No treatment performed significant differences in the parameters of number of leaves and plant height.

  11. [Effects of exogenous salicylic acid on seed germination and physiological characteristics of Coronilla varia under drought stress.

    Ma, Le Yuan; Chen, Nian Lai; Han, Guo Jun; Li, Liang

    2017-10-01

    This research investigated the effects of different concentrations (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mmol·L -1 ) of salicylic acid on the seed germination and physiological characteristics of legume forage Coronilla varia (cultivar 'Lvbaoshi') under PEG-6000 (concentration 8% and 12%) simulated drought stress. The results showed that under drought stress, 0.5-1.0 mmol·L -1 salicylic acid significantly increased germination percentage, germination vigour, germination index, vitality index and bud length of C. varia. Under the stress of 12% PEG, the dry mass of C. varia seedlings processed by 1.0 mmol·L -1 salicylic acid was significantly higher than that under drought stress. 0.5-1.0 mmol·L -1 salicylic acid processing significantly increased proline, soluble protein content, the activities of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase of C. varia seedlings under drought stress, but cell electrolyte permeability, H2O2 content and O2 - · production rate of seedlings were significantly decreased. 1.0 mmol·L -1 salicylic acid produced the best results. When the concentration of salicylic acid was beyond 2.0 mmol·L -1 , no mitigation effect was observed on the seed germination and growth of seedlings under drought stress. It was concluded that salicylic acid at appropriate concentrations could effectively improve osmotic regulation, antioxidation and mitigate the damage of drought stress so as to promote the growth of C. varia seedlings.

  12. Seed germination in Miconia theaezans (Bonpl. Cogniaux (Melastomataceae

    Simone Godoi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of light and temperature were studied on the seeds of Miconia theazeans by isothermic and alternating temperature incubations. The optimum temperature for seed germination was determined by final percentage and germination rates as located in the range of 27.5 to 30 °C and by germination kinetics at the range of 19.5 to 30 °C. The germination was dependent on diffusion processes. The minimum and maximum temperatures were 12.5-15°C and 32.5-35°C, respectively. The seeds showed strong light dependence for germination with the necessity of daily 4-6 h white light irradiation for the maximum induction of germination. However, under 30-20 °C alternating temperatures, daily 2 hours white light was enough to induce germination and attained maximum under 4 h photoperiod. The results indicated that M. theazeans presented characteristics of early successional species.O efeito da luz e da temperatura na germinação de sementes de Miconia theazeans foi analisado através de incubações isotérmicas e de alternâncias de temperaturas. Através das porcentagens finais e velocidade de germinação concluímos que a temperatura ótima de germinação localizaram-se entre 27,5 e 30 °C e pela cinética de germinação verificamos que entre 19,5 e 30 °C a germinação é dependente de processos de difusão. As temperaturas mínima e máxima foram de 12,5-15 °C e 32,5-35 °C, respectivamente. As sementes apresentaram forte dependência da presença de luz branca para a indução da germinação com a necessidade de 4-6 horas de luz diária para a máxima indução do processo. Entretanto, com a alternância de temperaturas de 30 e 20 °C, fotoperíodo de 2 horas foi suficiente para a indução da germinação sendo o máximo de indução obtida a partir de 4 horas diárias. Estes resultados indicam que Miconia theazeans é uma espécie importante que coloniza clareiras e áreas perturbadas em uma floresta natural.

  13. Utilization of wastewater on seed germination and physioogical parameters of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Huy, V.; Iwai, C. B.

    2018-03-01

    Due to increasing world population and demand, fresh water availability is becoming a limited resource. Reusing wastewater for agriculture has received attention since it contains nutrients, which are beneficial for growing crops. Even though wastewater can be used as the nutrient source for the plant, the toxicity of wastewater can still be a cause for concern and investigation. The main objective of this paper was to assess the effect of different sources of wastewater on the germination of Jasmine rice (KDML105), White rice (Phatum Thani 1), and Sticky rice (RD6) under laboratory conditions. Petri dish cultures were used with various concentrations (0, 50, and 100%) of wastewater collected from swine farm, aquaculture activity, and domestic. Seed germination, root length, shoot length, seed vigor index, fresh weight and dry weight were measured after each experiment. The results have shown that domestic wastewater and aquaculture activity wastewater did not decrease performance of Jasmine rice (KDML105), White rice (Phatum thani 1), and Sticky rice (RD6) while the germination of Jasmine rice (KDML105), White rice (Phatum thani 1), and Sticky rice (RD6) decreased when irrigated with swine farm wastewater. Therefore, using domestic and aquaculture activity wastewater for irrigation are suitable for growth of these crop.

  14. Seed germination test for toxicity evaluation of compost: Its roles, problems and prospects.

    Luo, Yuan; Liang, Jie; Zeng, Guangming; Chen, Ming; Mo, Dan; Li, Guoxue; Zhang, Difang

    2018-01-01

    Compost is commonly used for the growth of plants and the remediation of environmental pollution. It is important to evaluate the quality of compost and seed germination test is a powerful tool to examine the toxicity of compost, which is the most important aspect of the quality. Now the test is widely adopted, but the main problem is that the test results vary with different methods and seed species, which limits the development and application of it. The standardization of methods and the modelization of seeds can contribute to solving the problem. Additionally, according to the probabilistic theory of seed germination, the error caused by the analysis and judgment methods of the test results can be reduced. Here, we reviewed the roles, problems and prospects of the seed germination test in the studies of compost. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydroquinone; A novel bioactive compound from plant-derived smoke can cue seed germination of lettuce

    Kamran, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul L.; Ali, Liaqat; Hussain, Javid; Waqas, Muhammad; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Imran, Qari M.; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Kang, Sang-Mo; Yun, Byung-Wook; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-05-01

    Plant-derived smoke has been known to play an important role in distribution and growth of vegetation. Using a proficiently designed furnace, we extracted smoke from the leaves of four plant viz. Helianthus annuus, Aloe vera, Ginkgo biloba, and Cymbopogon jwarancusa. Smoke dilutions obtained from these plants were obtained in different concentrations to identify potential lettuce growth promoting smoke solution. Results revealed that smoke obtained from Ginkgo biloba significantly enhanced the lettuce seed germination. This solution was then partitioned into ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, n-hexane, chloroform and ether fractions. Ethyl acetate fraction was found to be potent to enhance seed germination. This fraction was subjected to column chromatography and spectroscopic techniques to obtain compound 1. This compound was identified as hydroquinone using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. At low concentrations (5, 10 and 20 ppm), compound 1 enhanced the lettuce seed germination; however, higher concentrations inhibited its growth as compared to control.

  16. Hydroquinone; A Novel Bioactive Compound from Plant-Derived Smoke Can Cue Seed Germination of Lettuce

    Kamran, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul L.; Ali, Liaqat; Hussain, Javid; Waqas, Muhammad; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Imran, Qari M.; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Kang, Sang-Mo; Yun, Byung-Wook; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-01-01

    Plant-derived smoke has been known to play an important role in distribution and growth of vegetation. Using a proficiently designed furnace, we extracted smoke from the leaves of four plant viz. Helianthus annuus,Aloe vera,Ginkgo biloba, and Cymbopogon jwarancusa. Smoke dilutions obtained from these plants were obtained in different concentrations to identify potential lettuce growth promoting smoke solution. Results revealed that smoke obtained from G. biloba significantly enhanced the lettuce seed germination. This solution was then partitioned into ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, n-hexane, chloroform and ether fractions. Ethyl acetate fraction was found to be potent to enhance seed germination. This fraction was subjected to column chromatography and spectroscopic techniques to obtain compound 1. This compound was identified as hydroquinone using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. At low concentrations (5, 10, and 20 ppm), compound 1 enhanced the lettuce seed germination; however, higher concentrations inhibited its growth as compared to control. PMID:28553632

  17. Some aspects of the Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of two Savanna tree Species

    D.A. Agboola

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies were made on some aspects of the seed germination and seedling growth of two multipurpose trees. These include the effect of pre sowing treatments, seed sizes and gibberellic acid on the germination of seeds and seedling growth. The tree species include Prosopis africana (Guil & Perr Taub and Dialium guineense (wild. Two seed sizes designated small- size (Ss and Big-size (Bs were identified in the seed. The effect of gibberellic acid (GA3 had a greater significance effect (P < 0.05 on seed germination of both D. guineense and P. africana seeds. The big size seeds had a significant effect (P < 0.05 on the seed germination when compared to the small size seeds. The hydration/dehydration, pre sowing treatments on the seeds did not have any significant effects on germination.

  18. Investigations of the capacity and strength of seed germination in Allium victorialis L.

    Krystyna Winiarczyk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the strength and energy of seed germination in Allium victorialis. Despite the normal structure of seeds containing a viable embryo and compliance with all International Seed Testing Association recommendations, no germination in A. victorialis was observed. Additionally, the scarification and stratification treatments applied did not improve the dynamics of germination of A. victorialis seeds. Microbiological analyses of soil sampled from natural localities of the plant revealed a typical composition of bacteria and fungi. The high number of fungi [4.5 log10CFU (colony forming units of fungi × g−1 dry mass of soil] and various groups of bacteria (about 7.0 log10CFU of bacteria × g−1 dry mass of soil were detected in the root-free-soil around garlic roots. In the interior of A. victorialis roots, the number of microorganisms decreased 1000 to 10 000 times but all the tested microbial groups, especially copiotrophic bacteria and fungi (1.6 and 2.2, respectively, log10CFU × g−1 dry mass of roots were detected. Changes in such parameters as dehydrogenase activity, pH values, and the total organic C (TOC content in the particular parts of the rhizosphere and in comparison to the rhizosphere with root-free-soil were observed. The dehydrogenase activity and TOC content were highly positively correlated with the total number of CFU of the microorganisms.

  19. Toxicity Effect of Cr Stress on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth in Lactuca Sativa

    Ma, Wan Zheng; Ma, Wan Min; Du, Ying Ying; Dan, Qiong Peng; Yin, Bing; Dai, Shan Shan; Hao, Xiang

    2018-03-01

    The impact of Cr6+ on the growth of lactuca sativa in Greenhouse Cucumber was investigated. The seeds of lacuna sativa Italian bolting resistance lettuce were treated by different Cr6+ concentration to study the effects on its seed germination and seedling growth. The results showed that the seed germination rate, vigor index of seedlings decreased with increment of Cr6+ concentration to varying degrees, and vigor germination, vigor index, raw weight, root length significantly lower. The absorption of lettuce seedlings on different nutrient elements is impacted by the concentration of Cr6+.

  20. [Effects of illumination and seed-soaking reagent on seed germination of Solanum nigrum].

    Yang, Chuan-Jie; Wei, Shu-He; Zhou, Qi-Xing; Hu, Ya-Hu; Niu, Rong-Cheng

    2009-05-01

    To explore a rapid seed germination method for hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, a germination experiment with different illumination and seed-soaking treatments was conducted in constant temperature box and greenhouse, with filter as burgeon base. Under illumination, the germination rate was about 5 times high of that without illumination (P seed germination of S. nigrum. All test seed-soaking reagents could significantly improve the germination rate of S. nigrum (P seeds treated with H2O2 had the shortest germination time. The germination rate of seeds soaked but without cleaning was 2-3 times as high as that of seeds soaked and cleaned with water.

  1. Arabidopsis MADS-Box Transcription Factor AGL21 Acts as Environmental Surveillance of Seed Germination by Regulating ABI5 Expression.

    Yu, Lin-Hui; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Zi-Sheng; Miao, Zi-Qing; Zhao, Ping-Xia; Wang, Zhen; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

    2017-06-05

    Seed germination is a crucial checkpoint for plant survival under unfavorable environmental conditions. Abscisic acid (ABA) signaling plays a vital role in integrating environmental information to regulate seed germination. It has been well known that MCM1/AGAMOUS/DEFICIENS/SRF (MADS)-box transcription factors are key regulators of seed and flower development in Arabidopsis. However, little is known about their functions in seed germination. Here we report that MADS-box transcription factor AGL21 is a negative regulator of seed germination and post-germination growth by controlling the expression of ABA-INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) in Arabidopsis. The AGL21-overexpressing plants were hypersensitive to ABA, salt, and osmotic stresses during seed germination and early post-germination growth, whereas agl21 mutants were less sensitive. We found that AGL21 positively regulated ABI5 expression in seeds. Consistently, genetic analyses showed that AGL21 is epistatic to ABI5 in controlling seed germination. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further demonstrated that AGL21 could directly bind to the ABI5 promoter in plant cells. Moreover, we found that AGL21 responded to multiple environmental stresses and plant hormones during seed germination. Taken together, our results suggest that AGL21 acts as a surveillance integrator that incorporates environmental cues and endogenous hormonal signals into ABA signaling to regulate seed germination and early post-germination growth. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Exogenous gibberellins inhibit coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Rubi) seed germination and cause cell death in the embryo

    Silva, Da E.A.A.; Toorop, P.E.; Nijsse, J.; Bewley, J.D.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of inhibition of coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Rubi) seed germination by exogenous gibberellins (GAs) and the requirement of germination for endogenous GA were studied. Exogenous GA4+7 inhibited coffee seed germination. The response to GA4+7 showed two sensitivity thresholds: a lower one

  3. Performance of Maize Varieties Under Striga and Striga Free Environments in Western Kenya

    Odongo, O.M.; Abayo, G.

    1999-01-01

    In the study seven maize varieties, Rachar, Nyamula, KK Pop24, KSTP94, H662, H511 and H512, were compared for their reactions towards striga infestation for two seasons (1995 and 1996 long rains) at four locations. The trial was conducted in a randomised complete block design with four replications. Data were taken on striga count, ear height, striga effect and grain yield. The striga count for six of the varieties did not differ significantly at except for H512 which supported significantly higher sriga plants an indication of H512 being more striga stimulant producer and parasiterised than the rest of the varieties.T-test showed that the variety Nyamula had the least yield reduction caused by striga among the tested varieties. across location means for the two seasons suggested that the varieties Nyamula and KSTP94 are more tolerant to striga attack than the other test varieties and could be recommended commercial hybrids H622 (3269 kg ha -1 ) and H512 (3758 kg ha -1 ) under striga-free conditions. KSTP94 was developed for striga tolerance and Nyamula is a landrace in striga infested areas. This explains why the two are superior to the rest under striga infestation

  4. Management of Striga Hermonthica (Del.) Benth in Upland Rice ...

    FARO 40 and WAB 56-50 did not support Striga emergence, and thus exhibited resistance to Striga hermonthica. FARO 48, a variety normally susceptible to S. hermonthica, supported delayed and low Striga emergence, exhibiting enhanced resistance. In spite of support for early and high Striga infestation, FARO 11 ...

  5. Identification of Striga hermonthica-Resistant Upland Rice Varieties in Sudan and Their Resistance Phenotypes.

    Samejima, Hiroaki; Babiker, Abdel G; Mustafa, Ahmed; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Rice has become a major staple cereal in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, upland rice cultivation is expanding particularly in rainfed areas where the root parasitic weed Striga hermonthica, a major constraint to cereal production, is endemic. Laboratory, pot, and semi-controlled open air experiments were performed to evaluate resistance of selected rice varieties in Sudan to a resident S. hermonthica population. In the laboratory, 27 varieties were screened for post-attachment resistance using the rhizotron technique. Varieties displaying high post-attachment resistance, Umgar, NERICA5, and NERICA13 together with NERICA4, NERICA18, and Nipponbare, a lowland rice variety, were further evaluated for performance and Striga resistance in pot and semi-controlled open air experiments and for germination inducing activity in a laboratory. In addition, comparative studies on reaction of Umgar, Kosti1 and Kosti2, released varieties for commercial production in Sudan, to the parasite were performed in two pot experiments. In the pot experiments Umgar and NERICA5, consistently, sustained the lowest Striga emergence (pot), while NERICA13 and NERICA4 supported 1.8-5.7 and 8.7-16.4 Striga plants per pot, respectively. In an artificially Striga-infested field, number of emergent Striga plants per 10 rice hills, at harvest, was 2.0, 2.0, 4.8, 13.5, 13.3, and 18.3 on Umgar, NERICA5, NERICA13, NERICA4, NERICA18, and Nipponbare, respectively. Striga had no adverse effects on total above-ground parts and panicle dry weight in Umgar and NERICA5. Germination-inducing activity of root exudates, at 14 days after sowing onward, was markedly lower for Umgar than for NERICA5, NERICA13, NERICA4, and NERICA18. Based on these findings, Umgar has both pre and post-attachment resistance to a resident Striga population in Sudan. Kosti1 and Kosti2 did not exhibit Striga-resistance at the same level as Umgar. Further the resistance of NERICA5, a variety reported to be endowed with a broad spectrum

  6. Seed germination of roundleaf buffaloberry (Shepherdia rotundifolia) and silver buffaloberry (Shepherdia argentea) in three substrates

    Taun Beddes; Heidi A. Kratsch

    2009-01-01

    Many western native plant species occur in areas characterized by well-drained soils low in organic matter. Some drought-tolerant native plant species exhibit poor seed germination. It was hypothesized that traditional growing substrates high in organic matter may impede their germination; therefore, stratified seeds of roundleaf buffaloherry (Shepherdia rotundifolia)...

  7. Proanthocyanidins in seed coat tegmen and endospermic cap inhibit seed germination in Sapium sebiferum.

    Shah, Faheem Afzal; Ni, Jun; Chen, Jing; Wang, Qiaojian; Liu, Wenbo; Chen, Xue; Tang, Caiguo; Fu, Songling; Wu, Lifang

    2018-01-01

    Sapium sebiferum , an ornamental and bio-energetic plant, is propagated by seed. Its seed coat contains germination inhibitors and takes a long time to stratify for germination. In this study, we discovered that the S. sebiferum seed coat (especially the tegmen) and endospermic cap (ESC) contained high levels of proanthocyanidins (PAs). Seed coat and ESC removal induced seed germination, whereas exogenous application with seed coat extract (SCE) or PAs significantly inhibited this process, suggesting that PAs in the seed coat played a major role in regulating seed germination in S. sebiferum . We further investigated how SCE affected the expression of the seed-germination-related genes. The results showed that treatment with SCE upregulated the transcription level of the dormancy-related gene, gibberellins (GAs) suppressing genes, abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and signalling genes. SCE decreased the transcript levels of ABA catabolic genes, GAs biosynthesis genes, reactive oxygen species genes and nitrates-signalling genes. Exogenous application of nordihydroguaiaretic acid, gibberellic acid, hydrogen peroxide and potassium nitrate recovered seed germination in seed-coat-extract supplemented medium. In this study, we highlighted the role of PAs, and their interactions with the other germination regulators, in the regulation of seed dormancy in S. sebiferum .

  8. Proanthocyanidins in seed coat tegmen and endospermic cap inhibit seed germination in Sapium sebiferum

    Faheem Afzal Shah

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sapium sebiferum, an ornamental and bio-energetic plant, is propagated by seed. Its seed coat contains germination inhibitors and takes a long time to stratify for germination. In this study, we discovered that the S. sebiferum seed coat (especially the tegmen and endospermic cap (ESC contained high levels of proanthocyanidins (PAs. Seed coat and ESC removal induced seed germination, whereas exogenous application with seed coat extract (SCE or PAs significantly inhibited this process, suggesting that PAs in the seed coat played a major role in regulating seed germination in S. sebiferum. We further investigated how SCE affected the expression of the seed-germination-related genes. The results showed that treatment with SCE upregulated the transcription level of the dormancy-related gene, gibberellins (GAs suppressing genes, abscisic acid (ABA biosynthesis and signalling genes. SCE decreased the transcript levels of ABA catabolic genes, GAs biosynthesis genes, reactive oxygen species genes and nitrates-signalling genes. Exogenous application of nordihydroguaiaretic acid, gibberellic acid, hydrogen peroxide and potassium nitrate recovered seed germination in seed-coat-extract supplemented medium. In this study, we highlighted the role of PAs, and their interactions with the other germination regulators, in the regulation of seed dormancy in S. sebiferum.

  9. [Study on influence factors of seed germination and seeding growth of Lonicera macranthoides].

    Xu, Jin; Zhang, Ying; Cui, Guang-Lin; She, Yue-Hui; Li, Long-Yun

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve reproductive efficiency and quality standard, the influence factors of seed germination and seeding growth of Lonicera macranthoides werew studied. The fruit and seed morphological characteristics of L. macranthoides were observed, the seed water absorbing capacity was determined, and different wet sand stratification time, temperature and germination bed treatment were set up. The effects of the parameters on seed germination and seedling growth were analysed. There was no obstacles of water absorption on L. macranthoides seed, quantity for 22 h water absorption was close to saturation. In the first 80 d, with the increase of the stratification time, seed initial germination time was shortened, germination rate and germination potential was improved. Stratification for 100 d, germination rate decreased. At 15 ℃, seed germination and seedling growth indicators were the best. The seedling cotyledon width in light was significantly higher than that in dark. Seeds on the top of paper and top of sand germination rate, germination potential, and germination index was significantly higher than that of other germination bed and mildew rate is low. The optimal conditions of seeds germination test was stratified in 4 ℃ wet sand for 80 d, 15 ℃ illuminate culture on the top of paper or top of sand. The first seeding counting time was the 4th day after beginning the test, the final time was the 23th day. The germination potential statistical time was the 13th day after beginning the test. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  10. Effects of NaCl stress on seed germination, early seedling growth ...

    Effects of salt stress on seed germination, early seedling growth and some physiological characteristics were evaluated for four cauliflower species in seven treatments of salinity including 0 (control), 34, 68, 102, 136, 170 and 204 mM NaCl in a three replicated randomized completely block design (RCBD). This result shows ...

  11. Effect of pre-treatments on seed germination of Parkia biglobosa ...

    Effect of pre-treatments on seed germination of Parkia biglobosa (Benth) ... There has been emphasis on the use of indigenous tree species to check land ... out to investigate the most effective pre-sowing treatments to break seed dormancy and to ... Matured seeds of P. biglobosa were collected from farmers at Mbalagh ...

  12. Impact of crop residues on seed germination of native desert plants ...

    Crop residues produce allelochemicals that may inhibit seed germination of many weeds. In this study, I assessed the effect of aqueous extracts of three crop residues (radish, rocket and rhodes) on final germination percentage and germination rate of four desert plants recorded as weeds in the United Arab Emirates farms ...

  13. Effects of drought and salt stress on seed germination of three ...

    use

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... At sowing, inadequate soil moisture results in irregular seed germination and unsynchronised seedling ... Soil salinity affects germination by either an osmotic stress or ion toxic effect (Bewley and Black, ..... Zhu et al., 2006) as an inert osmoticum in germination tests (Dodd and Donovan, 1999) and is a non- ...

  14. [Plant biomorphology and seed germination of pioneer species of the Kamchatka volcanoes].

    Voronkova, N M; Kholina, A B; Verkholat, V P

    2008-01-01

    Biomorphology, quantitative characters and seed germination of 17 pioneer plant species friable materials of volcanic eruptions (Kamchatka Peninsula) were studied. Adaptive trends in survival stress conditions are discussed. To evaluate a possibility of the cryogenic seed storage, their response to ultra low temperatures (-196 degrees C) was determine.

  15. Reduced seed germination in Arabidopsis over-expressing SWI/SNF2 ATPase genes

    Leeggangers, H.A.C.F.; Folta, A.; Muras, A.; Nap, J.P.H.; Mlynarova, L.

    2015-01-01

    In the life of flowering plants, seed germination is a critical step to ensure survival into the next generation. Generally the seed prior to germination has been in a dormant state with a low rate of metabolism. In the transition from a dormant seed to a germinating seed, various epigenetic

  16. Effect of hormone on the seed germination of Garcinia kola Heckel ...

    Effect of hormone on the seed germination of Garcinia kola Heckel. FB Yakubu, JO Ogunade, OT Bolanle-Ojo, DK Yahaya. Abstract. Garcinia kola plays an important socioeconomic role in the Africa culture. Inspite of this, the plant only exists in the wild or as part of left over in the Agroforestry farms. Therefore, this research ...

  17. Seed germination of medicinal plant, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill), as affected by different priming techniques.

    Tahaei, Amirreza; Soleymani, Ali; Shams, Majid

    2016-09-01

    Reduced seed germination is among the most important factors adversely affecting crop stand and subsequent plant growth. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an important medicinal plant with poor seed germination rate, occasionally. It is accordingly pertinent to find methods which can enhance fennel seed germination and remove the barriers of dormancy breaking. The present experiments studied the effects of two different priming (cold moist stratification and osmopriming) and 14 dormancy breaking techniques (hormonal, osmopriming, biopriming, chemical priming, and hydropriming) on the seed germination and seedling growth of two different fennel genotypes under growth chamber conditions. In the first and second experiment, the priming techniques including the time lengths of cold moist stratification (0, 15, 30, and 45 days) and the concentrations of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000, osmopriming at -0.99, -1.35, and -2.33 MPa) were used as the main plots. However, in both experiments, the dormancy breaking techniques and fennel genotypes were factorially combined and used as the subplots. Different seed- and seedling-related parameters including germination (%), plumule, radicle and seedling length, average germination time, rate and homogeneity of germination, and seed vigor index were determined. Both priming techniques were efficient on the enhancement of seed germination and seedling growth. Among the dormancy breaking techniques, Aminol Forte (biopriming), kadostim (biopriming), benzyl adenine + kinetin (biopriming), distilled water (hydropriming), gibberellin + kinetin (hormonal priming), and benzyl adenine + kinetin + gibberellin (biopriming) were the most effective ones. The related concentrations were equal to 100 mg/l, 10(-5) M, and 0.4 %. The fennel genotypes reacted significantly different under priming conditions. It is possible to enhance seed germination and seedling growth of fennel using priming and dormancy breaking

  18. Effect of crude seaweed extracts on seed germination, seedling growth and some metabolic processes of Vicia faba L.

    el-Sheekh, M M; el-Saied A el-D

    2000-01-01

    Crude extracts from three green seaweeds (Cladophora dalmatica, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva lactuca) and the three red algae (Corallina mediterranea, Jania rubens, Pterocladia pinnate) were prepared. Their effects on germination, growth of seedlings, chlorophyll content and other metabolic activities of Vicia faba were investigated. The crude extract of C. dalmatica showed maximal activity, and it increased seed germination, length of main root and shoot systems and the number of lateral roots. All the crude extracts of seaweed increased protein content in both root and shoot systems, total soluble sugars and chlorophyll content in leaves. The cytokinin content of the green algae was higher than that in red algae. Growth of seedlings of V. faba was stimulated but to different degrees.

  19. Frugivory and the effects of ingestion by bats on the seed germination of three pioneering plants

    de Carvalho-Ricardo, Maria C.; Uieda, Wilson; Fonseca, Renata Cristina B.; Rossi, Marcelo N.

    2014-02-01

    The dispersion and seedling establishment of pioneering plants can be favoured by the presence of frugivorous bats because the bats usually improve seed germination after ingestion. Although seed germinability is known to vary greatly after ingestion by different bats, the relative contribution of each bat species to seed germination within plant communities is poorly understood. In this study, we first determined the fauna of frugivorous bats in a semideciduous seasonal forest remnant in southern Brazil and subsequently identified the plant species of the seeds passed through their guts. Second, the germination performance (i.e., germination percentage and speed) of the seeds of three pioneering plants (Piper aduncum, Piper hispidinervum and Solanum granuloso-leprosum) ingested by the most abundant bats was compared with that of the non-ingested seeds (seeds collected from fruits). Additionally, the effects on seed germination of different bat species were compared. During one year, five species of frugivorous bats were caught, and the seeds of eleven identifiable plant species (not counting those of undetermined species) were found in their faeces. We found that the germination performance of the seeds of Piper species was significantly enhanced after ingestion by bats, whereas S. granuloso-leprosum seeds had neutral or reduced germinability when seeds in faeces were compared with pulp-removed seeds. Our results revealed that the bat species that were captured exerted different effects upon seed germination; such a disparity is expected to result in different rates of early establishment of these pioneer plants in tropical forests, most likely affecting forest composition and structure, particularly during the initial stages of succession.

  20. Response of vegetable seed germination to solar radiation penetrating through soil

    Hamamoto, H.

    1999-01-01

    Response of vegetable seeds to irradiation and emergence of plants seeded at various depths were investigated to clarify the effects of solar radiation through soil on vegetable seed germination. Seeds of eight vegetable species were germinated in Petri dishes under 11-h irradiation per day. Seed germination was delayed in tomato (Licopersicon esculentum Mill.) but accelerated in perilla (Perilla ocymoides L.) and Japanese hornwort (Cryptotaenia japonica Hassk.) with increase in irradiation at the intensities higher than 0.4W m -2 . Seeds of Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus L.), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Matsum.), and Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.) showed delayed germination at more than 4-6W m -2 . No effect of irradiation on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and carrot (Daucus carota L.) seed germination was seen. For tomato, Japanese radish and Japanese hornwort, the effects of irradiation time on germination were also investigated. Tomato seed germination was delayed and Japanese hornwort seed germination was accelerated with increase in irradiation time beyond 2h per day. The emergence of tomato and Japanese hornwort covered with Shimokuriyagawa loam soil (Kuriyagawa soil) and vermiculite at depths of less than 5mm, 5-10mm and 10-15mm was observed. Plants emerged more rapidly from 5-10mm depths than from less than 5mm depth in tomato. The plants seeded at 10-15mm depths emerged as rapidly as those at 5-10mm depths using vermiculite but later than those at other depths using Kuriyagawa soil, probably due to high bulk density. The early emergence of Japanese hornwort was fastest from less than 5mm depth. The plants seeded at 5-10mm depths did not emerge much slower than those at less than 5mm depth. A seeding depth of 5-10mm was suitable for the rapid emergence of those vegetables covered with both the soil and vermiculite. (author)

  1. Control of Seed Germination and Plant Development by Carbon and Nitrogen Availability

    Daniel eOsuna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the molecular basis of the influence of external carbon/nitrogen (C/N ratio and other abiotic factors on phytohormones regulation during seed germination and plant developmental processes, and the identification of elements that participate in this response is essential to understand plant nutrient perception and signaling. Sugars (sucrose, glucose and nitrate not only act as nutrients but also as signaling molecules in plant development. A connection between changes in auxin transport and nitrate signal transduction has been reported in Arabidopsis thaliana through the NRT1.1, a nitrate sensor and transporter that also functions as a repressor of lateral root growth under low concentrations of nitrate by promoting auxin transport. Nitrate inhibits the elongation of lateral roots, but this effect is significantly reduced in abscisic acid (ABA-insensitive mutants, what suggests that ABA might mediate the inhibition of lateral root elongation by nitrate. Gibberellin (GA biosynthesis has been also related to nitrate level in seed germination and its requirement is determined by embryonic ABA. These mechanisms connect nutrients and hormones signaling during seed germination and plant development. Thus, the genetic identification of the molecular components involved in nutrients-dependent pathways would help to elucidate the potential crosstalk between nutrients, nitric oxide (NO and phytohormones (ABA, auxins and GAs in seed germination and plant development. In this review we focus on changes in C and N levels and how they control seed germination and plant developmental processes through the interaction with other plant growth regulators, such as phytohormones.

  2. Using In Situ Symbiotic Seed Germination to Restore Over-collected Medicinal Orchids in Southwest China

    Shi-Cheng Shao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing demand for medicinal and horticultural uses, the Orchidaceae is in urgent need of innovative and novel propagation techniques that address both market demand and conservation. Traditionally, restoration techniques have been centered on ex situ asymbiotic or symbiotic seed germination techniques that are not cost-effective, have limited genetic potential and often result in low survival rates in the field. Here, we propose a novel in situ advanced restoration-friendly program for the endangered epiphytic orchid species Dendrobium devonianum, in which a series of in situ symbiotic seed germination trials base on conspecific fungal isolates were conducted at two sites in Yunnan Province, China. We found that percentage germination varied among treatments and locations; control treatments (no inoculum did not germinate at both sites. We found that the optimal treatment, having the highest in situ seed germination rate (0.94-1.44% with no significant variation among sites, supported a warm, moist and fixed site that allowed for light penetration. When accounting for seed density, percentage germination was highest (2.78-2.35% at low densities and did not vary among locations for the treatment that supported optimal conditions. Similarly for the same treatment, seed germination ranged from 0.24 to 5.87% among seasons but also did vary among sites. This study reports on the cultivation and restoration of an endangered epiphytic orchid species by in situ symbiotic seed germination and is likely to have broad application to the horticulture and conservation of the Orchidaceae.

  3. Involvement of reactive oxygen species in endosperm cap weakening and embryo elongation growth during lettuce seed germination

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Bingxian; Xu, Zhenjiang; Shi, Zhaowan; Chen, Shanli; Huang, Xi; Chen, Jianxun; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Endosperm cap (CAP) weakening and embryo elongation growth are prerequisites for the completion of lettuce seed germination. Although it has been proposed that the cell wall loosening underlying these processes results from an enzymatic mechanism, it is still unclear which enzymes are involved. Here it is shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are non-enzymatic factors, may be involved in the two processes. In Guasihong lettuce seeds imbibed in water, O2·– and H2O2 accumulated and peroxidase activity increased in the CAP, whereas its puncture force decreased. In addition, in the radicle, the increase in embryo growth potential was accompanied by accumulation of O2·– and an increase in peroxidase activity. Imbibing seeds in 0.3% sodium dichloroisocyanurate (SDIC) reduced endosperm viability and the levels of O2·–, H2O2, and peroxidase activity in the CAP, whereas the decrease in its puncture force was inhibited. However, in the embryo, SDIC did not affect the accumulation of O2·–, peroxidase activity, and the embryo growth potential. As a result, SDIC caused atypical germination, in which the endosperm ruptured at the boundary between the CAP and lateral endosperm. ROS scavengers and ROS generation inhibitors inhibited the CAP weakening and also decreased the embryo growth potential, thus decreasing the percentage of seed germination. Exogenous ROS and ROS generation inducers increased the percentage of CAP rupture to some extent, and the addition of H2O2 to 0.3% SDIC enabled some seeds to undergo typical germination. PMID:24744430

  4. Polyphenols, including the new Peapolyphenols A-C, from pea root exudates stimulate Orobanche foetida seed germination.

    Evidente, Antonio; Cimmino, Alessio; Fernández-Aparicio, Monica; Andolfi, Anna; Rubiales, Diego; Motta, Andrea

    2010-03-10

    Three new polyphenols, named peapolyphenols A-C, together with an already well-known polyphenol and a chalcone (1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-propanone and 1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propenone) were isolated from pea root exudates. They were found to strongly stimulate Orobanche and Phelipanche species seed germination. Interestingly, only peapolyphenol A, 1,3,3-substituted propanone, and 1,3-disubstituted propenone had specific stimulatory activity on O. foetida, excluding any other Orobanche or Phelipanche species tested. This species specificity is relevant, as O. foetida does not respond to the synthetic strigolactone analogue GR24, commonly used as a standard for germination assays. As characterized by spectroscopic methods, peapolyphenols A-C proved to be differently functionalized polyphenols with hydroxy and methoxy groups on both the aromatic rings and the propyl chain.

  5. Influence of pulsed magnetic field on soybean (Glycine max L.) seed germination, seedling growth and soil microbial population.

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Kumari, Bollipo Dyana Ranjitha

    2013-08-01

    The effects of pulsed magnetic field (PMF) treatment of soybean (Glycine max L. cv CO3) seeds were investigated on rate of seed germination, seedling growth, physico-chemical properties of seed leachates and soil microbial population under laboratory conditions. Seeds were exposed to PMF of 1500 nT at 0.1, 1.0 10.0 and 100.0 Hz for 5 h per day for 20 days, induced by enclosure coil systems. Non-treated seeds were considered as controls. All PMF treatments significantly increased the rate of seed germination, while 10 and 100 Hz PMFs showed the most effective response. The 1.0 and 10 Hz PMFs remarkably improved the fresh weight of shoots and roots, leaf area and plant height from seedlings from magnetically-exposed seeds compared to the control, while 10 Hz PMF increased the total soluble sugar, total protein and phenol contents. The leaf chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll were higher in PMF (10 and 100 Hz) pretreated plants, as compared to other treatments. In addition, activities of alpha-amylase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, nitrate reductase, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase were increased, while beta-amylase and protease activities were declined in PMF (10 Hz)-exposed soybean plants. Similarly, the capacity of absorbance of water by seeds and electrical conductivity of seed leachates were significantly enhanced by 10 Hz PMF exposure, whereas PMF (10 Hz) pretreated plants did not affect the microbial population in rhizosphere soil. The results suggested the potential of 10 Hz PMF treatment to enhance the germination and seedling growth of soybean.

  6. Role of thioproline on seed germination: interaction ROS-ABA and effects on antioxidative metabolism.

    Barba-Espin, Gregorio; Nicolas, Eduardo; Almansa, Maria Soledad; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Albacete, Alfonso; Hernández, José Antonio; Díaz-Vivancos, Pedro

    2012-10-01

    In this work we investigate the effect of the imbibition of pea seeds with different thioproline (TP) concentrations on the germination percentage and the early growth of the seedlings. The interaction between TP and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) treatments is also analysed in order to test if any synergy in germination and growth occurs. Although the imbibition of pea seeds in the presence of TP did not significantly improve the germination percentage, TP and/or H₂O₂ pre-treatments increased seedlings growth. This increase in seedling growth was reduced by abscisic acid (ABA) addition. Imbibition of pea seeds in the presence of ABA also reduced the endogenous H₂O₂ contents of pea seedlings in control and TP-treated seeds. The incubation of pea seeds with TP and/or H₂O₂ in presence or absence of ABA decreased the activity of H₂O₂-scavenging enzymes. The increase of the endogenous H₂O₂ contents observed in TP and/or H₂O₂ treatments in absence of ABA could be correlated with the decrease in these activities. Finally, the hormone profile of pea seedlings was investigated. The results show that the increase in seedling growth is correlated with a decrease in ABA in samples pre-treated with H₂O₂ and TP + H₂O₂. Nevertheless, no significant differences in endogenous ABA concentration were observed with the TP pre-treatment. This paper suggests a relationship between endogenous H₂O₂ contents and plant growth, so reinforcing the intricate crosstalk between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and plant hormones in seed germination signalling and early seedling development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Germinação in vitro de sementes de alcachofra In vitro artichoke seed germination

    Cassieli F de Moraes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A baixa taxa de multiplicação e alta de contaminação dos explantes são algumas das dificuldades na micropropagação da alcachofra. A germinação de sementes in vitro pode ser uma alternativa de obtenção de explantes sadios para estabelecimento de futuros cultivos in vitro. O trabalho desenvolvido no Laboratório de Biotecnologia Vegetal da UPF-FAMV teve por objetivo avaliar a germinação in vitro de sementes de alcachofra cv. Nobre, em três experimentos, testando concentrações de cloro ativo na assepsia das sementes; tratamentos do tegumento (mantido intacto, com cortes laterais ou eliminação; condições de luminosidade (claro ou escuro; e dois meios de cultura [meio MS, com concentração de sais reduzida à metade (M1 e meio MS completo(M2]. Em ambos foram adicionados 30 g L-1 de sacarose e 7 g L-1 de ágar, sendo o pH ajustado para 5,6 ± 0,1 com NaOH. Os cultivos foram realizados em câmara de crescimento. A obtenção de plântulas sadias de alcachofra em curto espaço de tempo (sete dias, para utilização como fonte de explantes é viável a partir da germinação in vitro de sementes sem o tegumento (77,5% de germinação, utilizando os meios de cultura M1 ou M2 e câmara de crescimento desprovida de luz. Nestas condições, a assepsia das sementes pode ser realizada com álcool 70% por 30 min e posterior imersão em solução contendo 2% de cloro ativo por dez minutos, antes da remoção do tegumento.Low multiplication rates and high contamination in the explants are some of the difficulties in artichoke micropropagation. In vitro seed germination may be an alternative to obtain healthy explants for use in future in vitro cultivation. This project developed at the laboratory of Universidade de Passo Fundo was established to evaluate cv. 'Nobre' artichoke seeds in vitro germination. In three experiments, active chloride concentrations on seed aseptic technique; tegument treatment (kept intact, with side cuts and

  8. Cobalt(ll) Coordination Compounds of Ethyl 4-Methyl-5-Imidazolecarboxylate: Chemical and Biochemical Characterization on Photosynthesis and Seed Germination

    King-Díaz, Beatriz; Montes-Ayala, Josefina; Escartín-Guzmán, Concepción; Castillo-Blum, Silvia E.; Iglesias-Prieto, Roberto; Lotina-Hennsen, Blas; Barba-Behrens, Norah

    2005-01-01

    In this work we present the synthesis, structural and spectroscopic characterization of Co2+ coordination compounds with ethyl 4-methyl-5-imidazolecarboxylate (emizco). The effects of emizco, the metal salts CoCl2.6H2O, CoBr2, Co(NO3)2.6H2O and their metal coordination compounds [Co(emizco)2Cl2], [Co(emizco)2 Br2].H2O, [Co(emizco)2 (H2O)2(NO2)2.2H2O were evaluated on photosynthesis in spinach chloroplasts. Seed germination and seedling growth of the monocotyledonous species Lolium multiflorum and Triticum aestivum and the dicotyledonous species Trifolium alexandrinum and Physalis ixocarpa were also assayed under the effect of the compounds and salts. The results showed that cobalt(II) salts and their emizco coordination compounds inhibit photosynthetic electron flow and ATP-synthesis, behaving as Hill reaction inhibitors. Coordination compounds are more potent inhibitors than the salts. It was found that the salts target is at the b6f level while the complexes targets are at QB(D1)-protein and b6f level. The QB inhibition site was confirmed by variable chlorophyll a fluorescence yield. On the other hand, emizco inhibits seed germination, root and shoot development, in both weed and crop species. Cobalt(II) coordination compounds are the most effective photosynthesis inhibitors, but they are less potent than emizco in germination and seedling growth, while the metal salts are the least active of all. PMID:18365092

  9. Phytotoxicity of veterinary antibiotics to seed germination and root elongation of crops.

    Pan, Min; Chu, L M

    2016-04-01

    Large quantities of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) are being used worldwide in agricultural fields through wastewater irrigation and manure application. They cause damages to the ecosystem when discharged into the environment, but there is a lack of information on their toxicity to plants and animals. This study evaluated the phytotoxic effects of five major VAs, namely tetracycline (TC), sulfamethazine (SMZ), norfloxacin (NOR), erythromycin (ERY) and chloramphenicol (CAP), on seed germination and root elongation in lettuce, tomato, carrot and cucumber, and investigated the relationship between their physicochemical properties and phytotoxicities. Results show that these compounds significantly inhibited root elongation (ptest. TC was associated with the highest level of toxicity, followed by NOR, ERY, SMZ and CAP. Regarding crop species, lettuce was found to be sensitive to most of the VAs. The median effect concentration (EC50) of TC, SMZ, NOR, ERY and CAP to lettuce was 14.4, 157, 49.4, 68.8 and 204 mg/L, respectively. A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model has been established based on the measured data. It is evident that hydrophobicity was the most important factor governing the phytotoxicity of these compounds to seeds, which could be explained by the polar narcosis mechanism. Lettuce is considered a good biomarker for VAs in the environment. According to the derived equation, phytotoxicities of selected VA compounds on different crops can be calculated, which could be applicable to other VAs. Environmental risks of VAs were summarized based on the phytotoxicity results and other persistent factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Antagonism between abscisic acid and gibberellins is partially mediated by ascorbic acid during seed germination in rice.

    Ye, Nenghui; Zhang, Jianhua

    2012-05-01

    The antagonism between abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) plays a key role in controlling seed germination, but the mechanism of antagonism during this process is not known. In the associated study, we investigated the relationship among ABA, reactive oxygen species (ROS), ascorbic acid (ASC) and GA during rice seed germination. ROS production is reduced by ABA, which hence results in decreasing ASC accumulation during imbibition. GA accumulation was also suppressed by a reduced ROS and ASC level, whereas application of exogenous ASC can partially rescue seed germination from ABA treatment. Further results show that production of ASC, which acts as a substrate in GA biosynthesis, was significantly inhibited by lycorine which thus suppressed the accumulation of GA. Consequently, expression of GA biosynthesis genes was suppressed by the low levels of ROS and ASC in ABA-treated seeds. These studies reveal a new role for ASC in mediating the antagonism between ABA and GA during seed germination in rice.

  11. Arabidopsis CPR5 independently regulates seed germination and postgermination arrest of development through LOX pathway and ABA signaling.

    Guilan Gao

    Full Text Available The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA and the lipoxygenases (LOXs pathway play important roles in seed germination and seedling growth and development. Here, we reported on the functional characterization of Arabidopsis CPR5 in the ABA signaling and LOX pathways. The cpr5 mutant was hypersensitive to ABA in the seed germination, cotyledon greening and root growth, whereas transgenic plants overexpressing CPR5 were insensitive. Genetic analysis demonstrated that CPR5 gene may be located downstream of the ABI1 in the ABA signaling pathway. However, the cpr5 mutant showed an ABA independent drought-resistant phenotype. It was also found that the cpr5 mutant was hypersensitive to NDGA and NDGA treatment aggravated the ABA-induced delay in the seed germination and cotyledon greening. Taken together, these results suggest that the CPR5 plays a regulatory role in the regulation of seed germination and early seedling growth through ABA and LOX pathways independently.

  12. Osmopriming-induced salt tolerance during seed germination of alfalfa most likely mediates through H2O2 signaling and upregulation of heme oxygenase.

    Amooaghaie, Rayhaneh; Tabatabaie, Fatemeh

    2017-07-01

    The present study showed that osmopriming or pretreatment with low H 2 O 2 doses (2 mM) for 6 h alleviated salt-reduced seed germination. The NADPH oxidase activity was the main source, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity might be a secondary source of H 2 O 2 generation during osmopriming or H 2 O 2 pretreatment. Hematin pretreatment similar to osmopriming improved salt-reduced seed germination that was coincident with the enhancement of heme oxygenase (HO) activity. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed that osmopriming or H 2 O 2 pretreatment was able to upregulate heme oxygenase HO-1 transcription, while the application of N,N-dimethyl thiourea (DMTU as trap of endogenous H 2 O 2 ) and diphenyleneiodonium (DPI as inhibitor of NADPHox) not only blocked the upregulation of HO but also reversed the osmopriming-induced salt attenuation. The addition of CO-saturated aqueous rescued the inhibitory effect of DMTU and DPI on seed germination and α-amylase activity during osmopriming or H 2 O 2 pretreatment, but H 2 O 2 could not reverse the inhibitory effect of ZnPPIX (as HO inhibitor) or Hb (as CO scavenger) that indicates that the CO acts downstream of H 2 O 2 in priming-driven salt acclimation. The antioxidant enzymes and proline synthesis were upregulated in roots of seedlings grown from primed seeds, and these responses were reversed by adding DMTU, ZnPPIX, and Hb during osmopriming. These findings for the first time suggest that H 2 O 2 signaling and upregulation of heme oxygenase play a crucial role in priming-driven salt tolerance.

  13. Allelopathic Effects of Plant-Derived Aerosol Smoke on Seed Germination of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh

    Pennacchio, M.; Jefferson, L.V.; Havens, K.

    2007-01-01

    The role that plant-derived smoke plays in promoting seed germination is well documented, but little is known about its ability to inhibit seed germination. To better understand this phenomenon, we tested the effects of eight aerosol smoke treatments on the Columbia-3 ecotype of non dormant Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. seeds. Our results revealed that aerosol smoke significantly inhibits germination when seeds were exposed to prolonged periods of aerosol smoke. Short durations of smoke treatments significantly promoted the rate of germination of A. thaliana seed. We briefly discuss this dual regulation of smoke and its possible impact on conservation and restoration practices. We also propose that plant-derived smoke may be another vehicle by which allelo chemicals can be introduced into the environment.

  14. Barley Seed Germination/Root Elongation Toxicity Test For Evaluation Of Sludge Pre-Treatment

    Eriksson, Eva; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Barrett Sørensen, Mie

    Application of sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on agricultural land is an approach for nutrient recycling that rise challenges due to recalcitrant and harmful pollutants. In this study we assessed the feasibility of a seed germination test to evaluate sludge ecotoxicity and compared...... germination responses from two test parameters, root elongation and seed germination (sprouts elongation) of the barley (Hordeum vulgare). 2nd objective was to evaluate sewage sludge pre-treatments at batch-scale of sludge samples from two WWTPs using anaerobic digestion, and thermal and ozonation pre......-treatments. Glyphosate and eco-labelled soil were used as references. Inhibition of germination of seeds exposed to the glyphosate and sludge was registered and thus germination was successfully applied for sludge ecotoxicity assessment, and using the root elongation as the end-point was both faster and more precise...

  15. Inhibition of Orobanche crenata seed germination and radicle growth by allelochemicals identified in cereals.

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Cimmino, Alessio; Evidente, Antonio; Rubiales, Diego

    2013-10-16

    Orobanche crenata is a parasitic weed that causes severe yield losses in important grain and forage legume crops. Cereals have been reported to inhibit O. crenata parasitism when grown intercropped with susceptible legumes, but the responsible metabolites have not been identified. A number of metabolites have been reported in cereals that have allelopathic properties against weeds, pests, and pathogens. We tested the effect of several allelochemicals identified in cereals on O. crenata seed germination and radicle development. We found that 2-benzoxazolinone, its derivative 6-chloroacetyl-2-benzoxazolinone, and scopoletin significantly inhibited O. crenata seed germination. Benzoxazolinones, l-tryptophan, and coumalic acid caused the stronger inhibition of radicle growth. Also, other metabolites reduced radicle length, this inhibition being dose-dependent. Only scopoletin caused cell necrotic-like darkening in the young radicles. Prospects for their application to parasitic weed management are discussed.

  16. Effect of atmospheric plasma treatment on seed germination of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Penado, Keith Nealson M.; Mahinay, Christian Lorenz S.; Culaba, Ivan B.

    2018-01-01

    Multiple methods of improving plant development have been utilized over the past decades. Despite these improvements, there still exists a need for better planting methods due to the increasing population of a global community. Studies have reported that plasma treatment affects the growth and germination of a variety of plant species, including a multitude of grains which often takes the bulk in the diet of the average human being. This study explores the effect of atmospheric air plasma jet treatment on the seed germination of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The seeds were treated using an atmospheric air plasma jet for 1, 2, and 3 s. The effect of plasma exposure shows a reduction of trichomes on the surface of the seed. This caused a possible increase in wettability which significantly affected the seed germ length but did not affect the seed germination count after the germination period of 72 h.

  17. Influences of Air, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide Nanobubbles on Seed Germination and Plant Growth.

    Ahmed, Ahmed Khaled Abdella; Shi, Xiaonan; Hua, Likun; Manzueta, Leidy; Qing, Weihua; Marhaba, Taha; Zhang, Wen

    2018-05-23

    Nanobubbles (NBs) hold promise in green and sustainable engineering applications in diverse fields (e.g., water/wastewater treatment, food processing, medical applications, and agriculture). This study investigated the effects of four types of NBs on seed germination and plant growth. Air, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide NBs were generated and dispersed in tap water. Different plants, including lettuce, carrot, fava bean, and tomato, were used in germination and growth tests. The seeds in water-containing NBs exhibited 6-25% higher germination rates. Especially, nitrogen NBs exhibited considerable effects in the seed germination, whereas air and carbon dioxide NBs did not significantly promote germination. The growth of stem length and diameter, leave number, and leave width were promoted by NBs (except air). Furthermore, the promotion effect was primarily ascribed to the generation of exogenous reactive oxygen species by NBs and higher efficiency of nutrient fixation or utilization.

  18. Exogenous auxin represses soybean seed germination through decreasing the gibberellin/abscisic acid (GA/ABA) ratio

    Shuai, Haiwei; Meng, Yongjie; Luo, Xiaofeng; Chen, Feng; Zhou, Wenguan; Dai, Yujia; Qi, Ying; Du, Junbo; Yang, Feng; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Wenyu; Shu, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Auxin is an important phytohormone which mediates diverse development processes in plants. Published research has demonstrated that auxin induces seed dormancy. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the effect of auxin on seed germination need further investigation, especially the relationship between auxins and both abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs), the latter two phytohormones being the key regulators of seed germination. Here we report that exogenous auxin treatment represse...

  19. Reactive Oxygen Species Generated by NADPH Oxidases Promote Radicle Protrusion and Root Elongation during Rice Seed Germination

    Wen-Yan Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination is a complicated biological process that requires regulation through various enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms. Although it has been recognized that reactive oxygen species (ROS regulate radicle emergence and root elongation in a non-enzymatic manner during dicot seed germination, the role of ROS in monocot seed germination remains unknown. NADPH oxidases (NOXs are the major ROS producers in plants; however, whether and how NOXs regulate rice seed germination through ROS generation remains unclear. Here, we report that diphenyleneiodinium (DPI, a specific NOX inhibitor, potently inhibited embryo and seedling growth—especially that of the radicle and of root elongation—in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, the DPI-mediated inhibition of radicle and root growth could be eliminated by transferring seedlings from DPI to water. Furthermore, ROS production/accumulation during rice seed germination was quantified via histochemistry. Superoxide radicals (O2−, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and hydroxyl radicals (•OH accumulated steadily in the coleorhiza, radicle and seedling root of germinating rice seeds. Expression profiles of the nine typical NOX genes were also investigated. According to quantitative PCR, OsNOX5, 7 and 9 were expressed relatively higher. When seeds were incubated in water, OsNOX5 expression progressively increased in the embryo from 12 to 48 h, whereas OsNOX7 and 9 expressions increased from 12 to 24 h and decreased thereafter. As expected, DPI inhibits the expression at predetermined time points for each of these genes. Taken together, these results suggest that ROS produced by NOXs are involved in radicle and root elongation during rice seed germination, and OsNOX5, 7 and 9 could play crucial roles in rice seed germination. These findings will facilitate further studies of the roles of ROS generated by NOXs during seed germination and seedling establishment and also provide valuable information for the

  20. IMPORTANCE OF STORAGE CONDITIONS AND SEED TREATMENT FOR SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS SEEDS GERMINATION

    Goran Krizmanić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research we have determined germination energy and germination of seeds of sunflower hybrids ‘Luka’ and ‘Apolon’, at the beginning of storage and 6, 12 and 18 months after of storage period (2011-2012 in the floor concrete storage at two different air temperatures and humidity (S-1: air temperature 15-18°C and relative air humidity 65-70% as well as in climate chamber (S-2: air temperature 10-12°C and relative air humidity 60-65%, stored in four treatments (Control: processed-untreated seed; T-1: treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M; T-2: treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M + A.I. imidacloprid and T-3: treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M + A.I. clothianidin. Based on the obtained results we have determined that sunflower hybrid ‘Luka’, compared to hybrid ‘Apolon’, in the given storage conditions and with the same seed treatment has 5-8% higher germination energy and seed germination and that in climate chamber both hybrids have 5-7% higher germination energy. Seed treatment of both sunflower hybrids with A.I. imidacloprid maximally reduced initial germination energy and seed germination in all tested periods and conditions of storage. On the average, natural seed, after 18 months of storage did not have better seed quality compared to seed treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M while other treatments had more significant influence on reduction of germination energy and seed germination, 6-15%. On the average, compared to other variants, seeds treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M after 18 months of storage in both storage conditions had higher germination energy by 4-15%, and seed germination by 2-12%.

  1. Global Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals the Mechanism of Phelipanche aegyptiaca Seed Germination

    Zhaoqun Yao; Fang Tian; Xiaolei Cao; Ying Xu; Meixiu Chen; Benchun Xiang; Sifeng Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Phelipanche aegyptiaca is one of the most destructive root parasitic plants of Orobanchaceae. This plant has significant impacts on crop yields worldwide. Conditioned and host root stimulants, in particular, strigolactones, are needed for unique seed germination. However, no extensive study on this phenomenon has been conducted because of insufficient genomic information. Deep RNA sequencing, including de novo assembly and functional annotation was performed on P. aegyptiaca germinating seeds...

  2. Individual electrical conductivity test for the assessment of soybean seed germination.

    MATTIONI, N. M.; MERTZ, L. M.; BARBIERI, A. P. P.; HAESBAERT, F. M.; GIORDANI, W.; LOPES, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    Soybean seed quality is affected by many factors, which may occur during the production, processing, and storage phases. To ensure the quality of seeds, the adoption of fast and efficient methods to estimate seed viability in quality control programs is important. This study aimed to determine a partition point of the individual electrical conductivity test to predict soybean seed germination. Three lots each of five different soybean cultivars (Fundacep 57 RR, BMX Potência RR, BMX Força RR, ...

  3. Effects of agroecological conditions and hybrid combinations on maize seed germination

    Tabaković, M.; Glamočlija, Đ.; Jovanović, S.; Popović, V.; Simić, D.; Anđelković, S.

    2013-01-01

    Germination energy and seed germination of four maize combinations cultivated under different growing conditions were observed. Analysis of hybrid seed of four commercial combinations derived at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, grown in three locations, were done on the working sample of 4 x 100 seeds under laboratory conditions. The experimental data was processed for the mean and total variability (X and C.V.) for both seed traits and for each t...

  4. Comparing seeds germination of some local plant species on two hydroseeding mulches for post mining revegetation

    M F Anshari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine seed germination rate of some local plant species in two hydroseeding mulches containing different tackifier concentration, as well as to determine the optimal hydroseeding mulch media composition for germinating seeds. This study used seeds of 13 local plant species: two species of Cyperaceae (Cyperus brevifolius, C. javanicus, five species of Leguminosae (Cajanus cajan, Crotalaria pallida, Sesbania grandiflora, S. sesban, Tephrosia purpurea, and six species of Poaceae (Eleusine indica, Paspalum conjugatum, Sorghum timorense, S. bicolor, Sporobolus indicus, Themeda arundinaceae. Two hydroseeding mulch media with different tackifier composition were mixed with seeds of each species and then sowed in pots. Each treatment was repeated three times. Moistened cotton wool was used as control and comparative media for observing seed viability. Seed germination in mulch media was observed during 13 days. The results showed that only 8 of 13 species could be germinated: S. indicus, S. timorense, T. arundinaceae, C. cajan, C. pallida, S. grandiflora, S. sesban, and T. purpurea. The highest germination rate was shown by S. sesban (67% in M2 medium and the lowest one was shown by T. arundinaceae (2% in both media. The fastest germination time was recorded for C. pallida and S. sesban seeds that germinated in 2 days after sowing (DAS in both media, while S. timorense and T. arundinaceae seeds showed the lowest ones in 11 DAS. The fluid M1 medium was optimal for seeds germination of S. sesban (50% and S. grandiflora (35%, while the thicker M2 medium was optimal for seeds germination of S. sesban (67% and S. timorense (50% in 13 DAS. The maximum germination rate was generally reached in 11 DAS.

  5. Effect of gamma ray irradiation on seed germination of Ardisia crenata

    Huang Donghua; Xu Hong; Huang Yanping; Song Xiaomin

    2011-01-01

    The seeds of Ardisia crenata were used as experimental material and treated with gamma ray under the irradiative doses ranging from 50 to 500 Gy. The results showed that the seed germination rates were not affected under the irradiative dose of 150 Gy and below. The germination potentiality turned to reduce while the irradiative dose was higher than 250 Gy. And in the range of 300 to 500 Gy the germination rates were decreased with the increase of the irradiative dose. (authors)

  6. Some aspects of the Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of two Savanna tree Species

    D.A. Agboola; A.A. Ajiboye; O.O. Fawibe; M.O. Atayese

    2014-01-01

    Studies were made on some aspects of the seed germination and seedling growth of two multipurpose trees. These include the effect of pre sowing treatments, seed sizes and gibberellic acid on the germination of seeds and seedling growth. The tree species include Prosopis africana (Guil & Perr) Taub and Dialium guineense (wild). Two seed sizes designated small- size (Ss) and Big-size (Bs) were identified in the seed. The effect of gibberellic acid (GA3) had a greater significance effect (P < 0....

  7. variation in maize tolerance to Striga lutea

    Uwaifoh

    2012-03-30

    Mar 30, 2012 ... Uninoculated and uninfested in pots and plots served as control. ... Its productions in the savanna ecologies are threatened by striga parasitic weeds which cause between ... some of which are non-biodegradable and toxic.

  8. Effect of different doses of gamma rays on seed germination of Carthamus L

    Malik, Anjali; Srivastava, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic variability is essential for any crop improvement programme. Experimentally induced mutation provides an important source of variability. The ionizing radiation treatment would be useful on account of the total randomness of action of radiation on genetic material as also the fact that an optimal dose radiation produces effect both through gene mutation and chromosomal mutations. The most commonly used ionizing radiation in plant improvement program are γ-rays. The control sets of different accessions/species showed significant variability in the germination pattern. γ-ray alteration in the mean total seed germination frequency of Carthamus accessions/species presently explored, was genotype dependent. However, these could also modify substantially the temporal patterns of the germination as compared to corresponding control sets. The seed lots of different accessions could be supposed to be a mixture of seeds showing differences in the time of induction of germination. That is, seed lots differed in their temporal seed germination pattern. On the basis of the present study it can be inferred that the temporal seed germination could be decided at genotypic and/or biochemical levels. (author)

  9. Reduced seed germination in Arabidopsis over-expressing SWI/SNF2 ATPase genes.

    Leeggangers, Hendrika A C F; Folta, Adam; Muras, Aleksandra; Nap, Jan-Peter; Mlynarova, Ludmila

    2015-02-01

    In the life of flowering plants, seed germination is a critical step to ensure survival into the next generation. Generally the seed prior to germination has been in a dormant state with a low rate of metabolism. In the transition from a dormant seed to a germinating seed, various epigenetic mechanisms play a regulatory role. Here, we demonstrate that the over-expression of chromatin remodeling ATPase genes (AtCHR12 or AtCHR23) reduced the frequency of seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana up to 30% relative to the wild-type seeds. On the other hand, single loss-of-function mutations of the two genes did not affect seed germination. The reduction of germination in over-expressing mutants was more pronounced in stress conditions (salt or high temperature), showing the impact of the environment. Reduced germinations upon over-expression coincided with increased transcript levels of seed maturation genes and with reduced degradation of their mRNAs stored in dry seeds. Our results indicate that repression of AtCHR12/23 gene expression in germinating wild-type Arabidopsis seeds is required for full germination. This establishes a functional link between chromatin modifiers and regulatory networks towards seed maturation and germination. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  10. Effects of Different Treatments on Seed Germination Improvement of Calotropis persica

    Asghar Farajollahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different treatments on seed germination in the desert plant species Calotropis persica (Gand.. This species is known to have long time for seed germination considering arid region condition and short time of access moist. An experiment was performed with 13 treatments and 4 replications in a completely randomized design. Treatments included KNO3 with concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 percent, immersion in hot water for five min, acetylsalicylic acid 100, 200, and 300 mg L−1, ethereal sulfuric acid (60% for 5 and 10 min, thiourea with concentrations of 0.1% and 0.3%, and prechilling for 10 days. Tap water was used as the control. Our findings indicate that KNO3 0.1% and 100 mg L−1 acetylsalicylic acid were the most effective treatments for improvement of seed germination properties in this species. In a comparison of the two mentioned treatment, KNO3 0.1% treatments is the best.

  11. Novel hydrated graphene ribbon unexpectedly promotes aged seed germination and root differentiation

    Hu, Xiangang; Zhou, Qixing

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that graphene (G) induces nanotoxicity towards living organisms. Here, a novel and biocompatible hydrated graphene ribbon (HGR) unexpectedly promoted aged (two years) seed germination. HGR formed at the normal temperature and pressure (120 days hydration), presented 17.1% oxygen, 0.9% nitrogen groups, disorder-layer structure, with 0.38 nm thickness ribbon morphology. Interestingly, there were bulges around the edges of HGR. Compared to G and graphene oxide (GO), HGR increased seed germination by 15% root differentiation between 52 and 59% and enhanced resistance to oxidative stress. The metabonomics analysis discovered that HGR upregulated carbohydrate, amino acid, and fatty acids metabolism that determined secondary metabolism, nitrogen sequestration, cell membrane integrity, permeability, and oxidation resistance. Hexadecanoic acid as a biomarker promoted root differentiation and increased the germination rate. Our discovery is a novel HGR that promotes aged seed germination, illustrates metabolic specificity among graphene-based materials, and inspires innovative concepts in the regulation of seed development.

  12. Global Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals the Mechanism of Phelipanche aegyptiaca Seed Germination.

    Yao, Zhaoqun; Tian, Fang; Cao, Xiaolei; Xu, Ying; Chen, Meixiu; Xiang, Benchun; Zhao, Sifeng

    2016-07-15

    Phelipanche aegyptiaca is one of the most destructive root parasitic plants of Orobanchaceae. This plant has significant impacts on crop yields worldwide. Conditioned and host root stimulants, in particular, strigolactones, are needed for unique seed germination. However, no extensive study on this phenomenon has been conducted because of insufficient genomic information. Deep RNA sequencing, including de novo assembly and functional annotation was performed on P. aegyptiaca germinating seeds. The assembled transcriptome was used to analyze transcriptional dynamics during seed germination. Key gene categories involved were identified. A total of 274,964 transcripts were determined, and 53,921 unigenes were annotated according to the NR, GO, COG, KOG, and KEGG databases. Overall, 5324 differentially expressed genes among dormant, conditioned, and GR24-treated seeds were identified. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses demonstrated numerous DEGs related to DNA, RNA, and protein repair and biosynthesis, as well as carbohydrate and energy metabolism. Moreover, ABA and ethylene were found to play important roles in this process. GR24 application resulted in dramatic changes in ABA and ethylene-associated genes. Fluridone, a carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitor, alone could induce P. aegyptiaca seed germination. In addition, conditioning was probably not the indispensable stage for P. aegyptiaca, because the transcript level variation of MAX2 and KAI2 genes (relate to strigolactone signaling) was not up-regulated by conditioning treatment.

  13. Global Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals the Mechanism of Phelipanche aegyptiaca Seed Germination

    Zhaoqun Yao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Phelipanche aegyptiaca is one of the most destructive root parasitic plants of Orobanchaceae. This plant has significant impacts on crop yields worldwide. Conditioned and host root stimulants, in particular, strigolactones, are needed for unique seed germination. However, no extensive study on this phenomenon has been conducted because of insufficient genomic information. Deep RNA sequencing, including de novo assembly and functional annotation was performed on P. aegyptiaca germinating seeds. The assembled transcriptome was used to analyze transcriptional dynamics during seed germination. Key gene categories involved were identified. A total of 274,964 transcripts were determined, and 53,921 unigenes were annotated according to the NR, GO, COG, KOG, and KEGG databases. Overall, 5324 differentially expressed genes among dormant, conditioned, and GR24-treated seeds were identified. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses demonstrated numerous DEGs related to DNA, RNA, and protein repair and biosynthesis, as well as carbohydrate and energy metabolism. Moreover, ABA and ethylene were found to play important roles in this process. GR24 application resulted in dramatic changes in ABA and ethylene-associated genes. Fluridone, a carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitor, alone could induce P. aegyptiaca seed germination. In addition, conditioning was probably not the indispensable stage for P. aegyptiaca, because the transcript level variation of MAX2 and KAI2 genes (relate to strigolactone signaling was not up-regulated by conditioning treatment.

  14. Maternal vernalization and vernalization-pathway genes influence progeny seed germination.

    Auge, Gabriela A; Blair, Logan K; Neville, Hannah; Donohue, Kathleen

    2017-10-01

    Different life stages frequently respond to the same environmental cue to regulate development so that each life stage is matched to its appropriate season. We investigated how independently each life stage can respond to shared environmental cues, focusing on vernalization, in Arabidopsis thaliana plants. We first tested whether effects of rosette vernalization persisted to influence seed germination. To test whether genes in the vernalization flowering pathway also influence germination, we assessed germination of functional and nonfunctional alleles of these genes and measured their level of expression at different life stages in response to rosette vernalization. Rosette vernalization increased seed germination in diverse ecotypes. Genes in the vernalization flowering pathway also influenced seed germination. In the Columbia accession, functional alleles of most of these genes opposed the germination response observed in the ecotypes. Some genes influenced germination in a manner consistent with their known effects on FLOWERING LOCUS C gene regulation during the transition to flowering. Others did not, suggesting functional divergence across life stages. Despite persistent effects of environmental conditions across life stages, and despite pleiotropy of genes that affect both flowering and germination, the function of these genes can differ across life stages, potentially mitigating pleiotropic constraints and enabling independent environmental regulation of different life stages. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and maternal plant sex on seed germination and early plant establishment.

    Varga, Sandra

    2015-03-01

    • Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi usually enhance overall plant performance, yet their effects on seed germination and early plant establishment, crucial steps in plant cycles, are generally overlooked. In gynodioecious species, sexual dimorphism in these traits has been reported, with females producing seeds that germinate at a faster rate than seeds from hermaphrodites.• Using the gynodioecious plant Geranium sylvaticum, I investigated in a greenhouse experiment whether the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal spores affects seed germination and early plant establishment, examining at the same time whether the sex of the mother producing the seeds also influences these parameters and whether sex-specific interactions between these two factors exist.• The presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal spores in the soil decreased seed germination, did not affect plant survival, but did increase plant growth. Moreover, no significant differences in seed traits were detected between the sexes of the plants producing the seeds.• This study demonstrates that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi may have contrasting effects for plants during early life stages and that mycorrhizal effects can take place even at the precolonization stage. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  16. Intra-specific downsizing of frugivores affects seed germination of fleshy-fruited plant species

    Pérez-Méndez, Néstor; Rodríguez, Airam; Nogales, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    The loss of largest-bodied individuals within species of frugivorous animals is one of the major consequences of defaunation. The gradual disappearance of large-bodied frugivores is expected to entail a parallel deterioration in seed dispersal functionality if the remaining smaller-sized individuals are not so effective as seed dispersers. While the multiple impacts of the extinction of large bodied species have been relatively well studied, the impact of intraspecific downsizing (i.e. the extinction of large individuals within species) on seed dispersal has rarely been evaluated. Here we experimentally assessed the impact of body-size reduction in the frugivorous lizard Gallotia galloti (Lacertidae), an endemic species of the Canary Islands, on the seed germination patterns of two fleshy-fruited plant species (Rubia fruticosa and Withania aristata). Seed germination curves and the proportions of germinated seeds were compared for both plant species after being defecated by large-sized individuals and small-sized individuals. The data show that seeds of W. aristata defecated by larger-sized lizards germinated faster and in a higher percentage than those defecated by small-sized lizards, while no differences were found for R. fruticosa seeds. Our results suggest that disappearance of the largest individuals of frugivorous species may impair recruitment of some plant species by worsening seed germination. They also warn us of a potential cryptic loss of seed dispersal functionality on defaunated ecosystems, even when frugivorous species remain abundant.

  17. Relationship of low phytate trait with seed germination and carbohydrates content in soybean mutant Gm-lpa-TW-1

    Yuan Fengjie; Dong Dekun; Li Baiquan; Fu Xujun; Zhu Danhua; Zhu Shenlong

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between the low phytate mutation with seed germination and carbohydrate content homozygous F 5 lines with/without lpa gene derived from mutant and different wild type parents were analyzed. The results showed that LPA (low phytic acid)/HPA (high phytic acid) lines developed in autumn had higher seed germination rate than that developed in spring. LPA lines had lower seed germination rate than HPA lines when they all developed in spring. However, in all crosses LPA lines with higher seed germination rate than mutant parent Gm-lpa-TW-1 was observed. No significant difference was detected between LPA and HPA lines when they developed in autumn. Homozygous LPA lines derived from vegetable soybean had lower seed germination than those from non-vegetable varieties. There was no significant difference in total carbohydrate content between LPA and HPA homozygous lines, but the sugar content of LPA homozygous lines was significant higher than HPA lines. On the contrary, oligosaccharides content with LPA lines were significant lower than those with HPA homozygous lines in all planting environment. It is concluded that seeds field germination rate were affected by low phytate mutation gene and planting environment, and lower seed germination rate phenotype of LPA lines could be improved by genetic method. Mutant Gm-lpa-TW-1 of LPA phenotype was genetic linkage with high sugar and low oligosaccharides phenotype, so it should be benefit to breed new soybean varieties with better quality. (authors)

  18. Striga: A Persistent Problem on Millets

    Kountche, Boubacar Amadou

    2017-01-07

    Striga are obligate root-parasitic plants of the major agricultural cereal crops, including millets, in tropical and semi-arid regions of Africa, Middle East, Asia, and Australia. Consequently, they cause severe to even complete losses in crop grain yield. Though limited in their efficiency, the control strategies available today represent major progress toward combating Striga when compared with the absence of any means some years ago. Hence, efforts have led to the development of powerful approaches for understanding and exploiting the complex intricate host-parasitic plant interactions. It is widely agreed that genetic resistance is the most practical and economically feasible method for sustainable control of Striga. Hence, research efforts have been deployed over the past decades to identify resistance sources in certain millet crops, principally sorghum and pearl millet, to characterize the mechanisms underlying the resistance and to understand the genetic basis of the identified resistance phenotype. Furthermore, application of the modern breeding tools, such as molecular markers, has revolutionized the field of search for Striga resistance. Information thus generated have been extensively used to identify several sources of resistance to Striga and individual genes/QTLs conferring host-plant resistance have been deployed for improving Striga resistance in sorghum varieties. More interestingly, we are facing an accelerated progress in the genomic and biotechnological research that should soon provide important understanding of some crucial developmental mechanisms in both the parasite and their host plants, thereby enhancing the efficiency of breeding for Striga resistance in millets. In this paper we provide a detailed state-of-the-art account on the recent progress and perspectives for Striga research and management in millets.

  19. Striga: A Persistent Problem on Millets

    Kountche, Boubacar Amadou; Al-Babili, Salim; Haussmann, B.I.G.

    2017-01-01

    Striga are obligate root-parasitic plants of the major agricultural cereal crops, including millets, in tropical and semi-arid regions of Africa, Middle East, Asia, and Australia. Consequently, they cause severe to even complete losses in crop grain yield. Though limited in their efficiency, the control strategies available today represent major progress toward combating Striga when compared with the absence of any means some years ago. Hence, efforts have led to the development of powerful approaches for understanding and exploiting the complex intricate host-parasitic plant interactions. It is widely agreed that genetic resistance is the most practical and economically feasible method for sustainable control of Striga. Hence, research efforts have been deployed over the past decades to identify resistance sources in certain millet crops, principally sorghum and pearl millet, to characterize the mechanisms underlying the resistance and to understand the genetic basis of the identified resistance phenotype. Furthermore, application of the modern breeding tools, such as molecular markers, has revolutionized the field of search for Striga resistance. Information thus generated have been extensively used to identify several sources of resistance to Striga and individual genes/QTLs conferring host-plant resistance have been deployed for improving Striga resistance in sorghum varieties. More interestingly, we are facing an accelerated progress in the genomic and biotechnological research that should soon provide important understanding of some crucial developmental mechanisms in both the parasite and their host plants, thereby enhancing the efficiency of breeding for Striga resistance in millets. In this paper we provide a detailed state-of-the-art account on the recent progress and perspectives for Striga research and management in millets.

  20. The Synergistic Priming Effect of Exogenous Salicylic Acid and H2O2 on Chilling Tolerance Enhancement during Maize (Zea mays L.) Seed Germination.

    Li, Zhan; Xu, Jungui; Gao, Yue; Wang, Chun; Guo, Genyuan; Luo, Ying; Huang, Yutao; Hu, Weimin; Sheteiwy, Mohamed S; Guan, Yajing; Hu, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Chilling stress is an important constraint for maize seedling establishment in the field. To examine the role of salicylic acid (SA) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) in response to chilling stress, we investigated the effects of seed priming with SA, H 2 O 2 , and SA+H 2 O 2 combination on maize resistance under chilling stress (13°C). Priming with SA, H 2 O 2 , and especially SA+H 2 O 2 shortened seed germination time and enhanced seed vigor and seedling growth as compared with hydropriming and non-priming treatments under low temperature. Meanwhile, SA+H 2 O 2 priming notably increased the endogenous H 2 O 2 and SA content, antioxidant enzymes activities and their corresponding genes ZmPAL, ZmSOD4, ZmAPX2, ZmCAT2 , and ZmGR expression levels. The α-amylase activity was enhanced to mobilize starch to supply metabolites such as soluble sugar and energy for seed germination under chilling stress. In addition, the SA+H 2 O 2 combination positively up-regulated expressions of gibberellic acid (GA) biosynthesis genes ZmGA20ox1 and ZmGA3ox2 , and down-regulated GA catabolism gene ZmGA2ox1 expression; while it promoted GA signaling transduction genes expressions of ZmGID1 and ZmGID2 and decreased the level of seed germination inhibitor gene ZmRGL2 . The abscisic acid (ABA) catabolism gene ZmCYP707A2 and the expressions of ZmCPK11 and ZmSnRK2.1 encoding response receptors in ABA signaling pathway were all up-regulated. These results strongly suggested that priming with SA and H 2 O 2 synergistically promoted hormones metabolism and signal transduction, and enhanced energy supply and antioxidant enzymes activities under chilling stress, which were closely relevant with chilling injury alleviation and chilling-tolerance improvement in maize seed. Highlights: Seed germination and seedling growth were significantly improved under chilling stress by priming with SA+H 2 O 2 combination, which was closely relevant with the change of reactive oxygen species, metabolites and

  1. The effects of free amino acids profiles on seeds germination/dormancy and seedlings development of two genetically different cultivars of Yemeni Pomegranates

    Alhadi Fatima A.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant seeds used rely on a wide range of internal mechanisms and physio-chemical factors to ensure their germination under favorable environmental conditions. Most plant seeds have complex process of germination, including water, oxygen, temperature availability, genome-wide gene expression, signal transduction, hormones stimulations, inhibitors removal and catalytic protein synthesis. In addition, influences of seeds nutrient values such as, protein, lipids, sugars and free amino acids have a special importance. Regarding, seeds free amino acids. Discussion of these individual factors needs to be put in context of their role in germination processes. Regarding, free amino acids seed storage, there is limited information about their relevant functions in activation and/or deactivation of required metabolic mechanisms and interactive compounds involved in this process in commercial plant cultivars. Therefore, current study was aimed to determine the probable influence of free amino acid compositions of seeds on germination process of two different (Punica granatum L. pomegranate cultivars including wild type Automi cultivar and edible Khazemi cultivar. In particular, we focused on the impact of amino acids contents variations on germination process and associated AAs compositional changes during various stages of germination and seedlings establishment. Amino acid analysis using HPLC detected all the essential and non-essential amino acids in the raw seeds of the studied cultivars, Automi and Khazemi along with AAs compositional changes occurred during different stages of seed germination. These AAs have been extensively analyzed in the context of their role in dormancy breaking capacities in plants species. Automi raw seeds are rich in Phe, that, is strongly related to ABA synthesis and hence might be responsible for the dormancy of Automi seeds, Khazemi raw seeds have sufficient levels of Arg, Glu and Met that have been reported to enhance

  2. Klebsiella oxytoca '10mkr7\\' stimulates Striga suicidal germination in ...

    The Striga species are obligate root parasitic plants. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria could enhance Striga suicidal germination. In screen-house studies we quantified the effect of bacterial inoculation with increasing maize plant density on the parasitic weed Striga hermonthica. The design used was a randomized ...

  3. The effect of different treatments on improving seed germination ...

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... cholesterol reduction drugs (Dinda and Craker, 1998;. Gupta et al., 1994; Trautwein et al., 1997). In Iran ... concentration of 500 ppm, 0.2% KNO3, light and alternative temperatures (8/16) were the best treatments ..... Mares DJ (2005). Quarterly reports on plant growth regulation and activities of the PGRSA.

  4. The Effect of Salinity on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Four Medicinal Plant Species

    H Javadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of salinity stress on seed germination and seedling growth of four medicinal plants, Nigella sativa L., Cannabis sativa L., Trigonella foenum graecum and Cynara scolymus L. an experiment was conducted in the botany laboratory of Islamic Azad University, Birjand branch. A completely randomized design (CRD with 3 replications was used as separately for each species. Treatments were consisted of six salinity (NaCl concentrations (0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 dS m-1. The measured traits were root, shoot and seedling length, dry and fresh weight of seedling, germination rate and percent, seed vigor index, seedling water content and root/ shoot ratio. Salinity stress reduced significantly shoot, root and seedling length of the species. Increasing of salinity stress declined dry and fresh weight of Trigonella foenum and Nigella sativa L. and dry weight of Cannabis sativa L.. Seedling water content and root/ shoot ratio of Nigella sativa L. increased in salinity treatments. Increasing of salinity stress declined germination rate and percent in Nigella sativa L., but in other species (Cannabis sativa L., Trigonella foenum graecum and Cynara scolymus only germination rate decreased. Trigonella foenum graecum germinated completely (%100 in all salinity treatments. Increasing of salinity until 16 dS m-1 reduced seed germination of Nigella sativa. Seed germination of Nigella sativa did not occurred in the highest salinity stress (20 dS m-1. Totally the results showed that in the germination stage, Trigonella foenum graecum and Cannabis sativa were relatively tolerate to salinity stress but Nigella sativa L. was the most sensitive one

  5. Salt Stress and Ethylene Antagonistically Regulate Nucleocytoplasmic Partitioning of COP1 to Control Seed Germination.

    Yu, Yanwen; Wang, Juan; Shi, Hui; Gu, Juntao; Dong, Jingao; Deng, Xing Wang; Huang, Rongfeng

    2016-04-01

    Seed germination, a critical stage initiating the life cycle of a plant, is severely affected by salt stress. However, the underlying mechanism of salt inhibition of seed germination (SSG) is unclear. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS1 (COP1) counteracts SSG Genetic assays provide evidence that SSG in loss of function of the COP1 mutant was stronger than this in the wild type. A GUS-COP1 fusion was constitutively localized to the nucleus in radicle cells. Salt treatment caused COP1 to be retained in the cytosol, but the addition of ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate had the reverse effect on the translocation of COP1 to the nucleus, revealing that ethylene and salt exert opposite regulatory effects on the localization of COP1 in germinating seeds. However, loss of function of the ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) mutant impaired the ethylene-mediated rescue of the salt restriction of COP1 to the nucleus. Further research showed that the interaction between COP1 and LONG HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) had a role in SSG Correspondingly, SSG in loss of function of HY5 was suppressed. Biochemical detection showed that salt promoted the stabilization of HY5, whereas ethylene restricted its accumulation. Furthermore, salt treatment stimulated and ethylene suppressed transcription of ABA INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5), which was directly transcriptionally regulated by HY5. Together, our results reveal that salt stress and ethylene antagonistically regulate nucleocytoplasmic partitioning of COP1, thereby controlling Arabidopsis seed germination via the COP1-mediated down-regulation of HY5 and ABI5. These findings enhance our understanding of the stress response and have great potential for application in agricultural production. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Insights into the molecular mechanism of RGL2-mediated inhibition of seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Stamm Petra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seed germination is of immense significance for agriculture and has been studied for centuries. Yet, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of dormancy and germination is still in its infancy. Gibberellins are the key phytohormones that promote germination, and the DELLA protein RGL2 is the main signalling intermediate involved in this response. Germination is completely inhibited if functional RGL2 is overexpressed and/or stabilized; however, the molecular mechanisms of RGL2 function are still largely unknown. We therefore attempted to shed light onto some of the genetic events downstream of RGL2. Results Gene ontology of the transcriptome differentially regulated by RGL2, as well as extensive cross-comparison with other available microarray data indicates that RGL2-mediated inhibition of germination causes seeds to enter a state of dormancy. RGL2 also appears to differentially regulate a number of transcription factors, many of which are known to be involved in light- or phytohormone-mediated aspects of germination. A promoter analysis of differentially expressed genes identified an enrichment of several motifs that can be bound by specific transcription factors, for example GAMYB, ARF1, or Dof-type zinc fingers. We show that Dof-binding motifs indeed play a role in RGL2-mediated transcription. Using Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP, we show that RGL2 directly downregulates at least one cell wall modifying enzyme, which is predicted to constrain cell growth thereby leading to inhibition of seed germination. Conclusions Our results reveal that RGL2 controls various aspects of germination. Through the repression of cell wall modifying enzymes, cell growth is directly constrained to inhibit germination. Furthermore, RGL2 likely interacts with various types of proteins to regulate transcription, and differentially regulates several transcription factors. Collectively, our data indicate that

  7. Heat shock and plant leachates regulate seed germination of the endangered carnivorous plant Drosophyllum lusitanicum

    S. Gómez-González

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In fire-prone ecosystems, many plant species have specialized mechanisms of seed dormancy that ensure a successful recruitment after fire. A well-documented mechanism is the germination stimulated by fire-related cues, such as heat shock and smoke. However, less is known about the role of inhibitory germination signals (e.g. allelopathy in regulating post-fire recruitment. Plant leachates derived from the unburned vegetation can enforce dormancy by means of allelopathic compounds, acting as a signal of unfavourable (highly competitive niche for germination in pyrophyte species. Here, we assessed the separate effects of heat shock and plant leachates on seed germination of Drosophyllum lusitanicum, an endangered carnivorous plant endemic to Mediterranean fire-prone heathlands. We performed a germination experiment in which seeds were subjected to three treatments: (1 5 min at 100 °C, (2 watering with plant leachate, and (3 control. Germination rate and seed viability was determined after 63 days. Heat shock stimulated seed germination in D. lusitanicum while plant leachates had inhibitory germination effects without reducing seed viability. Thus, both positive and negative signals could be involved in its successful post-fire recruitment. Fire would break seed dormancy and stimulate seed germination of D. lusitanicum through high temperatures, but also by eliminating allelochemical compounds from the soil. These results help to understand the population dynamics patterns found for D. lusitanicum in natural populations, and highlight the role of fire in the ecology and conservation of this endangered species. Seed dormancy imposed by plant-derived leachates as an adaptive mechanism should be considered more in fire ecology theory.

  8. The role of the Arabidopsis FUSCA3 transcription factor during inhibition of seed germination at high temperature.

    Chiu, Rex S; Nahal, Hardeep; Provart, Nicholas J; Gazzarrini, Sonia

    2012-01-27

    Imbibed seeds integrate environmental and endogenous signals to break dormancy and initiate growth under optimal conditions. Seed maturation plays an important role in determining the survival of germinating seeds, for example one of the roles of dormancy is to stagger germination to prevent mass growth under suboptimal conditions. The B3-domain transcription factor FUSCA3 (FUS3) is a master regulator of seed development and an important node in hormonal interaction networks in Arabidopsis thaliana. Its function has been mainly characterized during embryonic development, where FUS3 is highly expressed to promote seed maturation and dormancy by regulating ABA/GA levels. In this study, we present evidence for a role of FUS3 in delaying seed germination at supraoptimal temperatures that would be lethal for the developing seedlings. During seed imbibition at supraoptimal temperature, the FUS3 promoter is reactivated and induces de novo synthesis of FUS3 mRNA, followed by FUS3 protein accumulation. Genetic analysis shows that FUS3 contributes to the delay of seed germination at high temperature. Unlike WT, seeds overexpressing FUS3 (ML1:FUS3-GFP) during imbibition are hypersensitive to high temperature and do not germinate, however, they can fully germinate after recovery at control temperature reaching 90% seedling survival. ML1:FUS3-GFP hypersensitivity to high temperature can be partly recovered in the presence of fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, suggesting this hypersensitivity is due in part to higher ABA level in this mutant. Transcriptomic analysis shows that WT seeds imbibed at supraoptimal temperature activate seed-specific genes and ABA biosynthetic and signaling genes, while inhibiting genes that promote germination and growth, such as GA biosynthetic and signaling genes. In this study, we have uncovered a novel function for the master regulator of seed maturation, FUS3, in delaying germination at supraoptimal temperature. Physiologically, this is

  9. The role of the Arabidopsis FUSCA3 transcription factor during inhibition of seed germination at high temperature

    Chiu Rex S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imbibed seeds integrate environmental and endogenous signals to break dormancy and initiate growth under optimal conditions. Seed maturation plays an important role in determining the survival of germinating seeds, for example one of the roles of dormancy is to stagger germination to prevent mass growth under suboptimal conditions. The B3-domain transcription factor FUSCA3 (FUS3 is a master regulator of seed development and an important node in hormonal interaction networks in Arabidopsis thaliana. Its function has been mainly characterized during embryonic development, where FUS3 is highly expressed to promote seed maturation and dormancy by regulating ABA/GA levels. Results In this study, we present evidence for a role of FUS3 in delaying seed germination at supraoptimal temperatures that would be lethal for the developing seedlings. During seed imbibition at supraoptimal temperature, the FUS3 promoter is reactivated and induces de novo synthesis of FUS3 mRNA, followed by FUS3 protein accumulation. Genetic analysis shows that FUS3 contributes to the delay of seed germination at high temperature. Unlike WT, seeds overexpressing FUS3 (ML1:FUS3-GFP during imbibition are hypersensitive to high temperature and do not germinate, however, they can fully germinate after recovery at control temperature reaching 90% seedling survival. ML1:FUS3-GFP hypersensitivity to high temperature can be partly recovered in the presence of fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, suggesting this hypersensitivity is due in part to higher ABA level in this mutant. Transcriptomic analysis shows that WT seeds imbibed at supraoptimal temperature activate seed-specific genes and ABA biosynthetic and signaling genes, while inhibiting genes that promote germination and growth, such as GA biosynthetic and signaling genes. Conclusion In this study, we have uncovered a novel function for the master regulator of seed maturation, FUS3, in delaying

  10. Genome-wide association study of salt tolerance at the seed germination stage in rice.

    Shi, Yingyao; Gao, Lingling; Wu, Zhichao; Zhang, Xiaojing; Wang, Mingming; Zhang, Congshun; Zhang, Fan; Zhou, Yongli; Li, Zhikang

    2017-05-30

    Improving the salt tolerance of direct-seeding rice at the seed germination stage is a major breeding goal in many Asian rice-growing countries, where seedlings must often establish in soils with a high salt content. Thus, it is important to understand the genetic mechanisms of salt tolerance in rice and to screen for germplasm with salt tolerance at the seed germination stage. Here, we investigated seven seed germination-related traits under control and salt-stress conditions and conducted a genome-wide association study based on the re-sequencing of 478 diverse rice accessions. The analysis used a mixed linear model and was based on 6,361,920 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 478 rice accessions grouped into whole, indica, and non-indica panels. Eleven loci containing 22 significant salt tolerance-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified based on the stress-susceptibility indices (SSIs) of vigor index (VI) and mean germination time (MGT). From the SSI of VI, six major loci were identified, explaining 20.2% of the phenotypic variation. From the SSI of MGT, five major loci were detected, explaining 26.4% of the phenotypic variation. Of these, seven loci on chromosomes 1, 5, 6, 11, and 12 were close to six previously identified quantitative gene loci/genes related to tolerance to salinity or other abiotic stresses. The strongest association region for the SSI of MGT was identified in a ~ 13.3 kb interval (15450039-15,463,330) on chromosome 1, near salt-tolerance quantitative trait loci controlling the Na + : K + ratio, total Na + uptake, and total K + concentration. The strongest association region for the SSI of VI was detected in a ~ 164.2 kb interval (526662-690,854) on chromosome 2 harboring two nitrate transporter family genes (OsNRT2.1 and OsNRT2.2), which affect gene expression under salt stress. The haplotype analysis indicated that OsNRT2.2 was associated with subpopulation differentiation and its minor/rare tolerant haplotype was

  11. Effect of gamma radiations on seed germination and seedling growth of some cucurbits

    Narang, Kamlesh; Prakash, G.

    1983-01-01

    Increase in dose of gamma irradiation caused a progressive decrease in seed germination and seedling length in all the seven taxa. Percentage germination varied from species to species. A positive correlation was observed between lengths of primary root and hypocotyl (r = 1.00), root and cotyledon (r = + 0.97), hypocotyl and cotyledon (r = + 0.96), root and lateral root (r = + 0.96), hypocotyl and lateral root (r = + 0.97), cotyledon and lateral root (r = 0.91) but a negative correlation was between fresh and dry weight (r = -0.97) of seedlings. (author)

  12. Effects of hormonal priming on seed germination of pigeon pea under cadmium stress

    LARISSA C. SNEIDERIS

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated whether priming with auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, abscisic acid and ethylene, alters the physiological responses of seeds of pigeon pea germinated under water and cadmium stress. Seeds treated with water or non-treated seeds were used as control. Although compared to non-treated seeds we found that the hormone treatments improve the germination of pigeon pea under cadmium stress, however, these treatments did not differ from water. However, we also observed a trend of tolerance to the effects of cadmium in the presence of ethylene, suggesting that the use of this hormone may be an efficient method to overcome seed germination under metal stress.

  13. Effects of Accelerated Aging on Soybean Seed Germination Indexes at Laboratory Conditions

    Zahra RASTEGAR; Mohammad SEDGHI; Saeid KHOMARI

    2011-01-01

    Reduction of seedling growth is a consequence of seed deterioration. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of duration of seed aging on soybean seed germination characteristics. Experiment conducted as completely randomized design with 4 replications. The seeds of �DPX� line of soybean with 15-16% moisture were incubated for 3, 7, 10, 14, 17 day at 40�C in sealed containers for ageing treatment and non aged seeds were considered as control. Results showed that rapid aging treatm...

  14. OsLOL1, a C2C2-type zinc finger protein, interacts with OsbZIP58 to promote seed germination through the modulation of gibberellin biosynthesis in Oryza sativa.

    Wu, Jiahe; Zhu, Chuanfeng; Pang, Jinhuan; Zhang, Xiangrong; Yang, Chunlin; Xia, Guixian; Tian, Yingchuan; He, Chaozu

    2014-12-01

    Seed germination is a key developmental process in the plant life cycle that is influenced by various environmental cues and phytohormones through gene expression and a series of metabolism pathways. In the present study, we investigated a C2C2-type finger protein, OsLOL1, which promotes gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis and affects seed germination in Oryza sativa (rice). We used OsLOL1 antisense and sense transgenic lines to explore OsLOL1 functions. Seed germination timing in antisense plants was restored to wild type when exogenous GA3 was applied. The reduced expression of the GA biosynthesis gene OsKO2 and the accumulation of ent-kaurene were observed during germination in antisense plants. Based on yeast two-hybrid and firefly luciferase complementation analyses, OsLOL1 interacted with the basic leucine zipper protein OsbZIP58. The results from electrophoretic mobility shift and dual-luciferase reporter assays showed that OsbZIP58 binds the G-box cis-element of the OsKO2 promoter and activates LUC reporter gene expression, and that interaction between OsLOL1 and OsbZIP58 activates OsKO2 gene expression. In addition, OsLOL1 decreased SOD1 gene expression and accelerated programmed cell death (PCD) in the aleurone layer of rice grains. These findings demonstrate that the interaction between OsLOL1 and OsbZIP58 influences GA biosynthesis through the activation of OsKO2 via OsbZIP58, thereby stimulating aleurone PCD and seed germination. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Vertical zonation and seed germination indices of chromium resistant cellulolytic and nitrogen fixing bacteria from a chronically metal exposed land area

    Aslam, S.; Qazi, J.I.

    2014-01-01

    Twenty eight cellulolytic and 25 nitrogen fixing bacteria were isolated from 20, 40 and 60 cm depths of the chromium contaminated land area. The cellulolytic as well as nitrogen fixing microbial communities in soil profiles were dominated by genus Bacillus. More diverse nitrogen fixing bacterial isolates belonging to different genera Paenibacillus, Corynebacterium and Pseudomonas were observed as compared to cellulolytic bacterial community. Majority of the cellulolytic bacteria were found inhabitants of 20 cm soil layer while 40 cm depth was the preferred zone for the nitrogen fixing bacteria. Screening of the bacterial isolates for chromium resistance showed that isolates designated as ASK15 and ASK16 were able to resist up to 1800 mg/l of chromium while the nitrogen fixing isolates which offered a maximum resistant level up to 1650 mg/l of chromium were ASNt10 and ASNS13. Nitrogen fixing isolates enhanced seed germination by 33% and expressed efficient nitrogenase activity up to 0.80 (C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ nmol/ml/hr). Growth promoting assay proved ASNt10 a potential isolate which produced 90 meu g/ml of indoleacetic acid (IAA). Though cellulolytic isolates did not affect seed germination, a significant influence on root length similar to that of ASNt10 and ASNS13 with nearly 5-fold increase in comparison with uninoculated control was observed. The isolates ASK15, ASK16 were identified as Bacillus cereus while ASNt10 and ASNS13 as Paenibacillus barcinonensis and Bacillus megaterium, respectively. (author)

  16. [Effect of Water Extracts from Rhizosphere Soil of Cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus on It's Seed Germination and Physiological Characteristics].

    Lang, Duo-yong; Fu, Xue-yan; Rong, Jia-wang; Zhang, Xin-hui

    2015-01-01

    To explore the relationship between continuous cropping obstacle and autotoxicity of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. Distilled water(CK), water extracts of rhizosphere soil(50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/mL) were applied to test their effect on early growth and physiological characteristics of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. The water extracts from rhizospher soil of cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus significantly increased seedling emergence rate, root length and vigor index of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus seedling when at the concentration of 100 mg/mL or below, however,there was no significant effect at 200 mg/mL or higher. The water extracts from rhizosphere soil of cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus significantly reduced the SOD activity in Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus seedling at 400 mg/mL and POD activity at 200 mg/mL and 400 mg/mL,while significantly increased the MDA content. Water extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus rhizosphere soil significantly affected Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus germination and seedling growth in a concentration-dependent manner, generally, low concentrations increased the SOD and POD activity which improved seed germination and seedling growth, while high concentrations caused cell membrane damage of the seedling.

  17. [Effects of seed priming on physiology of seed germination and seeding growth of Marsdenia tenacissima under NaCl stress].

    Xiao, Xue-feng; Liu, Li; Guo, Qiao-sheng; Li, Chao; Wang, Ping-li; Yang, Sheng-chao; Hang, Yue-yu

    2015-01-01

    To offer the reference and method for salt damage in the cultivation of Marsdenia tenacissima, the seeds of M. tenacissima collected from Maguan city ( Yunnan province) were taken as the test materials to study the effects of different priming materials on improving germination and growth under high-level salt stress condition. Four different treatments, which were GA3, KNO3-KH2PO4, PEG-6000, NaCl, combined with ANOVA were applied to test the performance of germination energy, germination percentage, germination index, MDA, SOD, and CAT. The results showed that the seed germination was obviously inhibited under salt stress and the soaked seeds with different priming materials could alleviate the damage of salt stress. Under these treatments, the activities of SOD, CAT the content of soluble protein significantly increased. While the content of MDA significantly decreased. The maximum index was obtained when treated with 1.20% KNO3-KH2PO4, the germination percentage increased from 52.67% to 87.33% and the activity of SOD increased from 138.01 to 219.44 respectively. Comparing with the treatment of 1.20% KNO3-KH2PO4, the germination percentage of treating with 300 mg x L(-1) GA3 increased from 52.67% to 80.67%, while the activity of SOD increased from 138.01 to 444.61.

  18. The molecular properties of biochar carbon released in dilute acidic solution and its effects on maize seed germination.

    Sun, Jingling; Drosos, Marios; Mazzei, Pierluigi; Savy, Davide; Todisco, Daniele; Vinci, Giovanni; Pan, Genxing; Piccolo, Alessandro

    2017-01-15

    It is not yet clear whether the carbon released from biochar in the soil solution stimulates biological activities. Soluble fractions (AQU) from wheat and maize biochars, whose molecular content was thoroughly characterized by FTIR, 13 C and 1 H NMR, and high-resolution ESI-IT-TOF-MS, were separated in dilute acidic solution to simulate soil rhizospheric conditions and their effects evaluated on maize seeds germination activity. Elongation of maize-seeds coleoptile was significantly promoted by maize biochar AQU, whereas it was inhibited by wheat biochar AQU. Both AQU fractions contained relatively small heterocyclic nitrogen compounds, whose structures were accounted by their spectroscopic properties. Point-of-Zero-Charge (PZC) values and van Krevelen plots of identified masses of soluble components suggested that the dissolved carbon from maize biochar behaved as humic-like supramolecular material capable to adhere to seedlings and deliver bioactive molecules. These findings contribute to understand the biostimulation potential of biochars from crop biomasses when applied in agricultural production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of seed germination in adaptation and reproductive isolation in Arabidopsis lyrata.

    Hämälä, Tuomas; Mattila, Tiina M; Leinonen, Päivi H; Kuittinen, Helmi; Savolainen, Outi

    2017-07-01

    Seed germination is an important developmental and life history stage. Yet, the evolutionary impact of germination has mainly been studied in the context of dormancy, or for its role in reproductive isolation between species. Here, we aim to examine multiple consequences of genetic divergence on germination traits between two Arabidopsis lyrata subspecies: ssp. petraea (Eurasia) and ssp. lyrata (North America). Postdormancy germination time, a potentially adaptive trait, showed differentiation between the populations, and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping revealed that the trait variation is mainly controlled by two antagonistic loci. These QTL areas contain several candidate genes with known function in postdormancy germination in A. thaliana. The sequence variation of three genes was consistent with differential selection, and they also included fixed nonsynonymous substitutions with potential to account for the phenotypic differentiation. We further show that the divergence between the subspecies has led to a slight but significant reduction in hybrid germination proportions, indicating incipient reproductive isolation. Comparison of reciprocal F 1 and F 2 progenies suggests that Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities likely act through uniparentally inherited factors. Examination of genomewide transmission ratio distortion further revealed that cytonuclear interactions cause substantial pregermination inviability in the hybrids. These results confirm that seed germination has adaptive potential beyond the dormancy stage and that hybrid seed inviability can be one of the first reproductive barriers to arise during divergence. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Effect of priming with potassium nitrate and dehusking on seed germination of gladiolus (gladiolus alatus)

    Ramzan, A.; Hafiz, I.A.; Ahmad, T.; Abbasi, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Gladiolus (Gladiolus alatus), belonging to the family Iridaceae is rated as the most popular flower in the world at commercial scale. The effect of different concentrations of KNO/sub 3/ (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 0 %) on seed germination percentage, time required for 50% germination and on mean germination time (MGT) was studied under controlled conditions. Best germination rate of 92% was achieved in T6 (distilled water) followed by 80% in T1 (1% KNO/sub 3/) and 70% in T2 (2% KNO/sub 3/). Minimum time required for 50% germination i.e., 8 days was obtained with T6 (distilled water) and in the same way shortest mean germination time required by seeds was 15 days in T6. Bulb gained maximum weight (0.6467 g) and diameter (9.49 mm) in T3 (3% KNO/sub 3)/. Likewise, this treatment also resulted in an acquisition of 14 cm seedling length and a positive correlation was found between seedling length and growth parameters of bulb i.e., weight and diameter. In another experiment, effect of de husking on seed germination was tested. Seed without husk gave the promising outcome of 74% germination while seeds with husk merely acquired 63% germination after 30 days. (author)

  1. Effects of salinity, temperature, light and dormancy regulating chemicals on seed germination of salsola drummondii ulbr

    Rasheed, A.; Hameed, A.; Khan, M.A.; Gul, B.

    2015-01-01

    Salsola drummondii Ulbr. is a perennial halophyte found in salt deserts of southern Balochistan, Pakistan. Experiments were conducted to study the effects of salinity (0, 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 mM NaCl), thermoperiod (10/20, 15/25, 20/30 and 25/35 degree C), light (12-h photoperiod and dark) and dormancy regulating chemicals (DRCs) on germination, recovery and viability of the seeds of S. drummondii. Seeds of S. drummondii germinated quickly in distilled water at different temperature regimes and increases in salinity decreased seed germination. Interestingly, few seeds could even germinate in 1000 mM NaCl treatment, which is about twice as high as seawater salinity. Seeds were partially photoblastic and showed relatively higher germination under 12-h photoperiod than in dark. Seeds showed poor recovery of germination from salinity and particularly when germinated in dark. Germination inhibition at high salinity (800 mM NaCl) under 12-h photoperiod was partially alleviated by the exogenous application of different DRCs, particularly fusicoccin. Moreover, all the DRCs, except GA4+7, ameliorated germination of salt stressed seeds under complete darkness and GA4 and fusicoccin were most effective. Our study shows that seeds of S. drummondii are highly tolerant to salinity and variation in temperature but partially photoblastic nature indicate that seeds will not germinate if buried under the soil. Seed germination under saline conditions can be improved by the use of DRCs particularly by application of fusicoccin. (author)

  2. WATER AND SODIUM CHLORIDE EFFECTS ON Mimosa Tenuiflora (WILLD. POIRET SEED GERMINATION

    Ivonete Alves Bakke

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage and saline soils of the Brazilian semi-arid northeastern region are limiting factors to the development of many plants. Jurema preta (Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poiret is a small, multiple use tree that abundantly colonizes unfavorable sites, including environments with severe water stress. This work had the objective of investigating the tolerance of jurema preta seeds to water and salt stresses during germination. Seeds germination in polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000 and sodium chloride (NaCl solutions was analyzed under five different osmotic potentials (0.0; -0.3, -0.6, -0.9 and -1.2MPa, in order to simulate water and salt stress, respectively, in four 100-seed replications for each treatment. Seeds were placed into 10cmx10cmx4cm boxes, and germination accomplished in BOD germinator adjusted to 30oC. The number of germinated seeds was monitored every 24 hours, and percentage and speed of seed germination were generated from these data. Mean percentage germination in the control treatment was ~95%, reducing to 63-53% at -0.9 to -1.2-MPa PEG solutions, and to 27- 9.5% at NaCl solutions at equivalent osmotic potentials. Velocity of germination index was more affected, and decreased up to 1/8 of the control, at -0.6 MPa. Jurema preta seeds showed lower tolerance to NaCl than to water stress, and this species can be classified as a glycophyte.

  3. Effect of Temperature Regimes on Seed Germination Asafoetida (Ferula Assafoetida L.

    Zangoie M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Asafoetida is a medicinal plant belonging to the Apiaceae family. Gum obtained from the lower part of the stem and roots of this plant has many industrial and pharmaceutical applications. This plant is subject to extinction in its natural habitats due to over-utilization. Understanding the biology of seed germination can help to restore such degradation by implementing agricultural development programs. The present study is an attempt to determine the germination responses to two temperature regimes (constant and fluctuating during the course of the study. The experiment was planned based on a factorial-completely randomized design with two factors (constant and fluctuating temperature regimes at 3 levels each (15, 20 and 25°C with 4 replications. The results showed that the characteristics of germination in asafoetida were significantly improved under the fluctuating temperature as compared with the constant regime. It showed a mean germination time of 1.88 days for the fluctuating regime, while it was 4.88 days for the constant regime. The same results were found on germination rates in favor of fluctuating (0.62 per day in comparison with constant regime (0.33 per day. Under the fluctuating regime, the lowest level of imposed temperature (daily application of 10 and 20 degree during the first and the second 12 hours, respectively was the best for seed germination in this experiment.

  4. Seed germination bioassay using maize seeds for phytoxicity evaluation of different composted materials

    Haq, T.; Begum, R.; Ali, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we evaluated the phytotoxicity of different composts obtained by two different composting methods using seed germination bioassay. Seeds of Zea mays were sown in 1:5 extract of composts and these were compared with the control (100% distilled water) for each type of material. Composting of herbal pharmaceutical solid waste (HPSW) was carried out using both conventional bin and pit method. HPSW was mixed separately with poultry manure, cow-manure and goat manure in three different ratios. Uncomposted and composted HPSW were tested to study the Phytotoxicity on Zea mays seed germination, after composting increase in percent germination as well as germination index (GI) values were observed in all combinations regardless, composted by pit or bin method. The results clearly showed that composting reduced Phytotoxicity. The results showed that use of completely composted organic waste reduces the phytotoxicity and is better than the use of uncomposted waste. It was found that pit method was more suitable than bin method. Herbal waste with goat manure in 1:1 ratio was found to be the most effective combination as compared to other combinations here. Germination was 100% and the germination index was 1.4 whereas uncomposted HPSW showed the lowest percent germination i.e., 77% and germination index 52.31 respectively. (author)

  5. Seed Germination and Physiological Response of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. Cultivars under Saline Conditions

    Carmen BEINSAN

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the experiment was to highlight the germination of sunflower seeds affected by the presence of saline stress and the identification of tolerant genotypes. The biological material was represented by sunflower cvs. (Helianthus annuus L.: Coril, Select, Santiago and Fundulea-206. To simulate the saline conditions, germination solutions of sodium chloride (NaCl were used with concentrations corresponding to the osmotic pressures -6 and -10 atm and the control seed hydration was performed with distilled water. Determination of seed germination, growth of seedling, percentage of plumules dry matter, chlorophyll content and free proline were performed. The experimental data obtained suppose the existence in the assimilation apparatus of sunflowers seedling subjected to stress a competitive chlorophyll/free proline biosynthesis processes. The experimental results regarding the effect of salinity on seed germination and seedling growth revealed important differences between genotypes. The radicle growth in the germination process were strongly affected by saline excess, with significant differences between cultivars. Saline stress results in significant reductions in the amount of chlorophyll, and high levels of free proline. It can be observed that with the increase of the stress level the percentage of the dry matter increases, indicating an accentuated water deficit.

  6. Stimulation of seed germination of Orobanche species by ophiobolin A and fusicoccin derivatives.

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Andolfi, Anna; Cimmino, Alessio; Rubiales, Diego; Evidente, Antonio

    2008-09-24

    Various Orobanche species (broomrapes) are serious weed problems and cause severe reduction on yields in many important crops. Seeds of these parasitic weeds may remain dormant in the soil for many years until germination is stimulated by the release of a chemical signal by roots of a host plant. Some fungal metabolites, such as ophiobolin A and fusicoccin derivatives, were assayed to determine their capacity to stimulate the seed germination of several Orobanche species. The results obtained showed that the stimulation of seed germination is species-dependent and also affected by the concentration of the stimulant. Among ophiobolin A, fusicoccin, and its seven derivatives, tested in the concentration range of 10 (-4)-10 (-7) M, the highest stimulatory effect was observed for ophiobolin A and the hexacetyl and pentacetyl isomers of 16- O-demethyl-de- tert-pentenylfusicoccin prepared by chemical modification of the fusicoccin, while the other fusicoccin derivatives appeared to be practically inactive. The most sensitive species appeared to be O. aegyptica, O. cumana, O. minor, and to a lesser extent, O. ramosa.

  7. Sugar apple (Annona squamosa L., Annonaceae seed germination: morphological and anatomical changes

    Fabio Ernesto Martínez-Maldonado

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The anon or sugar apple is a species of the Annona genus, widely distributed in the world and in Colombia and a fruit with great potential in domestic and international markets. However, the technical information related to the aspects of propagation and production is limited. In the present study, the morphological and anatomical changes during seed germination of the sugar apple were determined using histological techniques and photographic records. The results show that seed germination is a process that takes place in two stages: testa rupture and endosperm rupture-radicle protrusion. In the post-germination stages, the induction and formation of lateral roots that were endogenously produced from the primary root from the pericycle were seen. The endosperm underwent morphological changes that increased its volume during imbibition and degraded in the final stages of germination, which could be indicative of endosperm weakening and reduction of mechanical strength imposed by embryo growth, which was required to complete germination in A. squamosa

  8. Allelochemical regulation of reproduction and seed germination of two BrazilianBaccharis species by phytotoxic trichothecenes.

    Kuti, J O; Jarvis, B B; Mokhtari-Rejali, N; Bean, G A

    1990-12-01

    The potent phytotoxic trichothecene roridins and baccharinoids occur naturally in the Brazilian plants,Baccharis coridifolia andB. megapotamica. Biosynthesis of roridins inB. coridifolia appears to be linked to pollination, and the phytotoxins then accumulate in the seed. The roles of the phytotoxins in pollination, seed maturation, and germination of theBaccharis species were investigated. The high production of roridins occurred only in seeds resulting from intraspecific pollination, and the concentration of the toxins in the seeds generally increased with seed maturity. Removal of seed coats from trichothecene-producing BrazilianBaccharis species (B. coridifolia andB. megapotamica) and non-trichothecene-producing AmericanBaccharis species (B. halimifolia andB. glutinosa) resulted in improved seed germination ofB. halimifolia andB. glutinosa but complete inhibition of seed germination ofB. coridifolia andB. megapotamica. Addition of seed coat extracts of the BrazilianBaccharis species of dilute solutions (10(-6)μg/ml) of roridins or baccharinoids to the decoated seeds ofB. coridifolia andB. megapotamica resulted in germination, while seeds ofB. halimifolia andB. glutinosa were killed by the phytotoxins. Roridins interacted with gibberellic acid, a germination promoter, but not with abscisic acid, a germination inhibitor. The results from this study suggest that macrocyclic trichothecenes have a regulatory role(s) on reproduction and germination of BrazilianBaccharis species in their natural habitat.

  9. Using composting for control seed germination of invasive plant (water hyacinth) in Extremadura (Spain)

    Labrador, Juana; Gordillo, Judit; Ruiz, Trinidad; Albano, Eva; Moreno, Marta M.

    2016-04-01

    The biotransformation of the invasive water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) by composting has been showed as a viable alternative to offset the economic cost of eliminating an invasive plant giving a value to the by-product; however, as result of the propagative plant capacity, it was necessary to check if the composting process could eliminate the germination seed rate. Despite the high temperatures and the biochemical biotransformation processes of the composting components, in the case of seed water hyacinth, with a recovery rate of 100%, damage was observed in some parts of the seed anatomy such as in the outer teguments; however, other parts of the seed coat and the endosperm maintained their integrity. A microscopic analysis revealed that the embryo was noticeable and this was supported by the rate of seed germination observed (3.5 ± 0.96%). The results indicate that the use of water hyacinth for compost production is not completely safe from an environmental perspective. Keywords: Eichhornia crassipes, water hyacinth, invasive plant, seed anatomy, seed germination rate, compost. References: Ruiz T., Martín de Rodrigo E., Lorenzo G., Albano E., Morán R., Sánchez J.M. 2008. The Water Hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes: an invasive plant in the Guadiana River Basin (Spain). Aquatic Invasions Volume 3, Issue 1:42-53.

  10. Allelopatic effects of some medicinal plant essential oils on plant seeds germination

    ALI SHOKOUHIAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of essential oils from some medicinal plants on seed germination was studied with the aim of assessing their potential use as bioherbicides. The experiment was conducted as factorial based on completely randomized design (CRD with three replications. Seeds of 3 summer crops including lettuce (Lactuca sativa, pepper (Piper longum and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum were exposed to essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, thyme (Thymus vulgaris and anise (Pimpinella anisum at 3 different concentrations (25 and 50% diluted and undiluted. Treated seeds were grown in a growth chamber at 25°C for 5 days. The number of germinated seeds in each Petri dish was daily counted. After five days seed germination percentage (Ge was calculated. Biplot analysis was performed using genotype plus genotype environment interaction (GGE method. Results showed that the allelopathic effect on Ge was varied among studied plants, which was mainly due to i differences in the composition of the studied essential oils and ii different allelopathic effects of the studied essential oils on Ge. Accordingly, compared to the individual use, combining several essential oils would have a greater inhibitory effect on Ge of weeds.

  11. Physical characterization of Rhipsalis (Cactaceae fruits and seeds germination in different temperatures and light regimes

    A. B. Lone

    Full Text Available Abstract The germination characteristics of the native cactus species are poorly known, being the temperature and the light the factors that the most interferes in that process. Thus, the objective of the present work was to characterize the fruits and evaluate the influence of the temperature and the light in the seed germination of Rhipsalis floccosa, Rhipsalis pilocarpa and Rhipsalis teres. The tested constant temperatures were 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C and the alternate of 20-30 °C and 25-35 °C in a photoperiod of 10 hours, and with determination of the most appropriate temperature, the germination was tested in light absence. The germination percentage, the index of germination speed and medium time of germination were evaluated. For R. floccosa, the highest germination percentage was at 20 °C. For R. pilocarpa and R. teres, the highest germination percentages occurred in 15 °C and 20 °C. There was correlation to germination percentage between the three species, indicating that they had similar germination behavior. Total absence of germination was verified for the three species in condition of light absence. In conclusion, the temperature of 20 °C is the most suitable for the seed germination of R. floccosa. For the species R. pilocarpa and R. teres, the temperatures of 15 and 20 °C are the most suitable.

  12. Physical characterization of Rhipsalis (Cactaceae) fruits and seeds germination in different temperatures and light regimes.

    Lone, A B; Colombo, R C; Andrade, B L G; Takahashi, L S A; Faria, R T

    2016-06-01

    The germination characteristics of the native cactus species are poorly known, being the temperature and the light the factors that the most interferes in that process. Thus, the objective of the present work was to characterize the fruits and evaluate the influence of the temperature and the light in the seed germination of Rhipsalis floccosa, Rhipsalis pilocarpa and Rhipsalis teres. The tested constant temperatures were 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C and the alternate of 20-30 °C and 25-35 °C in a photoperiod of 10 hours, and with determination of the most appropriate temperature, the germination was tested in light absence. The germination percentage, the index of germination speed and medium time of germination were evaluated. For R. floccosa, the highest germination percentage was at 20 °C. For R. pilocarpa and R. teres, the highest germination percentages occurred in 15 °C and 20 °C. There was correlation to germination percentage between the three species, indicating that they had similar germination behavior. Total absence of germination was verified for the three species in condition of light absence. In conclusion, the temperature of 20 °C is the most suitable for the seed germination of R. floccosa. For the species R. pilocarpa and R. teres, the temperatures of 15 and 20 °C are the most suitable.

  13. Allelopathic effect of scarlet pimpernel (anagallis arvensis) on seed germination and radical elongation of mung bean and pearl millet

    Salam, I.U.; Ahmed, M.; Ali, S.T.

    2011-01-01

    The green house based experiments were conducted in the Department of Botany FUUAST, Karachi to study the allelopathic effects of root and shoot leachates of Anagallis arvensis on the two test species viz., bajra and mungbean. The percentage of seed germination, speed of germination and radical elongation of the test species were recorded after 10 days. Both leachates have no effect on seed germination and speed of germination of the test species. Radical elongation of two test species showed different response. Mung radical growth was significantly reduced while bajra radical growth was significantly enhanced by the root leachate of weed. (author)

  14. Identification of HDA15-PIF1 as a key repression module directing the transcriptional network of seed germination in the dark.

    Gu, Dachuan; Chen, Chia-Yang; Zhao, Minglei; Zhao, Linmao; Duan, Xuewu; Duan, Jun; Wu, Keqiang; Liu, Xuncheng

    2017-07-07

    Light is a major external factor in regulating seed germination. Photoreceptor phytochrome B (PHYB) plays a predominant role in promoting seed germination in the initial phase after imbibition, partially by repressing phytochrome-interacting factor1 (PIF1). However, the mechanism underlying the PHYB-PIF1-mediated transcription regulation remains largely unclear. Here, we identified that histone deacetylase15 (HDA15) is a negative component of PHYB-dependent seed germination. Overexpression of HDA15 in Arabidopsis inhibits PHYB-dependent seed germination, whereas loss of function of HDA15 increases PHYB-dependent seed germination. Genetic evidence indicated that HDA15 acts downstream of PHYB and represses seed germination dependent on PIF1. Furthermore, HDA15 interacts with PIF1 both in vitro and in vivo. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis revealed that HDA15 and PIF1 co-regulate the transcription of the light-responsive genes involved in multiple hormonal signaling pathways and cellular processes in germinating seeds in the dark. In addition, PIF1 recruits HDA15 to the promoter regions of target genes and represses their expression by decreasing the histone H3 acetylation levels in the dark. Taken together, our analysis uncovered the role of histone deacetylation in the light-regulated seed germination process and identified that HDA15-PIF1 acts as a key repression module directing the transcription network of seed germination. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. Asymbiotic seed germination and in vitro seedling development of Paphiopedilum spicerianum: An orchid with an extremely small population in China

    Ying Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paphiopedilum spicerianum  is listed as one of the country’s Wild Plants with Extremely Small Populations (PSESP. Procedures were developed for asymbiotic seed germination and seedling development aimed at producing seedlings for reintroduction. The highest germination was achieved in RECW with a 24 h dark cycle after pretreatment with 1% NaOCl for 40 min after 30 days from germination. However, these protocorms remained white and did not develop further. Although germination was lower under the same conditions in MSCW, it resulted in healthier and greener protocorms. Of four suitable media tested to promote seedling formation, Hyponex No 1 medium with 1.0mgl−1α-naphthalene acetic acid, 0.5gl−1 activated charcoal and 10% banana homogenate was the most effective. Advanced seedling development was seen in all six tested media during a 4 month growing period, with the highest leaf growth rate seen in the same media used for seedling formation, supplemented with 1.0mgl−16-benzyladenine added to promote leaf growth. Fluorescein diacetate (FDA tests on seeds showed that higher salt concentrations in the medium and longer duration of exposure to NaOCl reduce germination because of damaging effects on the testa and the embryo cells.

  16. Understanding the role of H(2)O(2) during pea seed germination: a combined proteomic and hormone profiling approach.

    Barba-Espín, Gregorio; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Job, Dominique; Belghazi, Maya; Job, Claudette; Hernández, José Antonio

    2011-11-01

    In a previous publication, we showed that the treatment of pea seeds in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) increased germination performance as well as seedling growth. To gain insight into the mechanisms responsible for this behaviour, we have analysed the effect of treating mature pea seeds in the presence of 20 mm H(2)O(2) on several oxidative features such as protein carbonylation, endogenous H(2)O(2) and lipid peroxidation levels. We report that H(2)O(2) treatment of the pea seeds increased their endogenous H(2)O(2) content and caused carbonylation of storage proteins and of several metabolic enzymes. Under the same conditions, we also monitored the expression of two MAPK genes known to be activated by H(2)O(2) in adult pea plants. The expression of one of them, PsMAPK2, largely increased upon pea seed imbibition in H(2)O(2) , whereas no change could be observed in expression of the other, PsMAPK3. The levels of several phytohormones such as 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid, indole-3-acetic acid and zeatin appeared to correlate with the measured oxidative indicators and with the expression of PsMAPK2. Globally, our results suggest a key role of H(2)O(2) in the coordination of pea seed germination, acting as a priming factor that involves specific changes at the proteome, transcriptome and hormonal levels. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Endophytes from medicinal plants and their potential for producing indole acetic acid, improving seed germination and mitigating oxidative stress* #

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Waqas, Muhammad; Al-Hosni, Khadija; Al-Khiziri, Salima; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Ali, Liaqat; Kang, Sang-Mo; Asaf, Sajjad; Shahzad, Raheem; Hussain, Javid; Lee, In-Jung; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been used by marginal communities to treat various ailments. However, the potential of endophytes within these bio-prospective medicinal plants remains unknown. The present study elucidates the endophytic diversity of medicinal plants (Caralluma acutangula, Rhazya stricta, and Moringa peregrina) and the endophyte role in seed growth and oxidative stress. Various organs of medicinal plants yielded ten endophytes, which were identified as Phoma sp. (6 isolates), Alternaria sp. (2), Bipolaris sp. (1), and Cladosporium sp. (1) based on 18S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The culture filtrates (CFs; 25%, 50%, and 100% concentrations) from these endophytes were tested against the growth of normal and dwarf mutant rice lines. Endophytic CF exhibited dose-dependent growth stimulation and suppression effects. CF (100%) of Phoma sp. significantly increased rice seed germination and growth compared to controls and other endophytes. This growth-promoting effect was due to the presence of indole acetic acid in endophytic CF. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis showed the highest indole acetic acid content ((54.31±0.21) µmol/L) in Bipolaris sp. In addition, the isolate of Bipolaris sp. exhibited significantly higher radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation activity than the other isolates. Bipolaris sp. and Phoma sp. also exhibited significantly higher flavonoid and phenolic contents. The medicinal plants exhibited the presence of bio-prospective endophytic strains, which could be used for the improvement of crop growth and the mitigation of oxidative stresses. PMID:28124841

  18. Endophytes from medicinal plants and their potential for producing indole acetic acid, improving seed germination and mitigating oxidative stress.

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Waqas, Muhammad; Al-Hosni, Khadija; Al-Khiziri, Salima; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Ali, Liaqat; Kang, Sang-Mo; Asaf, Sajjad; Shahzad, Raheem; Hussain, Javid; Lee, In-Jung; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed

    Medicinal plants have been used by marginal communities to treat various ailments. However, the potential of endophytes within these bio-prospective medicinal plants remains unknown. The present study elucidates the endophytic diversity of medicinal plants (Caralluma acutangula, Rhazya stricta, and Moringa peregrina) and the endophyte role in seed growth and oxidative stress. Various organs of medicinal plants yielded ten endophytes, which were identified as Phoma sp. (6 isolates), Alternaria sp. (2), Bipolaris sp. (1), and Cladosporium sp. (1) based on 18S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The culture filtrates (CFs; 25%, 50%, and 100% concentrations) from these endophytes were tested against the growth of normal and dwarf mutant rice lines. Endophytic CF exhibited dose-dependent growth stimulation and suppression effects. CF (100%) of Phoma sp. significantly increased rice seed germination and growth compared to controls and other endophytes. This growth-promoting effect was due to the presence of indole acetic acid in endophytic CF. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis showed the highest indole acetic acid content ((54.31±0.21) µmol/L) in Bipolaris sp. In addition, the isolate of Bipolaris sp. exhibited significantly higher radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation activity than the other isolates. Bipolaris sp. and Phoma sp. also exhibited significantly higher flavonoid and phenolic contents. The medicinal plants exhibited the presence of bio-prospective endophytic strains, which could be used for the improvement of crop growth and the mitigation of oxidative stresses.

  19. Seed germination, seedling traits, and seed bank of the tree Moringa peregrina (Moringaceae) in a hyper-arid environment.

    Gomaa, Nasr H; Picó, F Xavier

    2011-06-01

    Water-limited hot environments are good examples of hyper-aridity. Trees are scarce in these environments but some manage to survive, such as the tree Moringa peregrina. Understanding how trees maintain viable populations in extremely arid environments may provide insight into the adaptive mechanisms by which trees cope with extremely arid weather conditions. This understanding is relevant to the current increasing aridity in several regions of the world. Seed germination experiments were conducted to assess variation in seed mass, seed germination, and seedling traits of Moringa peregrina plants and the correlations among these traits. A seed burial experiment was also designed to study the fate of M. peregrina seeds buried at two depths in the soil for two time periods. On average, seeds germinated in three days and seedling shoots grew 0.7 cm per day over three weeks. Larger seeds decreased germination time and increased seedling growth rates relative to smaller seeds. Seeds remained quiescent in the soil and germination was very high at both depths and burial times. The after-ripening time of Moringa peregrina seeds is short and seeds germinate quickly after imbibition. Plants of M. peregrina may increase in hyper-arid environments from seeds with larger mass, shorter germination times, and faster seedling growth rates. The results also illustrate the adjustment in allocation to seed biomass and correlations among seed and seedling traits that allows M. peregrina to be successful in coping with aridity in its environment.

  20. Temperature regulates positively photoblastic seed germination in four ficus (moraceae) tree species from contrasting habitats in a seasonal tropical rainforest.

    Chen, Hui; Cao, Min; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C

    2013-08-01

    Differences in seed germination responses of trees in tropical forests to temperature and light quality may contribute to their coexistence. We investigated the effects of temperature and red:far-red light (R:FR ratio) on seed germination of two gap-demanding species (Ficus hispida and F. racemosa) and two shade-tolerant species (F. altissima and F. auriculata) in a tropical seasonal rainforest in southwest China. A R:FR ratio gradient was created by filtering fluorescent light through polyester filters. Four temperature treatments were used to test the effect of temperature on seed germination of the four Ficus tree species across the R:FR gradient. Seeds of the four Ficus species were positively photoblastic. Seed germination of F. hispida and F. racemosa was not affected across the R:FR ratio gradient (0.25-1.19) at 25/35°C, but it was inhibited under low R:FR at 22/23°C. By contrast, germination percentages of F. altissima and F. auriculata were not inhibited along the entire light gradient in all temperature treatments. Differences in germination responses of Ficus species might contribute to differences in their habitat preferences. The inhibitory effect of understory temperatures in the forest might be a new mechanism that prevents positively photoblastic seeds of the gap-demanding species such as F. hispida and F. racemosa from germinating in the understory and in small canopy gaps.

  1. Effects of sand burial and seed size on seed germination, seedling emergence and seedling biomass of anabasis aphylla

    Wang, T.T.; Chu, G.M.; Jiang, P.; Wang, M.

    2017-01-01

    Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to test the effects of sand burial (0-2 cm) and seed size (small, medium and large) on seed germination and seedling growth of Anabasis aphylla, which is typically used as a windbreak and for the fixation of sand in the Gurbantunggut desert of Xinjiang, region of northwest China. The results showed that sand burial significantly affected seed germination, seedling emergence, survival and biomass of A. aphylla. The seed germination rate, seedling emergence rate, seedling survival rate and biomass were highest at the 0.2 and 0.5 cm sand burial depths. At different burial depths, different sizes of A. aphylla seed showed a significant difference in the germination and emergence rate. At the same sand burial depth, the seedling emergence rate of the large seeds was significantly higher than that of medium and small seeds. At sand burial depth of 0.2-2 cm, germination of large seeds and seedling survival rates were significantly higher than those at the same sand burial depth for medium seed germination, and the latter was significantly higher than for small seed. We speculate that tolerance to sand burial and diversity of seed size increased the adaption of A. aphylla to this environment, contributing to its dominance in the windy and sandy area of Gurbantunggut desert. (author)

  2. ABA Inhibits Embryo Cell Expansion and Early Cell Division Events During Coffee (Coffea arabica 'Rubi') Seed Germination

    Silva, da E.A.A.; Toorop, P.E.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims: Coffee seed germination represents an interplay between the embryo and the surrounding endosperm. A sequence of events in both parts of the seed determines whether germination will be successful or not. Following previous studies, the aim here was to further characterize the

  3. Temperature and water stress during conditioning and incubation phase affecting Orobanche crenata seed germination and radicle growth

    JUAN eMORAL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche crenata is a holoparasitic plant that is potentially devastating to crop yield of legume species. Soil temperature and humidity are known to affect seed germination, however, the extent of their influence on germination and radicle growth of those of O. crenata is largely unknown. In this work, we studied the effects of temperature, water potential (Ψt and the type of water stress (matric or osmotic on O. crenata seeds during conditioning and incubation periods. We found that seeds germinated between 5 and 30ºC during both periods, with a maximum around 20ºC. Germination increased with increasing Ψt from -1.2 to 0 MPa during conditioning and incubation periods. Likewise, seed germination increased logarithmically with length of conditioning period until 40 days. The impact of the type of water stress on seed germination was similar, although the radicle growth of seeds under osmotic stress was lower than under matric stress, what could explain the lowest infestation of Orobanche spp. in regions characterized by saline soil. The data in this study will be useful to forecast infection of host roots by O. crenata.

  4. Temperature and water stress during conditioning and incubation phase affecting Orobanche crenata seed germination and radicle growth.

    Moral, Juan; Lozano-Baena, María Dolores; Rubiales, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Orobanche crenata is a holoparasitic plant that is potentially devastating to crop yield of legume species. Soil temperature and humidity are known to affect seed germination, however, the extent of their influence on germination and radicle growth of those of O. crenata is largely unknown. In this work, we studied the effects of temperature, water potential (Ψt) and the type of water stress (matric or osmotic) on O. crenata seeds during conditioning and incubation periods. We found that seeds germinated between 5 and 30°C during both periods, with a maximum around 20°C. Germination increased with increasing Ψt from -1.2 to 0 MPa during conditioning and incubation periods. Likewise, seed germination increased logarithmically with length of conditioning period until 40 days. The impact of the type of water stress on seed germination was similar, although the radicle growth of seeds under osmotic stress was lower than under matric stress, what could explain the lowest infestation of Orobanche sp. in regions characterized by saline soil. The data in this study will be useful to forecast infection of host roots by O. crenata.

  5. Geographic variation in speed of seed germination in central Oregon ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.).

    John C. Weber; Frank C. Sorensen

    1992-01-01

    Variation in speed of seed germination was investigated among ponderosa pine trees representing 225 locations in central Oregon. Results suggested that at least some of the geographic variation is related to the severity of summer drought. In general, germination speed was greater in locations with shod, drought-limited growing seasons. Levels of geographic variation...

  6. Flavonoids from leaves of Derris urucu: assessment of potential effects on seed germination and development of weeds

    EWERTON A.S. DA SILVA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In some previous studies, we described the isolation of nine compounds from leaves of Derris urucu, a species found widely in the Amazon rainforest, identified as five stilbenes and four dihydroflavonols. In this work, three of these dihydroflavonols [urucuol A (1, urucuol B (2 and isotirumalin (3] were evaluated to identify their potential as allelochemicals, and we are also reporting the isolation and structural determination of a new flavonoid [5,3′-dihydroxy-4′-methoxy-(7,6:5″,6″-2″,2″-dimethylpyranoflavanone (4]. We investigated the effects of the dihydroflavonols 1-3 on seed germination and radicle and hypocotyl growth of the weed Mimosa pudica, using solutions at 150 mg.L–1. Urucuol B, alone, was the substance with the greatest potential to inhibit seed germination (26%, while isotirumalin showed greater ability to reduce the development of the hypocotyl (25%, but none of the three substances showed the potential to inhibit radicle. When combined in pairs, the substances showed synergism for the development of root and hypocotyl and effects on seed germination that could be attributed to antagonism. When tested separately, the trend has become more intense effects on seed germination, while for the substances tested in pairs, the intensity of the effect was greater on development of weed.

  7. Mapping QTL for Seed Germinability under Low Temperature Using a New High-Density Genetic Map of Rice

    Ningfei Jiang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mapping major quantitative trait loci (QTL responsible for rice seed germinability under low temperature (GULT can provide valuable genetic source for improving cold tolerance in rice breeding. In this study, 124 rice backcross recombinant inbred lines (BRILs derived from a cross indica cv. Changhui 891 and japonica cv. 02428 were genotyped through re-sequencing technology. A bin map was generated which includes 3057 bins covering distance of 1266.5 cM with an average of 0.41 cM between markers. On the basis of newly constructed high-density genetic map, six QTL were detected ranging from 40 to 140 kb on Nipponbare genome. Among these, two QTL qCGR8 and qGRR11 alleles shared by 02428 could increase GULT and seed germination recovery rate after cold stress, respectively. However, qNGR1 and qNGR4 may be two major QTL affecting indica Changhui 891germination under normal condition. QTL qGRR1 and qGRR8 affected the seed germination recovery rate after cold stress and the alleles with increasing effects were shared by the Changhui 891 could improve seed germination rate after cold stress dramatically. These QTL could be a highly valuable genetic factors for cold tolerance improvement in rice lines. Moreover, the BRILs developed in this study will serve as an appropriate choice for mapping and studying genetic basis of rice complex traits.

  8. Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of seed germination and seedling vigour in Brassica rapa reveals QTL hotspots and epistatic interactions

    Basnet, R.K.; Duwal, A.; Tiwari, D.N.; Xiao, D.; Monakhos, S.; Bucher, J.; Visser, R.G.F.; Groot, S.P.C.; Bonnema, A.B.; Maliepaard, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic basis of seed germination and seedling vigour is largely unknown in Brassica species. We performed a study to evaluate the genetic basis of these important traits in a B. rapa doubled haploid population from a cross of a yellow-seeded oil-type yellow sarson and a black-seeded

  9. Path analysis for physiological traits that influence seed germination of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg

    Erneida Coelho de Araújo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of yellow passion fruit seed is determined by fruit storage and the duration of this period. Two orthree harvest dates can thereby be defined to obtain maximum quality. This study aimed to obtain estimates of phenotype,genotype and residual correlation coefficients and evaluate the direct and indirect effects (path analysis of genotype correlationsin seed extracted from fruits stored for 7, 14 and 21 days at cooled (8 ºC and at environment temperature (25 ºC. Thevariables accelerated aging and moisture content explained the higher germination percentage in the refrigerated environment.However, in natural conditions, the variables dry matter and electric conductivity influenced seed germination percentagestrongly, evidencing that the indirect effects of accelerated aging, electric conductivity and weight reduction had the greatestinfluence on dry matter.

  10. Effect of adding wood vinegar on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L) seed germination

    Lei, Ming; Liu, Bingjie; Wang, Xiao

    2018-03-01

    Wood vinegar, a liquid by-product that was obtained from the condensed vapor generated during the biomass pyrolysis, had been reported as plant growth promotor, but the impact on the plant seeds was still not clear. Thus, we investigated the effects of wood vinegar on the germination and seedling growth of cucumber seeds through the germination experiments. The results showed that the different diluted wood vinegar addition showed no significant difference in the germination rates of cucumber seeds compared to those of the CK treatment (P > 0.05). However, the added wood vinegar at the 10000-time dilution significantly increased the root length and dry biomass of cucumber by 20.9 % and 5.92 %, respectively (P < 0.05). Therefore, the wood vinegar at an optimal time of dilution could be used a promising soaking agent for the seeds germination, and further enhance crop yields.

  11. The effect of salinity on seed germination and growth parameters of field pea (Pisum sativum L.

    Jovičić Dušica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Field pea (Pisum sativum L. seed contains a large amount of proteins, amino acids, sugars, carbohydrates, vitamins A and C, calcium and phosphorous, and hence it is widely used for many purposes. Although field pea has moderate requirements for its growth, it is sensitive to increased salt content in soil. This research included eight varieties (Javor, Jantar, Partner, Kristal, Pionir, Junior, Trezor, Dukat developed at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. Sodium chloride solutions of various concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 150 mM were added in growing media to simulate saline conditions. The following were subsequently determined: seed germination, seedling length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings and 1000-seed weight. Among the analyzed varieties, variety Jantar expressed a high level of tolerance to increased salt content in growing media under laboratory conditions.

  12. Spatio-temporal profiling and degradation of alpha-amylase isozymes during barley seed germination

    Bak-Jensen, K.S.; Laugesen, Sabrina; Østergaard, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Ten genes from two multigene families encode barley alpha-amylases. To gain insight into the occurrence and fate of individual isoforms during seed germination, the alpha-amylase repertoire was mapped by using a proteomics approach consisting of 2D gel electrophoresis, western blotting, and mass...... increased during germination. Assessing the fragment minimum chain length by peptide mass fingerprinting suggested that alpha-amylase 2 ( gi vertical bar 4699831) initially was cleaved just prior to domain B that protrudes from the (beta alpha)(8)-barrel between beta-strand 3 and alpha-helix 3, followed...... essentially only full-length alpha-amylase forms. While only products of the above three genes appeared by germination also of 15 other barley cultivars, the cultivars had distinct repertoires of charge and molecular mass variant forms. These patterns appeared not to be correlated with malt quality....

  13. Spatio-temporal profiling and degradation of α-amylase isozymes during barley seed germination

    Bak-Jensen, K.S.; Laugesen, S.; Østergaard, O.

    2007-01-01

    Ten genes from two multigene families encode barley alpha-amylases. To gain insight into the occurrence and fate of individual isoforms during seed germination, the alpha-amylase repertoire was mapped by using a proteomics approach consisting of 2D gel electrophoresis, western blotting, and mass...... identified only by immunostaining. Mass spectrometry identified 12 full-length forms and 12 fragments from the cultivar Barke. Products of both alpha-amylase 2 entries co-migrated in five full-length and one fragment spot. The alpha-amylase abundance and the number of fragments increased during germination...... products of the above three genes appeared by germination also of 15 other barley cultivars, the cultivars had distinct repertoires of charge and molecular mass variant forms. These patterns appeared not to be correlated with malt quality....

  14. Lettuce seed germination and root elongation toxicity evaluation of the F-Area seepline soils

    Nelson, E.A.; Westbury, H.M. Jr.

    1994-09-01

    This study is a continuation of similar studies conducted by Easton and Murphy (1993) and Loehle (1990). The objectives of these studies are to: (1) assess the toxicity of the water-soluble constituents of soil in a seepline adjacent to the F-Area Seepage Basins and (2) evaluate the effectiveness of rainwater movements in reducing the toxicity of the soil. Soils from the F-Area seepline that were found to inhibit lettuce seed germination and radical elongation in 1990 were not found to be significantly different from soils from an uncontaminated control site in this test. After six washings of the soil, the toxicity of the leachate was comparable to that of de-ionized water. This indicates that natural water movements may have rendered the F-Area seepline soils less toxic to lettuce seedlings than in previous tests

  15. Mycoflora in Exhumed Seeds of Opuntia tomentosa and Its Possible Role in Seed Germination

    María Esther Sánchez-Coronado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The funicular cover of the Opuntia tomentosa seed limits imbibition; germination occurs only when the funicle is weakened or the funicular valve is removed. We investigated the role of fungi in funicular weakening and seed germination. Seeds that had been either buried in one of two sites or stored in the laboratory were germinated with and without a valve. Disinfected or nondisinfected seeds and their naked embryos were cultivated on agar or PDA. None of the 11 identified fungal genera grew on the disinfected control seeds or the embryos. The mycoflora present on disinfected and nondisinfected exhumed seeds suggest that the fungal colonization occurred in the soil and differed between the burial sites. Exhumed seeds with and without a valve germinated in high percentages, whereas only the control seeds without a valve germinated. Scanning electron micrographs showed that the hyphae penetrated, cracked, and eroded the funicular envelope of exhumed seeds.

  16. Cytokinins and urea derivatives stimulate seed germination in Lotus corniculatus L.

    Nikolić Radomirka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of various cytokinins and urea derivatives on germination of aged seeds of in Lotus corniculatus L. The following substances were applied: N6-isoprenoid cytokinins (isopentenyl adenine and zeatin, adenine sulfate, N6-aromatic cytokinins (kinetin, benzyladenine and their N9-ribosides, N-benzyl-9-(2- tetrahydropyranyladenine, and urea derivatives (diphenylurea, thidiazuron, and chloro-pyridyl phenylurea. With the exception of adenine sulfate, all cytokinins increased the percentage of seed germination up to twofold, depending on their kind and concentration. It is concluded that cytokinins may be among the missing factors in aged seeds of L. corniculatus contributing to the implementation of their full germination potential. They could be used to improve germination of both freshly harvested and aged seed samples, if necessary. .

  17. Effect of saline water irrigation on seed germination and early seedling growth of the halophyte quinoa

    Panuccio, M.R.; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Saleem Akhtar, Saqib

    2014-01-01

    with their high protein content and unique amino acid composition. Although the species has been described as a facultative halophyte, and its tolerance to salt stress has been investigated, its physiological and molecular responses to seawater (SW) and other salts have not been studied. We evaluated the effects...... been carried out to investigate the mechanisms used by quinoa, a facultative halophytic species, in order to cope with high salt levels at various stages of its develop- ment. Quinoa is regarded as one of the crops that might sustain food security in this century, grown primarily for its edible seeds...... of SW and different salts on seed germination, seedling emergence and the antioxidative pathway of quinoa. Seeds were germi- nated in Petri dishes and seedlings grown in pots with SW solutions (25, 50, 75 and 100 %) and NaCl, CaCl2, KCl and MgCl2 individually, at the concentrations in which...

  18. Allelopathic relations of selected cereal and vegetable species during seed germination and seedling growth

    Bojović Biljana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy is the direct or indirect harmful effect which one plant produces on another through the production of chemical compounds that escape into the environment. In the presence paper allelopathic relationships were determined in three cereals - wheat (Triticum aestivum L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L., oat (Avena sativa L. and vegetable crops - spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., radish (Raphanus sativus L., pepper (Capsicum annum L.. In addition to the percentage of germination, allelopathic potential was tested measuring root and stem length of tested plant species germinated either alone or in combination with others. The obtained results showed that seed germination and plant growth of cereals and vegetables are depended on the presence of other plants in all tested combinations. In this study has proven largely inhibitory allelopathic effect on germination and plant growth.

  19. Kinetics of the inhibition of cotton seeds germination by lucerne saponins

    Marchaim, U.; Birk, Y.; Dovrat, A.; Berman, T.

    1975-01-01

    The extent of inhibition of cotton-seed germination by lucerne saponins depends upon the period of pre-immersion in the saponin solution prior to germination. After 5 hr of pre-immersion in a 0.5% lucerne saponin solution, a 40% drop in germination was noted. The respiration rate decreased after 3hr of pre-immersion. The diffusion of oxygen through the membranes of seeds pre-immersed in saponins also decreased with an increasing pre-immersion time. Inhibition of germination was irreversible after pre-immersion in saponins for 6 hr or more. The effect of saponins does not appear to be biochemically specific because the germination and respiration rates of the cotton seeds which were immersed in aqueous solutions of anionic, nonionic or cationic commercial surfactants were similarly inhibited. (auth.)

  20. Seed germination of Phillyrea angustifolia L., a species of difficult propagation

    Mira, Sara; Arnal, Alberto; Pérez-García, Félix

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: The purpose was to determine the type of dormancy and the optimal germination conditions of Phillyrea angustifolia (Oleaceae) seeds. Area of study: Germination requirements of P. angustifolia seeds collected from wild plants growing in the province of Ávila (Central Spain) were studied. Materials and methods: Seed water uptake was measured. Seeds with and without an endocarp were germinated at different temperatures, and several treatments were tested. Main results: The lignified endocarp interferes mechanically with the emergence of the radicle, and the treatments that achieved the highest germination percentages were the total removal of the endocarp with pliers (84%) or the immersion in liquid nitrogen for 1 min (97%). Scarification with concentrated sulphuric acid did not significantly increase germination compared to the control seeds, and treatments with dry heat or wet heat were detrimental to seed germination. The optimum temperature for germination was 15 ºC. A pre-sowing treatment of soaking in distilled water for 24 h slightly increased germination speed. Neither cold stratification at 5 ºC nor soaking in a gibberellic acid solution improved seed germination. Research highlights: Phillyrea angustifolia seeds have physiological dormancy – that is, the embryo does not have enough growth potential to overcome the mechanical restriction of the lignified endocarp. The seeds do not exhibit physical dormancy, given their water-permeable lignified endocarp. Our results suggest that the optimum germination protocol for P. angustifolia would be the total removal of the endocarp or immersion in liquid nitrogen for 1 min, followed by immersion in distilled water for 24 h and then seed incubation at 15 ºC in light or darkness.

  1. Effects of Salinity on Seed Germination and Early Growth of Moringa oleifera

    Kidombo, S.D; KOech, E.K

    2007-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Iam is a very important species because of it's multiple uses. The tree grows in many parts of the world including Asia, Africa, Central America and South America. In Kenya, it grows in drier regions of Baringo, Kibwezi, Mandera and the coastal strip. These regions are known to have substantially high level of soluble salts. The study aims at finding the effect of salinity on germination and early seedling growth of M. oleifera seedlings. This was tested in Moi University department of forestry laboratory by varying the concentration of Nacl moles (0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.09) in germination medium. The petri dishes with germination media were placed in the incubator at 30 degrees Celsius each containing 25 seeds of each treatment replicated four times. The effect of seedling growth and development was tested in the greenhouse. This was done by varying the concentration of Nacl moles (0.05, 0.15, 0.25, 0.35 and 0.45) in the forest soil used in the experiment. After germination one seedling per treatment was randomly selected and then carefully dug. The root length, shoot height, total dry matter, stem dry matter and leaves dry matter were measured. This was repeated at intervals of one week for seven weeks. The data obtained from the experiments were analysed using ANOVA based on generalized linear modelling procedures. The tests indicated that M. oleifera seed germination and early seedling growth was significantly (p<0.05) affected by salinity. The seedlings also demonstrated development of swellings in the root region and the development of multiple stems for salt concentrations of 0.05 moles and above. These observations show that M. oleifera is affected by salinity in both seed germination and early seedling growth

  2. ABA, GA(3), and nitrate may control seed germination of Crithmum maritimum (Apiaceae) under saline conditions.

    Atia, Abdallah; Debez, Ahmed; Barhoumi, Zouhaier; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Abdelly, Chedly

    2009-08-01

    Impaired germination is common among halophyte seeds exposed to salt stress, partly resulting from the salt-induced reduction of the growth regulator contents in seeds. Thus, the understanding of hormonal regulation during the germination process is a main key: (i) to overcome the mechanisms by which NaCl-salinity inhibit germination; and (ii) to improve the germination of these species when challenged with NaCl. In the present investigation, the effects of ABA, GA(3), NO(-)(3), and NH(+)(4) on the germination of the oilseed halophyte Crithmum maritimum (Apiaceae) were assessed under NaCl-salinity (up to 200 mM NaCl). Seeds were collected from Tabarka rocky coasts (N-W of Tunisia). The exogenous application of GA(3), nitrate (either as NaNO(3) or KNO(3)), and NH(4)Cl enhanced germination under NaCl salinity. The beneficial impact of KNO(3) on germination upon seed exposure to NaCl salinity was rather due to NO(-)(3) than to K(+), since KCl failed to significantly stimulate germination. Under optimal conditions for germination (0 mM NaCl), ABA inhibited germination over time in a dose dependent manner, but KNO(3) completely restored the germination parameters. Under NaCl salinity, the application of fluridone (FLU) an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, stimulated substantially seed germination. Taken together, our results point out that NO(-)(3) and GA(3) mitigate the NaCl-induced reduction of seed germination, and that NO(-)(3) counteracts the inhibitory effect of ABA on germination of C. maritimum.

  3. Temperature Effects on the Seed Germination of Some Perennial and Annual Species of Asteraceae Family

    Zarghani Hadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is the most critical factor determining success or failure of plant establishment. Seed germination response of five medicinal species include three seed-propagated perennial species, Cichorium intybus, cynara scolymus and Echinacea purpurea and vegetative-reproduction perennial species, Achillea millefolium and annual species, Matricaria aurea were assessed at constant temperatures. The seeds were exposed to constant temperatures of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45°C under total darkness. Germination percentage of all the species were significantly affected by various temperatures (p ≤ 0.001. A. millefolium did not germinate at 5-10 and 35-45°C, but showed noticeable germination percentage (73.3-100% at temperatures ranged from 15-30° C. The highest total germination percentage was observed within the range of 15-35 °C for other species. Also, we calculated cardinal temperatures (the minimum, optimum and maximum temperature for seed germination of species. The highest value for minimum temperature was 10.07ºC in A. millefolium followed by C. scolymus and M. aurea (5ºC while the lowest was for E. purpurea and C. intybus (2.68 and 2.90ºC respectively. The lowest value for optimum temperature was detected in A. millefolium (22.72ºC and M. aurea (23.88°C while the maximum values were observed in E. purpurea and C. intybus (30.40ºC and 29.90ºC respectively. Based on results of present study we concluded that species with both vegetative and seed-propagated reproduction forms like A. millefolium had smaller temperature range rather those with just one way of reproduction (seed production.

  4. Effects of Some Environmental Factors on Seed Germination and Spreading Potentials of Silybum marianum Gaertner

    Pasquale Montemurro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Silybum marianum Gaertner is spreading in many crops of Southern Italy, particularly in durum wheat, sugar beet and some vegetable crops. Information about its biology are useful to set up effective control strategies. Four experiments were carried out at the Crop Science Department of the University of Bari (Southern Italy. Two trials were conducted in Petri dishes and evaluated the effects of different light, temperature and osmotic stress conditions on the seed germination. Another trial evaluated the ability of seedlings to emerge from different depths. The effects of eight different sowing periods on the plant growth were assessed in the fourth experiment. The highest germination rate was found with constant temperatures of 25 °C or 30 °C and with alternating temperatures of 25- 15 °C for 8 and 16 hours respectively. Germination was affected by the light and was significantly decreased at 0.2 Mpa and completely inhibited at -0.8 Mpa. Plant emergence was strongly reduced from a depth of more than 3 cm. The plant size at the first bloom was reduced by postponing the sowing period from October to February. The same decreasing trend was observed in the number of flower heads and in the number of days required for the first bloom. Results can suggest some important strategies to manage this species. False sowing, followed by irrigation, can be recommended in summer, in order to obtain the highest seed germination. Since the emergence of this plant is very scarce from a depth of more than 3 cm, ploughing can be effective to bury seeds in case of strong disseminations in order to reduce the infestation in the following crop.

  5. Comparison of Seed Germination and Recovery Responses of a Salt Marsh Halophyte Halopeplis Perfoliata to Osmotic and Ionic Treatments

    Rasool, S. G.; Hameed, A.; Ahmed, M. Z.; Khan, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Salinity affects seed germination of halophytes by inducing ionic toxicity, osmotic constraint or both. Information about the effects of salinity on seed germination of a large number of halophytes exists, but generally little is known about the basis of salinity-induced germination inhibition. In order to partition salinity effects, we studied seed germination and recovery responses of a coastal salt marsh halophyte halopeplis perfoliata to different isotonic treatments (Psi/sub S/: -0.5, -1.0, -1.5, -2.0 and -2.5, MPa) of various salts and polythylene glycol (PEG) under two light regimes (12-h light photo period and 24-h complete darkness). Highest seed germination was observed in distilled water under 12-h light photo period and reduction in osmotic potential of the solution decreased seed germination. However, some seeds of H. perfoliata could germinate in as low as -2.5 MPa (600 mM NaCl), which is equivalent to seawater salinity. Sea-salt treatment was more inhibitory than isotonic NaCl at the lowest osmotic potential (Psi/sub S/ -2.5 MPa). Generally, chloride salts with lowest Psi/sub S/ inhibited germination more than the isotonic sulfate salts. Comparable germination responses of the seeds in NaCl and isotonic PEG treatments as well as high recovery of germination in un-germinated seeds after alleviation of NaCl salinity indicated prevalence of osmotic constraint. These results thus indicate that the seeds of H. perfoliata could tolerate high levels of a wide variety of salts found in soil. (author)

  6. The COP9 Signalosome regulates seed germination by facilitating protein degradation of RGL2 and ABI5.

    Dan Jin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The control of seed germination and seed dormancy are critical for the successful propagation of plant species, and are important agricultural traits. Seed germination is tightly controlled by the balance of gibberellin (GA and abscisic acid (ABA, and is influenced by environmental factors. The COP9 Signalosome (CSN is a conserved multi-subunit protein complex that is best known as a regulator of the Cullin-RING family of ubiquitin E3 ligases (CRLs. Multiple viable mutants of the CSN showed poor germination, except for csn5b-1. Detailed analyses showed that csn1-10 has a stronger seed dormancy, while csn5a-1 mutants exhibit retarded seed germination in addition to hyperdormancy. Both csn5a-1 and csn1-10 plants show defects in the timely removal of the germination inhibitors: RGL2, a repressor of GA signaling, and ABI5, an effector of ABA responses. We provide genetic evidence to demonstrate that the germination phenotype of csn1-10 is caused by over-accumulation of RGL2, a substrate of the SCF (CRL1 ubiquitin E3 ligase, while the csn5a-1 phenotype is caused by over-accumulation of RGL2 as well as ABI5. The genetic data are consistent with the hypothesis that CSN5A regulates ABI5 by a mechanism that may not involve CSN1. Transcriptome analyses suggest that CSN1 has a more prominent role than CSN5A during seed maturation, but CSN5A plays a more important role than CSN1 during seed germination, further supporting the functional distinction of these two CSN genes. Our study delineates the molecular targets of the CSN complex in seed germination, and reveals that CSN5 has additional functions in regulating ABI5, thus the ABA signaling pathway.

  7. Seed germination of Pinus koraiensis Siebold and Zucc. in response to light regimes caused by shading and seed positions

    Zhang, M.; Zhu, J.; Yan, Q.

    2012-07-01

    Pinus koraiensis Siebold and Zucc. (Korean pine), the dominant tree species in the mixed broadleaved Korean pine forests (regional climax), is severely restricted by its regeneration failure. To determine the effects of light regimes on P. koraiensis regeneration, the seed germination process was examined in shade houses and forest stands (before and after leaf expansion) with various light levels created by shading and seed positions. Despite the large size of P. koraiensis seeds (500-600 mg), both light intensity and quality significantly affected the germination percentage in both shade houses and forests. Substantial changes in light intensity and quality led the majority of seeds (80%) to germinate in leafless forests and shade houses, while only a minority ({<=}20%) germinated after leaf expansion in the forests. Moreover, seed germination in shade houses and leafless forests exhibited similar patterns; they consistently reached a 70% shading degree, which was optimal for the seed germination of P. koraiensis on topsoil. Seed positioning significantly affected germination for each shading degree, especially when litter and soil coverings drastically inhibited germination. In conclusion, (1) when seeds were not stressed by temperature and moisture, light irradiance played a critical role in the seed germination of P. koraiensis; (2) seed positioning, in relation to alterations in light intensity and quality, affected the germination of P. koraiensis; (3) a shade house experiment using neutral cloth provided an applicable and controllable way to monitor the P. koraiensis seed germination in early spring before leaf expansion. The light requirement for the germination of P. koraiensis played a key role in the regeneration of P. koraiensis throughout the temperate secondary forests. (Author) 41 refs.

  8. Acetylene Resembling Effect of Ethylene on Seed Germination: Evaluating the Effect of Acetylene Released from Calcium Carbide

    Kambiz MASHAYEKHI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Some vegetable seeds need a very long time to germinate. In these kinds of seeds the second phase of germination is very long. As acetylene’s chemical structure is almost similar to the gaseous hormone ethylene, its’ physiological effect on seed germination should be very similar as well. Therefore, an experiment was established in order to enhance seed germination, by treating seeds with acetylene released from interaction of calcium carbide (CaC2 with water (H2O. A simple system was designed for efficient and proper use of gaseous acetylene resulted from the two substrates interaction, which conducted the produced gas obtained inside the interaction chamber into a sealed container wherein seeds were floating in water. This experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of one concentration of acetylene with different exposure periods (between 1 to 8 hours on parsley, celery and Swees chard seeds’ germination (chosen as late germinating vegetables. The effect of acetylene on seed germination speed and percent was investigated. There were significant differences in both percent and speed of germination within the various treatments. By floating for 3, 5 and 3 hours for parsley, celery and Swiss chard respectively, the highest germination rates were observed. The highest germination speed was achieved by 5, 5 and 3 hours floating respectively for parsley, celery and Swiss chard. Based on the results obtained, the current experiment suggests that acetylene has positive effect on enhancing seed germination of named vegetables, and played the role of ethylene, its effects resembling in regard to seed germination process.

  9. The α-Amylase Induction in Endosperm during Rice Seed Germination Is Caused by Gibberellin Synthesized in Epithelium1

    Kaneko, Miyuki; Itoh, Hironori; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2002-01-01

    We recently isolated two genes (OsGA3ox1 and OsGA3ox2) from rice (Oryza sativa) encoding 3β-hydroxylase, which catalyzes the final step of active gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis (H. Itoh, M. Ueguchi-Tanaka, N. Sentoku, H. Kitano, M. Matsuoka, M. Kobayashi [2001] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98: 8909–8914). Using these cloned cDNAs, we analyzed the temporal and spatial expression patterns of the 3β-hydroxylase genes and also an α-amylase gene (RAmy1A) during rice seed germination to investigate the relationship between GA biosynthesis and α-amylase expression. Northern-blot analyses revealed that RAmy1A expression in the embryo occurs before the induction of 3β-hydroxylase expression, whereas in the endosperm, a high level of RAmy1A expression occurs 1 to 2 d after the peak of OsGA3ox2 expression and only in the absence of uniconazol. Based on the analysis of an OsGA3ox2 null mutant (d18-Akibare dwarf), we determined that 3β-hydroxylase produced by OsGA3ox2 is important for the induction of RAmy1A expression and that the OsGA3ox1 product is not essential for α-amylase induction. The expression of OsGA3ox2 was localized to the shoot region and epithelium of the embryo, strongly suggesting that active GA biosynthesis occurs in these two regions. The synthesis of active GA in the epithelium is important for α-amylase expression in the endosperm, because an embryonic mutant defective in shoot formation, but which developed epithelium cells, induced α-amylase expression in the endosperm, whereas a mutant defective in epithelium development did not. PMID:11950975

  10. Phenolics from Ageratina adenophora roots and their phytotoxic effects on Arabidopsis thaliana seed germination and seedling growth.

    Zhou, Zhong-Yu; Liu, Wan-Xue; Pei, Gang; Ren, Hui; Wang, Jing; Xu, Qiao-Lin; Xie, Hai-Hui; Wan, Fang-Hao; Tan, Jian-Wen

    2013-12-04

    A bioassay-directed phytochemical study was conducted to investigate potential allelochemicals in the roots of the invasive plant Ageratina adenophora. Eleven phenolic compounds, including seven new ones, 7-hydroxy-8,9-dehydrothymol 9-O-trans-ferulate (1), 7-hydroxythymol 9-O-trans-ferulate (2), 7,8-dihydroxythymol 9-O-trans-ferulate (3), 7,8-dihydroxythymol 9-O-cis-ferulate (4), methyl (7R)-3-deoxy-4,5-epoxy-D-manno-2-octulosonate 8-O-trans-p-coumarate (5), methyl (7R)-3-deoxy-4,5-epoxy-D-manno-2-octulosonate 8-O-cis-p-coumarate (6), and 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)propyl methyl malonate (7), were isolated from a bioactive subfraction of the ethanol extract of the roots of A. adenophora. The new structures were established on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis. The potential phytotoxic effects of these compounds on the germination of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds were tested by a filter paper assay. Compound 7 and known compounds 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1-propanol (8) and o-coumaric acid (9) remarkably showed inhibition activity against Arabidopsis seed germination at a concentration of 1.0 mM. Compounds 1, 2, 5, 6, and 10 showed slight inhibitory activity at the test concentration after treatment for 3 days, while the other compounds showed no obvious inhibitory effects. Moreover, 7-9 were further found to show obvious inhibitory activity on retarding the seedling growth of Ar. thaliana cultured in soil medium.

  11. α-Xylosidase plays essential roles in xyloglucan remodelling, maintenance of cell wall integrity, and seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Shigeyama, Takuma; Watanabe, Asuka; Tokuchi, Konatsu; Toh, Shigeo; Sakurai, Naoki; Shibuya, Naoto; Kawakami, Naoto

    2016-10-01

    Regulation and maintenance of cell wall physical properties are crucial for plant growth and environmental response. In the germination process, hypocotyl cell expansion and endosperm weakening are prerequisites for dicot seeds to complete germination. We have identified the Arabidopsis mutant thermoinhibition-resistant germination 1 (trg1), which has reduced seed dormancy and insensitivity to unfavourable conditions for germination owing to a loss-of-function mutation of TRG1/XYL1, which encodes an α-xylosidase. Compared to those of wild type, the elongating stem of trg1 showed significantly lower viscoelasticity, and the fruit epidermal cells were longitudinally shorter and horizontally enlarged. Actively growing tissues of trg1 over-accumulated free xyloglucan oligosaccharides (XGOs), and the seed cell wall had xyloglucan with a greatly reduced molecular weight. These observations suggest that XGOs reduce xyloglucan size by serving as an acceptor in transglycosylation and eventually enhancing cell wall loosening. TRG1/XYL1 gene expression was abundant in growing wild-type organs and tissues but relatively low in cells at most actively elongating part of the tissues, suggesting that α-xylosidase contributes to maintaining the mechanical integrity of the primary cell wall in the growing and pre-growing tissues. In germinating seeds of trg1, expression of genes encoding specific abscisic acid and gibberellin metabolism enzymes was altered in accordance with the aberrant germination phenotype. Thus, cell wall integrity could affect seed germination not only directly through the physical properties of the cell wall but also indirectly through the regulation of hormone gene expression. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. Microwave irradiation and citric acid assisted seed germination and phytoextraction of nickel (Ni) by Brassica napus L.: morpho-physiological and biochemical alterations under Ni stress.

    Farid, Mujahid; Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Saeed, Rashid; Tauqeer, Hafiz Muhammad; Sallah-Ud-Din, Rasham; Azam, Ahmed; Raza, Nighat

    2017-09-01

    The complex bio-geochemistry of soil allows pollutant to persist for a longer period of time which further decreased the fertility and natural composition of land. Nickel, an inorganic pollutant, coming from a wide range of industrial and manufacturing units possesses serious threat to soil degradation and crop productivity around the world. The present study was carried to evaluate the combined role of microwave irradiation (MR) and citric acid (CA) on the phytoextraction potential of Brassica napus L. under Ni stress. An initial seed germination test was conducted to select effective time scale of MR exposure. Highest seed germination was observed at exposure of 2.45 GHz frequency for 30 s. Healthy seeds of B. napus L. genotype Faisal Canola (RBN-03060) treated with MR at 2.45 GHz for 30 s were sown in plastic pots filled with 5 kg of soil. Nickel and CA applied exogenously in solution form with different combinations to both MR-treated and untreated B. napus plants. The MR-treated plants showed higher growth, biomass, photosynthetic pigments (Chl a, b, total, and carotenoids) and activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, APX, CAT) as compared to untreated plants who showed higher reactive oxygen species (MDA, H 2 O 2 ) and electrolyte leakage. Increasing Ni concentration significantly decreased the physiological and biochemical attributes of B. napus both in MR-treated and untreated plants. The addition of CA alleviated Ni-induced toxic effects in both MR-treated and untreated plants by improving antioxidant defense system. The degree of Ni stress mitigation was higher in MR-treated plants. The Ni concentration was higher in root, stem, and leaves of MR-treated plants under CA application as compared to untreated plants. The present study concluded that seeds treated with MR before sowing showed higher accumulation and concentration of Ni from soil, and this phenomenon boosted with the application of CA.

  13. Up-regulating the abscisic acid inactivation gene ZmABA8ox1b contributes to seed germination heterosis by promoting cell expansion.

    Li, Yangyang; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Xinye; Song, Jian; Li, Hongjian; Sui, Zhipeng; Zhang, Ming; Fang, Shuang; Chu, Jinfang; Xin, Mingming; Xie, Chaojie; Zhang, Yirong; Sun, Qixin; Ni, Zhongfu

    2016-04-01

    Heterosis has been widely used in agriculture, but the underlying molecular principles are still largely unknown. During seed germination, we observed that maize (Zea mays) hybrid B73/Mo17 was less sensitive than its parental inbred lines to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA), and endogenous ABA content in hybrid embryos decreased more rapidly than in the parental inbred lines. ZmABA8ox1b, an ABA inactivation gene, was consistently more highly up-regulated in hybrid B73/Mo17 than in its parental inbred lines at early stages of seed germination. Moreover, ectopic expression of ZmABA8ox1b obviously promoted seed germination in Arabidopsis Remarkably, microscopic observation revealed that cell expansion played a major role in the ABA-mediated maize seed germination heterosis, which could be attributed to the altered expression of cell wall-related genes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  14. Effect of Irrigation with Contaminated Water by Cloth Detergent on Seed Germination Traits and Early Growth of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

    Hassan HEIDARI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the sources for irrigation is sewage. Contaminated water may affect seed germination and plant growth. A laboratory experiment and a pot experiment were conducted in 2012 to determine the effect of different doses of detergent on seed germination traits and early growth of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.. The experiments included eight doses of cloth detergent (0, 0.00002, 0.0002, 0.002, 0.02, 0.2, 2, 20 g/L. Results showed that 20 and 2 g/L of detergent severely reduced seed germination, plant height, leaf number per plant, total biomass and stem weight. 20 g/L of detergent reduced shoot length, root length, seedling weight and seed vigor. Seed germination stage was more sensitive to contaminated water than early growth stage. The results demonstrated that irrigating sunflower by contaminated water with household cleaning products at high concentration should be avoided.

  15. Phenolics in the seed coat of wild soybean (Glycine soja) and their significance for seed hardness and seed germination.

    Zhou, San; Sekizaki, Haruo; Yang, Zhihong; Sawa, Satoko; Pan, Jun

    2010-10-27

    Hardseededness in annual wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. Et Zucc.) is a valuable trait that affects the germination, viability, and quality of stored seeds. Two G. soja ecotypes native to Shandong Province of China have been used to identify the phenolics in the seed coat that correlate with the seed hardness and seed germination. Three major phenolics from the seed coat were isolated and identified as epicatechin, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside. Of the three phenolics, only the change of epicatechin exhibited a significant positive correlation with the change of hard seed percentages both under different water conditions during seed development and under different gas conditions during seed storage. Epicatechin also reveals a hormesis-like effect on the seed germination of G. soja. Epicatechin is suggested to be functionally related to coat-imposed hardseededness in G. soja.

  16. Effects of eco-friendly carbohydrate-based superabsorbent polymers on seed germination and seedling growth of maize

    Tao, Jinghe; Zhang, Wenxu; Liang, Li; Lei, Ziqiang

    2018-02-01

    Desertification is the degradation of land in arid and semi-arid areas. Nowadays, lack of water and desertification are extreme problems for plant survival and growth in the arid and semi-arid areas of the world. It becomes increasingly important as to how to let the plant absorb moisture more effectively for keeping growth strong. We synthesized superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) with carbohydrate and characterized them by Fourier transform infrared spectra analyses, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyses. Then, a completely randomized experiment was conducted to assess the effect of carbohydrate-based SAPs on seed germination and seedling growth of maize in an artificial climate chest. The results showed that adding an appropriate amount of SAPs could improve root length, shoot length, total biomass, germination potential and germination rate. It indicates that this SAP is not toxic to plants and can promote seed germination, and at the same time provides a possibility of replacing other substrates.

  17. Rhizonin A from Burkholderia sp. KCTC11096 and Its Growth Promoting Role in Lettuce Seed Germination

    Sang-Mo Kang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We isolated and identified a gibberellin-producing Burkholderia sp. KCTC 11096 from agricultural field soils. The culture filtrate of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR significantly increased the germination and growth of lettuce and Chinese cabbage seeds. The ethyl acetate extract of the PGPR culture showed significantly higher rate of lettuce seed germination and growth as compared to the distilled water treated control. The ethyl acetate fraction of the Burkholderia sp. was subjected to bioassay-guided isolation and we obtained for the first time from a Burkholderia sp. the plant growth promoting compound rhizonin A (1, which was characterized through NMR and MS techniques. Application of various concentrations of 1 significantly promoted the lettuce seed germination as compared to control.

  18. Effects of eco-friendly carbohydrate-based superabsorbent polymers on seed germination and seedling growth of maize

    Tao, Jinghe; Liang, Li; Lei, Ziqiang

    2018-01-01

    Desertification is the degradation of land in arid and semi-arid areas. Nowadays, lack of water and desertification are extreme problems for plant survival and growth in the arid and semi-arid areas of the world. It becomes increasingly important as to how to let the plant absorb moisture more effectively for keeping growth strong. We synthesized superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) with carbohydrate and characterized them by Fourier transform infrared spectra analyses, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyses. Then, a completely randomized experiment was conducted to assess the effect of carbohydrate-based SAPs on seed germination and seedling growth of maize in an artificial climate chest. The results showed that adding an appropriate amount of SAPs could improve root length, shoot length, total biomass, germination potential and germination rate. It indicates that this SAP is not toxic to plants and can promote seed germination, and at the same time provides a possibility of replacing other substrates. PMID:29515838

  19. Effect of Vermicompost Extract and Vermicompost-Derived Humic Acids on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Hemp

    Ievinsh Gederts

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemp (Cannabis sativa L. cultivars grown for industrial use have recently emerged as a sustainable alternative source of industrial fibre and bioenergy, and is a highly valuable food and animal feed resource. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of vermicompost extract, vermicompost mineral nutrient composition, and vermicompost-derived humic and fulvic acids on seed germination and growth of hemp seedlings. In general, separate application of all vermicompost components stimulated seed germination and hypocotyl and radicle growth, as well as increased chlorophyll concentration in cotyledons. Effective concentration range and the degree of stimulation varied significantly between the treatments. For practical purposes, application of vermicompost and vermicompost-derived extracts for stimulation of hemp growth could be useful at concentrations 5%, 0.05 mg·mL−1 and 1%, for vermicompost extract, humic acids and fulvic acids, respectively.

  20. DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 mediates a conserved coat-dormancy mechanism for the temperature- and gibberellin-dependent control of seed germination

    Graeber, K.; Linkies, A.; Steinbrecher, T.; Tarkowská, D. (Danuše); Turečková, V. (Veronika); Ignatz, M.; Voegele, A.; Urbanová, T. (Terezie); Strnad, M. (Miroslav); Leubner-Metzger, G. (Gerhard)

    2014-01-01

    Seed germination is an important life-cycle transition because it determines subsequent plant survival and reproductive success. To detect optimal spatiotemporal conditions for germination, seeds act as sophisticated environmental sensors integrating information such as ambient temperature. Here we show that the DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 (DOG1) gene, known for providing dormancy adaptation to distinct environments, determines the optimal temperature for seed germination. By reciprocal gene-swapp...

  1. In vitro propagation of the Garden Heliotrope, Valeriana officinalis L.: influence of pre-chilling and light on seed germination.

    Bhat, B; Sharma, V D

    2015-03-01

    Valeriana officinalis is an important medicinal herb commonly found in Kashmir valley. This study forms an important preliminary step for in-vitro micro propagation of V. officinalis from breaking the seed dormancy, inducing rapid seed germination and its subsequent micro propagation. We investigated the influence of pretreatment of V. officinalis seeds with reduced temperature and light on seed germination and in-vitro propagation. Culture of explants from cultivated seeds have demonstrated its potential for in vitro propagation and plantlet regeneration. Individual as well as combinations of treatments such as temperature and light availability influenced the germination of seeds variedly. Unchilled seeds of V. officinalis were given dip in GA3 (200 ppm) for 24, 48 and 120 h. Seeds treated with GA3 for 24 h and kept in darkness showed the best results, i.e. 48%. Seeds pretreated with GA3 for 120 h and incubated in dark showed 40% germination. Pre-chilling up to 72 h and kept in light showed maximum germination of 60% followed by 40% kept in darkness. Pre-chilling for 48 h resulted in 40 and 25% seed germination in light and darkness, respectively. GA3 pre-treatment for 72 h and 24 h pre chilling were most effective in inducing seed germination. Maximum shoot response was obtained on MS enriched with BAP (1 mg/L) + IAA (0.1 mg/L) combinations using shoot tips as explants. Multiple shoot regeneration from shoot apices was recorded on BAP (1 mg/L) and BAP (1 mg/L) + IAA (0.1 mg/L).

  2. Asymbiotic seed germination and in vitro conservation of Coelogyne nervosa A. Rich. an endemic orchid to Western Ghats.

    Abraham, Sonia; Augustine, Jomy; Thomas, T Dennis

    2012-07-01

    Coelogyne nervosa is an epiphytic orchid endemic to Western Ghats, South India. The mature seeds of C. nervosa were cultured on ½ MS (Murashige and Skoog), MS, Kn (Knudson) and VW (Vacin and Went) media to evaluate the seed germination response. Of the four basal media used, MS medium supported maximum seed germination. Further experiments to enhance seed germination were done on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations (10, 20, 30 and 40 %) of coconut water (CW). Thirty percent CW gave the highest response in terms of percent seed germination (96), fresh weight (7.2 mg/seedling) and protocorm length (15.2 mm). Since CW containing medium did not support further seedling growth, each seedling was isolated and cultured on MS medium supplemented with either BA (6-benzylaminopurine) or Kin (kinetin) alone (1.0-4.0 mg/l each) or in combination with NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid; 0.2-1.0 mg/l). Maximum growth was observed on MS medium supplemented with BA (3.0 mg/l) and NAA (0.5 mg/l). On this medium, the seedlings reached an average length of 3.6 cm with 2.8 well expanded green leaves per seedling. Similarly optimum, healthy, white root induction (3.3 roots/seedlings) was also observed on the same medium. The rooted seedlings were successfully transplanted to pots with 91 % success. The 2-year-old tissue culture derived plants produced normal flowers and fruits.

  3. Seed germination response to high temperature and water stress in three invasive Asteraceae weeds from Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Yuan, Xia; Wen, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Crassocephalum crepidioides, Conyza canadensis, and Ageratum conyzoides are alien annuals naturalized in China, which produce a large number of viable seeds every year. They widely grow in Xishuangbanna, becoming troublesome weeds that compete with crops for water and nutrients. As seed germination is among the most important life-stages which contribute to plant distribution and invasiveness, its adaptation to temperature and water stress were investigated in these three species. Results showed that: (1) These three species have wide temperature ranges to allow seed germination, i.e., high germination and seedling percentages were achieved between 15°C and 30°C, but germination was seriously inhibited at 35°C; only A. conyzoides demonstrated relative preference for warmer temperatures with approximately 25% germination and seedling percentage at 35°C; (2) light was a vital germination prerequisite for C. crepidioides and A. conyzoides, whereas most C. canadensis seeds germinated in full darkness; (3) Although all three species have good adaptation to bare ground habitat characterized by high temperatures and water stress, including their tolerance to soil surface temperatures of 70°C in air-dried seeds, A. conyzoides seeds exhibited higher tolerance to both continuous and daily periodic high-temperature treatment at 40°C, and to water restriction (e.g., ca. 65% seeds germinated to -0.8 MPa created by NaCl), which is consistent with their field behavior in Xishuangbanna. This study suggests that seed high-temperature tolerance contributes to the weed attributes of these three species, and that adaptation to local micro-habitats is a critical determinant for invasiveness of an alien plant.

  4. Identification of QTLs for seed germination capability after various storage periods using two RIL populations in rice.

    Jiang, Wenzhu; Lee, Joohyun; Jin, Yong-Mei; Qiao, Yongli; Piao, Rihua; Jang, Sun Mi; Woo, Mi-Ok; Kwon, Soon-Wook; Liu, Xianhu; Pan, Hong-Yu; Du, Xinglin; Koh, Hee-Jong

    2011-04-01

    Seed germination capability of rice is one of the important traits in the production and storage of seeds. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with seed germination capability in various storage periods was identified using two sets of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) which derived from crosses between Milyang 23 and Tong 88-7 (MT-RILs) and between Dasanbyeo and TR22183 (DT-RILs). A total of five and three main additive effects (QTLs) associated with seed germination capability were identified in MT-RILs and DT-RILs, respectively. Among them, six QTLs were identified repeatedly in various seed storage periods designated as qMT-SGC5.1, qMT-SGC7.2, and qMT-SGC9.1 on chromosomes 5, 7, and 9 in MT-RILs, and qDT-SGC2.1, qDT-SGC3.1, and qDT-SGC9.1 on chromosomes 2, 3, and 9 in DT-RILs, respectively. The QTL on chromosome 9 was identified in both RIL populations under all three storage periods, explaining up to 40% of the phenotypic variation. Eight and eighteen pairs additive × additive epistatic effect (epistatic QTL) were identified in MT-RILs and DT-RILs, respectively. In addition, several near isogenic lines (NILs) were developed to confirm six repeatable QTL effects using controlled deterioration test (CDT). The identified QTLs will be further studied to elucidate the mechanisms controlling seed germination capability, which have important implications for long-term seed storage.

  5. STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF VARIOUS STERILANTS AND CULTURE CONDITIONS ON IN-VITRO SEED GERMINATION IN TOMATO (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM)

    K.B.Himabindu; M.Shanthi Priya; D.Mohan Reddy; P.Sudhakar; Y.Srinivasulu; M.Reddisekhar; P.Latha; B.Rupesh Kumar Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Studies on the effectiveness of various sterilants and culture conditions on in-vitro seed germination in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cv. PKM-1 revealed that among three sterilants used, surface sterilization of seeds with 5 % NaOCl for 20 minutes was found to be more effective resulting in high germination rate and contamination free cultures. Similarly among the different media and culture conditions considered in the present experiment, MS medium without sucrose with dark incubation f...

  6. The influence of time and severity of Striga infection on the Sorghum bicolor - Striga hermonthica association

    Ast, van A.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: Striga hermonthica , Sorghum bicolor , infection time, infection level, tolerance.This thesis presents the results of a study on the interaction between the parasitic weed Strigahermonthica (Del.) Benth. and sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench). The main objective of the study was

  7. 12-Oxo-Phytodienoic Acid Accumulation during Seed Development Represses Seed Germination in Arabidopsis[C][W][OA

    Dave, Anuja; Hernández, M. Luisa; He, Zhesi; Andriotis, Vasilios M.E.; Vaistij, Fabián E.; Larson, Tony R.; Graham, Ian A.

    2011-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana COMATOSE (CTS) encodes an ABC transporter involved in peroxisomal import of substrates for β-oxidation. Various cts alleles and mutants disrupted in steps of peroxisomal β-oxidation have previously been reported to exhibit a severe block on seed germination. Oxylipin analysis on cts, acyl CoA oxidase1 acyl CoA oxidase2 (acx1 acx2), and keto acyl thiolase2 dry seeds revealed that they contain elevated levels of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), jasmonic acid (JA), and JA-Ile. Oxylipin and transcriptomic analysis showed that accumulation of these oxylipins occurs during late seed maturation in cts. Analysis of double mutants generated by crossing cts with mutants in the JA biosynthesis pathway indicate that OPDA, rather than JA or JA-Ile, contributes to the block on germination in cts seeds. We found that OPDA was more effective at inhibiting wild-type germination than was JA and that this effect was independent of CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 but was synergistic with abscisic acid (ABA). Consistent with this, OPDA treatment increased ABA INSENSITIVE5 protein abundance in a manner that parallels the inhibitory effect of OPDA and OPDA+ABA on seed germination. These results demonstrate that OPDA acts along with ABA to regulate seed germination in Arabidopsis. PMID:21335376

  8. Is induction ability of seed germination of Phelipanche ramosa phylogenetically structured among hosts? A case study on Fabaceae species.

    Perronne, Rémi; Gibot-Leclerc, Stéphanie; Dessaint, Fabrice; Reibel, Carole; Le Corre, Valérie

    2017-12-01

    Phelipanche ramosa is a major root-holoparasitic damaging weed characterized by a broad host range, including numerous Fabaceae species. In France, the agricultural threat posed by P. ramosa has increased over two decades due to the appearance of a genetically differentiated pathovar presenting a clear host specificity for oilseed rape. The new pathovar has led to a massive expansion of P. ramosa in oilseed rape fields. The germination rate of P. ramosa seeds is currently known to vary among P. ramosa pathovars and host species. However, only a few studies have investigated whether phylogenetic relatedness among potential host species is a predictor of the ability of these species to induce the seed germination of parasitic weeds by testing for phylogenetic signal. We focused on a set of 12 Fabaceae species and we assessed the rate of induction of seed germination by these species for two pathovars based on in vitro co-cultivation experiments. All Fabaceae species tested induced the germination of P. ramosa seeds. The germination rate of P. ramosa seeds varied between Fabaceae species and tribes studied, while pathovars appeared non-influential. Considering oilseed rape as a reference species, we also highlighted a significant phylogenetic signal. Phylogenetically related species therefore showed more similar rates of induction of seed germination than species drawn at random from a phylogenetic tree. In in vitro conditions, only Lotus corniculatus induced a significantly higher germination rate than oilseed rape, and could potentially be used as a catch crop after confirmation of these results under field conditions.

  9. Effect of biologically treated petroleum sludge on seed germination and seedling growth of Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. (Fabaceae

    Jeyabalan Sangeetha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to study the response of different concentrations of treated petroleum sludge on seed germination, root and shoot length and tolerance of Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. The biologically treated petroleum sludge with bacterial consortium showed 54.8% reduction in total petroleum hydrocarbons. Treated sludge was utilized with agricultural soil in known concentration for the assessment of growth of V. unguiculata. A remarkable absence of seed germination was observed at higher sludge concentration. The different concentrations of treated petroleum sludge showed severe decline on the length, weight and vigour index of the tested seedlings with increasing sludge concentrations. The results showed that the difference in rate of seed germination was significant among various concentrations. Under environmental stress condition, germination is the most critical phase of life cycle in crop plants. In this present study, the high oil content found to alter the osmotic relation between seed and water and thus reduce the amount of water absorbed. It was concluded that the concentration of nutrients and oil present in the treated sludge were toxic to the plant.

  10. Ectopic expression of soybean gmsbh1 confers aba sensitivity during seed germination and early seedling establishment in transgenic arabidopsis

    Shu, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Huang, S.; Chen, M.; Huang, L.; Ma, H.

    2017-01-01

    The class I KNOX homeobox transcription factors are known to play an important role in maintenance of plant phenotype, especially leaves and flowers. In this study, a soybean KNOX I homeobox transcription factor, GmSBH1, was analyzed and confirmed to play important roles in the process of seed germination and developing. Real time quantitative PCR assay showed that the transcript level of GmSBH1 in soybean seedlings was modulated by plant hormones, such as IAA, GA, MeJA and ABA.Yeast one-hybrid assay showed that GmSBH1 could bind to the ABRE cis-element. Overexpression of GmSBH1 in Arabidopsis resulted in the abnormal phenotype of flowers and siliques. In GmSBH1 transgenic lines, both seed germination and seedlings growth showed hypersensitive to ABA. Moreover, the expression of ABA-responsive genes, such as ABI3 and ABI5, were increased in the transgenic line seedlings. Taken together, ectopic expression of GmSBH1 could alter the morphology and confer ABA sensitivity during seed germination and early seedling growth in transgenic Arabidopsis. (author)

  11. Effects of proton beam irradiation on seed germination and growth of soybean ( Glycine max L. Merr.)

    Im, Juhyun; Kim, Woon Ji; Kim, Sang Hun; Ha, Bo-Keun

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the morphological effects of proton beam irradiation on the seed germination, seedling survival, and plant growth of soybean. Seeds of three Korean elite cultivars (Kwangankong, Daepungkong, and Pungsannamulkong) were irradiated with a 57-MeV proton beam in the range of 50 - 400 Gy. The germination rates of all the varieties increased to > 95%; however, the survival rates were significantly reduced. At doses of > 300 Gy irradiation, the Daepungkong, Kwangankong, and Pungsannamulkong cultivars exhibited 39, 75, and 71% survival rates, respectively. In addition, plant height and the fresh weight of shoots and roots were significantly decreased by doses of > 100 Gy irradiation, as were the dry weights of the shoots and roots. However, SPAD values increased with increasing doses of irradiation. Abnormal plants with atypically branched stems, modified leaves, and chlorophyll mutations were observed. Based on the survival rate, plant growth inhibition, and mutation frequency, it appears that the optimum dosage of proton beam irradiation for soybean mutation breeding is between 250 and 300 Gy.

  12. Effect of seed coat on the seed germination and seedling development of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (Clusiaceae

    Valquíria Aparecida Mendes de Jesus

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the effect of the Calophyllum brasiliense seed coat on the seed germination process. To this end, three experiments were conducted in laboratory, greenhouse and screenhouse. From a total of six treatments, five are related to the seed coat (mechanical scarification; mechanical scarification followed by 2 hours in water, chemical scarification, hot water immersion and complete seed coat removal and one control. Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design (CRD. Screenhouse experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design (RBD. We evaluated the total percentage, the speed index and the average time of germination or emergence. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and means compared by LSD test, at 5%. Under the conditions of this work, it was possible to infer that, in laboratory, mechanical scarification followed by 2 hours in water increases the proportion and germination speed index (GSI, in the greenhouse, the complete seed coat removal increases the percentage and emergence speed index (ESI, and in the screenhouse, mechanical scarification followed by 2 hours in water and chemical scarification presented the best results. The average germination time was not significantly different in the three experiments evaluated.

  13. In Vitro Seeds Germination and Seedling Growth of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae)).

    Koné, Mongomaké; Koné, Tchoa; Silué, Nakpalo; Soumahoro, André Brahima; Kouakou, Tanoh Hilaire

    2015-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an indigenous grain legume. It occupies a prominent place in the strategies to ensure food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Development of an efficient in vitro regeneration system, a prerequisite for genetic transformation application, requires the establishment of optimal conditions for seeds germination and plantlets development. Three types of seeds were inoculated on different basal media devoid of growth regulators. Various strengths of the medium of choice and the type and concentration of carbon source were also investigated. Responses to germination varied with the type of seed. Embryonic axis (EA) followed by seeds without coat (SWtC) germinated rapidly and expressed a high rate of germination. The growth performances of plantlets varied with the basal medium composition and the seeds type. The optimal growth performances of plants were displayed on half strength MS basal medium with SWtC and EA as source of seeds. Addition of 3% sucrose in the culture medium was more suitable for a maximum growth of plantlets derived from EA.

  14. Seed germination of three species of Fabaceae typical of seasonally dry forest

    Daniel Meira Arruda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates seeds germination of Anadenanthera colubrina, Acacia polyphylla and Bauhinia cheilantha, typical species of deciduous forests. Seeds were submitted to pre-germination treatments and attack of native insects. The seeds of each species were grouped in: seeds scarified with sandpaper; seeds immersed in water heated to 70 °C, seeds with signs of attack by herbivore insects and the control group. The largest proportion of germinated seeds occurred in the first week of incubation and germination peak, ranged from first to third day. All groups of A. polyphylla and B.cheilantha showed high germination rate (> 90%, being reduced only when seeds were attacked by insects (< 25%. Mechanic scarification was efficient in A. polyphylla by enhancing germination to maximum (100% and accelerating germination. A. colubrina showed no difference among groups, and germination rate was lower (< 50%, which was attributed to infestation by fungi, commonly reported in this species and apparently independent of usual hygiene procedures. Finally, except the fungi infestation in A. colubrina, evaluated species were independent of pre-germination treatment to obtain a high rate of germination.

  15. Interaction of prechilling, temperature, osmotic stress, and light in Picea abies seed germination

    Leinonen, K.; Rita, H.

    1995-01-01

    A multi-factor experimental approach and proportional odds model was used to study interactions between five environmental factors significant to Norway spruce seed germination: prechilling (at +4.5 °C), suboptimal temperatures (+12 and +16 °C), osmotically induced water stress (–0.3 Mpa and 0 Mpa), prolonged white light, and short-period far-red light. Temperature and osmotic stress interacted with one another in the germination of seeds: the effect of osmotic stress being stronger at +16 °C than at +12 °C. In natural conditions, this interaction may prevent germination early in the summer when soil dries and temperature increases. Prolonged white light prevented germination at low temperature and low osmotic potential. Inhibitory effect was less at higher temperatures and higher osmotic potential, as well as after prechilling. Short-period far-red light did not prevent germination of unchilled seeds in darkness. Prechilling tended to make seeds sensitive to short pulses of far-red light, an effect which depended on temperature: at +12 °C the effect on germination was promotive, but at +16 °C, inhibitory and partly reversible by white light. It seems that Norway spruce seeds may have adapted to germinate in canopy shade light rich in far-red. The seeds may also have evolved mechanisms to inhibit germination in prolonged light

  16. Abscisic acid in the thermoinhibition of lettuce seed germination and enhancement of its catabolism by gibberellin.

    Gonai, Takeru; Kawahara, Shusuke; Tougou, Makoto; Satoh, Shigeru; Hashiba, Teruyoshi; Hirai, Nobuhiro; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Kamiya, Yuji; Yoshioka, Toshihito

    2004-01-01

    Germination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. 'Grand Rapids') seeds was inhibited at high temperatures (thermoinhibition). Thermoinhibition at 28 degrees C was prevented by the application of fluridone, an inhibitor of abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis. At 33 degrees C, the sensitivity of the seeds to ABA increased, and fluridone on its own was no longer effective. However, a combined application of fluridone and gibberellic acid (GA3) was able to restore the germination. Exogenous GA3 lowered endogenous ABA content in the seeds, enhancing catabolism of ABA and export of the catabolites from the intact seeds. The fluridone application also decreased the ABA content. Consequently, the combined application of fluridone and GA3 decreased the ABA content to a sufficiently low level to allow germination at 33 degrees C. There was no significant temperature-dependent change in endogenous GA1 contents. It is concluded that ABA is an important factor in the regulation of thermoinhibition of lettuce seed germination, and that GA affects the temperature responsiveness of the seeds through ABA metabolism.

  17. Assessment of Rice Associated Bacterial Ability to Enhance Rice Seed Germination and Rice Growth Promotion

    R. Gholamalizadeh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The application of beneficial bacteria has recently been used for sustainable agriculture. In current research, 71 bacterial isolates were obtained from rice plant and the rhizosphere soil of different paddy fields in Guilan province, Iran. After primitive investigation, 40 bacteria with typical predominant characteristics were selected. By PCR-RFLP of their 16S r-DNA gene, 8 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs totally consisted of 33 isolates were obtained. From all of them, 8 isolates were selected for rice seed germination experiment, then, effective isolates were used for pot experiment to evaluate their ability for promoting rice growth. All of them were able to increase rice growth and yield, but in different potential. These tested isolates were identified as Alcaligenes faecalis (DEp8, O1R4, Pantoea ananatis (AEn1, Bacillus vietnamensis (MR5, Bacillus idriensis (MR2 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia by partial sequencing of their 16S r-DNA gene. Among them, AEn1 and MR5 produced indole-3- acetic acid (IAA in larger amounts than the other isolates and the isolates AEn1 and O1R4 were able to solubilize phosphate in higher amounts. According to the results obtained, it can be concluded that AEn1, O1R4 and MR5 can be considered as bacterial inoculants to use as alternatives for chemical fertilizers.

  18. Asymbiotic seed germination and in vitro propagation of Cattleya trianae Linden & Reichb.f. (Orchidaceae

    Seir Antonio Salazar Mercado

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cattleya trianae (Linden & Reichb.f., 1860, Colombian national flower, is in danger of extinction due to the destruction of its natural habitats and excessive collection for horticultural purposes. Therefore, in vitro culture is a tool for the conservation of threatened species. In this study we determined the most suitable culture medium for asimbytic seed germination and in vitro propagation of C. trianae. Initially, mature capsules were collected, the seeds were subsequently disinfected and seeded with the syringe method (Vendrame et al., 2007, to evaluate the effect of five media on the development of C. trianae after 20 weeks. The seedlings were transplanted and acclimated using different substrates. The best percentage (54.2% of seedling formation after 20 weeks was found in MS + JP medium with significant differences (P <0.05: Tukey HSD. In this research, it is reported that the addition of organic additives to the MS medium improves the efficacy of this, and therefore, allows a greater growth and development of C. trianae under in vitro conditions.

  19. Induction of seed germination in Orobanche spp. by extracts of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs.

    Ma, YongQing; Zhang, Wei; Dong, ShuQi; Ren, XiangXiang; An, Yu; Lang, Ming

    2012-03-01

    The co-evolution of Orobanche spp. and their hosts within the same environment has resulted in a high degree of adaptation and effective parasitism whereby the host releases parasite germination stimulants, which are likely to be unstable in the soil. Our objective was to investigate whether extracts from non-host plants, specifically, Chinese medicinal plants, could stimulate germination of Orobanche spp. Samples of 606 Chinese medicinal herb species were extracted with deionized water and methanol. The extracts were used to induce germination of three Orobanche species; Orobanche minor, Orobanche cumana, and Orobanche aegyptiaca. O. minor exhibited a wide range of germination responses to the various herbal extracts. O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca exhibited an intermediate germination response to the herbal extracts. O. minor, which has a narrow host spectrum, showed higher germination rates in response to different herbal extracts compared with those of O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca, which have a broader host spectrum. Methanolic extracts of many Chinese herbal species effectively stimulated seed germination among the Orobanche spp., even though they were not the typical hosts. The effective herbs represent interesting examples of potential trap crops. Different countries can also screen extracts from indigenous herbaceous plants for their ability to induce germination of Orobanche spp. seeds. The use of such species as trap plants could diminish the global soil seed bank of Orobanche.

  20. Winery wastewater inhibits seed germination and vegetative growth of common crop species.

    Mosse, Kim P M; Patti, Antonio F; Christen, Evan W; Cavagnaro, Timothy R

    2010-08-15

    The ability to reuse winery wastewater would be of significant benefit to the wine industry, as it could potentially be a cost-effective method of wastewater management, whilst at the same time providing a valuable water resource. This study investigated the effects of different dilutions of a semi-synthetic winery wastewater on the growth and germination of four common crop species in a glasshouse study; barley (Hordeum vulgare), millet (Pennisetum glaucum), lucerne (Medicago sativa) and phalaris (Phalaris aquatica). The wastewater caused a significant delay in the germination of lucerne, millet and phalaris, although overall germination percentage of all species was not affected. Vegetative growth was significantly reduced in all species, with millet being the most severely affected. The germination index of barley correlated very highly (r(2)=0.99) with barley biomass, indicating that barley seed germination bioassays are highly relevant to plant growth, and therefore may be of use as a bioassay for winery wastewater toxicity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of bio-nanogold on seed germination and seedling growth in Pennisetum glaucum.

    Parveen, Asra; Mazhari, Bi Bi Zainab; Rao, Srinath

    2016-12-01

    Nanotechnology is leading towards the development of low cost applications to improve the cultivation and growth of plants. The use of nanotechnology in agriculture will leads to a significant effect on food industry along with opening a new area of research in agroecosystem. In this paper gold nanoparticles were biosynthesized with Cassia auriculata leaf extract at room temperature and characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The objective of this study was to investigate effect of synthesized bio-nanogold on an important food and biofuel producing plant Pennisetum glaucum. Positive effects were observed on percentage of seed germination and growth of seedlings. Improved germination and increased plant biomass have high economic importance in production of biofuel or raw materials, agriculture and horticulture. Although the impact of nanoparticles on plants depends on concentration, size and shape. The biological synthesized AuNPs can replace the chemically synthesized AuNPs used in gene transfer method. The study gives brief insight on nanoparticles effects on plants, brings attention on both positive and negative side of nanomaterial which can resolve phytopathological infections by stimulating nutrition and growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fire cue effects on seed germination of six species of northwestern Patagonian grasslands

    Gonzalez, S. L.; Ghermandi, L.

    2012-09-01

    Postfire recruitment of seedlings has been attributed to a stimulation of germination by fire-related cues. The germination response to heat shock (80 °C - 5 min), smoke (60 min), the combination of both factors and no heat no smoke (control) was studied in six native species (two dominant grasses, two dominant shrubs and two annual fugitive herbs) of northwestern Patagonian grasslands. Seeds of the grasses Festuca pallescens and Stipa speciosa and the shrub Senecio bracteolatus (Asteraceae) germinated when they were exposed to heat shock, whereas seeds of the other shrub, Mulinum spinosum (Apiaceae), were killed by this fire cue. In grasses, probably the glume of caryopsis protected embryos from heat. Possibly, the seed size could explain the different responses of the two shrubs. Heat combined with smoke reduced seed germination for S. speciosa and S. bracteolatus. The heat could have scarified seeds and the longer exposure to smoke could have been toxic for embryos. The same treatment increased germination of the annual fugitive herb Boopis gracilis (Calyceraceae). We concluded that fire differentially affects the seedling recruitment of the studied species in the northwestern Patagonian grasslands.

  3. Effects of plant growth regulators on seed germination and callus induction of hylocereus costaricensis

    Sheng, W.K.

    2016-01-01

    Dragon fruit (Hylocereus costaricensis) belongs to the family Cactaceae and are climbing vines which have received worldwide attention in recent years. However, there are still lack of information on the protocols for the establishment of In vitro culture system. In the present study, seed germination percentage were determined by culturing seeds on semi-solid Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with 1 ppm 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) together with either 0, 0.5 or 0.8 ppm of Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Germination percentage was the highest by using plant growth regulators (PGRs) combination of 1 ppm BAP and 0 ppm IBA (93.33%). Subsequently, the cotyledons from seedlings of the germinated seeds were used for subsequent callus induction. Small pieces of cotyledons were excised and cultured on MS medium fortified with 0.45, 0.9, 1.8, 2.7, 3.6, and 4.5 ppm of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) together with either 0, 0.9 or 1.8 ppm of BAP. Callus induction percentage was highest using the plant growth regulators (PGRs) combination of 3.6 ppm 2,4-D and 1.8 ppm BAP (75%). Hence, 3.6 ppm of 2,4-D and 1.8 ppm BAP was the best combination for callus induction of Hylocereus costaricensis. (author)

  4. Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobia on seed germination and seedling traits in Acacia senegal

    S.K. Singh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Among arid zone tree species, Acacia senegal and Prosopis cineraria are the most important dryland resources of Western Rajasthan desert ecosystem. Due to ecological, biological and molecular similarities, they are often studied together. The climatic conditions in this region restrict the build-up of soil organic matter and soils are generally deficient in nitrogen. Studies were carried out to isolate and molecularly characterize the diverse group of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from root nodules of native A. senegal and P. cineraria and their effect on seed germination and seedling traits in two genotypes of A. senegal. The direct sequencing of 16S rDNA region resulted in molecular identification of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as Bacillus licheniformis, Sinorhizobium saheli isolated from root nodules of A. senegal and S. kostiense and S. saheli isolated from root nodules of P. cineraria. The partial sequences of 16S rDNA were assigned Gen accession numbers HQ738496, HQ738499, HQ738506 and HQ738508. Scarification treatment with sulphuric acid (98% for 15 minutes was able to break the exogenous seed dormancy and enhanced germination percentage in control treatment to 90% and 92.5% in A. senegal in genotypes CAZRI 113AS and CAZRI 35AS, respectively. The treatments with Bacillus licheniformis or S. kostiense, either inoculated individually or as coinoculants, had positive effect on phenotypic traits of germination. Two A. senegal genotypes exhibited significant differences with regard to all the phenotypic traits. On the other hand, treatments with S. saheli isolated from either A. senegal or P. cineraria had negative effects on germination and related phenotypic traits. Values of the coeffivient of determination (R2 over 80% for root length versus shoot length, root/shoot ratio and seedling weight respectively validate that the observed attributes are inter-dependable and linear progression trend can be predicted.

  5. Effects of Storage and Exogenous Ga3 on Lychee Seed Germination

    Elizabeth Orika Ono

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of storage time and exogenous gibberellic acid on lychee seeds germination were studied. The seeds were removed from ripe fruits, washed, dried, stored at 8°C for 0, 15 and 30 days, and soaked during 24 hours in water and GA3 at 50, 100 and 200 mg.L-1 solutions. As the storage period increased, the germination capacity was lost, and the seeds had a short germinability after 30-day storage period. Gibberellic acid had not significant effect on enhancing both the germination percentage and rate.O trabalho teve como objetivo estudar os efeitos do tempo de armazenamento e de tratamentos com ácido giberélico, no processo germinativo de sementes de lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn.. As sementes foram retiradas de frutos maduros, lavadas, secas à sombra e colocadas para germinar imediatamente ou então, armazenadas em geladeira (8°C por 15 e 30 dias. Os tratamentos corresponderam à imersão das sementes por 24 horas nas seguintes soluções com aeração: água, GA3 a 50, 100 e 200 mg.L-1. Através dos resultados obtidos, observou-se que as sementes perderam o poder germinativo, à medida que aumentou-se o tempo de armazenamento, sendo a porcentagem de germinação muito baixa (7% aos 30 dias de armazenamento. O tempo médio de germinação foi menor após 15 dias de armazenamento.

  6. Effect of NaCl on seed germination in some Centaurium Hill. Species (Gentianaceae

    Živković S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of high NaCl concentrations on seed germination in both light and darkness was examined in the species Centaurium pulchellum, C. erythraea, C. littorale, C. spicatum, and C. tenuiflorum. Salt tolerance was found to depend on the life history of the seeds. To be specific, seeds of all five species failed to complete germination when exposed to continuous white light if kept all the time in the presence of 100-200 mM and greater NaCl concentrations. However, when after two weeks NaCl was rinsed from the seeds and the seeds were left in distilled water under white light for an additional two weeks, all species completed germination to a certain extent. The percent of germination not only depended on NaCl concentration in the prior medium, but was also species specific. Thus, seeds of C. pulchellum, C. erythraea, and C. littorale completed germination well almost irrespective of the salt concentration previously experienced. On the other hand, seeds of C. tenuiflorum completed germination poorly if NaCl concentrations in the prior media were greater than 200 mM. When seeds after washing were transferred to darkness for an additional 14 days, they failed to complete germination if previously imbibed on media containing NaCl concentrations greater than 400 mM. However, the seeds of all species, even if previously imbibed at 800 mM NaCl, could be induced to complete germination in darkness by 1 mM gibberellic acid. .

  7. Study of Seed Germination by Soaking Methode of Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Sulistyani Pancaningtyas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Study of germination methods conduct to get information about seed viability based on germination rate, percentage of germination and vigority. Germination methods was studied to get the efficiency and effectivity of germination, easy to handle, low costs with high vigority. Sand and gunny sack methods  for germination, need extensive place  and 3-4 days germination period after planting. This research will study the alternative of germination method with soaking. This method can be accelerating  germination rate and effectively place usage without decreasing the quality of cacao seedling.The research was done at Kaliwining Experimental Station, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institue. This research consist of two experiment was arranged based on factorial completely random design. First experiment will observed to compared germination rate and the second experiment will observed seedling quality between soaking and wet gunny sack germination method.The results showed that length of radicel on soaking method longer than wet gunny sack method. Growth of radicel started from 2 hours after soaking, moreover length of radicel at 4 hours after soaking have significant different value with gunny sack method. On 24 hours after soaking have 3,69 mm and 0,681 mm on wet gunny sack treatment. Except lengt of hipocotyl, there is not different condition between seedling that out came  from soaking and wet gunny sack method. Length of hipocotyl on 36 hours after soaking have 9,15 cm and significant different between wet gunny sack germination method that have 5,40 cm. Keywords : seed germination, soaking method, Theobroma cacao L., cocoa seedlings

  8. In vitro seed germination of economically important edible bamboo Dendrocalamus membranaceus Munro.

    Brar, Jasmine; Anand, Manju; Sood, Anil

    2013-01-01

    An in vitro propagation protocol using mature seeds of D. membranaceus was successfully established. Scarcity of seeds in bamboos because of their long flowering periods and irregular seed set resulting in low viability and germination potential, motivated us to undertake the present study. The effects of sterilants, light conditions, exogenous application of plant growth regulators and temperature in overcoming germination barriers in ageing seeds of bamboo were studied. It was found that HgCl2 (0.1%) along with bleach (15%) was more effective in raising aseptic cultures. Dark conditions, high temperatures around 30 degrees C and soaking of seeds in GA3 solution (50 ppm) overnight stimulated high percent of seed germination with corresponding increase in shoot length (2.7 +/- 0.7 mm) and number of sprouts (2.1 +/- 0.7) per explants during culture initiation. 6-benzylaminopurine acted synergistically with kinetin to give optimum germination rate of 70 +/- 13.9% as compared to 63.13% when used individually. For prolonged maintenance of cultures, 2% sucrose was found to be suitable for promoting photomixotrophic micropropagation. Following this procedure, about 65% survival of plantlets could be achieved during hardening. Biochemically seeds consume starchy endosperm for emergence of radicle which is taken as a sign of germination as also evident from the present study. Loss of viability and vigour after a year was confirmed by Tetrazolium chloride test. Micropropagation protocol developed here will ensure regeneration of large number of plants in a relatively short time. Conclusively, in vitro propagation protocol developed in D. membranaceus using mature seeds as an explants is reported for the first time.

  9. Developmental variation during seed germination and biochemical responses of Brassica rapa exposed to various colored lights.

    Nawaz, Tausif; Ahmad, Nisar; Ali, Shahid; Khan, Maaz; Fazal, Hina; Khalil, Shahid Akbar

    2018-02-01

    Light acting as elicitor or stress inducer, it plays a pivotal role in all developmental processes of plant providing necessary building blocks for growth and primary and secondary metabolites production. The main objective of the current study was to investigate the individual effect of colored lights on developmental processes and production of polyphenolics contents in Brassica rapa. In this study, the red and white lights (control) were found to be the most effective sources for seed germination (91%) in Brassica rapa. Similarly, red light enhanced radicle growth (102 mm), while green light suppressed radicle growth (60 mm) as compared to control (67 mm). The red light also promoted the plumule growth (50 mm) as compared to control (37 mm). The maximum biomass gain (67 mg) was observed under red light as compared to control (55 mg). Currently, the maximum total phenolics content (9.49 mg/g-DW) and phenolics production (379.616 mg/L) was observed under the influence of blue lights as compared to control (0.23 mg/g-DW and 8.91 mg/L). Similarly, the blue lights also enhanced the biosynthesis of total flavonoids content (2.2611 mg/g-DW) and flavonoids production (90.44 mg/L) as compared to control (0.0318 md/g-DW and 0.8268 mg/L). The current results represents that red and blue lights are the most effective sources for plantlets development and production of polyphenolics content in Brassica rapa. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. ESTs analysis reveals putative genes involved in symbiotic seed germination in Dendrobium officinale.

    Zhao, Ming-Ming; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Da-Wei; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2013-01-01

    Dendrobiumofficinale (Orchidaceae) is one of the world's most endangered plants with great medicinal value. In nature, D. officinale seeds must establish symbiotic relationships with fungi to germinate. However, the molecular events involved in the interaction between fungus and plant during this process are poorly understood. To isolate the genes involved in symbiotic germination, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library of symbiotically germinated D. officinale seeds was constructed. From this library, 1437 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were clustered to 1074 Unigenes (including 902 singletons and 172 contigs), which were searched against the NCBI non-redundant (NR) protein database (E-value cutoff, e(-5)). Based on sequence similarity with known proteins, 579 differentially expressed genes in D. officinale were identified and classified into different functional categories by Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The expression levels of 15 selected genes emblematic of symbiotic germination were confirmed via real-time quantitative PCR. These genes were classified into various categories, including defense and stress response, metabolism, transcriptional regulation, transport process and signal transduction pathways. All transcripts were upregulated in the symbiotically germinated seeds (SGS). The functions of these genes in symbiotic germination were predicted. Furthermore, two fungus-induced calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), which were upregulated 6.76- and 26.69-fold in SGS compared with un-germinated seeds (UGS), were cloned from D. officinale and characterized for the first time. This study provides the first global overview of genes putatively involved in D. officinale symbiotic seed germination and provides a foundation for further functional research regarding symbiotic relationships in orchids.

  11. ESTs Analysis Reveals Putative Genes Involved in Symbiotic Seed Germination in Dendrobium officinale

    Zhao, Ming-Ming; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Da-Wei; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2013-01-01

    Dendrobium officinale (Orchidaceae) is one of the world’s most endangered plants with great medicinal value. In nature, D . officinale seeds must establish symbiotic relationships with fungi to germinate. However, the molecular events involved in the interaction between fungus and plant during this process are poorly understood. To isolate the genes involved in symbiotic germination, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library of symbiotically germinated D . officinale seeds was constructed. From this library, 1437 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were clustered to 1074 Unigenes (including 902 singletons and 172 contigs), which were searched against the NCBI non-redundant (NR) protein database (E-value cutoff, e-5). Based on sequence similarity with known proteins, 579 differentially expressed genes in D . officinale were identified and classified into different functional categories by Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The expression levels of 15 selected genes emblematic of symbiotic germination were confirmed via real-time quantitative PCR. These genes were classified into various categories, including defense and stress response, metabolism, transcriptional regulation, transport process and signal transduction pathways. All transcripts were upregulated in the symbiotically germinated seeds (SGS). The functions of these genes in symbiotic germination were predicted. Furthermore, two fungus-induced calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), which were upregulated 6.76- and 26.69-fold in SGS compared with un-germinated seeds (UGS), were cloned from D . officinale and characterized for the first time. This study provides the first global overview of genes putatively involved in D . officinale symbiotic seed germination and provides a foundation for further functional research regarding symbiotic relationships in orchids. PMID:23967335

  12. ESTs analysis reveals putative genes involved in symbiotic seed germination in Dendrobium officinale.

    Ming-Ming Zhao

    Full Text Available Dendrobiumofficinale (Orchidaceae is one of the world's most endangered plants with great medicinal value. In nature, D. officinale seeds must establish symbiotic relationships with fungi to germinate. However, the molecular events involved in the interaction between fungus and plant during this process are poorly understood. To isolate the genes involved in symbiotic germination, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH cDNA library of symbiotically germinated D. officinale seeds was constructed. From this library, 1437 expressed sequence tags (ESTs were clustered to 1074 Unigenes (including 902 singletons and 172 contigs, which were searched against the NCBI non-redundant (NR protein database (E-value cutoff, e(-5. Based on sequence similarity with known proteins, 579 differentially expressed genes in D. officinale were identified and classified into different functional categories by Gene Ontology (GO, Clusters of orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways. The expression levels of 15 selected genes emblematic of symbiotic germination were confirmed via real-time quantitative PCR. These genes were classified into various categories, including defense and stress response, metabolism, transcriptional regulation, transport process and signal transduction pathways. All transcripts were upregulated in the symbiotically germinated seeds (SGS. The functions of these genes in symbiotic germination were predicted. Furthermore, two fungus-induced calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs, which were upregulated 6.76- and 26.69-fold in SGS compared with un-germinated seeds (UGS, were cloned from D. officinale and characterized for the first time. This study provides the first global overview of genes putatively involved in D. officinale symbiotic seed germination and provides a foundation for further functional research regarding symbiotic relationships in orchids.

  13. Enhancement in seed germinability of rice (oryza sativa L.) by pre-sowing seed treatment with nitric oxide (NO) under salt stress

    Habib, N.; Ashraf, M.; Ahmad, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    The seeds of two fine-rice (Shaheen and PB-95) and two coarse rice (IRRI-6 and KS-282) cultivars were soaked in varying levels of nitric oxide (NO) (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 mM) and then exposed to 80 mM NaCl in sand culture. Application of salt stress significantly reduced seed germinability parameters of all four rice cultivars in terms of percent seed germinated, germination index and seedling fresh and dry weights. The toxic effects of salt stress in reducing seed germinability were greater in fine rice cultivars (Shaheen and PB-95) as compared to those in coarse ones (IRRI-6 and KS-282). Although, the application of lower levels of nitric oxide (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mM) as pre-sowing seed treatment showed a significant improvement, 0.1 and 0.2 mM NO were found to be the most effective in improving seed germinability under salt stress. With a further increase in NO concentration (0.3 mM) as pre-sowing seed treatment, the seed germinability parameters differed non-significantly from those of control plants, while the highest levels (0.4 and 0.5 mM) showed significant inhibitory effects on seed germination and early seedling growth. It was concluded that lower levels of NO (0.1 and 0.2 mM) could be used to effectively enhance seed germination of rice plants under salt stress. (author)

  14. Germination of witchweed [ Striga hermonthica (del.) Benth.] seeds ...

    Abstract. Using an adaptation of the Cut-root technique, twenty-one varieties of soybean were screened at 10, 15 and 20 days after planting (DAP) for the stimulation of S. hermonthica seed germination. ... These varieties may therefore be used in field crop rotation systems as an option for the management of S hermonthica.

  15. Effect of essential oil of Origanum rotundifolium on some plant pathogenic bacteria, seed germination and plant growth of tomato

    Dadaşoǧlu, Fatih; Kotan, Recep; Karagöz, Kenan; Dikbaş, Neslihan; Ćakmakçi, Ramazan; Ćakir, Ahmet; Kordali, Şaban; Özer, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine effect of Origanum rotundifolium's essential oil on some plant pathogenic bacterias, seed germination and plant growth of tomato. Xanthomonas axanopodis pv. vesicatoria strain (Xcv-761) and Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. michiganensis strain (Cmm) inoculated to tomato seed. The seeds were tested for germination in vitro and disease severity and some plant growth parameters in vivo. In vitro assay, maximum seed germination was observed at 62,5 µl/ml essential oil treatment in seeds inoculated with Xcv-761 and at 62,5 µl/ml essential oil and streptomycin treatment in seeds inoculated with Cmm. The least infected cotiledon number was observed at 500 µg/ml streptomycin treatment in seeds inoculated with Cmm. In vivo assay, maximum seed germination was observed at 250 µl/ml essential oil teratment in tomato inoculated with Cmm. Lowest disease severity, is seen in the CMM infected seeds with 250 µl/ml essential oil application these results were statistically significant when compared with pathogen infected seeds. Similarly, in application conducted with XCV-761 infected seed, the lowest disease severity was observed for seeds as a result of 250 µl/ml essential oil application. Also according to the results obtained from essential oil application of CMM infected seeds conducted with 62,5 µl/ml dose; while disease severity was found statistically insignificant compared to 250 µl/ml to essential oil application, ıt was found statistically significant compared to pathogen infected seeds. The results showed that essential oil of O. rotundifolium has a potential for some suppressed plant disease when it is used in appropriate dose.

  16. Seed Germination Behaviors Of Some Aerobic Rice Cultivars Oryza Sativa L After Priming With Polyethylene Glycol-8000 Peg-8000

    Elkheir H.A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed Priming Is Famous Technique To Accelerate Seed Germination Behaviors. This Experiment Was Conducted To Study The Effect Of Polyethylene Glycol-8000 Peg-8000 As Priming Agent On Seed Germination Behavior Of Some Aerobic Rice Cultivars Oryza Sativa L. Experiment Was Carried Out By Using Two-Factor Three Aerobic Rice Cultivars And Peg With Four Replications Which Arranged In Factorial System Design And Conducted With Completely Randomized Design. The Factor Was Varieties Which Were Inpago 8 V1 Ir64 V2 And Situbagendit V3 Combine With 4 Levels Of Peg Concentrations 0100 And 200 Gl-1 And Control With No Treatment. Experiment Was Repeated 4 Times So Total Number Of Experimental Units Were 48. Germination Parameters Measured Were Germination Percentage Germination Index Days Of 50 Germination Seedling Fresh Weight Mg Seedling Shoot Fresh Weight And Root Fresh Weight Mg Seedling Dry Weigh Mg Seedling Shoot Dry Weight And Root Dry Weight Mg ShootRoot Ratio Seedling Length Cm Seedling Root Length Cm And Shoot Length Cm And Seed Vigor Index. The Results Indicated That Seed Priming Significantly Affected Germination Behaviors Compared With Control Depending Upon Varieties. The Highest Germination Was Obtained Under Laboratory And Greenhouse Condition By The Treatment Of Peg 200 G L-1 On The Situbagendit And Ir-64 Variety 90.25 And 93.33 Respectively Compared To Control In Inpago-8 In Both Laboratory 75.75 And Greenhouse 80 . As Implementation To Increase Seed And Seedling Vigor Of Rice It Is A Best Practice To Use Peg Priming With 200 Gl-1 Solutions Depend Upon Varietal Response And We Suggest That More Research About The Effect Of Peg As Seed Priming Techniques On Seed Germination Behavior Of Many Grain Crops Is Needed To Confirm The Methodology.

  17. Proteomic Analysis of Lettuce Seed Germination and Thermoinhibition by Sampling of Individual Seeds at Germination and Removal of Storage Proteins by Polyethylene Glycol Fractionation1

    Song, Bin-Yan; Deng, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Yue; Liu, Shu-Jun; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Germination and thermoinhibition in lettuce (Lactuca sativa ‘Jianyexianfeng No. 1’) seeds were investigated by a proteomic comparison among dry seeds, germinated seeds at 15°C, at 15°C after imbibition at 25°C for 48 h, or at 25°C in KNO3 (all sampled individually at germination), and ungerminated seeds at 25°C, a thermoinhibitory temperature. Before two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis, storage proteins (greater than 50% of total extractable protein) were removed by polyethylene glycol precipitation, which significantly improved the detection of less abundant proteins on two-dimensional gels. A total of 108 protein spots were identified to change more than 2-fold (P lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition. Accumulation of three proteins and expression of five genes participating in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis correlated positively with seed germinability. Inhibition of this pathway by lovastatin delayed seed germination and increased the sensitivity of germination to abscisic acid. MVA pathway-derived products, cytokinins, partially reversed the lovastatin inhibition of germination and released seed thermoinhibition at 25°C. We conclude that the MVA pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis is involved in lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition. PMID:25736209

  18. Low-dose ionizing radiation limitations to seed germination: Results from a model linking physiological characteristics and developmental-dynamics simulation strategy.

    Liu, Hui; Hu, Dawei; Dong, Chen; Fu, Yuming; Liu, Guanghui; Qin, Youcai; Sun, Yi; Liu, Dianlei; Li, Lei; Liu, Hong

    2017-08-01

    There is much uncertainty about the risks of seed germination after repeated or protracted environmental low-dose ionizing radiation exposure. The purpose of this study is to explore the influence mechanism of low-dose ionizing radiation on wheat seed germination using a model linking physiological characteristics and developmental-dynamics simulation. A low-dose ionizing radiation environment simulator was built to investigate wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds germination process and then a kinetic model expressing the relationship between wheat seed germination dynamics and low-dose ionizing radiation intensity variations was developed by experimental data, plant physiology, relevant hypotheses and system dynamics, and sufficiently validated and accredited by computer simulation. Germination percentages were showing no differences in response to different dose rates. However, root and shoot lengths were reduced significantly. Plasma governing equations were set up and the finite element analysis demonstrated H 2 O, CO 2 , O 2 as well as the seed physiological responses to the low-dose ionizing radiation. The kinetic model was highly valid, and simultaneously the related influence mechanism of low-dose ionizing radiation on wheat seed germination proposed in the modeling process was also adequately verified. Collectively these data demonstrate that low-dose ionizing radiation has an important effect on absorbing water, consuming O 2 and releasing CO 2 , which means the risk for embryo and endosperm development was higher. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Proteomic analysis of lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition by sampling of individual seeds at germination and removal of storage proteins by polyethylene glycol fractionation.

    Wang, Wei-Qing; Song, Bin-Yan; Deng, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Yue; Liu, Shu-Jun; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2015-04-01

    Germination and thermoinhibition in lettuce (Lactuca sativa 'Jianyexianfeng No. 1') seeds were investigated by a proteomic comparison among dry seeds, germinated seeds at 15°C, at 15°C after imbibition at 25°C for 48 h, or at 25°C in KNO3 (all sampled individually at germination), and ungerminated seeds at 25°C, a thermoinhibitory temperature. Before two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis, storage proteins (greater than 50% of total extractable protein) were removed by polyethylene glycol precipitation, which significantly improved the detection of less abundant proteins on two-dimensional gels. A total of 108 protein spots were identified to change more than 2-fold (Pseeds than in ungerminated 25°C seeds. Gene expression of 12 of those proteins correlated well with the protein accumulation. Methionine metabolism, ethylene production, lipid mobilization, cell elongation, and detoxification of aldehydes were revealed to be potentially related to lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition. Accumulation of three proteins and expression of five genes participating in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis correlated positively with seed germinability. Inhibition of this pathway by lovastatin delayed seed germination and increased the sensitivity of germination to abscisic acid. MVA pathway-derived products, cytokinins, partially reversed the lovastatin inhibition of germination and released seed thermoinhibition at 25°C. We conclude that the MVA pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis is involved in lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Growth of vegetative explant Moringa oleifera on different composition of auxin and cytokinin and its synthetic seed germination

    Muslihatin, Wirdhatul; Jadid, Nurul; Puspitasari, Ika D.; Safitri, Chusnul E.

    2017-06-01

    The spread of Moringa oleifera is also rare for seed germination and viability or survival are low, and the lack of vegetative propagation method. The purpose of this study are to determine the effect of auxin and cytokinin on growth vegetative explants Moringa oleifera and its synthetic seed germination. The explants grown on MS medium with sucrose content of 30% and a range of additional hormone. Addition concentration and different types of hormone made in order to know the sensitivity and response explant growth on a variety of media to get a good callus and embryosomatic. The composition of the hormone given is MS + 2.4 D 3 ppm; MS + 2,4D 2 ppm + BAP 2 ppm; MS + NAA + 0.5 ppm kinetin 1 ppm; MS + NAA 1 ppm + kinetin 1 ppm; MS + NAA 1 ppm + 0.5 ppm kinetin. The explants were incubated at a temperature of 18-20 ° C with a photoperiod 16/8. Explants and MS medium is incubated to form embryonic callus. Seeds synthetic made from embryonic callus growing on medium 1 ppm kinetin + NAA 1 ppm with encapsulation method with sodium alginate 2%. Seed synthetic germinated in some kind of medium that medium ms0 solid (M1), ms0 liquid (M2), MS0 semi-solid (M3), MS solid NAA 1ppm + Kinetin 1 ppm (M4), MS liquid NAA 1 ppm + kinetin (M5), and semi-solid MS + NAA 1 ppm kinetin 1 ppm (M6). Synthetic seed viability was observed with the parameters of the fresh weight of synthetic seed, germination percentage and seedling. Chlorophyll content was measured by spectrophotometric method with solvent asseton. Best callus generated in this study are embryonic callus that grew on media NAA 1 ppm + kinetin 1 ppm. Embryonic callus on M6 + NAA 1 ppm kinetin 1 ppm capable of germination with an average weight of callus and sprouts of 40.38 mg. Of the entire amount of a synthetic seed on M6, just 5 seed germinate, so the percentage of germination of seeds is equal to 41.67%. with an average length of sprouts 1 cm with an average total chlorophyll content of 8.66 mg / g.

  1. The effect of space mutation treatment on seed germinating ability and the biological characters of SP1 hot peppers

    Wang Bingliang; Zheng Jirong; Ma Jianbin; Huang Kaimei

    2004-01-01

    The seeds of four pepper cultivars were carried by Shenzhou No.4 spaceship. The seed germinating ability was changed after the space exposed, however, the changes varied with cultivars. The time from transplant to bloom of the first flower was 0.2-3.2 days earlier than that of control, and the variation among individual plant was somewhat larger than that of control. It was also found that the plant height and the number of leaves on which the first flower emerged were lower than that of control. Number of fruits was more, but the fruit length and diameter was smaller than that of control

  2. Evaluation of phytotoxicity effect of olive mill wastewater treated by different technologies on seed germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Rusan, Munir J M; Albalasmeh, Ammar A; Zuraiqi, Said; Bashabsheh, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    Olive-mill wastewater (OMW) is a by-product effluent of olive oil extraction process that is produced in large amount in the Mediterranean region. OMW is believed to induce phytotoxic effect on organisms including seed germination and plant growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of untreated and treated OMW with different techniques on seed germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The following treatments were investigated: (1) tap water (control); (2) OMW treated by aerobic biological technology in a Jacto Reactor (JR); (3) OMW treated by solar fenton oxidation (SFO); (4) OMW treated by microfiltration followed by nanofiltration (MF+NF); (5) OMW treated by microfiltration followed by reverse osmosis (MF+RO) process; (6) diluted OMW with tap water (25 % OMW); (7) diluted OMW with tap water (50 % OMW); (8) diluted OMW with tap water (75 % OMW); and (9) untreated OMW (100 % OMW). A germination test was conducted in an incubator at temperature of 23 (∘)C. In each petri dish, a filter paper was mounted and ten seeds of barley were placed on the filter paper. Five milliliter of water were added to each petri dish. The seed germination was determined by counting the number of germinated seeds to calculate the percentage of germination (G %). Germination rate index (GRI), seed vigor index (SVI), and phytotoxicity index (PI) were also calculated. Then, the dry weights and lengths of the shoots and the roots of the germinated seeds were measured. The results show that 100, 75, and 50 %OMW were very phytotoxic and completely prohibited seed germination. However, phytotoxicity decreased significantly following treatments of OMW with all techniques investigated and by the 25 % OMW dilution, as results of removing the phenols and other phytotoxic organic compounds from the OMW or by diluting it. This was evidenced by relative enhancement of the dry weights and lengths of shoot and root as well as the G %, GRI, SVG, and PI. It was concluded that if

  3. Cobalt(ll) Coordination Compounds of Ethyl 4-Methyl-5-Imidazolecarboxylate: Chemical and Biochemical Characterization on Photosynthesis and Seed Germination

    King-Díaz, Beatriz; Montes-Ayala, Josefina; Escartín-Guzmán, Concepción; Castillo-Blum, Silvia E.; Iglesias-Prieto, Roberto; Lotina-Hennsen, Blas; Barba-Behrens, Norah

    2005-01-01

    In this work we present the synthesis, structural and spectroscopic characterization of Co2+ coordination compounds with ethyl 4-methyl-5-imidazolecarboxylate (emizco). The effects of emizco, the metal salts CoCl2.6H2O, CoBr2, Co(NO3)2.6H2O and their metal coordination compounds [Co(emizco)2Cl2], [Co(emizco)2 Br2].H2O, [Co(emizco)2 (H2O)2(NO2)2.2H2O were evaluated on photosynthesis in spinach chloroplasts. Seed germination and seedling growth of the monocotyledonous species Lolium multiflorum...

  4. Environmental filtering drives the shape and breadth of the seed germination niche in coastal plant communities.

    Fernández-Pascual, Eduardo; Pérez-Arcoiza, Adrián; Prieto, José Alberto; Díaz, Tomás E

    2017-05-01

    A phylogenetic comparative analysis of the seed germination niche was conducted in coastal plant communities of western Europe. Two hypotheses were tested, that (1) the germination niche shape (i.e. the preference for a set of germination cues as opposed to another) would differ between beaches and cliffs to prevent seedling emergence in the less favourable season (winter and summer, respectively); and (2) the germination niche breadth (i.e. the amplitude of germination cues) would be narrower in the seawards communities, where environmental filtering is stronger. Seeds of 30 specialist species of coastal plant communities were collected in natural populations of northern Spain. Their germination was measured in six laboratory treatments based on field temperatures. Germination niche shape was estimated as the best germination temperature. Germination niche breadth was calculated using Pielou's evenness index. Differences between plant communities in their germination niche shape and breadth were tested using phylogenetic generalized least squares regression (PGLS). Germination niche shape differed between communities, being warm-cued in beaches (best germination temperature = 20 °C) and cold-cued in cliffs (14 °C). Germination niche was narrowest in seawards beaches (Pielou's index = 0·89) and broadest in landwards beaches (0·99). Cliffs had an intermediate germination niche breadth (0·95). The relationship between niche and plant community had a positive phylogenetic signal for shape (Pagel's λ = 0·64) and a negative one for breadth (Pagel's λ = -1·71). Environmental filters shape the germination niche to prevent emergence in the season of highest threat for seedling establishment. The germination niche breadth is narrower in the communities with stronger environmental filters, but only in beaches. This study provides empirical support to a community-level generalization of the hypotheses about the environmental drivers of the germination

  5. QTLs for seed vigor-related traits identified in maize seeds germinated under artificial aging conditions.

    Han, Zanping; Ku, Lixia; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Jun; Guo, Shulei; Liu, Haiying; Zhao, Ruifang; Ren, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Liangkun; Su, Huihui; Dong, Lei; Chen, Yanhui

    2014-01-01

    High seed vigor is important for agricultural production due to the associated potential for increased growth and productivity. However, a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is required because the genetic basis for seed vigor remains unknown. We used single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for four seed vigor traits in two connected recombinant inbred line (RIL) maize populations under four treatment conditions during seed germination. Sixty-five QTLs distributed between the two populations were identified and a meta-analysis was used to integrate genetic maps. Sixty-one initially identified QTLs were integrated into 18 meta-QTLs (mQTLs). Initial QTLs with contribution to phenotypic variation values of R(2)>10% were integrated into mQTLs. Twenty-three candidate genes for association with seed vigor traits coincided with 13 mQTLs. The candidate genes had functions in the glycolytic pathway and in protein metabolism. QTLs with major effects (R(2)>10%) were identified under at least one treatment condition for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, and mQTL3-4. Candidate genes included a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene (302810918) involved in signal transduction that mapped in the mQTL3-2 interval associated with germination energy (GE) and germination percentage (GP), and an hsp20/alpha crystallin family protein gene (At5g51440) that mapped in the mQTL3-4 interval associated with GE and GP. Two initial QTLs with a major effect under at least two treatment conditions were identified for mQTL5-2. A cucumisin-like Ser protease gene (At5g67360) mapped in the mQTL5-2 interval associated with GP. The chromosome regions for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, mQTL3-4, and mQTL5-2 may be hot spots for QTLs related to seed vigor traits. The mQTLs and candidate genes identified in this study provide valuable information for the identification of additional quantitative trait genes.

  6. Improvement of Seed Germination and In Vitro Propagation of a Multipurpose Plateau Shrub Species Sophora Moorcroftiana

    Fu, Y.; Yao, W.; Li, S.; Li, H.

    2016-01-01

    Sophora moorcroftiana (Benth.) Baker (Fabaceae) with blue flowers is a shrub species in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. This species is an important ornamental, ecological and economical species mainly distributed in the wide valleys of Yarlung Tsangpo and Lhasa River. It contains strong drought, solar radiation and sand burial resistance. However, it is on the verge of extinction because of over-exploitation in recent years, seedling production is a bottleneck in this plant's development, and information is lacking on an In vitro propagation system for S. moorcroftiana. Therefore, an effective propagation technique is urgently needed. In the present study, S. moorcroftiana seed germinations both In vitro and on an open moistened filter paper were significantly improved. The best germination percentage (88.67+-0.67) and percentage of cotyledons presented (69.67+-0.33) were obtained when the seeds were placed in moistened filter paper for 30 d after treatment with 98 percent concentration sulphuric acid for 70 min, and then treated with either Gibberellic acid (GA3) 100 mg L/sup-1/ or 500 mg L/sup -1/. Besides, an In vitro propagation system was developed for this species, the impacts of various media combined with different plant growth regulators (PGR) on multiple shoots proliferation were evaluated. The result showed Woody Plant Medium (WPM) supplemented with 1.0 mg L/sup -1/ N/sup 6/ -Benzyladenine (BA) and 0.2 mg L/sup -1/ alpha-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) was found to be optimum for production of multiple shoots (89.33 percent shoot regeneration frequency and 18.67 shoots per explant) using cotyledonary node. The best rooted medium for regenerated shoots (89.72 percent, 4.68 roots per shoot) was half-strength Murashige and Skoog (1/2 MS) supplemented with 0.5 mg L/sup -1/ indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 0.02 mg L/sup -1/ NAA. The rooted plantlets were successfully acclimated, and survival of plantlets was 75 percent after transfer to soil. These results could be

  7. Transcriptome analysis of Phelipanche aegyptiaca seed germination mechanisms stimulated by fluridone, TIS108, and GR24.

    Ya Zhou Bao

    Full Text Available P. aegyptiaca is one of the most destructive root parasitic plants worldwide, causing serious damage to many crop species. Under natural conditions P. aegyptiaca seeds must be conditioned and then stimulated by host root exudates before germinating. However, preliminary experiments indicated that TIS108 (a triazole-type inhibitor of strigolactone and fluridone (FL, an inhibitor of carotenoid-biosynthesis both stimulated the germination of P. aegyptiaca seeds without a water preconditioning step (i.e. unconditioned seeds. The objective of this study was to use deep RNA sequencing to learn more about the mechanisms by which TIS108 and FL stimulate the germination of unconditioned P. aegyptiaca seeds. Deep RNA sequencing was performed to compare the mechanisms of germination in the following treatments: (i unconditioned P. aegyptiaca seeds with no other treatment, (ii unconditioned seeds treated with 100 mg/L TIS108, (iii unconditioned seeds treated with 100 mg/L FL + 100 mg/L GA3, (iv conditioned seeds treated with sterile water, and (v conditioned seeds treated with 0.03 mg/L GR24. The de novo assembled transcriptome was used to analyze transcriptional dynamics during seed germination. The key gene categories involved in germination were also identified. The results showed that only 119 differentially expressed genes were identified in the conditioned treatment vs TIS108 treatment. This indicated that the vast majority of conditions for germination were met during the conditioning stage. Abscisic acid (ABA and gibberellic acid (GA played important roles during P. aegyptiaca germination. The common pathway of TIS108, FL+GA3, and GR24 in stimulating P. aegyptiaca germination was the simultaneous reduction in ABA concentrations and increase GA concentrations. These results could potentially aid the identification of more compounds that are capable of stimulating P. aegyptiaca germination. Some potential target sites of TIS108 were also identified in

  8. QTLs for seed vigor-related traits identified in maize seeds germinated under artificial aging conditions.

    Zanping Han

    Full Text Available High seed vigor is important for agricultural production due to the associated potential for increased growth and productivity. However, a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is required because the genetic basis for seed vigor remains unknown. We used single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs for four seed vigor traits in two connected recombinant inbred line (RIL maize populations under four treatment conditions during seed germination. Sixty-five QTLs distributed between the two populations were identified and a meta-analysis was used to integrate genetic maps. Sixty-one initially identified QTLs were integrated into 18 meta-QTLs (mQTLs. Initial QTLs with contribution to phenotypic variation values of R(2>10% were integrated into mQTLs. Twenty-three candidate genes for association with seed vigor traits coincided with 13 mQTLs. The candidate genes had functions in the glycolytic pathway and in protein metabolism. QTLs with major effects (R(2>10% were identified under at least one treatment condition for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, and mQTL3-4. Candidate genes included a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene (302810918 involved in signal transduction that mapped in the mQTL3-2 interval associated with germination energy (GE and germination percentage (GP, and an hsp20/alpha crystallin family protein gene (At5g51440 that mapped in the mQTL3-4 interval associated with GE and GP. Two initial QTLs with a major effect under at least two treatment conditions were identified for mQTL5-2. A cucumisin-like Ser protease gene (At5g67360 mapped in the mQTL5-2 interval associated with GP. The chromosome regions for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, mQTL3-4, and mQTL5-2 may be hot spots for QTLs related to seed vigor traits. The mQTLs and candidate genes identified in this study provide valuable information for the identification of additional quantitative trait genes.

  9. Transcriptome analysis of Phelipanche aegyptiaca seed germination mechanisms stimulated by fluridone, TIS108, and GR24.

    Bao, Ya Zhou; Yao, Zhao Qun; Cao, Xiao Lei; Peng, Jin Feng; Xu, Ying; Chen, Mei Xiu; Zhao, Si Feng

    2017-01-01

    P. aegyptiaca is one of the most destructive root parasitic plants worldwide, causing serious damage to many crop species. Under natural conditions P. aegyptiaca seeds must be conditioned and then stimulated by host root exudates before germinating. However, preliminary experiments indicated that TIS108 (a triazole-type inhibitor of strigolactone) and fluridone (FL, an inhibitor of carotenoid-biosynthesis) both stimulated the germination of P. aegyptiaca seeds without a water preconditioning step (i.e. unconditioned seeds). The objective of this study was to use deep RNA sequencing to learn more about the mechanisms by which TIS108 and FL stimulate the germination of unconditioned P. aegyptiaca seeds. Deep RNA sequencing was performed to compare the mechanisms of germination in the following treatments: (i) unconditioned P. aegyptiaca seeds with no other treatment, (ii) unconditioned seeds treated with 100 mg/L TIS108, (iii) unconditioned seeds treated with 100 mg/L FL + 100 mg/L GA3, (iv) conditioned seeds treated with sterile water, and (v) conditioned seeds treated with 0.03 mg/L GR24. The de novo assembled transcriptome was used to analyze transcriptional dynamics during seed germination. The key gene categories involved in germination were also identified. The results showed that only 119 differentially expressed genes were identified in the conditioned treatment vs TIS108 treatment. This indicated that the vast majority of conditions for germination were met during the conditioning stage. Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) played important roles during P. aegyptiaca germination. The common pathway of TIS108, FL+GA3, and GR24 in stimulating P. aegyptiaca germination was the simultaneous reduction in ABA concentrations and increase GA concentrations. These results could potentially aid the identification of more compounds that are capable of stimulating P. aegyptiaca germination. Some potential target sites of TIS108 were also identified in our

  10. Understanding the diverse roles of soil organic matter in the cereal - Striga hermontica interaction

    Ayongwa, G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Keywords: Striga hermonthica, Sorghum bicolor, soil fertility, organic matter, N-mineralisation, farmers’ priority, production constraints, intensification.


    The problem of the parasitic weed striga (Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth.) has worsened for African farmers, in conjunction

  11. Allelopathic Effect of Leaf Water Extract of Hoary alyssum (Berteroa incana L. at Rosette Stage on Seed Germination

    H. Madani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The allelopathic effects of leaves at rosette stage of the hoary alyssum (Berteroa incana L. against some associated grasses like, prairie June grass (Koeleria macrantha, Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis, blue-bunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata and cheat grass (Bromus tectorum and its own were investigated. The experiment al materials used were the leaf extracts and its allelopathic effects on seed germination and seedling emergence of the abave mentioned grasses in Petri dishes. According to our study, leaves of hoary alyssum rosettes at stage have the potential to reduce germination rate, root and shoot growth of pasture grasses and hoary alyssum itself due to its allelopathic effect. The leaf leachate solution bioassays also showed that the germination of cheat grass was more susceptible to 4% solution of allelopathic extract of leaves. Hoary alyssum leaf extract also exhibited allelopathic self-inhibition, in both seedling root and shoot growth at 2 and 4% concentrations. Self- inhibitory allelopathic effects of hoary alyssum could also be important in preventing seed germination and seedling establishment of neighboring plant.

  12. The effect of altitude on breaking seed dormancy and stimulation of seed germination of Persian hogweed (Heracleum persicum).

    Salehani, M Khajavi; Mahmoudi, J; Mahdavi, S Kh; Habibzadeh, R

    2013-01-01

    Persian hogweed is a perennial herb and aromatic plant which has pharmaceutical and fodder values, and the main propagation method of this species is seed. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of altitude on breaking dormancy and stimulate seed germination of this species. The study was designed and carried out using the test of seed analysis. For our purpose, seeds were collected from three different altitudes (1700, 2200, 2700 masl) in Kojoor area. After initial purification, germination percent (GP) and speed (GS) of each elevation were determined by cold stratification compared to control. According to results, control seeds did not germinate, showing that the seeds of this species need to be treated. Statistical analysis of results showed that there are significant differences between GP and GS of each elevation, as seeds of higher elevation had slower and less germination in longer periods. So, changes in elevation are an effective factor on seed germination characteristics of this species and this factor has to be considered in seed preparation and restoration with this species.

  13. Characterization of seed germination and protocorm development of Cyrtopodium glutiniferum (Orchidaceae promoted by mycorrhizal fungi Epulorhiza spp.

    Marlon Corrêa Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyrtopodium glutiniferum is an endemic orchid of Brazil with potential medicinal and ornamental applications. As mycorrhizal fungi are essential for the initiation of the orchid life cycle, the aim of this study was to determine the strains of mycorrhizal fungi suitable for seed germination and protocorm development of C. glutiniferum and to characterize the symbiotic development of protocorms. Seeds of C. glutiniferum were inoculated with nine mycorrhizal fungi, Epulorhiza spp., Ceratorhiza spp., Rhizoctonia sp., originally isolated from Brazilian neotropical orchids. Only Epulorhiza isolates promoted seed germination and protocorm development. Three Epulorhiza isolates (M1, M6 = E. epiphytica, M20 = Epulorhiza sp. promoted protocorm development until leaf production at 63 days. The protocorms are comprised of parenchyma cells delimited by a unistratified epidermis; the parenchyma cells of the upper part of the protocorms are smaller than those located more towards the base. Intact and digested pelotons were observed inside of protocorms implying that the seedlings were capable of mycotrophy. Additionally, the development of a bud primordium only occurred after colonization by fungus. This study suggests that C. glutiniferum has a preference for strains of Epulorhiza and that fungus digestion is essential to protocorm development.

  14. Reduced triacylglycerol mobilization during seed germination and early seedling growth in Arabidopsis containing nutritionally important polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Pushkar Shrestha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There are now several examples of plant species engineered to synthesise and accumulate nutritionally important polyunsaturated fatty acids in their seed triacylglycerols (TAG. The utilization of such TAG in germinating seeds of such transgenic plants was unknown. In this study, we examined the TAG utilization efficiency during seed germination in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds containing several examples of these fatty acids. Seed TAG species with native fatty acids had higher utilization rate than the TAG species containing transgenically produced polyunsaturated fatty acids. Conversely, quantification of the fatty acid components remaining in the total TAG after early stages of seed germination revealed that the undigested TAGs tended to contain an elevated level of the engineered polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. LC-MS analysis further revealed asymmetrical mobilization rates for the individual TAG species. TAGs which contained multiple PUFA fatty acids were mobilized slower than the species containing single PUFA. The mobilised engineered fatty acids were used in de novo membrane lipid synthesis during seedling development.

  15. Inhibition of seed germination by extracts of bitter Hawkesbury watermelon containing cucurbitacin, a feeding stimulant for corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Martin, Phyllis A W; Blackburn, Michael

    2003-04-01

    Cucurbitacins are feeding stimulants for corn rootworm used in baits to control the adults of this insect pest. Corn rootworm larvae also feed compulsively on cucurbitacins. Cucurbitacins are reported to be gibberellin antagonists that may preclude their use as seed treatments for these soil-dwelling insects. The crude extract of a bitter Hawkesbury watermelon containing cucurbitacin E-glycoside significantly inhibited germination of watermelon, squash, and tomato seeds. Although the germination of corn seed was not significantly inhibited, root elongation was inhibited by crude extracts, but not by high-performance liquid chromatography-purified cucurbitacin E-glycoside. Therefore, the effects of the major components in the bitter watermelon extract (e.g., sugars) on seed germination and root elongation were determined. Pure sugars (glucose and fructose), at concentrations found in watermelon extract, mimicked the inhibition of seed germination and root elongation seen with the crude bitter Hawkesbury watermelon extract. Removal of these sugars may be necessary to use this extract as a bait for corn rootworm larvae as a seed or root treatment.

  16. Mycorrhizal compatibility and symbiotic seed germination of orchids from the Coastal Range and Andes in south central Chile.

    Herrera, Hector; Valadares, Rafael; Contreras, Domingo; Bashan, Yoav; Arriagada, Cesar

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about Orchidaceae plants in Chile and their mycorrhizal associations, a key issue for designing protective actions for endangered species. We investigated root fungi from seven terrestrial orchid species to identify potential mycorrhizal fungi. The main characteristics of Rhizoctonia-like fungi were observed under light microscopy, and isolates were identified through PCR-ITS sequencing. Molecular identification of fungal sequences showed a high diversity of fungi colonizing roots. Fungal ability to germinate seeds of different orchids was determined in symbiotic germination tests; 24 fungal groups were isolated, belonging to the genera Tulasnella, Ceratobasidium, and Thanatephorus. Furthermore, dark septate and other endophytic fungi were identified. The high number of Rhizoctonia-like fungi obtained from adult orchids from the Coastal mountain range suggests that, after germination, these orchids may complement their nutritional demands through mycoheterotrophy. Nonetheless, beneficial associations with other endophytic fungi may also co-exist. In this study, isolated mycorrhizal fungi had the ability to induce seed germination at different efficiencies and with low specificity. Germin ation rates were low, but protocorms continued to develop for 60 days. A Tulasnella sp. isolated from Chloraea gavilu was most effective to induce seed germination of different species. The dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi did not show any effect on seed development; however, their widespread occurrence in some orchids suggests a putative role in plant establishment.

  17. The Effect of Sonic Bloom Fertilizing Technology on The Seed Germination and Growth of Acacia mangium Willd Seedling

    Mulyadi A T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium Willd is one of the promising wood species, it is a fast growing species and can be used as raw materials for pulp, furniture and wood working. Musi Hutan Persada Company has planted Acacia mangium Willd in large scale for pulp processing raw materials and for wood working industry. The faculty of forestry of the Nusa Bangsa University in collaboration with the Musi Hutan Persada have examined  the effect of “Sonic Bloom” to the Acacia mangium Willd germination and seedling growth. The results of the research are the following : (1 The seed germination with “Sonic Bloom” provided percented of germination of 82%, better than those without “Sonic Bloom”, i.e. only 34%; (2 With Sonic Bloom,  the height of 80-days old seedling is 129.6 cm higher than those without “Sonic Bloom”of only 90.7 cm  ; (3 the diameter of 80-days old seedling with “Sonic Bloom” is 0,24 cm higher than those without “Sonic Bloom” harving diameters of only 0.19 cm.The study concludes that sonic bloom treatment is very useful for the seed germination and the growth of Acacia mangium Willd seedling Key Words : Sonic Bloom, persemaian, Acacia mangium, perkecambahan, bibit   Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE

  18. The effects of nano-TiO{sub 2} on seed germination, development and mitosis of root tip cells of Vicia narbonensis L. and Zea mays L

    Ruffini Castiglione, Monica, E-mail: mruffini@biologia.unipi.it [University of Pisa, Department of Biology (Italy); Giorgetti, Lucia; Geri, Chiara [Institute of Agricultural Biology and Biotechnology (IBBA/CNR), UOS Pisa (Italy); Cremonini, Roberto [University of Pisa, Department of Biology (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    This study aimed to provide new information about phyto-toxicology of nano-TiO{sub 2} on plant systems. To contribute to the evaluation of the potential harmful effects of the nanoparticles on monocots and dicots we considered their effects on seed germination and root elongation applying a concentration range from 0.2 to 4.0 Per-Mille-Sign in the plants Zea mays L. and Vicia narbonensis L. Moreover, we achieved a genotoxicity study at cytological level in root meristems by means of traditional cytogenetic approach, to evidence possible alterations in mitotic activity, chromosomal aberrations, and micronuclei release. From these analyses it comes out that nano-TiO{sub 2} particles, after short-term exposure and under our experimental conditions, delayed germination progression for the first 24 h in both materials. Root elongation was affected only after treatment with the higher nano-TiO{sub 2} concentration. Further significant effects were detected showing mitotic index reduction and concentration-dependent increase in the aberration emergence that evidenced a nano-TiO{sub 2}-induced genotoxic effect for both species.

  19. Citricoccus zhacaiensis B-4 (MTCC 12119) a novel osmotolerant plant growth promoting actinobacterium enhances onion (Allium cepa L.) seed germination under osmotic stress conditions.

    Selvakumar, Govindan; Bhatt, Ravindra M; Upreti, Kaushal K; Bindu, Gurupadam Hema; Shweta, Kademani

    2015-05-01

    The water potential of rhizospheric soil is a key parameter that determines the availability of water, oxygen, and nutrients to plants and microbes. Recent global warming trends and erratic precipitation patterns have resulted in the emergence of drought as a major constraint of agricultural productivity. Though several strategies are being evaluated to address this issue, a novel approach is the utilization of microbes for alleviation of drought stress effects in crops. Citricoccus zhacaiensis B-4 is an osmotolerant actinobacterium isolated from banana rhizosphere on mannitol supplemented medium (-2.92 MPa osmotic potential). This isolate expressed plant growth promotion traits viz, IAA, GA3 production, phosphate, zinc solubilization, ACC deaminase activity and ammonia production under PEG induced osmotic stress and non-stress conditions. Under in vitro osmotic conditions, biopriming with the actinobacterium improved the percent germination, seedling vigour and germination rate of onion seeds (cv. Arka Kalyan) at osmotic potentials up to -0.8 MPa. Considering its novelty, osmotolerance and plant growth promoting traits, biopriming with C. zhacaiensis is suggested as a viable option for the promotion of onion seed germination under drought stressed environments.

  20. Phytotoxicity assessment on corn stover biochar, derived from fast pyrolysis, based on seed germination, early growth, and potential plant cell damage.

    Li, Yang; Shen, Fei; Guo, Haiyan; Wang, Zhanghong; Yang, Gang; Wang, Lilin; Zhang, Yanzong; Zeng, Yongmei; Deng, Shihuai

    2015-06-01

    The potential phytotoxicity of water extractable toxicants in a typical corn stover biochar, the product of fast pyrolysis, was investigated using an aqueous biochar extract on a soil-less bioassay with tomato plants. The biochar dosage of 0.0-16.0 g beaker(-1) resulted in an inverted U-shaped dose-response relationship between biochar doasage and seed germination/seedling growth. This indicated that tomato growth was slightly stimulated by low dosages of biochar and inhibited with higher dosages of biochar. Additionally, antioxidant enzyme activities in the roots and leaves were enhanced at lower dosages, but rapidly decreased with higher dosages of biochar. With the increased dosages of biochar, the malondialdehyde content in the roots and leaves increased, in addition with the observed morphology of necrotic root cells, suggesting that serious damage to tomato seedlings occurred. EC50 of root length inhibition occurred with biochar dosages of 9.2 g beaker(-1) (3.5th day) and 16.7 g beaker(-1) (11th day) (equivalent to 82.8 and 150.3 t ha(-1), respectively), which implied that toxicity to the early growth of tomato can potentially be alleviated as the plant grows.

  1. Preparation, Investigation and the Study of the Effect of Mn(II Complex of Catechol and 2-Aminopyridine on Seed Germination

    F. I. El-Moshaty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of mixed ligand complex of Mn(II with catechol (L1 and 2-aminopyridine (L2 was determined by elemental analyses (C, H and N, molar conductance measurement, thermogravimetric analysis, infrared, electronic and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies. The elemental analysis data show the formation of 1:1:1 [M: L1: L2] complex. The molar conductance measurement shows a non-electrolyte nature. The thermogravimetric analysis data of the complex display the existence of hydrated and coordinated water molecules. The infrared spectral data exhibit the coordination sites that are through -OH,-C=N and –NH2 groups. The electronic spectral data display the electronic transitions of the ligands and suggest an octahedral structure for the complex. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of the complex reveals the existence of paramagnetic phenomena and supports its geometrical structure. Seed germination and root length of grass were also assayed under the effect of MnCl2.4H2O, catechol, 2-aminopyridine and its complex. Mn(II salt was the most effective on germination than its complex which possess the high test effect on root length, while the ligands are the least active of all.

  2. EFFECTS OF SOME PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON JASMONIC ACID INDUCED INHIBITION OF SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF BARLEY

    Kürşat ÇAVUŞOĞLU

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The effects of gibberellic acid, kinetin, benzyladenine, ethylene, 24-epibrassinolide and polyamines (spermine, spermidine, putrescine, cadaverine on jasmonic acid inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth of barley were studied. All of the plant growth regulators studied were determined to have a succesful performance in reversing of the inhibitory effects of jasmonic acid on the seed germination and seedling growth. Moreover, the above mentioned growth regulators overcame the inhibitory effect of JA on the percentages of germination and coleoptile emergence in the same ratio, while GA3 was the most successful hormone on the fresh weight and radicle and coleoptile elongation in comparison with the other growth regulators. Key words: Barley, jasmonic acid, plant growth regulator, seed germination, seedling growth ARPANIN TOHUM ÇİMLENMESİ VE FİDE BÜYÜMESİNİN JASMONİK ASİT TEŞVİKLİ İNHİBİSYONU ÜZERİNE BAZI BİTKİ BÜYÜME DÜZENLEYİCİLERİNİN ETKİLERİ Özet: Arpanın tohum çimlenmesi ve fide büyümesinin jasmonik asit inhibisyonu üzerine gibberellik asit, kinetin, benziladenin, etilen, 24-epibrassinolit ve poliaminlerin (spermin, spermidin, putressin, kadaverin etkileri araştırılmıştır. Çalışılan bitki büyüme düzenleyicilerinin tümünün tohum çimlenmesi ve fide büyümesi üzerinde jasmonik asitin engelleyici etkisini tersine çevirmede başarılı bir performansa sahip oldukları belirlenmiştir. Dahası, yukarıda sözü edilen büyüme düzenleyicileri çimlenme ve koleoptil çıkış yüzdeleri üzerinde aynı oranda etkili olurken, taze ağırlık ve radikula ve koleoptil uzaması üzerinde diğer büyüme düzenleyicileri ile karşılaştırıldığında en başarılı hormon GA3 olmuştur. Anahtar kelimeler: Arpa, jasmonik asit, bitki büyüme düzenleyicisi, tohum çimlenmesi, fide büyümesi

  3. Ryecyanatines A and B and ryecarbonitrilines A and B, substituted cyanatophenol, cyanatobenzo[1,3]dioxole, and benzo[1,3]dioxolecarbonitriles from rye (Secale cereale L.) root exudates: Novel metabolites with allelopathic activity on Orobanche seed germination and radicle growth.

    Cimmino, Alessio; Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Avolio, Fabiana; Yoneyama, Koichi; Rubiales, Diego; Evidente, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Orobanche and Phelipanche species (the broomrapes) are root parasitic plants, some of which represent serious weed problems causing heavy yield losses on important crops. Current control relies on the use of certain agronomic practices, resistant crop varieties, and herbicides, albeit success has been marginal. Agronomic practices such as the use of allelopathic species in intercropping or cover crops, or the use of direct seedling over residues of allelopathic species incorporate the principle of allelopathy exerted by molecules exuded from roots or released by crop residues to control broomrapes. In addition, the isolation of natural substances from root exudates of plants with potential to inhibit broomrape development opens the door to the design of new herbicides based on natural and benign sources. Ryecyanatines A and B and ryecarbonitrilines A and B, the first new substituted cyanatophenol, substituted cyanatobenzo[1,3]dioxole, and the latter two new substituted benzo[1,3]dioxolecarbonitriles were isolated from rye (Secale cereale L.) root exudates. They were characterized as 4-cyanato-2-methoxyphenol, 2-cyanato-benzo[1,3]dioxole, 2-methoxybenzo[1,3]dioxole-5-carbonitrile and benzo[1,3]dioxole-2-carbonitrile by spectroscopic (essentially NMR and HRESI MS spectra) methods. These compounds were investigated for allelopathic activity on Orobanche germination and development. Ryecarbonitriline A induced germination of Orobanche cumana seeds, and this germination can be considered as suicidal because O. cumana does not parasite rye roots and cannot survive without host resources beyond germination stage. In addition, ryecyanatine A promotes a rapid cessation of O. cumana, Orobanche crenata and Orobanche minor radicle growth with the promotion of a layer of papillae at the radicle tip in O. cumana and O. crenata hampering the contact of the parasite to the host. Ryecarbonitriline B also displayed the same activity although being less active than ryecyanatine A and

  4. Proteomic analysis of lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition by sampling of individual seeds at germination and removal of storage proteins by polyethylene glycol fractionation

    Wang, Wei-Qing; Song, Bin-Yan; Deng, Zhi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    the sensitivity of germination to abscisic acid. MVA pathway-derived products, cytokinins, partially reversed the lovastatin inhibition of germination and released seed thermoinhibition at 25°C. We conclude that the MVA pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis is involved in lettuce seed germination...

  5. Effects of ionizing-radiation and post-radiation action of some plant growth regulators on the seed germination and seedling growth of Scotch pine

    Leszek Michalski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of small doses of gamma irradiation on the seed germination and seedling growth of Scotch pine and post-radiation action of water solutions of IAA, GA3 and kinetin have been investigated. Changes in the destructive action of ionizing-radiation toy gibberellic acid and its intensifying by IAA and kinetin has been found.

  6. Studies in stability constants of schiff base hydrazone complexes with transition metal ions. Effect of ligand on seed germination

    Meshram, U. P.; Pethe, G. B.; Yaul, A. R.; Khobragade, B. G.; Narwade, M. L.

    2017-10-01

    Spectrophotometric investigation of Cu (II), Ni(II), Co(II), and Fe(III) complexes with 2,4-dihydroxyacetophonone 2,4-dichlorobenzoylhydrazone (H2L1) and 2,4-didydroxy-5-nitroacetophenone 2,4-dichlorobenzoylhydrazone (H2L2) shows 1: 1 and 1: 2 complex formation between the pH range of 3.0 to 6.0 and also studied by jobs variation method at 0.1 M ionic strength at 30 ± 1°C specrtophotometrically. The conditional stability constants are determined for 1: 1 complexes. Effect of H2L1 and H2L2 ligand and its complexes on seed germination is studied.

  7. Effects of calcium on seed germination, seedling growth and photosynthesis of six forest tree species under simulated acid rain

    Liu, Ting-Wu; Wu, Fei-Hua; Wang, Wen-Hua; Chen, Juan; Li, Zhen-Ji; Dong, Xue-Jun; Patton, Janet; Pei, Zhen-Ming; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2011-04-15

    For several decades, acid rain has been an environmental problem in North America and Europe and is now so in China. The aim of that study was to determine the effects and potential interactions between simulated acid rain (SiAR) and calcium on seed germination of different tree species present in China. Seeds from six tree species were grown is a laboratory where they were spread with SiAR or water as control and where calcium was applied at three levels. Results showed that two species were highly tolerant to SiAR while the others were sensitive; the addition of calcium also had a rescue effect on sensitive seeds but no significant effect on the tolerant ones.

  8. Effect of physical and chemical mutagens on seed germination and survival of seedling in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    Jayabalan, N.; Rao, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    Dry and healthy seeds of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. Co-2 were irradiated with gamma rays at 10 KR, 20 KR, 30 KR, 40 KR and 50 KR. The percentage of seed germination was directly proportional to the dose given. The survival percentage decreased with higher doses. Concentration of EMS and NMU applied, ranged from 10 mM to 50 mM and 1 mM to 5 mM, respectively. The duration of soaking of seed was 4 hours in distilled water and 4 hours in mutagenic agents. In treated seeds, the percentage of germination and survival of seedlings decreased with an increase in concentration of these chemical mutagens. These observations are discussed in detail. (author). 11 refs

  9. Influence of seaweed liquid fertilizer of ulva lactuca on the seed germination, growth, productivity of Abelmoschus esculentus (L.

    Kaisarla Divya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation is an attempt to study the influence of seaweed liquid fertiliger (SLF extracted from the marine green algae ulva lactuca on the growth parameters of Abelmoschus esculentus (l medikus. The seeds were soaked in different concentrations of SLF viz., 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 20% and control for 6h. The foliar spry was applied twice at four concentrations of seaweed extract. The maximum growth was recorded at 5% concentration viz., seed germination, shoot length, root length, no. of flowers, no. of fruits, fresh weight and dry weight when compare to control and remaining concentrations of seaweed extract. The seaweed extract are found effective in increasing the growth parameters.

  10. Seed germination in relation to the invasiveness in spiny amaranth and edible amaranth in Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Ye, Juan; Wen, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Both spiny and edible amaranths (Amaranthus spinosus and A. tricolor) are exotic annuals in China that produce numerous small seeds every year. Spiny amaranth has become a successful invader and a troublesome weed in Xishuangbanna, but edible amaranth has not, although it is widely grown as a vegetable there. As seed germination is one of the most important life-stages contributing to the ability of a plant to become invasive, we conducted experiments to compare the effects of high temperature and water stress on seed germination in two varieties each of spiny amaranth and edible amaranth. Overall, the seeds of both amaranth species exhibited adaptation to high temperature and water stress, including tolerance to ground temperatures of 70°C for air-dried seeds, which is consistent with their behavior in their native ranges in the tropics. As expected, the invasive spiny amaranth seeds exhibited higher tolerance to both continuous and daily periodic high-temperature treatment at 45°C, and to imbibition-desiccation treatment, compared to edible amaranth seeds. Unexpectedly, edible amaranth seeds exhibited higher germination at extreme temperatures (10°C, 15°C, and 40°C), and at lower water potential (below -0.6 MPa). It is likely that cultivation of edible amaranth has selected seed traits that include rapid germination and germination under stressful conditions, either of which, under natural conditions, may result in the death of most germinating edible amaranth seeds and prevent them from becoming invasive weeds in Xishuangbanna. This study suggests that rapid germination and high germination under stress conditions-excellent seed traits for crops and for many invasive species-might be a disadvantage under natural conditions if these traits are asynchronous with natural local conditions that support successful germination.

  11. The GCR2 gene family is not required for ABA control of seed germination and early seedling development in Arabidopsis.

    Jianjun Guo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA regulates diverse processes of plant growth and development. It has recently been proposed that GCR2 functions as a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR for ABA. However, the structural relationships and functionality of GCR2 have been challenged by several independent studies. A central question in this controversy is whether gcr2 mutants are insensitive to ABA, because gcr2 mutants were shown to display reduced sensitivity to ABA under one experimental condition (e.g. 22 degrees C, continuous white light with 150 micromol m(-2 s(-1 but were shown to display wild-type sensitivity under another slightly different condition (e.g. 23 degrees C, 14/10 hr photoperiod with 120 micromol m(-2 s(-1. It has been hypothesized that gcr2 appears only weakly insensitive to ABA because two other GCR2-like genes in Arabidopsis, GCL1 and GCL2, compensate for the loss of function of GCR2. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to test this hypothesis, we isolated a putative loss-of-function allele of GCL2, and then generated all possible combinations of mutations in each member of the GCR2 gene family. We found that all double mutants, including gcr2 gcl1, gcr2 gcl2, gcl1 gcl2, as well as the gcr2 gcl1 gcl2 triple mutant displayed wild-type sensitivity to ABA in seed germination and early seedling development assays, demonstrating that the GCR2 gene family is not required for ABA responses in these processes. CONCLUSION: These results provide compelling genetic evidence that GCR2 is unlikely to act as a receptor for ABA in the context of either seed germination or early seedling development.

  12. Seed germination in relation to the invasiveness in spiny amaranth and edible amaranth in Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Juan Ye

    Full Text Available Both spiny and edible amaranths (Amaranthus spinosus and A. tricolor are exotic annuals in China that produce numerous small seeds every year. Spiny amaranth has become a successful invader and a troublesome weed in Xishuangbanna, but edible amaranth has not, although it is widely grown as a vegetable there. As seed germination is one of the most important life-stages contributing to the ability of a plant to become invasive, we conducted experiments to compare the effects of high temperature and water stress on seed germination in two varieties each of spiny amaranth and edible amaranth. Overall, the seeds of both amaranth species exhibited adaptation to high temperature and water stress, including tolerance to ground temperatures of 70°C for air-dried seeds, which is consistent with their behavior in their native ranges in the tropics. As expected, the invasive spiny amaranth seeds exhibited higher tolerance to both continuous and daily periodic high-temperature treatment at 45°C, and to imbibition-desiccation treatment, compared to edible amaranth seeds. Unexpectedly, edible amaranth seeds exhibited higher germination at extreme temperatures (10°C, 15°C, and 40°C, and at lower water potential (below -0.6 MPa. It is likely that cultivation of edible amaranth has selected seed traits that include rapid germination and germination under stressful conditions, either of which, under natural conditions, may result in the death of most germinating edible amaranth seeds and prevent them from becoming invasive weeds in Xishuangbanna. This study suggests that rapid germination and high germination under stress conditions-excellent seed traits for crops and for many invasive species-might be a disadvantage under natural conditions if these traits are asynchronous with natural local conditions that support successful germination.

  13. The Potential of Algarrobo ( Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) for Regeneration of Desertified Soils: Assessing Seed Germination Under Saline Conditions

    Westphal, Claus; Gachón, Paloma; Bravo, Jaime; Navarrete, Carlos; Salas, Carlos; Ibáñez, Cristian

    2015-07-01

    Due to their multipurpose use, leguminous trees are desirable for the restoration of degraded ecosystems. Our aim was to investigate seed germination of the leguminous tree Prosopis chilensis in response to salinity, one of the major abiotic challenges of desertified soils. Germination percentages of seed from 12 wild P. chilensis populations were studied. Treatments included four aqueous NaCl concentrations (150, 300, 450, and 600 mM). In each population, the highest germination percentage was seen using distilled water (control), followed closely by 150 mM NaCl. At 300 mM NaCl or higher salt concentration, germination was progressively inhibited attaining the lowest value at 450 mM NaCl, while at 600 mM NaCl germination remained reduced but with large variation among group of samples. These results allowed us to allocate the 12 groups from where seeds were collected into three classes. First, the seeds from Huanta-Rivadavia showed the lowest percent germination for each salt condition. The second group was composed of moderately salt-tolerant seeds with 75 % germination at 300 mM NaCl, followed by 50 % germination at 450 mM NaCl and 30 % germination at 600 mM NaCl. The third group from Maitencillo and Rapel areas was the most salt tolerant with an impressive seed germination level of 97 % at 300 mM NaCl, 82 % at 450 mM NaCl, and 42 % at 600 mM NaCl. Our results demonstrate that P. chilensis seeds from these latter localities have an increased germination capability under saline stress, confirming that P. chilensis is an appropriate species to rehabilitate desertified soils.

  14. [Effects of simulated acid rain on seed germination and seedling growth of different type corn Zea mays].

    Zhang, Hai-Yan

    2013-06-01

    Taking normal corn, waxy corn, pop corn, and sweet corn as test materials, this paper studied their seed germination and seedling growth under effects of simulated acid rain (pH 6.0, 5.0, 4.0, 3.0, 2.0, and 1.0). Simulated acid rain at pH 2.0-5.0 had no significant effects on the seed germination and seedling growth, but at pH 1.0, the germination rate of normal corn, waxy corn, pop corn, and sweet corn was 91.3%, 68.7%, 27.5%, and 11.7%, respectively. As compared with those at pH 6.0 (CK), the germination rate, germination index, vigor index, germination velocity, shoot height, root length, shoot and root dry mass, and the transformation rate of stored substances at pH 1.0 had significant decrease, and the average germination time extended apparently. At pH 1.0, the effects of acid rain were greater at seedling growth stage than at germination stage, and greater on underground part than on aboveground part. Due to the differences in gene type, normal corn and waxy corn had the strongest capability against acid rain, followed by pop corn, and sweet corn. It was suggested that corn could be categorized as an acid rain-tolerant crop, the injury threshold value of acid rain was likely between pH 1.0 and pH 2.0, and normal corn and waxy corn would be prioritized for planting in acid rain-stricken area.

  15. Gibberellic Acid-Stimulated Arabidopsis6 Serves as an Integrator of Gibberellin, Abscisic Acid, and Glucose Signaling during Seed Germination in Arabidopsis.

    Zhong, Chunmei; Xu, Hao; Ye, Siting; Wang, Shiyi; Li, Lingfei; Zhang, Shengchun; Wang, Xiaojing

    2015-11-01

    The DELLA protein REPRESSOR OF ga1-3-LIKE2 (RGL2) plays an important role in seed germination under different conditions through a number of transcription factors. However, the functions of the structural genes associated with RGL2-regulated germination are less defined. Here, we report the role of an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cell wall-localized protein, Gibberellic Acid-Stimulated Arabidopsis6 (AtGASA6), in functionally linking RGL2 and a cell wall loosening expansin protein (Arabidopsis expansin A1 [AtEXPA1]), resulting in the control of embryonic axis elongation and seed germination. AtGASA6-overexpressing seeds showed precocious germination, whereas transfer DNA and RNA interference mutant seeds displayed delayed seed germination under abscisic acid, paclobutrazol, and glucose (Glc) stress conditions. The differences in germination rates resulted from corresponding variation in cell elongation in the hypocotyl-radicle transition region of the embryonic axis. AtGASA6 was down-regulated by RGL2, GLUCOSE INSENSITIVE2, and ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE5 genes, and loss of AtGASA6 expression in the gasa6 mutant reversed the insensitivity shown by the rgl2 mutant to paclobutrazol and the gin2 mutant to Glc-induced stress, suggesting that it is involved in regulating both the gibberellin and Glc signaling pathways. Furthermore, it was found that the promotion of seed germination and length of embryonic axis by AtGASA6 resulted from a promotion of cell elongation at the embryonic axis mediated by AtEXPA1. Taken together, the data indicate that AtGASA6 links RGL2 and AtEXPA1 functions and plays a role as an integrator of gibberellin, abscisic acid, and Glc signaling, resulting in the regulation of seed germination through a promotion of cell elongation. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Comparative Study for the Effect of Gibberellic acid, Kinetin and Indole-3-acetic acid on Seed Germination performance of Dianthus caryophyllus

    Rajib Roychowdhury

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination is the major limiting factor for large-scale production and cultivation of crop species. Such attribute also positively as well as negatively affected by some potent plant growth regulators and other chemical compounds. For this, present experiment was undertaken with an objective to investigate the comparison of the effect of various concentrations of plant growth regulators like Gibberellic Acid (GA3, Kinetin and Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA on seed germination of Dianthus caryophyllus or Carnation. Dianthus seeds were soaked in different concentrations (0 ppm or control, 10, 20, 30 and 40 ppm of each of GA3, Kinetin and IAA for 24 h at room temperature (25 ± 2°C. Three replicates of each treatment with ten seeds per replicate were arranged for precise physiological analysis. Significant variation was found in all aspects after analysis of variance (ANOVA of each mean value. After two weeks of seed soaking, it was noted that germination percentages were significantly accelerated by lower concentrations (10 and 20 ppm of used hormones. Amongst the three potential growth regulators, 20 ppm was found most effective because it showed highest germination percentage for GA3 (87.46%, Kinetin (78.92% and IAA (75.35%. A great deal of information relating to seed germination practices shows that these plant growth regulators were efficient to overcoming dormancy leading to rapid seed germination. GA3 was selected as best hormone, in this study, which showed highest seed germination. These results could useful to large-scale cultivation of Dianthus caryophyllus plants for improving its floricultural impact worldwide.

  17. Smoke-Isolated Trimethylbutenolide Inhibits Seed Germination of Different Weed Species by Reducing Amylase Activity

    Papenfus, H. B.; Kulkarni, M. G.; Pošta, Martin; Finnie, J. F.; van Staden, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 1 (2015), s. 312-320 ISSN 0043-1745 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : germination inhibition * jewels of Opar * smoke water * weed-free periods Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.993, year: 2015

  18. [Detection method for the ability of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed germination by the use of 2,3,5-triphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride (TTC)].

    Ogata, Jun; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Kiuchi, Fumiyuki; Goda, Yukihiro

    2008-11-01

    Cannabis plants show a high Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol content and are used as a psychoactive drug. Therefore the cultivation of hemp and its possession are prohibited by law in Japan. Meanwhile, Cannabis seeds have been used as a component of shichimi-togarashi (a Japanese spice), bird feed, or a crude drug (mashinin). To exclude the possibility of germination, it is officially noticed that hemp seeds must be killed. However, the number of violators has increased in recent years. To judge the ability of seed germination, a germination test is performed. However, the test requires several days and thus has not been used for on-site inspection. In this study, we developed a rapid detection method to determine the ability of Cannabis seeds to germinate using 2,3,5-triphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride (TTC). The principle of the assay is as follows. The endogenous respiratory enzymes in hemp seeds convert added colorless TTC into red 1,3,5-triphenylformazan. Consequently, a living embryo is stained red, while red does not appear in the dead seeds. The reaction was active over a pH range of 8.0-9.0, and the optimum activity was found from 40 to 50 degrees C. Under the optimum conditions, we were able to determine the ability of seeds to germinate based on the presence of color within 20 min. Since this method is rapid and simple, it is applicable to on-site inspections. In addition, it could be used as an alternative technique to the germination test, because erroneous decisions is cannot occur under the assay principle.

  19. Biosynthesis of germination stimulants of parasitic weeds Striga and Orobanche

    Sun, Z.

    2008-01-01

    My research focused on the biosynthetic origin of germination stimulants of the root parasitic plants, Striga spp. and Orobanche spp., which have an increasing impact on cereal and other economically important crops in many regions of the world. The traditional control methods are not sufficient and

  20. Differential responses of 15 cowpea genotypes to three Striga hot ...

    Differential responses of 15 cowpea genotypes to three Striga hot spots in Niger. M. SALIFOU1*, J. B. L. S. TIGNEGRE2, P. TONGOONA3, S. OFFEI3,. K. OFORI3 and E. DANQUAH3. 1National Agricultural Research Institute of Niger, Maradi Regional Research Centre, Niger. 2 The world Vegetable Centre, West and Central ...

  1. deaminase from plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in Striga

    Experiments were conducted in pots to determine the growth effect of different rhizobacteria on maize under Striga hermonthica infestation. Three bacteria were selected based on their plant growth promoting effects. Whole bacterial cells of the rhizobacteria were used to amplify 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid ...

  2. Combining ability for grain yield, agronomic traits and Striga lutea ...

    Owner

    2Department of Crop Production, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. ... General combining ability (gca) effects for striga syndrome ratings were generally low with .... farmer's field because of S. lutea infestation at Temidire in Ibarapa ... fertilizer dosage (50kg/ha NPK 20-10-10) was applied by broadcast ..... Graffing B (1956).

  3. Pretreatment of Sesame Seed (Sesamum indicum L. with Proline and its Effective on Seed Germination and Plant Physiological Defense Systems under Different Temperature Regimes

    Nasibeh Tavakoli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of proline and temperature on the rates of antioxidant enzymes and germination index, a factorial laboratory experiment based on completely randomized design was conducted with three replications at the Mohaghegh Ardabili University in 2014. Treatments cinsisted of three levels of proline (0, 5 and 10 mM and different temperature regimes (15, 25 and 35°C. Results showed that proline significantly increased germination index, rates of antioxidant enzymes, proline, protein and mobility of food reserves. Exogenous application of proline increased assimilates in the seedlings. However, proline synthesis was decreased at temrature regimes of 15 and35°C as compared to 25 °C. Peroxidase enzyme rate at 25°C was lowere than of 15 and 35 °C and addition of proline increased levels of enzymes at these temperature regemes. Application of 10 mM proline at 25 °C showed the highest activity of catalase and polyphenol oxidase rates. However, rates of these enzymes at 15 and 35°C decreased as compared with that of 25°C. The length of radicle increased at all temperatures regemes and the length of plumule increased by proline, but reduced at temperatures of 15 and 35°C. According to the positive effects of proline on food reserves and seed vigor index, speed and rate of germination, proline, protein and antioxidant enzymes contents of seedlings, it seems that pretreatment of seeds with proline is an appropriate method for better seed germination attributs under these temperatures regemes.

  4. The allelopathic effects of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of Lactuca sativa enhanced by different types of acid deposition.

    Wang, Congyan; Xiao, Hongguang; Zhao, Lulu; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Fei; Shi, Yanchun; Du, Daolin

    2016-04-01

    Invasive species can exhibit allelopathic effects on native species. Meanwhile, the types of acid deposition are gradually changing. Thus, the allelopathic effects of invasive species on seed germination and growth of native species may be altered or even enhanced under conditions with diversified acid deposition. This study aims to assess the allelopathic effects (using leaves extracts) of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of native species Lactuca sativa treated with five types of acid deposition with different SO4(2-) to NO3(-) ratios (1:0, sulfuric acid; 5:1, sulfuric-rich acid; 1:1, mixed acid; 1:5, nitric-rich acid; 0:1, nitric acid). Solidago canadensis leaf extracts exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. High concentration of S. canadensis leaf extracts also similarly exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on root length of L. sativa. This may be due to that S. canadensis could release allelochemicals and then trigger allelopathic effects on seed germination and growth of L. sativa. Acid deposition exhibited significantly negative effects on seedling biomass, root length, seedling height, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be ascribed to the decreased soil pH values mediated by acid deposition which could produce toxic effects on seedling growth. Sulfuric acid deposition triggered more toxic effects on seedling biomass and vigor index of L. sativa than nitric acid deposition. This may be attributing to the difference in exchange capacity with hydroxyl groups (OH(-)) between SO4(2-) and NO3(-) as well as the fertilizing effects mediated by nitric deposition. All types of acid deposition significantly enhanced the allelopathic effects of S. canadensis on root length, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be due to the negatively synergistic effects of

  5. Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) on Z. marina seedlings, seed germination and shoot density from 2013-01-16 to 2015-09-11 (NCEI Accession 0156588)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multiple experiments were conducted to determine the effects hydrogen sulfide had on seedlings and seed germination in the seagrass Zostera marina. One study...

  6. Seed germination responses in a temperate rain forest of Chiloé, Chile: effects of a gap and the tree canopy

    Figueroa, Javier A; Hernández, Juan F

    2001-01-01

    This study determined germination responses of 19 species, including trees, shrubs, vines, and herbs, under natural gap and non-gap conditions, in a secondary forest in Chiloé Island, southern Chile, in order to assess if there is any association between the habitat where the seedlings of these plant species occur and their germination requirements. Statistical differences in percentage seed germination were detected in six species in a gap habitat compared to the understory. Five forest edge...

  7. Pemecahan Dormansi Dan Perkecambahan Asam Kuranji (Dialium Indum L.) Secara Mekanis Dan Kimiawi Breaking Dormancy and Seeds Germination of Asam Kuranji (Dialium Indum L.) with Mechanical and Chemical

    Ismuhajaroh, Bakti Nur

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to find out the dormancy breaking and the seed germination of Asam kuranji (Dialium indum L.) mechanically by sandpapering the seeds and chemically by immersing them in sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The experiment was conducted at the Plant Physiology Laboratory of Agricultural Faculty of Lambung Mangkurat University from June - August 2013 using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 2 x 4 factorial. The first factor was the mechanical treatment  (s0 = without sandpape...

  8. Effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and cover crops on seed germination and early establishment of field dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yunk.

    Sarić-Krsmanović Marija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several bacterial cultures: Bacillus licheniformis (MO1, B. pumilus (MO2, and B. amyloliquefaciens (MO3, isolated from manure; B. megatherium ZP6 (MO4 isolated from maize rhizosphere; Azotobacter chroococcum Ps1 (MO5 and Pseudomonas fluorescens (MO6, were used to test the influence of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR on seed germination and germination rate of field dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yunk.. Also, to examine the effect of host seeds on germination and initial growth of seedlings of field dodder plants in the dark and under white light, the seeds of four host plants were used (watermelon, red clover, alfalfa and sugar beet. Germinated seeds were counted daily over a ten-day period and the length of seedlings was measured on the final day. The results show that treatments MO3, MO4 and MO6 had inhibitory effects (15%, 65% and 52%, respectively, while treatments MO1, MO2 and MO5 had stimulating effects (3%, 3% and 19%, respectively on seed germination of field dodder. The data for host seeds show that light was a significant initial factor (83-95%, control 95% for stimulating seed germination of field dodder plants, apart from host presence (73-79%, control 80%.

  9. Inconclusive Predictions and Contradictions: A Lack of Consensus on Seed Germination Response to Climate Change at High Altitude and High Latitude

    Ganesh K. Jaganathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change directly affects arctic-alpine plants and acute responses to increased temperatures may be seen in their reproductive fitness and germination ability. However, uncertainties prevail in predicting whether a future warmer climate favors or hampers seed germination in high latitude and high altitude soils and seed germination research in such systems has not been able to provide generalizable patterns of response. The available literature on this subject has been conducted at various locations contributing to difficulties in predicting the response of arctic-alpine seeds to climate change. Here, we show that discrepancies in seed collection, dormancy breaking treatments, and germination conditions found in the published literature are possible reasons for our inability to draw large scale conclusions. We explore how these factors influence the results and highlight the fact that many of the previous investigations have reported the effects of warmer temperature, rather than a warmer climate and all the associated complex environmental interactions, on seed germination. We recommend that long-term monitoring of seed response to treatments that mimic the present and future alpine climate is likely to produce more ecologically meaningful insights and suggest several practical steps that researchers can take that would facilitate greater coherence between studies.

  10. Kinetic Stability of Proteins in Beans and Peas: Implications for Protein Digestibility, Seed Germination, and Plant Adaptation.

    Xia, Ke; Pittelli, Sandy; Church, Jennifer; Colón, Wilfredo

    2016-10-12

    Kinetically stable proteins (KSPs) are resistant to the denaturing detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Such resilience makes KSPs resistant to proteolytic degradation and may have arisen in nature as a mechanism for organismal adaptation and survival against harsh conditions. Legumes are well-known for possessing degradation-resistant proteins that often diminish their nutritional value. Here we applied diagonal two-dimensional (D2D) SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), a method that allows for the proteomics-level identification of KSPs, to a group of 12 legumes (mostly beans and peas) of agricultural and nutritional importance. Our proteomics results show beans that are more difficult to digest, such as soybean, lima beans, and various common beans, have high contents of KSPs. In contrast, mung bean, red lentil, and various peas that are highly digestible contain low amounts of KSPs. Identified proteins with high kinetic stability are associated with warm-season beans, which germinate at higher temperatures. In contrast, peas and red lentil, which are cool-season legumes, contain low levels of KSPs. Thus, our results show protein kinetic stability is an important factor in the digestibility of legume proteins and may relate to nutrition efficiency, timing of seed germination, and legume resistance to biotic stressors. Furthermore, we show D2D SDS-PAGE is a powerful method that could be applied for determining the abundance and identity of KSPs in engineered and wild legumes and for advancing basic research and associated applications.

  11. Effect of NaCl Priming on Seed Germination of Tunisian Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Under Salinity Conditions

    Souguir, Maher

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one major problem of increasing production in crop growing areas throughout the world. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of NaCl priming on seed germination of Tunisian fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. under salinity conditions. Seeds of fenugreek were primed with NaCl (4g/l for 36 h in continuous 25°C. Experimental factors were included 2 priming treatments (NaCl and non-priming as control and five salinity solution (4,6,8,10 and 12 gl-1. Results showed that seed priming increased final germination percentage, germination speed and radicle length over the non-primed treatment. At the lowest levels of salinity, there were no notable differences between primed and non-primed seeds, but with increasing salinity levels, primed seeds showed the better performance than non-primed seeds. These results indicated that NaCl priming significantly improved seed performance under salinity conditions.

  12. Effect of combined treatments of neutron radiation and plant growth regulator (GA) on seed germination and growth of rice

    Xie Chonghua; Wang Dan; Chen Yongjun; Wang Ying; Luo Jie; Liao Wei; Zheng Chun

    2007-01-01

    Rice seeds were irradiated with fast-neutron impulse pile and then were treated with different concentration of GA 3 . The effect of combined treatments on seeds germination and seedling growth were studied. The results showed that lethal pouring dose of neutron radiation on Hongai B and CB was 486 x 10 10 /cm 2 , Mianhui 2009 was 900 x 10 10 /cm 2 and Mianhui 2095 and Minghui 63 were 1350 x 10 10 /cm 2 . Semi-lethal pouring dose (LD 50 ) of neutron radiation on Hongai Band CB was 198-486 x 10 10 /cm 2 , Mianhui 2009 was about 486 x 10 10 /cm 2 , Minghui 63 was 629.49 x 10 10 /cm 2 and Mianhui 2095 is 774.69 x 10 10 /cm 2 . Radiation sensitivity of rice is Hongai B, CB>Mianhui 2009>Minghui 63>Mianhui 2095. GA 3 is a kind of efficient chemical radiation protection. 40 and 80 mg/L are the proper GA 3 concentrations of neutron irradiated rice seeds. (authors)

  13. Responses of Seed Germination, Seedling Growth, and Seed Yield Traits to Seed Pretreatment in Maize (Zea mays L.

    Yu Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.. Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA, NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P<0.05. The recommended prime reagents were GA at 10 mg/L, NaCl at 50 mM, and PEG at 15% on account of germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50 mM, or PEG (15% significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method.

  14. Effect of the Application of Gibberellin (GA3 on Tomato Seed Germination (Solanum Lycopersicum L. Variety Santa Cruz

    Yuli Alexandra Deaquiz-Oyola

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The tomato is one of the most important vegetable, economical and nutritionally, around the world. For this reason the germination process in the tomato is a vital stage in the growth and development of plants. In this study, the effect of different doses of gibberellin over the germination of Santa Cruz variety tomato seeds was evaluated. The seeds were embedded for 24 hours in different concentrations of gibberellic acid, sown in a peat substrate in the screen house of the UPTC. A complete randomized design was used with 4 treatments corresponding to 0, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1 of GAs with three replicates, for a total of 12 experimental units (EU, and each unit with 35 seeds. The treatment of 0 mg L-1 had a favorable impact on the mean germination time (GT, average speed of germination (ASG and germination percentage (GP, showing significant differences with respect to the other treatments. The seeds soaked in 400 mg L-1 of GAs presented the lowest values in the variables GT, ASG and GP, attributed to negative effect this type of hormone over this tomato variety, which delayed the death of the embryo and the seed germination.

  15. Impact of Intensity and Exposure Duration of Magnetic Field on Seed Germination of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.

    Hassan FEIZI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of seed hydro priming and magnetic field on tomato seed germination an experiment was conducted in laboratory of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2010. The experimental treatments were all combinations of two levels of hydro priming (use of dry seed and soaked seed for five h in distilled water and eight levels of magnetic field treatments (pretreatment of seeds in 15 mT for 5, 15 and 25 minutes, pretreatment of seeds in 25 mT for 5, 15 and 25 minutes, continuous magnetic field with 3 mT and control with four replications. Results indicated that hydro priming of seeds reduced mean germination time significantly. Root length increased by 14 percent in seed hydro priming treatment in comparison with dry seed treatment. Shoot length, seedling length and vigor index of hydro primed seeds increased by 7, 12 and 13 percent, respectively compared with dry seeds. Exposure of seeds with 3 mT continuous magnetic field and 25 mT for 5 min increased root length by 29 and 25 percents, respectively in comparison with control. The highest shoot length, seedling length and vigor index were obtained in 3 mT continuous magnetic field and 25 mT for 5 min.

  16. Stevia rebaudiana (Bert Bertoni: influence of osmotic stress and seed priming on seed germination under laboratory conditions

    Keila Regina Hossa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The foremost factor necessary for plant growers cultivating large acreages of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert Bertoni is the production of qualitative bedding plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of osmotic-priming on the uniformity of seed germination. First, we evaluated the percentage of normal seedlings from two seed samples harvested in 2011 and 2012. The seeds harvested in 2012 produced 71.4% normal seedlings and thus they were used in the next experiments. The seeds were subjected to osmotic stress using five concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000 at -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, -0.8, and -1.0 MPa in contrast with distilled water. Based on these first results, only -0.8 and -1.0 MPa were evaluated in the third experiment. The seeds were immersed in both concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000 for imbibing at 20ºC for four, five, six, and seven days. Thereafter, we evaluated the time to the first normal seedling (Ti, time to the last normal seedling (Tf, percentage normal seedlings at the initial time (Pi and percentage of normal seedlings at the end of every treatment (Pf. Osmotic priming increased the percentage of normal seedlings of the Stevia rebaudiana and reduced the time to the first and last germination events.

  17. Responses of seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits to seed pretreatment in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Tian, Yu; Guan, Bo; Zhou, Daowei; Yu, Junbao; Li, Guangdi; Lou, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50 mM), or PEG (15%) significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method.

  18. Effect of fungal and plant metabolites on broomrapes (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) seed germination and radicle growth.

    Cimmino, Alessio; Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Andolfi, Anna; Basso, Sara; Rubiales, Diego; Evidente, Antonio

    2014-10-29

    Orobanche and Phelipanche species (the broomrapes) are root parasitic plants, some of which cause heavy yield losses on important crops. The development of herbicides based on natural metabolites from microbial and plant origin, targeting early stages on parasitic plant development, might contribute to the reduction of broomrape seed bank in agricultural soils. Therefore, the effect of metabolites belonging to different classes of natural compounds on broomrape seed germination and radicle development was assayed in vitro. Among the metabolites tested, epi-sphaeropsidone, cyclopaldic acid, and those belonging to the sesquiterpene class induced broomrape germination in a species-specific manner. epi-Epoformin, sphaeropsidin A, and cytochalasans inhibited germination of GR24-treated broomrape seeds. The growth of broomrape radicle was strongly inhibited by sphaeropsidin A and compounds belonging to cyclohexene epoxide and cytochalasan classes. Broomrape radicles treated with epi-sphaeropsidone developed a layer of papillae while radicles treated with cytochalasans or with sphaeropsidin A turned necrotic. These findings allow new lead natural herbicides for the management of parasitic weeds to be identified.

  19. Characterizing and valuing of regeneration potential of the seed germination bank at the Carpatos forest reserve (Guasca, Cundinamarca)

    Cantillo Higuera Edgard Ernesto; Castiblanco Gutierrez Viviana; Pinilla Mondragon David Fernando; Alvarado Claudia Liliana

    2008-01-01

    In the Carpatos Forest Reserve the bank seed germinate (BSG) was marked and valued and the dispersion mechanisms and strategies of there serve defined. They subsequently determined the spatial, dinamogenetic and temporary structures of the seral states and their populations. For the vegetation on foot 61 species were recorded, represented by 53 genera and 36 families, alongside the BSG were 55 species, represented by 50 genera and 27 families. The minimum volume was 1.500 cm 3, for a total of 13.150 germinating seeds; the total density for BSG was 1.553 seeds per m2. The species emerged in the BSG were mostly herbaceous and flush - approximately 70% of all individuals and species -; Phytolacca bogotensis, Digitalis purpurea and Ageratina sp. were the dominant species in the three trials Bank, other important species were Carex sp., Poa annua, Rubus floribundum, Bulbostylis sp.and Borreria sp. The species of woody habit usually varied in each trial according to the phenophase of each species, the most representative species were Cestrum Mutisia, Clusia ducu, Myrsine coriacea, Axinaea macrophylla and Miconia denticulata. As for phenology and dispersal, it was found that vegetation stands submitted to the zoocoria as the dominant scattering strategy in all fields; the maximum flowering occurred during the dry season, from December to March, though the greatest fruiting records correspond to the longest rainy season, from June to August.

  20. Mobilization and Role of Starch, Protein, and Fat Reserves during Seed Germination of Six Wild Grassland Species.

    Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Hongxiang; Yan, Hong; Qiu, Lu; Baskin, Carol C

    2018-01-01

    Since seed reserves can influence seed germination, the quantitative and qualitative differences in seed reserves may relate to the germination characteristics of species. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the correlation between germination and seed reserves, as well as their mobilization during germination of six grassland species ( Chloris virgata , Kochia scoparia , Lespedeza hedysaroides , Astragalus adsurgens , Leonurus artemisia , and Dracocephalum moldavica ) and compare the results with domesticated species. We measured starch, protein, and fat content in dry seeds and the initial absorption of water during imbibition. Starch, soluble protein, fat, and soluble sugar content also were determined at five stages during germination. Starch, protein, and fat reserves in dry seeds were not significantly correlated with germination percentage and rate (speed), but soluble sugar and soluble protein contents at different germination stages were positively significantly correlated with germination rate for the six species. Starch was mainly used during seed imbibition, and soluble protein was used from the imbibition stage to the highest germination stage. Fat content for all species remained relatively constant throughout germination for six species, regardless of the proportion of other seed reserves in the seeds. Our results for fat utilization differ from those obtained for cultivated grasses and legumes. These results provide new insight on the role of seed reserves as energy resources in germination for wild species.

  1. Mobilization and Role of Starch, Protein, and Fat Reserves during Seed Germination of Six Wild Grassland Species

    Ming Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Since seed reserves can influence seed germination, the quantitative and qualitative differences in seed reserves may relate to the germination characteristics of species. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the correlation between germination and seed reserves, as well as their mobilization during germination of six grassland species (Chloris virgata, Kochia scoparia, Lespedeza hedysaroides, Astragalus adsurgens, Leonurus artemisia, and Dracocephalum moldavica and compare the results with domesticated species. We measured starch, protein, and fat content in dry seeds and the initial absorption of water during imbibition. Starch, soluble protein, fat, and soluble sugar content also were determined at five stages during germination. Starch, protein, and fat reserves in dry seeds were not significantly correlated with germination percentage and rate (speed, but soluble sugar and soluble protein contents at different germination stages were positively significantly correlated with germination rate for the six species. Starch was mainly used during seed imbibition, and soluble protein was used from the imbibition stage to the highest germination stage. Fat content for all species remained relatively constant throughout germination for six species, regardless of the proportion of other seed reserves in the seeds. Our results for fat utilization differ from those obtained for cultivated grasses and legumes. These results provide new insight on the role of seed reserves as energy resources in germination for wild species.

  2. Toxicity test of the F-Area seep soils by laboratory lettuce seed germination and seedling growth

    Eaton, D.; Murphy, C.E.

    1993-09-01

    This study is a follow-up of a similar study done by Loehle (1990). The objectives of the original study were to: (1) measure the toxicity of groundwater contaminated by the F-Area seepage basins where this water surfaces in a seepline along Fourmile Branch and (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of rainwater for washing contaminants from the soil. Results of seed germination tests show no significant difference between water extracted from one extraction of F-Area seepline soil, soil from a control area, the sixth consecutive extraction from F-Area soil, and a deionized water control. A root-growth assay on the same seeds shows a significant effect with the order of growth, first extraction of F-Area soil< control site< deionized water

  3. De drieweg interactie tussen sorghum, Striga hermonthica en arbusculaire mycorrhiza schimmels

    Lendzemo, V.W.

    2004-01-01

    Striga hermonthica is a major biological constraint to cereal production in Africa. The intricate association between this phytoparasite and the cereal host makes management difficult. Damage to the host begins before Striga comes out of the soil. Also, infestation correlates negatively with soil

  4. Purple witchweed (Striga hermonthica) germination and seedbank depletion under different crops, fallow, and bare soil

    Mourik, van T.A.; Stomph, T.J.; Murdoch, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Seedbank density is an important aspect that determines the amount of damage that the parasitic weed, purple witchweed (Striga hermonthica; hereafter, called “Striga”), causes on its crop hosts. The seedbank depletion of Striga was measured in Mali and Niger during the 2004 rainy season under the

  5. Cultural control measures to diminish sorghum yield loss and parasite success under Striga hermonthica infestation

    Ast, van A.; Bastiaans, L.; Katile, S.

    2005-01-01

    Prospects of reducing Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. parasitism by means of cultural control measures were assessed. In a pot experiment, deep planting, the use of transplants and shallow soil-tillage, strongly delayed and reduced Striga infection of a sensitive and a tolerant sorghum cultivar.

  6. Efficacy of herbicide seed treatments for controlling Striga infestation of Sorghum

    Tuinstra, M.R.; Soumana, S.; Al-Khatib, K.; Kapran, I.; Toure, A.; Ast, van A.; Bastiaans, L.; Ochanda, N.W.; Salami, I.; Kayentao, M.; Dembele, S.

    2009-01-01

    Witchweed (Striga spp.) infestations are the greatest obstacle to sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] grain production in many areas in Africa. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of herbicide seed treatments for controlling Striga infestation of sorghum. Seeds of an

  7. Comparative seed germination traits in alpine and subalpine grasslands: higher elevations are associated with warmer germination temperatures.

    Fernández-Pascual, E; Jiménez-Alfaro, B; Bueno, Á

    2017-01-01

    Seed germination traits in alpine grasslands are poorly understood, despite the sensitivity of these communities to climate change. We hypothesise that germination traits predict species occurrence along the alpine-subalpine elevation gradient. Phylogenetic comparative analyses were performed using fresh seeds of 22 species from alpine and subalpine grasslands (1600-2400 m) of the Cantabrian Mountains, Spain (43° N, 5° W). Laboratory experiments were conducted to characterise germinability, optimum germination temperature and effect of cold and warm stratification on dormancy breaking. Variability in these traits was reduced by phylogenetic principal component analysis (phyl.PCA). Phylogenetic generalised least squares regression (PGLS) was used to fit a model in which species average elevation was predicted from their position on the PCA axes. Most subalpine species germinated in snow-like conditions, whereas most alpine species needed accumulation of warm temperatures. Phylogenetic signal was low. PCA1 ordered species according to overall germinability, whilst PCA2 ordered them according to preference for warm or cold germination. PCA2 significantly predicted species occurrence in the alpine-subalpine gradient, as higher elevation species tended to have warmer germination preferences. Our results show that germination traits in high-mountain grasslands are closely linked to the alpine-subalpine gradient. Alpine species, especially those from stripped and wind-edge communities, prefer warmer germination niches, suggesting that summer emergence prevents frost damage during seedling establishment. In contrast, alpine snowfield and subalpine grassland plants have cold germination niches, indicating that winter emergence may occur under snow to avoid drought stress. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. Effect of some commonly used pesticides on seed germination, biomass production and photosynthetic pigments in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Shakir, Shakirullah Khan; Kanwal, Memoona; Murad, Waheed; Zia ur Rehman; Shafiq ur Rehman; Daud, M K; Azizullah, Azizullah

    2016-03-01

    Pesticides are highly toxic substances. Their toxicity may not be absolutely specific to the target organisms but can adversely affect different processes in the non-target host plants. In the present study, the effect of over application of four commonly used pesticides (emamectin benzoate, alpha-cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and imidacloprid) was evaluated on the germination, seedling vigor and photosynthetic pigments in tomato. The obtained results revealed that seed germination was decreased by the pesticides and this effect was more prominent at early stages of exposure. All the tested pesticides reduced the growth of tomato when applied in higher concentration than the recommended dose, but at lower doses the pesticides had some stimulatory effects on growth as compared to the control. A similar effect of pesticides was observed on the photosynthetic pigments, i.e. a decrease in pigments concentrations was caused at higher doses but an increase was observed at lower doses of pesticides. The calculation of EC50 values for different parameters revealed the lowest EC50 values for emamectin (ranged as 51-181 mg/L) followed by alpha-cypermethrin (191.74-374.39), lambda-cyhalothrin (102.43-354.28) and imidacloprid (430.29-1979.66 mg/L). A comparison of the obtained EC50 values for different parameters of tomato with the recommended doses revealed that over application of these pesticides can be harmful to tomato crop. In a few cases these pesticides were found toxic even at the recommended doses. However, a field based study in this regard should be conducted to further verify these results.

  9. Impact of storage conditions on seed germination and seedling growth of wild oat (Avena fatua L. at different temperatures

    Marija Sarić-Krsmanović

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seed storage conditions and different temperatures (5˚C, 10˚C, 15˚C, 20˚C, 25˚C, 30˚C and 26˚C/21˚C during germination and seedling development on seed germination, shoot length and germination rate of wild oat (Avena fatua L. was examined. Germinated seeds were counted daily over a period of ten days and shoot length was measured on the last day, while germination rates were calculated from those measurements. The results showed that seed storage under controlled conditions (T1: temperature 24±1°C, humidity 40-50%; T2: temperature 26±1°C, humidity 70-80% and T3: temperature 4˚C for periods of 3 (t1 and 12 (t2 months had a significant influence on germination of wild oat seeds. The percentage of germinated seeds under all examined temperatures was higher when they were stored for 12 months under controlled temperature and humidity. The results also showed that temperature had a significant effect on the percentage of germination and germination rate of A. fatua seeds. The highest total germination occurred at 15˚C temperature (T1: t1 - 41.25%, t2 - 44.37%; T2: t1 - 28.13%, t2 - 34.37%; T3: t1 - 10.63%, t2 - 12.50%. Germination percentage under an alternating day /night photoperiod at 26˚C/21˚C temperature was higher in all treatment variants (T1: t1 - 8.13%, t2 - 10.00%; T2: t1 - 11.87%, t2 - 13.13%; T3: t1 - 2.42%, t2 - 2.70% than germination in the dark at 25˚C, 30˚C and 5˚C.

  10. Priming effects on seed germination in Tecoma stans (Bignoniaceae) and Cordia megalantha (Boraginaceae), two tropical deciduous tree species

    Alvarado-López, Sandra; Soriano, Diana; Velázquez, Noé; Orozco-Segovia, Alma; Gamboa-deBuen, Alicia

    2014-11-01

    Successful revegetation necessarily requires the establishment of a vegetation cover and one of the challenges for this is the scarce knowledge about germination and seedling establishment of wild tree species. Priming treatments (seed hydration during a specific time followed by seed dehydration) could be an alternative germination pre-treatment to improve plant establishment. Natural priming (via seed burial) promotes rapid and synchronous germination as well as the mobilisation of storage reserves; consequently, it increases seedling vigour. These metabolic and physiological responses are similar to those occurring as a result of the laboratory seed priming treatments (osmopriming and matrix priming) applied successfully to agricultural species. In order to know if natural priming had a positive effect on germination of tropical species we tested the effects of natural priming on imbibition kinetics, germination parameters (mean germination time, lag time and germination rate and percentage) and reserve mobilisation in the seeds of two tree species from a tropical deciduous forest in south-eastern México: Tecoma stans (L Juss. Ex Kunth) and Cordia megalantha (S.F Blake). The wood of both trees are useful for furniture and T. stans is a pioneer tree that promotes soil retention in disturbed areas. We also compared the effect of natural priming with that of laboratory matrix priming (both in soil). Matrix priming improved germination of both studied species. Natural priming promoted the mobilisation of proteins and increased the amount of free amino acids and of lipid degradation in T. stans but not in C. megalantha. Our results suggest that the application of priming via the burial of seeds is an easy and inexpensive technique that can improve seed germination and seedling establishment of tropical trees with potential use in reforestation and restoration practices.

  11. Effect of Salt and Drought Stresses and Pretreatment of Salicylic acid on Seed Germination Characteristics of Lavender (Lavandula stricta Del.

    Hadi Sanginabadi

    2017-09-01

    structure. SA is involved in endogenous signaling, mediating in plant defense against pathogens. The signal can also move to nearby plants by salicylic acid being converted to the volatile ester, methyl salicylate. Salicylic acid has an important role in resistance to environmental stresses. In the current study, the effects of pretreatment of salicylic acid to eliminate salinity and drought stresses were evaluated on Lavender seed germination (Lavandula stricta Del.. Materials and Methods: Seed samples of raised lavender were collected from Geno (Bandar Abbas on May 2013. Two experiments were conducted based on completely randomized design with three levels of Salicylic acid (0, 0.1 and 0.5 mM and four levels (0, -2, -4 and -6 bar of drought and salinity stresses with three replications in Horticultural Sciences department, Plant production faculty of Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources (GUASNR. Plumule and radicle length, germination percentage and seed vigor were evaluated. Results Discussion: Results indicated that plumule and radicle length, germination percentage and seed vigor were significantly decreased by increasing drought and salinity stresses. The absence of pretreatment with salicylic acid were lead to increase negative effects of salinity in comparison with non-pretreated in the studied trait. However salinity stress levels -2 and -6 bar and pretreatments increased all traits significantly. Overall, the results showed that among total characteristics, plumule length is more sensitive in to drought and salinity stresses. As a result, the best range of moisture for lavender seeds germination is from non-stress conditions to -2 bars. It seems that seed germination on lavender has more tolerance to drought stress conditions than salinity stress conditions. Since the climate change will result in ecological degradation and further threaten the fragility of dry and saline lands, with serious consequences for crop and livestock

  12. Effect of Salt and Drought Stresses and Pretreatment of Salicylic acid on Seed Germination Characteristics of Lavender (Lavandula stricta Del.

    Hadi Sanginabadi

    2017-02-01

    structure. SA is involved in endogenous signaling, mediating in plant defense against pathogens. The signal can also move to nearby plants by salicylic acid being converted to the volatile ester, methyl salicylate. Salicylic acid has an important role in resistance to environmental stresses. In the current study, the effects of pretreatment of salicylic acid to eliminate salinity and drought stresses were evaluated on Lavender seed germination (Lavandula stricta Del.. Materials and Methods: Seed samples of raised lavender were collected from Geno (Bandar Abbas on May 2013. Two experiments were conducted based on completely randomized design with three levels of Salicylic acid (0, 0.1 and 0.5 mM and four levels (0, -2, -4 and -6 bar of drought and salinity stresses with three replications in Horticultural Sciences department, Plant production faculty of Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources (GUASNR. Plumule and radicle length, germination percentage and seed vigor were evaluated. Results Discussion: Results indicated that plumule and radicle length, germination percentage and seed vigor were significantly decreased by increasing drought and salinity stresses. The absence of pretreatment with salicylic acid were lead to increase negative effects of salinity in comparison with non-pretreated in the studied trait. However salinity stress levels -2 and -6 bar and pretreatments increased all traits significantly. Overall, the results showed that among total characteristics, plumule length is more sensitive in to drought and salinity stresses. As a result, the best range of moisture for lavender seeds germination is from non-stress conditions to -2 bars. It seems that seed germination on lavender has more tolerance to drought stress conditions than salinity stress conditions. Since the climate change will result in ecological degradation and further threaten the fragility of dry and saline lands, with serious consequences for crop and livestock

  13. Introduction of Endophytic Pseudomonas rhodesiae and Acinetobacter sp. Effective on Seed Germination and Cucumber Growth Factors Improvement

    Farkhondeh Amini

    2017-03-01

    microorganisms could have emerged as a result of the clear positive selection exerted on these associations. The current study is conducted in order to evaluate the effectiveness of cucumber root endophytic bacteria on increasing plant growth indexes. Materials and Methods: In this study, 45 strains were isolated from cucumber roots as mentioned in the literature. In the first step, all of them subjected to seed germination assay in lab conditions. Furthermore, they are evaluated for vigor index according to references. Seven strains (En 1 to En7 are selected for complementary research in greenhouse trials using randomized block design with 4 repetitions. Statistical analysis is done using SPSS v.22‌ by Duncan methods under 5% possibility levels. To detect preferred bacterial species, 16S rDNA-PCR product is sent for sequencing to Macrogen, Korea. The sequences are checked in BLAST program in NCBI database. Results and Discussion: Based on medians comparison, cucumber seed cultivar Negin, are treated by 45 endophytic bacteria separately. Among them, seven strains showed a significant difference at 1% possibility level in comparison to control. These strains presented high vigor index from 1954.6 to 572 compared to control. They also showed better seed germination percentage rather than control in the range of 95 to 45 %, and selected for greenhouse trials. The results of medians comparison in pot experiments demonstrated that En1 strains leads to 60% root and shoot length enhancement comparing to control. Furthermore, highest shoot (84.6% and root (55.8% wet weight are recorded for En6 in comparison to control. Molecular data revealed that strains En1 and En6 belonging to Acinetobacter sp. and Pseudomonas rhodesiae, respectively. It is known that variation in endophytic bacteria may reflect differences in agriculture management methods. The P. rhodesiae is categorized in Pseudomonas fluorescent group and is isolated from mineral water for the first time. The positive effect of

  14. The Effect of Temperature and Water Potential on Seed Germination of Asian spiderflower (Cleome viscose L.: As Invasive Weed in Soybean Fields in Golestan Province

    M. Shirdel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cleome viscose Linn. with a common name as “Asian spiderflower”, belongs to the Capparidacea family. It is an annual, sticky herb found as a common weed all over the tropical regions of the world. It is a very competitive weed of annual crops. This plant is currently introduced as an invasive plant in soybean fields of Golestan province. There is no management recommendation to control Asian spider flower. Thus large quantities of soybean destroyed by this weed every year. Germination and emergence are the two most important stages in the life cycle of plants. Environmental factors such as temperature, light, pH, planting depth and soil moisture are known to affect seed germination and emergence of weeds. An understanding of the germination biology of Asian spider flower would facilitate the development of better management strategies for this weed. Therefore, the purposes of this research were to study the effects of temperature and water potential on Asian spider flower seed germination. Material and Methods: To evaluate the effect of temperature and water potential on seed germination and determination of seed germination cardinal temperatures of Asian spider flower, an experiment was conducted as Factorial Experiment in Completely Randomized Design with 4 replications in Agricultural Research and Natural Resources Center of Golestan Province during 2013. Treatments were included temperatures with seven levels (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 38 and 400C and water potentials with six levels (0, -2, -4, -6, -8 and -10 bar. Germination was monitored daily until germination discontinued and the number of the germinated seeds was recorded. Seeds were observed twice daily and considered germinated when the radical was approximately >2mm long. To quantify the response of germination rate to temperature and to determine the cardinal temperatures for germination original beta, and modified beta, segmented and dent models were used. Water

  15. Gibberellic and kaurenoic hybrid strigolactone mimics for seed germination of parasitic weeds.

    Pereira, Rondinelle G; Cala, Antonio; Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Molinillo, José Mg; Boaventura, Maria Ad; Macías, Francisco A

    2017-12-01

    Parasitic weeds are widespread and cause significant losses in important crops. Their germination requires the detection of crop-derived molecules such as strigolactones. Strigolactone mimics are germination-inducing molecules with the potential to apply a suicidal germination strategy for seed bank control of parasitic weeds. The D-ring, which is instrumental in the germination process of seeds of parasitic weeds, was attached to gibberellin (GA 3 ) and kaurenoic acid as the scaffold. It was shown that indeed strigolactone mimics prepared from GA 3 and kaurenoic acid are active as stimulants when a D-ring is present; some of the mimics are as active as GR24. The starting molecules were plant hormones that had previous growth-regulating activity in other organisms and the products showed enhanced activity towards parasitic weeds. The information generated may contribute to a better understanding of the germination biochemistry of the weed species used. Further research is required in this area but it is clear that the results are promising. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Seed germination methods for native Caribbean trees and shrubs : with emphasis on species relevant for Bonaire

    Burg, van der W.J.; Freitas, J.; Debrot, A.O.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is intended as a basis for nature restoration activities using seeds of trees and (larger) shrubs native to Bonaire with the aim of reforestation. It describes the main seed biology issues relevant for species from this region, to facilitate decisions on time and stage of harvesting, safe

  17. SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING EMERGENCE OF Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan var. cebil (Griseb. Altschut, FABACEAE, ESTABLISHED IN FOREST FRAGMENTS OF CERRADO, MINAS GERAIS STATE

    Marieta Caixeta Dorneles

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810541 The seed germination strategy is important for the survival of species, allowing their maintenance and regeneration in the environment. Seed germination and seedling emergence of Anadenanthera colubrina were studied to examine the reproductive efficiency of this species, typical of Cerrado biome. The fruits were collected in ‘Vale do Rio Araguari’, in MG state. The water content at 105 °C, the germination in controlled laboratory conditions and seedling emergence in semi-open greenhouse were analyzed. The seeds had low water content between 6.7 to 10.7%. The germinating ability and the emergence percentage were high for almost all studied individuals, being registered 68 for seeds of individual number 2 and 85 - 94% for the others; 38% (individual number 2 and 78 - 91% (for the others, respectively. The speed of the processes was high, with the end of germination within 12.8 days and emergence within 18.8 days. The processes were heterogeneous, with values of coefficient of variation of the germination or emergence time above 28.5%; asynchronous, with values of uncertainty above 1.5 bits and synchrony below 0.3812. The seeds of this species were efficient in both processes and the heterogeneity and asynchrony may indicate the effects of environmental fluctuations during the seed formation, besides the genetic variability, intrinsic to each individual of the population. The speed and the high potential of seed germination of this species may also facilitate the programs of reforestation with the production of large numbers of seedlings in short time.  

  18. Study of Seed Germination and Morphological Characteristics of Wild Oat(Avena ludoviciana and Mustard (Sinapis arvensis Seedling, Affected by Aqueous Extracts of Black Cumin (Bunium persicum L, Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L and Mixed of Extracts

    R Moradi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to evaluate the effects of shoot aqueous extracts of chickpea, black cumin and their mixed aqueous extracts on seed germination and seedling morphological characteristics of wild oat and mustard as two common weed, an experiment was conducted with a factorial arrangement based on completely randomized design with three replications. The experimental treatments were aqueous extracts in five levels (0, 10, 20, 40 and 60 percentage, Weed species in two levels (wild oat and mustard and extract concentration in five levels (0, 10, 20. 40 and 60 percentage. Result indicated that the highest and the lowest percentage and seed germination rate, length of radicle and hypocotyle, dry weight of radicle and hypocotyle and radicle / hypocotyle ratio (R/H, were obtained in control treatment and 60% concentration, respectively. Aqueous extract of black cumin and mixed extracts had the highest and the lowest effect on percentage and seed germination rate, length of radicle and hypocotyle, dry weight of radicle and hypocotyle and radicle / hypocotyle ratio, respectively. Between two weed species, wild oat had the lowest percentage of seed germination and length of radicle compared with mustard. Mustard had the lowest seed germination rate, dry weight of radicle and hypocotyle and length of hypocotyle compare with wild oat. Generally, it was concluded that chickpea and black cumin aqueous extracts have highly inhibitory in terms of weed control that can be useful for sustainable agriculture. Keywords: Allelopathy, Black cumin, Chickpea, Extract, Mustard, Wild oat

  19. Biological effects of low energy nitrogen ion implantation on Jatropha curcas L. seed germination

    Xu, Gang; Wang, Xiao-teng; Gan, Cai-ling; Fang, Yan-qiong; Zhang, Meng

    2012-09-01

    To explore the biological effects of nitrogen ion beam implantation on dry Jatropha curcas seed, a beam of N+ with energy of 25 keV was applied to treat the dry seed at six different doses. N+ beam implantation greatly decreased germination rate and seedling survival rate. The doses within the range of 12 × 1016 to 15 × 1016 ions cm-2 severely damaged the seeds: total antioxidant capacity (TAC), germination rate, seedling survival rate, reduced ascorbate acid (HAsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents, and most of the tested antioxidases activity (i.e. catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) reached their lowest levels. At a dose of 18 × 1016 ion cm-2, biological repair took place: moderate increases were found in TAC, germination rate, seedling survival rate, HAsA and GSH contents, and some antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e. CAT, APX, SOD and GPX). The dose of 18 × 1016 ions cm-2 may be the optimum dose for use in dry J. curcas seed mutation breeding. CAT, HAsA and GSH contributed to the increase of TAC, but CAT was the most important. POD performed its important role as seed was severely damaged. The main role of the HAsA-GSH cycle appeared to be for regeneration of HAsA.

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on some physiological processes during maiz. seed germination

    Kerin, V; Ilieva, T [Vissh Selskostopanski Inst., Plovdiv (Bulgaria)

    1976-01-01

    The investigation was carried out with the SK/sub 4/ and Knezha 2L-403 hybrids. Dry seeds were irradiated by ..gamma..-rays in doses of 500 R, 750 R and 1000 R radioactive cesium 137. The effect of the individual ..gamma..-ray doses on sprout and root growth, respiration rate and peroxidase activity was followed up. Results showed that seed irradiation by a 500R dose had a stimulating effect on sprout and root growth, while the 750 R and 1000 R did not differ significantly from the ccntrol. Seed irradiation by 500 R reduced the respiration rate of the roots and sprouts, while both treatments with higher doses gave results similar to the control. The changes in the respiration enzyme peroxidase were in correlation with the changes in respiration rate.

  1. Biological effects of low energy nitrogen ion implantation on Jatropha curcas L. seed germination

    Xu Gang; Wang Xiaoteng; Gan Cailing; Fang Yanqiong; Zhang Meng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We analyzed biological effects of N + implantation on dry Jatropha curcas seed. ► N + implantation greatly decreased seedling survival rate. ► At doses beyond 15 × 10 16 ion cm −2 , biological repair took place. ► CAT was essential for H 2 O 2 removal. POD mainly functioned as seed was severely hurt. ► HAsA–GSH cycle mainly contributed to the regeneration of HAsA. - Abstract: To explore the biological effects of nitrogen ion beam implantation on dry Jatropha curcas seed, a beam of N + with energy of 25 keV was applied to treat the dry seed at six different doses. N + beam implantation greatly decreased germination rate and seedling survival rate. The doses within the range of 12 × 10 16 to 15 × 10 16 ions cm −2 severely damaged the seeds: total antioxidant capacity (TAC), germination rate, seedling survival rate, reduced ascorbate acid (HAsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents, and most of the tested antioxidases activity (i.e. catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) reached their lowest levels. At a dose of 18 × 10 16 ion cm −2 , biological repair took place: moderate increases were found in TAC, germination rate, seedling survival rate, HAsA and GSH contents, and some antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e. CAT, APX, SOD and GPX). The dose of 18 × 10 16 ions cm −2 may be the optimum dose for use in dry J. curcas seed mutation breeding. CAT, HAsA and GSH contributed to the increase of TAC, but CAT was the most important. POD performed its important role as seed was severely damaged. The main role of the HAsA–GSH cycle appeared to be for regeneration of HAsA.

  2. Biological effects of low energy nitrogen ion implantation on Jatropha curcas L. seed germination

    Xu Gang, E-mail: xg335300@yahoo.com.cn [Center for Research and Development of Fine Chemicals, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Wang Xiaoteng [Department of Agricultural Resources and Environment, College of Agricultural, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Gan Cailing; Fang Yanqiong; Zhang Meng [College of Life Sciences, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyzed biological effects of N{sup +} implantation on dry Jatropha curcas seed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sup +} implantation greatly decreased seedling survival rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At doses beyond 15 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} ion cm{sup -2}, biological repair took place. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CAT was essential for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} removal. POD mainly functioned as seed was severely hurt. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HAsA-GSH cycle mainly contributed to the regeneration of HAsA. - Abstract: To explore the biological effects of nitrogen ion beam implantation on dry Jatropha curcas seed, a beam of N{sup +} with energy of 25 keV was applied to treat the dry seed at six different doses. N{sup +} beam implantation greatly decreased germination rate and seedling survival rate. The doses within the range of 12 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} to 15 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup -2} severely damaged the seeds: total antioxidant capacity (TAC), germination rate, seedling survival rate, reduced ascorbate acid (HAsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents, and most of the tested antioxidases activity (i.e. catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) reached their lowest levels. At a dose of 18 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} ion cm{sup -2}, biological repair took place: moderate increases were found in TAC, germination rate, seedling survival rate, HAsA and GSH contents, and some antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e. CAT, APX, SOD and GPX). The dose of 18 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup -2} may be the optimum dose for use in dry J. curcas seed mutation breeding. CAT, HAsA and GSH contributed to the increase of TAC, but CAT was the most important. POD performed its important role as seed was severely damaged. The main role of the HAsA-GSH cycle appeared to be for regeneration of HAsA.

  3. Tritium forms discrimination in ryegrass under constant tritium exposure: From seed germination to seedling autotrophy.

    Renard, H; Maro, D; Le Dizès, S; Escobar-Gutiérrez, A; Voiseux, C; Solier, L; Hébert, D; Rozet, M; Cossonnet, C; Barillot, R

    2017-10-01

    Uncertainties remain regarding the fate of atmospheric tritium after it has been assimilated in grasslands (ryegrass) in the form of TFWT (Tissue Free Water Tritium) or OBT (Organically Bound Tritium). One such uncertainty relates to the tritium forms discrimination during transfer from TFWT to OBT resulting from photosynthesis (OBT photo ), corresponding to the OBT photo /TFWT ratio. In this study, the OBT/TFWT ratio is determined by experiments in the laboratory using a ryegrass model and hydroponic cultures, with constant activity of tritium in the form of tritiated water (denoted as HTO) in the "water" compartment (liquid HTO) and "air" compartment (HTO vapour in the air). The OBT photo /TFWT ratio and the exchangeable OBT fraction are measured for three parts of the plant: the leaf, seed and root. Plant growth is modelled using dehydrated biomass measurements taken over time in the laboratory and integrating physiological functions of the plant during the first ten days after germination. The results suggest that there is no measurable discrimination of tritium in the plant organic matter produced by photosynthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Crops with target-site herbicide resistance for Orobanche and Striga control.

    Gressel, Jonathan

    2009-05-01

    It is necessary to control root parasitic weeds before or as they attach to the crop. This can only be easily achieved chemically with herbicides that are systemic, or with herbicides that are active in soil. Long-term control can only be attained if the crops do not metabolise the herbicide, i.e. have target-site resistance. Such target-site resistances have allowed foliar applications of herbicides inhibiting enol-pyruvylshikimate phosphate synthase (EPSPS) (glyphosate), acetolactate synthase (ALS) (e.g. chlorsulfuron, imazapyr) and dihydropteroate synthase (asulam) for Orobanche control in experimental conditions with various crops. Large-scale use of imazapyr as a seed dressing of imidazolinone-resistant maize has been commercialised for Striga control. Crops with two target-site resistances will be more resilient to the evolution of resistance in the parasite, if well managed.

  5. Thermal niche for in situ seed germination by Mediterranean mountain streams: model prediction and validation for Rhamnus persicifolia seeds

    Porceddu, Marco; Mattana, Efisio; Pritchard, Hugh W.; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Mediterranean mountain species face exacting ecological conditions of rainy, cold winters and arid, hot summers, which affect seed germination phenology. In this study, a soil heat sum model was used to predict field emergence of Rhamnus persicifolia, an endemic tree species living at the edge of mountain streams of central eastern Sardinia. Methods Seeds were incubated in the light at a range of temperatures (10–25 and 25/10 °C) after different periods (up to 3 months) of cold stratification at 5 °C. Base temperatures (Tb), and thermal times for 50 % germination (θ50) were calculated. Seeds were also buried in the soil in two natural populations (Rio Correboi and Rio Olai), both underneath and outside the tree canopy, and exhumed at regular intervals. Soil temperatures were recorded using data loggers and soil heat sum (°Cd) was calculated on the basis of the estimated Tb and soil temperatures. Key Results Cold stratification released physiological dormancy (PD), increasing final germination and widening the range of germination temperatures, indicative of a Type 2 non-deep PD. Tb was reduced from 10·5 °C for non-stratified seeds to 2·7 °C for seeds cold stratified for 3 months. The best thermal time model was obtained by fitting probit germination against log °Cd. θ50 was 2·6 log °Cd for untreated seeds and 2·17–2·19 log °Cd for stratified seeds. When θ50 values were integrated with soil heat sum estimates, field emergence was predicted from March to April and confirmed through field observations. Conclusions Tb and θ50 values facilitated model development of the thermal niche for in situ germination of R. persicifolia. These experimental approaches may be applied to model the natural regeneration patterns of other species growing on Mediterranean mountain waterways and of physiologically dormant species, with overwintering cold stratification requirement and spring germination. PMID:24201139

  6. Transcriptome Sequencing and Differential Gene Expression Analysis of Delayed Gland Morphogenesis in Gossypium australe during Seed Germination

    Tao, Tao; Zhao, Liang; Lv, Yuanda; Chen, Jiedan; Hu, Yan; Zhang, Tianzhen; Zhou, Baoliang

    2013-01-01

    The genus Gossypium is a globally important crop that is used to produce textiles, oil and protein. However, gossypol, which is found in cultivated cottonseed, is toxic to humans and non-ruminant animals. Efforts have been made to breed improved cultivated cotton with lower gossypol content. The delayed gland morphogenesis trait possessed by some Australian wild cotton species may enable the widespread, direct usage of cottonseed. However, the mechanisms about the delayed gland morphogenesis are still unknown. Here, we sequenced the first Australian wild cotton species ( Gossypium australe ) and a diploid cotton species ( Gossypium arboreum ) using the Illumina Hiseq 2000 RNA-seq platform to help elucidate the mechanisms underlying gossypol synthesis and gland development. Paired-end Illumina short reads were de novo assembled into 226,184, 213,257 and 275,434 transcripts, clustering into 61,048, 47,908 and 72,985 individual clusters with N50 lengths of 1,710 bp, 1544 BP and 1,743 bp, respectively. The clustered Unigenes were searched against three public protein databases (TrEMBL, SwissProt and RefSeq) and the nucleotide and protein sequences of Gossypium raimondii using BLASTx and BLASTn. A total of 21,987, 17,209 and 25,325 Unigenes were annotated. Of these, 18,766 (85.4%), 14,552 (84.6%) and 21,374 (84.4%) Unigenes could be assigned to GO-term classifications. We identified and analyzed 13,884 differentially expressed Unigenes by clustering and functional enrichment. Terpenoid-related biosynthesis pathways showed differentially regulated expression patterns between the two cotton species. Phylogenetic analysis of the terpene synthases family was also carried out to clarify the classifications of TPSs. RNA-seq data from two distinct cotton species provide comprehensive transcriptome annotation resources and global gene expression profiles during seed germination and gland and gossypol formation. These data may be used to further elucidate various mechanisms and

  7. Effects of Temperature, Light and Pre-Chilling on Seed Germination of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni Accessions

    Mario Macchia

    germination values (9-44%. Overall, at the constant temperatures assayed, pre-chilling gave a higher germination percentage as compared to no pre-chilling, while at alternating temperatures higher germination rates were obtained in the absence of pre-chilling. The great variability observed between accessions for photoperiodic requirement as well as in seed germinative characteristics was probably due to the fact that this species was not subjected to any genetic improvement program.

  8. Light quality influences indigo precursors production and seed germination in Isatis tinctoria L. and Isatis indigotica Fort.

    Tozzi, Sabrina; Lercari, Bartolomeo; Angelini, Luciana G

    2005-01-01

    Isatis tinctoria L. and Isatis indigotica Fort. are biennial herbaceous plants belonging to the family of Cruciferae that are used as a source of natural indigo and show several morphological and genetic differences. Production of indigo (indigotin) precursors, indican (indoxyl beta-D glucoside) and isatan B (indoxyl ketogluconate), together with seed germination ability were compared in Isatis tinctoria and Isatis indigotica grown under six different light conditions (darkness, white, red, far red, blue, yellow light) at 25 degrees C. Light quality influenced both germination and production of indigo precursors in the two Isatis species. Different responsiveness to far red and blue light was observed. Indeed, a detrimental effect on germination by blue and far red light was found in I. tinctoria only. Different amounts of isatan B were produced under red and far red light in the two Isatis species. In I. tinctoria, the level of main indigo precursor isatan B was maximal under red light and minimal under far red light. Whereas in I. indigotica far red light promoted a large accumulation of isatan B. The photon fluence rate dependency for white and yellow light responses showed that the accumulation of indigo precursors was differently influenced in the two Isatis species. In particular, both white and yellow light enhanced above 40 micromol m(-2) s(-1) the production of isatan B in I. indigotica while only white light showed a photon fluence dependency in I. tinctoria. These results suggest a different role played by the labile and stable phytochrome species (phyA and phyB) in the isatan B production in I. tinctoria and I. indigotica. I. indigotica, whose germination percentage was not influenced by light quality, demonstrated higher germination capability compared with I. tinctoria. In fact, I. tinctoria showed high frequency of germination in darkness and under light sources that establish high phytochrome photoequilibrium (red, white and yellow light

  9. Arabidopsis Glutamate Receptor Homolog3.5 Modulates Cytosolic Ca2+ Level to Counteract Effect of Abscisic Acid in Seed Germination1[OPEN

    Kong, Dongdong; Ju, Chuanli; Parihar, Aisha; Kim, So; Cho, Daeshik; Kwak, June M.

    2015-01-01

    Seed germination is a critical step in a plant’s life cycle that allows successful propagation and is therefore strictly controlled by endogenous and environmental signals. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying germination control remain elusive. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) glutamate receptor homolog3.5 (AtGLR3.5) is predominantly expressed in germinating seeds and increases cytosolic Ca2+ concentration that counteracts the effect of abscisic acid (ABA) to promote germination. Repression of AtGLR3.5 impairs cytosolic Ca2+ concentration elevation, significantly delays germination, and enhances ABA sensitivity in seeds, whereas overexpression of AtGLR3.5 results in earlier germination and reduced seed sensitivity to ABA. Furthermore, we show that Ca2+ suppresses the expression of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4), a key transcription factor involved in ABA response in seeds, and that ABI4 plays a fundamental role in modulation of Ca2+-dependent germination. Taken together, our results provide molecular genetic evidence that AtGLR3.5-mediated Ca2+ influx stimulates seed germination by antagonizing the inhibitory effects of ABA through suppression of ABI4. These findings establish, to our knowledge, a new and pivotal role of the plant glutamate receptor homolog and Ca2+ signaling in germination control and uncover the orchestrated modulation of the AtGLR3.5-mediated Ca2+ signal and ABA signaling via ABI4 to fine-tune the crucial developmental process, germination, in Arabidopsis. PMID:25681329

  10. Potential effects of arboreal and terrestrial avian dispersers on seed dormancy, seed germination and seedling establishment in Ormosia (Papilionoideae) species in Peru

    Foster, Mercedes S.

    2008-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of arboreal or terrestrial birds at dispersing seeds of Ormosia macrocalyx and O. bopiensis (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae) were studied in south-eastern Peru. Seeds of both species were either scarified, to represent seed condition after dispersal by terrestrial birds, or left intact, to represent seed condition after dispersal by arboreal birds. Seeds were distributed along forest transects, and germination, seedling development and mortality were monitored to determine the successes of the two groups at producing seedlings. Scarified seeds germinated with the early rains of the dry-to-wet-season transition, when erratic rainfall was interspersed with long dry spells. Intact seeds germinated 30 d later when the rain was more plentiful and regular. Intact seeds of O. macrocalyx gave rise to significantly more seedlings (41.1% vs. 25.5%) than did scarified seeds, in part, because significantly more seedlings from scarified seeds (n = 20) than from intact seeds (n = 3) died from desiccation when their radicles failed to enter the dry ground present during the dry-to-wet-season transition. Also, seedlings from scarified seeds were neither larger nor more robust than those from intact seeds despite their longer growing period. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that dispersal effectiveness of arboreal birds, at least for O. macrocalyx, is greater than that of terrestrial birds. Screen-house experiments in which seedlings developed under different watering regimes supported this result. Numbers of seedlings developing from intact and scarified seeds of O. bopiensis did not differ significantly.

  11. Allelopathic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Leaf Stem and Root of Sorghum bicolor on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Vigna radiata L.

    Amir MOOSAVI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination under field conditions is highly influenced by the presence of other plants. Allelopathy is an important mechanism of plant competition, by producing phytotoxins to the plant environment in order to decline other plants growth. Soil sickness problem in farm lands is also known as an allelopathic effect or even autotoxicity. The toxicity of released allelochemicals by a plant in the environment is attributed to its function of concentration, age and metabolic stage. In this study we investigate the effect (5, 20, 35 and 50 g l-1 of leaf, stem and root water extract of sorghum on seed germination and seedling growth of mung bean. The results of the experiment showed that allelopathic effect of different concentrations was not significant for germination percentage, but germination rate and mean germination time decreased significantly by increasing the concentration of allelopathic extracts; also, there was a clear allelopathic effect of sorghum extract on seedling growth of mung bean. 50 g l-1 sorghum stem extract exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on root and shoot growth of mung bean. Among all parts of sorghum, stem extracts showed the highest allelopatic effect on seedling growth. Root extract showed higher inhibitory effect than leaf extracts.

  12. The Mitochondrion-Located Protein OsB12D1 Enhances Flooding Tolerance during Seed Germination and Early Seedling Growth in Rice

    Dongli He

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available B12D belongs to a function unknown subgroup of the Balem (Barley aleurone and embryo proteins. In our previous work on rice seed germination, we identified a B12D-like protein encoded by LOC_Os7g41350 (named OsB12D1. OsB12D1 pertains to an ancient protein family with an amino acid sequence highly conserved from moss to angiosperms. Among the six OsB12Ds, OsB12D1 is one of the major transcripts and is primarily expressed in germinating seed and root. Bioinformatics analyses indicated that OsB12D1 is an anoxic or submergence resistance-related gene. RT-PCR results showed OsB12D1 is induced remarkably in the coleoptiles or roots by flooding during seed germination and early seedling growth. The OsB12D1-overexpressed rice seeds could protrude radicles in 8 cm deep water, further exhibiting significant flooding tolerance compared to the wild type. Moreover, this tolerance was not affected by the gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol. OsB12D1 was identified in the mitochondrion by subcellular localization analysis and possibly enhances electron transport through mediating Fe and oxygen availability under flooded conditions. This work indicated that OsB12D1 is a promising gene that can help to enhance rice seedling establishment in farming practices, especially for direct seeding.

  13. Study of Dormancy Type and Effect of Different Pre-Sowing Treatments on Seed Germination of Bladder-Senna (Colutea bohsei Boiss. in Laboratory Conditions

    Ahmad BEIKMOHAMMADI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the existence and type of the dormancy and effects of different dormancy breaking treatments on seed germination of Colutea buhsei Boiss. (Fabaceae as one of the Iran native plants, arid-land and ornamental shrub with ability of usage in the urban landscape design. The experiment was performed with 15 treatments and 3 replications in a completely randomized design. Seeds were subjected to different treatments including various levels of GA3, concentrated (98% H2SO4, cold stratification (CS, soaking with tab water, floating in hot water (100�C followed by continual cooling for 24 hr in the same water and combined treatments. Afterwards seeds were sown in laboratory conditions to determine the factors� effects on germination percentage (GP, germination rate (GR, root and shoot length of Colutea bohsei seeds. All of these treatments, except for GA3 (250 and 500 ppm, increased the percentage and rate of the seed germination. Maximum germination percentage (66.25% and rate (14.9 seeds per day in 7 days was obtained at concentrated (98% H2SO4 (15 min. Maximum root and shoot length was observed at concentrated (98% H2SO4 (15 min plus GA3 (100 ppm, 24 hr. Use of GA3 (100 ppm in 24 hr after H2SO4 increased the germination rate and shoot length but this additive effect was not significant.

  14. Evaluation of Seed Germination and Seed Vigor of Different Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. Cultivars Under Different Planting Dates in Gorgan

    M Gorzin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Soybean seed germination and seed vigor potential is lower compared with other crops, and it often greatly reduces at the planting time. The occurrence of unfavorable conditions during seed formation in field causes severe deterioration of seeds and reduces the seed quality. Planting date is one of the most important influencing factors on seed quality of soybean in field conditions. Since planting date affect seed quality by changing the environmental conditions including temperature, relative humidity and rainfall during seed development and maturation. Materials and Methods To evaluate the seed germination and seed vigor of soybean seeds wshich were obtained from various planting dates, a field experiment was conducted with a split plot arrangement in a randomized complete block design in three replications in Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources in 2011. Main plot included five planting dates April 20, May 13, June 3, June 29 and July 22, and sub plot consisted of three cultivars (Williams, Sahar and DPX. About 50 plants were selected and harvested during R7 (physiological maturity stage from each plot, and their pods were removed by hand. Then, pods were dried in shade. To avoid mechanical damage, the seeds were removed by hand from the pods. Ultimately, seed quality was assessed by seed germination and seed vigor including accelerated aging, seedling growth rate (SGR and electrical conductivity tests. Results and Discussion According to obtained results, the use of different planting dates caused the change at the beginning and ending time of seed filling period (R5-R7 of all three cultivars. This event in turn leads to creation different conditions in terms of temperature, rainfall and relative humidity during seed filling period in all three cultivars. Therefore Williams cultivar coincided with high temperatures more than two other cultivars, especially in the early planting dates. While DPX that

  15. The fluxes of H2O2 and O2 can be used to evaluate seed germination and vigor of Caragana korshinskii.

    Li, Jiaguo; Wang, Yu; Pritchard, Hugh W; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2014-06-01

    Seed deterioration is detrimental to plant germplasm conservation, and predicting seed germination and vigor with reliability and sensitivity means is urgently needed for practical problems. We investigated the link between hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) flux, oxygen influx and seed vigor of Caragana korshinskii by the non-invasive micro-test technique (NMT). Some related physiological and biochemical changes in seeds were also determined to further explain the changes in the molecular fluxes. The results showed that there was a good linear relationship between germination and H2O2 flux, and that O2 influx was more suitable for assessing seed vigor. H2O2 flux changed relatively little initially, mainly affected by antioxidants (APX, CAT and GSH) and H2O2 content; afterward, the efflux increased more and more rapidly due to high membrane permeability. With the damage of mitochondrial respiration and membrane integrity, O2 influx was gradually reduced. We propose that monitoring H2O2 and O2 fluxes by NMT may be a reliable and sensitive method to evaluate seed germination and vigor.

  16. Allelopathic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Leaf Stem and Root of Sorghum bicolor on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Vigna radiata L.

    Amir MOOSAVI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination under field conditions is highly influenced by the presence of other plants. Allelopathy is an important mechanism of plant competition, by producing phytotoxins to the plant environment in order to decline other plants� growth. Soil sickness problem in farm lands is also known as an allelopathic effect or even autotoxicity. The toxicity of released allelochemicals by a plant in the environment is attributed to its function of concentration, age and metabolic stage. In this study we investigate the effect (5, 20, 35 and 50 g l-1 of leaf, stem and root water extract of sorghum on seed germination and seedling growth of mung bean. The results of the experiment showed that allelopathic effect of different concentrations was not significant for germination percentage, but germination rate and mean germination time decreased significantly by increasing the concentration of allelopathic extracts; also, there was a clear allelopathic effect of sorghum extract on seedling growth of mung bean. 50 g l-1 sorghum stem extract exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on root and shoot growth of mung bean. Among all parts of sorghum, stem extracts showed the highest allelopatic effect on seedling growth. Root extract showed higher inhibitory effect than leaf extracts.

  17. The effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on Datura stramonium L., Abutilon theophrasti Med., Onopordon acanthium L. and Verbascum thapsus L. seed germination

    Dragana Božić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of several bacterial media [Bacillus licheniformis population 1 (MO1; B. licheniformis population 2 (MO2; B. subtilis (MO3; B. megatherium (MO4; humates (MO5] on seed germination of Datura stramonium L., Abutilon theophrasti Med., Onopordon acanthium L. and Verbascum thapsus L. were tested. Seeds were germinated in Petri dishes containing solutions with different bacterial media. The highest germination percentage in all treatments was recorded for V. thapsus seeds (100.0%. Different treatments had diverse effects (stimulative or inhibitory on seed germination of D. stramonium [from 5% (MO1 to 13.3% (MO3, with 10.0 % in H20], A. theophrasti [from 28.3% (MO3 to 65.0% (MO5, with 43.3 % in H20] and O. acanthium [from 10.0% (MO2 to 13.3% (MO1 and MO3, with 6.7% in H20], depending on the type of media and weed species.

  18. Activités insecticides de Striga hermonthica (Del. Benth (Scrophulariaceae sur Callosobrichus maculatus (Fab. (Coleoptera : Bruchidae

    Nacoulma OG.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecticidal activities of Striga hermonthica (Del. Benth (Scrophulariacecae on Callobruchus maculatus (Fab. (Coleptera Bruchidae. This paper deals with insecticidal potentialities of Striga hermonthica (Del. (Scrophulariaceae in protection of cowpea Vigna unguculata (L. Walp against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae during storage. Crude acetone extract at 0,5% w/w (100 mg of extract for 20 g of grain exhibits 48% of ovicidal effect and then reduces by half emergence rate of adult beetles at the first generation. This extract shows a weak insecticide activity against adults of C. maculatus. Petroleum ether fraction (0,4% w/w of the crude extract reveals ovicidal (51% and larvicidal (72% effects which reduce the emergence rate of adults to only 9%. LD50 and LD90 are monitored during crude extract fractionation to follow ovicidal and larvicidal compounds and to evaluate their efficacy during the isolation procedure. One fraction, mainly composed of two triterpenoid compounds has been identified as responsible of the ovicidal activity of S. hermonthica while the origin of the larvicidal activity hasn’t been identified.

  19. Effect of diammonium phosphate application on strigolactone production and Striga hermonthica infection in three sorghum cultivars

    Jamil, M.; Mourik, van T.A.; Charnikova, T.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Striga hermonthica infection poses a major constraint to sorghum production in sub-Saharan Africa, and low soil fertility aggravates the S. hermonthica problem. Under mineral nutrient deficiency, the sorghum host secretes large quantities of strigolactones, signalling molecules, into the

  20. evaluation of striga-resistant early maize hybrids and test locations

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    to evaluate selected Striga-resistant maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids for grain yield and stability of .... Analysis of variance procedure is useful for ... however, variance components alone do not ... for analysing multi-environment trial MET data.

  1. Effect of Hydro and Osmo-Priming in Combination with GA3 and KNO3 on Seed Germination of Dodonaeaviscosaunder Salinity Conditions

    S. Pour Mombeini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dodonaeaviscosa is an evergreen and perennial shrub which distributed widely in warm regions throughout the world. Untreated seeds germinatewell, but to shorten germination, seeds werefloated in hot water for 30 seconds, then cooled down rapidly. In addition, scarification as pre-treatment and dipping the seed in boiling water improve seed germination. Under salinity,the level of abscisic acid increases more than gibberellic acid which prevents seeds germination. Accumulation of Na+ and Cl- ions can lead to changes in water status in plant tissues and creating a series of second stress, such as oxidative stress. In priming, seeds are authorized to absorb some water, sothat, the early stages of germination are donewithout root emerging. The country of Iran and especiallyKhozestan province is located in arid and semi-arid region of the world, sounder such conditionand dueto high temperature and low rainfall, and salinity of water sources and media, D.viscosasexual reproduction is suffered by serious challenges. Consequently,the objective of this study was to investigate the effectsof hydro and osmo-priming in combining withgibberellic acid and potassium nitrate on seed germination of D.viscosaunder salinity stress. Materials and Methods: Two experiments in 2010 wereconducted separately and consecutively in completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications in the plant propagation laboratory of faculty of Agriculture, ShahidChamran University of Ahvaz (latitude 31.33° N, longitude 48.69° E, altitude 23 m. In the first experiment, 500 seeds were selected from seed lot, and were disinfectedwith sodium hypochlorite 2.5%, afterwards, divided into five categories (each category consisted of 100 seeds in four replicates and were treated as : 1 Osmo-priming with gibberellic acid 50 and 100 mg.l-1 and potassium nitrate 0.5 and 1 % for 12 h. 2 hydro-primed with distilled water (as control for 12 h. A week later second

  2. Towards the Identification of New Genes Involved in ABA-Dependent Abiotic Stresses Using Arabidopsis Suppressor Mutants of abh1 Hypersensitivity to ABA during Seed Germination

    Iwona Szarejko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid plays a pivotal role in the abiotic stress response in plants. Although great progress has been achieved explaining the complexity of the stress and ABA signaling cascade, there are still many questions to answer. Mutants are a valuable tool in the identification of new genes or new alleles of already known genes and in elucidating their role in signaling pathways. We applied a suppressor mutation approach in order to find new components of ABA and abiotic stress signaling in Arabidopsis. Using the abh1 (ABA hypersensitive 1 insertional mutant as a parental line for EMS mutagenesis, we selected several mutants with suppressed hypersensitivity to ABA during seed germination. Here, we present the response to ABA and a wide range of abiotic stresses during the seed germination and young seedling development of two suppressor mutants—soa2 (suppressor of abh1 hypersensitivity to ABA 2 and soa3 (suppressor of abh1 hypersensitivity to ABA 3. Generally, both mutants displayed a suppression of the hypersensitivity of abh1 to ABA, NaCl and mannitol during germination. Both mutants showed a higher level of tolerance than Columbia-0 (Col-0—the parental line of abh1 in high concentrations of glucose. Additionally, soa2 exhibited better root growth than Col-0 in the presence of high ABA concentrations. soa2 and soa3 were drought tolerant and both had about 50% fewer stomata per mm2 than the wild-type but the same number as their parental line—abh1. Taking into account that suppressor mutants had the same genetic background as their parental line—abh1, it was necessary to backcross abh1 with Landsberg erecta four times for the map-based cloning approach. Mapping populations, derived from the cross of abh1 in the Landsberg erecta background with each suppressor mutant, were created. Map based cloning in order to identify the suppressor genes is in progress.

  3. Status of industrial pollution and their effect on seed germination and growth performance of albizia lebbek (benth.) and leucaena leucocephala (LAM) de wit

    Shiuli, M.D.; Alam, S.; Mohiuddin, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Pollution status of the effluents from three different industries viz. tanneries, fisheries and textiles, grown in the vicinity of the Karnafully River, Chittagong, Bangladesh and their influence on soil, seed germination and plant growth have been studied. The effluents pollute the adjacent water bodies and soils. The effluents from the tanneries are much more polluted than that of effluents from textiles and fisheries. This is due to the accumulation more total solids (1779 mg/l) as compared to that of 539 mg/l and 466 mg/l in textiles and fisheries effluents respectively and thus Chloride (3962 mg/i), Sulfate (450 mg/l) and Nitrate (7.03 mg/l), eventually showed similar trend. In addition to that, some of the pollution related parameters were dominant in the effluents of both textiles ( Turbidity- 177.9 NTU, SS- 23.27 ml/l, D.O.- 3.0 mg/l, COD- 8480 mg/l, BOD- 1860 mg/l Phosphate- 9.38 mg/l) and fisheries (D.O. -2.5 mg/l) than that of the tanneries (Turbidity- 57.6 NTU, SS- 18. 9 ml/l, D.O.- 1.2 mg/l, COD- 7529 mg/i, BOD- 1653 mg/l , Phosphate- 7.28 mg/l). Irrespective of physical or chemical composition most of the effluents were simply unusable. From the analysis of soil it was detected that the pH of soil samples contaminated with effluents was almost similar (6.7, 6.6 and 6.3, respectively) to that of control (6.2), but the concentration of organic matter, N, P, K and S in soil samples contaminated with the industrial effluents of tanneries (OM-4.5%, N- 0.227%, P- 108.21 micro gram/gram and K - 0.22 m eq/100 g), Fisheries (OM-4.0%, N- 0.4%, P-74.71 micro gram/gram, and K- 0.23 meq/100 g) and Textile (OM- 3.4%, N- 0.167%, P- 120 micro g/gram and K- 0.5 meq/100 g) were significantly higher than that of control samples (OM- 2.0%, N-0.24%, P- 50 micro g/g and k-0.15 meq/100g). Adverse effect of contamination, height growth, collar diameter, total biomass and nodule production of Albizia lebbek were 67% , 18.62 cm, 4 cm, 10.2 gm and 59 in soil without any

  4. Allelopathic Effect of Echinochloa colona L. and Cyperus iria L. Weed Extracts on the Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Rice and Soyabean

    Neha Chopra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to assess the allelopathic effect of Echinochloa colona L. and Cyperus iria L. in relation to the germination and primary growth of Oryza sativa L. (rice and Glycine max L. (soyabean. Effects of dichloromethane (DCM and double distilled water soluble (DDW fractions of E. colona L. and C. iria L. root and aerial part extracts reduced germination and suppressed early seedling growth of rice and soyabean. With increase in extract concentration from 1 to 100 mg/mL, a gradual decrease in seed germination and seedling length occurred. The highest growth of G. max seedling was recorded in DDW fraction of E. colona aerial part extract at 1 mg/mL concentration with 94% germination and the lowest length was found in DCM fraction of C. iria root extract at 100 mg/mL concentration with 65% germination. In O. sativa, the highest length was noted at 1 mg/mL concentration in DDW fraction of E. colona aerial part extract with 82% germination and the lowest length was found in DCM fraction of C. iria and E. colona root extracts with germination 57% and 62%, respectively, at 100 mg/mL concentration. The results suggested that these weeds had good allelopathic potential which reduces germination and plant growth.

  5. The influence of light spectra, UV-A, and growth regulators on the in vitro seed germination of Senecio cineraria DC.

    Cristiane Pimentel Victório

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effects of light spectra, additional UV-A, and different growth regulators on the in vitro germination of Senecio cineraria DC. Seeds were surface-sterilized and inoculated in MS medium to evaluate the following light spectra: white, white plus UV-A, blue, green, red or darkness. The maximum germinability was obtained using MS0 medium under white light (30% and MS + 0.3 mg L-1 GA3 in the absence of light (30.5%. S. cineraria seeds were indifferent to light. Blue and green lights inhibited germination. Different concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA3 (0.1; 0.4; 0.6; 0.8; 1.0 and 2.0 mg L-1 and indole-3-acetic acid IAA (0.1; 0.3 and 1.0 mg L-1 were evaluated under white light and darkness. No concentration of GA3 enhanced seed germination percentage under white light. However, when the seeds were maintained in darkness, GA3 improved germination responses in all tested concentrations, except at 1.0 mg L-1. Under white light, these concentrations also increased the germination time and reduced germination rate. Germination rate, under light or darkness, was lower using IAA compared with GA3.

  6. PEMECAHAN DORMANSI DAN PERKECAMBAHAN ASAM KURANJI (Dialium indum L. SECARA MEKANIS DAN KIMIAWI Breaking Dormancy and Seeds Germination of Asam Kuranji (Dialium indum L. with Mechanical and Chemical

    Bakti Nur Ismuhajaroh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to find out the dormancy breaking and the seed germination of Asam kuranji (Dialium indum L. mechanically by sandpapering the seeds and chemically by immersing them in sulfuric acid (H2SO4. The experiment was conducted at the Plant Physiology Laboratory of Agricultural Faculty of Lambung Mangkurat University from June - August 2013 using Completely Randomized Design (CRD with 2 x 4 factorial. The first factor was the mechanical treatment  (s0 = without sandpaper and s1 = with sandpaper, the second factor was the chemical treatment (a0 = without immersion, a1 = 70% of H2SO4, a2 = 80% of H2SO4, and a3 = 90% of H2SO4. The data were analyzed by ANOVA at the level of 95% followed by Tukey's test at the level test of 95%. The results showed that the treatments of sandpapering and immersing the seeds significantly affected the % of germination, the length of radicle and the length of hypocotyl. The interaction between treatments of sandpapering and immersion indicated that the higher the concentration of H2SO4 immersion the higher the % of germination, the length of radicle and the length of hypocotyl. Keywords: germination, Dialium indum L., sandpaper, concentration, H2SO4

  7. Effects of untreated and treated oilfield-produced water on seed germination, seedling development, and biomass production of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    da Costa Marques, Mônica Regina; de Souza, Paulo Sérgio Alves; Rigo, Michelle Machado; Cerqueira, Alexandre Andrade; de Paiva, Julieta L; Merçon, Fábio; Perez, Daniel Vidal

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate possible toxic effects of oil and other contaminants from oilfield-produced water from oil exploration and production, on seed germination, and seedling development of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). In comparison, as treated by electroflocculation, oilfield-produced water, with lower oil and organic matter content, was also used. Electroflocculation treatment of oilfield-produced water achieved significant removals of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (94 %), oil and grease (O&G) (96 %), color (97 %), and turbidity (99 %). Different O&G, COD, and salt levels of untreated and treated oilfield-produced water did not influence germination process and seedling biomass production. Normal seedlings percentage and vigor tended to decrease more intensely in O&G and COD levels, higher than 337.5 mg L(-1) and 1321 mg O2 L(-1), respectively, using untreated oilfield-produced water. These results indicate that this industrial effluent must be treated, in order to not affect adversely seedling development. This way, electroflocculation treatment appears as an interesting alternative to removing oil and soluble organic matter in excess from oilfield-produced water improving sunflower's seedling development and providing a friendly environmental destination for this wastewater, reducing its potential to harm water resources, soil, and biota.

  8. The effect of simulated heat-shock and daily temperature fluctuations on seed germination of four species from fire-prone ecosystems

    Talita Zupo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seed germination in many species from fire-prone ecosystems may be triggered by heat shock and/or temperature fluctuation, and how species respond to such fire-related cues is important to understand post-fire regeneration strategies. Thus, we tested how heat shock and daily temperature fluctuations affect the germination of four species from fire-prone ecosystems; two from the Cerrado and two from the Mediterranean Basin. Seeds of all four species were subjected to four treatments: Fire (F, temperature fluctuations (TF, fire+temperature fluctuations (F+TF and control (C. After treatments, seeds were put to germinate for 60 days at 25ºC (dark. Responses differed according to species and native ecosystem. Germination percentage for the Cerrado species did not increase with any of the treatments, while germination of one Mediterranean species increased with all treatments and the other only with treatments that included fire. Although the Cerrado species did not respond to the treatments used in this study, their seeds survived the exposure to heat shock, which suggests they possess tolerance to fire. Fire frequency in the Cerrado is higher than that in Mediterranean ecosystems, thus traits related to fire-resistance would be more advantageous than traits related to post-fire recruitment, which are widespread among Mediterranean species.

  9. Hydrotime Analysis of Yellow Sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis (L. Lam., Wild Mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. and Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Seed Germination

    A. Derakhshan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Seed germination is one of the key stages in the life cycle of plants that can ultimately affect their fitness in the environment. The temporal pattern of seed germination is extremely depended on the soil water potential (Ψ of the germination medium, as this determines the equilibrium water content of the seed. As for temperature, there is a minimum Ψ that must be exceeded in order for seeds complete germination, and seeds in a population vary in the value of this minimum or base Ψ. The germination of a seed population in response to the reduced water potential is modeled using the hydrotime model. According to this model, the time to germination for a given seed fraction (g is inversely related to the difference between the current seed Ψ and the base water potential (Ψb for that fraction (Ψb(g. The hydrotime model functions are well in matching both the timing and the percentage of germination of seed populations in relation to their Ψ environment. In addition, the model outputs which are significant physiologically and ecologically and the parameters of the model can be used to characterize the properties of seed populations. Normal distribution of Ψb among seeds within a population is one of the assumptions of the hydrotime model. However, this assumption may not be met in many species and thus can result in poor predictions. We tried to investigate empirically the validity of this assumption, to compare the fit of alternative distributions and make recommendations to improve germination modeling procedures. Materials and Methods: Seed germination of Melilotus officinalis, Sinapis arvensis and Hordeum vulgare were tested across a range of water potentials (0, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6 and -0.8 MPa for M. officinalis and S. arvensis and 0, -0.3, -0.6, -0.9, -1.2 and -1.5 MPa for H. vulgare and germination responses were described by the hydrotime models based on twelve statistical functions including Normal, Beta, Gamma

  10. CO2-assimilation and chlorophyll fluorescence as indirect selection criteria for host tolerance against Striga

    Rodenburg, Jonne; Bastiaans, Lammert; Schapendonk, Ad. H. C. M.; van der Putten, Peter E. L.; van Ast, Aad; Dingemanse, Niels J.; Haussmann, Bettina I. G.

    Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. is a parasitic weed on tropical cereals causing serious yield losses in Africa. The use of host crop varieties with improved resistance and tolerance against this parasite is a key component of an integrated control strategy. Breeding for tolerance is however

  11. The role of sorghum genotype in the interaction with the parasitic weed Striga hermonthica

    Rodenburg, J.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Strigahermonthica , Sorghum bicolor , selection measures, resistance, tolerance, genotypes.This thesis presents a study on the interaction between the

  12. Germinação de sementes e desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de achachairu Seeds germination and seedlings early development of achachairu

    Wilson Barbosa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O achachairu (Garcinia sp, fruta largamente produzida na Bolívia, vem sendo comercializado no Brasil há vários anos. O fruto é globoso-oblongo, de polpa branca, suculenta e textura mucilaginosa e de sabor doce-acidulado equilibrado (ºBrix 15 e pH 4,1. Devido ao crescente interesse em seu cultivo no Brasil, pesquisaram-se a germinação das sementes e o desenvolvimento das plântulas durante os primeiros 12 meses após sua emergência. As sementes, extraídas de frutos bem maduros, foram postas a germinar em duas situações: 1 ambiente controlado em estufa tipo B.O.D., sob as temperaturas de 25 e 30 ºC, fotoperíodo de 16 horas e irradiância de 32 µmol.m-1.s-1, e 2 ambiente de temperatura não-controlada: 3 B.O.D, cuja temperatura oscilava entre 20 e 30 ºC, e 4 sob temperatura ambiente de laboratório (25± 2 ºC. O melhor resultado foi obtido na temperatura constante de 30 ºC, com germinação de 92% e índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG de 0,255. Quando germinada em ambiente de laboratório, a germinação das sementes mostrou-se baixa (30%, com IVG de 0,015. O desenvolvimento das plântulas em casa de vegetação ocorreu de forma bastante lenta, principalmente nas primeiras semanas após a emergência. O primeiro par de folhas surgiu após três semanas da emergência das plântulas, quando essas mediam 8 cm em média. A partir do oitavo mês de desenvolvimento, as plântulas emitiram várias ramificações laterais a partir da porção mediana para a região apical.The achachairu (Garcinia sp, a fruit widely grown in Bolivia, has been commercialized in Brazil for many years. The fruit is globular-oblong shaped, with a white succulent pulp, mucilaginous texture and a well balanced sweet-acid flavor (ºBrix 15; pH 4.1. Due to the increasing interest in its cultivation in Brazil, this work was carried out aiming to study the seeds germination and seedling development throughout the first 12 months after seed emergence. The

  13. Temperaturas cardeais e efeito da luz na germinação de sementes de mutamba Cardinal temperatures and effect of light on Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. seed germination

    João C. de Araújo Neto

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Guazuma ulmifolia Lam., conhecida como mutamba, é uma espécie arbórea característica dos estádios iniciais da sucessão secundária, com ampla ocorrência natural no Brasil. Possui grande potencial para recuperação ambiental de áreas degradadas. Neste trabalho, conduziram-se dois experimentos, nos quais as sementes foram extraídas e escarificadas antes da instalação dos testes de germinação. O primeiro experimento foi desenvolvido com sementes colhidas em outubro de 1995 e teve por objetivo definir as temperaturas cardeais para a germinação das sementes. Foram testadas as temperaturas de 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 e 45 ºC, sob fotoperíodo de oito horas. Os resultados mostraram que a temperatura mínima é próxima de 10 ºC, a máxima se situa entre 35 e 40 ºC e as temperaturas de 25 e 30 ºC encontram-se dentro da faixa ótima. No segundo experimento, visou-se avaliar o requerimento fotoblástico de sementes recém-colhidas (colheita de outubro de 1996 e armazenadas em câmara seca por um ano (colheita de outubro de 1995. Os testes de germinação foram conduzidos a 30 ºC e as sementes recém-colhidas tiveram a germinação promovida pelas luzes branca e vermelha, mas inibida pela luz vermelha-extrema e ausência de luz. As sementes armazenadas, entretanto, revelaram-se insensíveis à luz.Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae is a typical tree species of the initial stages of secondary succession in Brazil, with potential for use in restoring degraded areas. Two experiments were carried out in this work, in which seeds were extracted and scarified before conducting the germination tests. The first experiment was conducted with seeds harvested in October 1995 and aimed to determine the cardinal temperatures for seed germination. Constant temperatures of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 ºC were tested under an eight hour photoperiod. The results showed that the minimum temperature is around 10 ºC, the maximum between 35 and

  14. Mechanisms of combined effects of salt and alkaline stresses on seed germination and seedlings of melilotus officials (fabaceae) in northeast of china

    VU, T. S.; Zhang, D.; Xiao, W.; Chi, C.; Xing, Y.; Fu, D.; Yuan, Z.

    2015-01-01

    In line with the salt-alkalinized soils found in the northeast of China, the conditions were simulated to investigate the mechanisms associated with this combination of stresses on Melilotus officinalis. The effects of salinity (NaCl: 0-300mM) in combination with alkali (pH: 7.1-9.8) on the seed germination and seedlings of M. officinalis were investigated. The results showed that germination was not inhibited completely by the salt-alkali conditions tested. The recovery germinations were significant higher than the control or had no significant differences with the control under the conditions of NaCl less than 200mM and pH=9.0, suggesting that non-germinated seeds may have a strategy to get through and resist the stress during germination stage. For the seedling growth, M. officinalis was capable of surviving at high pH (pH=9.8) and the salinity (NaCl=200mM) (seedling survival rate: 84.77 ± 8.62 percentage). The characteristic feature for combined salt-alkali stresses is the reciprocal enhancement between salt and alkali stresses. The combined action of salinity and pH should be considered when evaluating the effects of salt-alkali stresses. Correlation and regression analyses showed that salinity was the dominant stress factor, while pH was a secondary factor. From the physiological and ecological parameters, we suggested that M. officinalis is a salt-alkali tolerant species which can be used in vegetative restoration of saline soils in the northeast of China. (author)

  15. The putative E3 ubiquitin ligase ECERIFERUM9 regulates abscisic acid biosynthesis and response during seed germination and postgermination growth in arabidopsis

    Zhao, Huayan

    2014-05-08

    The ECERIFERUM9 (CER9) gene encodes a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase that functions in cuticle biosynthesis and the maintenance of plant water status. Here, we found that CER9 is also involved in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in seeds and young seedlings of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The germinated embryos of the mutants exhibited enhanced sensitivity to ABA during the transition from reversible dormancy to determinate seedling growth. Expression of the CER9 gene is closely related to ABA levels and displays a similar pattern to that of ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5), which encodes a positive regulator of ABA responses in seeds. cer9 mutant seeds exhibited delayed germination that is independent of seed coat permeability. Quantitative proteomic analyses showed that cer9 seeds had a protein profile similar to that of the wild type treated with ABA. Transcriptomics analyses revealed that genes involved in ABA biosynthesis or signaling pathways were differentially regulated in cer9 seeds. Consistent with this, high levels of ABA were detected in dry seeds of cer9. Blocking ABA biosynthesis by fluridone treatment or by combining an ABA-deficient mutation with cer9 attenuated the phenotypes of cer9. Whereas introduction of the abi1-1, abi3-1, or abi4-103 mutation could completely eliminate the ABA hypersensitivity of cer9, introduction of abi5 resulted only in partial suppression. These results indicate that CER9 is a novel negative regulator of ABA biosynthesis and the ABA signaling pathway during seed germination. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  16. The Putative E3 Ubiquitin Ligase ECERIFERUM9 Regulates Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis and Response during Seed Germination and Postgermination Growth in Arabidopsis.

    Zhao, Huayan; Zhang, Huoming; Cui, Peng; Ding, Feng; Wang, Guangchao; Li, Rongjun; Jenks, Matthew A; Lü, Shiyou; Xiong, Liming

    2014-07-01

    The ECERIFERUM9 (CER9) gene encodes a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase that functions in cuticle biosynthesis and the maintenance of plant water status. Here, we found that CER9 is also involved in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in seeds and young seedlings of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The germinated embryos of the mutants exhibited enhanced sensitivity to ABA during the transition from reversible dormancy to determinate seedling growth. Expression of the CER9 gene is closely related to ABA levels and displays a similar pattern to that of ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5), which encodes a positive regulator of ABA responses in seeds. cer9 mutant seeds exhibited delayed germination that is independent of seed coat permeability. Quantitative proteomic analyses showed that cer9 seeds had a protein profile similar to that of the wild type treated with ABA. Transcriptomics analyses revealed that genes involved in ABA biosynthesis or signaling pathways were differentially regulated in cer9 seeds. Consistent with this, high levels of ABA were detected in dry seeds of cer9. Blocking ABA biosynthesis by fluridone treatment or by combining an ABA-deficient mutation with cer9 attenuated the phenotypes of cer9. Whereas introduction of the abi1-1, abi3-1, or abi4-103 mutation could completely eliminate the ABA hypersensitivity of cer9, introduction of abi5 resulted only in partial suppression. These results indicate that CER9 is a novel negative regulator of ABA biosynthesis and the ABA signaling pathway during seed germination. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  17. The Putative E3 Ubiquitin Ligase ECERIFERUM9 Regulates Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis and Response during Seed Germination and Postgermination Growth in Arabidopsis1[W][OPEN

    Zhao, Huayan; Zhang, Huoming; Cui, Peng; Ding, Feng; Wang, Guangchao; Li, Rongjun; Jenks, Matthew A.; Lü, Shiyou; Xiong, Liming

    2014-01-01

    The ECERIFERUM9 (CER9) gene encodes a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase that functions in cuticle biosynthesis and the maintenance of plant water status. Here, we found that CER9 is also involved in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in seeds and young seedlings of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The germinated embryos of the mutants exhibited enhanced sensitivity to ABA during the transition from reversible dormancy to determinate seedling growth. Expression of the CER9 gene is closely related to ABA levels and displays a similar pattern to that of ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5), which encodes a positive regulator of ABA responses in seeds. cer9 mutant seeds exhibited delayed germination that is independent of seed coat permeability. Quantitative proteomic analyses showed that cer9 seeds had a protein profile similar to that of the wild type treated with ABA. Transcriptomics analyses revealed that genes involved in ABA biosynthesis or signaling pathways were differentially regulated in cer9 seeds. Consistent with this, high levels of ABA were detected in dry seeds of cer9. Blocking ABA biosynthesis by fluridone treatment or by combining an ABA-deficient mutation with cer9 attenuated the phenotypes of cer9. Whereas introduction of the abi1-1, abi3-1, or abi4-103 mutation could completely eliminate the ABA hypersensitivity of cer9, introduction of abi5 resulted only in partial suppression. These results indicate that CER9 is a novel negative regulator of ABA biosynthesis and the ABA signaling pathway during seed germination. PMID:24812105

  18. Selected aspects of tiny vetch [Vicia hirsuta (L. Gray S.F.] seed ecology: generative reproduction and effects of seed maturity and seed storage on seed germination

    Magdalena Kucewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vicia hirsuta (L. Gray S.F. (tiny vetch is a common and persistent segetal weed. Tiny vetch seeds and pods reach different stages of maturity during the crop harvest season. Some seeds that mature before cereal harvest are shed in the field and deposited in the soil seed bank, while others become incorporated into seed material. The objective of this study was to describe selected aspects of tiny vetch seed ecology: to determine the rate of individual reproduction of vetch plants growing in winter and spring grain crops and to evaluate the germination of seeds at different stages of maturity, subject to storage conditions. The seeds and pods of V. hirsuta were sorted according to their development stages at harvest and divided into two groups. The first group was stored under laboratory conditions for two months. In the autumn of the same year, the seeds were subjected to germination tests. The remaining seeds were stored in a storeroom, and were planted in soil in the spring. The germination rate was evaluated after 8 months of storage. Potential productivity (developed pods and flowers, fruit buds was higher in plants fruiting in winter wheat than in spring barley. Vetch plants produced around 17-26% more pods (including cracked, mature, greenish-brown and green pods and around 25% less buds in winter wheat than in spring barley. Immature seeds were characterized by the highest germination capacity. Following storage under laboratory conditions and stratification in soil, mature seeds germinated at a rate of several percent. After storage in a storeroom, seeds at all three development stages broke dormancy at a rate of 72- 75%. The high germination power of tiny vetch seeds stored in a storeroom indicates that this plant can be classified as an obligatory speirochoric weed species.

  19. Effect of brewery wastewater obtained from different phases of treatment plant on seed germination of chickpea (Cicer arietinum), maize (Zea mays), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan).

    Salian, Rupa; Wani, Suhas; Reddy, Ramamohan; Patil, Mukund

    2018-03-01

    Brewing industry releases large quantities of wastewater after product generation. Brewery wastewater contains organic compounds which are biodegradable in nature. These biodegradable wastes can be recycled and reused and hence considered as suitable products for agriculture. But before using wastewater for agriculture, it is better to evaluate the phytotoxic effects of wastewater on crops. Hence, the main objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of brewery effluent on seed germination and growth parameters of selected crop species like chickpea (Cicer arietinum), maize (Zea mays), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan). Study comprised seven types of water treatments-tap water as control, diluted UASBR effluent (50% effluent + 50% distilled water): UASBR50, undiluted UASBR effluent: UASBR100, diluted TC effluent (50% effluent + 50% distilled water): ETP50,TC effluent without dilution: ETP100, 10% diluted reverse osmosis (RO10) reject (10% RO reject + 90% distilled water), and 25% diluted reverse osmosis(RO25) reject (25% RO reject + 75% distilled water) with three replications in completely randomized design. Germination test was performed in petri plates for 5 days. Parameters like germination percentage, germination rate index, seedling length, phytotoxicity index, seed vigor index, and biomass were calculated. All parameters decreased with increase in respective effluent concentration. Among all treatments, RO25 showed highest inhibitory effect on all three crops. Even though undiluted effluent of UASBR and ETP effluent showed positive effect on germination, seedling growth of three crops was promoted to the maximum by UASBR50 and ETP50. Hence, from the study, it was concluded that dilution of brewery effluent can be recommended before using it for irrigational purpose.

  20. Effect of Different Dormancy Breaking Treatments on Seed Germination of Salsifis (Teragopogon collinus and Flixweed ( Descurainia Sophia as Two Weed Species

    marzie mazhari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Weeds limit crops growth, development and yield through adjacency and competing and seed dormancy is a problem in controlling of weeds. Man has been always tried to optimize crop yield through weeds controlling. Weeds seed bank in the soil can affected weed management and their control methods. So identifying seed bank characters has important role in choice of management methods in seeds of many plant species which cannot germinate despite favorable environmental conditions. Main reasons for this problem, which is termed as seed dormancy, are hard and impermeable seed coat and presence of immature or dormant embryo. To break dormancy, a variety of methods are in vogue worldwide these days. Of all different methods of breaking dormancy, treatment of seed with certain chemicals including different types of plant growth regulators (PGRs is contemplated as the most effective one. Gibberellic acid (GA3 is the most widely used PGR to improve seed germination in different plant species. Also, nitrate (such as KNO3 clearly stimulates the germination of dormant seeds. KNO3 is the most widely used chemical for promoting germination. Solutions of KNO3 are common in routine germination testing and are recommended by the Association of Official Seed Analysts and the International Seed Testing Association (ISTA for germination tests of many species.Stratification refers to the method of placing seeds in layers alternating with layers of a moisture retaining medium, such as sand, peat or vermiculite, and keeping them at a cool temperature for a certain period, but it varies considerably from species to species. The combination of high moisture and low temperature appears to trigger off biochemical changes which transform complex food substances into simpler forms utilized by the embryo when it renews growth at germination. The use of the word “stratification” has recently been extended to include all forms of cold, moist treatment whether or

  1. Nickel toxicity on seed germination and growth in radish (Raphanus sativus) and its recovery using copper and boron.

    Yadav, Shiv Shankar; Shukla, Rajni; Sharma, Y K

    2009-05-01

    Effect of various concentrations of nickel (100, 200, 500 and 1000 microM) and recovery treatments of boron (50 and 100 microM) and copper (15 and 75 microM) each with 200 microM and 500 microM of nickel on germination, growth, biomass, chlorophyll, carotenoids, pheophytin, amylase, protein, sugar as well as activity of catalase and peroxidase were studied in radish (Raphanus sativus cv. Early menu) seedlings. Nickel treatments caused a considerable reduction in germination percentage, growth and biomass. The different pigments were also decreased with nickel treatments. However boron addition with nickel recovered the negative effect on pigment contents. Among biochemical estimations, amylase activity and total proteins were found to be reduced in nickel treatments. Peroxidase and catalase activity were induced other than higher total sugar with nickel treatments. The combination of nickel with boron resulted into increased protein contents. This combination also reduced the catalase and peroxidase activity. The influence of nickel with copper failed to produce significant recovery except 200 microM nickel in combination with 15 microM copper with regard to catalase and peroxidase activity. The effect of nickel on hydrolyzing enzyme amylase was observed to be inhibitory resulting into poor germination followed by poor seedlings growth. The stress protecting enzymes peroxidase and catalase seem to be induced under the influence of nickel, and providing protection to the seedlings. The application of boron with nickel showed improved germination and growth. The level of catalase and peroxidase were found to be significantly reduced showing normal growth and biomass of seedlings.

  2. Effects of soil quality and depth on seed germination and seedling survival at the Nevada test site

    Blomquist, K.W.; Lyon, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act, as amended in 1987, directs the US Department of Energy (DOE) to study Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, as a potential site for long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. DOE policy mandates the restoration of all lands disturbed by site characterization activities and DOE has developed an environmental program that is to be implemented during site characterization activities at Yucca.Mountain. DOE is currently conducting reclamation feasibility trials as part of this environmental program. No topsoil was saved on disturbances during early site investigation and minimal soil remains at existing disturbances on Yucca Mountain. A study was developed to test the effects of soil quality and depth on seedling emergence and survival. A series of plots was established and two treatments were tested. The first treatment compared native topsoil to subsoil imported from a borrow pit. The second treatment compared four different depth ranges of both soil types. All plots received identical seeding treatments. Seedling density was measured after emergence. Overall seedling densities were low, averaging 10.3 ± 8.8 (SD) plants/m 2 . Statistical analysis revealed a significant interaction between the two treatment factors. The subsoil had increasing densities from the deep soil depths to the shallow depths while the topsoil had increasing densities from the shallow soil depths to the deep depths. The cause of this interaction may have resulted from the bedrock being close to the soil surface of the shallow plots

  3. Exogenous 5-aminolevulenic acid promotes seed germination in Elymus nutans against oxidative damage induced by cold stress.

    Juanjuan Fu

    Full Text Available The protective effects of 5-aminolevulenic acid (ALA on germination of Elymus nutans Griseb. seeds under cold stress were investigated. Seeds of E. nutans (Damxung, DX and Zhengdao, ZD were pre-soaked with various concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10 and 25 mg l(-1 of ALA for 24 h before germination under cold stress (5°C. Seeds of ZD were more susceptible to cold stress than DX seeds. Both seeds treated with ALA at low concentrations (0.1-1 mg l(-1 had higher final germination percentage (FGP and dry weight at 5°C than non-ALA-treated seeds, whereas exposure to higher ALA concentrations (5-25 mg l(-1 brought about a dose dependent decrease. The highest FGP and dry weight of germinating seeds were obtained from seeds pre-soaked with 1 mg l(-1 ALA. After 5 d of cold stress, pretreatment with ALA provided significant protection against cold stress in the germinating seeds, significantly enhancing seed respiration rate and ATP synthesis. ALA pre-treatment also increased reduced glutathione (GSH, ascorbic acid (AsA, total glutathione, and total ascorbate concentrations, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX and glutathione reductase (GR, whereas decreased the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and superoxide radical (O2•- release in both germinating seeds under cold stress. In addition, application of ALA increased H+-ATPase activity and endogenous ALA concentration compared with cold stress alone. Results indicate that ALA considered as an endogenous plant growth regulator could effectively protect E. nutans seeds from cold-induced oxidative damage during germination without any adverse effect.

  4. Seed germination from lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) fecal samples collected during the dry season in the Northern Brazilian Amazon.

    Barcelos, Adriana Renata; Bobrowiec, Paulo Estefano D; Sanaiotti, Tânia Margarete; Gribel, Rogério

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated the potential of lowland tapirs as seed dispersers in the northern Brazilian Amazon. The study analyzed the viability of seeds after passage through the gut. Fecal samples were collected from 6 different vegetation physiognomies in Viruá National Park during the dry season. The samples were then kept in a greenhouse for 16 months to allow the seeds to germinate. The seedling species were identified and classified according to the type of fruit, plant habit, seed size and type of ingestion. Of the 111 fecal samples, 94 (84.7%) had viable seeds of 75 species. Melastomataceae was the most frequent family with viable seeds in the fecal samples (69.1% of samples, N= 18 species). The data suggest that the importance of the lowland tapirs as dispersers is not restricted to the species consumed actively by frugivory but also extends to species accidentally consumed during browsing. The occurrence of both large and small viable seeds in the fecal samples as well as a number of large drupes, which probably cannot be transported via endozoochory by any other animal species, provide evidence of the ecological importance of lowland tapirs to the dynamics of the forest-campinarana vegetation mosaic in the region. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  5. Overlapping and distinct roles of AKIN10 and FUSCA3 in ABA and sugar signaling during seed germination.

    Tsai, Allen Yi-Lun; Gazzarrini, Sonia

    2012-10-01

    The Arabidopsis B3-domain transcription factor FUSCA3 (FUS3) is a master regulator of seed maturation and also a central modulator of hormonal responses during late embryogenesis and germination. Recently, we have identified AKIN10, the Arabidopsis ortholog of Snf1 (Sucrose Non-Fermenting-1)-Related Kinase1 (SnRK1), as a FUS3-interacting protein. We demonstrated that AKIN10 physically interacts with and phosphorylates FUS3 at its N-terminal region, and genetically interacts with FUS3 to regulate developmental phase transition and lateral organ growth. Snf1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases are important sensors of the cellular energy level, and they are activated in response to starvation and cellular stress. Here we present findings that indicate FUS3 and AKIN10 functionally overlap in ABA signaling, but play different roles in sugar responses during germination. Seeds overexpressing FUS3 and AKIN10 both display ABA-hypersensitivity and delayed germination. The latter is partly dependent on de novo ABA synthesis in both genotypes, as delayed germination can be partially rescued by the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor, fluridone. However, seeds and seedlings overexpressing FUS3 and AKIN10 show different sugar responses. AKIN10-overexpressing seeds and seedlings are hypersensitive to glucose, while those overexpressing FUS3 display overall defects in osmotic stress, primarily during seedling growth, as they show increased sensitivity toward sorbitol and glucose. Hypersensitivity to sugar and/or osmotic stress during germination are partly dependent on de novo ABA synthesis for both genotypes, although are likely to act through distinct pathways. This data suggests that AKIN10 and FUS3 both act as positive regulators of seed responses to ABA, and that AKIN10 regulates sugar signaling while FUS3 mediates osmotic stress responses.

  6. Identification of Striga hermonthica-Resistant Upland Rice Varieties in Sudan and Their Resistance Phenotypes

    Samejima, Hiroaki; Babiker, Abdel G.; Mustafa, Ahmed; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Rice has become a major staple cereal in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, upland rice cultivation is expanding particularly in rainfed areas where the root parasitic weed Striga hermonthica, a major constraint to cereal production, is endemic. Laboratory, pot, and semi-controlled open air experiments were performed to evaluate resistance of selected rice varieties in Sudan to a resident S. hermonthica population. In the laboratory, 27 varieties were screened for post-attachment resistance using...

  7. Stable isotopes estimate the dependence of the parasitic angiosperm striga hermonthica on its maize host

    Aflakpui, G.K.S.

    2004-01-01

    The dependence of the root hemi-parasitic angiosperm striga hermonthica on its host for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) was estimated by labeling the leaves of maize (grown in sand culture at three rates of nitrogen) with 13 C and 15 N. The Striga x N interaction on the responses measured was not significant. The dependence of the parasite on host nitrogen varied from 75 to 83 percent in the leaf, and from 70 to 80 percent in the stem compared with a total dependence of between 74 and 82 per cent. The dependence of the parasite on its host for nitrogen was not affected by the rate of nitrogen fertilizer applied. The heterotrophic carbon derived by S. hermonthica from its maize host varied from 20 to 32 per cent in the leaf, 23 to 41 per cent in the stem, with a total dependence of 22 to 36 per cent. The heterotrophic carbon in the leaf increased as the rate of nitrogen fertilizer applied increased (P<0.05). The total dependence of the parasite on the host for carbon also increased (P<0.05). The total dependence of the parasite on the host for carbon also increased as the rate of nitrogen fertilizer applied increased (P<0.01). The presence of S. hermonthica reduced the shoot biomass of its maize host by about 40 percent (P<0.001), whilst the root biomass was unaffected. Infected plants also partitioned about 41 percent of their total biomass compared with 27 per cent for the uninfected (P<0.001). The application if nitrogen increased the shoot and root biomass (P<0.001) but did not affect the proportion of the total biomass partitioned to the root. The results show that (i) the dependence of striga on its maize host of C and N can be estimated with stable isotopes of C and N and (ii) Striga derives more nitrogen than carbon from the host. (author)

  8. Requirement for ethylene synthesis and action during relief of thermoinhibition of lettuce seed germination by combinations of gibberellic acid, kinetin, and carbon dioxide

    Saini, H.S.; Consolacion, E.D.; Bassi, P.K.; Spencer, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    Application of exogenous ethylene in combination with gibberellic acid (GA 3 ), kinetin (KIN), and/or CO 2 has been reported to induce germination of lettuce seeds at supraoptimal temperatures. However, it is not clear whether endogenous ethylene also plays a mediatory role when germination under these conditions is induced by treatment regimes that do not include ethylene. Therefore, possible involvement of endogenous ethylene during the relief of thermoinhibition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv Grand Rapids) seed germination at 32°C was investigated. Combinations of GA 3 (0.5 millimolar), KIN (0.05 millimolar), and CO 2 (10%) were used to induce germination. Little germination occurred in controls or upon treatment with ethylene, KIN, or CO 2 . Neither KIN nor CO 2 affected the rate of ethylene production by seeds. Both germination and ethylene production were slightly promoted by GA 3 . Treatments with GA 3 + CO 2 , GA 3 + KIN, or GA 3 + CO 2 + KIN resulted in approximately 10- to 40-fold increases in ethylene production and 50 to 100% promotion of germination as compared to controls. Initial ethylene evolution from the treated seeds was greater than from the controls and a major surge in ethylene evolution occurred at the time of visible germination. Application of 1 millimolar 2-aminoethoxyvinyl glycine (AVG), an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis, in combination with any of above three treatments inhibited the ethylene production to below control levels. This was accompanied by a marked decline in germination percentage. Germination was also inhibited by 2,5-norbornadiene (0.25-2 milliliters per liter), a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. Application of exogenous ethylene (1-100 microliters per liter) overcame the inhibitory effects of AVG and 2,5-norbornadiene on germination. The results demonstrate that endogenous ethylene synthesis and action are essential for the alleviation of thermoinhibition of lettuce seeds by combinations of GA 3 , KIN, and CO

  9. Requirement for Ethylene Synthesis and Action during Relief of Thermoinhibition of Lettuce Seed Germination by Combinations of Gibberellic Acid, Kinetin, and Carbon Dioxide.

    Saini, H S; Consolacion, E D; Bassi, P K; Spencer, M S

    1986-08-01

    Application of exogenous ethylene in combination with gibberellic acid (GA(3)), kinetin (KIN), and/or CO(2) has been reported to induce germination of lettuce seeds at supraoptimal temperatures. However, it is not clear whether endogenous ethylene also plays a mediatory role when germination under these conditions is induced by treatment regimes that do not include ethylene. Therefore, possible involvement of endogenous ethylene during the relief of thermoinhibition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv Grand Rapids) seed germination at 32 degrees C was investigated. Combinations of GA(3) (0.5 millimolar), KIN (0.05 millimolar), and CO(2) (10%) were used to induce germination. Little germination occurred in controls or upon treatment with ethylene, KIN, or CO(2). Neither KIN nor CO(2) affected the rate of ethylene production by seeds. Both germination and ethylene production were slightly promoted by GA(3). Treatments with GA(3)+CO(2), GA(3)+KIN, or GA(3)+CO(2)+KIN resulted in approximately 10-to 40-fold increases in ethylene production and 50 to 100% promotion of germination as compared to controls. Initial ethylene evolution from the treated seeds was greater than from the controls and a major surge in ethylene evolution occurred at the time of visible germination. Application of 1 millimolar 2-aminoethoxyvinyl glycine (AVG), an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis, in combination with any of above three treatments inhibited the ethylene production to below control levels. This was accompanied by a marked decline in germination percentage. Germination was also inhibited by 2,5-norbornadiene (0.25-2 milliliters per liter), a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. Application of exogenous ethylene (1-100 microliters per liter) overcame the inhibitory effects of AVG and 2,5-norbornadiene on germination. The results demonstrate that endogenous ethylene synthesis and action are essential for the alleviation of thermoinhibition of lettuce seeds by combinations of GA(3), KIN

  10. Observations on the current status of Orobanche and Striga problems worldwide.

    Parker, Chris

    2009-05-01

    Species of Orobanche and Striga are among the most damaging parasitic weed species worldwide, but there are few reliable statistics on the full extent of the economic losses they cause. The distribution, host range and economic importance of the major species of Orobanche and Striga are briefly summarised. A review of literature over the period since 1991 suggests that many million hectares are infested and that the losses amount to $ US billions annually. Unfortunately there are almost no fully reliable figures on which to base these figures precisely. Meanwhile, there is little evidence of any significant change in intensity, range or losses caused over this period. Any reduction in the importance of these damaging weeds is sporadic, and alleviation of the problems is mostly localised. Furthermore, while the importance of Orobanche species may be broadly static, Striga species on cereals continue to become more serious in many countries owing to continued loss of soil fertility. It is suggested that new techniques may be needed for measurement of the extent of losses caused by these genera and their economic impact. There is continued urgency to develop control measures appropriate to the farming systems involved, and to reduce the risk of spread of both groups of parasite to new areas.

  11. seed germination and seedlings growth

    STORAGESEVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... however, abscisic acid (ABA) can counter this effect by keeping seeds ... Tris-HCl buffer at pH 8.8, with constant current set at 20 mA/gel. The gels were ..... on plants is rarely studied and the importance of 20E in the life cycle ...

  12. A Taylor-Made Design of Phenoxyfuranone-Type Strigolactone Mimic

    Kosuke Fukui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Strigolactones are a class of plant hormones that inhibit axillary bud outgrowth and are released from plant roots to act as a rhizosphere communication signal. The Orobanchaceae parasitic plant Striga hermonthica perceives strigolactone as its germination signal, indicating host presence. After germination, the Striga plant parasitises the host plant and suppresses host growth by draining photosynthetic products, water and other essential nutrients. Because of this way of life, this parasite threatens crop production in sub-Saharan Africa with infestation in crop fields and crop devastation. Crop protection in such areas is among the most concerning problems to be dealt with as immediately as possible. With respect to crop protection from Striga, many strigolactone agonists have been developed and used in research to reveal Striga biology, and have contributed to development of crop protection methods. However, an effective method has yet to be found. In a previous study, we reported debranones as a group of strigolactone mimics that inhibit axillary buds outgrowth with moderate stimulation activity for Striga germination. Debranones would be accessible because they are simply synthesized from commercially available phenols and bromo butenolide. Taking this advantage of debranones for Striga research, we tried to find the debranones stimulating Striga seed germination. To modulate functional selectivity and to enhance germination inducing activity of debranones, we studied structure–activity relationships. We investigated effects of substituent position and functional group on debranone activity and selectivity as a strigolactone mimic. As a result, we improved stimulation activity of debranones for Striga seed germination by chemical modification, and demonstrated the pharmacophore of debranones for selective modulation of distinct strigolactone responses.

  13. Xenognosin methylation is critical in defining the chemical potential gradient that regulates the potential distribution in Striga pathogenesis

    Fate, G.D.; Lynn, D.G. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-11-20

    Striga asiatica (Scrophulariaceae) is a parasitic plant requiring a host-derived signal, xenognosin, to initiate a cascade of events necessary for the establishment of host contact. By attempting to model the distribution of the xenognosin around the host, the activity of the signal is shown to be strongly dependent on the presence of another component in the host exudate. Surprisingly this component, characterized as 4,6-dimethoxy-2-[(8`Z.11`Z)-8`,11`, -14`-pentadecatriene]resorcinol, is structurally related and shares the same biosynthetic pathway as the xenognosin. This compound is shown to function as an antioxidant and its ability to enhance the activity of the xenognosin is consistent with its ability to extend its lifetime in the exudate. This endogenous antioxidant activity is required to explain the spatial sensing in the establishment of the host-parasite interface and its characterization provides insight into how chemical potential may be regulated within and around plant tissues. 23 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Phytase activity in brown rice during steeping and sprouting

    Ou, K.; Cheng, Y.; Xing, Y.; Lin, L.; Nout, M.J.R.; Liang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Phytase in brown rice will be activated and accumulated during seed germination. Changes of phytase activity in brown rice during two stages of germination (steeping and sprouting) affected by process conditions were studied. It was shown that steeping led to significant decrease of phytase activity

  15. Striga parasitizes transgenic hairy roots of Zea mays and provides a tool for studying plant-plant interactions

    Runo Steven

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Striga species are noxious root hemi-parasitic weeds that debilitate cereal production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. Control options for Striga are limited and developing Striga resistant crop germplasm is regarded as the best and most sustainable control measure. Efforts to improve germplasm for Striga resistance by a non-Genetic Modification (GM approach, for example by exploiting natural resistance, or by a GM approach are constrained by limited information on the biological processes underpinning host-parasite associations. Additionaly, a GM approach is stymied by lack of availability of candidate resistance genes for introduction into hosts and robust transformation methods to validate gene functions. Indeed, a majority of Striga hosts, the world’s most cultivated cereals, are recalcitrant to genetic transformation. In maize, the existing protocols for transformation and regeneration are tedious, lengthy, and highly genotype-specific with low efficiency of transformation. Results We used Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain K599 carrying a reporter gene construct, Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP, to generate transgenic composite maize plants that were challenged with the parasitic plant Striga hermonthica. Eighty five percent of maize plants produced transgenic hairy roots expressing GFP. Consistent with most hairy roots produced in other species, transformed maize roots exhibited a hairy root phenotype, the hallmark of A. rhizogenes mediated transformation. Transgenic hairy roots resulting from A. rhizogenes transformation were readily infected by S. hermonthica. There were no significant differences in the number and size of S. hermonthica individuals recovered from either transgenic or wild type roots. Conclusions This rapid, high throughput, transformation technique will advance our understanding of gene function in parasitic plant-host interactions.

  16. 药用植物内生菌对作物生长及氧化应激的作用%Endophytes from medicinal plants and their potential for producing indole acetic acid, improving seed germination and mitigating oxidative stress

    Abdul Latif KHAN; Syed Abdullah GILANI; Muhammad WAQAS; Khadija AL-HOSNI; Salima AL-KHIZIRI; Yoon-Ha KIM; Liaqat ALI

    2017-01-01

    目的:探讨药用植物内生菌的多样性及其在种子生长和氧化应激中的作用.方法:从三种药用植物(Caralluma acutangula、Rhazya stricta和Moringa peregrina)中提取内生菌;基于18S rDNA测序和系统发育分析鉴定分离得到的内生菌株;以正常和矮化突变体水稻品系为对照,比较不同浓度的内生菌培养滤液(CF)对水稻种子的发芽和生长的影响;通过气相色谱-质谱分析CF中的有效活性成分.结论:从药用植物中共获得10种内生菌,包括茎点霉属6株、链格孢属2株、双极霉属1株和枝孢霉属1株.CF表现出剂量依赖性的生长刺激和抑制作用.与对照和其他内生菌相比,100%的茎点霉菌CF显著促进了水稻种子的发芽和生长;双极霉中的吲哚乙酸含量最高,并表现出比其更高的自由基清除和抗脂质过氧化活性;双极霉菌和茎点霉菌的类黄酮和酚类成分较高.综上所述,药用植物中存在内生菌株,其可以用于改善作物生长和减轻氧化应激.%Medicinal plants have been used by marginal communities to treat various ailments. However, the po-tential of endophytes within these bio-prospective medicinal plants remains unknown. The present study elucidates the endophytic diversity of medicinal plants (Caraluma acutangula,Rhazya stricta, andMoringa peregrina) and the en-dophyte role in seed growth and oxidative stress. Various organs of medicinal plants yielded ten endophytes, which were identified asPhomasp. (6 isolates),Alternariasp.(2), Bipolarissp. (1),andCladosporiumsp. (1) based on 18S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The culture filtrates (CFs; 25%, 50%, and 100% concentrations) from these endophytes were tested against the growth of normal and dwarf mutant rice lines. Endophytic CF exhibited dose-dependent growth stimulation and suppression effects. CF (100%) ofPhomasp. significantly increased rice seed germination and growth compared to controls and other endophytes. This

  17. Efeitos de fitorreguladores e nitrato de potássio na germinação de sementes do limão 'volkameriano' Effects of growth regulators and potassium nitrate on 'volkameriana' lemon seed germination

    E.O. Ono

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados os efeitos de substâncias reguladoras de crescimento, bem como do nitrato de potássio (KNO3, na germinação de sementes do limão 'volkameriano' (Citrus volkameriana Pasq.. O experimento foi realizado em germinador, contendo papel de filtro umedecido com água destilada e gerbox, como meio para a germinação das sementes. Estas foram retiradas de frutas maduras, lavadas, secas à sombra e armazenadas durante 101 dias em câmara fria. Logo após, foram tratadas com os fitorreguladores e o KNO3 por 24 horas, conforme os tratamentos: H2O; 50 mg/l de GA3; 250 mg/l de GA3; 50 mg/l de GA4 + GA7 + fenilmetilaminopurina; 100 mg/l de GA4 + GA7 + fenilmetilaminopurina; 20 mg/lde fenilmetilaminopurina; 40 mg/lde fenilmetilaminopurina e 0,2% de KNO3. As avaliações foram realizadas depois de 15 dias da semeadura, sendo o intervalo de 2 dias. Através da análise estatística dos resultados obtidos, foi possível concluir que no tratamento com 50 mg/lde GA4 + GA7 + fenilmetilaminopurina houve a maior porcentagem de germinação (89,00% de sementes, num menor tempo médio (22,29 dias.The purpose of this research was to study the effects of growth regulators and potassium nitrate on 'volkameriana' lemon seed germination. The medium for seed germination was filter paper with distilled water. The seeds were removed from ripe fruits, washed, dried and stored at 4-5°C. After this the seeds were treated with growth regulators and potassium nitrate during 24 hours. The treatments were H2O; 50 mg/lof GA3; 250 mg/lof GA3; 50 mg/lof GA4 + GA7 + phenylmethylaminepurine; 100 mg/l of GA4 + GA7 + phenylmethyla-minepurine; 20 mg/lof phenylmethylaminepurine; 40 mg/lof phenylmethylaminepurine and 0,2% of KNO3. The evaluations were performed every two days, starting 15 days after seeding. The moisture with GA4 + GA7 plus phenylmethylaminepurine at 50 mg/lproved to be the most beneficial in enhancing seed germination.

  18. Carotenoid inhibitors reduce strigolactone production and Striga hermonthica infection in rice.

    Jamil, Muhammad; Charnikhova, Tatsiana; Verstappen, Francel; Bouwmeester, Harro

    2010-12-01

    The strigolactones are internal and rhizosphere signalling molecules in plants that are biosynthesised through carotenoid cleavage. They are secreted by host roots into the rhizosphere where they signal host-presence to the symbiotic arbuscular mycrorrhizal (AM) fungi and the parasitic plants of the Orobanche, Phelipanche and Striga genera. The seeds of these parasitic plants germinate after perceiving these signalling molecules. After attachment to the host root, the parasite negatively affects the host plant by withdrawing water, nutrients and assimilates through a direct connection with the host xylem. In many areas of the world these parasites are a threat to agriculture but so far very limited success has been achieved to minimize losses due to these parasitic weeds. Considering the carotenoid origin of the strigolactones, in the present study we investigated the possibilities to reduce strigolactone production in the roots of plants by blocking carotenoid biosynthesis using carotenoid inhibitors. Hereto the carotenoid inhibitors fluridone, norflurazon, clomazone and amitrole were applied to rice either through irrigation or through foliar spray. Irrigation application of all carotenoid inhibitors and spray application of amitrole significantly decreased strigolactone production, Striga hermonthica germination and Striga infection, also in concentrations too low to affect growth and development of the host plant. Hence, we demonstrate that the application of carotenoid inhibitors to plants can affect S. hermonthica germination and attachment indirectly by reducing the strigolactone concentration in the rhizosphere. This finding is useful for further studies on the relevance of the strigolactones in rhizosphere signalling. Since these inhibitors are available and accessible, they may represent an efficient technology for farmers, including poor subsistence farmers in the African continent, to control these harmful parasitic weeds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc

  19. Proteomic Comparison between Maturation Drying and Prematurely Imposed Drying of Zea mays Seeds Reveals a Potential Role of Maturation Drying in Preparing Proteins for Seed Germination, Seedling Vigor, and Pathogen Resistance

    Wang, Wei-Qing; Ye, Jian-Qing; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the role(s) of maturation drying in the acquisition of germinability, seedling vigor and pathogen resistance by comparing the proteome changes in maize embryo and endosperm during mature and prematurely imposed drying. Prematurely imposed dried seeds at 40 days after pollination...... (DAP) germinated almost as well as mature seeds (at 65 DAP), but their seedling growth was slower and they were seriously infected by fungi. A total of 80 and 114 proteins were identified to change at least two-fold (p ... abundant in this group and may contribute to the acquisition of seed germinability. However, a relatively large number of proteins changed in the embryo (47 spots) and endosperm (76 spots) specifically during maturation drying. Among these proteins, storage proteins in the embryo and defense proteins...

  20. Can the parasitic weeds Striga asiatica and Rhamphicarpa fistulosa co-occur in rain-fed rice?

    Kabiri, S.; Rodenburg, J.; Kayeke, J.; Ast, van A.; Makokha, D.W.; Msangi, S.H.; Irakiza, R.; Bastiaans, L.

    2015-01-01

    Striga asiatica and Rhamphicarpa fistulosa are important parasitic weeds of rain-fed rice, partly distributed in similar regions in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It is not evident whether their ecologies are mutually exclusive or partially overlapping. In Kyela, a rice-growing area in south Tanzania

  1. The strigolactone germination stimulants of the plant-parasitic Striga and Orobanche spp. are derived from the carotenoid pathway

    Matusova, R.; Rani, K.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Beale, M.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    The seeds of parasitic plants of the genera Striga and Orobanche will only germinate after induction by a chemical signal exuded from the roots of their host. Up to now, several of these germination stimulants have been isolated and identified in the root exudates of a series of host plants of both

  2. Evaluation of field resistance to Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. The relationship with strigolactones

    Mohemed Ahmed Mohamed, Nasr Eldin; Charnikhova, Tatsiana; Bakker, Evert J.; Ast, van Aad; Babiker, Abdelgabar Gt; Bouwmeester, Harro J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Significant losses in sorghum biomass and grain yield occur in sub-Saharan Africa owing to infection by the root-parasitic weed Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. One strategy to avoid these losses is to adopt resistant crop varieties. For further delineation of the role of germination

  3. Aspectos térmico-biológicos da germinação de sementes de cornichão anual sob diferentes temperaturas Thermal-biological aspects on seed germination of hairy bird's-foot trefoil under different temperatures

    Rodrigo Ramos Lopes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi determinar as temperaturas mínima, ótima e máxima para a germinação de sementes de Lotus subbiflorus Lag. utilizando-se como parâmetros a porcentagem, a velocidade, a frequência, a entropia informacional de germinação e a entalpia líquida de ativação. O experimento foi realizado em dois lotes com quatro subamostras, cada uma de 100 sementes, e os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste de Tukey. Foram utilizadas oito temperaturas constantes (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 e 35 ºC com a presença de fotoperíodo. Esta espécie germina numa faixa de temperatura com valores mínimos entre 0 e 5ºC, ótimos entre 15 e 20 ºC e máximos entre 30 e 35 ºC. A velocidade de germinação apresentou-se linearmente dependente da temperatura. Os maiores valores de velocidade de germinação, que ocorreram entre 15 ºC e 20 ºC abaixo e acima desta faixa decresceram significativamente. Os menores valores de entropia informacional ocorreram entre 15 e 20 ºC, mostrando maior sincronização do processo germinvatio nessas temperaturas. O ponto mínimo da entalpia foi atingido a 278 K e o máximo, a 303 K e 290,5 K, ponto no qual a curva cruzou o eixo da abscissaThe objective of this research was to determine the minimal, optimal and maximal temperatures for seed germination of Lotus subbiflorus Lag., using germination percentage, speed, frequency, informational entropy and enthalpy of activation of germination. The experiment was carried out in two lots with four replicates of 100 seeds each. The data were submitted to variance analysis and means were compared by Tukey's test. Eight constant temperatures (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 ºC and light exposition (darkness and 8 h of light plus 16 h of darkness were used. This species of seed germinates in a temperature range of minimal values between 0 and 5 ºC, optimal values between 15 and 20 ºC and maximal values between 30 and 35 º

  4. Inhibition of SAH-hydrolase activity during seed germination leads to deregulation of flowering genes and altered flower morphology in tobacco

    Fulneček, Jaroslav; Matyášek, Roman; Votruba, Ivan; Holý, Antonín; Křížová, Kateřina; Kovařík, Aleš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 285, č. 3 (2011), s. 225-236 ISSN 1617-4615 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/09/1751; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/10/0208; GA AV ČR(CZ) GPP501/11/P667 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : DNA methylation * DHPA * MADS box genes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.635, year: 2011

  5. Carrot seed germination and vigor in response to temperature and umbel orders Germinação e vigor de sementes de cenoura em resposta a temperatura e ordens de umbela

    Roseane Sousa Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Several factors may influence carrot (Daucus carota L. crop establishment. High temperatures (35 - 40°C, for instance, may delay or inhibit carrot seed germination in the field and so compromise the stand establishment. Carrot seeds from superior umbel orders usually have better physiological quality than those of lower umbel orders. These seeds from superior umbel orders may also show a better performance in adverse conditions. In addition, seeds from different ages show differences in vigor, which affect the stand establishment, mainly under adverse conditions. The aim of this study was to verify the germination at high temperatures and the carrot seed vigor of different umbel orders of 'Brasília', as well as the different 'Alvorada' seed lots. Preliminarily, 'Brasilia' seeds were incubated at temperatures ranging from 20 to 36°C. Also, seeds from the primary, secondary and tertiary umbel orders harvested separately from a basic seed production field and seeds from lots harvested in 1998, 1999 and 2000 were analyzed to the following tests: germination at 20°C (optimum and 35°C (adverse, accelerated aging, cold test, seedling emergence in greenhouse and mass of 100 seeds. High temperatures reduced carrot seed germination. Seeds germinated better at 20°C than 35 or 36ºC. Seeds from primary and secondary orders, as well as less aged seed lots, had higher vigor and germination at high temperature.Vários fatores podem influenciar no estabelecimento da cultura da cenoura (Daucus carota L.. Altas temperaturas (35 - 40°C, por exemplo, podem retardar ou inibir a germinação das sementes de cenoura no campo, comprometendo assim o estabelecimento de plântulas. Sementes oriundas de umbelas de ordem superior geralmente apresentam melhor qualidade fisiológica do que aquelas de menor ordem. Estas sementes podem apresentar uma melhor performance no campo, principalmente sob condições adversas. Lotes de sementes armazenados por diferentes per

  6. Lettuce seed germination from plant cultivated with different phosphorus levelsGerminação de sementes de alface obtidas de plantas cultivadas com diferentes doses de fósforo

    Roberto Lyra Villas Bôas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out at São Manuel Experimental Farm, UNESP/FCA, in Botucatu, São Paulo state, Brazil, with the objective to evaluate the lettuce seeds (cultivar Verônica germination from plants cultivated with different phosphorus levels at harvest, in three temperatures and after two conservation period in dry chamber. At seed production stage, the experiment was conducted in randomized complete blocks, with five treatments (0; 200; 400; 600 and 800 kg ha-1 of P2O5 and five replications. After harvesting, seed germination at 20oC and under high temperatures (30 and 33ºC was evaluated. After 15 and 25 months of conservation in dry chamber room it was evaluated germination at 20ºC. The P2O5 levels evaluated did not affect seed germination soon after harvesting at the three temperatures evaluated, but, the higher the temperature, the lower the seed vigor. After 25 months of conservation, the lesser the P2O5 rates, the lesser seed germination and germination speed index.Este trabalho foi conduzido na Fazenda Experimental São Manuel pertencente à UNESP/FCA, Botucatu/SP, com o objetivo de avaliar a germinação de sementes de alface (cultivar Verônica obtidas de plantas cultivadas com diferentes doses de fósforo, logo após a colheita, em três temperaturas e após dois períodos de conservação em câmara seca. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos (0; 200; 400; 600 e 800 kg ha-1 de P2O5 e cinco repetições. Após a colheita, foram avaliadas a germinação das sementes na temperatura ideal (20ºC e sob altas temperaturas (30 e 33ºC. Após 15 e 25 meses de conservação em câmara seca foi avaliada a germinação a 20ºC. As doses de P2O5 avaliadas não afetaram a germinação das sementes logo após a colheita nas três temperaturas avaliadas, porém, quanto maior a temperatura, menor foi o vigor das sementes. Aos 25 meses após o armazenamento das sementes, quanto menor a dose

  7. Azide-based mutagenesis suppresses Striga hermonthica seed ...

    GRACE

    2006-05-16

    May 16, 2006 ... the farmers' socio-economic conditions. ... The present paper reports on mutagenic conversion of ... flow rate of 0.4 ml/min. ... then transferred to circular plastic pots, which had several holes ... stimulant activity against S. hermonthica was observed in ... Longman Scientific and Technical, London. pp. 368-.

  8. Alelopatia de extratos voláteis na germinação de sementes e no comprimento da raiz de alface Allelopathy of plant volatile extracts on seed germination and radicle length of lettuce

    Maria da Conceição Sampaio Alves

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar possíveis efeitos alelopáticos de extratos voláteis de óleos essenciais na germinação e no comprimento da raiz de plântulas de alface. Foram utilizadas cinco concentrações de cada óleo (0,0, 0,001, 0,01, 0,1 e 1,0%, v/v, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes de alface. Os extratos voláteis de óleos essenciais de canela, alecrim-pimenta, capim-citronela e alfavaca-cravo evidenciaram potencialidades alelopáticas na germinação e comprimento das raízes de plântulas de alface, efeitos que variaram de acordo com a concentração do óleo. O extrato volátil de óleo de jaborandi estimula o crescimento da radícula e não provoca inibição da germinação de sementes de alface, caracterizando-se como de efeito alelopático benéfico.The objective of this work was to identify allelopathic effects of volatile extracts of essential oils on germination and radicle length of lettuce seedlings. Five concentrations were utilized for each oil (0.0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0%, v/v arranged into a completely randomized design with four replicates of 25 seeds. The volatile extracts of essential oils of cinnamon, alecrim-pimenta, capim-citronela and alfavaca-cravo revealed allelopathic potentialities on lettuce seed germination and radicle growth, effect which varied according to the oil concentration. The volatile extract of Jaborandi essential oil stimulates radicle growth and does not inhibit lettuce seeds germination, which is characterized as a beneficial allelopathic effect.

  9. Efeito da temperatura e luz na germinação de sementes de Luetzelburgia auriculata (Alemão Ducke - Fabaceae The effect of temperature and light on Luetzelburgia auriculata (Alemão Ducke seed germination

    Francisco Carlos Barboza Nogueira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Luetzelburgia auriculata (Alemão Ducke é uma espécie arbórea nativa do Brasil, pertencente à família das Fabaceae, importante pela utilidade econômica de sua madeira na construção civil, marcenaria e produção de lenha e carvão. O experimento foi conduzido em laboratório para avaliar o processo germinativo de suas sementes, na ausência e presença de luz, submetido às temperaturas constantes de 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 °C e alternada de 20-40 °C, sob fotoperíodo de 12 horas e escuro contínuo. As variáveis avaliadas foram porcentagem, velocidade e tempo médio de germinação. As sementes germinaram na presença e na ausência de luz, com as maiores médias alcançadas em 20-40 °C, 20 °C, 25 °C, 30 °C e 35 °C e as menores em 40 °C. Suas sementes são indiferentes à luz. A faixa ótima de temperatura entre 25 a 30 °C possibilitou alta germinabilidade e menor tempo médio de germinação.Luetzelburgia auriculata (Alemão Ducke is a native tree species in Brazil with wood that is economically important in construction, carpentry and production of firewood and charcoal. A laboratory experiment was carried out to analyze seed germination of L. auriculata in the presence and absence of light, as well as constant temperatures of 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 °C and alternating temperatures of 20-45 °C, all under a photoperiod of 12 hours and continuous darkness. The variables evaluated were: percentage, speed and medium time of germination. The seeds germinated in the presence and absence of light, the highest percentages of germination were at 20-40, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C and the lowest at 40 °C. The seeds were indifferent to light. The optimum temperature range was between 25 and 30 °C, which promoted a high germination rate and a lower average germination time.

  10. DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN THE GERMINATION, GROWTH AND CHLOROPHYLLASE ACTIVITY OF VIGNA MUNGO L. USING SEAWEED EXTRACT OF ULVA RETICULATA FORSSKAL.

    Ganapathy Selvam G.; Balamurugan M.; Thinakaran T.; Sivakumar K

    2013-01-01

    The effect of seaweed extract prepared from Ulva reticulata on seed germination, seedling growth and chlorophyllase activity of Vigna mungo L. was studied. 100% germination was recorded in the seeds treated with lower concentration of seaweed extract. The V. mungo seeds soaked with lower concentrations of the seaweed extracts showed higher rates of germination, while the higher concentrations of the extracts inhibited the germination.

  11. Molecular responses of Lotus japonicus to parasitism by the compatible species Orobanche aegyptiaca and the incompatible species Striga hermonthica.

    Hiraoka, Yukihiro; Ueda, Hiroaki; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Lotus japonicus genes responsive to parasitism by the compatible species Orobanche aegyptiaca and the incompatible species Striga hermonthica were isolated by using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) strategy. O. aegyptiaca and S. hermonthica parasitism specifically induced the expression of genes involved in jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and phytoalexin biosynthesis, respectively. Nodulation-related genes were almost exclusively found among the Orobanche-induced genes. Temporal gene expression analyses revealed that 19 out of the 48 Orobanche-induced genes and 5 out of the 48 Striga-induced genes were up-regulated at 1 dai. Four genes, including putative trypsin protease inhibitor genes, exhibited systemic up-regulation in the host plant parasitized by O. aegyptiaca. On the other hand, S. hermonthica attachment did not induce systemic gene expression.

  12. The Strigolactone Germination Stimulants of the Plant-Parasitic Striga and Orobanche spp. Are Derived from the Carotenoid Pathway1

    Matusova, Radoslava; Rani, Kumkum; Verstappen, Francel W.A.; Franssen, Maurice C.R.; Beale, Michael H.; Bouwmeester, Harro J.

    2005-01-01

    The seeds of parasitic plants of the genera Striga and Orobanche will only germinate after induction by a chemical signal exuded from the roots of their host. Up to now, several of these germination stimulants have been isolated and identified in the root exudates of a series of host plants of both Orobanche and Striga spp. In most cases, the compounds were shown to be isoprenoid and belong to one chemical class, collectively called the strigolactones, and suggested by many authors to be sesquiterpene lactones. However, this classification was never proven; hence, the biosynthetic pathways of the germination stimulants are unknown. We have used carotenoid mutants of maize (Zea mays) and inhibitors of isoprenoid pathways on maize, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and assessed the effects on the root exudate-induced germination of Striga hermonthica and Orobanche crenata. Here, we show that for these three host and two parasitic plant species, the strigolactone germination stimulants are derived from the carotenoid pathway. Furthermore, we hypothesize how the germination stimulants are formed. We also discuss this finding as an explanation for some phenomena that have been observed for the host-parasitic plant interaction, such as the effect of mycorrhiza on S. hermonthica infestation. PMID:16183851

  13. The strigolactone germination stimulants of the plant-parasitic Striga and Orobanche spp. are derived from the carotenoid pathway.

    Matusova, Radoslava; Rani, Kumkum; Verstappen, Francel W A; Franssen, Maurice C R; Beale, Michael H; Bouwmeester, Harro J

    2005-10-01

    The seeds of parasitic plants of the genera Striga and Orobanche will only germinate after induction by a chemical signal exuded from the roots of their host. Up to now, several of these germination stimulants have been isolated and identified in the root exudates of a series of host plants of both Orobanche and Striga spp. In most cases, the compounds were shown to be isoprenoid and belong to one chemical class, collectively called the strigolactones, and suggested by many authors to be sesquiterpene lactones. However, this classification was never proven; hence, the biosynthetic pathways of the germination stimulants are unknown. We have used carotenoid mutants of maize (Zea mays) and inhibitors of isoprenoid pathways on maize, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and assessed the effects on the root exudate-induced germination of Striga hermonthica and Orobanche crenata. Here, we show that for these three host and two parasitic plant species, the strigolactone germination stimulants are derived from the carotenoid pathway. Furthermore, we hypothesize how the germination stimulants are formed. We also discuss this finding as an explanation for some phenomena that have been observed for the host-parasitic plant interaction, such as the effect of mycorrhiza on S. hermonthica infestation.

  14. AtMyb7, a subgroup 4 R2R3 Myb, negatively regulates ABA-induced inhibition of seed germination by blocking the expression of the bZIP transcription factor ABI5

    Kim, Junhyeok; Hyun, Wooyoung; Nguyen, Hoai Nguyen; Jeong, Chanyoung; Xiong, Liming; Hong, Sukwhan; Lee, Hojoung

    2014-01-01

    Various Myb proteins have been shown to play crucial roles in plants, including primary and secondary metabolism, determination of cell fate and identity, regulation of development and involvement in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The 126 R2R3 Myb proteins (with two Myb repeats) have been found in Arabidopsis; however, the functions of most of these proteins remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we characterized the function of AtMyb7 using molecular biological and genetic analyses. We used qRT-PCR to determine the levels of stress-response gene transcripts in wild-type and atmyb7 plants. We showed that ArabidopsisAtMyb7 plays a critical role in seed germination. Under abscisic acid (ABA) and high-salt stress conditions, atmyb7 plants showed a lower germination rate than did wild-type plants. Furthermore, AtMyb7 promoter:GUS seeds exhibited different expression patterns in response to variations in the seed imbibition period. AtMyb7 negatively controls the expression of the gene encoding bZIP transcription factor, ABI5, which is a key transcription factor in ABA signalling and serves as a crucial regulator of germination inhibition in Arabidopsis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Investigating Seed Germination Indices and Absorption Rate of Sodium, Chloride, Calcium, and Potassium in Different Parts of Seedlings of Sweet Corn KSC 403 (Zea Mays L var. Saccharata Under Salinity Stress and Seed Priming

    M. Nasrolah alhossini,

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of different levels of seed priming on germination indices and nutrient absorption at early growth stages of sweet corn (Golden Kernel Hybrid a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design was conducted with three replications in 2011. The experiment consists of 6 levels of primings (seeds without priming, priming with tap water, priming with distilled water, priming with sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and hydrous calcium chloride and five levels of salinity (zero, 4, 8, 12 and 16 ds/m sodium chloride. The characteristics studied were germination percentage, germination rate, root and shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight of seedling, root to shoot ratio and determination of sodium, chloride, calcium, and potassium concentration in different parts of seedlings (stems, roots and seed. The results indicated that increasing salinity stress levels decreased all parameters measured. Priming seeds with hydrated calcium chloride responded to significantly to salinity stress better than other treatments. Results also showed that increasing concentration of sodium chloride salt, increased absorption rate of sodium but concentration of calcium and potassium were reduced. Because application of hydrous calcium chloride stimulates cell in using calcium under salinity conditions it leads to improved seedling growth parameters. To achieve a more accurate results slicing interaction effect of seed priming×salinity levels was performed. Hydrous calcium chloride treatments improved all traits under study except sodium and potassium concentration. This represents a better performance of seeds germination under salinity stress when seeds primed with hydrous calcium chloride.

  16. AtMyb7, a subgroup 4 R2R3 Myb, negatively regulates ABA-induced inhibition of seed germination by blocking the expression of the bZIP transcription factor ABI5

    Kim, Junhyeok

    2014-08-27

    Various Myb proteins have been shown to play crucial roles in plants, including primary and secondary metabolism, determination of cell fate and identity, regulation of development and involvement in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The 126 R2R3 Myb proteins (with two Myb repeats) have been found in Arabidopsis; however, the functions of most of these proteins remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we characterized the function of AtMyb7 using molecular biological and genetic analyses. We used qRT-PCR to determine the levels of stress-response gene transcripts in wild-type and atmyb7 plants. We showed that ArabidopsisAtMyb7 plays a critical role in seed germination. Under abscisic acid (ABA) and high-salt stress conditions, atmyb7 plants showed a lower germination rate than did wild-type plants. Furthermore, AtMyb7 promoter:GUS seeds exhibited different expression patterns in response to variations in the seed imbibition period. AtMyb7 negatively controls the expression of the gene encoding bZIP transcription factor, ABI5, which is a key transcription factor in ABA signalling and serves as a crucial regulator of germination inhibition in Arabidopsis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A review of spatio-temporal modelling of quadrat count data with application to striga occurrence in a pearl millet field

    Hess, Dale; van Lieshout, Marie-Colette; Payne, Bill; Stein, Alfred

    This paper describes how spatial statistical techniques may be used to analyse weed occurrence in tropical fields. Quadrat counts of weed numbers are available over a series of years, as well as data on explanatory variables, and the aim is to smooth the data and assess spatial and temporal trends. We review a range of models for correlated count data. As an illustration, we consider data on striga infestation of a 60 × 24 m 2 millet field in Niger collected from 1985 until 1991, modelled by independent Poisson counts and a prior auto regression term enforcing spatial coherence. The smoothed fields show the presence of a seed bank, the estimated model parameters indicate a decay in the striga numbers over time, as well as a clear correlation with the amount of rainfall in 15 consecutive days following the sowing date. Such results could contribute to precision agriculture as a guide to more cost-effective striga control strategies.

  18. Muskmelon