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Sample records for stride foot contact

  1. Select injury-related variables are affected by stride length and foot strike style during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Elizabeth R; Derrick, Timothy R

    2015-09-01

    Some frontal plane and transverse plane variables have been associated with running injury, but it is not known if they differ with foot strike style or as stride length is shortened. To identify if step width, iliotibial band strain and strain rate, positive and negative free moment, pelvic drop, hip adduction, knee internal rotation, and rearfoot eversion differ between habitual rearfoot and habitual mid-/forefoot strikers when running with both a rearfoot strike (RFS) and a mid-/forefoot strike (FFS) at 3 stride lengths. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 42 healthy runners (21 habitual rearfoot, 21 habitual mid-/forefoot) ran overground at 3.35 m/s with both a RFS and a FFS at their preferred stride lengths and 5% and 10% shorter. Variables did not differ between habitual groups. Step width was 1.5 cm narrower for FFS, widening to 0.8 cm as stride length shortened. Iliotibial band strain and strain rate did not differ between foot strikes but decreased as stride length shortened (0.3% and 1.8%/s, respectively). Pelvic drop was reduced 0.7° for FFS compared with RFS, and both pelvic drop and hip adduction decreased as stride length shortened (0.8° and 1.5°, respectively). Peak knee internal rotation was not affected by foot strike or stride length. Peak rearfoot eversion was not different between foot strikes but decreased 0.6° as stride length shortened. Peak positive free moment (normalized to body weight [BW] and height [h]) was not affected by foot strike or stride length. Peak negative free moment was -0.0038 BW·m/h greater for FFS and decreased -0.0004 BW·m/h as stride length shortened. The small decreases in most variables as stride length shortened were likely associated with the concomitant wider step width. RFS had slightly greater pelvic drop, while FFS had slightly narrower step width and greater negative free moment. Shortening one's stride length may decrease or at least not increase propensity for running injuries based on the variables

  2. Effects of socks which improved foot sensation on velocity and stride length of elderly subjects crossing obstacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] We developed socks which improve foot sensation and investigated their effect on the velocity and stride length of elderly women crossing obstacles. [Subjects] Ten community-dwelling, elderly women who could walk independently were recruited. [Methods] We measured velocity and stride length using the GAITRite system while the participants crossed obstacles under three conditions: barefoot, wearing ordinary socks, and wearing the socks which improve foot sensation. [Results] Velocity and stride length in bare feet and when wearing the sense-improving socks increased significantly compared to their values when wearing standard socks. Velocity and stride length did not differ between the bare foot and improved sock conditions. [Conclusion] Wearing socks helps protect the foot, but can decrease foot sensory input. Therefore, the socks which improve foot sensation were useful for preventing falls and protecting the feet of the elderly women while they crossed obstacles.

  3. Stride length determination during overground running using a single foot-mounted inertial measurement unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahms, C Markus; Zhao, Yang; Gerhard, David; Barden, John M

    2018-02-10

    From a research perspective, detailed knowledge about stride length (SL) is important for coaches, clinicians and researchers because together with stride rate it determines the speed of locomotion. Moreover, individual SL vectors represent the integrated output of different biomechanical determinants and as such provide valuable insight into the control of running gait. In recent years, several studies have tried to estimate SL using body-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs) and have reported promising results. However, many studies have used systems based on multiple sensors or have only focused on estimating SL for walking. Here we test the concurrent validity of a single foot-mounted, 9-degree of freedom IMU to estimate SL for running. We employed a running-specific, Kalman filter based zero-velocity update (ZUPT) algorithm to calculate individual SL vectors with the IMU and compared the results to SLs that were simultaneously recorded by a 6-camera 3D motion capture system. The results showed that the analytical procedures were able to successfully identify all strides that were recorded by the camera system and that excellent levels of absolute agreement (ICC(3,1) = 0.955) existed between the two methods. The findings demonstrate that individual SL vectors can be accurately estimated with a single foot-mounted IMU when running in a controlled laboratory setting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Novel Approach to Determine Strides, Ice Contact, and Swing Phases During Ice Hockey Skating Using a Single Accelerometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetter, Bernd J; Buckeridge, Erica; von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Nigg, Sandro R; Nigg, Benno M

    2016-02-01

    This study presents a new approach for automated identification of ice hockey skating strides and a method to detect ice contact and swing phases of individual strides by quantifying vibrations in 3D acceleration data during the blade-ice interaction. The strides of a 30-m forward sprinting task, performed by 6 ice hockey players, were evaluated using a 3D accelerometer fixed to a hockey skate. Synchronized plantar pressure data were recorded as reference data. To determine the accuracy of the new method on a range of forward stride patterns for temporal skating events, estimated contact times and stride times for a sequence of 5 consecutive strides was validated. Bland-Altman limits of agreement (95%) between accelerometer and plantar pressure derived data were less than 0.019 s. Mean differences between the 2 capture methods were shown to be less than 1 ms for contact and stride time. These results demonstrate the validity of the novel approach to determine strides, ice contact, and swing phases during ice hockey skating. This technology is accurate, simple, effective, and allows for in-field ice hockey testing.

  5. Effects of stride frequency and foot position at landing on braking force, hip torque, impact peak force and the metabolic cost of running in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Daniel E; Warrener, Anna G; Wang, Justin; Castillo, Eric R

    2015-11-01

    Endurance runners are often advised to use 90 strides min(-1), but how optimal is this stride frequency and why? Endurance runners are also often advised to maintain short strides and avoid landing with the feet too far in front of their hips or knees (colloquially termed 'overstriding'), but how do different kinematic strategies for varying stride length at the same stride frequency affect economy and impact peaks? Linear mixed models were used to analyze repeated measures of stride frequency, the anteroposterior position of the foot at landing, V̇O2 , lower extremity kinematics and vertical ground reaction forces in 14 runners who varied substantially in height and body mass and who were asked to run at 75, 80, 85, 90 and 95 strides min(-1) at 3.0 m s(-1). For every increase of 5 strides min(-1), maximum hip flexor moments in the sagittal plane increased by 5.8% (Pbraking forces were associated with increases in foot landing position relative to the hip (P=0.0005) but not the knee (P=0.54); increases in foot landing position relative to the knee were associated with higher magnitudes (Pbraking forces versus maximum hip flexor moments during swing. The results suggest that runners may benefit from a stride frequency of approximately 85 strides min(-1) and by landing at the end of swing phase with a relatively vertical tibia. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Stride length: measuring its instantaneous value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campiglio, G C; Mazzeo, J R

    2007-01-01

    Human gait has been studied from different viewpoints: kinematics, dynamics, sensibility and others. Many of its characteristics still remain open to research, both for normal gait and for pathological gait. Objective measures of some of its most significant spatial/temporal parameters are important in this context. Stride length, one of these parameters, is defined as the distance between two consecutive contacts of one foot with ground. On this work we present a device designed to provide automatic measures of stride length. Its features make it particularly appropriate for the evaluation of pathological gait

  7. Changes in timing of muscle contractions and running economy with altered stride pattern during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connick, Mark J; Li, Francois-Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Large alterations to the preferred running stride decrease running economy, and shorter strides increase leg muscle activity. However, the effect of altered strides on the timing of leg muscle activation is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of moderate alterations to the running stride on running economy and the timing of biceps femoris (BF), vastus lateralis (VL) and gastrocnemius (GAST) muscle contractions. The preferred stride pattern for eleven trained male runners was measured prior to a separate visit where participants ran for bouts of 5 min whilst synchronising foot contacts to a metronome signal which was tuned to (1) the preferred stride, and (2) frequencies which related to ± 8% and ± 4% of the preferred stride length. Running economy was measured at each stride pattern along with electromyography and three-dimensional kinematics to estimate onset and offset of muscle contractions for each muscle. Running economy was greatest at the preferred stride length. However, a quadratic fit to the data was optimised at a stride which was 2.9% shorter than preferred. Onset and offset of BF and VL muscle contractions occurred earlier with shorter than preferred strides. We detected no changes to the timing of muscle contractions with longer than preferred strides and no changes to GAST muscle contractions. The results suggest that runners optimise running economy with a stride length that is close to, but shorter than, the preferred stride, and that timing of BF and VL muscle contractions change with shorter than preferred strides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Full contact plaster cast for conservative treatment of Charcot foot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieb, K; Ramadani, F; Hofstaetter, S G

    2015-01-01

    The gold standard for treatment of early stages of Charcot foot are immobilization with a full contact plaster cast, whereby different periods and loading concepts are described in the literature. The etiology, disease course and preparation for an early conservative therapy are described and a key point is a full contact plaster cast. An overview of the etiology, pathogenesis and indications for correct evaluation of the wound situation is given. The correct technique for the total cast is described and illustrated step by step with pictures. If treatment of Charcot foot is initiated in the early stages prevention or healing of ulcers can be achieved; therefore, the correct indications and technique are necessary and the cast should be changed periodically which is a key point of the healing process. Healing results in a reduction of redness, temperature and swelling which should be measured and documented. Treatment of Charcot foot by full contact cast and immobilization should be initiated as soon as possible.

  9. Can foot anthropometric measurements predict dynamic plantar surface contact area?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Natalie

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have suggested that increased plantar surface area, associated with pes planus, is a risk factor for the development of lower extremity overuse injuries. The intent of this study was to determine if a single or combination of foot anthropometric measures could be used to predict plantar surface area. Methods Six foot measurements were collected on 155 subjects (97 females, 58 males, mean age 24.5 ± 3.5 years. The measurements as well as one ratio were entered into a stepwise regression analysis to determine the optimal set of measurements associated with total plantar contact area either including or excluding the toe region. The predicted values were used to calculate plantar surface area and were compared to the actual values obtained dynamically using a pressure sensor platform. Results A three variable model was found to describe the relationship between the foot measures/ratio and total plantar contact area (R2 = 0.77, p R2 = 0.76, p Conclusion The results of this study indicate that the clinician can use a combination of simple, reliable, and time efficient foot anthropometric measurements to explain over 75% of the plantar surface contact area, either including or excluding the toe region.

  10. Total contact cast for neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.; Yaqoob, M.Y.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the outcome of diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers treated with Total Contact Cast (TCC) in terms of percentage of ulcers healed and time to heal. The study included diabetic patients with non-ischemic neuropathic foot ulcers of upto grade 2 of Wagner's classification. Ulcers were debrided off necrotic tissues and Total Contact Cast (TCC) was applied. TCC was renewed every 2 weeks till healing. Cases were labeled as cast failure when there was no reduction in wound size in 4 consecutive weeks or worsening to a higher grade. Main outcome measures were the percentage of ulcers healed and time to heal in the cast. Thirty four (87.17%) patients were males and 5(12.82%) were females. The mean age was 62 +- 13.05 years. All patients had NIDDM. Out of the 52 ulcers, 41(78.84%) healed with TCC in an average 2 casts duration (mean 32 days). There were 11(21.15%) cast failure. Majority (63.63%) of cast failure ulcers were located on pressure bearing area of heel. Most (90%) of the ulcers on forefoot and midsole region healed with TCC (p<0.001). Longer ulcer duration (mean 57.45 +- 29.64 days) significantly reduced ulcer healing (p<0.001). Total contact cast was an effective treatment modality for neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers of Wagner's grade 2, located on forefoot and midsole region. (author)

  11. A basic study on quantitative evaluation of 3-dimensional foot contact with an inertial sensor for FES foot drop correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiotani, Maho; Watanabe, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    In these days, FES is used to control ankle dorsiflexion of hemiplegic gait. Since not only dorsiflexion but also 3-dimensional foot contact isimportant for gait stability in hemiplegic gait, evaluation and control system of 3-dimensional foot contact with FES is needed to correct foot movement. In this study, the timing of initial contact and the timing when foot movement became stationary in the sagittal plane were detected, and the inclination angles in the sagittal and the frontal planes at these timings were used for evaluation. Using the inclination angles, 10 m walking of a hemiplegic subject under the 4 different gait conditions were quantitatively evaluated. The gait conditions were without FES, stimulation to the tibialis anterior, stimulation to the common peroneal nerve, and stimulation to both the tibialis anterior and the common peroneal nerve. Result of evaluation with the inclination angles showed that stimulation to the tibialis anterior could control foot contact appropriately in the sagittal plane, and stimulation to the common peroneal nerve was better to control foot inclination angle in the frontal plane. Inclination angle at the beginning of the stance phase indicated that FES system which used in clinical site commonly is not appropriate to control 3-dimensional foot contact. It was shown that inclination angle at the beginning of the stance phase was useful to evaluate 3-dimensional foot movements for FES foot drop correction.

  12. Comparison of accelerometry stride time calculation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Michelle; Kenny, Ian C; Anderson, Ross

    2016-09-06

    Inertial sensors such as accelerometers and gyroscopes can provide a multitude of information on running gait. Running parameters such as stride time and ground contact time can all be identified within tibial accelerometry data. Within this, stride time is a popular parameter of interest, possibly due to its role in running economy. However, there are multiple methods utilised to derive stride time from tibial accelerometry data, some of which may offer complications when implemented on larger data files. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare previously utilised methods of stride time derivation to an original proposed method, utilising medio-lateral tibial acceleration data filtered at 2Hz, allowing for greater efficiency in stride time output. Tibial accelerometry data from six participants training for a half marathon were utilised. One right leg run was randomly selected for each participant, in which five consecutive running stride times were calculated. Four calculation methods were employed to derive stride time. A repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) identified no significant difference in stride time between stride time calculation methods (p=1.00), whilst intra-class coefficient values (all >0.95) and coefficient of variance values (all method possibly offers a simplified technique for stride time output during running gait analysis. This method may be less influenced by "double peak" error and minor fluctuations within the data, allowing for accurate and efficient automated data output in both real time and post processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Total energy expenditure estimated using foot-ground contact pedometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Reed W; Buller, Mark J; Santee, William R; Yokota, Miyo; Weyand, Peter G; Delany, James P

    2004-02-01

    Routine walking and running, by increasing daily total energy expenditure (TEE), can play a significant role in reducing the likelihood of obesity. The objective of this field study was to compare TEE estimated using foot-ground contact time (Tc)-pedometry (TEE(PEDO)) with that measured by the criterion doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Eight male U.S. Marine test volunteers [27 +/- 4 years of age (mean +/- SD); weight = 83.2 +/- 10.7 kg; height = 182.2 +/- 4.5 cm; body fat = 17.0 +/- 2.9%] engaged in a field training exercise were studied over 2 days. TEE(PEDO) was defined as (calculated resting energy expenditure + estimated thermic effect of food + metabolic cost of physical activity), where physical activity was estimated by Tc-pedometry. Tc-pedometry was used to differentiate inactivity, activity other than exercise (i.e., non-exercise activity thermogenesis, or NEAT), and the metabolic cost of locomotion (M(LOCO)), where M(LOCO) was derived from total weight (body weight + load weight) and accelerometric measurements of Tc. TEE(PEDO) data were compared with TEEs measured by the DLW (2H2(18)O) method (TEE(DLW)): TEE(DLW) = 15.27 +/- 1.65 MJ/day and TEE(PEDO) = 15.29 +/- 0.83 MJ/day. Mean bias (i.e., TEE(PEDO) - TEE(DLW)) was 0.02 MJ, and mean error (SD of individual differences between TEE(PEDO) and TEE(DLW)) was 1.83 MJ. The Tc-pedometry method provided a valid estimate of the average TEE of a small group of physically active subjects where walking was the dominant activity.

  14. The importance of stride length and stride frequency in middle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... also found that the better runners have faster stride frequencies and that provincial middle distance runners use lower stride frequencies than international middle distance runners. Key Words: Biomechanics, stride length, stride frequency, maximum oxygen consumption, leg length, middle distance runners, road runners.

  15. A superellipsoid-plane model for simulating foot-ground contact during human gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, D S; Neptune, R R; Ambrósio, J A; Silva, M T

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal models and forward dynamics simulations of human movement often include foot-ground interactions, with the foot-ground contact forces often determined using a constitutive model that depends on material properties and contact kinematics. When using soft constraints to model the foot-ground interactions, the kinematics of the minimum distance between the foot and planar ground needs to be computed. Due to their geometric simplicity, a considerable number of studies have used point-plane elements to represent these interacting bodies, but few studies have provided comparisons between point contact elements and other geometrically based analytical solutions. The objective of this work was to develop a more general-purpose superellipsoid-plane contact model that can be used to determine the three-dimensional foot-ground contact forces. As an example application, the model was used in a forward dynamics simulation of human walking. Simulation results and execution times were compared with a point-like viscoelastic contact model. Both models produced realistic ground reaction forces and kinematics with similar computational efficiency. However, solving the equations of motion with the surface contact model was found to be more efficient (~18% faster), and on average numerically ~37% less stiff. The superellipsoid-plane elements are also more versatile than point-like elements in that they allow for volumetric contact during three-dimensional motions (e.g. rotating, rolling, and sliding). In addition, the superellipsoid-plane element is geometrically accurate and easily integrated within multibody simulation code. These advantages make the use of superellipsoid-plane contact models in musculoskeletal simulations an appealing alternative to point-like elements.

  16. A comparative study between total contact cast and pressure-relieving ankle foot orthosis in diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Partha Pratim; Ray, Sayantan; Biswas, Dibakar; Baidya, Arjun; Bhattacharjee, Rana; Mukhopadhyay, Pradip; Ghosh, Sujoy; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2015-03-01

    Off-loading of the ulcer area is extremely important for the healing of plantar ulcers. Off-loading with total contact cast (TCC) may be superior to other off-loading strategies studied so far, but practical limitations can dissuade clinicians from using this modality. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of TCC compared with that of a pressure-relieving ankle foot orthosis (PRAFO) in healing of diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers and their effect on gait parameters. Thirty adult diabetic patients attending the foot clinic with neuropathic plantar ulcers irrespective of sex, age, duration and type of diabetes were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 off-loading modalities (TCC and PRAFO). Main outcome measures were ulcer healing after 4 weeks of randomization and effect of each of the modalities on various gait parameters. The percentage reduction of the ulcer surface area at 4 weeks from baseline was 75.75 ± 9.25 with TCC and 34.72 ± 13.07 with PRAFO, which was significantly different (P diabetic neuropathic foot ulcer. Further studies are needed involving larger subjects and using 3D gait analysis to collect more accurate data on gait parameters and wound healing with different off-loading devices. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  17. Initial foot contact and related kinematics affect impact loading rate in running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breine, Bastiaan; Malcolm, Philippe; Van Caekenberghe, Ine; Fiers, Pieter; Frederick, Edward C; De Clercq, Dirk

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed kinematic differences between different foot strike patterns and their relationship with peak vertical instantaneous loading rate (VILR) of the ground reaction force (GRF). Fifty-two runners ran at 3.2 m · s -1 while we recorded GRF and lower limb kinematics and determined foot strike pattern: Typical or Atypical rearfoot strike (RFS), midfoot strike (MFS) of forefoot strike (FFS). Typical RFS had longer contact times and a lower leg stiffness than Atypical RFS and MFS. Typical RFS showed a dorsiflexed ankle (7.2 ± 3.5°) and positive foot angle (20.4 ± 4.8°) at initial contact while MFS showed a plantar flexed ankle (-10.4 ± 6.3°) and more horizontal foot (1.6 ± 3.1°). Atypical RFS showed a plantar flexed ankle (-3.1 ± 4.4°) and a small foot angle (7.0 ± 5.1°) at initial contact and had the highest VILR. For the RFS (Typical and Atypical RFS), foot angle at initial contact showed the highest correlation with VILR (r = -0.68). The observed higher VILR in Atypical RFS could be related to both ankle and foot kinematics and global running style that indicate a limited use of known kinematic impact absorbing "strategies" such as initial ankle dorsiflexion in MFS or initial ankle plantar flexion in Typical RFS.

  18. Contact allergy in Indonesian patients with foot eczema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Febriana, Sri Awalia; Subono, Hardyanto; Coenraads, Pieter Jan; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise

    Background: Shoe dermatitis is a form of contact dermatitis resulting from exposure to shoes (1). Diagnostic is based on patient history, the presence of skin lesions, positive patch test reactions to allergens in the 'screening' tray, and the absence of dermatitis in a patient wearing proper

  19. Development of an IMU-based foot-ground contact detection (FGCD) algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myeongkyu; Lee, Donghun

    2017-03-01

    It is well known that, to locate humans in GPS-denied environments, a lower limb kinematic solution based on Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), force plate, and pressure insoles is essential. The force plate and pressure insole are used to detect foot-ground contacts. However, the use of multiple sensors is not desirable in most cases. This paper documents the development of an IMU-based FGCD (foot-ground contact detection) algorithm considering the variations of both walking terrain and speed. All IMU outputs showing significant changes on the moments of foot-ground contact phases are fully identified through experiments in five walking terrains. For the experiment on each walking terrain, variations of walking speeds are also examined to confirm the correlations between walking speed and the main parameters in the FGCD algorithm. As experimental results, FGCD algorithm successfully detecting four contact phases is developed, and validation of performance of the FGCD algorithm is also implemented. Practitioner Summary: In this research, it was demonstrated that the four contact phases of Heel strike (or Toe strike), Full contact, Heel off and Toe off can be independently detected regardless of the walking speed and walking terrain based on the detection criteria composed of the ranges and the rates of change of the main parameters measured from the Inertial Measurement Unit sensors.

  20. Non-contact ulcer area calculation system for neuropathic foot ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Parth; Mahajan, Siddaram; Nageswaran, Sharmila; Paul, Sathish Kumar; Ebenzer, Mannam

    2017-08-11

    Around 125,785 new cases in year 2013-14 of leprosy were detected in India as per WHO report on leprosy in September 2015 which accounts to approximately 62% of the total new cases. Anaesthetic foot caused by leprosy leads to uneven loading of foot leading to ulcer in approximately 20% of the cases. Much efforts have gone in identifying newer techniques to efficiently monitor the progress of ulcer healing. Current techniques followed in measuring the size of ulcers, have not been found to be so accurate but are still is followed by clinicians across the globe. Quantification of prognosis of the condition would be required to understand the efficacy of current treatment methods and plan for further treatment. This study aims at developing a non contact technique to precisely measure the size of ulcer in patients affected by leprosy. Using MATLAB software, GUI was designed to process the acquired ulcer image by segmenting and calculating the pixel area of the image. The image was further converted to a standard measurement using a reference object. The developed technique was tested on 16 ulcer images acquired from 10 leprosy patients with plantar ulcers. Statistical analysis was done using MedCalc analysis software to find the reliability of the system. The analysis showed a very high correlation coefficient (r=0.9882) between the ulcer area measurements done using traditional technique and the newly developed technique, The reliability of the newly developed technique was significant with a significance level of 99.9%. The designed non-contact ulcer area calculating system using MATLAB is found to be a reliable system in calculating the size of ulcers. The technique would help clinicians have a reliable tool to monitor the progress of ulcer healing and help modify the treatment protocol if needed. Copyright © 2017 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Running Speed Can Be Predicted from Foot Contact Time during Outdoor over Ground Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Cornelis J; van Oeveren, Ben; Francke, Agnieta; Zijlstra, Patrick; van Dieen, Jaap H

    2016-01-01

    The number of validation studies of commercially available foot pods that provide estimates of running speed is limited and these studies have been conducted under laboratory conditions. Moreover, internal data handling and algorithms used to derive speed from these pods are proprietary and thereby unclear. The present study investigates the use of foot contact time (CT) for running speed estimations, which potentially can be used in addition to the global positioning system (GPS) in situations where GPS performance is limited. CT was measured with tri axial inertial sensors attached to the feet of 14 runners, during natural over ground outdoor running, under optimized conditions for GPS. The individual relationships between running speed and CT were established during short runs at different speeds on two days. These relations were subsequently used to predict instantaneous speed during a straight line 4 km run with a single turning point halfway. Stopwatch derived speed, measured for each of 32 consecutive 125m intervals during the 4 km runs, was used as reference. Individual speed-CT relations were strong (r2 >0.96 for all trials) and consistent between days. During the 4km runs, median error (ranges) in predicted speed from CT 2.5% (5.2) was higher (Pbases on speed-CT relations, have acceptable accuracy and could serve to backup or substitute for GPS during tarmac running on flat terrain whenever GPS performance is limited.

  2. Fabrication of four-point biped robot foot module based on contact-resistance force sensor and its evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyun Joon; Kim, Jong Ho; Kim, Dong Ki [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Young Ha [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents the design of robot foot module of four-point biped walking robot and its fabrication. The foot module has four sensor units based on contact-resistance force sensor. The thin-film-type force sensor is fabricated by coating resistive ink on thin polyimide film using silk screening technique. The simple structure is devised and fabricated to assemble the thin force sensor rigidly. The unit force sensor module is evaluated by the calibration setup to obtain the characteristics of repeatability and hysteresis. The sensor module presents hysteresis error of about 5% and repeatability error of about 0.37%. The calculated zero moment point (ZMP) of the foot module is also compared with the measured position using static load of 50 N. The maximum location error of ZMP is less than 10%. The robot foot module shows the possibility of applying it to humanoid walking.

  3. Fabrication of four-point biped robot foot module based on contact-resistance force sensor and its evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hyun Joon; Kim, Jong Ho; Kim, Dong Ki; Kwon, Young Ha

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design of robot foot module of four-point biped walking robot and its fabrication. The foot module has four sensor units based on contact-resistance force sensor. The thin-film-type force sensor is fabricated by coating resistive ink on thin polyimide film using silk screening technique. The simple structure is devised and fabricated to assemble the thin force sensor rigidly. The unit force sensor module is evaluated by the calibration setup to obtain the characteristics of repeatability and hysteresis. The sensor module presents hysteresis error of about 5% and repeatability error of about 0.37%. The calculated zero moment point (ZMP) of the foot module is also compared with the measured position using static load of 50 N. The maximum location error of ZMP is less than 10%. The robot foot module shows the possibility of applying it to humanoid walking

  4. Wound healing: total contact cast vs. custom-made temporary footwear for patients with diabetic foot ulceration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Weg, F.B.; van der Windt, D.A.W.M.; Vahl, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of irremovable total-contact casts (TCC) and custom-made temporary footwear (CTF) to heal neuropathic foot ulcerations in individuals with diabetes. In this prospective clinical trial, 43 patients with plantar ulcer Grade 1 or 2 (Wagner

  5. Stride angle as a novel indicator of running economy in well-trained runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Concejero, Jordan; Tam, Nicholas; Granados, Cristina; Irazusta, Jon; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Zabala-Lili, Jon; Gil, Susana M

    2014-07-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between a novel biomechanical variable, the stride angle, and running economy (RE) in a homogeneous group of long-distance athletes. Twenty-five well-trained male runners completed 4-minute running stages on a treadmill at different set velocities. During the test, biomechanical variables such as stride angle, swing time, ground contact time, stride length, stride frequency, and the different sub-phases of ground contact were recorded using an optical measurement system. VO2 values at velocities below the lactate threshold were measured to calculate RE. Stride angle was negatively correlated with RE at every speed (p contact time and running performance according to the best 10-km race time (p ≤ 0.05, moderate and large effect sizes). Last, stride angle was correlated with ground contact time at every speed (p angle allows runners to minimize contact time during ground contact, whereby facilitating a better RE. Coaches and/or athletes may find stride angle a useful and easily obtainable measure to track and make alterations to running technique, because changes in stride angle may influence the energy cost of running and lead to improved performance.

  6. Sound side joint contact forces in below knee amputee gait with an ESAR prosthetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad Taghi; Salami, Firooz; Esrafilian, Amir; Heitzmann, Daniel W W; Alimusaj, Merkur; Putz, Cornelia; Wolf, Sebastian I

    2017-10-01

    The incidence of knee and hip joint osteoarthritis in subjects with below knee amputation (BK) appears significantly higher compared to unimpaired subjects, especially in the intact side. However, it is controversial if constant higher loads on the sound side are one of the major factors for an increased osteoarthritis (OA) incidence in subjects with BK, beside other risk factors, e.g. with respect to metabolism. The aim wasto investigate joint contact forces (JCF) calculated by a musculoskeletal model in the intact side and to compare it with those of unimpaired subjects and to further elucidate in how far increased knee JCF are associated with increased frontal plane knee moments. A group of seven subjects with BK amputation and a group of ten unimpaired subjects were recruited for this study. Gait data were measured by 3D motion capture and force plates. OpenSim software was applied to calculate JCF. Maximum joint angles, ground reaction forces, and moments as well as time distance parameters were determined and compared between groups showing no significant differences, with some JCF components of knee and hip even being slightly smaller in subjects with BK compared to the reference group. This positive finding may be due to the selected ESAR foot. However, other beneficial factors may also have influenced this positive result such as the general good health status of the subjects or the thorough and proper fitting and alignment of the prosthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Contoured in-shoe foot orthoses increase mid-foot plantar contact area when compared with a flat insert during cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousie, Jaquelin A; Blanch, Peter; McPoil, Thomas G; Vicenzino, Bill

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effect of contouring of an in-shoe foot orthosis on plantar contact area and surface pressure, as well as perceived comfort and support at the foot-orthosis interface during stationary cycling. A randomised, repeated measures control study. Twelve cyclists performed steady-state seated cycling at a cadence of 90 rpm using a contoured orthosis and a flat insert of similar hardness. Contact area (CA) and plantar mean pressure (PP) were measured using the PEDAR® system, determined for seven discrete plantar regions and represented as the percentage of the total CA and PP respectively (CA% and PP%). Perceived comfort and support were rated using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The contoured orthosis produced a significantly greater CA% at the medial midfoot (p=0.001) and lateral midfoot (p=0.009) with a standardised mean difference (SMD) of 1.3 and 0.9 respectively. The contoured orthosis also produced a significantly greater PP% at the hallux (p=0.003) compared to the flat insert with a SMD of 1.1. There was a small non-significant effect (SMDfoot by increasing contact area as well as a perception of greater support at the midfoot while increasing relative pressure through the hallux when compared to a flat insert during stationary cycling. No difference in perceived comfort was noted. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of contextual task constraints on preferred stride parameters and their variabilities during human walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Lauro V; Rebula, John R; Kuo, Arthur D; Adamczyk, Peter G

    2015-10-01

    Walking is not always a free and unencumbered task. Everyday activities such as walking in pairs, in groups, or on structured walkways can limit the acceptable gait patterns, leading to motor behavior that differs from that observed in more self-selected gait. Such different contexts may lead to gait performance different than observed in typical laboratory experiments, for example, during treadmill walking. We sought to systematically measure the impact of such task constraints by comparing gait parameters and their variability during walking in different conditions over-ground, and on a treadmill. We reconstructed foot motion from foot-mounted inertial sensors, and characterized forward, lateral and angular foot placement while subjects walked over-ground in a straight hallway and on a treadmill. Over-ground walking was performed in three variations: with no constraints (self-selected, SS); while deliberately varying walking speed (self-varied, SV); and while following a toy pace car programmed to vary speed (externally-varied, EV). We expected that these conditions would exhibit a statistically similar relationship between stride length and speed, and between stride length and stride period. We also expected treadmill walking (TM) would differ in two ways: first, that variability in stride length and stride period would conform to a constant-speed constraint opposite in slope from the normal relationship; and second, that stride length would decrease, leading to combinations of stride length and speed not observed in over-ground conditions. Results showed that all over-ground conditions used similar stride length-speed relationships, and that variability in treadmill walking conformed to a constant-speed constraint line, as expected. Decreased stride length was observed in both TM and EV conditions, suggesting adaptations due to heightened awareness or to prepare for unexpected changes or problems. We also evaluated stride variability in constrained and

  9. Effects of mid-foot contact area ratio on lower body kinetics/kinematics in sagittal plane during stair descent in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinkyu; Hong, Yoon No Gregory; Shin, Choongsoo S

    2016-07-01

    The mid-foot contact area relative to the total foot contact area can facilitate foot arch structure evaluation. A stair descent motion consistently provides initial fore-foot contact and utilizes the foot arch more actively for energy absorption. The purpose of this study was to compare ankle and knee joint angle, moment, and work in sagittal plane during stair descending between low and high Mid-Foot-Contact-Area (MFCA) ratio group. The twenty-two female subjects were tested and classified into two groups (high MFCA and low MFCA) using their static MFCA ratios. The ground reaction force (GRF) and kinematics of ankle and knee joints were measured while stair descending. During the period between initial contact and the first peak in vertical GRF (early absorption phase), ankle negative work for the low MFCA ratio group was 33% higher than that for the high MFCA ratio group (pfoot differs depending upon foot arch types classified by MFCA. The low MFCA ratio group seemed to absorb more impact energy using strain in the planar fascia during early absorption phase, whereas the high MFCA ratio group absorbed more impact energy using increased dorsiflexion during late absorption phase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Technique for fabrication of an "instant total-contact cast" for treatment of neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David G; Short, Brian; Espensen, Eric H; Abu-Rumman, Patricia L; Nixon, Brent P; Boulton, Andrew J M

    2002-01-01

    Addressing pressure reduction in the treatment of diabetic foot wounds is a critical component of therapy. The total-contact cast has proven to be the gold standard of treatment because of its ability to reduce pressure and facilitate patient adherence to the off-loading regimen. Removable cast walkers have proven to be as effective as total-contact casts in pressure reduction, but this has not translated into equivalent time to healing. A simple technique to convert the removable cast walker into a device that is not as easily detached from the lower extremity, thereby encouraging the use of this device over a 24-hour period, is presented in this article. The procedure involves wrapping the cast walker with cohesive bandage or plaster of Paris. In the authors' opinion, this technique addresses many of the disadvantages of the total-contact cast, resulting in an adequate compromise in this aspect of care.

  11. Extraction of stride events from gait accelerometry during treadmill walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejdić, Ervin; Lowry, Kristin A; Bellanca, Jennica; Perera, Subashan; Redfern, Mark S; Brach, Jennifer S

    Evaluating stride events can be valuable for understanding the changes in walking due to aging and neurological diseases. However, creating the time series necessary for this analysis can be cumbersome. In particular, finding heel contact and toe-off events which define the gait cycles accurately are difficult. We proposed a method to extract stride cycle events from tri-axial accelerometry signals. We validated our method via data collected from 14 healthy controls, 10 participants with Parkinson's disease and 11 participants with peripheral neuropathy. All participants walked at self-selected comfortable and reduced speeds on a computer-controlled treadmill. Gait accelerometry signals were captured via a tri-axial accelerometer positioned over the L3 segment of the lumbar spine. Motion capture data were also collected and served as the comparison method. Our analysis of the accelerometry data showed that the proposed methodology was able to accurately extract heel and toe contact events from both feet. We used t-tests, ANOVA and mixed models to summarize results and make comparisons. Mean gait cycle intervals were the same as those derived from motion capture and cycle-to-cycle variability measures were within 1.5%. Subject group differences could be identified similarly using measures with the two methods. A simple tri-axial acceleromter accompanied by a signal processing algorithm can be used to capture stride events. Clinical Impact: The proposed algorithm enables the assessment of stride events during treadmill walking, and is the first step towards the assessment of stride events using tri-axial accelerometers in real-life settings.

  12. Running Speed Can Be Predicted from Foot Contact Time during Outdoor over Ground Running

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.J.; van Oeveren, B.; Francke, A.; Zijlstra, P.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    The number of validation studies of commercially available foot pods that provide estimates of running speed is limited and these studies have been conducted under laboratory conditions. Moreover, internal data handling and algorithms used to derive speed from these pods are proprietary and thereby

  13. Vibrotactile perception thresholds at the sole of the foot: effects of contact force and probe indentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Cheng; Griffin, Michael J

    2012-05-01

    When using vibrotactile thresholds to investigate neuropathy in the fingers, the indentation of a vibrating probe, and the force applied to a static surround around a vibrating probe, affect thresholds. This study was designed to investigate the effects on vibrotactile perception thresholds at the sole of the foot of probe indentation (i.e. height of a vibrating probe relative to a static surround) and the force applied to the static surround. Thresholds at 20 Hz (expected to be mediated by the NP I channel) and at 160 Hz (expected to be mediated by the Pacinian channel) were obtained at the hallux (i.e. greater toe) and the ball of the foot on 14 healthy subjects. In one condition, the height of the vibrating probe was varied to 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 mm above a static surround with 4-N force applied to the surround. In a second condition, the force applied to the surround was varied to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 N while using a probe height of 1mm. Thresholds at 20 Hz decreased with increasing probe height from 0 to 1 mm but showed no significant variation between 2, 3, and 4mm at either the hallux or the ball of the foot. Thresholds at 160 Hz decreased with increasing probe height from 0 to 4 mm at both the hallux and the ball of the foot. Thresholds at 20 Hz obtained with 1-N surround force were higher than thresholds obtained with 2 N, but there was no significant difference with surround forces from 2 to 6 N at either the hallux or the ball of the foot. Thresholds at 160 Hz were unaffected by variations in surround force at the ball of the foot but tended to decrease with increasing force at the hallux. It is concluded that a vibrating probe flush with a static surround, and a surround force in the range 2-4 N, are appropriate when measuring vibrotactile thresholds at the hallux and the ball of the foot with a 6-mm diameter contactor and a 2-mm gap to the static surround. Copyright © 2011 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing Stride Variables and Vertical Stiffness with GPS-Embedded Accelerometers: Preliminary Insights for the Monitoring of Neuromuscular Fatigue on the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Gray, Andrew; Morin, Jean-Benoit

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the ability of a GPS-imbedded accelerometer to assess stride variables and vertical stiffness (K), which are directly related to neuromuscular fatigue during field-based high-intensity runs. The ability to detect stride imbalances was also examined. A team sport player performed a series of 30-s runs on an instrumented treadmill (6 runs at 10, 17 and 24 km·h(-1)) with or without his right ankle taped (aimed at creating a stride imbalance), while wearing on his back a commercially-available GPS unit with an embedded 100-Hz tri-axial accelerometer. Contact (CT) and flying (FT) time, and K were computed from both treadmill and accelerometers (Athletic Data Innovations) data. The agreement between treadmill (criterion measure) and accelerometer-derived data was examined. We also compared the ability of the different systems to detect the stride imbalance. Biases were small (CT and K) and moderate (FT). The typical error of the estimate was trivial (CT), small (K) and moderate (FT), with nearly perfect (CT and K) and large (FT) correlations for treadmill vs. accelerometer. The tape induced very large increase in the right - left foot ∆ in CT, FT and K measured by the treadmill. The tape effect on CT and K ∆ measured with the accelerometers were also very large, but of lower magnitude than with the treadmill. The tape effect on accelerometer-derived ∆ FT was unclear. Present data highlight the potential of a GPS-embedded accelerometer to assess CT and K during ground running. Key pointsGPS-embedded tri-axial accelerometers may be used to assess contact time and vertical stiffness during ground running.These preliminary results open new perspective for the field monitoring of neuromuscular fatigue and performance in run-based sports.

  15. Knee Stretch Walking Method for Biped Robot: Using Toe and Heel Joints to Increase Walking Strides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takahiko; Shimmyo, Shuhei; Nakazato, Miki; Mikami, Kei; Sato, Tomoya; Sakaino, Sho; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    This paper proposes a knee stretch walking method for biped robots; the method involves the use of the toes and heel joints to increase walking strides. A knee can be stretched by switching control variables. By a knee stretch walking with heel contacts to the ground and toe takeoffs from the ground, biped robots can increase their walking stride and speed. The validity of the proposed method is confirmed by simulation and experimental results.

  16. Contact allergy in Indonesian patients with foot eczema attributed to shoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Febriana, S. A.; Soebono, H.; Coenraads, P. J.; Schuttelaar, M. L. A.

    BackgroundShoe dermatitis is a form of contact dermatitis resulting from exposure to shoes. Allergens and types of shoes responsible may vary depending on manufacturing techniques, climatic conditions and indigenous traditions. This study focuses primarily on as yet unexplored shoe dermatitis cases

  17. Assessing Stride Variables and Vertical Stiffness with GPS-Embedded Accelerometers: Preliminary Insights for the Monitoring of Neuromuscular Fatigue on the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Buchheit, Andrew Gray, Jean-Benoit Morin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the ability of a GPS-imbedded accelerometer to assess stride variables and vertical stiffness (K, which are directly related to neuromuscular fatigue during field-based high-intensity runs. The ability to detect stride imbalances was also examined. A team sport player performed a series of 30-s runs on an instrumented treadmill (6 runs at 10, 17 and 24 km·h-1 with or without his right ankle taped (aimed at creating a stride imbalance, while wearing on his back a commercially-available GPS unit with an embedded 100-Hz tri-axial accelerometer. Contact (CT and flying (FT time, and K were computed from both treadmill and accelerometers (Athletic Data Innovations data. The agreement between treadmill (criterion measure and accelerometer-derived data was examined. We also compared the ability of the different systems to detect the stride imbalance. Biases were small (CT and K and moderate (FT. The typical error of the estimate was trivial (CT, small (K and moderate (FT, with nearly perfect (CT and K and large (FT correlations for treadmill vs. accelerometer. The tape induced very large increase in the right - left foot ∆ in CT, FT and K measured by the treadmill. The tape effect on CT and K ∆ measured with the accelerometers were also very large, but of lower magnitude than with the treadmill. The tape effect on accelerometer-derived ∆ FT was unclear. Present data highlight the potential of a GPS-embedded accelerometer to assess CT and K during ground running.

  18. Changes in gait economy between full-contact custom-made foot orthoses and prefabricated inserts in patients with musculoskeletal pain: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Leslie C; Pierrynowski, Michael Raymond

    2008-01-01

    Specific kinematic and kinetic outcomes have been used to detect biomechanical change while wearing foot orthoses; however, few studies demonstrate consistent effects. We sought to observe changes in walking economy in patients with musculoskeletal pain across 10 weeks while wearing custom-made foot orthoses and prefabricated shoe inserts. In this crossover randomized controlled trial, 40 participants wore custom-made orthoses and prefabricated inserts for 4 weeks each, consecutively. The path length ratio was used to quantify walking economy by comparing the undulating path of a point in the pelvis with its direct path averaged across multiple strides. For the prefab-custom group (n=27), significant decreases in path length ratio (improved economy of gait) were noted at the initial introduction of prefabricated inserts (P= .02) and custom orthoses (P= .02) but maintained a trend toward improved economy only while wearing custom orthoses (P= .08). For the custom-prefab group (n=13), there was worsening of the path length ratio that was significant after removing the custom-made orthoses for 4 weeks (P= .01). For patients with lower-extremity musculoskeletal pain, immediate improvements in economy of gait can be expected with both interventions. It seems, however, that only the custom-made orthoses maintain economy of gait for 4 weeks. Patients who begin wearing custom-made orthoses and then wear prefabricated insoles can expect a decrease in economy of gait.

  19. Development of a Wearable Sensor System for Dynamically Mapping the Behavior of an Energy Storing and Returning Prosthetic Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkins James

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been recognized that that the design and prescription of Energy Storing and Returning prosthetic running feet are not well understood and that further information on their performance would be beneficial to increase this understanding. Dynamic analysis of an amputee wearing a prosthetic foot is typically performed using reflective markers and motion-capture systems. High-speed cameras and force plates are used to collect data of a few strides. This requires specialized and expensive equipment in an unrepresentative environment within a large area. Inertial Measurement Units are also capable of being used as wearable sensors but suffer from drift issues. This paper presents the development of a wearable sensing system that records the action of an Energy Storing and Returning prosthetic running foot (sagittal plane displacement and ground contact position which could have research and/or clinical applications. This is achieved using five standalone pieces of apparatus including foot-mounted pressure sensors and a rotary vario-resistive displacement transducer. It is demonstrated, through the collection of profiles for both foot deflection and ground contact point over the duration of a stride, that the system can be attached to an amputee’s prosthesis and used in a non-laboratory environment. It was found from the system that the prosthetic ground contact point, for the amputee tested, progresses along the effective metatarsal portion of the prosthetic foot towards the distal end of the prosthesis over the duration of the stride. Further investigation of the effective stiffness changes of the foot due to the progression of the contact point is warranted.

  20. Development of a Wearable Sensor System for Dynamically Mapping the Behavior of an Energy Storing and Returning Prosthetic Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, James; Noroozi, Siamak; Dupac, Mihai; Sewell, Philip

    2016-06-01

    It has been recognized that that the design and prescription of Energy Storing and Returning prosthetic running feet are not well understood and that further information on their performance would be beneficial to increase this understanding. Dynamic analysis of an amputee wearing a prosthetic foot is typically performed using reflective markers and motion-capture systems. High-speed cameras and force plates are used to collect data of a few strides. This requires specialized and expensive equipment in an unrepresentative environment within a large area. Inertial Measurement Units are also capable of being used as wearable sensors but suffer from drift issues. This paper presents the development of a wearable sensing system that records the action of an Energy Storing and Returning prosthetic running foot (sagittal plane displacement and ground contact position) which could have research and/or clinical applications. This is achieved using five standalone pieces of apparatus including foot-mounted pressure sensors and a rotary vario-resistive displacement transducer. It is demonstrated, through the collection of profiles for both foot deflection and ground contact point over the duration of a stride, that the system can be attached to an amputee's prosthesis and used in a non-laboratory environment. It was found from the system that the prosthetic ground contact point, for the amputee tested, progresses along the effective metatarsal portion of the prosthetic foot towards the distal end of the prosthesis over the duration of the stride. Further investigation of the effective stiffness changes of the foot due to the progression of the contact point is warranted.

  1. Wound healing: total contact cast vs. custom-made temporary footwear for patients with diabetic foot ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Weg, F B; Van Der Windt, D A W M; Vahl, A C

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of irremovable total-contact casts (TCC) and custom-made temporary footwear (CTF) to heal neuropathic foot ulcerations in individuals with diabetes. In this prospective clinical trial, 43 patients with plantar ulcer Grade 1 or 2 (Wagner scale) were randomized to one of two off-loading modalities: TCC or CTF. Outcomes assessed were wound surface area reduction (cm2) and time to wound healing (days) at 2, 4, 8 and 16 weeks. To evaluate safety, possible side effects were recorded at each follow-up visit. The results showed no significant difference in wound surface area reduction (adjusted for baseline wound surface) at 2, 4, 8 or 16 weeks (adjusted mean difference 0.10 cm2; 95% CI -0.92-0.72 at 16 weeks). At 16 weeks, 12 patients had a completely healed ulcer, 6 per group. The median time to healing was shorter for the patients using a cast (52 vs. 90 days, p = 0.26). Five patients with TCC and two with CTF developed device-related complications. It was concluded that: (i) the rate of wound healing is not significantly different for patients treated with CTF or TCC. The difference in wound surface area was small and not significant at any time during follow-up; and (ii) the difference in healing time (38 days) may have attained statistical significance if the numbers in these sub-groups (2 x 6) had been higher. Since there appears to be little difference in effectiveness between both off-loading modalities, further investigation into the benefits of CTF is warranted.

  2. Tissue holding device for use during surgical procedure, has contact body with suction foot and suction mouth that is surrounded by rim, and suction pipe connected to suction chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonck, D.; Goossens, R.H.M.; Flipsen, S.F.J.; Jakimowicz, J.J.; Van der Putten, E.P.W.

    2009-01-01

    The device has a locking ring (5), a connector (6), and a contact body (1) with a suction foot and a suction mouth (8), where the mouth is surrounded by a rim (10), which is substantially located in a plane of the suction foot. A suction chamber (9) has a sieve-shaped inner wall (2) and a

  3. Stride time synergy in relation to walking during dual task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Uffe; Madeleine, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    with a positive slope going through the mean of the strides, and bad variance with respect to a similar line with a negative slope. The general variance coefficient (CV%) was also computed. The effect of introducing a concurrent cognitive task (dual task: counting backwards in sequences of 7) was evaluated...... point of view elemental and performance variables may represent good and bad components of variability [2]. In this study we propose that the gait pattern can be seen as an on-going movement synergy in which each stride is corrected by the next stride (elemental variables) to ensure a steady gait...... (performance variable). AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate stride time synergy and to identify good and bad stride variability in relation to walking during dual task. METHODS: Thirteen healthy young participants walked along a 2x5 meter figure-of-eight track at a self-selected comfortable speed...

  4. Adaptation mechanism of interlimb coordination in human split-belt treadmill walking through learning of foot contact timing: a robotics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, Soichiro; Aoi, Shinya; Funato, Tetsuro; Tomita, Nozomi; Senda, Kei; Tsuchiya, Kazuo

    2015-09-06

    Human walking behaviour adaptation strategies have previously been examined using split-belt treadmills, which have two parallel independently controlled belts. In such human split-belt treadmill walking, two types of adaptations have been identified: early and late. Early-type adaptations appear as rapid changes in interlimb and intralimb coordination activities when the belt speeds of the treadmill change between tied (same speed for both belts) and split-belt (different speeds for each belt) configurations. By contrast, late-type adaptations occur after the early-type adaptations as a gradual change and only involve interlimb coordination. Furthermore, interlimb coordination shows after-effects that are related to these adaptations. It has been suggested that these adaptations are governed primarily by the spinal cord and cerebellum, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Because various physiological findings suggest that foot contact timing is crucial to adaptive locomotion, this paper reports on the development of a two-layered control model for walking composed of spinal and cerebellar models, and on its use as the focus of our control model. The spinal model generates rhythmic motor commands using an oscillator network based on a central pattern generator and modulates the commands formulated in immediate response to foot contact, while the cerebellar model modifies motor commands through learning based on error information related to differences between the predicted and actual foot contact timings of each leg. We investigated adaptive behaviour and its mechanism by split-belt treadmill walking experiments using both computer simulations and an experimental bipedal robot. Our results showed that the robot exhibited rapid changes in interlimb and intralimb coordination that were similar to the early-type adaptations observed in humans. In addition, despite the lack of direct interlimb coordination control, gradual changes and after-effects in the

  5. Ambulatory estimation of foot placement during walking using inertial sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H. Martin; van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; Baten, Christian T.M.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    This study proposes a method to assess foot placement during walking using an ambulatory measurement system consisting of orthopaedic sandals equipped with force/moment sensors and inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyroscopes). Two parameters, lateral foot placement (LFP) and stride length (SL),

  6. Stride length asymmetry in split-belt locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogkamer, Wouter; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Duysens, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    The number of studies utilizing a split-belt treadmill is rapidly increasing in recent years. This has led to some confusion regarding the definitions of reported gait parameters. The purpose of this paper is to clearly present the definitions of the gait parameters that are commonly used in split-belt treadmill studies. We argue that the modified version of stride length for split-belt gait, which is different from the standard definition of stride length and actually is a measure of limb excursion, should be referred to as 'limb excursion' in future studies. Furthermore, the symmetry of stride length and stride time is specifically addressed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Stride time synergy in relation to walking during dual task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Uffe; Madeleine, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    point of view elemental and performance variables may represent good and bad components of variability [2]. In this study we propose that the gait pattern can be seen as an on-going movement synergy in which each stride is corrected by the next stride (elemental variables) to ensure a steady gait...... (performance variable). AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate stride time synergy and to identify good and bad stride variability in relation to walking during dual task. METHODS: Thirteen healthy young participants walked along a 2x5 meter figure-of-eight track at a self-selected comfortable speed....... RESULTS: The variance coefficient (CV%) increased significantly from 1.59 to 1.90 (psynergy approach, the good/bad variance ratio during single task was: 2.53 (CI95%: 2.07-3.00). When shifting to dual task the good/bad ratio was 2.28 (CI95...

  8. Increased delivery stride length places greater loads on the ankle joint in elite male cricket fast bowlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratford, Wayne; Hicks, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect stride length has on ankle biomechanics of the leading leg with reference to the potential risk of injury in cricket fast bowlers. Ankle joint kinematic and kinetic data were collected from 51 male fast bowlers during the stance phase of the final delivery stride. The bowling cohort comprised national under-19, first class and international-level athletes. Bowlers were placed into either Short, Average or Long groups based on final stride length, allowing statistical differences to be measured. A multivariate analysis of variance with a Bonferroni post-hoc correction (α = 0.05) revealed significant differences between peak plantarflexion angles (Short-Long P = 0.005, Average and Long P = 0.04) and negative joint work (Average-Long P = 0.026). This study highlighted that during fast bowling the ankle joint of the leading leg experiences high forces under wide ranges of movement. As stride length increases, greater amounts of negative work and plantarflexion are experienced. These increases place greater loads on the ankle joint and move the foot into positions that make it more susceptible to injuries such as posterior impingement syndrome.

  9. Adaptation and prosthesis effects on stride-to-stride fluctuations in amputee gait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane R Wurdeman

    Full Text Available Twenty-four individuals with transtibial amputation were recruited to a randomized, crossover design study to examine stride-to-stride fluctuations of lower limb joint flexion/extension time series using the largest Lyapunov exponent (λ. Each individual wore a "more appropriate" and a "less appropriate" prosthesis design based on the subject's previous functional classification for a three week adaptation period. Results showed decreased λ for the sound ankle compared to the prosthetic ankle (F1,23 = 13.897, p = 0.001 and a decreased λ for the "more appropriate" prosthesis (F1,23 = 4.849, p = 0.038. There was also a significant effect for the time point in the adaptation period (F2,46 = 3.164, p = 0.050. Through the adaptation period, a freezing and subsequent freeing of dynamic degrees of freedom was seen as the λ at the ankle decreased at the midpoint of the adaptation period compared to the initial prosthesis fitting (p = 0.032, but then increased at the end compared to the midpoint (p = 0.042. No differences were seen between the initial fitting and the end of the adaptation for λ (p = 0.577. It is concluded that the λ may be a feasible clinical tool for measuring prosthesis functionality and adaptation to a new prosthesis is a process through which the motor control develops mastery of redundant degrees of freedom present in the system.

  10. GAIT DYNAMICS, FRACTALS AND FALLS: FINDING MEANING IN THE STRIDE-TO-STRIDE FLUCTUATIONS OF HUMAN WALKING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2007-01-01

    Until recently, quantitative studies of walking have typically focused on properties of a typical or average stride, ignoring the stride-to-stride fluctuations and considering these fluctuations to be noise. Work over the past two decades has demonstrated, however, that the alleged noise actually conveys important information. The magnitude of the stride-to-stride fluctuations and their changes over time during a walk – gait dynamics – may be useful in understanding the physiology of gait, in quantifying age-related and pathologic alterations in the locomotor control system, and in augmenting objective measurement of mobility and functional status Indeed, alterations in gait dynamics may help to determine disease severity, medication utility, and fall risk, and to objectively document improvements in response to therapeutic interventions, above and beyond what can be gleaned from measures based on the average, typical stride. This review discusses support for the idea that gait dynamics has meaning and may be useful in providing insight into the neural control of locomtion and for enhancing functional assessment of aging, chronic disease, and their impact on mobility. PMID:17618701

  11. Gait dynamics, fractals and falls: finding meaning in the stride-to-stride fluctuations of human walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2007-08-01

    Until recently, quantitative studies of walking have typically focused on properties of a typical or average stride, ignoring the stride-to-stride fluctuations and considering these fluctuations to be noise. Work over the past two decades has demonstrated, however, that the alleged noise actually conveys important information. The magnitude of the stride-to-stride fluctuations and their changes over time during a walk - gait dynamics - may be useful in understanding the physiology of gait, in quantifying age-related and pathologic alterations in the locomotor control system, and in augmenting objective measurement of mobility and functional status. Indeed, alterations in gait dynamics may help to determine disease severity, medication utility, and fall risk, and to objectively document improvements in response to therapeutic interventions, above and beyond what can be gleaned from measures based on the average, typical stride. This review discusses support for the idea that gait dynamics has meaning and may be useful in providing insight into the neural control of locomotion and for enhancing functional assessment of aging, chronic disease, and their impact on mobility.

  12. Precision and accuracy of the new XPrecia Stride mobile coagulometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacenza, Francesco; Galeazzi, Roberta; Cardelli, Maurizio; Moroni, Fausto; Provinciali, Mauro; Pierpaoli, Elisa; Giovagnetti, Simona; Appolloni, Stefania; Marchegiani, Francesca

    2017-08-01

    Oral anticoagulation therapy (OAT) with coumarins (vitamin K antagonist) is the most used against thromboembolism. Prothrombin time (PT) International Normalized Ratio (INR) monitoring is fundamental to establish coumarins dosage and prevent bleeding complications or thrombotic events. In this contest, the method and apparatus used for providing the INR measurements are crucial. Several studies have been published regarding the precision and accuracy of mobile coagulometers with different conclusions. No studies have been published regarding the new XPrecia Stride Mobile Coagulometer (Siemens). The aim of this work is to analyze precision and accuracy of the new XPrecia Stride mobile coagulometer to provide recommendations for clinical use and quality control. A total of 163 patients (mean age=77.4years old) under Warfarin OAT for whom the INR was assessed by both the traditional cs 2100i Sysmex and the new Xprecia Stride Mobile Coagulometer were included in this pilot study. The precision of the new mobile coagulometer resulted very good (CV15% from the true value in 20% of cases). Considering the overall results obtained by the new Xprecia Stride in comparison to that ones obtained from the other commercial devices, we can conclude that the new coagulometer is enough reliable for clinical settings. However, a larger trial to confirm these data is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Strides towards substantive democracy and gender perspective in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strides towards substantive democracy and gender perspective in the 21st century of Africa. Kelvin Bribena. Abstract. The weakness of the multiparty political system in Africa will be analysed in line with accepted standards for transparency, electoral provisions, as well as the free and fair establishment, assembly and ...

  14. Repeated sprint ability and stride kinematics are altered following an official match in national-level basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delextrat, A; Baliqi, F; Clarke, N

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of playing an official national-level basketball match on repeated sprint ability (RSA) and stride kinematics. Nine male starting basketball players (22.8±2.2 years old, 191.3±5.8 cm, 88±10.3 kg, 12.3±4.6% body fat) volunteered to take part. Six repetitions of maximal 4-s sprints were performed on a non-motorised treadmill, separated by 21-s of passive recovery, before and immediately after playing an official match. Fluid loss, playing time, and the frequencies of the main match activities were recorded. The peak, mean, and performance decrement for average and maximal speed, acceleration, power, vertical and horizontal forces, and stride parameters were calculated over the six sprints. Differences between pre- and post-match were assessed by student t-tests. Significant differences between pre- and post-tests were observed in mean speed (-3.3%), peak and mean horizontal forces (-4.3% and -17.4%), peak and mean vertical forces (-3.4% and -3.7%), contact time (+7.3%), stride duration (+4.6%) and stride frequency (-4.0%), (Pvertical force were significantly correlated to fluid loss and sprint, jump and shuffle frequencies (P<0.05). These results highlight that the impairment in repeated sprint ability depends on the specific activities performed, and that replacing fluid loss through sweating during a match is crucial.

  15. Foot pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain - foot ... Foot pain may be due to: Aging Being on your feet for long periods of time Being overweight A ... sports activity Trauma The following can cause foot pain: Arthritis and gout . Common in the big toe, ...

  16. Persistent fluctuations in stride intervals under fractal auditory stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmelat, Vivien; Torre, Kjerstin; Beek, Peter J; Daffertshofer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Stride sequences of healthy gait are characterized by persistent long-range correlations, which become anti-persistent in the presence of an isochronous metronome. The latter phenomenon is of particular interest because auditory cueing is generally considered to reduce stride variability and may hence be beneficial for stabilizing gait. Complex systems tend to match their correlation structure when synchronizing. In gait training, can one capitalize on this tendency by using a fractal metronome rather than an isochronous one? We examined whether auditory cues with fractal variations in inter-beat intervals yield similar fractal inter-stride interval variability as isochronous auditory cueing in two complementary experiments. In Experiment 1, participants walked on a treadmill while being paced by either an isochronous or a fractal metronome with different variation strengths between beats in order to test whether participants managed to synchronize with a fractal metronome and to determine the necessary amount of variability for participants to switch from anti-persistent to persistent inter-stride intervals. Participants did synchronize with the metronome despite its fractal randomness. The corresponding coefficient of variation of inter-beat intervals was fixed in Experiment 2, in which participants walked on a treadmill while being paced by non-isochronous metronomes with different scaling exponents. As expected, inter-stride intervals showed persistent correlations similar to self-paced walking only when cueing contained persistent correlations. Our results open up a new window to optimize rhythmic auditory cueing for gait stabilization by integrating fractal fluctuations in the inter-beat intervals.

  17. Variation in Foot Strike Patterns among Habitually Barefoot and Shod Runners in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Daniel E; Castillo, Eric R; Otarola-Castillo, Erik; Sang, Meshack K; Sigei, Timothy K; Ojiambo, Robert; Okutoyi, Paul; Pitsiladis, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    Runners are often categorized as forefoot, midfoot or rearfoot strikers, but how much and why do individuals vary in foot strike patterns when running on level terrain? This study used general linear mixed-effects models to explore both intra- and inter-individual variations in foot strike pattern among 48 Kalenjin-speaking participants from Kenya who varied in age, sex, body mass, height, running history, and habitual use of footwear. High speed video was used to measure lower extremity kinematics at ground contact in the sagittal plane while participants ran down 13 meter-long tracks with three variables independently controlled: speed, track stiffness, and step frequency. 72% of the habitually barefoot and 32% of the habitually shod participants used multiple strike types, with significantly higher levels of foot strike variation among individuals who ran less frequently and who used lower step frequencies. There was no effect of sex, age, height or weight on foot strike angle, but individuals were more likely to midfoot or forefoot strike when they ran on a stiff surface, had a high preferred stride frequency, were habitually barefoot, and had more experience running. It is hypothesized that strike type variation during running, including a more frequent use of forefoot and midfoot strikes, used to be greater before the introduction of cushioned shoes and paved surfaces.

  18. Variation in Foot Strike Patterns among Habitually Barefoot and Shod Runners in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Lieberman

    Full Text Available Runners are often categorized as forefoot, midfoot or rearfoot strikers, but how much and why do individuals vary in foot strike patterns when running on level terrain? This study used general linear mixed-effects models to explore both intra- and inter-individual variations in foot strike pattern among 48 Kalenjin-speaking participants from Kenya who varied in age, sex, body mass, height, running history, and habitual use of footwear. High speed video was used to measure lower extremity kinematics at ground contact in the sagittal plane while participants ran down 13 meter-long tracks with three variables independently controlled: speed, track stiffness, and step frequency. 72% of the habitually barefoot and 32% of the habitually shod participants used multiple strike types, with significantly higher levels of foot strike variation among individuals who ran less frequently and who used lower step frequencies. There was no effect of sex, age, height or weight on foot strike angle, but individuals were more likely to midfoot or forefoot strike when they ran on a stiff surface, had a high preferred stride frequency, were habitually barefoot, and had more experience running. It is hypothesized that strike type variation during running, including a more frequent use of forefoot and midfoot strikes, used to be greater before the introduction of cushioned shoes and paved surfaces.

  19. Athlete's Foot: How to Prevent

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... around pools, gyms, shower or locker areas, and hotel rooms. The fungus that causes athlete’s foot may ... Advertising contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Dermatology. All ...

  20. Athlete's Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athlete's foot is a common infection caused by a fungus. It most often affects the space between the toes. ... skin between your toes. You can get athlete's foot from damp surfaces, such as showers, swimming pools, ...

  1. Foot Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can also cause foot problems. The Most Common Types of Foot Problems In older adults, the foot complaints encountered ... people include: Arch pain . From fallen arches (flat feet), or abnormally high arches. Tarsal tunnel syndrome . A type of pinched nerve disorder. Achilles tendonitis . Inflammation of ...

  2. Foot pain

    OpenAIRE

    Formosa, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    Foot complaints are very common in general practice and their incidence increases with age. Three out of four people complain of foot pain during the course of a lifetime, while approximately 20% of people aged 65 years or older complain of non-traumatic foot problems.

  3. Foot Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... straight across and not too short Your foot health can be a clue to your overall health. For example, joint stiffness could mean arthritis. Tingling ... foot checks are an important part of your health care. If you have foot problems, be sure ...

  4. Characterizing multisegment foot kinematics during gait in diabetic foot patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawacha, Zimi; Cristoferi, Giuseppe; Guarneri, Gabriella; Corazza, Stefano; Donà, Giulia; Denti, Paolo; Facchinetti, Andrea; Avogaro, Angelo; Cobelli, Claudio

    2009-10-23

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions, this condition may result in multiple and chronic invalidating long term complications. Among these, the diabetic foot, is determined by the simultaneous presence of both peripheral neuropathy and vasculopathy that alter the biomechanics of the foot with the formation of callosity and ulcerations. To diagnose and treat the diabetic foot is crucial to understand the foot complex kinematics. Most of gait analysis protocols represent the entire foot as a rigid body connected to the shank. Nevertheless the existing multisegment models cannot completely decipher the impairments associated with the diabetic foot. A four segment foot and ankle model for assessing the kinematics of the diabetic foot was developed. Ten normal subjects and 10 diabetics gait patterns were collected and major sources of variability were tested. Repeatability analysis was performed both on a normal and on a diabetic subject. Direct skin marker placement was chosen in correspondence of 13 anatomical landmarks and an optoelectronic system was used to collect the data. Joint rotation normative bands (mean plus/minus one standard deviation) were generated using the data of the control group. Three representative strides per subject were selected. The repeatability analysis on normal and pathological subjects results have been compared with literature and found comparable. Normal and pathological gait have been compared and showed major statistically significant differences in the forefoot and midfoot dorsi-plantarflexion. Even though various biomechanical models have been developed so far to study the properties and behaviour of the foot, the present study focuses on developing a methodology for the functional assessment of the foot-ankle complex and for the definition of a functional model of the diabetic neuropathic foot. It is, of course, important to evaluate the major sources of variation (true variation in the subject

  5. Characterizing multisegment foot kinematics during gait in diabetic foot patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denti Paolo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions, this condition may result in multiple and chronic invalidating long term complications. Among these, the diabetic foot, is determined by the simultaneous presence of both peripheral neuropathy and vasculopathy that alter the biomechanics of the foot with the formation of callosity and ulcerations. To diagnose and treat the diabetic foot is crucial to understand the foot complex kinematics. Most of gait analysis protocols represent the entire foot as a rigid body connected to the shank. Nevertheless the existing multisegment models cannot completely decipher the impairments associated with the diabetic foot. Methods A four segment foot and ankle model for assessing the kinematics of the diabetic foot was developed. Ten normal subjects and 10 diabetics gait patterns were collected and major sources of variability were tested. Repeatability analysis was performed both on a normal and on a diabetic subject. Direct skin marker placement was chosen in correspondence of 13 anatomical landmarks and an optoelectronic system was used to collect the data. Results Joint rotation normative bands (mean plus/minus one standard deviation were generated using the data of the control group. Three representative strides per subject were selected. The repeatability analysis on normal and pathological subjects results have been compared with literature and found comparable. Normal and pathological gait have been compared and showed major statistically significant differences in the forefoot and midfoot dorsi-plantarflexion. Conclusion Even though various biomechanical models have been developed so far to study the properties and behaviour of the foot, the present study focuses on developing a methodology for the functional assessment of the foot-ankle complex and for the definition of a functional model of the diabetic neuropathic foot. It is, of course, important to evaluate

  6. Structural design of isolated column footings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathi Abdrabbo

    2016-09-01

    The study showed that shear span to depth ratio of a footing and distributions of contact stress at footing–soil interface are key factors in the structural design of the footing. ECP203-11, ACI318-08, and EC2-2004 code provisions, underestimate the structural failure loads of isolated column footings, while BS 8110.1-1997 overpredicts the failure loads of isolated column footings, if punching provisions at perimeter of column are pulled out from the code.

  7. Head and Tibial Acceleration as a Function of Stride Frequency and Visual Feedback during Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busa, Michael A; Lim, Jongil; van Emmerik, Richard E A; Hamill, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Individuals regulate the transmission of shock to the head during running at different stride frequencies although the consequences of this on head-gaze stability remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine if providing individuals with visual feedback of their head-gaze orientation impacts tibial and head accelerations, shock attenuation and head-gaze motion during preferred speed running at different stride frequencies. Fifteen strides from twelve recreational runners running on a treadmill at their preferred speed were collected during five stride frequencies (preferred, ±10% and ±20% of preferred) in two visual task conditions (with and without real-time visual feedback of head-gaze orientation). The main outcome measures were tibial and head peak accelerations assessed in the time and frequency domains, shock attenuation from tibia to head, and the magnitude and velocity of head-gaze motion. Decreasing stride frequency resulted in greater vertical accelerations of the tibia (pacceleration was only observed for the slowest stride frequency condition. Visual feedback resulted in reduced head acceleration magnitude (pacceleration within a wide range of stride frequencies; only at a stride frequency 20% below preferred did head acceleration increase. Furthermore, impact accelerations of the head and tibia appear to be solely a function of stride frequency as no differences were observed between feedback conditions. Increased visual task demands through head gaze feedback resulted in reductions in head accelerations in the active portion of stance and increased head-gaze stability.

  8. Athlete's foot

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Fay

    2009-01-01

    Fungal infection of the feet can cause white and soggy skin between the toes, dry and flaky soles, or reddening and blistering of the skin all over the foot. Around 15% to 25% of people are likely to have athlete's foot at any one time.The infection can spread to other parts of the body and to other people.

  9. Athlete's Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Athlete's Foot? Athlete's foot is a type of fungal skin infection. Fungi (the plural of fungus) are microscopic plant-like organisms that thrive in damp, warm environments. They're usually not dangerous, but sometimes can cause disease. When they infect the skin, they cause mild ...

  10. Adult Foot Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview of Foot & Ankle / Adult Foot Health Adult Foot Health Page Content The Normal Foot There are 26 bones and 33 joints in ... Pay attention to cuts and bruises of the foot. Like any other injury they should be cleansed ...

  11. Acute effect of different minimalist shoes on foot strike pattern and kinematics in rearfoot strikers during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squadrone, Roberto; Rodano, Renato; Hamill, Joseph; Preatoni, Ezio

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in minimalist shoes, no studies have compared the efficacy of different types of minimalist shoe models in reproducing barefoot running patterns and in eliciting biomechanical changes that make them differ from standard cushioned running shoes. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of different footwear models, marketed as "minimalist" by their manufacturer, on running biomechanics. Six running shoes marketed as barefoot/minimalist models, a standard cushioned shoe and the barefoot condition were tested. Foot-/shoe-ground pressure and three-dimensional lower limb kinematics were measured in experienced rearfoot strike runners while they were running at 3.33 m · s⁻¹ on an instrumented treadmill. Physical and mechanical characteristics of shoes (mass, heel and forefoot sole thickness, shock absorption and flexibility) were measured with laboratory tests. There were significant changes in foot strike pattern (described by the strike index and foot contact angle) and spatio-temporal stride characteristics, whereas only some among the other selected kinematic parameters (i.e. knee angles and hip vertical displacement) changed accordingly. Different types of minimalist footwear models induced different changes. It appears that minimalist footwear with lower heel heights and minimal shock absorption is more effective in replicating barefoot running.

  12. Club foot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell, V; Damborg, F; Andersen, M

    2006-01-01

    The aetiology of congenital club foot is unclear. Although studies on populations, families and twins suggest a genetic component, the mode of inheritance does not comply with distinctive patterns. The Odense-based Danish Twin Registry contains data on all 73,000 twin pairs born in Denmark over...... the last 130 years. In 2002 all 46 418 twins born between 1931 and 1982 received a 17-page questionnaire, one question of which was 'Were you born with club foot?' A total of 94 twins answered 'Yes', giving an overall self-reported prevalence of congenital club foot of 0.0027 (95% confidence interval (CI.......09 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.32) for DZss and 0.05 (95% CI 0.006 to 0.18) for all dizygotic (DZtot) twins. We have found evidence of a genetic component in congenital club foot, although non-genetic factors must play a predominant role....

  13. Foot Drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is being done? The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) conducts research related to the neurological conditions that cause foot drop in its laboratories at the National ...

  14. Diabetic Foot

    OpenAIRE

    Halil Akbulut; Umit Aydogan; Y. Cetin Doganer

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is a multisystemic disease progressively seen more frequently in the general population. Diabetes foot, seen in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus, is a frequent result of improper foot care and requires long and serious treatment. The disease plays an important role in terms of public health and can be a cause for high morbidity and mortality rates. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(4.000): 375-382

  15. Mycetoma foot

    OpenAIRE

    Gooptu, Somnath; Ali, Iqbal; Singh, Gurjit; Mishra, R. N.

    2013-01-01

    Mycetoma is an uncommon chronic granulomatous infective disease of the skin, dermis and subcutaneous tissues predominantly seen in tropical countries. A patient presented to our hospital with the swelling of the left foot with a healed sinus and a painful nodule. He gave a history of sinuses in the left foot from which there was discharge of yellow granules. Culture of the ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology of the nodule revealed growths of Nocardia species. The patient was tre...

  16. The effect of hinged ankle-foot orthosis on gait and energy expenditure in spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Birol; Yasar, Evren; Dal, Ugur; Yazicioglu, Kamil; Mohur, Haydar; Kalyon, Tunc Alp

    2007-01-30

    To assess the effectiveness of a hinged ankle-foot orthoses on gait impairments and energy expenditure in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) whom orthoses were indicated to control equines. Eleven children (seven males, four females) who had a diagnosis of hemiplegic cerebral palsy were included in the study. Each child underwent gait analysis and energy consumption studies with and without ankle-foot orthosis (AFO). The AFOs were all custom-made for the individual child and had plantarflexion stop at 0 degrees with no dorsoflexion stop. The Vicon 512 Motion analysis system was used for gait analysis. Walking energy expenditure measurements were done with breath by breath method using an open-circuit indirect calorimeter (Vmax 29c, Sensormedics, USA). All tests were carried out on the same day with enough resting period. AFO application, as compared with the barefoot condition improved walking speed, stride length and single support time. Double support time was decreased significantly with AFOs and no change in cadance. Ankle dorsiflexion at initial contact, midstance and midswing showed significiant increase. Knee flexion at initial contact was decreased and no significant change in maximum knee extension at stance and maximum knee flexion at swing was obtained. The oxygen consumption was significantly reduced during AFO walking. The hinged AFO is useful in controlling dynamic equinus deformity and reducing the energy expenditure of gait in children with hemiplegic spastic cerebral palsy.

  17. Investigating the correlation between paediatric stride interval persistence and gross energy expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejdić Ervin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stride interval persistence, a term used to describe the correlation structure of stride interval time series, is thought to provide insight into neuromotor control, though its exact clinical meaning has not yet been realized. Since human locomotion is shaped by energy efficient movements, it has been hypothesized that stride interval dynamics and energy expenditure may be inherently tied, both having demonstrated similar sensitivities to age, disease, and pace-constrained walking. Findings This study tested for correlations between stride interval persistence and measures of energy expenditure including mass-specific gross oxygen consumption per minute (, mass-specific gross oxygen cost per meter (VO2 and heart rate (HR. Metabolic and stride interval data were collected from 30 asymptomatic children who completed one 10-minute walking trial under each of the following conditions: (i overground walking, (ii hands-free treadmill walking, and (iii handrail-supported treadmill walking. Stride interval persistence was not significantly correlated with (p > 0.32, VO2 (p > 0.18 or HR (p > 0.56. Conclusions No simple linear dependence exists between stride interval persistence and measures of gross energy expenditure in asymptomatic children when walking overground and on a treadmill.

  18. Stimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise (STRIDE - CTN 0037: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris David W

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need for novel approaches to the treatment of stimulant abuse and dependence. Clinical data examining the use of exercise as a treatment for the abuse of nicotine, alcohol, and other substances suggest that exercise may be a beneficial treatment for stimulant abuse, with direct effects on decreased use and craving. In addition, exercise has the potential to improve other health domains that may be adversely affected by stimulant use or its treatment, such as sleep disturbance, cognitive function, mood, weight gain, quality of life, and anhedonia, since it has been shown to improve many of these domains in a number of other clinical disorders. Furthermore, neurobiological evidence provides plausible mechanisms by which exercise could positively affect treatment outcomes. The current manuscript presents the rationale, design considerations, and study design of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA Clinical Trials Network (CTN CTN-0037 Stimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise (STRIDE study. Methods/Design STRIDE is a multisite randomized clinical trial that compares exercise to health education as potential treatments for stimulant abuse or dependence. This study will evaluate individuals diagnosed with stimulant abuse or dependence who are receiving treatment in a residential setting. Three hundred and thirty eligible and interested participants who provide informed consent will be randomized to one of two treatment arms: Vigorous Intensity High Dose Exercise Augmentation (DEI or Health Education Intervention Augmentation (HEI. Both groups will receive TAU (i.e., usual care. The treatment arms are structured such that the quantity of visits is similar to allow for equivalent contact between groups. In both arms, participants will begin with supervised sessions 3 times per week during the 12-week acute phase of the study. Supervised sessions will be conducted as one-on-one (i.e., individual sessions

  19. Unfavorable Strides in Cache Memory Systems (RNR Technical Report RNR-92-015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Bailey

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available An important issue in obtaining high performance on a scientific application running on a cache-based computer system is the behavior of the cache when data are accessed at a constant stride. Others who have discussed this issue have noted an odd phenomenon in such situations: A few particular innocent-looking strides result in sharply reduced cache efficiency. In this article, this problem is analyzed, and a simple formula is presented that accurately gives the cache efficiency for various cache parameters and data strides.

  20. Effects of changing the random number stride in Monte Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a common practice in Monte Carlo radiation transport codes which is to start each random walk a specified number of steps up the random number sequence from the previous one. This is called the stride in the random number sequence between source particles. It is used for correlated sampling or to provide tree-structured random numbers. A new random number generator algorithm for the major Monte Carlo code MCNP has been written to allow adjustment of the random number stride. This random number generator is machine portable. The effects of varying the stride for several sample problems are examined

  1. The effect of community-prescribed ankle-foot orthoses on gait parameters in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, Shlomo; Hemo, Yoram; Chamis, Sam; Bat, Reuven; Segev, Eitan; Wientroub, Shlomo; Yzhar, Ziva

    2007-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of ankle foot orthoses (AFOs) prescribed in the community for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Fifty-six children (32 boys and 24 girls, mean age 8.9 years, range 4-17) who were diagnosed as having CP were enrolled. They were grouped according to the type of CP, diplegic (n = 38) and hemiplegic (n = 18). Three-dimensional gait analyses while patient were barefoot and with AFOs were obtained and analyzed. The spatio-temporal findings were the most significantly changed as a result of AFO use. In the hemiplegic group, stride length was 11.7% (p = 0.001) longer with AFOs in both affected (10.2%) and non-affected (12.4%) legs, and cadence was reduced by 9.7%; walking speed was not affected. In the diplegic group, stride length with AFOs was 17.4% longer compared to barefoot (p AFOs also increased ankle dorsiflexion at initial contact in both groups. In the hemiplegic group, AFOs produced an average 9.4 degrees increase of dorsiflexion at initial contact (IC) on the affected side (p 0.001, respectively) and an increase of 6 degrees (p = 0.005) at swing. In the hemiplegic group of patients, knee flexion at initial contact on the affected side was reduced by 8.5 degrees (p = 0.032) while in the diplegic group we found no influence. The number of patients that reached symmetry at initial double support tripled (from 5.6 to 16.7%) with the use of AFOs. Our results showed that the use of AFOs improves spatio-temporal gait parameters and gait stability in children with spastic cerebral palsy. It has a lesser effect on proximal joint kinematics. Children with spastic hemiplegia display greater improvement than those with spastic diplegia.

  2. Altered fractal dynamics of gait: reduced stride-interval correlations with aging and Huntington's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Mitchell, S. L.; Firtion, R.; Peng, C. K.; Cudkowicz, M. E.; Wei, J. Y.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    Fluctuations in the duration of the gait cycle (the stride interval) display fractal dynamics and long-range correlations in healthy young adults. We hypothesized that these stride-interval correlations would be altered by changes in neurological function associated with aging and certain disease states. To test this hypothesis, we compared the stride-interval time series of 1) healthy elderly subjects and young controls and of 2) subjects with Huntington's disease and healthy controls. Using detrended fluctuation analysis we computed alpha, a measure of the degree to which one stride interval is correlated with previous and subsequent intervals over different time scales. The scaling exponent alpha was significantly lower in elderly subjects compared with young subjects (elderly: 0.68 +/- 0.14; young: 0.87 +/- 0.15; P elderly subjects and in subjects with Huntington's disease. Abnormal alterations in the fractal properties of gait dynamics are apparently associated with changes in central nervous system control.

  3. Gait variability and basal ganglia disorders: stride-to-stride variations of gait cycle timing in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Cudkowicz, M. E.; Firtion, R.; Wei, J. Y.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    The basal ganglia are thought to play an important role in regulating motor programs involved in gait and in the fluidity and sequencing of movement. We postulated that the ability to maintain a steady gait, with low stride-to-stride variability of gait cycle timing and its subphases, would be diminished with both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). To test this hypothesis, we obtained quantitative measures of stride-to-stride variability of gait cycle timing in subjects with PD (n = 15), HD (n = 20), and disease-free controls (n = 16). All measures of gait variability were significantly increased in PD and HD. In subjects with PD and HD, gait variability measures were two and three times that observed in control subjects, respectively. The degree of gait variability correlated with disease severity. In contrast, gait speed was significantly lower in PD, but not in HD, and average gait cycle duration and the time spent in many subphases of the gait cycle were similar in control subjects, HD subjects, and PD subjects. These findings are consistent with a differential control of gait variability, speed, and average gait cycle timing that may have implications for understanding the role of the basal ganglia in locomotor control and for quantitatively assessing gait in clinical settings.

  4. Diabetic Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or blood sugar, levels are too high. Over time, this can damage your nerves or blood vessels. Nerve damage from diabetes can cause you to lose feeling in your feet. You may not feel a cut, a blister or a sore. Foot injuries such as these can cause ulcers and infections. ...

  5. The effects of foot orthosis on the gait ability of college students in their 20s with flat feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Kyo Chul; Park, Kwang Yong

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of foot orthosis on the gait ability of college students in their 20s with flat feet. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 20 college students who had been diagnosed with flat feet. The subjects' step time, step length, stride time, stride length, and gait velocity were measured using the VICON Motion System (Vicon, Oxford, UK) prior to and while wearing foot orthoses. The resulting data were analyzed using SPSS v. 12.0. [Results] The subject's step time and stride time significantly decreased for both feet after they began using foot orthosis, and stride length and gait velocity significantly increased in both feet orthosis; however, step length did not significantly increase on either side. [Conclusions] College students with flat feet saw an improvement in elements of their gait while using the foot orthosis. The results of this study verified that students with flat feet might walk more efficiently if they received active gait training via long-term use of foot orthosis.

  6. The role of foot morphology on foot function in diabetic subjects with or without neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiotto, Annamaria; Sawacha, Zimi; Guarneri, Gabriella; Cristoferi, Giuseppe; Avogaro, Angelo; Cobelli, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of foot morphology, related with respect to diabetes and peripheral neuropathy in altering foot kinematics and plantar pressure during gait. Healthy and diabetic subjects with or without neuropathy with different foot types were analyzed. Three dimensional multisegment foot kinematics and plantar pressures were assessed on 120 feet: 40 feet (24 cavus, 20 with valgus heel and 11 with hallux valgus) in the control group, 80 feet in the diabetic (25 cavus 13 with valgus heel and 13 with hallux valgus) and the neuropathic groups (28 cavus, 24 with valgus heel and 18 with hallux valgus). Subjects were classified according to their foot morphology allowing further comparisons among the subgroups with the same foot morphology. When comparing neuropathic subjects with cavus foot, valgus heel with controls with the same foot morphology, important differences were noticed: increased dorsiflexion and peak plantar pressure on the forefoot (P<0.05), decreased contact surface on the hindfoot (P<0.03). While results indicated the important role of foot morphology in altering both kinematics and plantar pressure in diabetic subjects, diabetes appeared to further contribute in altering foot biomechanics. Surprisingly, all the diabetic subjects with normal foot arch or with valgus hallux were no more likely to display significant differences in biomechanics parameters than controls. This data could be considered a valuable support for future research on diabetic foot function, and in planning preventive interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Laboratory evaluation of footings for lunar telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Koon M.; Golis, Kelly M.; Johnson, Stewart W.

    1992-01-01

    Presented here are the results of laboratory experiments with diffferent footing shapes for lunar telescopes. These experiments used a variety of soils including some to simulate regolith response. Based on what is known of regolith and regolith-structure interaction, a shallow-multiple-contact points footing foundation can be adequately designed to support lunar telescopes. Plane-strain load-displacement tests were conducted with different footings and different lunar simulants in a deep transparent plexiglass container. The model footings considered include the rectangular, hemispherical, and spudcan designs. Simulants used to reproduce the mechanical properties of the lunar regolith were fly ash, crushed basalt with and without glass, and a processed lunar simulant. Load-displacement curves were obtained for the different footings in Ottawa sand and in the crushed basalt with glass. The spudcan footing was found to be self-digging and yet stiff, thus providing excellent lateral stability in a large variety of soils.

  8. Feel your stride and find your preferred running speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Lussiana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable inter-individual variability in self-selected intensity or running speed. Metabolic cost per distance has been recognized as a determinant of this personal choice. As biomechanical parameters have been connected to metabolic cost, and as different running patterns exist, we can question their possible determinant roles in self-selected speed. We examined the self-selected speed of 15 terrestrial and 16 aerial runners, with comparable characteristics, on a 400 m track and assessed biomechanical parameters and ratings of pleasure/displeasure. The results revealed that aerial runners choose greater speeds associated with shorter contact time, longer flight time, and higher leg stiffness than terrestrial runners. Pleasure was negatively correlated with contact time and positively with leg stiffness in aerial runners and was negatively correlated with flight time in terrestrial runners. We propose the existence of an optimization system allowing the connection of running patterns at running speeds, and feelings of pleasure or displeasure.

  9. Lower limb biomechanical characteristics of patients with neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers: the diabetes foot ulcer study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Malindu Eranga; Crowther, Robert George; Cunningham, Margaret; Lazzarini, Peter Anthony; Sangla, Kunwarjit Singh; Golledge, Jonathan

    2015-10-23

    Foot ulceration is the main precursor to lower limb amputation in patients with type 2 diabetes worldwide. Biomechanical factors have been implicated in the development of foot ulceration; however the association of these factors to ulcer healing remains less clear. It may be hypothesised that abnormalities in temporal spatial parameters (stride to stride measurements), kinematics (joint movements), kinetics (forces on the lower limb) and plantar pressures (pressure placed on the foot during walking) contribute to foot ulcer healing. The primary aim of this study is to establish the biomechanical characteristics (temporal spatial parameters, kinematics, kinetics and plantar pressures) of patients with plantar neuropathic foot ulcers compared to controls without a history of foot ulcers. The secondary aim is to assess the same biomechanical characteristics in patients with foot ulcers and controls over-time to assess whether these characteristics remain the same or change throughout ulcer healing. The design is a case-control study nested in a six-month longitudinal study. Cases will be participants with active plantar neuropathic foot ulcers (DFU group). Controls will consist of patients with type 2 diabetes (DMC group) and healthy participants (HC group) with no history of foot ulceration. Standardised gait and plantar pressure protocols will be used to collect biomechanical data at baseline, three and six months. Descriptive variables and primary and secondary outcome variables will be compared between the three groups at baseline and follow-up. It is anticipated that the findings from this longitudinal study will provide important information regarding the biomechanical characteristic of type 2 diabetes patients with neuropathic foot ulcers. We hypothesise that people with foot ulcers will demonstrate a significantly compromised gait pattern (reduced temporal spatial parameters, kinematics and kinetics) at base line and then throughout the follow-up period

  10. Foot type biomechanics part 1: structure and function of the asymptomatic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillstrom, Howard J; Song, Jinsup; Kraszewski, Andrew P; Hafer, Jocelyn F; Mootanah, Rajshree; Dufour, Alyssa B; Chow, Betty Shingpui; Deland, Jonathan T

    2013-03-01

    Differences in foot structure are thought to be associated with differences in foot function during movement. Many foot pathologies are of a biomechanical nature and often associated with foot type. Fundamental to the understanding of foot pathomechanics is the question: do different foot types have distinctly different structure and function? To determine if objective measures of foot structure and function differ between planus, rectus and cavus foot types in asymptomatic individuals. Sixty-one asymptomatic healthy adults between 18 and 77 years old, that had the same foot type bilaterally (44 planus feet, 54 rectus feet, and 24 cavus feet), were recruited. Structural and functional measurements were taken using custom equipment, an emed-x plantar pressure measuring device, a GaitMat II gait pattern measurement system, and a goniometer. Generalized Estimation Equation modeling was employed to determine if each dependent variable of foot structure and function was significantly different across foot type while accounting for potential dependencies between sides. Post hoc testing was performed to assess pair wise comparisons. Several measures of foot structure (malleolar valgus index and arch height index) were significantly different between foot types. Gait pattern parameters were invariant across foot types. Peak pressure, maximum force, pressure-time-integral, force-time-integral and contact area were significantly different in several medial forefoot and arch locations between foot types. Planus feet exhibited significantly different center of pressure excursion indices compared to rectus and cavus feet. Planus, rectus and cavus feet exhibited significantly different measures of foot structure and function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Foot Type Biomechanics Part 1: Structure and Function of the Asymptomatic Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillstrom, Howard J.; Song, Jinsup; Kraszewski, Andrew P.; Hafer, Jocelyn F.; Mootanah, Rajshree; Dufour, Alyssa B.; PT, Betty (Shingpui) Chow; Deland, Jonathan T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Differences in foot structure are thought to be associated with differences in foot function during movement. Many foot pathologies are of a biomechanical nature and often associated with foot type. Fundamental to the understanding of foot pathomechanics is the question: do different foot types have distinctly different structure and function? Aim To determine if objective measures of foot structure and function differ between planus, rectus and cavus foot types in asymptomatic individuals. Methods Sixty-one asymptomatic healthy adults between 18 and 77 years old, that had the same foot type bilaterally (44 planus feet, 54 rectus feet, and 24 cavus feet), were recruited. Structural and functional measurements were taken using custom equipment, an emed-x plantar pressure measuring device, a GaitMatII gait pattern measurement system, and a goniometer. Generalized Estimation Equation modeling was employed to determine if each dependent variable of foot structure and function was significantly different across foot type while accounting for potential dependencies between sides. Post hoc testing was performed to assess pairwise comparisons. Results Several measures of foot structure (malleolar valgus index and arch height index) were significantly different between foot types. Gait pattern parameters were invariant across foot types. Peak pressure, maximum force, pressure-time-integral, force-time-integral and contact area were significantly different in several medial forefoot and arch locations between foot types. Planus feet exhibited significantly different center of pressure excursion indices compared to rectus and cavus feet. Conclusions Planus, rectus and cavus feet exhibited significantly different measures of foot structure and function. PMID:23107625

  12. Pedestrian Stride Length Estimation from IMU Measurements and ANN Based Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Xing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR can be used for continuous position estimation when satellite or other radio signals are not available, and the accuracy of the stride length measurement is important. Current stride length estimation algorithms, including linear and nonlinear models, consider a few variable factors, and some rely on high precision and high cost equipment. This paper puts forward a stride length estimation algorithm based on a back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN, using a consumer-grade inertial measurement unit (IMU; it then discusses various factors in the algorithm. The experimental results indicate that the error of the proposed algorithm in estimating the stride length is approximately 2%, which is smaller than that of the frequency and nonlinear models. Compared with the latter two models, the proposed algorithm does not need to determine individual parameters in advance if the trained neural net is effective. It can, thus, be concluded that this algorithm shows superior performance in estimating pedestrian stride length.

  13. Project Stride: An Equine-Assisted Intervention to Reduce Symptoms of Social Anxiety in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Sarah V; Alfonso, Lauren A; Llabre, Maria M; Fernandez, M Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Although there is evidence supporting the use of equine-assisted activities to treat mental disorders, its efficacy in reducing signs and symptoms of social anxiety in young women has not been examined. We developed and pilot tested Project Stride, a brief, six-session intervention combining equine-assisted activities and cognitive-behavioral strategies to reduce symptoms of social anxiety. A total of 12 women, 18-29 years of age, were randomly assigned to Project Stride or a no-treatment control. Participants completed the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale at baseline, immediate-post, and 6 weeks after treatment. Project Stride was highly acceptable and feasible. Compared to control participants, those in Project Stride had significantly greater reductions in social anxiety scores from baseline to immediate-post [decrease of 24.8 points; t (9) = 3.40, P = .008)] and from baseline to follow-up [decrease of 31.8 points; t (9) = 4.12, P = .003)]. These findings support conducting a full-scale efficacy trial of Project Stride. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cavus Foot Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toes All Site Content AOFAS / FootCareMD / Treatments Cavus Foot Surgery Page Content What is a cavus foot? A cavus or high-arched foot may have ... related problems. What are the goals of cavus foot surgery? The main goal of surgery is to ...

  15. Foot sprain - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mid-foot sprain ... Most foot sprains happen due to sports or activities in which your body twists and pivots but your feet ... snowboarding, and dance. There are three levels of foot sprains. Grade I, minor. You have small tears ...

  16. Foot amputation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amputation - foot - discharge; Trans-metatarsal amputation - discharge ... You have had a foot amputation. You may have had an accident, or your foot may have had an infection or disease and doctors could ...

  17. Leg heating and cooling influences running stride parameters but not running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folland, J P; Rowlands, D S; Thorp, R; Walmsley, A

    2006-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of temperature on running economy (RE) and stride parameters in 10 trained male runners (VO2peak 60.8 +/- 6.8 ml . kg (-1) . min (-1)), we used water immersion as a passive temperature manipulation to contrast localised pre-heating, pre-cooling, and thermoneutral interventions prior to running. Runners completed three 10-min treadmill runs at 70 % VO2peak following 40 min of randomised leg immersion in water at 21.0 degrees C (cold), 34.6 degrees C (thermoneutral), or 41.8 degrees C (hot). Treadmill runs were separated by 7 days. External respiratory gas exchange was measured for 30 s before and throughout the exercise and stride parameters were determined from video analysis in the sagittal plane. RE was not affected by prior heating or cooling with no difference in oxygen cost or energy expenditure between the temperature interventions (average VO2 3rd-10th min of exercise: C, 41.6 +/- 3.4 ml . kg (-1) . min (-1); TN, 41.6 +/- 3.0; H, 41.8 +/- 3.5; p = 0.94). Exercise heart rate was affected by temperature (H > TN > C; p exchange and minute ventilation/oxygen consumption ratios were greater in cold compared with thermoneutral (p economy despite changes in stride parameters that might indicate restricted muscle-tendon elasticity after pre-cooling. Larger changes in stride mechanics than those produced by the current temperature intervention are required to influence running economy.

  18. Foot Disorders, Foot Posture, and Foot Function: The Framingham Foot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Thomas J.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Riskowski, Jody L.; Hillstrom, Howard J.; Menz, Hylton B.; Casey, Virginia A.; Hannan, Marian T.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Foot disorders are common among older adults and may lead to outcomes such as falls and functional limitation. However, the associations of foot posture and foot function to specific foot disorders at the population level remain poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the relation between specific foot disorders, foot posture, and foot function. Methods Participants were from the population-based Framingham Foot Study. Quintiles of the modified arch index and center of pressure excursion index from plantar pressure scans were used to create foot posture and function subgroups. Adjusted odds ratios of having each specific disorder were calculated for foot posture and function subgroups relative to a referent 3 quintiles. Results Pes planus foot posture was associated with increased odds of hammer toes and overlapping toes. Cavus foot posture was not associated with the foot disorders evaluated. Odds of having hallux valgus and overlapping toes were significantly increased in those with pronated foot function, while odds of hallux valgus and hallux rigidus were significantly decreased in those with supinated function. Conclusions Foot posture and foot function were associated with the presence of specific foot disorders. PMID:24040231

  19. Stride Leg Ground Reaction Forces Predict Throwing Velocity in Adult Recreational Baseball Pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Michael P; Borstad, John D; Oñate, James A; Chaudhari, Ajit M W

    2015-10-01

    Ground reaction forces produced during baseball pitching have a significant impact in the development of ball velocity. However, the measurement of only one leg and small sample sizes in these studies curb the understanding of ground reaction forces as they relate to pitching. This study aimed to further clarify the role ground reaction forces play in developing pitching velocity. Eighteen former competitive baseball players with previous high school or collegiate pitching experience threw 15 fastballs from a pitcher's mound instrumented to measure ground reaction forces under both the drive and stride legs. Peak ground reaction forces were recorded during each phase of the pitching cycle, between peak knee height and ball release, in the medial/lateral, anterior/posterior, and vertical directions, and the peak resultant ground reaction force. Stride leg ground reaction forces during the arm-cocking and arm-acceleration phases were strongly correlated with ball velocity (r2 = 0.45-0.61), whereas drive leg ground reaction forces showed no significant correlations. Stepwise linear regression analysis found that peak stride leg ground reaction force during the arm-cocking phase was the best predictor of ball velocity (r2 = 0.61) among drive and stride leg ground reaction forces. This study demonstrates the importance of ground reaction force development in pitching, with stride leg forces being strongly predictive of ball velocity. Further research is needed to further clarify the role of ground reaction forces in pitching and to develop training programs designed to improve upper extremity mechanics and pitching performance through effective force development.

  20. Planus Foot Posture and Pronated Foot Function are Associated with Foot Pain: The Framingham Foot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Riskowski, Jody L.; Hillstrom, Howard J.; Hannan, Marian T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations of foot posture and foot function to foot pain. Methods Data were collected on 3,378 members of the Framingham Study who completed foot examinations in 2002–2008. Foot pain (generalized and at six locations) was based on the response to the question “On most days, do you have pain, aching or stiffness in either foot?” Foot posture was categorized as normal, planus or cavus using static pressure measurements of the arch index. Foot function was categorized as normal, pronated or supinated using the center of pressure excursion index from dynamic pressure measurements. Sex-specific multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the effect of foot posture and function on generalized and location-specific foot pain, adjusting for age and weight. Results Planus foot posture was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of arch pain in men (odds ratio [OR] 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01 – 1.90), while cavus foot posture was protective against ball of foot pain (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.55 – 1.00) and arch pain (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.48 – 0.85) in women. Pronated foot function was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of generalized foot pain (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.04 – 1.56) and heel pain (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.04 – 2.27) in men, while supinated foot function was protective against hindfoot pain in women (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.55 – 1.00). Conclusion Planus foot posture and pronated foot function are associated with foot symptoms. Interventions that modify abnormal foot posture and function may therefore have a role in the prevention and treatment of foot pain. PMID:23861176

  1. Association of planus foot posture and pronated foot function with foot pain: the Framingham foot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B; Dufour, Alyssa B; Riskowski, Jody L; Hillstrom, Howard J; Hannan, Marian T

    2013-12-01

    To examine the associations of foot posture and foot function to foot pain. Data were collected on 3,378 members of the Framingham Study cohort who completed foot examinations in 2002-2008. Foot pain (generalized and at 6 locations) was based on the response to the following question: "On most days, do you have pain, aching or stiffness in either foot?" Foot posture was categorized as normal, planus, or cavus using static pressure measurements of the arch index. Foot function was categorized as normal, pronated, or supinated using the center of pressure excursion index from dynamic pressure measurements. Sex-specific multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the effect of foot posture and function on generalized and location-specific foot pain, adjusting for age and weight. Planus foot posture was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of arch pain in men (odds ratio [OR] 1.38, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.01-1.90), while cavus foot posture was protective against ball of foot pain (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.55-1.00) and arch pain (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.48-0.85) in women. Pronated foot function was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of generalized foot pain (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.04-1.56) and heel pain (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.04-2.27) in men, while supinated foot function was protective against hindfoot pain in women (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.55-1.00). Planus foot posture and pronated foot function are associated with foot symptoms. Interventions that modify abnormal foot posture and function may therefore have a role in the prevention and treatment of foot pain. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  2. Increased gait variability may not imply impaired stride-to-stride control of walking in healthy older adults: Winner: 2013 Gait and Clinical Movement Analysis Society Best Paper Award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingwell, Jonathan B; Salinas, Mandy M; Cusumano, Joseph P

    2017-06-01

    Older adults exhibit increased gait variability that is associated with fall history and predicts future falls. It is not known to what extent this increased variability results from increased physiological noise versus a decreased ability to regulate walking movements. To "walk", a person must move a finite distance in finite time, making stride length (L n ) and time (T n ) the fundamental stride variables to define forward walking. Multiple age-related physiological changes increase neuromotor noise, increasing gait variability. If older adults also alter how they regulate their stride variables, this could further exacerbate that variability. We previously developed a Goal Equivalent Manifold (GEM) computational framework specifically to separate these causes of variability. Here, we apply this framework to identify how both young and high-functioning healthy older adults regulate stepping from each stride to the next. Healthy older adults exhibited increased gait variability, independent of walking speed. However, despite this, these healthy older adults also concurrently exhibited no differences (all p>0.50) from young adults either in how their stride variability was distributed relative to the GEM or in how they regulated, from stride to stride, either their basic stepping variables or deviations relative to the GEM. Using a validated computational model, we found these experimental findings were consistent with increased gait variability arising solely from increased neuromotor noise, and not from changes in stride-to-stride control. Thus, age-related increased gait variability likely precedes impaired stepping control. This suggests these changes may in turn precede increased fall risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Making Strides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In the mad dash to complete the plethora of projects that lead up to the public launch of a campaign, it would be easy to start thinking of the kickoff as a goal in itself, but it's merely a mile marker in the marathon of a fundraising campaign that may last five to 10 years. Given that only a fraction of an institution's constituents may attend a…

  4. The effect of foot arch on plantar pressure distribution during standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periyasamy, R; Anand, Sneh

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how foot type affects plantar pressure distribution during standing. In this study, 32 healthy subjects voluntarily participated and the subject feet were classified as: normal feet (n = 23), flat feet (n = 14) and high arch feet (n = 27) according to arch index (AI) values obtained from foot pressure intensity image analysis. Foot pressure intensity images were acquired by a pedopowergraph system to obtain a foot pressure distribution parameter-power ratio (PR) during standing in eight different regions of the foot. Contact area and mean PR were analysed in hind foot, mid-foot and fore foot regions. One-way analysis of variance was used to determine statistical differences between groups. The contact area and mean PR value beneath the mid-foot was significantly increased in the low arch foot when compared to the normal arch foot and high arch foot (p foot PR value were positively (r = 0.54) correlated with increased arch index (AI) value. A significant (p foot of low arch feet when compared with other groups in both feet. The findings suggest that there is an increased mid-foot PR value in the low arch foot as compared to the normal arch foot and high arch foot during standing. Therefore, individuals with low arch feet could be at high risk for mid-foot collapse and Charcot foot problems, indicating that foot type should be assessed when determining an individual's risk for foot injury.

  5. 3D gait assessment in young and elderly subjects using foot-worn inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Benoit; Hoskovec, Constanze; Rochat, Stephane; Büla, Christophe; Penders, Julien; Aminian, Kamiar

    2010-11-16

    This study describes the validation of a new wearable system for assessment of 3D spatial parameters of gait. The new method is based on the detection of temporal parameters, coupled to optimized fusion and de-drifted integration of inertial signals. Composed of two wirelesses inertial modules attached on feet, the system provides stride length, stride velocity, foot clearance, and turning angle parameters at each gait cycle, based on the computation of 3D foot kinematics. Accuracy and precision of the proposed system were compared to an optical motion capture system as reference. Its repeatability across measurements (test-retest reliability) was also evaluated. Measurements were performed in 10 young (mean age 26.1±2.8 years) and 10 elderly volunteers (mean age 71.6±4.6 years) who were asked to perform U-shaped and 8-shaped walking trials, and then a 6-min walking test (6MWT). A total of 974 gait cycles were used to compare gait parameters with the reference system. Mean accuracy±precision was 1.5±6.8cm for stride length, 1.4±5.6cm/s for stride velocity, 1.9±2.0cm for foot clearance, and 1.6±6.1° for turning angle. Difference in gait performance was observed between young and elderly volunteers during the 6MWT particularly in foot clearance. The proposed method allows to analyze various aspects of gait, including turns, gait initiation and termination, or inter-cycle variability. The system is lightweight, easy to wear and use, and suitable for clinical application requiring objective evaluation of gait outside of the lab environment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk factors for plantar foot ulcer recurrence in neuropathic diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaijman, Roelof; de Haart, Mirjam; Arts, Mark L J; Wever, Daniel; Verlouw, Anke J W E; Nollet, Frans; Bus, Sicco A

    2014-06-01

    Recurrence of plantar foot ulcers is a common and major problem in diabetes but not well understood. Foot biomechanics and patient behavior may be important. The aim was to identify risk factors for ulcer recurrence and to establish targets for ulcer prevention. As part of a footwear trial, 171 neuropathic diabetic patients with a recently healed plantar foot ulcer and custom-made footwear were followed for 18 months or until ulceration. Demographic data, disease-related parameters, presence of minor lesions, barefoot and in-shoe plantar peak pressures, footwear adherence, and daily stride count were entered in a multivariate multilevel logistic regression model of plantar foot ulcer recurrence. A total of 71 patients had a recurrent ulcer. Significant independent predictors were presence of minor lesions (odds ratio 9.06 [95% CI 2.98-27.57]), day-to-day variation in stride count (0.93 [0.89-0.99]), and cumulative duration of past foot ulcers (1.03 [1.00-1.06]). Significant independent predictors for those 41 recurrences suggested to be the result of unrecognized repetitive trauma were presence of minor lesions (10.95 [5.01-23.96]), in-shoe peak pressure 80% (0.43 [0.20-0.94]), barefoot peak pressure (1.11 [1.00-1.22]), and day-to-day variation in stride count (0.91 [0.86-0.96]). The presence of a minor lesion was clearly the strongest predictor, while recommended use of adequately offloading footwear was a strong protector against ulcer recurrence from unrecognized repetitive trauma. These outcomes define clear targets for diabetic foot screening and ulcer prevention. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

  7. Relationship between foot eversion and thermographic foot skin temperature after running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priego Quesada, Jose Ignacio; Gil-Calvo, Marina; Jimenez-Perez, Irene; Lucas-Cuevas, Ángel G; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro

    2017-07-01

    The main instruments to assess foot eversion have some limitations (especially for field applications), and therefore it is necessary to explore new methods. The objective was to determine the relationship between foot eversion and skin temperature asymmetry of the foot sole (difference between medial and lateral side), using infrared thermography. Twenty-two runners performed a running test lasting 30 min. Skin temperature of the feet soles was measured by infrared thermography before and after running. Foot eversion during running was measured by kinematic analysis. Immediately after running, weak negative correlations were observed between thermal symmetry of the rearfoot and eversion at contact time, and between thermal symmetry of the entire plantar surface of the foot and maximum eversion during stance phase (r=-0.3 and p=0.04 in both cases). Regarding temperature variations, weak correlations were also observed (r=0.4 and pfoot eversion. However, these results open interesting future lines of research.

  8. Foot posture is associated with kinematics of the foot during gait: A comparison of normal, planus and cavus feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldt, Andrew K; Levinger, Pazit; Murley, George S; Menz, Hylton B; Nester, Christopher J; Landorf, Karl B

    2015-06-01

    Variations in foot posture are associated with the development of some lower limb injuries. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are unclear. The objective of this study was to compare foot kinematics between normal, pes cavus and pes planus foot posture groups using a multi-segment foot model. Ninety-seven healthy adults, aged 18-47 were classified as either normal (n=37), pes cavus (n=30) or pes planus (n=30) based on normative data for the Foot Posture Index, Arch Index and normalised navicular height. A five segment foot model was used to measure tri-planar motion of the rearfoot, midfoot, medial forefoot, lateral forefoot and hallux during barefoot walking at a self-selected speed. Angle at heel contact, peak angle, time to peak angle and range of motion was measured for each segment. One way ANOVAs with post-hoc analyses of mean differences were used to compare foot posture groups. The pes cavus group demonstrated a distinctive pattern of motion compared to the normal and pes planus foot posture groups. Effect sizes of significant mean differences were large and comparable to similar studies. Three key differences in overall foot function were observed between the groups: (i) altered frontal and transverse plane angles of the rearfoot in the pes cavus foot; (ii) Less midfoot motion in the pes cavus foot during initial contact and midstance; and (iii) reduced midfoot frontal plane ROM in the pes planus foot during pre-swing. These findings indicate that foot posture does influence motion of the foot. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Tumours of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohndorf, K.

    1983-01-01

    The radiological diagnosis of tumours of the foot is difficult, especially, since these tumours are rare and the bones of the foot are small. The latter leads to a more uniform radiographic manifestation of the tumours. We differentiate tumours of the foot arising in the foot primarily and soft tissue tumours, affecting the bones secondarily. Cystic lesions of the calcaneus are discussed in further detail. (orig.) [de

  10. Diabetes: foot ulcers and amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Dereck L

    2011-08-26

    Diabetic foot ulceration is full-thickness penetration of the dermis of the foot in a person with diabetes. Severity is classified using the Wagner system, which grades it from 1 to 5. The annual incidence of ulcers among people with diabetes is 2.5% to 10.7% in resource-rich countries, and the annual incidence of amputation for any reason is 0.25% to 1.8%. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions to prevent foot ulcers and amputations in people with diabetes? What are the effects of treatments in people with diabetes with foot ulceration? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 50 systematic reviews and RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: debridement, human cultured dermis, human skin equivalent, patient education, pressure off-loading with felted foam or pressure-relief half-shoe, pressure off-loading with total-contact or non-removable casts, screening and referral to foot-care clinics, systemic hyperbaric oxygen for non-infected ulcers, systemic hyperbaric oxygen in infected ulcers, therapeutic footwear, topical growth factors, and wound dressings.

  11. Stride Segmentation during Free Walk Movements Using Multi-Dimensional Subsequence Dynamic Time Warping on Inertial Sensor Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Barth

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in gait patterns provide important information about individuals’ health. To perform sensor based gait analysis, it is crucial to develop methodologies to automatically segment single strides from continuous movement sequences. In this study we developed an algorithm based on time-invariant template matching to isolate strides from inertial sensor signals. Shoe-mounted gyroscopes and accelerometers were used to record gait data from 40 elderly controls, 15 patients with Parkinson’s disease and 15 geriatric patients. Each stride was manually labeled from a straight 40 m walk test and from a video monitored free walk sequence. A multi-dimensional subsequence Dynamic Time Warping (msDTW approach was used to search for patterns matching a pre-defined stride template constructed from 25 elderly controls. F-measure of 98% (recall 98%, precision 98% for 40 m walk tests and of 97% (recall 97%, precision 97% for free walk tests were obtained for the three groups. Compared to conventional peak detection methods up to 15% F-measure improvement was shown. The msDTW proved to be robust for segmenting strides from both standardized gait tests and free walks. This approach may serve as a platform for individualized stride segmentation during activities of daily living.

  12. A comparison of gait with solid and hinged ankle-foot orthoses in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtka, Sandra A; Skinner, Stephen R; Johanson, M Elise

    2005-04-01

    This study compared the effects of solid and hinged ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) on the gait of children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (CP) who ambulate with excessive ankle plantar flexion during stance. Twelve children with spastic diplegic CP wore no AFOs for an initial 2-week period, solid AFOs for 1 month, no AFOs for 2 weeks, and hinged AFOs for 1 month. Lower extremity muscle timing, knee and ankle joint motions, moments and powers, and temporal-distance characteristics were measured during ambulation for an initial barefoot baseline test, and with solid and hinged AFOs for the other two tests. Both orthoses increased stride length, reduced abnormal ankle plantar flexion during initial contact, midstance and terminal stance (TST), and increased ankle plantar flexor moments closer to normal during TST. Hinged AFOs increased ankle dorsiflexion at TST and increased ankle power generation during preswing (PSW) as compared to solid AFOs, and increased ankle dorsiflexion at loading compared to no AFOs. No other significant differences were found for the gait variables when comparing these orthoses. Either AFO could be used to reduce the excessive ankle plantar flexion without affecting the knee position during stance. The hinged AFO would be recommended to produce more normal dorsiflexion during TST and increased ankle power generation during PSW in children with spastic diplegic CP.

  13. The Immediate Effect of Foot Orthoses on Subtalar Joint Mechanics and Energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Jayishni N; Cresswell, Andrew G; Lichtwark, Glen A

    2018-03-05

    Foot orthoses maybe used in the management of musculoskeletal disorders related to abnormal subtalar joint (STJ) pronation. However, the precise mechanical benefits of foot orthoses for preventing injuries associated with the STJ are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate effect of foot orthoses on the energy absorption requirements of the STJ and subsequently tibialis posterior (TP) muscle function. Eighteen asymptomatic subjects with a pes planus foot posture were prescribed custom-made foot orthoses made from a plaster cast impression. Participants walked at preferred and fast velocities barefoot, with athletic footwear and with athletic footwear plus orthoses, as three-dimensional motion capture, force data and intramuscular electromyography of the TP muscle were simultaneously collected. Statistical parametric mapping was used to identify time periods across the stride cycle during which footwear with foot orthoses significantly differed to barefoot and footwear only. During early stance, footwear alone and footwear with orthoses significantly reduced TP muscle activation (1 - 12 %), supination moments (3 - 21 %) and energy absorption (5 - 12 %) at the STJ, but had no effect on STJ pronation displacement. The changes in TP muscle activation and STJ energy absorption were primarily attributed to footwear as the addition of foot orthoses provided little additional effect. We speculate that these results are most likely a result of the compliant material properties of footwear. These results suggest that athletic footwear may be sufficient to absorb energy in the frontal plane and potentially reducing any benefit associated with the addition of foot orthoses.

  14. Reliability of foot caliper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janchai, Siriporn; Tantisiriwat, Natthiya

    2005-09-01

    To determine the reliability of foot caliper Descriptive study. Rehabilitation Medicine Outpatient Department, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Fifteen volunteers were recruited from Rehabilitation residents and health care professionals of Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. The authors created 3 sets of simple Foot Caliper and measured foot dimension including foot width, foot length and toe depth while subjects stood with equal weight bearing to both feet. The authors set 3 examiners to measure foot dimension by the same method. To determine reliability of 3 sets of foot caliper, one examiner was assigned to measure foot dimension of 30 feet with all calipers. To determine the reliability of examiners, all examiners measured foot dimension of the same 30 feet. All parameters were recorded in millimeters. The data was analyzed and presented as intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) with 95% CI. There were fifteen volunteers (8 men and 7 women). The average age was 28.6 +/- 4.11 years (range 22-39). Average foot width,length and great toe depth (millimeters) were 9.64 +/- 0.63, 24.17 +/- 1.10 and 1.91 +/- 0.24 respectively. For reliability analysis of 3 sets off foot caliper, the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) with 95% CI were 0.985 (0.972-0.992), 0.996 (0.992-0.998) and 0.982 (0.968-991) for foot width, length and great toe depth, respectively. For Inter-examiner reliability, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were 0.941 (0.864-0.969), 0.850 (0.46-0.920) and 0.834 (0.721-0.910) for foot width, length and great toe depth, respectively. These results showed high agreement of data. These simple foot calipers have high reliability forf oot measurement. These devices are appropriate for clinical use.

  15. Running-specific, periodized strength training attenuates loss of stride length during intense endurance running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Lanao, Jonathan; Rhea, Matthew R; Fleck, Steven J; Lucia, Alejandro

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a running-specific, periodized strength training program (performed over the specific period [8 weeks] of a 16-week macrocycle) on endurance-trained runners' capacity to maintain stride length during running bouts at competitive speeds. Eighteen well-trained middle-distance runners completed the study (personal bests for 1500 and 5000 m of 3 minutes 57 seconds +/- 12 seconds and 15 minutes 24 seconds +/- 36 seconds). They were randomly assigned to each of the following groups (6 per group): periodized strength group, performing a periodized strength training program over the 8-week specific (intervention) period (2 sessions per week); nonperiodized strength group, performing the same strength training exercises as the periodized group over the specific period but with no week-to-week variations; and a control group, performing no strength training at all during the specific period. The percentage of loss in the stride length (cm)/speed (m.s) (SLS) ratio was measured by comparing the mean SLS during the first and third (last) group of the total repetitions, respectively, included in each of the interval training sessions performed at race speeds during the competition period that followed the specific period. Significant differences (p endurance runners during fatiguing running bouts.

  16. Experimental and theoretical investigation of particle-laden airflow under a prosthetic mechanical foot in motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisner, A.D. [Alion Science and Technology, P.O. Box 12313, Durham, NC 27709 (United States); Rosati, J.; Wiener, R. [National Homeland Security Research Center, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    This research effort was aimed at understanding how foot motion affects air transport and thus how walking affects contaminant dispersion. Particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) showed that during a rotational motion of the foot (typical footstep), a draft corner flow develops that carries particles from heel to toe. Foot contact with the floor may result in one or both of two types of reentrainment: (1) particles become airborne due to detachment from the floor, and (2) particles are first collected by the foot cover (e.g., Tyvek) and then detached from the foot into the airflow produced by the foot rotation. The airflow under the rotating foot was modeled as a rotating corner flow, and it was shown that such modeling can capture major characteristics of the airflow generated by the rotating foot and can explain how rotational foot motion contributes to reentrainment and dispersion of contaminants. (author)

  17. Comparison of the International Committee of the Red Cross foot with the solid ankle cushion heel foot during gait: a randomized double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcot, Katia; Sagawa, Yoshimasa; Lacraz, Alain; Lenoir, Jean; Assal, Mathieu; Armand, Stéphane

    2013-08-01

    To compare the well-recognized solid ankle cushion heel (SACH) foot with the prosthetic foot developed by the International Committee of the Red Cross (CR Equipements SACH) during gait. Double-blind study was conducted to compare the influence on the biomechanics of gait of the CR Equipements SACH foot and the SACH foot. University hospital research center. Participants with unilateral transtibial amputation (N=15) were included. Three-dimensional motion analysis system and 2 forceplates were used to capture body motion and ground reaction forces during gait at a self-selected speed and at 1.2m/s. Nonparametric Wilcoxon matched-pairs tests were used to compare the 2 prosthetic feet with respect to their spatiotemporal (gait velocity, stride length, and percentage of stance phase), kinematic (range and peak angles of the pelvis, hip, knee, and ankle), and kinetic (peak moment and power of the hip, knee, and ankle) parameters. Compared with the SACH foot, the CR Equipements SACH foot demonstrated a significantly greater stance phase symmetry ratio (SACH: 94% vs CR Equipements SACH: 97%), a more extensive ankle range of motion in the sagittal plane (SACH: 7° vs CR Equipements SACH: 12°), a greater maximal dorsiflexion angle during the terminal stance phase (SACH: 10° vs CR Equipements SACH: 13°), and a higher ankle power (SACH: .31W/kg vs CR Equipements SACH: .40W/kg). No significant difference was found for the examined knee, hip, and pelvis parameters. The CR Equipements SACH foot provides more symmetry and improves ankle kinematics and kinetics in the sagittal plane compared with the SACH foot. This study suggests that individuals using the CR Equipements SACH foot improve their gait biomechanics compared when using the SACH foot. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Foot and Ankle Injuries in American Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Andrew R; Anderson, Robert B

    Physicians need to be aware of a variety of foot and ankle injuries that commonly occur in American football, including turf toe, Jones fractures, Lisfranc injuries, syndesmotic and deltoid disruption, and Achilles ruptures. These injuries are often complex and require early individual tailoring of treatment and rehabilitation protocols. Successful management and return to play requires early diagnosis, a thorough work-up, and prompt surgical intervention when warranted with meticulous attention to restoration of normal foot and ankle anatomy. Physicians should have a high suspicion for subtle injuries and variants that can occur via both contact and noncontact mechanisms.

  19. Haemorheology in diabetic foot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karandikar S

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study was undertaken to study the haemorheology in patients with diabetic foot lesions. Haemorheology of 30 patients with foot lesions and 30 age and sex matched controls was studied. The haemorheological parameters evaluated were whole blood and plasma viscosity and RBC filter ability. Plasma viscosity was significantly increased (p < 0.05. It substantiates the need for using rheomodulators in management of diabetic foot lesions.

  20. Foot Health Facts for Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about common foot problems affecting athletes: Prevent Foot & Ankle Running Injuries (downloadable PDF) Back-to-School Soccer Season Surgeons ... Foot Diagram Soccer Injuries to the Foot and Ankle Soccer is hard on the feet! Injuries to the foot and ankle can occur from ...

  1. A randomized controlled trial on providing ankle-foot orthoses in patients with (sub-)acute stroke: Short-term kinematic and spatiotemporal effects and effects of timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikamp, Corien D M; Hobbelink, Marte S H; van der Palen, Job; Hermens, Hermie J; Rietman, Johan S; Buurke, Jaap H

    2017-06-01

    Initial walking function is often limited after stroke, and regaining walking ability is an important goal in rehabilitation. Various compensatory movement strategies to ensure sufficient foot-clearance are reported. Ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) are often prescribed to improve foot-clearance and may influence these strategies. However, research studying effects of actual AFO-provision early after stroke is limited. We conducted an explorative randomized controlled trial and aimed to study the short-term effects of AFO-provision on kinematic and spatiotemporal parameters in patients early after stroke. In addition, we studied whether timing of AFO-provision influenced these effects. Unilateral hemiparetic patients maximal six weeks post-stroke were randomly assigned to AFO-provision: early (at inclusion) or delayed (eight weeks later). Three-dimensional gait-analysis with and without AFO in randomized order was performed within two weeks after AFO-provision. Twenty subjects (8 early, 12 delayed) were analyzed. We found significant positive effects of AFO-provision for ankle dorsiflexion at initial contact, foot-off and during swing (-3.6° (7.3) vs 3.0° (3.9); 0.0° (7.4) vs 5.2° (3.7); and -6.1° (7.8) vs 2.6° (3.5), respectively), all p<0.001. No changes in knee, hip and pelvis angles were found after AFO-provision, except for knee (+2.3°) and hip flexion (+1.6°) at initial contact, p≤0.001. Significant effects of AFO-provision were found for cadence (+2.1 steps/min, p=0.026), stride duration (-0.08s, p=0.015) and single support duration (+1.0%, p=0.002). Early or delayed AFO-provision after stroke did not affect results. In conclusion, positive short-term effects of AFO-provision were found on ankle kinematics early after stroke. Timing of AFO-provision did not influence the results. NTR1930. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship among the variables of kinematic and tilt angle of whole body according to the foot trip during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Young-Churl; Ryew, Che-Cheong; Hyun, Seung-Hyun

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relation between incline angle of whole body and kinematic variables at tripping during gait. The participants consisted of healthy adult female (n=6). The three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis of posture restoring after inducing tripping of right foot at supporting phase of left foot was performed. As a result, supporting time elapsed of one stride and one foot at tripping showed longer than that of normal gait. The length of one stride showed longer at tripping than that of normal gait, and velocity of center of gravity (COG) showed faster at tripping than that of normal gait. Anteriorposterior incline angle of whole body showed more forwarded incline at tripping than that of normal gait. As a result of correlation among variables, one stride and supporting time elapsed showed positive relation r =0.973 ( R 2 =0.947, P tripped at supporting phase of one leg during gait may be impossible and rather may cause a recovery of gait pattern when secured the faster velocity of COG and the longer of supporting time elapsed of one leg.

  3. Effect of treadmill versus overground running on the structure of variability of stride timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Timothy R; Noakes, Timothy D; McGregor, Stephen J

    2014-04-01

    Gait timing dynamics of treadmill and overground running were compared. Nine trained runners ran treadmill and track trials at 80, 100, and 120% of preferred pace for 8 min. each. Stride time series were generated for each trial. To each series, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), power spectral density (PSD), and multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis were applied to infer the regime of control along the randomness-regularity axis. Compared to overground running, treadmill running exhibited a higher DFA and PSD scaling exponent, as well as lower entropy at non-preferred speeds. This indicates a more ordered control for treadmill running, especially at non-preferred speeds. The results suggest that the treadmill itself brings about greater constraints and requires increased voluntary control. Thus, the quantification of treadmill running gait dynamics does not necessarily reflect movement in overground settings.

  4. Malignant Melanoma of the Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Javascript in your browser. Malignant Melanoma of the Foot What Is Malignant Melanoma? Melanoma is a cancer ... age groups, even the young. Melanoma in the Foot Melanoma that occurs in the foot or ankle ...

  5. The foot and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    Imaging of the foot and ankle can be difficult because of the complex anatomy. Familiarity with the bony and ligamentous anatomy is essential for proper evaluation of radiographic findings. Therefore, pertinent anatomy is discussed as it applies to specific injuries. Special views, tomography, arthrography, and other techniques may be indicated for complete evaluation of foot and ankle trauma

  6. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or cups with infected people Commonly Confused With Foot-and-Mouth Disease Hand, foot, and mouth disease ... Library, Foot-and-Mouth Disease . Outbreaks of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Large outbreaks of hand, foot, ...

  7. Foot morphology of Turkish football players according to foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-13

    Jun 13, 2011 ... Football is the most popular sport in the world. Foot morphology and foot preference are important factors in football player's performance. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the foot morphology of elite football players with different foot preferences. 407 male football players participated in ...

  8. Foot morphology of Turkish football players according to foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Football is the most popular sport in the world. Foot morphology and foot preference are important factors in football player's performance. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the foot morphology of elite football players with different foot preferences. 407 male football players participated in this study. 328 of ...

  9. Longitudinal assessment of neuropsychological and temporal/spatial gait characteristics of elderly fallers: taking it all in stride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K MacAulay

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gait abnormalities are linked to cognitive decline and an increased fall risk within older adults. The present study addressed gaps from cross-sectional studies in the literature by longitudinally examining the interplay between temporal and spatial aspects of gait, cognitive function, age, and lower-extremity strength in elderly fallers and non-fallers. Gait characteristics, neuropsychological and physical test performance were examined at two time points spaced a year apart in cognitively intact individuals aged 60 and older (N = 416. Mixed-model repeated-measure ANCOVAs examined temporal (step time and spatial (stride length gait characteristics during a simple and cognitive-load walking task in fallers as compared to non-fallers. Fallers consistently demonstrated significant alterations in spatial, but not temporal, aspects of gait as compared to non-fallers during both walking tasks. Step time became slower as stride length shortened amongst all participants during the dual task. Shorter strides and slower step times during the dual task were both predicted by worse executive attention/processing speed performance. In summary, divided attention significantly impacts spatial aspects of gait in fallers, suggesting stride length changes may precede declines in other neuropsychological and gait characteristics, thereby selectively increasing fall risk. Our results indicate that multimodal intervention approaches that integrate physical and cognitive remediation strategies may increase the effectiveness of fall risk interventions.

  10. Analysis and Classification of Stride Patterns Associated with Children Development Using Gait Signal Dynamics Parameters and Ensemble Learning Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meihong Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring stride variability and dynamics in children is useful for the quantitative study of gait maturation and neuromotor development in childhood and adolescence. In this paper, we computed the sample entropy (SampEn and average stride interval (ASI parameters to quantify the stride series of 50 gender-matched children participants in three age groups. We also normalized the SampEn and ASI values by leg length and body mass for each participant, respectively. Results show that the original and normalized SampEn values consistently decrease over the significance level of the Mann-Whitney U test (p<0.01 in children of 3–14 years old, which indicates the stride irregularity has been significantly ameliorated with the body growth. The original and normalized ASI values are also significantly changing when comparing between any two groups of young (aged 3–5 years, middle (aged 6–8 years, and elder (aged 10–14 years children. Such results suggest that healthy children may better modulate their gait cadence rhythm with the development of their musculoskeletal and neurological systems. In addition, the AdaBoost.M2 and Bagging algorithms were used to effectively distinguish the children’s gait patterns. These ensemble learning algorithms both provided excellent gait classification results in terms of overall accuracy (≥90%, recall (≥0.8, and precision (≥0.8077.

  11. Is walking a random walk? Evidence for long-range correlations in stride interval of human gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Peng, C.-K.; Ladin, Zvi; Wei, Jeanne Y.; Goldberger, Ary L.

    1995-01-01

    Complex fluctuation of unknown origin appear in the normal gait pattern. These fluctuations might be described as being (1) uncorrelated white noise, (2) short-range correlations, or (3) long-range correlations with power-law scaling. To test these possibilities, the stride interval of 10 healthy young men was measured as they walked for 9 min at their usual rate. From these time series we calculated scaling indexes by using a modified random walk analysis and power spectral analysis. Both indexes indicated the presence of long-range self-similar correlations extending over hundreds of steps; the stride interval at any time depended on the stride interval at remote previous times, and this dependence decayed in a scale-free (fractallike) power-law fashion. These scaling indexes were significantly different from those obtained after random shuffling of the original time series, indicating the importance of the sequential ordering of the stride interval. We demonstrate that conventional models of gait generation fail to reproduce the observed scaling behavior and introduce a new type of central pattern generator model that sucessfully accounts for the experimentally observed long-range correlations.

  12. Validation of distal limb mounted inertial-measurement-unit sensors for stride detection in Warmblood horses at walk and trot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra Braganca, Filipe; Bosch, S; Voskamp, J P; Marin-Perianu, M; Van der Zwaag, B J; Vernooij, J C M; van Weeren, P R; Back, W

    BACKGROUND: Inertial-measurement-unit (IMU)-sensor-based techniques are becoming more popular in horses as a tool for objective locomotor assessment. OBJECTIVES: To describe, evaluate and validate a method of stride detection and quantification at walk and trot using distal limb mounted IMU-sensors.

  13. Validation of Distal Limb Mounted Imu Sensors for Stride Detection and Locomotor Quantification in Warmblood Horses at Walk and Trot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra Braganca, F.M.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; René van Weeren, P.; Back, Wim

    Reasons for performing study: IMU-sensor based techniques arebecoming more popular in horses as a tool for objective locomotorassessment. Using currently proposed methods only limited informationabout stride variables can be obtained for walk and trot.Objectives: To describe, evaluate and validate a

  14. Validation of distal limb mounted inertial measurement unit sensors for stride detection in Warmblood horses at walk and trot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braganca, F.M.; Bosch, S.; Voskamp, J.P.; Marin Perianu, Mihai; van der Zwaag, B.J.; Vernooij, J.C.; van Weeren, P.R.; Back, W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensor-based techniques are becoming more popular in horses as a tool for objective locomotor assessment. Objectives: To describe, evaluate and validate a method of stride detection and quantification at walk and trot using distal limb mounted IMU sensors.

  15. Impact of stride-coupled gaze shifts of walking blowflies on the neuronal representation of visual targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eKress

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available During locomotion animals rely heavily on visual cues gained from the environment to guide their behavior. Examples are basic behaviors like collision avoidance or the approach to a goal. The saccadic gaze strategy of flying flies, which separates translational from rotational phases of locomotion, has been suggested to facilitate the extraction of environmental information, because only image flow evoked by translational self-motion contains relevant distance information about the surrounding world. In contrast to the translational phases of flight during which gaze direction is kept largely constant, walking flies experience continuous rotational image flow that is coupled to their stride-cycle. The consequences of these self-produced image shifts for the extraction of environmental information are still unclear. To assess the impact of stride-coupled image shifts on visual information processing, we performed electrophysiological recordings from the HSE cell, a motion sensitive wide-field neuron in the blowfly visual system. This cell has been concluded to play a key role in mediating optomotor behavior, self-motion estimation and spatial information processing. We used visual stimuli that were based on the visual input experienced by walking blowflies while approaching a black vertical bar. The response of HSE to these stimuli was dominated by periodic membrane potential fluctuations evoked by stride-coupled image shifts. Nevertheless, during the approach the cell’s response contained information about the bar and its background. The response components evoked by the bar were larger than the responses to its background, especially during the last phase of the approach. However, as revealed by targeted modifications of the visual input during walking, the extraction of distance information on the basis of HSE responses is much impaired by stride-coupled retinal image shifts. Possible mechanisms that may cope with these stride

  16. Benchmarking Foot Trajectory Estimation Methods for Mobile Gait Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Hannink

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mobile gait analysis systems based on inertial sensing on the shoe are applied in a wide range of applications. Especially for medical applications, they can give new insights into motor impairment in, e.g., neurodegenerative disease and help objectify patient assessment. One key component in these systems is the reconstruction of the foot trajectories from inertial data. In literature, various methods for this task have been proposed. However, performance is evaluated on a variety of datasets due to the lack of large, generally accepted benchmark datasets. This hinders a fair comparison of methods. In this work, we implement three orientation estimation and three double integration schemes for use in a foot trajectory estimation pipeline. All methods are drawn from literature and evaluated against a marker-based motion capture reference. We provide a fair comparison on the same dataset consisting of 735 strides from 16 healthy subjects. As a result, the implemented methods are ranked and we identify the most suitable processing pipeline for foot trajectory estimation in the context of mobile gait analysis.

  17. The STRIDE weight loss and lifestyle intervention for individuals taking antipsychotic medications: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Carla A; Yarborough, Bobbi Jo H; Leo, Michael C; Yarborough, Micah T; Stumbo, Scott P; Janoff, Shannon L; Perrin, Nancy A; Nichols, Greg A; Stevens, Victor J

    2015-01-01

    The STRIDE study assessed whether a lifestyle intervention, tailored for individuals with serious mental illnesses, reduced weight and diabetes risk. The authors hypothesized that the STRIDE intervention would be more effective than usual care in reducing weight and improving glucose metabolism. The study design was a multisite, parallel two-arm randomized controlled trial in community settings and an integrated health plan. Participants who met inclusion criteria were ≥18 years old, were taking antipsychotic agents for ≥30 days, and had a body mass index ≥27. Exclusions were significant cognitive impairment, pregnancy/breastfeeding, recent psychiatric hospitalization, bariatric surgery, cancer, heart attack, or stroke. The intervention emphasized moderate caloric reduction, the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet, and physical activity. Blinded staff collected data at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Participants (men, N=56; women, N=144; mean age=47.2 years [SD=10.6]) were randomly assigned to usual care (N=96) or a 6-month weekly group intervention plus six monthly maintenance sessions (N=104). A total of 181 participants (90.5%) completed 6-month assessments, and 170 (85%) completed 12-month assessments, without differential attrition. Participants attended 14.5 of 24 sessions over 6 months. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed that intervention participants lost 4.4 kg more than control participants from baseline to 6 months (95% CI=-6.96 kg to -1.78 kg) and 2.6 kg more than control participants from baseline to 12 months (95% CI=-5.14 kg to -0.07 kg). At 12 months, fasting glucose levels in the control group had increased from 106.0 mg/dL to 109.5 mg/dL and decreased in the intervention group from 106.3 mg/dL to 100.4 mg/dL. No serious adverse events were study-related; medical hospitalizations were reduced in the intervention group (6.7%) compared with the control group (18.8%). Individuals taking antipsychotic medications can lose

  18. The simulation analysis of contact characteristics of biomimetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the foot structure of the climbing biology and multivariate coupling bionic technology, the bionic flexible convex surface was designed and a 3D model was created using the digital modeling software. Finite Element Analysis software was used for contacting analysis to the bionic flexible convex foot structure in the ...

  19. Diabetes and Foot Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because they do not stretch or “breathe.” When buying shoes, make sure they feel good and have ... thorough foot exam, including a check of the feeling and pulses in your feet. Get a thorough ...

  20. Foot Rollover Temporal Parameters During Walking Straight Ahead and Stepping Over Obstacles: Obese and Non-Obese Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Silva; Ronaldo, Gabriel; Helena, Moreira; Abrantes, João; Faria, Aurélio

    2017-07-17

    The aim of this study was to compare the temporal foot rollover data between walking straight ahead and stepping over obstacles for obese and non-obese postmenopausal women. Plantar pressure data were collected from 67 women. The initial, final, and duration of contact of 10 foot areas were measured. Both limbs of both groups showed a longer foot contact duration on the obstacle task. Significant temporal differences were found for both groups between straight ahead and crossing obstacles on the initial, final, and duration of contact for several foot areas. The propulsion phase of the trailing limb during the obstacle task was anticipated. Regarding the leading limb, the first foot contact was not made with the heel areas; however, a backward foot rollover movement from the metatarsal to the heel areas occurred, possibly to provide support to better control the trailing limb swing phase.

  1. Education for diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Batista

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to stratify the risk in a consecutive group of diabetic patients presenting, for the first time, in a diabetic foot clinic. Additional aims were to investigate the preventive measures in the local health system and to evaluate the level of patient’s awareness about diabetic foot-associated morbidity. Methods: Fifty consecutive adult diabetic patients referred to a Diabetic Foot Clinic of a Municipal Public Hospital comprised the sample for this observational study. The enrollment visit was considered as the first health-system intervention for potential foot morbidity. The average time elapsed since a diagnosis of diabetes among patients was five years. Rresults: At the time of presentation, 94% of sample was not using appropriate footwear. Pedal pulses (dorsalis pedis and/or posterior tibial arteries were palpable in 76% of patients. Thirty subjects (60% had signs of peripheral neuropathy. Twenty-one subjects (42% had clinical deformity. There was a positive correlation between a history of foot ulcer, the presence of peripheral neuropathy, and the presence of foot deformity (p < 0.004 in each correlation. Cconclusions: Informing and educating the patients and those interested in this subject and these problems is essential for favorable outcomes in this scenario.

  2. [Minor foot amputations in diabetic foot syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, C; Eckhard, M; Szalay, G; Heiss, C

    2016-10-01

    The treatment strategy for diabetic foot syndrome must take into account protective sensibility of the foot, open wounds, infection status, and the rules of septic bone surgery. Interventions are classified as elective, prophylactic, curative, or emergency. Amputations in the forefoot and midfoot region are performed as ray amputations (including metatarsal), which can often be carried out as "inner" amputations. Gentle tissue treatment mandatory because of greater risk of revision with re-amputation compared to classical amputation. Good demarcation of infection, acute osteomyelitis, osteolytic lesions, neurotropic ulcer, arterial and venous blood flow to the other toes, gangrene of other toes with metatarsal affection. Arterial occlusive disease, infection of neighboring areas, avoidable amputations, poorly healing ulcers on the lower leg. Primary dorsal approach; minimal incisional distance (5 cm) to minimize skin necrosis risk. Atraumatic preparation, minimize hemostasis to not compromise the borderline perfusion situation. In amputations, plantar skin preparation and longer seams placed as dorsal as possible, either disarticulated and maintain cartilage, or round the cortical metatarsal bone after resection. Diabetes control. Braun splint, mobilization in a shoe with forefoot decompression and hindfoot support, physiotherapy. Antibiotics based on resistance testing. If no complications, dressing change on postoperative day 1. Optimal wound drainage by lowering foot several times a day; drainage removal after 12-24 h. Insoles and footwear optimization. Amputations require continued attention and if necessary treatment to avoid sequelae. Insufficient treatment associated with recurrent ulceration and altered anatomy.

  3. Endüstride Su Güvenliği, Dezenfeksiyon ve Sanitasyonu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla ÜNVER

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gelişmekte olan ülkelerde, her yıl suyla bulaşan hastalıklar yüzünden milyonlarca kişi ölmekte, milyarlarca kişi de hasta olmaktadır. Dünya nüfusunun artması sonucu, içme ve kullanma suyu ihtiyacı hızla artmıştır. Ayrıca çevre kirliliği su kaynaklarında kirlenmeye sebep olmuştur. Su endüstride en çok kullanılan hammaddelerden biridir. Su kalitesi standartları ülke yönetimleri ve uluslararası standartlarca belirlenir. Suyun saflaştırılması; istenmeyen kimyasalların, diğer materyallerin ve biyolojik kontaminantların sudan uzaklaştırılması prosesidir. Su saflaştırma, sağlıklı dağıtım sistemleri, su dezenfeksiyon prosesleri, medikal, gıda sektörü, kimyasal ve endüstriyel uygulamalar için önemli gerekliliklerdir.

  4. The prevalence of foot ulceration in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Jill; Hale, Claire; Helliwell, Philip; Hill, Jackie; Nelson, E Andrea

    2008-02-15

    To establish the prevalence of foot ulceration in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in secondary care. A postal survey of all patients with RA (n = 1,130) under the care of rheumatologists in Bradford, West Yorkshire, UK was performed. The prevalence data were validated through clinical examination, case-note review, and contact with health professionals. The false-negative rate was investigated in a subsample of patients (n = 70) who denied any history of ulceration. The postal survey achieved a 78% response rate. Following validation, the point prevalence of foot ulceration was 3.39% and the overall prevalence was 9.73%. The false-positive rate was initially high at 21.21%, but use of diagrammatic questionnaire data to exclude leg ulceration reduced the rate to 10.76%. The false-negative rate was 11.76%. The most common sites for ulceration were the dorsal aspect of hammer toes, the metatarsal heads, and the metatarsophalangeal joint in patients with hallux abducto valgus, with 33% of patients reporting multiple sites of ulceration. Patients with open-foot and healed-foot ulceration had significantly longer RA disease duration, reported significantly greater use of special footwear, and had a higher prevalence of foot surgery than ulcer-free patients. Foot ulceration affects a significant proportion of patients with RA. Further work is needed to establish risk factors for foot ulceration in RA and to target foot health provision more effectively.

  5. Innovation: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Ruth Hoskins Editor University of KwaZulu-Natal, Information Studies Programme Email: hoskinsr@ukzn.ac.za. Support Contact. Gita Ramdass Email: ramdass@ukzn.ac.za. ISSN: 1025-8892. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

  6. Imaging of Charcot foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlemann, Rainer; Schmitz, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The onset of a Charcot foot ist a feared complication of a long lasting diabetes mellitus. A peripheral neuropathy and continuous weight bearing of the foot subsequent to repeated traumas depict the conditions. There exist three types of a Charcot foot, an atrophic, a hypertophic and a mixed type. In early stages a differentiation from osteoarthritis is difficult. Subluxation or luxation within the Lisfranc's joint is typical. The joints of the foot could rapidly and extensively be destroyed or may present the morphology of a 'superosteoarthritis'. Often, soft tissue infections or osteomyelitis evolve from ulcers of the skin as entry points. Diagnosis of osteomyelitis necessitate MR imaging as plain radiography offers only low sensitivity for detection of an osteomyelitis. The existence of periosteal reactions is not a proof for osteomyelitis. Bone marrow edema and soft tissue edema also appear in a non infected Charcot foot. The range of soft tissue infections goes from cellulitis over phlegmon to abscesses. The ghost sign is the most suitable diagnostic criterion for osteomyelitis. In addition, the penumbra sign or the existence of a sinus tract between a skin ulcer and the affected bone may be helpful. (orig.)

  7. Foot-type analysis and plantar pressure differences between obese and nonobese adolescents during upright standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimolin, Veronica; Capodaglio, Paolo; Cau, Nicola; Galli, Manuela; Pau, Massimiliano; Patrizi, Alessandra; Tringali, Gabriella; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize the effect of obesity on foot-type and plantar pressure distribution in adolescents. Ten obese adolescents (obese group; BMI: 35.45±4.73 kg/m) and eight normal-weighted adolescents (control group; BMI: 18.67±2.46 kg/m) were recruited. Both groups were evaluated while standing using the Pedar-X in-shoe system. Foot-ground contact was characterized using contact area, peak of force and pressure calculated for the subareas of the foot. The analysis showed that obese participants had significantly higher area of contact in forefoot and midfoot (only in medial area) regions in comparison with the control group, whereas no statistically significant differences were observed for the rearfoot region. As far as the maximum pressure and force was concerned, similar results were obtained for both groups. Obese participants showed higher values for all the regions, with the exception of medial rearfoot area, for which the values were similar between the two groups. The analysis of foot-type distribution displayed that in the obese group high percentage of participants presented flat foot (70%) respect to cavus foot (20%) and normal foot (10%); on the contrary, in the control group, foot-types were markedly different, with 25% of participants with flat foot, 25% with cavus foot and 50% with normal foot. These results are important from a clinical perspective to develop and enhance the rehabilitative options in these patients and to avoid a worsening of their foot abnormalities. Untreated flat foot can in fact be disabling and over time can result in significant difficulties for the patient.

  8. The relationships between foot arch volumes and dynamic plantar pressure during midstance of walking in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsun-Wen; Chieh, Hsiao-Feng; Lin, Chien-Ju; Su, Fong-Chin; Tsai, Ming-June

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between the foot arch volume measured from static positions and the plantar pressure distribution during walking. A total of 27 children, two to six years of age, were included in this study. Measurements of static foot posture were obtained, including navicular height and foot arch volume in sitting and standing positions. Plantar pressure, force and contact areas under ten different regions of the foot were obtained during walking. The foot arch index was correlated (r = 0.32) with the pressure difference under the midfoot during the foot flat phase. The navicular heights and foot arch volumes in sitting and standing positions were correlated with the mean forces and pressures under the first (r = -0.296∼-0.355) and second metatarsals (r = -0.335∼-0.504) and midfoot (r = -0.331∼-0.496) during the stance phase of walking. The contact areas under the foot were correlated with the foot arch parameters, except for the area under the midfoot. The foot arch index measured in a static position could be a functional index to predict the dynamic foot functions when walking. The foot arch is a factor which will influence the pressure distribution under the foot. Children with a lower foot arch demonstrated higher mean pressure and force under the medial forefoot and midfoot, and lower contact areas under the foot, except for the midfoot region. Therefore, children with flatfoot may shift their body weight to a more medial foot position when walking, and could be at a higher risk of soft tissue injury in this area.

  9. The relationships between foot arch volumes and dynamic plantar pressure during midstance of walking in preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsun-Wen Chang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between the foot arch volume measured from static positions and the plantar pressure distribution during walking. METHODS: A total of 27 children, two to six years of age, were included in this study. Measurements of static foot posture were obtained, including navicular height and foot arch volume in sitting and standing positions. Plantar pressure, force and contact areas under ten different regions of the foot were obtained during walking. RESULTS: The foot arch index was correlated (r = 0.32 with the pressure difference under the midfoot during the foot flat phase. The navicular heights and foot arch volumes in sitting and standing positions were correlated with the mean forces and pressures under the first (r = -0.296∼-0.355 and second metatarsals (r = -0.335∼-0.504 and midfoot (r = -0.331∼-0.496 during the stance phase of walking. The contact areas under the foot were correlated with the foot arch parameters, except for the area under the midfoot. CONCLUSIONS: The foot arch index measured in a static position could be a functional index to predict the dynamic foot functions when walking. The foot arch is a factor which will influence the pressure distribution under the foot. Children with a lower foot arch demonstrated higher mean pressure and force under the medial forefoot and midfoot, and lower contact areas under the foot, except for the midfoot region. Therefore, children with flatfoot may shift their body weight to a more medial foot position when walking, and could be at a higher risk of soft tissue injury in this area.

  10. Pathophysiology diabetic foot ulcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafril, S.

    2018-03-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is known to have many complications. Diabetes and its complications are rapidly becoming the world’s most significant cause of morbidity and mortality, and one of the most distressing is Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU). Chronic wound complications are a growing concern worldwide, and the effect is a warning to public health and the economy. The etiology of a DFU is multifaceted, and several components cause added together create a sufficient impact on ulceration: neuropathy, vasculopathy, immunopathy, mechanical stress, and neuroarthropathy. There are many classifications of the diabetic foot. About 50% of patients with foot ulcers due to DM present clinical signs of infection. It is essential to manage multifactorial etiology of DFU to get a good outcome.

  11. Foot muscles strengthener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris T. Glavač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous experience in the correction of flat feet consisted of the use of insoles for shoes and exercises with toys, balls, rollers, inclined planes, etc. A device for strengthening foot muscles is designed for the correction of flat feet in children and, as its name suggests, for strengthening foot muscles in adults. The device is made of wood and metal, with a mechanism and technical solutions, enabling the implementation of specific exercises to activate muscles responsible for the formation of the foot arch. It is suitable for home use with controlled load quantities since it has calibrated springs. The device is patented with the Intellectual Property Office, Republic of Serbia, as a petty patent.

  12. The effect of foot type on in-shoe plantar pressure during walking and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuckpaiwong, Bavornrit; Nunley, James A; Mall, Nathan A; Queen, Robin M

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if low arch feet have altered plantar loading patterns when compared to normal feet during both walking and running. Fifty healthy subjects (34 normal feet, 16 flat feet) walked and ran five trials each at standard speeds. In-shoe pressure data were collected at 50 Hz. Contact area, peak pressure, maximum force, and force-time integral were analyzed in eight different regions of the foot. Foot type was determined by examining navicular height, arch angle, rearfoot angle, and a clinical score. A series of 2 x 2 repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine statistical differences (alphatype and movement type for the maximum force in the medial midfoot. Total foot contact area, maximum force and peak pressure were significantly increased during running. Contact area in each insole area, except for the rearfoot, was significantly increased during running. Peak pressure and maximum force were significantly increased during running in each of the foot regions. However, the force-time integral was significantly decreased during running in the rearfoot, lateral midfoot, middle forefoot, and lateral forefoot. Significant differences between foot types existed for contact area in the medial midfoot and maximum force and peak pressure in the lateral forefoot. The maximum force and peak pressures were significantly decreased for the flat foot type. Therefore, individuals with a flat foot could be at a lower risk for lateral column metatarsal stress fractures, indicating that foot type should be assessed when determining an individual's risk for metatarsal stress fractures.

  13. Foot-Ground Interaction during Upright Standing in Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, Massimiliano; Galli, Manuela; Crivellini, Marcello; Albertini, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to quantitatively characterize the main foot-ground contact parameters during static upright standing and to assess foot evolution with increasing age in young individuals affected by Down syndrome (DS). To this end, 99 children with DS of mean age 9.7 (1.7) were tested using a pressure sensitive mat, and the raw data were…

  14. Acute unilateral foot drop as a result of direct blunt trauma to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a case report of an acute unilateral foot drop which occurred during a professional mixed martial arts (MMA) contest, specifically as a result of direct blunt trauma to the left peroneal nerve, without an accompanying fracture of the fibula. Keywords: foot extensor weakness, gait abnormality, contact sports, mixed martial ...

  15. Comparison of plantar pressure distribution in CAD-CAM and prefabricated foot orthoses in patients with flexible flatfeet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaei, Banafsheh; Saeedi, Hassan; Jalali, Maryam; Farzadi, Maede; Norouzi, Ehsan

    2017-12-01

    The effect of foot orthoses on plantar pressure distribution has been proven by researchers but there are some controversies about advantages of custom-made foot orthoses to less expensive prefabricated foot orthoses. Nineteen flatfeet adults between 18 and 45 participated in this study. CAD-CAM foot orthoses were made for these patients according to their foot scan. Prefabricated foot orthoses were prepared according to their foot size. Plantar pressure, force and contact area were measured using pedar ® -x in-shoe system wearing shoe alone, wearing CAD-CAM foot orthoses and wearing prefabricated foot orthoses. Repeated measures ANOVA model with post-hoc, Bonferroni comparison were used to test differences. CAD-CAM and prefabricated foot orthoses both decreased pressure and force under 2nd, 3-5 metatarsal and heel regions comparing to shoe alone condition. CAD-CAM foot orthosis increased pressure under lateral toe region in comparison to shoe alone and prefabricated foot orthosis. Both foot orthoses increased pressure and contact area in medial midfoot region comparing to shoe alone condition. Increased forces were seen at hallux and lateral toes by prefabricated foot orthoses in comparison with CAD-CAM foot orthoses and control condition, respectively. According to the results, both foot orthoses could decrease the pressure under heel and metatarsal area. It seems that the special design of CAD-CAM foot orthoses could not make great differences in plantar pressure distribution in this sample. Further research is required to determine whether these results are associated with different scan systems or design software. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Hand, Foot & Mouth Disease Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... someone is sick. Is HFMD the Same as Foot-and-Mouth Disease? No. HFMD is often confused ...

  17. Hand-foot-mouth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000965.htm Hand-foot-mouth disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hand-foot-mouth disease is a common viral infection that ...

  18. Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Javascript in your browser. Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot What Is a Sesamoid? A sesamoid is a ... contributing factor. Types of Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot There are three types of sesamoid injuries in ...

  19. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swelling of the ankles - feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... Foot, leg, and ankle swelling is common when the person also: Is overweight Has a blood clot in the leg Is older Has ...

  20. What Is a Foot and Ankle Surgeon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A | Print | Share What is a Foot & Ankle Surgeon? Foot and ankle surgeons are the surgical ... every age. What education has a foot and ankle surgeon received? After completing undergraduate education, the foot ...

  1. Radiologic evaluation of foot deformities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlemann, R.; Fischedick, A.R.; Peters, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    In order to analyze foot deformities, the foot is divided into three compartments. Their normal and pathological positions are defined by the alignment of the bones' axes. The various foot deformities can be put down to a malalignment of the particular compartments. X-ray analysis of the malalignment allows a diagnosis to be made. The most important congenital and acquired foot deformities are discussed. (orig.) [de

  2. Imaging diagnostics of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeimies, Ulrike; Staebler, Axel; Walther, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The book on imaging diagnostics of the foot contains the following chapters: (1) Imaging techniques. (2) Clinical diagnostics. (3) Ankle joint and hind foot. (4) Metatarsus. (5) Forefoot. (6) Pathology of plantar soft tissue. (7) Nervous system diseases. (8) Diseases without specific anatomic localization. (9) System diseases including the foot. (10) Tumor like lesions. (11) Normative variants.

  3. Ambulatory assessment of foot dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H. Martin; Veltink, Petrus H.; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of foot dynamics is important, especially for patients with foot impairments. However, this analysis is difficult with commonly used systems. This study presents an ambulatory system for the estimation of ankle and foot power using an instrumented shoe equipped with six degrees-of-freedom

  4. The Diabetic Foot in a Multidisciplinary Team Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilbek, T E; Jansen, R B; Jørgensen, B

    2016-01-01

    Wound Healing Center (CWHC) at Bispebjerg Hospital from 1996-2013. Results: 777 diabetes patients treated with minor amputations were included. 77% were males and 23% were females. 80% had T2 diabetes and 20% had T1 diabetes. 89% of the patients had a foot ulcer at first contact. There was a total of 1...

  5. Airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease - Model intercomparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gloster, John; Jones, Andrew; Redington, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) spreads by direct contact between animals, by animal products (milk, meat and semen), by mechanical transfer on people or fomites and by the airborne route, with the relative importance of each mechanism depending on the particular outbreak characteristics. Atm...

  6. Foot posture, foot function and low back pain: the Framingham Foot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Menz, Hylton B.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Riskowski, Jody L.; Hillstrom, Howard J.; Hannan, Marian T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Abnormal foot posture and function have been proposed as possible risk factors for low back pain, but this has not been examined in detail. The objective of this study was to explore the associations of foot posture and foot function with low back pain in 1930 members of the Framingham Study (2002–05).

  7. Foot posture, foot function and low back pain: the Framingham Foot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B; Dufour, Alyssa B; Riskowski, Jody L; Hillstrom, Howard J; Hannan, Marian T

    2013-12-01

    Abnormal foot posture and function have been proposed as possible risk factors for low back pain, but this has not been examined in detail. The objective of this study was to explore the associations of foot posture and foot function with low back pain in 1930 members of the Framingham Study (2002-05). Low back pain, aching or stiffness on most days was documented on a body chart. Foot posture was categorized as normal, planus or cavus using static weight-bearing measurements of the arch index. Foot function was categorized as normal, pronated or supinated using the centre of pressure excursion index derived from dynamic foot pressure measurements. Sex-specific multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the associations of foot posture, foot function and asymmetry with low back pain, adjusting for confounding variables. Foot posture showed no association with low back pain. However, pronated foot function was associated with low back pain in women [odds ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% CI 1.1, 2.07, P = 0.011] and this remained significant after adjusting for age, weight, smoking and depressive symptoms (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.07, 2.05, P = 0.018). These findings suggest that pronated foot function may contribute to low back symptoms in women. Interventions that modify foot function, such as orthoses, may therefore have a role in the prevention and treatment of low back pain.

  8. Foot posture, foot function and low back pain: the Framingham Foot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Riskowski, Jody L.; Hillstrom, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Abnormal foot posture and function have been proposed as possible risk factors for low back pain, but this has not been examined in detail. The objective of this study was to explore the associations of foot posture and foot function with low back pain in 1930 members of the Framingham Study (2002–05). Methods. Low back pain, aching or stiffness on most days was documented on a body chart. Foot posture was categorized as normal, planus or cavus using static weight-bearing measurements of the arch index. Foot function was categorized as normal, pronated or supinated using the centre of pressure excursion index derived from dynamic foot pressure measurements. Sex-specific multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the associations of foot posture, foot function and asymmetry with low back pain, adjusting for confounding variables. Results. Foot posture showed no association with low back pain. However, pronated foot function was associated with low back pain in women [odds ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% CI 1.1, 2.07, P = 0.011] and this remained significant after adjusting for age, weight, smoking and depressive symptoms (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.07, 2.05, P = 0.018). Conclusion. These findings suggest that pronated foot function may contribute to low back symptoms in women. Interventions that modify foot function, such as orthoses, may therefore have a role in the prevention and treatment of low back pain. PMID:24049103

  9. [Prevention of diabetic foot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metelko, Zeljko; Brkljacić Crkvencić, Neva

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic foot (DF) is the most common chronic complication, which depends mostly on the duration and successful treatment of diabetes mellitus. Based on epidemiological studies, it is estimated that 25% of persons with diabetes mellitus (PwDM) will develop the problems with DF during lifetime, while 5% do 15% will be treated for foot or leg amputation. The treatment is prolonged and expensive, while the results are uncertain. The changes in DF are influenced by different factors usually connected with the duration and regulation of diabetes mellitus. The first problems with DF are the result of misbalance between nutritional, defensive and reparatory mechanisms on the one hand and the intensity of damaging factors against DF on the other hand. Diabetes mellitus is a state of chronic hyperglycemia, consisting of changes in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. As a consequence of the long duration of diabetes mellitus, late complications can develop. Foot is in its structure very complex, combined with many large and small bones connected with ligaments, directed by many small and large muscles, interconnected with many small and large blood vessels and nerves. Every of these structures can be changed by nutritional, defensive and reparatory mechanisms with consequential DE Primary prevention of DF includes all measures involved in appropriate maintenance of nutrition, defense and reparatory mechanisms.First, it is necessary to identify the high-risk population for DF, in particular for macrovascular, microvascular and neural complications. The high-risk population of PwDM should be identified during regular examination and appropriate education should be performed. In this group, it is necessary to include more frequent and intensified empowerment for lifestyle changes, appropriate diet, regular exercise (including frequent breaks for short exercise during sedentary work), regular self control of body weight, quit smoking, and appropriate treatment of glycemia

  10. Differences in ground contact time explain the less efficient running economy in north african runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Concejero, J; Granados, C; Irazusta, J; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, I; Zabala-Lili, J; Tam, N; Gil, S M

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between biomechanical variables and running economy in North African and European runners. Eight North African and 13 European male runners of the same athletic level ran 4-minute stages on a treadmill at varying set velocities. During the test, biomechanical variables such as ground contact time, swing time, stride length, stride frequency, stride angle and the different sub-phases of ground contact were recorded using an optical measurement system. Additionally, oxygen uptake was measured to calculate running economy. The European runners were more economical than the North African runners at 19.5 km · h(-1), presented lower ground contact time at 18 km · h(-1) and 19.5 km · h(-1) and experienced later propulsion sub-phase at 10.5 km · h(-1),12 km · h(-1), 15 km · h(-1), 16.5 km · h(-1) and 19.5 km · h(-1) than the European runners (P Running economy at 19.5 km · h(-1) was negatively correlated with swing time (r = -0.53) and stride angle (r = -0.52), whereas it was positively correlated with ground contact time (r = 0.53). Within the constraints of extrapolating these findings, the less efficient running economy in North African runners may imply that their outstanding performance at international athletic events appears not to be linked to running efficiency. Further, the differences in metabolic demand seem to be associated with differing biomechanical characteristics during ground contact, including longer contact times.

  11. Total Energy Expenditure Estimated Using Foot-Ground Contact Pedometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoyt, Reed

    2004-01-01

    ...) with that measured by the criterion doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Eight male U.S. Marine test volunteers 27 +/- 4 YEARS OF AGE (MEAN +/- SD); weight = 83.2 +/- 10.7 kg; height = 182.2 +/- 4.5 cm; body fat = 17.0 +/- 2.9...

  12. The use of custom-made shoes in patients with foot deformities in foot clinic, Siriraj Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paecharoen, Siranya; Chadchavalpanichaya, Navaporn

    2013-11-01

    To study the frequency, result, and concomitant factors of the use of custom-made shoes in Foot Clinic, Siriraj Hospital. Studying from patient records and interviewing the patients who had foot deformities without numbness and received custom-made shoes from the Foot Clinic, Siriraj Hospital between January 2009 and December 2011 about the latest custom-made shoes after the first three months of use. Sixty-seven participants were reviewed and included eight males (11.9%) and 59 females (88.1%) with an average age of 57.1 years. The majority had congenital foot deformity (19.4%). Most of them received sandal-type shoes (34.3%) and total contact orthosis (52.2%). The use of custom-made shoes that the participants had to use for more than 3 days/week and for more than or equal to 50% of daily walking and standing duration was 47.8%. Using these shoes reduced foot pain and increased walking stability (p-value = 0.007 and 0.023). Factors associated with the use of custom-made shoes were no previous callus (odds ratio = 25.30, 95% CI 2.20-290.56), decreasing callus after using the shoes (odds ratio = 23.54, 95% CI 1.65-335.23), decreasing foot pain after using the shoes (odds ratio = 5.01, 95% CI 1.20-20.95), and overall satisfaction (odd ratio = 21.47, 95% CI 3.81-121.04). The use of custom-made shoes from the Foot Clinic, Siriraj Hospital was 47.8%. Using the shoes could reduce foot pain and increase walking stability. Factors associated with the use of custom-made shoes were no previous callus, decreasing callus, decreasing foot pain, and overall satisfaction.

  13. Contact hysteroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggish, M S; Barbot, J

    1983-06-01

    In 1907 innovations in optics and illumination made by Maximilian Nitze were applied to hysteroscopy by Charles David, who wrote a treatise of hysteroscopy. David improved illumination by placing an electric incandescent bulb at the intrauterine end of his endoscope and also sealed the distal end of the tube with a piece of glass. The history of the contact endoscope that the authors personally used is connected to the invention by Vulmiere (1952) of a revolutionary illumination process in endoscopy--the "cold light" process. The components of cold light consist of a powerful external light source that is transmitted via a special optical guide into the endometrial cavity. The 1st application of his principle (1963) was an optical trochar contained in a metallic sheath. This simple endoscope was perfected, and in 1973 Barbot and Parent, in France, began to use it to examine the uterine cavity. Discussion focuses on methods, instrumentation, method for examination (grasping the instrument, setup, light source, anesthesia, dilatation, technique, and normal endometrium); cervical neoplasia; nonneoplastic lesions of the endometrium (endometrial polyp, submucous myoma, endometrial hyperplasia); intrauterine device localization; neoplastic lesions of the endometrium; precursors (adenocarcinoma); hysteroscopy in pregnancy (embryoscopy, hydatidiform mole, postpartum hemorrhage, incomplete abortion, spontaneous abortion, induced abortions, and amnioscopy); and examinations of children and infants. The contact endoscope must make light contact with the structure to be viewed. The principles of contact endoscopy depend on an interpretation of color, contour, vascular pattern, and a sense of touch. These are computed together and a diagnosis is made on the basis of previously learned clinical pathologic correlations. The contact endoscope is composed of 3 parts: an optical guide; a cylindric chamber that collects and traps ambient light; and a magnifying eyepiece. The phase of

  14. The operational implications of donor behaviors following enrollment in STRIDE (Strategies to Reduce Iron Deficiency in blood donors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Ritchard G; Birch, Rebecca J; Spencer, Bryan R; Wright, David J; Bialkowski, Walter; Kiss, Joseph E; Rios, Jorge; Bryant, Barbara J; Mast, Alan E

    2017-10-01

    Donor behaviors in STRIDE (Strategies to Reduce Iron Deficiency), a trial to reduce iron deficiency, were examined. Six hundred ninety-two frequent donors were randomized to receive either 19 or 38 mg iron for 60 days or an educational letter based on their predonation ferritin. Compliance with assigned pills, response to written recommendations, change in donation frequency, and future willingness to take iron supplements were examined. Donors who were randomized to receive iron pills had increased red blood cell donations and decreased hemoglobin deferrals compared with controls or with pre-STRIDE donations. Donors who were randomized to receive educational letters had fewer hemoglobin deferrals compared with controls. Of those who received a letter advising of low ferritin levels with recommendations to take iron supplements or delay future donations, 57% reported that they initiated iron supplementation, which was five times as many as those who received letters lacking a specific recommendation. The proportion reporting delayed donation was not statistically different (32% vs. 20%). Of donors who were assigned pills, 58% reported taking them "frequently," and forgetting was the primary reason for non-compliance. Approximately 80% of participants indicated that they would take iron supplements if provided by the center. Donors who were assigned iron pills had acceptable compliance, producing increased red blood cell donations and decreased low hemoglobin deferrals compared with controls or with pre-STRIDE rates. The majority of donors assigned to an educational letter took action after receiving a low ferritin result, with more donors choosing to take iron than delay donation. Providing donors with information on iron status with personalized recommendations was an effective alternative to directly providing iron supplements. © 2017 AABB.

  15. Extensor deficiency: first cause of childhood flexible flat foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittore, Donato; Patella, Vittorio; Petrera, Massimo; Caizzi, Gianni; Ranieri, Maurizio; Putignano, Piero; Spinarelli, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Childhood flexible flat foot is the most common paramorphism of the lower limb. The cause is not a bony malformation of the foot but a functional deficiency of the anatomic structures supporting the plantar arch. These structures, working as active tie rods (the tibialis anterior and posterior muscles) or passive factors of support (flexor hallucis longus and flexor digitorum longus muscles) act together to maintain the plantar arch. Their deficiency is responsible for childhood flexible flat foot, characterized by a flattening of the plantar arch and calcaneus pronation (heel valgus) and manifested in the characteristic "duck walking" in children. Hypothesizing poor extensor activity of the tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, and extensor hallucis longus muscles during the heel contact phase of the gait cycle, we began a preliminary study to evaluate, through superficial electromyography (sEMG), the activation of muscle groups involved in the pathogenesis of childhood flexible flat foot, in particular the tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis longus muscles, to plan a rehabilitative program addressing the strengthening of insufficient muscles. The therapeutic program should also include the use of a medial elastic push orthosis. Data obtained by sEMG highlight a reduced activation of muscles related to the grade of flat foot, emphasizing the concept that a reduced activation of extensor muscles may be involved in determining flexible flat foot.

  16. Relationship between static foot posture and foot mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPoil Thomas G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is not uncommon for a person's foot posture and/or mobility to be assessed during a clinical examination. The exact relationship, however, between static posture and mobility is not known. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of association between static foot posture and mobility. Method The static foot posture and foot mobility of 203 healthy individuals was assessed and then analyzed to determine if low arched or "pronated" feet are more mobile than high arched or "supinated" feet. Results The study demonstrated that those individuals with a lower standing dorsal arch height and/or a wider standing midfoot width had greater mobility in their foot. In addition, those individuals with higher Foot Posture Index (FPI values demonstrated greater mobility and those with lower FPI values demonstrated less mobility. Finally, the amount of foot mobility that an individual has can be predicted reasonably well using either a 3 or 4 variable linear regression model. Conclusions Because of the relationship between static foot posture and mobility, it is recommended that both be assessed as part of a comprehensive evaluation of a individual with foot problems.

  17. Relationship between static foot posture and foot mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background It is not uncommon for a person's foot posture and/or mobility to be assessed during a clinical examination. The exact relationship, however, between static posture and mobility is not known. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of association between static foot posture and mobility. Method The static foot posture and foot mobility of 203 healthy individuals was assessed and then analyzed to determine if low arched or "pronated" feet are more mobile than high arched or "supinated" feet. Results The study demonstrated that those individuals with a lower standing dorsal arch height and/or a wider standing midfoot width had greater mobility in their foot. In addition, those individuals with higher Foot Posture Index (FPI) values demonstrated greater mobility and those with lower FPI values demonstrated less mobility. Finally, the amount of foot mobility that an individual has can be predicted reasonably well using either a 3 or 4 variable linear regression model. Conclusions Because of the relationship between static foot posture and mobility, it is recommended that both be assessed as part of a comprehensive evaluation of a individual with foot problems. PMID:21244705

  18. Marine Bioinspired Underwater Contact Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Sean K; Sodano, Antonio; Cunningham, Dylan J; Huang, Sharon S; Zalicki, Piotr J; Shin, Seunghan; Ahn, B Kollbe

    2016-05-09

    Marine mussels and barnacles are sessile biofouling organisms that adhere to a number of surfaces in wet environments and maintain remarkably strong bonds. Previous synthetic approaches to mimic biological wet adhesive properties have focused mainly on the catechol moiety, present in mussel foot proteins (mfps), and especially rich in the interfacial mfps, for example, mfp-3 and -5, found at the interface between the mussel plaque and substrate. Barnacles, however, do not use Dopa for their wet adhesion, but are instead rich in noncatecholic aromatic residues. Due to this anomaly, we were intrigued to study the initial contact adhesion properties of copolymerized acrylate films containing the key functionalities of barnacle cement proteins and interfacial mfps, for example, aromatic (catecholic or noncatecholic), cationic, anionic, and nonpolar residues. The initial wet contact adhesion of the copolymers was measured using a probe tack testing apparatus with a flat-punch contact geometry. The wet contact adhesion of an optimized, bioinspired copolymer film was ∼15.0 N/cm(2) in deionized water and ∼9.0 N/cm(2) in artificial seawater, up to 150 times greater than commercial pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) tapes (∼0.1 N/cm(2)). Furthermore, maximum wet contact adhesion was obtained at ∼pH 7, suggesting viability for biomedical applications.

  19. DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    P. Rajagopal; S. Senthilvel; N. Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Infections of all types are more common in patients with diabetes, on the basis of outcome of retrospective study in Canada. Many types of infections are very common in diabetic than non-diabetic patients. Foot is the most common site. Diabetic foot infections range from mild infections to limb threatening conditions. Most require emergency medical attention. Diabetic foot infection is a global burden and projected to increase from 246 million people to o...

  20. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  1. The Influence of Foot-Strike Technique on the Neuromechanical Function of the Foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Luke A; Farris, Dominic J; Lichtwark, Glen A; Cresswell, Andrew G

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of foot-strike technique on longitudinal arch mechanics and intrinsic foot muscle function during running. Thirteen healthy participants ran barefoot on a force-instrumented treadmill at 2.8 ms with a forefoot (FFS) and rearfoot (RFS; habitual) running technique, whereas kinetic, kinematic, and electromyographic data from the intrinsic foot muscles were collected simultaneously. The longitudinal arch was modeled as a single "midfoot" joint representing motion of the rearfoot (calcaneus) relative to the forefoot (metatarsals). An inverse dynamic analysis was performed to estimate joint moments generated about the midfoot, as well as mechanical work and power. The midfoot was more plantar flexed (higher arch) at foot contact when running with a forefoot running technique (RFS 0.2 ± 1.8 vs FFS 6.9 ± 3.0°, effect size (ES) = 2.7); however, there was no difference in peak midfoot dorsiflexion in stance (RFS -11.6 ± 3.0 vs FFS -11.4 ± 3.4°, ES = 0.63). When running with a forefoot technique, participants generated greater moments about the midfoot (27% increase, ES = 1.1) and performed more negative work (240% increase, ES = 2.2) and positive work (42% increase, ES = 1.1) about the midfoot. Average stance-phase muscle activation was greater for flexor digitorum brevis (20% increase, ES = 0.56) and abductor hallucis (17% increase, ES = 0.63) when running with a forefoot technique. Forefoot running increases loading about the longitudinal arch and also increases the mechanical work performed by the intrinsic foot muscles. These findings have substantial implications in terms of injury prevention and management for runners who transition from a rearfoot to a forefoot running technique.

  2. [Tendinopathies of the foot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboukrat, P

    1997-01-01

    Tendinitis of the foot is frequent and is generally due to mechanical overload or inflammatory rheumatic disorders. It most often involves the posterior tibial tendon when obesity and calcaneus valgus combine to contribute to mechanical overwork, or in the early stages of rheumatoid arthritis. More rarely, the anterior tibial tendon or the fibular tendons are involved. The anatomic-clinical stages proceed from oedema to fissuration necrosis and ruptured tendon. The long-term risk is of a sinking internal arch and a fixed calcaneus valgus. A simple but effective treatment is the correction of the calcaneus valgus, but surgical arthrodesis may be necessary.

  3. Transverse plane rotation of the foot and transverse hip and pelvic kinematics in diplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, M S; Rutz, E; Dreher, T; Brunner, R

    2011-06-01

    External rotation of the foot associated with mid-foot break is a commonly observed gait abnormality in diplegic CP patients. Previous studies have shown a correlation between equinus and internal hip rotation in hemiplegic patients. This study aimed to determine if there was a correlation between the amount of transverse plane rotation in diplegic CP patients using kinematic data from standardised gait analysis. Lower limb data of 134 ambulant children with diplegic CP was analysed retrospectively determining the maximum change in foot, hip and pelvis rotation during loading response. Highly significant negative correlations (P=foot and hip movements and foot and pelvic movements. Equinus at initial contact diminished the foot:hip correlation while it enhanced the foot:pelvic correlation. There was less external rotation of the foot in equinus patients (P=0.012) and more external rotation of the pelvis in the equinus group (P=plane rotation at foot level to that at the hip and pelvis. The likely biomechanical explanation is relatively excessive transverse external rotation of the foot due to abnormalities such as mid-foot break. When under load, where the foot is fixed to the floor, internal rotation of the entire leg occurs. This is due to lever arm disease as a result of the relatively shortened foot and inefficiency of the plantar-flexion knee-extension couple. Equinus modulates the effect. When treating such patients, lever arm deformities at all levels must be considered to result in the best outcome and prevent recurrences. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mortality associated with acute Charcot foot and neuropathic foot ulceration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baal, Juliette; Hubbard, Richard; Game, Fran; Jeffcoate, William

    2010-01-01

    To compare the mortality of patients with an acute Charcot foot with a matched population with uninfected neuropathic foot ulcers (NFUs). Data were extracted from a specialist departmental database, supplemented by hospital records. The findings were compared with the results of earlier populations

  5. Estimation of the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus from infected sheep to cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo De Rueda, C.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Eble, P.L.; Dekker, A.

    2014-01-01

    The quantitative role of sheep in the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is not well known. To estimate the role of sheep in the transmission of FMDV, a direct contact transmission experiment with 10 groups of animals each consisting of 2 infected lambs and 1 contact calf was

  6. Foot Placement Modification for a Biped Humanoid Robot with Narrow Feet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Hashimoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a walking stabilization control for a biped humanoid robot with narrow feet. Most humanoid robots have larger feet than human beings to maintain their stability during walking. If robot’s feet are as narrow as humans, it is difficult to realize a stable walk by using conventional stabilization controls. The proposed control modifies a foot placement according to the robot's attitude angle. If a robot tends to fall down, a foot angle is modified about the roll axis so that a swing foot contacts the ground horizontally. And a foot-landing point is also changed laterally to inhibit the robot from falling to the outside. To reduce a foot-landing impact, a virtual compliance control is applied to the vertical axis and the roll and pitch axes of the foot. Verification of the proposed method is conducted through experiments with a biped humanoid robot WABIAN-2R. WABIAN-2R realized a knee-bended walking with 30 mm breadth feet. Moreover, WABIAN-2R mounted on a human-like foot mechanism mimicking a human's foot arch structure realized a stable walking with the knee-stretched, heel-contact, and toe-off motion.

  7. Foot placement modification for a biped humanoid robot with narrow feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Kenji; Hattori, Kentaro; Otani, Takuya; Lim, Hun-Ok; Takanishi, Atsuo

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a walking stabilization control for a biped humanoid robot with narrow feet. Most humanoid robots have larger feet than human beings to maintain their stability during walking. If robot's feet are as narrow as humans, it is difficult to realize a stable walk by using conventional stabilization controls. The proposed control modifies a foot placement according to the robot's attitude angle. If a robot tends to fall down, a foot angle is modified about the roll axis so that a swing foot contacts the ground horizontally. And a foot-landing point is also changed laterally to inhibit the robot from falling to the outside. To reduce a foot-landing impact, a virtual compliance control is applied to the vertical axis and the roll and pitch axes of the foot. Verification of the proposed method is conducted through experiments with a biped humanoid robot WABIAN-2R. WABIAN-2R realized a knee-bended walking with 30 mm breadth feet. Moreover, WABIAN-2R mounted on a human-like foot mechanism mimicking a human's foot arch structure realized a stable walking with the knee-stretched, heel-contact, and toe-off motion.

  8. Effects of Ankle Arthrodesis on Biomechanical Performance of the Entire Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Li, Zengyong; Wong, Duo Wai-Chi; Zhang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background/Methodology Ankle arthrodesis is one popular surgical treatment for ankle arthritis, chronic instability, and degenerative deformity. However, complications such as foot pain, joint arthritis, and bone fracture may cause patients to suffer other problems. Understanding the internal biomechanics of the foot is critical for assessing the effectiveness of ankle arthrodesis and provides a baseline for the surgical plan. This study aimed to understand the biomechanical effects of ankle arthrodesis on the entire foot and ankle using finite element analyses. A three-dimensional finite element model of the foot and ankle, involving 28 bones, 103 ligaments, the plantar fascia, major muscle groups, and encapsulated soft tissue, was developed and validated. The biomechanical performances of a normal foot and a foot with ankle arthrodesis were compared at three gait instants, first-peak, mid-stance, and second-peak. Principal Findings/Conclusions Changes in plantar pressure distribution, joint contact pressure and forces, von Mises stress on bone and foot deformation were predicted. Compared with those in the normal foot, the peak plantar pressure was increased and the center of pressure moved anteriorly in the foot with ankle arthrodesis. The talonavicular joint and joints of the first to third rays in the hind- and mid-foot bore the majority of the loading and sustained substantially increased loading after ankle arthrodesis. An average contact pressure of 2.14 MPa was predicted at the talonavicular joint after surgery and the maximum variation was shown to be 80% in joints of the first ray. The contact force and pressure of the subtalar joint decreased after surgery, indicating that arthritis at this joint was not necessarily a consequence of ankle arthrodesis but rather a progression of pre-existing degenerative changes. Von Mises stress in the second and third metatarsal bones at the second-peak instant increased to 52 MPa and 34 MPa, respectively, after

  9. The Effect of Ankle-Foot Orthoses on Community-Based Walking in Cerebral Palsy: A Clinical Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornson, Kristie; Zhou, Chuan; Fatone, Stefania; Orendurff, Michael; Stevenson, Richard; Rashid, Sariya

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effect of ankle-foot orthoses (AFO) on walking activity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). We used a randomized cross-over design with 11 children with bilateral CP, mean age 4.3 years. Subjects were randomized to current AFO-ON or AFO-OFF for 2 weeks and then crossed over. Walking activity (average total steps/day), intensity, and stride rate curves were collected via an ankle accelerometer. Group effects were examined with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and within-subject effects examined for more than 1 standard deviation change. No significant group difference was found in average total daily step count between treatment conditions (P = .48). For the AFO-ON condition, 2 subjects (18%) increased total steps/day; 4 (36%) increased walking time; 2 (18%) had more strides at a rate of more than 30 strides/min; and 2 (18%) reached higher peak intensity. Clinically prescribed AFO/footwear did not consistently enhance walking activity levels or intensity. Larger studies are warranted.

  10. Altering Shank-Rear-Foot Joint Coupling During Gait With Ankle Taping in Patients With Chronic Ankle Instability and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herb, C Collin; Chinn, Lisa; Hertel, Jay

    2016-02-01

    Lateral ankle sprain (LAS) is one of the most common injuries in active individuals. Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is a condition that commonly occurs after LAS and is associated with long-term disability and a high risk of multiple ankle sprains. Ankle taping is a commonly used intervention for the prevention of ankle sprains. To analyze the ankle-joint coupling using vector coding during walking and jogging gait with the application of ankle tape and without ankle tape in young adults with and without CAI. Observational laboratory study design. Patients walked and jogged on an instrumented treadmill while taped and not taped. Fifteen strides for each subject were collected and analyzed using a vector-coding technique to compare magnitude coupled motion, ratio of coupled motion, and the variability (VCV) within groups. Within-group means and 90% confidence intervals (CI) were compared between the taped and nontaped condition, and where the CIs did not overlap was considered significant. A 12-camera 3D motion-capture system with instrumented treadmill. 12 patients with CAI and 11 healthy controls. Magnitude to coupled motion, ratio of coupled motion, and the VCV of shank-rear-foot joint coupling. Magnitude of coupled motion and VCV were significantly lower in the taped condition than in the nontaped condition in both groups. Magnitude differences were identified near initial contact during walking and during swing phase of jogging. VCV differences were identified throughout the gait cycle at both walking and jogging. No differences were identified in theta between tape and nontaped conditions. A decrease in the magnitude of coupled motion and VCV may represent a protective mechanism of ankle taping in CAI and healthy patients during gait.

  11. The effect of ankle-foot orthoses on self-reported balance confidence in persons with chronic poststroke hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zissimopoulos, Angelika; Fatone, Stefania; Gard, Steven

    2014-04-01

    One intervention often used to address physical impairments post stroke is an ankle-foot orthosis. Ankle-foot orthoses may improve walking speed, stride length, and gait pattern. However, effects on balance, crucial for safe ambulation, are thus far inconclusive. One aspect of balance shown to contribute to functional ability is self-efficacy. Self-efficacy, defined as the belief in one's ability to succeed in particular situations, has been shown to be more strongly associated with activity and participation (as defined by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health) than physical performance measures of gait or balance. We investigated whether self-efficacy, or balance confidence when referred to in the context of balance capabilities, is improved with ankle-foot orthosis use. Repeated measures study design. Balance confidence was measured using the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale in 15 persons with chronic poststroke hemiplegia, with and without their regular ankle-foot orthosis. Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale scores were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.01) for the ankle-foot orthosis condition compared to no ankle-foot orthosis. One mechanism by which ankle-foot orthosis use may influence balance is improved balance confidence. Future work should explore the specific mechanisms underlying this improvement in self-efficacy. Clinical relevance Self-efficacy may be an important factor to consider when evaluating functioning post stroke. Rehabilitative interventions that improve balance confidence may help restore participation and overall functioning in pathological populations, particularly in the fall-prone poststroke population. Study results provide evidence for improvements in balance confidence with ankle-foot orthosis use.

  12. Sports Injuries to the Foot and Ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... School Soccer Season Prime time for foot and ankle injuries. Parents and coaches should think twice before coaxing ... Ankle Tennis involves much foot work. Foot and ankle injuries can occur from the continuous side-to-side ...

  13. Gait phase detection and discrimination between walking-jogging activities using hidden Markov models applied to foot motion data from a gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannini, Andrea; Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2012-09-01

    In this paper we present a classifier based on a hidden Markov model (HMM) that was applied to a gait treadmill dataset for gait phase detection and walking/jogging discrimination. The gait events foot strike, foot flat, heel off, toe off were detected using a uni-axial gyroscope that measured the foot instep angular velocity in the sagittal plane. Walking/jogging activities were discriminated by processing gyroscope data from each detected stride. Supervised learning of the classifier was undertaken using reference data from an optical motion analysis system. Remarkably good generalization properties were achieved across tested subjects and gait speeds. Sensitivity and specificity of gait phase detection exceeded 94% and 98%, respectively, with timing errors that were less than 20 ms, on average; the accuracy of walking/jogging discrimination was approximately 99%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Tumors of the foot skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, K.

    2007-01-01

    About 3-4% of all tumors and tumor-like lesions of the skeleton are located in the foot. Many of these lesions have a predilection for certain locations, so that the spectrum of entities occurring in the foot differs from the rest of the skeleton. Despite the fact that practically any entity can occur in the foot in rare cases, taken together the ten most frequent lesions make up for the vast majority of tumors and tumor-like lesions of the foot. The differential diagnosis of these lesions follows the general principles that apply in the rest of the skeleton. It is based on the analysis of the lesion's X-ray morphology and location, the patient's age, and in certain entities, the MR morphology. This article describes the most important tumors and tumor-like lesions of the foot, their differential diagnosis, and the principles of local staging. (orig.) [de

  15. An Investigation of Structure, Flexibility, and Function Variables that Discriminate Asymptomatic Foot Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Sarah P; Song, Jinsup; Kraszewski, Andrew P; Hafer, Jocelyn F; Rao, Smita; Backus, Sherry; Hillstrom, Rajshree M; Hillstrom, Howard J

    2017-07-01

    It has been suggested that foot type considers not only foot structure (high, normal, low arch), but also function (overpronation, normal, oversupination) and flexibility (reduced, normal, excessive). Therefore, this study used canonical regression analyses to assess which variables of foot structure, function, and flexibility can accurately discriminate between clinical foot type classifications. The feet of 61 asymptomatic, healthy adults (18-77 years) were classified as cavus (N = 24), rectus (N = 54), or planus (N = 44) using standard clinical measures. Custom jigs assessed foot structure and flexibility. Foot function was assessed using an emed-x plantar pressure measuring device. Canonical regression analyses were applied separately to extract essential structure, flexibility, and function variables. A third canonical regression analysis was performed on the extracted variables to identify a combined model. The initial combined model included 30 extracted variables; however 5 terminal variables (malleolar valgus index, arch height index while sitting, first metatarsophalangeal joint laxity while standing, pressure-time integral and maximum contact area of medial arch) were able to correctly predict 80.7% of foot types. These remaining variables focused on specific foot characteristics (hindfoot alignment, arch height, midfoot mechanics, Windlass mechanism) that could be essential to discriminating foot type.

  16. Three dimensional design, simulation and optimization of a novel, universal diabetic foot offloading orthosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumar, Chand; Ramachandran, K. I.

    2016-09-01

    Leg amputation is a major consequence of aggregated foot ulceration in diabetic patients. A common sense based treatment approach for diabetic foot ulceration is foot offloading where the patient is required to wear a foot offloading orthosis during the entire treatment course. Removable walker is an excellent foot offloading modality compared to the golden standard solution - total contact cast and felt padding. Commercially available foot offloaders are generally customized with huge cost and less patient compliance. This work suggests an optimized 3D model of a new type light weight removable foot offloading orthosis for diabetic patients. The device has simple adjustable features which make this suitable for wide range of patients with weight of 35 to 74 kg and height of 137 to 180 cm. Foot plate of this orthosis is unisexual, with a size adjustability of (US size) 6 to 10. Materials like Aluminum alloy 6061-T6, Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) and Polyurethane acted as the key player in reducing weight of the device to 0.804 kg. Static analysis of this device indicated that maximum stress developed in this device under a load of 1000 N is only 37.8 MPa, with a small deflection of 0.150 cm and factor of safety of 3.28, keeping the safety limits, whereas dynamic analysis results assures the load bearing capacity of this device. Thus, the proposed device can be safely used as an orthosis for offloading diabetic ulcerated foot.

  17. Real-time feedback of dynamic foot pressure index for gait training of toe-walking children with spastic diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Fang; Ren, Weiyan; Fan, Xiaoya; Chen, Wei; Li, Shuyu; Li, Deyu; Wang, Yu; Fan, Yubo

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether and how real-time feedback of dynamic foot pressure index (DFPI) could be used to correct toe-walking gait in spastic diplegic children with dynamic equinus. Thirteen spastic diplegic children with dynamic equinus were asked to wear a monitoring device to record their ambulation during daily gait, conventional training gait, and feedback training gait. Parameters based on their DFPI and stride duration were compared among the three test conditions. The results with feedback training were significantly better for all DFPI parameters in comparison to patients' daily gait and showed significant improvements in DFPI for toe-walking gait and percentage of normal gait in comparison to conventional training methods. Moreover, stride duration under two training gaits was longer than patient's daily gait, but there was no significant difference between the two training gaits. Although the stride duration for the two training gaits was similar, gait training with real-time feedback of DFPI did produce noticeably superior results by increasing heel-loading impulse of toe-walking gait and percentage of normal gait in comparison to convention training methods. However, its effectiveness was still impacted by the motion limitations of diplegic children. Implications for Rehabilitation The DFPI-based gait training feedback system introduced in this study was shown to be more effective at toe-walking gait rehabilitation training over conventional training methods. The feedback system accomplished superior improvement in correcting toe-walking gait, but its effectiveness in an increasing heel-loading impulse in normal gait was still limited by the motion limitations of diplegic children. Stride duration of normal gait and toe-walking gait was similar under conventional and feedback gait training.

  18. Temporal characteristics of foot roll-over during barefoot jogging: reference data for young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, A; De Clercq, D; Willems, T; Witvrouw, E

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a representative reference dataset for temporal characteristics of foot roll-over during barefoot jogging, based on plantar pressure data collected from 220 healthy young adults. The subjects ran at 3.3 ms-1 over a 16.5 m long running track, having a built-in pressure platform mounted on a force platform. The initial contact, final contact, time to peak pressure and the duration of contact at the lateral and medial heel, metatarsal heads I to V and the hallux were measured. Temporal plantar pressure variables were found to be reliable (93% of ICC coefficients above 0.75) and both gender and asymmetry influences could be neglected. Foot roll-over during jogging started with heel contact followed by a latero-medial contact of the metatarsals and finally the hallux. After heel off, the forefoot started to push off at the lateral metatarsals, followed by a more central push off over the second metatarsal and finally over the hallux. Based on the plantar pressure data, the stance phase during running was divided into four distinct phases: initial contact (8.2%), forefoot contact (11.3%), foot flat (25.3%) and forefoot push off (55.1%). These findings provide a reliable and representative reference dataset for temporal characteristics of foot roll-over during jogging of young adults that may also be relevant in the evaluation of running patterns.

  19. [Improved care of foot ulcer using foot pressure measurement and foot care method sheet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinen, Takaaki; Iha, Hiroyuki; Miyagi, Chiaki; Yusa, Masaru; Taira, Hitomi; Matsumoto, Kinuko

    2008-09-01

    At this sanatorium, the number of foot bottom ulcer patients was 13 and the tenure of the foot bottom ulcer was average 11 years. According to the treatment that was not unified, we thought about the cause of the prolongation. Therefore, we made evaluation and care method sheet ("foot care sheet") of the ulcer for the unification. We used the foot pressure measurement system (F-scan) to 4 patients for the pressure dispersion of the ulcer. We devised the protection law of the ulcer, and an ulcer did not require pressure more than 5 kilos/cm2. We recorded the size of the ulcer, weight of the liquid from ulcer, a photograph to care sheet once a week. I performed ulcer protection law and management with the foot care sheet to 4 patients for average 4 months. As a result, the ulcers of 3 patients out of 4 patients became small.

  20. EDITORIAL: Close contact Close contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-07-01

    The development of scanning probe techniques, such as scanning tunnelling microscopy [1], has often been touted as the catalyst for the surge in activity and progress in nanoscale science and technology. Images of nanoscale structural detail have served as an invaluable investigative resource and continue to fascinate with the fantastical reality of an intricate nether world existing all around us, but hidden from view of the naked eye by a disparity in scale. As is so often the case, the invention of the scanning tunnelling microscope heralded far more than just a useful new apparatus, it demonstrated the scope for exploiting the subtleties of electronic contact. The shrinking of electronic devices has been a driving force for research into molecular electronics, in which an understanding of the nature of electronic contact at junctions is crucial. In response, the number of experimental techniques in molecular electronics has increased rapidly in recent years. Scanning tunnelling microscopes have been used to study electron transfer through molecular films on a conducting substrate, and the need to monitor the contact force of scanning tunnelling electrodes led to the use of atomic force microscopy probes coated in a conducting layer as studied by Cui and colleagues in Arizona [2]. In this issue a collaboration of researchers at Delft University and Leiden University in the Netherlands report a new device architecture for the independent mechanical and electrostatic tuning of nanoscale charge transport, which will enable thorough studies of molecular transport in the future [3]. Scanning probes can also be used to pattern surfaces, such as through spatially-localized Suzuki and Heck reactions in chemical scanning probe lithography. Mechanistic aspects of spatially confined Suzuki and Heck chemistry are also reported in this issue by researchers in Oxford [4]. All these developments in molecular electronics fabrication and characterization provide alternative

  1. Immersion Foot: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Zachary; Kman, Nicholas

    2015-08-01

    Immersion foot (commonly called "trench foot") was originally described in the military literature during World War I. Since that time, the emergency department (ED) has become a common setting where this injury presents. However, this topic is neglected in the emergency medicine literature. The purpose of this case report is to present trench foot in a way that is relevant to emergency physicians and to provide an up-to-date summary of the history, case reports, physiology, clinical presentation, and treatment of this injury. Here we present the case of a homeless, schizophrenic patient who presented to one Midwestern ED in January for immersion foot. Photos of the actual patient are shown to illustrate the case. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Due to unfamiliarity, immersion foot can go undiagnosed during assessment of patients exposed to moist environments. In addition, patients at increased risk for developing immersion foot are frequently encountered in EDs. Most importantly, the appropriate treatment for immersion foot is different than the treatment for other freezing cold injuries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Selected static foot assessments do not predict medial longitudinal arch motion during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Ben; Cramp, Mary; Morrison, Stewart C

    2015-01-01

    Static assessments of the foot are commonly advocated within the running community to classify the foot with a view to recommending the appropriate type of running shoe. The aim of this work was to determine whether selected static foot assessment could predict medial longitudinal arch (MLA) motion during running. Fifteen physically active males (27 ± 5 years, 1.77 ± 0.04 m, 80 ± 10 kg) participated in the study. Foot Posture Index (FPI-6), MLA angle and rearfoot angle were measured in a relaxed standing position. MLA motion was calculated using the position of retro-reflective markers tracked by a VICON motion analysis system, while participants ran barefoot on a treadmill at a self-selected pace (2.8 ± 0.5 m.s(-1)). Bivariate linear regression was used to determine whether the static measures predicted MLA deformation and MLA angles at initial contact, midsupport and toe off. All three foot classification measures were significant predictors of MLA angle at initial contact, midsupport and toe off (p static foot classification measures were significant predictors of MLA deformation during the stance phase of running. Selected static foot measures did not predict dynamic MLA deformation during running. Given that MLA deformation has theoretically been linked to running injuries, the clinical relevance of predicting MLA angle at discrete time points during the stance phase of running is questioned. These findings also question the validity of the selected static foot classification measures when looking to characterise the foot during running. This indicates that alternative means of assessing the foot to inform footwear selection are required.

  3. Mortality Associated With Acute Charcot Foot and Neuropathic Foot Ulceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baal, Juliette; Hubbard, Richard; Game, Fran; Jeffcoate, William

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the mortality of patients with an acute Charcot foot with a matched population with uninfected neuropathic foot ulcers (NFUs). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data were extracted from a specialist departmental database, supplemented by hospital records. The findings were compared with the results of earlier populations with Charcot foot and uninfected NFUs managed from 1980. Finally, the results of all patients with acute Charcot foot and all control subjects managed between 1980 and 2007 were compared with normative mortality data for the U.K. population. RESULTS A total of 70 patients presented with an acute Charcot foot (mean age 57.4 ± 12.0 years; 48 male [68.6%]) between 2001 and 2007; there were 66 matched control subjects. By 1 October 2008, 13 (eight male; 18.6%) patients with a Charcot foot had died, after a median of 2.1 years (interquartile range 1.1–3.3). Twenty-two (20 male; 33.3%) control subjects had also died after a median of 1.3 years (0.6–2.5). There was no difference in survival between the two groups (log-rank P > 0.05). Median survival of all 117 patients with acute Charcot foot managed between 1980 and 2007 was 7.88 years (4.0–15.4) and was not significantly different from the control NFU patients (8.43 years [3.4–15.8]). When compared with normative U.K. population data, life expectancy in the two groups was reduced by 14.4 and 13.9 years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS These data confirm that the mortality in patients presenting to our unit with either an acute Charcot foot and an uninfected neuropathic ulcer was unexpectedly high. PMID:20185744

  4. Gait performance and foot pressure distribution during wearable robot-assisted gait in elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Hyun; Lee, Hwang-Jae; Chang, Won Hyuk; Choi, Byung-Ok; Lee, Jusuk; Kim, Jeonghun; Ryu, Gyu-Ha; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2017-11-28

    A robotic exoskeleton device is an intelligent system designed to improve gait performance and quality of life for the wearer. Robotic technology has developed rapidly in recent years, and several robot-assisted gait devices were developed to enhance gait function and activities of daily living in elderly adults and patients with gait disorders. In this study, we investigated the effects of the Gait-enhancing Mechatronic System (GEMS), a new wearable robotic hip-assist device developed by Samsung Electronics Co, Ltd., Korea, on gait performance and foot pressure distribution in elderly adults. Thirty elderly adults who had no neurological or musculoskeletal abnormalities affecting gait participated in this study. A three-dimensional (3D) motion capture system, surface electromyography and the F-Scan system were used to collect data on spatiotemporal gait parameters, muscle activity and foot pressure distribution under three conditions: free gait without robot assistance (FG), robot-assisted gait with zero torque (RAG-Z) and robot-assisted gait (RAG). We found increased gait speed, cadence, stride length and single support time in the RAG condition. Reduced rectus femoris and medial gastrocnemius muscle activity throughout the terminal stance phase and reduced effort of the medial gastrocnemius muscle throughout the pre-swing phase were also observed in the RAG condition. In addition, walking with the assistance of GEMS resulted in a significant increase in foot pressure distribution, specifically in maximum force and peak pressure of the total foot, medial masks, anterior masks and posterior masks. The results of the present study reveal that GEMS may present an alternative way of restoring age-related changes in gait such as gait instability with muscle weakness, reduced step force and lower foot pressure in elderly adults. In addition, GEMS improved gait performance by improving push-off power and walking speed and reducing muscle activity in the lower

  5. Flat foot and femoral anteversion in children--a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafiropoulos, George; Prasad, Kodali Siva R K; Kouboura, Thomai; Danis, George

    2009-03-01

    Flat foot in children during the first years of life evokes significant parental concern. Flat foot, intoeing and femoral anteversion may well be differential dimensions of developmental pathodynamics with potential for inter-related developmental correction. While correlation of femoral anteversion with intoeing is documented, its relationship with flat foot remains unclear. The aim of this prospective study is to investigate the relationship between flat foot and internal rotation of hip, indirectly femoral anteversion. 651 Children, 339 boys and 312 girls, aged 3-6 years, were examined and Contact Index II for flat foot as well as internal rotation of hip measured. 82 children with other foot and leg deformities were excluded from further analysis. Out of 569 children, 95 (16.7%) had flat feet--56 bilateral, 39 unilateral--with Contact Index II of 0.88 or above. All children with flat feet (and none of the normal 474) had raised internal rotation of hip (mean 69.9 degrees, range 62-80 degrees). Regression analysis established an unequivocal and highly significant statistical relationship between flat foot and increased internal rotation of hip (F=168.1, p<0.001, r=0.53) in children between 3 and 6 years.

  6. Novel In-Shoe Exoskeleton for Offloading of Forefoot Pressure for Individuals With Diabetic Foot Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roser, Mark C; Canavan, Paul K; Najafi, Bijan; Cooper Watchman, Marcy; Vaishnav, Kairavi; Armstrong, David G

    2017-09-01

    Infected diabetic foot ulcers are the leading cause of lower limb amputation. This study evaluated the ability of in-shoe exoskeletons to redirect forces outside of body and through an exoskeleton as an effective means of offloading plantar pressure, the major contributing factor of ulceration. We compared pressure in the forefoot and hind-foot of participants (n = 5) shod with novel exoskeleton footwear. Plantar pressure readings were taken during a 6-m walk at participant's self-selected speed, and five strides were averaged. Results were taken with Achilles exotendon springs disengaged as a baseline, followed by measurements taken with the springs engaged. When springs were engaged, all participants demonstrated a decrease in forefoot pressure, averaging a 22% reduction ( P exoskeleton solution. Results suggest that when the novel exoskeletons were deployed in footwear and exotendon springs engaged, force was successfully transferred from the lower leg through the exoskeleton-enabled shoe to ground, reducing load on the forefoot. The results need to be confirmed in a larger sample. Another study is warranted to examine the effectiveness of this offloading to prevent diabetic foot ulcer, while minimizing gait alteration in daily physical activities.

  7. Walking training with cueing of cadence improves walking speed and stride length after stroke more than walking training alone: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Lucas R; de Oliveira, Camila Quel; Ada, Louise; Michaelsen, Stella M; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F

    2015-01-01

    After stroke, is walking training with cueing of cadence superior to walking training alone in improving walking speed, stride length, cadence and symmetry? Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised or controlled trials. Adults who have had a stroke. Walking training with cueing of cadence. Four walking outcomes were of interest: walking speed, stride length, cadence and symmetry. This review included seven trials involving 211 participants. Because one trial caused substantial statistical heterogeneity, meta-analyses were conducted with and without this trial. Walking training with cueing of cadence improved walking speed by 0.23 m/s (95% CI 0.18 to 0.27, I(2)=0%), stride length by 0.21 m (95% CI 0.14 to 0.28, I(2)=18%), cadence by 19 steps/minute (95% CI 14 to 23, I(2)=40%), and symmetry by 15% (95% CI 3 to 26, random effects) more than walking training alone. This review provides evidence that walking training with cueing of cadence improves walking speed and stride length more than walking training alone. It may also produce benefits in terms of cadence and symmetry of walking. The evidence appears strong enough to recommend the addition of 30 minutes of cueing of cadence to walking training, four times a week for 4 weeks, in order to improve walking in moderately disabled individuals with stroke. PROSPERO (CRD42013005873). Copyright © 2014 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Priorities in offloading the diabetic foot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, Sicco A.

    2012-01-01

    Biomechanical factors play an important role in diabetic foot disease. Reducing high foot pressures (i.e. offloading) is one of the main goals in healing and preventing foot ulceration. Evidence-based guidelines show the strong association between the efficacy to offload the foot and clinical

  9. Effects of ankle-foot orthoses for children with hemiplegia on weight-bearing and functional ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Tara; Hunt, Adrienne; Thomas, Bronwyn; Harris, Lynne; Burns, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    To compare the effects of a leaf spring ankle-foot orthosis (LAFO) and a hinged AFO with plantar flexion stop with that of shoe only on weight-bearing and function in children with hemiplegia. The study used an experimental single-subject alternating treatment design with replication. Outcomes measured were weight-bearing symmetry, weight-bearing on the hemiplegic rear foot compared with that of the forefoot, functional ability, and child and parent preference. Both AFOs increased relative contact area of the hemiplegic foot. The LAFO increased relative force through the hemiplegic foot. There was increased pressure through the rear foot, time spent on the rear foot, and force through the forefoot. Rear foot contact area increased in the LAFO. Neither AFO affected function. Patient preference for AFO condition was inconsistent. Both AFOs increased weight-bearing through the hemiplegic foot and rear foot, indicative of potential benefit to growth. Neither the LAFO nor the hinged AFO with plantar flexion stop improved function of the children.

  10. Epidemiological study of foot and ankle injuries in recreational sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Alexandre de Paiva; Lara, Luiz Carlos Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    This is a retrospective study showing the incidence, type and extent of injuries occurring in the foot and/or ankle as a result of recreational sports practice. We treated 131 patients, of which 123 were male and 8 female, with a history of trauma and pain in the foot and/or ankle after the practicing recreational sports. The average age of the male patients was 24.53 years. The evaluation was done through a research protocol, which contained the variables age, sex, diagnosis, and type of recreational sport. The sports were classified according to the American Medical Association, which divides them into contact and non-contact sports. 82.4% of the sample practiced contact sports, while 17.6% practiced sports classified as non-contact. The sprained ankle was the most frequent type of injury, especially those of grade I and II. Soccer was the sport responsible for the highest incidence of injuries and among its various forms the indoor soccer presented the highest frequency of injuries (35%). In the non-contact sports, the highest incidence was found in running. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series.

  11. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-08

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a contagious illness that mainly affects children under five. In this podcast, Dr. Eileen Schneider talks about the symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease, how it spreads, and ways to help protect yourself and your children from getting infected with the virus.  Created: 8/8/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 8/8/2013.

  12. Recommended number of strides for automatic assessment of gait symmetry and regularity in above-knee amputees by means of accelerometry and autocorrelation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tura Andrea

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symmetry and regularity of gait are essential outcomes of gait retraining programs, especially in lower-limb amputees. This study aims presenting an algorithm to automatically compute symmetry and regularity indices, and assessing the minimum number of strides for appropriate evaluation of gait symmetry and regularity through autocorrelation of acceleration signals. Methods Ten transfemoral amputees (AMP and ten control subjects (CTRL were studied. Subjects wore an accelerometer and were asked to walk for 70 m at their natural speed (twice. Reference values of step and stride regularity indices (Ad1 and Ad2 were obtained by autocorrelation analysis of the vertical and antero-posterior acceleration signals, excluding initial and final strides. The Ad1 and Ad2 coefficients were then computed at different stages by analyzing increasing portions of the signals (considering both the signals cleaned by initial and final strides, and the whole signals. At each stage, the difference between Ad1 and Ad2 values and the corresponding reference values were compared with the minimum detectable difference, MDD, of the index. If that difference was less than MDD, it was assumed that the portion of signal used in the analysis was of sufficient length to allow reliable estimation of the autocorrelation coefficient. Results All Ad1 and Ad2 indices were lower in AMP than in CTRL (P Conclusions Without the need to identify and eliminate the phases of gait initiation and termination, twenty strides can provide a reasonable amount of information to reliably estimate gait regularity in transfemoral amputees.

  13. Flexible Foot Test Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurita, C.H.; /Fermilab

    1987-04-27

    A test model of the flexible foot support was constructed early in the design stages to check its reactions to applied loads. The prototype was made of SS 304 and contained four vertical plates as opposed to the fourteen Inconel 718 plates which comprise the actual structure. Due to the fact that the prototype was built before the design of the support was finalized, the plate dimensions are different from those of the actual proposed design (i.e. model plate thickness is approximately one-half that of the actual plates). See DWG. 3740.210-MC-222376 for assembly details of the test model and DWG. 3740.210-MB-222377 for plate dimensions. This stanchion will be required to not only support the load of the inner vessel of the cryostat and its contents, but it must also allow for the movement of the vessel due to thermal contraction. Assuming that each vertical plate acts as a column, then the following formula from the Manual of Steel Construction (American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc., Eigth edition, 1980) can be applied to determine whether or not such columns undergoing simultaneous axial compression and transverse loading are considered safe for the given loading. The first term is representative of the axially compressive stress, and the second term, the bending stress. If the actual compressive stress is greater than 15% of the allowable compressive stress, then there are additional considerations which must be accounted for in the bending stress term.

  14. Imaging the diabetic foot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, R.H. [Dept. of Radiological Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Tong, D.T.F. [Dept. of Radiological Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Crim, J.R. [Durham Radiology Associates, Durham, NC (United States); Seeger, L.L. [Dept. of Radiological Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of infection or neuropathy of the diabetic foot is the key to successful management. Angiopathy leads to ischemia which, in combination with peripheral neuropathy, predisposes to pedal skin ulceration, the precursor of osteomyelitis. Chronic hyperglycemia promotes production of glycosylated end products which accumulate on endothelial proteins, causing ischemia of the vasa nervorum. When combined with axonal degeneration of the sensory nerves, the result is hypertrophic neuroarthropathy. Should the sympathetic nerve fibers also be damaged, the resultant loss of vasoconstrictive impulses leads to hyperemia and atrophic neuroarthropathy. Plain radiography, although less sensitive than radionuclide, magnetic resonance (MR), and computed tomographic examinations, should be the initial procedure for imaging suspected osteomyelitis in the diabetic patient. If the radiographs are normal but the clinical suspicion of osteomyelitis is strong, a three-phase {sup 99m}Tc-MDP scan or MR imaging is recommended. An equivocal {sup 99m}Tc-MDP scan should be followed by MR imaging. To exclude osteomyelitis at a site of neuroarthropathy, a {sup 111}In white blood cell scan is preferable. To obtain a specimen of bone for bacteriological studies, percutaneous core biopsy is the procedure of choice, with the entrance of the needle well beyond the edge of the subjacent ulcer. (orig.)

  15. Validation of distal limb mounted inertial measurement unit sensors for stride detection in Warmblood horses at walk and trot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragança, F M; Bosch, S; Voskamp, J P; Marin-Perianu, M; Van der Zwaag, B J; Vernooij, J C M; van Weeren, P R; Back, W

    2017-07-01

    Inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensor-based techniques are becoming more popular in horses as a tool for objective locomotor assessment. To describe, evaluate and validate a method of stride detection and quantification at walk and trot using distal limb mounted IMU sensors. Prospective validation study comparing IMU sensors and motion capture with force plate data. A total of seven Warmblood horses equipped with metacarpal/metatarsal IMU sensors and reflective markers for motion capture were hand walked and trotted over a force plate. Using four custom built algorithms hoof-on/hoof-off timing over the force plate were calculated for each trial from the IMU data. Accuracy of the computed parameters was calculated as the mean difference in milliseconds between the IMU or motion capture generated data and the data from the force plate, precision as the s.d. of these differences and percentage of error with accuracy of the calculated parameter as a percentage of the force plate stance duration. Accuracy, precision and percentage of error of the best performing IMU algorithm for stance duration at walk were 28.5, 31.6 ms and 3.7% for the forelimbs and -5.5, 20.1 ms and -0.8% for the hindlimbs, respectively. At trot the best performing algorithm achieved accuracy, precision and percentage of error of -27.6/8.8 ms/-8.4% for the forelimbs and 6.3/33.5 ms/9.1% for the hindlimbs. The described algorithms have not been assessed on different surfaces. Inertial measurement unit technology can be used to determine temporal kinematic stride variables at walk and trot justifying its use in gait and performance analysis. However, precision of the method may not be sufficient to detect all possible lameness-related changes. These data seem promising enough to warrant further research to evaluate whether this approach will be useful for appraising the majority of clinically relevant gait changes encountered in practice. © 2016 The Authors. Equine Veterinary Journal published by

  16. Postural stability of biped robots and the foot-rotation indicator (FRI) point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goswami, A. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Computer and Information Science

    1999-06-01

    The focus of this paper is the problem of foot rotation in biped robots during the single-support phase. Foot rotation is an indication of postural instability, which should be carefully treated in a dynamically stable walk and avoided altogether in a statically stable walk. The author introduces the foot-rotation indicator (FRI) point, which is a point on the foot/ground-contact surface where the net ground-reaction force would have to act to keep the foot stationary. To ensure no foot rotation, the FRI point must remain within the convex hull of the foot-support area. In contrast with the ground projection of the center of mass (GCoM), which is a static criterion, the FRI point incorporates robot dynamics. As opposed to the center of pressure (CoP) -- better known as the zero-moment point (ZMP) in the robotics literature -- which may not leave the support area, the FRI point may leave the area. In fact, the position of the FRI point outside the footprint indicates the direction of the impending rotation and the magnitude of rotational moment acting on the foot. Owing to these important properties, the FRI point helps not only to monitor the state of postural stability of a biped robot during the entire gait cycle, but indicates the severity of instability of the gait as well. In response to a recent need, the paper also resolves the misconceptions surrounding the CoP/ZMP equivalence.

  17. Foot and body control of biped robots to walk on irregularly protruded uneven surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Eung Seo

    2009-02-01

    This correspondence proposes a control method for biped robots walking on a geometrically uneven surface with irregular protrusions. The focus is to maintain robot stability in leg and foot motions in order to adapt the foot to uneven terrains. Under the assumption that contact sensors are evenly installed at the foot soles, the geometric information under the landing foot is represented by a terrain matrix, whose elements represent the height of protruded cones. The control strategy of a landing phase (LP) is to form a large polygon with the contact points between the foot and the ground, based on the current zero-moment point (ZMP) and the locations of contact points during the transition from the LP to the stable double-support phase. The center of the polygon formed by the contact points at the end of the LP is to be used as the ZMP when the trajectory for the next step is generated. The gravity-compensated inverted-pendulum-mode-based trajectory is modified based on the newly located ZMP position and is interpolated to remove any trajectory discontinuity and to ensure a smooth transition. A series of computer simulations of a 28-degree-of-freedom (DOF) biped robot with a six-DOF environment model using SimMechanics shows that a stable compliant locomotion on uneven surfaces is successfully achieved with the proposed method.

  18. Online Biped Walking Pattern Generation with Contact Consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqi Hou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel online biped walking gait pattern generating method with contact consistency is proposed. Generally, it’s desirable that there is no foot-ground slipping during biped walking. By treating the hip of the biped robot as a linear inverted pendulum (LIP, a foot placement controller that takes the contact consistency into account is proposed to tracking the desired orbit energy. By selecting the hip’s horizontal locomotion as the parameter, the trajectories in task space for walking are planned. A task space controller without calculating the inversion of inertial matrix is presented. Simulation experiments are implemented on a virtual 5-link point foot biped robot. The results show the effectiveness of the walking pattern generating method which can realize a stable periodic gait cycle without slipping and falling even suffering a sudden disturbance.

  19. The Effect of the Accelerometer Operating Range on Biomechanical Parameters: Stride Length, Velocity, and Peak Tibial Acceleration during Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Mitschke

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have used accelerometers with various operating ranges (ORs when measuring biomechanical parameters. However, it is still unclear whether ORs influence the accuracy of running parameters, and whether the different stiffnesses of footwear midsoles influence this accuracy. The purpose of the present study was to systematically investigate the influence of OR on the accuracy of stride length, running velocity, and on peak tibial acceleration. Twenty-one recreational heel strike runners ran on a 15-m indoor track at self-selected running speeds in three footwear conditions (low to high midsole stiffness. Runners were equipped with an inertial measurement unit (IMU affixed to the heel cup of the right shoe and with a uniaxial accelerometer at the right tibia. Accelerometers (at the tibia and included in the IMU with a high OR of ±70 g were used as the reference and the data were cut at ±32, ±16, and at ±8 g in post-processing, before calculating parameters. The results show that the OR influenced the outcomes of all investigated parameters, which were not influenced by tested footwear conditions. The lower ORs were associated with an underestimation error for all biomechanical parameters, which increased noticeably with a decreasing OR. It can be concluded that accelerometers with a minimum OR of ±32 g should be used to avoid inaccurate measurements.

  20. Bacteriology of diabetic foot lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoga, R; Khairul, A; Sunita, K; Suresh, C

    2006-02-01

    Infection plays a pivotal role in enhancing a diabetic foot at risk toward amputation. Effective antibiotic therapy against the offending pathogens is an important component of treatment of diabetic foot infections. Recognition of the pathogen is always difficult as the representative deep tissue sample for culture is surrounded by ulcer surface harbouring colonies of organisms frequently labelled as skin commensals. The emergent of resistant strains represents a compounding problem standing against efforts to prevent amputation. This study was undertaken to identify the pathogens associated with diabetic foot infection in terms of their frequency and sensitivity against certain commonly used antibiotics. Forty-four consecutive patients with open diabetic foot infections had wound swab taken for culture and sensitivity testing. Cultures positive were observed in 89% of the cases with Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeroginosa encountered in 20%, 14% and 14% of cases respectively. Mixed growths were isolated in 6% of cultures. All Staphylcoccus aureus isolates were resistant to Penicillin but 80% were sensitive to Erythromycin and Co-trimoxazole. Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were sensitive to Methicillin and Gentamycin in 80% and 60% of cases respectively, and resistant to Ampicillin and Ceftazidime in 83% and 50% respectively. All Pseudomonas aeroginosa isolates were sensitive to Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin but 50% were resistant to Gentamycin. There was no single antibiotic possessing good coverage for all common organisms isolated from diabetic foot lesions. Staphylococcus aureus remains the predominant cause of diabetic foot infections followed by Klebsiela pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Most infections are monomicrobial. The emergence of multiresistant organisms is a worrying feature in diabetic foot infections.

  1. Exploitation of Stereophotogrammetric Measurement of a Foot in Analysis of Plantar Pressure Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankova, B.; Koudelka, T.; Pavelka, K.; Janura, M.; Jelen, K.

    2016-06-01

    Stereophotogrammetry as a method for the surface scanning can be used to capture some properties of the human body parts. The objective of this study is to quantify the foot stress distribution in 3D during its quasi-static stand using a footprint into an imprinting material when knowing its mechanical properties. One foot of a female, having the mass of 65kg, was chosen for the FEM foot model construction. After obtaining her foot imprint to the dental imprinting material, its positive plaster cast was created, whose surface was possible to scan using stereophotogrammetry. The imprint surface digital model was prepared with the help of the Konica-Minolta Vivid 9i triangulation scanner. This procedure provides the measured object models in a high resolution. The resulting surface mesh of the foot imprint involved 9.600 nodes and 14.000 triangles, approximately, after reduction due to the FEM analysis. Simulation of foot imprint was solved as the 3D time dependent nonlinear mechanical problem in the ADINA software. The sum of vertical reactions calculated at the contact area nodes was 320.5 N, which corresponds to the mass of 32.67 kg. This value is in a good agreement with the subject half weight - the load of one foot during its quasi-static stand. The partial pressures resulting from this mathematical model match the real pressures on the interface of the foot and imprinting material quite closely. Principally, these simulations can be used to assess the contact pressures in practical cases, e.g., between a foot and its footwear.

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... Costume Contact Lenses Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored ...

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non-Prescription Contact Lens Laura: Vision ... Robyn: Blurry Vision and Daily Eye Drops After One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety ...

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ...

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF A FOOT ORTHOTIC ON LOWER EXTREMITY TRANSVERSE PLANE KINEMATICS IN COLLEGIATE FEMALE ATHLETES WITH PES PLANUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Carcia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries in female athletes remain prevalent. Athletes with excessive foot pronation have been identified to be at greater risk for non-contact ACL injury. Excessive foot pronation has been linked to increased medial tibial rotation. Increased medial tibial rotation heightens ACL strain and has been observed at or near the time of ACL injury. Foot orthotics have been shown to decrease medial tibial rotation during walking and running tasks. The effect of a foot orthotic on activities that simulate a non-contact ACL injury mechanism (i.e. landing however is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether a foot orthotic was capable of altering transverse plane lower extremity kinematics in female athletes during landing. Twenty uninjured collegiate female athletes participating in the sports of basketball, soccer or volleyball with pes planus volunteered. Utilizing a repeated measures counterbalanced design, subjects completed two landing tasks with and without a foot orthotic using standardized footwear. The prefabricated orthotic had a rigid shell and a 6 extrinsic rear-foot varus post. Dependent measures included initial contact angle, peak angle, excursion and time to peak angle for both the tibia and femur. Statistical analysis suggested that the selected foot orthosis had little influence over lower extremity transverse plane kinematics. Several factors including: the limitation of a static measure to predict dynamic movement, inter-subject variability and the physical characteristics of the orthotic device likely account for the results. Future research should examine the influence of different types of foot orthotics not only on lower extremity kinematics but also tibiofemoral kinetics

  6. CT guided diagnostic foot injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saifuddin, A.; Abdus-Samee, M.; Mann, C.; Singh, D.; Angel, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To describe a CT technique for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic injections in the hind- and mid-foot. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a period of 50 months, 28 individuals were referred for diagnostic and therapeutic hind- and mid-foot injections before possible arthrodesis. A CT technique was developed that allowed entry into the various joints using a vertical approach. Numbers of joints injected were as follows: posterior subtalar, 21; talonavicular, 4; calcaneonavicular, calcaneocuboid, navicular-cuneiform and 5th metatarsocuboid joints, 1 each. RESULTS: All injections but one were technically successful. Significant relief of symptoms was noted by 16 participants, whereas for 9 there was no improvement and for 3 a partial response was achieved. CONCLUSION: CT is a simple and safe alternative to fluoroscopy for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic foot injections, and may be the technique of choice in cases of disordered anatomy

  7. The Charcot Foot in Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frykberg, Robert G.; Armstrong, David G.; Boulton, Andrew J.M.; Edmonds, Michael; Van, Georges Ha; Hartemann, Agnes; Game, Frances; Jeffcoate, William; Jirkovska, Alexandra; Jude, Edward; Morbach, Stephan; Morrison, William B.; Pinzur, Michael; Pitocco, Dario; Sanders, Lee; Wukich, Dane K.; Uccioli, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    The diabetic Charcot foot syndrome is a serious and potentially limb-threatening lower-extremity complication of diabetes. First described in 1883, this enigmatic condition continues to challenge even the most experienced practitioners. Now considered an inflammatory syndrome, the diabetic Charcot foot is characterized by varying degrees of bone and joint disorganization secondary to underlying neuropathy, trauma, and perturbations of bone metabolism. An international task force of experts was convened by the American Diabetes Association and the American Podiatric Medical Association in January 2011 to summarize available evidence on the pathophysiology, natural history, presentations, and treatment recommendations for this entity. PMID:21868781

  8. Foot-and-mouth disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Charleston, Bryan; Jackson, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease is an economically important, highly contagious, disease of cloven-hoofed animals characterized by the appearance of vesicles (blisters) on the feet and in and around the mouth. The causative agent, foot-and-mouth disease virus, was the first mammalian virus to be discovere......-encoded proteases, to about 12 mature products which are required for virus replication and assembly. Some of these viral proteins modify host cell activities to block anti-virus defence systems. Thus, this small virus displays a remarkably complex array of biological activities....

  9. Comparison of hexahedral and tetrahedral elements in finite element analysis of the foot and footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadepalli, Srinivas C; Erdemir, Ahmet; Cavanagh, Peter R

    2011-08-11

    Finite element analysis has been widely used in the field of foot and footwear biomechanics to determine plantar pressures as well as stresses and strains within soft tissue and footwear materials. When dealing with anatomical structures such as the foot, hexahedral mesh generation accounts for most of the model development time due to geometric complexities imposed by branching and embedded structures. Tetrahedral meshing, which can be more easily automated, has been the approach of choice to date in foot and footwear biomechanics. Here we use the nonlinear finite element program Abaqus (Simulia, Providence, RI) to examine the advantages and disadvantages of tetrahedral and hexahedral elements under compression and shear loading, material incompressibility, and frictional contact conditions, which are commonly seen in foot and footwear biomechanics. This study demonstrated that for a range of simulation conditions, hybrid hexahedral elements (Abaqus C3D8H) consistently performed well while hybrid linear tetrahedral elements (Abaqus C3D4H) performed poorly. On the other hand, enhanced quadratic tetrahedral elements with improved stress visualization (Abaqus C3D10I) performed as well as the hybrid hexahedral elements in terms of contact pressure and contact shear stress predictions. Although the enhanced quadratic tetrahedral element simulations were computationally expensive compared to hexahedral element simulations in both barefoot and footwear conditions, the enhanced quadratic tetrahedral element formulation seems to be very promising for foot and footwear applications as a result of decreased labor and expedited model development, all related to facilitated mesh generation. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Fleet of Foot: Adolescent Foot and Ankle Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legacy, Kelly Bromley

    2018-01-01

    In today's world of advanced technologies, accessible transportation, and fingertip talking, adolescents are spending too many hours each day sedentary. The purpose of this article is to underscore the importance of foot and ankle mobility in an adolescent population that spends very little time on their feet. Physical educators and athletic…

  11. A systematic review of instruments measuring foot function, foot pain, and foot-related disability in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Leeden, M.; Steultjens, M.P.M.; Terwee, C.B.; Rosenbaum, D.; Turner, D.; Woodburn, J.; Dekker, J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To compose an inventory of instruments that have been described to measure foot function (i.e., pressure and/or gait parameters), foot pain, and foot-related disability in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to investigate the clinimetric quality of these measures. Methods. A systematic search

  12. Automated stride assistance device improved the gait parameters and energy cost during walking of healthy middle-aged females but not those of young controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Risa; Matsumoto, Hiromi; Ueki, Masaru; Uehara, Kazutake; Nozawa, Nobuko; Osaki, Mari; Hagino, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of an automated stride assistance device on gait parameters and energy cost during walking performed by healthy middle-aged and young females. [Subjects and Methods] Ten middle-aged females and 10 young females were recruited as case and control participants, respectively. The participants walked for 3 minutes continuously under two different experimental conditions: with the device and without the device. Walking distance, mean walking speed, mean step length, cadence, walk ratio and the physiological cost index during the 3-minutes walk were measured. [Results] When walking with the stride assistance device, the step length and walk ratio of the middle-aged group were significantly higher than without it. Also, during walking without assistance from the device, the physiological cost index of the middle-aged group significantly increased; whereas during walking with assistance, there was no change. The intergroup comparison in the middle-aged group showed the physiological cost index was lower under the experimental condition with assistance provided, as opposed to the condition without the provision of assistance. [Conclusion] The results of this study show that the stride assistance device improved the gait parameters of the middle-aged group but not those of young controls. PMID:28174452

  13. Partial body weight support treadmill training speed influences paretic and non-paretic leg muscle activation, stride characteristics, and ratings of perceived exertion during acute stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnfield, Judith M; Buster, Thad W; Goldman, Amy J; Corbridge, Laura M; Harper-Hanigan, Kellee

    2016-06-01

    Intensive task-specific training is promoted as one approach for facilitating neural plastic brain changes and associated motor behavior gains following neurologic injury. Partial body weight support treadmill training (PBWSTT), is one task-specific approach frequently used to improve walking during the acute period of stroke recovery (training parameters and physiologic demands during this early recovery phase. To examine the impact of four walking speeds on stride characteristics, lower extremity muscle demands (both paretic and non-paretic), Borg ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood pressure. A prospective, repeated measures design was used. Ten inpatients post unilateral stroke participated. Following three familiarization sessions, participants engaged in PBWSTT at four predetermined speeds (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0mph) while bilateral electromyographic and stride characteristic data were recorded. RPE was evaluated immediately following each trial. Stride length, cadence, and paretic single limb support increased with faster walking speeds (p⩽0.001), while non-paretic single limb support remained nearly constant. Faster walking resulted in greater peak and mean muscle activation in the paretic medial hamstrings, vastus lateralis and medial gastrocnemius, and non-paretic medial gastrocnemius (p⩽0.001). RPE also was greatest at the fastest compared to two slowest speeds (ptraining at the slowest speeds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Most suitable mother wavelet for the analysis of fractal properties of stride interval time series via the average wavelet coefficient method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenwei; VanSwearingen, Jessie; Brach, Jennifer S; Perera, Subashan; Sejdić, Ervin

    2017-01-01

    Human gait is a complex interaction of many nonlinear systems and stride intervals exhibiting self-similarity over long time scales that can be modeled as a fractal process. The scaling exponent represents the fractal degree and can be interpreted as a "biomarker" of relative diseases. The previous study showed that the average wavelet method provides the most accurate results to estimate this scaling exponent when applied to stride interval time series. The purpose of this paper is to determine the most suitable mother wavelet for the average wavelet method. This paper presents a comparative numerical analysis of 16 mother wavelets using simulated and real fractal signals. Simulated fractal signals were generated under varying signal lengths and scaling exponents that indicate a range of physiologically conceivable fractal signals. The five candidates were chosen due to their good performance on the mean square error test for both short and long signals. Next, we comparatively analyzed these five mother wavelets for physiologically relevant stride time series lengths. Our analysis showed that the symlet 2 mother wavelet provides a low mean square error and low variance for long time intervals and relatively low errors for short signal lengths. It can be considered as the most suitable mother function without the burden of considering the signal length. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modelling of gecko foot for future robot application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, A.; Ong, N. R.; Aziz, M. H. A.; Alcain, J. B.; Haimi, W. M. W. N.; Sauli, Z.

    2017-09-01

    Every gecko has an approximately million microscale hairs called setae which made it easy for them to cling from different surfaces at any orientation with the aid of Van der Waals force as the primary mechanism used to adhere to any contact surfaces. In this paper, a strain simulation using Comsol Multiphysic Software was conducted on a 3D MEMS model of an actuated gecko foot with the aim of achieving optimal sticking with various polymetric materials for future robots application. Based on the stress and strain analyses done on the seven different polymers, it was found that polysilicon had the best result which was nearest to 0%, indicating the strongest elasticity among the others. PDMS on the hand, failed in the simulation due to its bulk-like nature. Thus, PDMS was not suitable to be used for further study on gecko foot robot.

  16. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A A | Print | Share Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and ankle surgeons warn against ... a "face lift" and fit them into high-fashion shoes. But physician members of the American College ...

  17. Glossary of Foot and Ankle Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary of Foot & Ankle Terms Glossary of Foot & Ankle Terms Page Content Achilles tendon - The Achilles tendon ... research grants, humanitarian outreach and public education initiatives. Ankle instability - Chronic, repetitive sprains of the ankle. This ...

  18. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IFFAS / AOFAS eBook ​The AOFAS and MD Conference Express invite you to enjoy complimentary access to the ... Foundation Exhibit Privacy Statement Legal Disclosure Site Map American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society ® Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Foundation ...

  19. Accuracy of plantar electrodes compared with hand and foot electrodes in fat-free-mass measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffrin, Michel Y; Bousbiat, Sana

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the measurement of fat-free mass (FFM) by bioimpedance using foot-to-foot impedancemeters (FFI) with plantar electrodes measuring the foot-to-foot resistance R34 and hand-to-foot medical impedancemeters. FFM measurements were compared with corresponding data using Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Equations giving FFM were established using linear multiple regression on DXA data in a first group of 170 subjects. For validation, these equations were used on a second group of 86 subjects, and FFM were compared with DXA data; no significant difference was observed. The same protocol was repeated, but using electrodes on the right hand and foot in standing position to measure the hand to-foot resistance R13. Mean differences with DXA were higher for R13 than for R34. Effect of electrode size and feet position on resistance was also investigated. R34 decreased when electrode area increased or if feet were moved forward. It decreased if feet were moved backward. A proper configuration of contact electrodes can improve measurement accuracy and reproducibility of FFI.

  20. Estimation of foot pressure from human footprint depths using 3D scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Dwi Basuki; Haryadi, Gunawan Dwi; Priambodo, Agus

    2016-03-01

    The analysis of normal and pathological variation in human foot morphology is central to several biomedical disciplines, including orthopedics, orthotic design, sports sciences, and physical anthropology, and it is also important for efficient footwear design. A classic and frequently used approach to study foot morphology is analysis of the footprint shape and footprint depth. Footprints are relatively easy to produce and to measure, and they can be preserved naturally in different soils. In this study, we need to correlate footprint depth with corresponding foot pressure of individual using 3D scanner. Several approaches are used for modeling and estimating footprint depths and foot pressures. The deepest footprint point is calculated from z max coordinate-z min coordinate and the average of foot pressure is calculated from GRF divided to foot area contact and identical with the average of footprint depth. Evaluation of footprint depth was found from importing 3D scanner file (dxf) in AutoCAD, the z-coordinates than sorted from the highest to the lowest value using Microsoft Excel to make footprinting depth in difference color. This research is only qualitatif study because doesn't use foot pressure device as comparator, and resulting the maximum pressure on calceneus is 3.02 N/cm2, lateral arch is 3.66 N/cm2, and metatarsal and hallux is 3.68 N/cm2.

  1. Forefoot angle at initial contact determines the amplitude of forefoot and rearfoot eversion during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Gail M; Hsu, Wen-Hao; Lewis, Cara L; Saltzman, Elliot; Hamill, Joseph; Holt, Kenneth G

    2014-09-01

    Clinically, foot structures are assessed intrinsically - relation of forefoot to rearfoot and rearfoot to leg. We have argued that, from a biomechanical perspective, the interaction of the foot with the ground may influence forces and torques that are propagated through the lower extremity. We proposed that a more appropriate measure is an extrinsic one that may predict the angle the foot makes with ground at contact. The purposes of this study were to determine if the proposed measure predicts contact angles of the forefoot and rearfoot and assess if the magnitude of those angles influences amplitude and duration of foot eversion during running. With the individual in prone, extrinsic clinical forefoot and rearfoot angles were measured relative to the caudal edge of the examination table. Participants ran over ground while frontal plane forefoot and rearfoot contact angles, forefoot and rearfoot eversion amplitude and duration were measured. Participants were grouped twice, once based on forefoot contact inversion angle (moderatemedian) and once based on rearfoot contact inversion angle (moderatemedian). The forefoot and rearfoot extrinsic clinical angles predicted, respectively, the forefoot and rearfoot angles at ground contact. Large forefoot contact angles were associated with greater amplitudes (but not durations) of forefoot and rearfoot eversion during stance. Rearfoot contact angles, however, were associated with neither amplitudes nor durations of forefoot and rearfoot eversion. Possible mechanisms for the increased risk of running injuries associated with large forefoot angles are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Healing of skin lesions in diabetic foot syndrome during hospitalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirkovská, A

    2006-05-01

    Wound healing during the diabetic foot disease is indicated to in-patient treatment in case of non-healing wound, in case of serious infection and/or critical ischemia and in case of necessity of surgical treatment. Diabetic foot disease is the main reason for in-patient treatment of people with diabetes, which our experience confirms. Chronic wound is characterised by non-healing for at least 4 weeks. Ischemia and recurrent trauma caused by incomplete off-loading, prolong inflammation and infection are the main reasons for difficult healing of chronic wound. Infection is also leading cause for prolonged hospitalisation of patients with diabetic foot disease. Local decrease of grow factors and increase of tissue protease are characteristics of chronic wound. The process of wound healing is characterized by a cascade of interrelated events involving infection and inflammatory factors. The results of these investigations led to the moist wound healing concept and use of growth factors and bioengineered skin substitutes. We have good experience with the use of xenotransplant skin substitues in the treatment of diabetic foot. Off loading techniques including total contact casting, local therapy by debridement and skin substitutes had the best evidence based efficacy. We are introducing new method of the treatment of diabetic foot--VAC--vacuum assisted closure. The fundamental principle in the therapy during in-patient period, is comprehensive approach; the omitting of any of the principle of the therapy--e.g. the off-loading of the ulcers, the infection and ischemia control, may contribute to its failure.

  3. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  4. What is the diabetic foot?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-01-03

    Jan 3, 2011 ... 1). These include peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, foot deformities, external trauma and peripheral oedema. With the exception of trauma, it is usually a combination of problems ... commonly find that moving, standing or walking alleviates the pain.7 .... on specific imaging tests. Wound ...

  5. What is the diabetic foot?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    79 age group had diabetes. This estimate is expected to ... unable to detect trauma or discomfort and as a result wounds often go .... should be considered when underlying bone is exposed or can be palpated with a blunt probe or in any chronic non-healing wound. Bone is infected in up to 20% of patients with foot ulcers ...

  6. Avoiding foot complications in diabetes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) issued a call to action in 2005 in ... by the IWGDF.4 The Diabetic Foot Working Group (DFWG), a multidisciplinary organisation, was formed in 2007, with the aim .... team management.3,8,9. This comprehensive approach works in developed ...

  7. Performance of isolated and folded footings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Samir El-kady

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Folded foundations have been used as an alternative to the conventional flat shallow foundations, in situations involving heavy loads or weak soils. They can be geometrically shaped in many forms especially for isolated footings. The purpose of this paper is introducing an alternative foundation shape that reduces the cost of foundations by reducing the amount of reinforcing steel by minimizing or even eliminating the tension zones in the folded isolated footings. Also, achieving lower soil stresses through changing the isolated footing shape will consequently reduce the expected settlements and the footing stresses. Experimental and numerical studies are performed on five (5 quarter scale footings of which one (1 footing of flat shape is tested as a reference sample and four (4 footings are of folded shape by folding angles of 10°, 20°, 30°, and 40° with the horizontal. Results showed that the folded isolated footings achieve economic design by decreasing the quantities of reinforcement. It also induced less soil settlements, and stresses. In addition, the tensile stresses in the reinforced concrete footing body are also less in folded isolated footings than the flat one. Results show that the folded isolated footing have a better load carrying capacity when compared with the conventional slab/flat footing of similar cross sectional area for both cases of experimental and numerical analysis.

  8. [Correct contact lens hygiene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blümle, S; Kaercher, T; Khaireddin, R

    2013-06-01

    Although contact lenses have long been established in ophthalmology, practical aspects of handling contact lenses is becoming increasingly less important in the clinical training as specialist for ophthalmology. Simultaneously, for many reasons injuries due to wearing contact lenses are increasing. In order to correct this discrepancy, information on contact lenses and practical experience with them must be substantially increased from a medical perspective. This review article deals with the most important aspects for prevention of complications, i.e. contact lens hygiene.

  9. Management of diabetic foot infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, M.; Amin, Z.; Chaudhary, T. H.; Shaheen, J.; Alvi, Z. R.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To determine the infecting agent in diabetic food infection with the susceptibility pattern, and to evaluate the effect of wound infection, was culopathy, neuropathy and control of diabetes mellitus on the outcome of the patients. Design: A descriptive and observational study. Place and duration of study: Patients with diabetic foot, admitted in surgical unit 1, B.V. Hospital Bahawalpur, from April 1999 to April 2000, were included in this study. Subject and methods: A total of 60 known diabetic patients were studied, out of these 47 were males and 13 females. They were assessed for angiopathy, neuropathy and extend of foot involvement. Necessary investigations, including x-ray foot, ECG, serum urea and creatinine, pus culture and sensitivity were carried out. Diabetes was controlled on insulin of the basis of serum sugar and urine sugar chart and treated accordingly. Results: The most common age of foot involvement was between 40-70 years. Right side was involved more often than the left (67%: 37%). Most of the infections were due to staphylococcus (50%), pseudomonas (25%) and streptococci (8%). Antibiotic was started based on sensitivity report. Fluoro quinolone plus clindamycin was used in 50%, fluoro quinolone plus metronidazole in 20% and amoxicillin/clavulanate in 23%. Most of the patients (61.7%) were in grade iii or iv of Meggit wagner classification of diabetic foot. Three patients (5%) were treated by below knee amputations while 1.7% patient by above knee amputation. In twenty-four (40%) patients some form of to amputation/ray amputation had to be done,while 32(53.3%) patients had complete healing of would without any amputation. Mortality was 3.33% all the 4 patients (6.7%) who presented late, having uncontrolled diabetes, with angiopathy (absent foot pulses), neuropathy, infection of the foot (grade iii or above) resulted in major amputation sooner or latter. The 32 patients (53.3%) having controlled diabetes mellitus with no angiopathy or

  10. DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rajagopal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Infections of all types are more common in patients with diabetes, on the basis of outcome of retrospective study in Canada. Many types of infections are very common in diabetic than non-diabetic patients. Foot is the most common site. Diabetic foot infections range from mild infections to limb threatening conditions. Most require emergency medical attention. Diabetic foot infection is a global burden and projected to increase from 246 million people to over 380 million people by the year 2025. Many people with diabetes develop complications that seriously affect their quality and length of life. Lower limb complications are common, particularly foot ulcers and gangrene. Development of these complications is attributed to individual risk factors, poverty, racial and ethnic differences, and quality of local and national health care systems. The wide variations noted suggest that best practices in low incidence areas could easily be adapted in high incidence areas to reduce the burden of complications. Almost every infection begins in a wound, often as neuropathic ulceration or a traumatic break in the skin. Infections that begin as a small problem may progress to involve soft tissue, bones and joints. Because of these morbidity and occasional mortality by these foot infections several authoritative groups have recently developed guidelines for assessing and treating diabetic foot. METHODOLOGY 100 Diabetic patients with foot ulcers were admitted and wounds were classified using wagner’s classification. Pus was sent for culture and sensitivity and treated accordingly. RESULTS In our study the most common organism cultured from the wound with diabetes mellitus was staphylococcus. The most sensitive drug for these organisms was found to be chloramphenicol on most occasions. CONCLUSION The rationale of pus culture and sensitivity is not only to definitively treat the diabetic wound after the culture sensitivity report is

  11. Aerosol transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus Asia-1 under experimental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colenutt, C.; Gonzales, J.L.; Paton, D.J.; Gloster, J.; Nelson, N.; Sanders, C.

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) control measures rely on understanding of virus transmission mechanisms. Direct contact between naïve and infected animals or spread by contaminated fomites is prevented by quarantines and rigorous decontamination procedures during outbreaks. Transmission of

  12. Foot Problems in a Group of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Unmet Need for Foot Care

    OpenAIRE

    Borman, Pinar; Ayhan, Figen; Tuncay, Figen; Sahin, Mehtap

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the foot involvement in a group of RA patients in regard to symptoms, type and frequency of deformities, location, radiological changes, and foot care. Patients and Methods: A randomized selected 100 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were recruited to the study. Data about foot symptoms, duration and location of foot pain, pain intensity, access to services related to foot, treatment, orthoses and assistive devices, and usefulness of therapie...

  13. Reliability and normative values of the foot line test: a technique to assess foot posture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brushøj, C; Larsen, Klaus; Nielsen, MB

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Test-retest reliability. OBJECTIVE: To examine the reliability and report normative values of a novel test, the foot line test (FLT), to describe foot morphology. BACKGROUND: Numerous foot examinations are performed each day, but most existing examination techniques have considerabl......). There was no significant association between foot size and FLT values. CONCLUSION: The FLT is a reproducible technique to assess foot posture....

  14. Patterns of lower leg and foot eczema in south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chougule Abhijit

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pattern of eczema is altered by geography, habits of people and environmental factors and regional variation in skin structure and function. Aims: Our study was done to estimate frequency and patterns of lower leg and foot eczemas. Methods: A total of 200 patients with various types of lower leg and foot eczemas were recruited over a period of 2 years. Demographic and clinical characteristics were noted. Suspected cases of allergic contact dermatitis were patch tested. Results: The frequency of these eczemas was 2.5 per 1000 out patients. Mean age of patients was 40.49 years. Female to male ratio was 1.6:1. Sixty (30% patients were farmers, sixty (30% were housewives, forty (20% were students, nineteen (9.5% were daily laborers, nine had sedentary jobs and three were teachers. Most eczemas were bilateral (72%. Mean duration of eczema was 36.6 months. Most common type of eczema was lichen simplex chronicus (36% followed by discoid eczema (18.5%, allergic contact dermatitis (14.5% and stasis eczema (7.5%. Other eczemas noted were juvenile plantar dermatosis, cumulative irritant contact dermatitis, infected eczema, hyperkeratotic eczema, asteatotic eczema, pompholyx, infective eczema and unclassified endogenous eczema. Common sites of involvement were dorsa of feet (49.5%, followed by lateral aspect of lower leg (31%, medial aspect of lower leg (17.5% and ankle (12%. Conclusion : Our study highlights lichen simplex chronicus as the most common eczema affecting the lower legs and feet.

  15. Impact of health-care accessibility and social deprivation on diabetes related foot disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leese, G P; Feng, Z; Leese, R M; Dibben, C; Emslie-Smith, A

    2013-04-01

    To determine whether geography and/or social deprivation influences the occurrence of foot ulcers or amputations in patients with diabetes. A population-based cohort of people with diabetes (n = 15 983) were identified between 2004 and 2006. Community and hospital data on diabetes care, podiatry care and onset of ulceration and amputation was linked using a unique patient identifier, which is used for all patient contacts with health-care professionals. Postcode was used to calculate social deprivation and distances to general practice and hospital care. Over 3 years' follow-up 670 patients with diabetes developed new foot ulcers (42 per 1000) and 99 proceeded to amputation (6 per 1000). The most deprived quintile had a 1.7-fold (95% CI 1.2-2.3) increased risk of developing a foot ulcer. Distance from general practitioner or hospital clinic and lack of attendance at community retinal screening did not predict foot ulceration or amputation. Previous ulcer (OR 15.1, 95% CI 11.6-19.6), insulin use (OR 2.7, 95% CI 2.1-3.5), absent foot pulses (5.9: 4.7-7.5) and impaired monofilament sensation (OR 6.5, 95% CI 5.0-8.4) all predicted foot ulceration. Previous foot ulcer, absent pulses and impaired monofilaments also predicted amputation. Social deprivation is an important factor, especially for the development of foot ulcers. Geographical aspects such as accessibility to the general practitioner or hospital clinic are not associated with foot ulceration or amputation in this large UK cohort study. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

  16. Effects of foot rotation positions on knee valgus during single-leg drop landing: Implications for ACL injury risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, P S P; Kong, P W; Leong, K F

    2017-06-01

    Non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries commonly occur when athletes land in high risk positions such as knee valgus. The position of the foot at landing may influence the transmission of forces from the ankle to the knee. Using an experimental approach to manipulate foot rotation positions, this study aimed to provide new insights on how knee valgus during single-leg landing may be influenced by foot positions. Eleven male recreational basketball players performed single-leg drop landings from a 30-cm high platform in three foot rotation positions (toe-in, toe-forward and toe-out) at initial contact. A motion capture system and a force plate were used to measure lower extremity kinematics and kinetics. Knee valgus angles at initial contact (KVA) and maximum knee valgus moments (KVM), which were known risk factors associated with ACL injury, were measured. A one-way repeated measures Analysis of Variance was conducted (α=0.05) to compare among the three foot positions. Foot rotation positions were found to have a significant effect on KVA (p<0.001, η 2 =0.66) but the difference between conditions (about 1°) was small and not clinically meaningful. There was a significant effect of foot position on KVM (p<0.001, η 2 =0.55), with increased moment observed in the toe-out position as compared to toe-forward (p=0.012) or toe-in positions (p=0.002). When landing with one leg, athletes should avoid extreme toe-out foot rotation positions to minimise undesirable knee valgus loading associated with non-contact ACL injury risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... new application of artificial intelligence shows whether a patient’s eyes point to high blood pressure or risk ...

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ... wear any kind of contact lens. In Butler's case, the lenses caused an infection and left her ...

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in a pair of colored contact lenses, Laura Butler of Parkersburg, W.Va., had "extreme pain in ... to wear any kind of contact lens. In Butler's case, the lenses caused an infection and left ...

  1. Contact Angle Goniometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The FTA32 goniometer provides video-based contact angle and surface tension measurement. Contact angles are measured by fitting a mathematical expression...

  2. Multiple Josephson contact interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zappe, H.H.

    1978-01-01

    The interferometer (quantum interference between two parallel contacts) displays a mid connector and contacts of the same size, or contacts at which the middle one is twice the size as the other two, or a double connector and three contacts by which the middle contact carries twice the current as the other two. Also there can be provided interferometers with three and four contacts as well as with symmetrical double current connectors and the same largest Josephson current through all contacts. Because all contacts display the same phase state in the voltage free switching state, the amplification property can be increased and current dissipation can be decreased in a way that logic circuits with high integration degree and high switching velocities can be designed. (DG) [de

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager ... the lenses. Never share contact lenses with another person. Get follow up exams with your eye care ...

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... popping touch. But colored contact lenses are popular year-round, not just at Halloween. But few know the ... also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume Contacts May Contain Chemicals Harmful to Eyes Four Ways Over- ... without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. "Many of ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Costume Contacts May Contain Chemicals Harmful to Eyes Four Ways Over-the-Counter Costume Contact Lenses Can ... was in severe pain and on medication for four weeks, and couldn't see well enough to ...

  7. Corporate Consumer Contact API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The data in the Corporate Consumer Contact API is based on the content you can find in the Corporate Consumer Contact listing in the Consumer Action Handbook (PDF)....

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... not require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ...

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lens because they can be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, ... Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume Contacts May Contain Chemicals Harmful to Eyes ...

  10. Contact Us about Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    How to contact EPA for more information on asbestos, including state and regional contacts, EPA’s Asbestos Abatement/Management Ombudsman and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Assistance Information Service (TSCA Hotline).

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to ... wear costume contact lenses for Halloween or any time of year, follow these guidelines: Get an eye ...

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... an ophthalmologist — an eye medical doctor — who will measure each eye and talk to you about proper ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering ... Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescription. Follow the contact lens care directions for cleaning, disinfecting, and wearing the lenses. Never share contact ... with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  15. Kinematic features of rear-foot motion using anterior and posterior ankle-foot orthoses in stroke patients with hemiplegic gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Chi; Hong, Wei-Hsien; Wang, Chin-Man; Chen, Chih-Kuang; Wu, Katie Pei-Hsuan; Kang, Chao-Fu; Tang, Simon F

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the kinematic features of rear-foot motion during gait in hemiplegic stroke patients, using anterior ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs), posterior AFOs, and no orthotic assistance. Crossover design with randomization for the interventions. A rehabilitation center for adults with neurologic disorders. Patients with hemiplegia due to stroke (n=14) and able-bodied subjects (n=11). Subjects with hemiplegia were measured walking under 3 conditions with randomized sequences: (1) with an anterior AFO, (2) with a posterior AFO, and (3) without an AFO. Control subjects were measured walking without an AFO to provide a normative reference. Rear-foot kinematic change in the sagittal, coronal, and transverse planes. In the sagittal plane, compared with walking with an anterior AFO or without an AFO, the posterior AFO significantly decreased plantar flexion to neutral at initial heel contact (P=.001) and the swing phase (PRehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Contact lens in keratoconus

    OpenAIRE

    Rathi, Varsha M; Mandathara, Preeji S; Dumpati, Srikanth

    2013-01-01

    Contact lenses are required for the visual improvement in patients with keratoconus. Various contact lens options, such as rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses, soft and soft toric lenses, piggy back contact lenses (PBCL), hybrid lenses and scleral lenses are availble. This article discusses about selection of a lens depending on the type of keratoconus and the fitting philosophies of various contact lenses including the starting trial lens. A Medline search was carried out for articles in the En...

  17. Weigh-in-motion scale with foot alignment features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert Knox; Richardson, Gregory David; Scudiere, Matthew Bligh

    2013-03-05

    A pad is disclosed for use in a weighing system for weighing a load. The pad includes a weighing platform, load cells, and foot members. Improvements to the pad reduce or substantially eliminate rotation of one or more of the corner foot members. A flexible foot strap disposed between the corner foot members reduces rotation of the respective foot members about vertical axes through the corner foot members and couples the corner foot members such that rotation of one corner foot member results in substantially the same amount of rotation of the other corner foot member. In a strapless variant one or more fasteners prevents substantially all rotation of a foot member. In a diagonal variant, a foot strap extends between a corner foot member and the weighing platform to reduce rotation of the foot member about a vertical axis through the corner foot member.

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ...

  19. New Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Goossens

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and immunologic contact urticaria are potential immune-mediated adverse effects from cosmetics. Fragrance components and preservatives are certainly the most frequently observed allergens; however, all ingredients must be considered when investigating for contact allergy.

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact ... After One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter ...

  1. Hydrogenation of passivated contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemeth, William; Yuan, Hao-Chih; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Stradins, Pauls; Page, Matthew R.

    2018-03-06

    Methods of hydrogenation of passivated contacts using materials having hydrogen impurities are provided. An example method includes applying, to a passivated contact, a layer of a material, the material containing hydrogen impurities. The method further includes subsequently annealing the material and subsequently removing the material from the passivated contact.

  2. Airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease - model intercomparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloster, J; Jones, A; Redington, A; Burgin, L; Sorensen, J H; Turner, R; Dillon, M; Hullinger, P; Simpson, M; Astrup, P; Garner, G; Stewart, P; D' Amours, R; Sellers, R; Paton, D

    2008-09-04

    Foot-and-mouth disease is a highly infectious vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus. It spreads by direct contact between animals, by animal products (milk, meat and semen), by mechanical transfer on people or fomites and by the airborne route - with the relative importance of each mechanism depending on the particular outbreak characteristics. Over the years a number of workers have developed or adapted atmospheric dispersion models to assess the risk of foot-and-mouth disease virus spread through the air. Six of these models were compared at a workshop hosted by the Institute for Animal Health/Met Office during 2008. A number of key issues emerged from the workshop and subsequent modelling work: (1) in general all of the models predicted similar directions for 'at risk' livestock with much of the remaining differences strongly related to differences in the meteorological data used; (2) determination of an accurate sequence of events is highly important, especially if the meteorological conditions vary substantially during the virus emission period; and (3) differences in assumptions made about virus release, environmental fate, and subsequent infection can substantially modify the size and location of the downwind risk area. Close relationships have now been established between participants, which in the event of an outbreak of disease could be readily activated to supply advice or modelling support.

  3. Foot loading characteristics during three fencing-specific movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Caroline; Martinelli, Nicolo; Rosenbaum, Dieter

    2011-12-01

    Plantar pressure characteristics during fencing movements may provide more specific information about the influence of foot loading on overload injury patterns. Twenty-nine experienced fencers participated in the study. Three fencing-specific movements (lunge, advance, retreat) and normal running were performed with three different shoe models: Ballestra (Nike, USA), Adistar Fencing Lo (Adidas, Germany), and the fencers' own shoes. The Pedar system (Novel, Munich, Germany) was used to collect plantar pressures at 50 Hz. Peak pressures, force-time integrals and contact times for five foot regions were compared between four athletic tasks in the lunge leg and supporting leg. Plantar pressure analysis revealed characteristic pressure distribution patterns for the fencing movements. For the lunge leg, during the lunge and advance movements the heel is predominantly loaded; during retreat, it is the hallux. For the supporting leg, during the lunge and advance movements the forefoot is predominantly loaded; during retreat, it is the hallux. Fencing-specific movements load the plantar surface in a distinct way compared with running. An effective cushioning in the heel and hallux region would help to minimize foot loading during fencing-specific movements.

  4. Together We STRIDE: A quasi-experimental trial testing the effectiveness of a multi-level obesity intervention for Hispanic children in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Linda K; Rillamas-Sun, Eileen; Bishop, Sonia; Cisneros, Oralia; Holte, Sarah; Thompson, Beti

    2018-04-01

    Hispanic children are disproportionally overweight and obese compared to their non-Hispanic white counterparts in the US. Community-wide, multi-level interventions have been successful to promote healthier nutrition, increased physical activity (PA), and weight loss. Using community-based participatory approach (CBPR) that engages community members in rural Hispanic communities is a promising way to promote behavior change, and ultimately weight loss among Hispanic children. Led by a community-academic partnership, the Together We STRIDE (Strategizing Together Relevant Interventions for Diet and Exercise) aims to test the effectiveness of a community-wide, multi-level intervention to promote healthier diets, increased PA, and weight loss among Hispanic children. The Together We STRIDE is a parallel quasi-experimental trial with a goal of recruiting 900 children aged 8-12 years nested within two communities (one intervention and one comparison). Children will be recruited from their respective elementary schools. Components of the 2-year multi-level intervention include comic books (individual-level), multi-generational nutrition and PA classes (family-level), teacher-led PA breaks and media literacy education (school-level), family nights, a farmer's market and a community PA event (known as ciclovia) at the community-level. Children from the comparison community will receive two newsletters. Height and weight measures will be collected from children in both communities at three time points (baseline, 6-months, and 18-months). The Together We STRIDE study aims to promote healthier diet and increased PA to produce healthy weight among Hispanic children. The use of CBPR approach and the engagement of the community will springboard strategies for intervention' sustainability. Clinical Trials Registration Number: NCT02982759 Retrospectively registered. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of patellofemoral pain syndrome on plantar pressure in the foot rollover process during gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Aliberti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome is one of the most common knee disorders among physically active young women. Despite its high incidence, the multifactorial etiology of this disorder is not fully understood. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome on plantar pressure distribution during the foot rollover process (i.e., the initial heel contact, midstance and propulsion phases of the gait. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-seven young adults, including 22 subjects with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (30 ± 7 years, 165 ± 9 cm, 63 ± 12 kg and 35 control subjects (29 ± 7 years, 164 ± 8 cm, 60 ± 11 kg, volunteered for the study. The contact area and peak pressure were evaluated using the Pedar-X system (Novel, Germany synchronized with ankle sagittal kinematics. RESULTS: Subjects with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome showed a larger contact area over the medial (p = 0.004 and central (p = 0.002 rearfoot at the initial contact phase and a lower peak pressure over the medial forefoot (p = 0.033 during propulsion when compared with control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome is related to a foot rollover pattern that is medially directed at the rearfoot during initial heel contact and laterally directed at the forefoot during propulsion. These detected alterations in the foot rollover process during gait may be used to develop clinical interventions using insoles, taping and therapeutic exercise to rehabilitate this dysfunction.

  6. Contact lens in keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha M Rathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Contact lenses are required for the visual improvement in patients with keratoconus. Various contact lens options, such as rigid gas permeable (RGP lenses, soft and soft toric lenses, piggy back contact lenses (PBCL, hybrid lenses and scleral lenses are availble. This article discusses about selection of a lens depending on the type of keratoconus and the fitting philosophies of various contact lenses including the starting trial lens. A Medline search was carried out for articles in the English language with the keywords keratoconus and various contact lenses such as Rose k lens, RGP lens, hybrid lens, scleral lens and PBCL.

  7. Contact lens in keratoconus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Varsha M; Mandathara, Preeji S; Dumpati, Srikanth

    2013-01-01

    Contact lenses are required for the visual improvement in patients with keratoconus. Various contact lens options, such as rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses, soft and soft toric lenses, piggy back contact lenses (PBCL), hybrid lenses and scleral lenses are availble. This article discusses about selection of a lens depending on the type of keratoconus and the fitting philosophies of various contact lenses including the starting trial lens. A Medline search was carried out for articles in the English language with the keywords keratoconus and various contact lenses such as Rose k lens, RGP lens, hybrid lens, scleral lens and PBCL. PMID:23925325

  8. Efficacy of ankle foot orthoses types on walking in children with cerebral palsy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboutorabi, Atefeh; Arazpour, Mokhtar; Ahmadi Bani, Monireh; Saeedi, Hassan; Head, John S

    2017-11-01

    Ankle foot orthoses (AFOs) are orthotic devices that can be used to normalize the walking pattern of children with cerebral palsy (CP). One of the aims of orthotic management is to produce a more normal gait pattern by positioning joints in the proper position to reduce pathological reflex or spasticity. To conduct a systematic review of the literature and establish the effect of treatment with various types of AFOs on gait patterns of children with CP. PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of knowledge, Cochrane Library, EMBASE and Google Scholar were searched for articles published between 2007 and 2015 of studies of children with CP wearing the following AFOs: hinged (HAFO), solid (SAFO), floor reaction (FRO), posterior leaf spring (PLS) and dynamic (DAFO). Studies that combined treatment options were excluded. Outcomes investigated were a change in gait pattern and subsequent walking ability. The PEDro scale used to assess the methodological quality of relevant studies. We included 17 studies investigating a total of 1139 children with CP. The PEDro score was poor for most studies (3/10). Only 4 studies, of 209 children in total, were randomized controlled trials, for a good PEDro score (5, 7, 9/10) and an appropriate level of evidence. One study used a case-based series and the remainder a cross-sectional design. In general, the use of AFOs improved speed and stride length. The HAFO was effective for improving gait parameters and decreasing energy expenditure with hemiplegic CP as compared with the barefoot condition. It also improved stride length, speed of walking, single limb support and gait symmetry with hemiplegic CP. The plastic SAFO and FRO were effective in reducing energy expenditure with diplegic CP. With diplegic CP, the HAFO and SAFO improved gross motor function. For children with CP, use of specific types of AFOs improved gait parameters, including ankle and knee range of motion, walking speed and stride length. AFOs reduced energy expenditure in children

  9. Foot and Ankle Injuries in Professional Soccer Players: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, Caio; Raduan, Fernando; Baumfeld, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Soccer is one of the most popular sports in the world. It has undergone many changes in recent years, mainly because of increased physical demands, and this has led to an increased injury risk. Direct contact accounts for half of all injuries in both indoor and outdoor soccer and ankle sprains are the most common foot and ankle injury. There is a spectrum of foot and ankle injuries and their treatment should be individualized in these high-demand patients. An injury prevention program is also important and should the players, the trainer, responsible physician, and physical therapists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Diabetes: Good Diabetes Management and Regular Foot Care Help Prevent Severe Foot Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amputation and diabetes: How to protect your feet Good diabetes management and regular foot care help prevent severe foot sores that ... and may require amputation. By Mayo Clinic Staff Diabetes complications can include nerve damage and poor blood ...

  11. Osteomyelitis in diabetic foot: A comprehensive overview

    OpenAIRE

    Giurato, Laura; Meloni, Marco; Izzo, Valentina; Uccioli, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Foot infection is a well recognized risk factor for major amputation in diabetic patients. The osteomyelitis is one of the most common expression of diabetic foot infection, being present approximately in present in 10%-15% of moderate and in 50% of severe infectious process. An early and accurate diagnosis is required to ensure a targeted treatment and reduce the risk of major amputation. The aim of this review is to report a complete overview about the management of diabetic foot osteomyeli...

  12. Acquired flat foot deformity: postoperative imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmick, Simon; Chhabra, Avneesh; Grujic, Leslie; Linklater, James M

    2012-07-01

    Flat foot (pes planus) is a progressive and disabling pathology that is treated initially with conservative measures and often followed by a variety of surgeries. This article briefly reviews the pathology in acquired flat foot deformity, the classification of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, discusses surgical techniques for the management of adult flat foot deformity, and reviews potential complications and their relevant imaging appearances. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. The Manchester?Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ)

    OpenAIRE

    Morley, D.; Jenkinson, C.; Doll, H.; Lavis, G.; Sharp, R.; Cooke, P.; Dawson, J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ) is a validated 16-item, patient-reported outcome measure for evaluating outcomes of foot or ankle surgery. The original development of the instrument identified three domains. This present study examined whether the three domains could legitimately be summed to provide a single summary index score. METHODS: The MOXFQ and Short-Form (SF)-36 were administered to 671 patients before surgery of the foot or ankle. Data from the three dom...

  14. Foot structure and footwear prescription in diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, Sicco A.

    2008-01-01

    Foot structure abnormalities such as foot deformity and limited joint mobility are common and well established components of the diabetic foot which are associated with increased levels of mechanical stress on the foot and the development of ulcers. Our understanding of foot structure abnormality in

  15. A review of the biomechanics of the diabetic foot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schie, C. H. M.

    2005-01-01

    In general, diabetic foot ulcers result from abnormal mechanical loading of the foot, such as repetitive moderate pressure applied to the plantar aspect of the foot while walking. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy causes changes in foot structure, affecting foot function and subsequently leading to

  16. Sex-related differences in foot shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, I; Grau, S; Mauch, M; Maiwald, C; Horstmann, T

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate sex-related differences in foot morphology. In total, 847 subjects were scanned using a 3-D-footscanner. Three different analysis methods were used: (1) comparisons were made for absolute foot measures within 250-270 mm foot length (FL); (2) and for averaged measures (% FL) across all sizes; (3) the feet were then classified using a cluster analysis. Within 250-270 mm FL, male feet were wider and higher (mean differences (MD) 1.3-5.9 mm). No relevant sex-related differences could be found in the comparison of averaged measures (MD 0.3-0.6% FL). Foot types were categorised into voluminous, flat-pointed and slender. Shorter feet were more often voluminous, longer feet were more likely to be narrow and flat. However, the definition of 'short' and 'long' was sex-related; thus, allometry of foot measures was different. For shoe design, measures should be derived for each size and sex separately. Different foot types should be considered to account for the variety in foot shape. Improper footwear can cause foot pain and deformity. Therefore, knowledge of sex-related differences in foot measures is important to assist proper shoe fit in both men and women. The present study supplements the field of knowledge within this context with recommendations for the manufacturing of shoes.

  17. Introduction of hind foot coronal alignment view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Il Bong; Jeon, Ju Seob; Yoon, Kang Cheol; Choi, Nam Kil; Kim, Seung Kook

    2006-01-01

    Accurate clinical evaluation of the alignment of the calcaneus relative to the tibia in the coronal plane is essential in the evaluation and treatment of hind foot pathologic condition. Previously described standard anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique radiographic methods of the foot or ankle do not demonstrate alignment of the tibia relation to the calcaneus in the coronal plane. The purpose of this study was to introduce hind foot coronal alignment view. Both feet were imaged simultaneously on an elevated, radiolucent foot stand equipment. Both feet stood on a radiolucent platform with equal weight on both feet. Both feet are located foot axis longitudinal perpendicular to the platform. Silhouette tracing around both feet are made, and line is then drawn to bisect the silhouette of the second toe and the outline of the heel. The x-ray beam is angled down approximately 15 .deg. to 20 .deg. This image described tibial axis and medial, lateral tuberosity of calcaneus. Calcaneus do not rotated. The view is showed by talotibial joint space. Although computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging techniques are capable of demonstrating coronal hind foot alignment, they lack usefulness in most clinical situations because the foot is imaged in a non-weight bearing position. But hind foot coronal alignment view is obtained for evaluating position changing of inversion, eversion of the hind foot and varus, valgus deformity of calcaneus

  18. Introduction of hind foot coronal alignment view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Il Bong; Jeon, Ju Seob; Yoon, Kang Cheol; Choi, Nam Kil [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Kook [Gwangju Health College, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    Accurate clinical evaluation of the alignment of the calcaneus relative to the tibia in the coronal plane is essential in the evaluation and treatment of hind foot pathologic condition. Previously described standard anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique radiographic methods of the foot or ankle do not demonstrate alignment of the tibia relation to the calcaneus in the coronal plane. The purpose of this study was to introduce hind foot coronal alignment view. Both feet were imaged simultaneously on an elevated, radiolucent foot stand equipment. Both feet stood on a radiolucent platform with equal weight on both feet. Both feet are located foot axis longitudinal perpendicular to the platform. Silhouette tracing around both feet are made, and line is then drawn to bisect the silhouette of the second toe and the outline of the heel. The x-ray beam is angled down approximately 15 .deg. to 20 .deg. This image described tibial axis and medial, lateral tuberosity of calcaneus. Calcaneus do not rotated. The view is showed by talotibial joint space. Although computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging techniques are capable of demonstrating coronal hind foot alignment, they lack usefulness in most clinical situations because the foot is imaged in a non-weight bearing position. But hind foot coronal alignment view is obtained for evaluating position changing of inversion, eversion of the hind foot and varus, valgus deformity of calcaneus.

  19. Prevention and treatment of diabetic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jonathan Zhang Ming; Ng, Natasha Su Lynn; Thomas, Cecil

    2017-03-01

    The rising prevalence of diabetes estimated at 3.6 million people in the UK represents a major public health and socioeconomic burden to our National Health Service. Diabetes and its associated complications are of a growing concern. Diabetes-related foot complications have been identified as the single most common cause of morbidity among diabetic patients. The complicating factor of underlying peripheral vascular disease renders the majority of diabetic foot ulcers asymptomatic until latter evidence of non-healing ulcers become evident. Therefore, preventative strategies including annual diabetic foot screening and diabetic foot care interventions facilitated through a multidisciplinary team have been implemented to enable early identification of diabetic patients at high risk of diabetic foot complications. The National Diabetes Foot Care Audit reported significant variability and deficiencies of care throughout England and Wales, with emphasis on change in the structure of healthcare provision and commissioning, improvement of patient education and availability of healthcare access, and emphasis on preventative strategies to reduce morbidities and mortality of this debilitating disease. This review article aims to summarise major risk factors contributing to the development of diabetic foot ulcers. It also considers the key evidence-based strategies towards preventing diabetic foot ulcer. We discuss tools used in risk stratification and classifications of foot ulcer.

  20. Prosthetic management of the partial foot amputee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonclas, Peter P; O'donnell, Casey J

    2005-07-01

    Partial foot amputations provide advantages and challenges to the patient confronting loss of limb and the rehabilitation team. The partial foot amputation offers the potential for retention of plantar load-bearing tissues that are capable of tolerating the forces involved in weight bearing; this can allow the patient to ambulate with or without a prosthesis. Because of the complexity of the foot-ankle complex and the multiple types of partial foot amputations encountered, choosing the appropriate prosthesis can be challenging. This article explains some of the rationale and common options available for the different levels of amputation.

  1. The impact of foot insole on the energy consumption of flat-footed individuals during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad Taghi; Fereshtehnejad, Niloofar; Pool, Fatemeh

    2013-02-01

    The human foot contains one of the most variable structures of the body, which is the medial longitudinal arch. Decrease in the height of this arch results in a flat foot. Although there is some evidence regarding the influence of flat foot on gait performance of flat-footed individuals, there is no strong evidence to support the theory that being flat-footed has an effect on energy consumption. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find the relationship between flat foot and energy consumption. Two groups of normal and flat-footed participants were recruited in this research project. They were selected from the staff and students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The foot indexes of both groups were obtained using the footprint method with help of Solid worker software. The physiological cost index (PCI) of the participants was measured by the use of a heart rate monitoring system (Polar Electro, Finland). The differences between the PCIs of both groups of participants was determined using a t test. In addition, the influence of using an insole was evaluated using a paired t test. The energy consumption of flat-footed individuals differed significantly from that of normal individuals (the PCIs of normal and flat-footed individuals were 0.357 and 0.368 beats/m, respectively). Using a foot insole improved the performance of the flat-footed individuals during walking. The PCI of flat-footed individuals is more than that of normal participants as a result of misalignment of foot structure. Moreover, using a foot insole improved foot alignment and decreased energy consumption.

  2. Socio-demographic psychosocial and clinical characteristics of participants in e-HealthyStrides©: an interactive ehealth program to improve diabetes self-management skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemu, Priscilla E; Quarshie, Alexander Q; Josiah-Willock, R; Ojutalayo, Folake O; Alema-Mensah, Ernest; Ofili, Elizabeth O

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes self-management (DSM) training helps prevent diabetic complications. eHealth approaches may improve its optimal use. The aims were to determine a) acceptability of e-HealthyStrides© (an interactive, Internet-based, patient-driven, diabetes self-management support and social networking program) among Morehouse Community Physicians' Network diabetics; b) efficacy for DSM behavior change c) success factors for use of e-HealthyStrides©. Baseline characteristics of pilot study participants are reported. Of those approached, 13.8% agreed to participate. Among participants, 96% were Black, 77% female; age 56±9.2 years; education: 44% college or higher and 15% less than 12th grade; 92.5% with home computers. Over half (51%) failed the Diabetes Knowledge Test. Nearly half (47%) were at goal A1C; 24% at goal blood pressure; 3% at goal LDL cholesterol level. Median (SD) Diabetes Empowerment Scale score = 3.93 (0.72) but managing psychosocial aspects = 3.89 (0.89) scored lower than other domains. There was low overall confidence for DSM behaviors. Assistance with healthy eating was the most frequently requested service. Requestors were more obese with worse A1C than others. Chronic care delivery scored average with high scores for counseling and problem solving but low scores for care coordination and follow up.

  3. Research staff training in a multisite randomized clinical trial: Methods and recommendations from the Stimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise (STRIDE) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robrina; Morris, David W; Greer, Tracy L; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2014-01-01

    Descriptions of and recommendations for meeting the challenges of training research staff for multisite studies are limited despite the recognized importance of training on trial outcomes. The STRIDE (STimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise) study is a multisite randomized clinical trial that was conducted at nine addiction treatment programs across the United States within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) and evaluated the addition of exercise to addiction treatment as usual (TAU), compared to health education added to TAU, for individuals with stimulant abuse or dependence. Research staff administered a variety of measures that required a range of interviewing, technical, and clinical skills. In order to address the absence of information on how research staff are trained for multisite clinical studies, the current manuscript describes the conceptual process of training and certifying research assistants for STRIDE. Training was conducted using a three-stage process to allow staff sufficient time for distributive learning, practice, and calibration leading up to implementation of this complex study. Training was successfully implemented with staff across nine sites. Staff demonstrated evidence of study and procedural knowledge via quizzes and skill demonstration on six measures requiring certification. Overall, while the majority of staff had little to no experience in the six measures, all research assistants demonstrated ability to correctly and reliably administer the measures throughout the study. Practical recommendations are provided for training research staff and are particularly applicable to the challenges encountered with large, multisite trials.

  4. Improvement in Body Image, Perceived Health, and Health-Related Self-Efficacy Among People With Serious Mental Illness: The STRIDE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarborough, Bobbi Jo H; Leo, Michael C; Yarborough, Micah T; Stumbo, Scott; Janoff, Shannon L; Perrin, Nancy A; Green, Carla A

    2016-03-01

    The authors examined secondary outcomes of STRIDE, a randomized controlled trial that tested a weight-loss and lifestyle intervention for individuals taking antipsychotic medications. Hierarchical linear regression was used to explore the effects of the intervention and weight change at follow-up (six, 12, and 24 months) on body image, perceived health, and health-related self-efficacy. Participants were 200 adults who were overweight and taking antipsychotic agents. Weight change × study arm interaction was associated with significant improvement in body image from baseline to six months. From baseline to 12 months, body image scores of intervention participants improved by 1.7 points more compared with scores of control participants; greater weight loss was associated with more improvement. Between baseline and 24 months, greater weight loss was associated with improvements in body image, perceived health, and health-related self-efficacy. Participation in STRIDE improved body image, and losing weight improved perceived health and health-related self-efficacy.

  5. Assessment of signs of foot infection in diabetes patients using photographic foot imaging and infrared thermography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, Constantijn E. V. B.; van Netten, Jaap J.; van Baal, Sjef G.; Bus, Sicco A.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with diabetic foot disease require frequent screening to prevent complications and may be helped through telemedical home monitoring. Within this context, the goal was to determine the validity and reliability of assessing diabetic foot infection using photographic foot imaging and infrared

  6. A new method to normalize plantar pressure measurements for foot size and foot progression angle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, N.L.; Stolwijk, N.M.; Nienhuis, B.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2009-01-01

    Plantar pressure measurement provides important information about the structure and function of the foot and is a helpful tool to evaluate patients with foot complaints. In general, average and maximum plantar pressure of 6-11 areas under the foot are used to compare groups of subjects. However,

  7. Design and pilot testing of the DVA/Seattle Footwear System for diabetic patients with foot insensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiber, G E; Smith, D G; Boone, D A; del Aguila, M; Borchers, R E; Mathews, D; Joseph, A W; Burgess, E M

    1997-01-01

    Clinical epidemiology studies suggest the majority of lower limb amputations were preceded by a minor traumatic event, often footwear-related, and lower limb ulcers. To reduce foot trauma and ulcers, the diabetic patient with foot insensitivity has unique footwear needs. To address these needs for patients not requiring custom shoes, the DVA/Seattle Footwear System was developed. The six components of this system include: 1) a specially designed shoe last based on the geometry of the diabetic foot and research findings on foot regions at highest risk of ulceration, 2) a depth-inlay shoe, "Custom Stride by PRS," designed to be paired with either a custom-fabricated cork insole or a preformed polyurethane insole, 3) a laser digitizing system that captures 3-D plantar foot contours, 4) DVA/Seattle ShapeMaker software adaptation for modifying plantar surface contours and applying free-form and template modifications to increase or relieve loading, 5) software that translates files into code used by a milling machine to define the cutting path and carve cork blockers into custom insoles, and 6) a preformed polyurethane insole thicker than a typical insole to accommodate the extra volume and the interior dimensions of the shoe. A 6-month pilot cross-over trial of 24 diabetic male veterans without prior foot ulcers was conducted to determine the feasibility of producing, and the safety of wearing, these depthinlay shoes and both types of insoles. During the first 4 weeks, patients were assigned to the study shoes and one type of insole. During the next 4 weeks, they wore the other type of insole, and during the final 4 months, they chose which pair of insoles to wear with the study shoes. Over 150 person-months of footwear observation revealed no breaks in the cutaneous barrier with use of either cork or polyurethane insoles and the study shoes. Patient compliance with the footwear was 88%. Patients were highly satisfied with the appearance, stability, and comfort of the

  8. Classification of diabetic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Game, Frances

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the relative importance of factors involved in the development of diabetic foot problems can vary in both their presence and severity between patients and lesions. This may be one of the reasons why outcomes seem to vary centre to centre and why some treatments may seem more effective in some people than others. There is a need therefore to classify and describe lesions of the foot in patients with diabetes in a manner that is agreed across all communities but is simple to use in clinical practice. No single system is currently in widespread use, although a number have been published. Not all are well validated outside the system from which they were derived, and it has not always been made clear the clinical purposes to which such classifications should be put to use, whether that be for research, clinical description in routine clinical care or audit. Here the currently published classification systems, their validation in clinical practice, whether they were designed for research, audit or clinical care, and the strengths and weaknesses of each are explored. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Robust Foot Clearance Estimation Based on the Integration of Foot-Mounted IMU Acceleration Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoussaad, Mourad; Sijobert, Benoît; Mombaur, Katja; Coste, Christine Azevedo

    2015-12-23

    This paper introduces a method for the robust estimation of foot clearance during walking, using a single inertial measurement unit (IMU) placed on the subject's foot. The proposed solution is based on double integration and drift cancellation of foot acceleration signals. The method is insensitive to misalignment of IMU axes with respect to foot axes. Details are provided regarding calibration and signal processing procedures. Experimental validation was performed on 10 healthy subjects under three walking conditions: normal, fast and with obstacles. Foot clearance estimation results were compared to measurements from an optical motion capture system. The mean error between them is significantly less than 15 % under the various walking conditions.

  10. The influence of a foot orthotic on lower extremity transverse plane kinematics in collegiate female athletes with pes planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, R Carcia; Drouin, Joshua M; Houglum, Peggy A

    2006-01-01

    Non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in female athletes remain prevalent. Athletes with excessive foot pronation have been identified to be at greater risk for non-contact ACL injury. Excessive foot pronation has been linked to increased medial tibial rotation. Increased medial tibial rotation heightens ACL strain and has been observed at or near the time of ACL injury. Foot orthotics have been shown to decrease medial tibial rotation during walking and running tasks. The effect of a foot orthotic on activities that simulate a non-contact ACL injury mechanism (i.e. landing) however is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether a foot orthotic was capable of altering transverse plane lower extremity kinematics in female athletes during landing. Twenty uninjured collegiate female athletes participating in the sports of basketball, soccer or volleyball with pes planus volunteered. Utilizing a repeated measures counterbalanced design, subjects completed two landing tasks with and without a foot orthotic using standardized footwear. The prefabricated orthotic had a rigid shell and a 6 extrinsic rear-foot varus post. Dependent measures included initial contact angle, peak angle, excursion and time to peak angle for both the tibia and femur. Statistical analysis suggested that the selected foot orthosis had little influence over lower extremity transverse plane kinematics. Several factors including: the limitation of a static measure to predict dynamic movement, inter-subject variability and the physical characteristics of the orthotic device likely account for the results. Future research should examine the influence of different types of foot orthotics not only on lower extremity kinematics but also tibiofemoral kinetics. Key PointsLower extremity transverse plane kinematics in female athletes during a landing task exhibit substantial variability.A rigid prefabricated foot orthotic does not significantly alter transverse

  11. Preventing Diabetic Foot Complications : Strategic Recommendations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diabetic foot is the commonest cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputation in the developed and developing nations. Several risk factors predispose the diabetic patient to foot ulceration and peripheral neuropathy, with peripheral vascular disease are the commonest risk factors. Clinical examination for these risk ...

  12. VACUUM ASSISTED CLOSURE IN DIABETIC FOOT MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Moganakannan; `Prema; Arun Sundara Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Comparision of vacuum assisted closure vs conventional dressing in management of diabetic foot patients. 30 patients were taken in that 15 underwent vacuum therapy and remaining 15 underwent conventional dressing.They were analysed by the development of granulation tissue and wound healing.The study showed Vac therapy is the best modality for management of diabetic foot patients.

  13. Efficient foot motor control by Neymar's brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Eiichi; Hirose, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    How very long-term (over many years) motor skill training shapes internal motor representation remains poorly understood. We provide valuable evidence that the football brain of Neymar da Silva Santos Júnior (the Brasilian footballer) recruits very limited neural resources in the motor-cortical foot regions during foot movements. We scanned his brain activity with a 3-tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while he rotated his right ankle at 1 Hz. We also scanned brain activity when three other age-controlled professional footballers, two top-athlete swimmers and one amateur footballer performed the identical task. A comparison was made between Neymar's brain activity with that obtained from the others. We found activations in the left medial-wall foot motor regions during the foot movements consistently across all participants. However, the size and intensity of medial-wall activity was smaller in the four professional footballers than in the three other participants, despite no difference in amount of foot movement. Surprisingly, the reduced recruitment of medial-wall foot motor regions became apparent in Neymar. His medial-wall activity was smallest among all participants with absolutely no difference in amount of foot movement. Neymar may efficiently control given foot movements probably by largely conserving motor-cortical neural resources. We discuss this possibility in terms of over-years motor skill training effect, use-dependent plasticity, and efficient motor control.

  14. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33 Foot... for foot injury to occur shall wear footwear meeting the specifications of ANSI Z41, except when environmental conditions exist that present a hazard greater than that against which the footwear is designed to...

  15. Animal Research International: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr. J. E. Eyo Dr. Department of Zoology, University of Nig Department of Zoology, POBox 3146, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. Phone: 234 42 308030. Email: joseph.eyo@unn.edu.ng. Support Contact. N. S. Oluah Phone: +234-83732127. Email: ndubusioluah@yahoo.com.

  16. Contact Hamiltonian mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravetti, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.bravetti@iimas.unam.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones en Matemáticas Aplicadas y en Sistemas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. P. 70543, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Cruz, Hans, E-mail: hans@ciencias.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. P. 70543, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Tapias, Diego, E-mail: diego.tapias@nucleares.unam.mx [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70543, México, DF 04510 (Mexico)

    2017-01-15

    In this work we introduce contact Hamiltonian mechanics, an extension of symplectic Hamiltonian mechanics, and show that it is a natural candidate for a geometric description of non-dissipative and dissipative systems. For this purpose we review in detail the major features of standard symplectic Hamiltonian dynamics and show that all of them can be generalized to the contact case.

  17. Discovery and Innovation: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof. Keto Mshigeni Editor-in-Chief Academy Science Publishers. PO Box 14798-00200. Nairobi. Kenya. Phone: 254 (20) 884401-5. Fax: 254 (20) 884406. Email: aas@aasciences.org. Support Contact. Prof. Keto Mshigeni Email: aas@aasciences.org. ISSN: 1015-079X. AJOL African Journals Online.

  18. LBS Management Review: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr Obinna Muogboh Managing Editor Lagos Business School Pan African University 2 Ahmed Onibudo Street, P.O. Box 73688, Victoria Island, Lagos, NIGERIA Email: omuogboh@lbs.edu.ng. Support Contact. Editor Email: omuogboh@lbs.edu.ng. ISSN: 1118-3713. AJOL African Journals Online.

  19. African Health Sciences: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr James Tumwine Editor-in-Chief. Makerere University Medical School P. O. Box 7072 Kampala Uganda. Phone: 256-41-530020/1. Email: kabaleimc@gmail.com. Support Contact. Pauline Salamula Email: paulinesalamula@gmail.com. ISSN: 1680-6905. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get follow up exams with your eye care provider. If you notice redness, swelling, excessive discharge, pain or discomfort from wearing contact lenses, remove the lenses and seek immediate medical attention from an ophthalmologist. Related resources: Learn how to properly care for contact lenses . ...

  1. Contact Quality in Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Jensen, Olav Storm

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the concept of participation from the perspective of quality of the contact in the communicative interactions between participants. We argue for the need for an academic-personal competence that qualifies the human contact central in all Participatory Design (PD) activities as a wa...

  2. Electric contact arcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuthrell, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Electrical contacts must function properly in many types of components used in nuclear weapon systems. Design, application, and testing of these components require detailed knowledge of chemical and physical phenomena associated with stockpile storage, stockpile testing, and operation. In the past, investigation of these phenomena has led to significant discoveries on the effects of surface contaminants, friction and wear, and the mechanics of closure on contact performance. A recent investigation of contact arcing phenomena which revealed that, preceding contact closure, arcs may occur at voltages lower than had been previously known is described. This discovery is important, since arcing may damage contacts, and repetitive testing of contacts performed as part of a quality assurance program might produce cumulative damage that would yield misleading life-test data and could prevent proper operation of the contacts at some time in the future. This damage can be avoided by determining the conditions under which arcing occurs, and ensuring that these conditions are avoided in contact testing

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye ... colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are ...

  4. Sciences & Nature: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Ehouan Etienne Ehile Professor University of Abobo-Adjamé 02 BP 801 Abidjan 02. Phone: (+225) 2030 4201. Fax: (+225) 2030 4203. Email: eh_ehile@yahoo.fr. Support Contact. Irie Zoro Bi Email: banhiakalou@yahoo.fr. ISSN: 1812-0741. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ...

  6. African Zoology: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Lester Isaacs Phone: +27466229698. Fax: +2746 622 9550. Email: lester@nisc.co.za. Support Contact. NISC office. Email: info@nisc.co.za. ISSN: 2224-073X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  7. Factor XII Contact Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudin, Clément; Burillo, Elena; Blankenberg, Stefan; Butler, Lynn; Renné, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Contact activation is the surface-induced conversion of factor XII (FXII) zymogen to the serine protease FXIIa. Blood-circulating FXII binds to negatively charged surfaces and this contact to surfaces triggers a conformational change in the zymogen inducing autoactivation. Several surfaces that have the capacity for initiating FXII contact activation have been identified, including misfolded protein aggregates, collagen, nucleic acids, and platelet and microbial polyphosphate. Activated FXII initiates the proinflammatory kallikrein-kinin system and the intrinsic coagulation pathway, leading to formation of bradykinin and thrombin, respectively. FXII contact activation is well characterized in vitro and provides the mechanistic basis for the diagnostic clotting assay, activated partial thromboplastin time. However, only in the past decade has the critical role of FXII contact activation in pathological thrombosis been appreciated. While defective FXII contact activation provides thromboprotection, excess activation underlies the swelling disorder hereditary angioedema type III. This review provides an overview of the molecular basis of FXII contact activation and FXII contact activation-associated disease states. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. Afrika Statistika: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof. Gane Samb Lo Editor Université Gaston Berger BP 234, Université Saint-Louis Sénégal Phone: 221 961 23 40. Fax: 221 961 53 38. Email: ganesamblo@yahoo.com. Support Contact. Mamadou Camara Email: mdoucamara@gmail.com. ISSN: 2316-090X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  9. Nigerian Food Journal: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Food Journal. ... Nigerian Food Journal: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > Nigerian Food Journal: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Mailing Address. Department of Food Science and Technology University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria ...

  10. Lettuce contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    degradability of lettuce allergens, it is recommended to patch test with freshly cut lettuce stem and supplement this with Compositae mix. As contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis may present as dermatitis, it is important to perform prick-prick tests, and possibly scratch patch tests as well. Any...

  11. The relationship between foot posture and plantar pressure during walking in adults: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldt, Andrew K; Allan, Jamie J; Landorf, Karl B; Menz, Hylton B

    2018-02-23

    Foot posture is a risk factor for some lower limb injuries, however the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Plantar pressure analysis is one technique to investigate the interaction between foot posture and biomechanical function of the lower limb. The aim of this review was to investigate the relationship between foot posture and plantar pressure during walking. A systematic database search was conducted using MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and Embase to identify studies that have assessed the relationship between foot posture and plantar pressure during walking. Included studies were assessed for methodological quality. Meta-analysis was not conducted due to heterogeneity between studies. Inconsistencies included foot posture classification techniques, gait analysis protocols, selection of plantar pressure parameters and statistical analysis approaches. Of the 4213 citations identified for title and abstract review, sixteen studies were included and underwent quality assessment; all were of moderate methodological quality. There was some evidence that planus feet display higher peak pressure, pressure-time integral, maximum force, force-time integral and contact area predominantly in the medial arch, central forefoot and hallux, while these variables are lower in the lateral and medial forefoot. In contrast, cavus feet display higher peak pressure and pressure-time integral in the heel and lateral forefoot, while pressure-time integral, maximum force, force-time integral and contact area are lower for the midfoot and hallux. Centre of pressure was more laterally deviated in cavus feet and more medially deviated in planus feet. Overall, effect sizes were moderate, but regression models could only explain a small amount of variance in plantar pressure variables. Despite these significant findings, future research would benefit from greater methodological rigour, particularly in relation to the use of valid foot posture measurement techniques, gait analysis

  12. Contact materials for nanoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Husam N.

    2011-02-01

    In this article, we review current research activities in contact material development for electronic and nanoelectronic devices. A fundamental issue in contact materials research is to understand and control interfacial reactions and phenomena that modify the expected device performance. These reactions have become more challenging and more difficult to control as new materials have been introduced and as device sizes have entered the deep nanoscale. To provide an overview of this field of inquiry, this issue of MRS Bulletin includes articles on gate and contact materials for Si-based devices, junction contact materials for Si-based devices, and contact materials for alternate channel substrates (Ge and III-V), nanodevices. © 2011 Materials Research Society.

  13. Statistical parametric mapping of the regional distribution and ontogenetic scaling of foot pressures during walking in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotopoulou, Olga; Pataky, Todd C; Hill, Zoe; Hutchinson, John R

    2012-05-01

    Foot pressure distributions during locomotion have causal links with the anatomical and structural configurations of the foot tissues and the mechanics of locomotion. Elephant feet have five toes bound in a flexible pad of fibrous tissue (digital cushion). Does this specialized foot design control peak foot pressures in such giant animals? And how does body size, such as during ontogenetic growth, influence foot pressures? We addressed these questions by studying foot pressure distributions in elephant feet and their correlation with body mass and centre of pressure trajectories, using statistical parametric mapping (SPM), a neuro-imaging technology. Our results show a positive correlation between body mass and peak pressures, with the highest pressures dominated by the distal ends of the lateral toes (digits 3, 4 and 5). We also demonstrate that pressure reduction in the elephant digital cushion is a complex interaction of its viscoelastic tissue structure and its centre of pressure trajectories, because there is a tendency to avoid rear 'heel' contact as an elephant grows. Using SPM, we present a complete map of pressure distributions in elephant feet during ontogeny by performing statistical analysis at the pixel level across the entire plantar/palmar surface. We hope that our study will build confidence in the potential clinical and scaling applications of mammalian foot pressures, given our findings in support of a link between regional peak pressures and pathogenesis in elephant feet.

  14. Foot osteoarthritis: latest evidence and developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddy, Edward; Menz, Hylton B

    2018-04-01

    Foot osteoarthritis (OA) is a common problem in older adults yet is under-researched compared to knee or hand OA. Most existing studies focus on the first metatarsophalangeal joint, with evidence relating to midfoot OA being particularly sparse. Symptomatic radiographic foot OA affects 17% of adults aged 50 years and over. The first metatarsophalangeal joint is most commonly affected, followed by the second cuneometatarsal and talonavicular joints. Epidemiological studies suggest the existence of distinct first metatarsophalangeal joint and polyarticular phenotypes, which have differing clinical and risk factor profiles. There are few randomized controlled trials in foot OA. Existing trials provide some evidence of the effectiveness for pain relief of physical therapy, rocker-sole shoes, foot orthoses and surgical interventions in first metatarsophalangeal joint OA and prefabricated orthoses in midfoot OA. Prospective epidemiological studies and randomized trials are needed to establish the incidence, progression and prognosis of foot OA and determine the effectiveness of both commonly used and more novel interventions.

  15. Can Tai Chi training impact fractal stride time dynamics, an index of gait health, in older adults? Cross-sectional and randomized trial studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J Gow

    Full Text Available To determine if Tai Chi (TC has an impact on long-range correlations and fractal-like scaling in gait stride time dynamics, previously shown to be associated with aging, neurodegenerative disease, and fall risk.Using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA, this study evaluated the impact of TC mind-body exercise training on stride time dynamics assessed during 10 minute bouts of overground walking. A hybrid study design investigated long-term effects of TC via a cross-sectional comparison of 27 TC experts (24.5 ± 11.8 yrs experience and 60 age- and gender matched TC-naïve older adults (50-70 yrs. Shorter-term effects of TC were assessed by randomly allocating TC-naïve participants to either 6 months of TC training or to a waitlist control. The alpha (α long-range scaling coefficient derived from DFA and gait speed were evaluated as outcomes.Cross-sectional comparisons using confounder adjusted linear models suggest that TC experts exhibited significantly greater long-range scaling of gait stride time dynamics compared with TC-naïve adults. Longitudinal random-slopes with shared baseline models accounting for multiple confounders suggest that the effects of shorter-term TC training on gait dynamics were not statistically significant, but trended in the same direction as longer-term effects although effect sizes were very small. In contrast, gait speed was unaffected in both cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons.These preliminary findings suggest that fractal-like measures of gait health may be sufficiently precise to capture the positive effects of exercise in the form of Tai Chi, thus warranting further investigation. These results motivate larger and longer-duration trials, in both healthy and health-challenged populations, to further evaluate the potential of Tai Chi to restore age-related declines in gait dynamics.The randomized trial component of this study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01340365.

  16. Foot problems in a group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: an unmet need for foot care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Pinar; Ayhan, Figen; Tuncay, Figen; Sahin, Mehtap

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the foot involvement in a group of RA patients in regard to symptoms, type and frequency of deformities, location, radiological changes, and foot care. A randomized selected 100 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were recruited to the study. Data about foot symptoms, duration and location of foot pain, pain intensity, access to services related to foot, treatment, orthoses and assistive devices, and usefulness of therapies were determined by the questionnaire. Radiological changes were assessed according to modified Larsen scoring system. The scores of disease activity scale of 28 joints and Health Assessment Questionnaire indicating the functional status of RA patients were collected from patient files. A total of 100 RA patients (90 female, 10 male) with a mean age of 52.5 ±10.9 years were enrolled to the study. Eighty-nine of the 100 patients had experienced foot complaints/symptoms in the past or currently. Foot pain and foot symptoms were reported as the first site of involvement in 14 patients. Thirty-six patients had ankle pain and the most common sites of the foot symptoms were ankle (36%) and forefoot (30%) followed by hindfoot (17%) and midfoot (7%) currently. Forty-nine of the patients described that they had difficulty in performing their foot care. Insoles and orthopedic shoes were prescribed in 39 patients, but only 14 of them continued to use them. The main reasons for not wearing them were; 17 not helpful (43%), 5 made foot pain worse (12.8%), and 3 did not fit (7.6%). Foot symptoms were reported to be decreased in 24 % of the subjects after the medical treatment and 6 patients indicated that they had underwent foot surgery. Current foot pain was significantly associated with higher body mass index and longer disease duration, and duration of morning stiffness. The radiological scores did not correlate with duration of foot symptoms and current foot pain (p>0.05) but the total number of foot deformities was

  17. Effect of Custom-Molded Foot Orthoses on Foot Pain and Balance in Children With Symptomatic Flexible Flat Feet

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hong-Jae; Lim, Kil-Byung; Yoo, JeeHyun; Yoon, Sung-Won; Yun, Hyun-Ju; Jeong, Tae-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of custom-molded foot orthoses on foot pain and balance in children with symptomatic flexible flat foot 1 month and 3 months after fitting foot orthosis. Method A total of 24 children over 6 years old with flexible flat feet and foot pain for at least 6 months were recruited for this study. Their resting calcaneal stance position and calcaneal pitch angle were measured. Individual custom-molded rigid foot orthoses were prescribed using inverted orthotic techni...

  18. Foot posture and function have only minor effects on knee function during barefoot walking in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldt, Andrew K; Levinger, Pazit; Murley, George S; Menz, Hylton B; Nester, Christopher J; Landorf, Karl B

    2015-06-01

    Foot posture has been postulated as a risk factor for overuse injuries of the knee, however the link between foot posture and knee joint function is unclear. The aims of this study were to: (i) compare knee adduction moment and knee joint rotations between normal, planus and cavus foot posture groups, and (ii) to determine the relationship between rearfoot and midfoot joint rotations and knee adduction moment magnitude. Rotation of the knee, rearfoot and midfoot was evaluated in 97 healthy adults that were classified as normal (n=37), cavus (n=30) or planus (n=30) for the Foot Posture Index, Arch Index and normalised navicular height. One way analyses of variance were used to compare tri-planar knee joint rotation, knee adduction moment peak variables and knee adduction angular impulse between foot posture groups. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to investigate the association between rearfoot and midfoot joint rotation during initial contact phase and the magnitude of 1st knee adduction moment peak. The planus group displayed significantly greater external rotation angle at heel contact compared to both normal and cavus groups. The planus groups also displayed greater extension at heel contact and sagittal plane flexion range of motion during propulsion and early swing compared to the cavus group. Otherwise, differences between groups were characterised by small effect sizes. There was no association between rearfoot or midfoot joint rotations and knee adduction moment. These findings suggest that in healthy individuals, foot posture and foot joint rotations do not substantially influence knee joint rotations and knee adduction moment while walking at a comfortable pace. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hand and foot contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakati, R.K.; Kaptral, R.S.; Ananthkrishnan, T.S.; Pansare, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    In order to make quick measurements of beta and gamma contaminations on hands and feet of personnel working in radioactive environments, hand and foot contamination monitors are widely used. This paper describes such a monitor system designed with Intel 8085 based microcomputer. The monitoring and warning system is designed to perform measurement of activity spread over surface of hands and soles of shoes or feet. Even though the system has many features to aid testing and maintainance operation, it is easy to use for unskilled persons. In order to check the contamination, the person stands on platform and inserts both his hands into detector assemblies thereby actuating the sensing switches. After a preset interval, annunciation of clean or contaminated status is declared by the system. (author)

  20. Holistic management of diabetic foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindarto, D.

    2018-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is the most costly and devastating complication of diabetes mellitus, which affect 15% of diabetic patients during their lifetime. DFUs are complex, chronic wounds, which have a major long-term impact on the morbidity, mortality and quality of patients’ lives. Individuals who develop a DFU are at greater risk of premature death, myocardial infarction and fatal stroke than those without a history of DFU. Unlike other chronic wounds, the development and progression of DFU is often complicated by wideranging diabetic changes, such as neuropathy and vascular disease. The management of DFU should be optimized by using a multidisciplinary team, due to a holistic approach to wound management is required. Based on studies, blood sugar control, wound debridement, advanced dressings and offloading modalities should always be a part of DFU management. Furthermore, surgery to heal chronic ulcer and prevent recurrence should be considered as an essential component of management in some cases.

  1. Bacteriology of diabetic foot lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandi C

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical grading and bacteriological study of 107 patients with diabetic foot lesions revealed polymicrobial aetiology in 69 (64.4% and single aetiology in 21 (19.6%. Among 107 patients 62 had ulcer. Of these 31 had mixed aerobes. Twenty six patients with cellulitis and 12 with gangrene had more than 5 types of aerobes and anaerobes such as E.coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp., Proteus spp., Enterobactor spp., Enterococci spp., Clostridium perfringens, Bacteroides spp., Prevotella spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp. It was noted that 50 out of 62 patients with ulcer, and all the patients with cellulitis and gangrene were given surgical management and treated with appropriate antibiotics based on antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

  2. Contacts to semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tove, P.A.

    1975-08-01

    Contacts to semiconductors play an important role in most semiconductor devices. These devices range from microelectronics to power components, from high-sensitivity light or radiation detectors to light-emitting of microwave-generating components. Silicon is the dominating material but compound semiconductors are increasing in importance. The following survey is an attempt to classify contact properties and the physical mechanisms involved, as well as fabrication methods and methods of investigation. The main interest is in metal-semiconductor type contacts where a few basic concepts are dealt with in some detail. (Auth.)

  3. Effect of carbon-composite knee-ankle-foot orthoses on walking efficiency and gait in former polio patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brehm, Merel-Anne; Beelen, Anita; Doorenbosch, Caroline A. M.; Harlaar, Jaap; Nollet, Frans

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of total-contact fitted carbon-composite knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFOs) on energy cost of walking in patients with former polio who normally wear a conventional leather/metal KAFO or plastic/metal KAFO. Design: A prospective uncontrolled study with a multiple

  4. Assessment of signs of foot infection in diabetes patients using photographic foot imaging and infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, Constantijn E V B; van Netten, Jaap J; van Baal, Sjef G; Bus, Sicco A

    2014-06-01

    Patients with diabetic foot disease require frequent screening to prevent complications and may be helped through telemedical home monitoring. Within this context, the goal was to determine the validity and reliability of assessing diabetic foot infection using photographic foot imaging and infrared thermography. For 38 patients with diabetes who presented with a foot infection or were admitted to the hospital with a foot-related complication, photographs of the plantar foot surface using a photographic imaging device and temperature data from six plantar regions using an infrared thermometer were obtained. A temperature difference between feet of >2.2 °C defined a "hotspot." Two independent observers assessed each foot for presence of foot infection, both live (using the Perfusion-Extent-Depth-Infection-Sensation classification) and from photographs 2 and 4 weeks later (for presence of erythema and ulcers). Agreement in diagnosis between live assessment and (the combination of ) photographic assessment and temperature recordings was calculated. Diagnosis of infection from photographs was specific (>85%) but not very sensitive (90%) but not very specific (60%) and specific (>79%). Intra-observer agreement between photographic assessments was good (Cohen's κ=0.77 and 0.52 for both observers). Diagnosis of foot infection in patients with diabetes seems valid and reliable using photographic imaging in combination with infrared thermography. This supports the intended use of these modalities for the home monitoring of high-risk patients with diabetes to facilitate early diagnosis of signs of foot infection.

  5. Foot lengthening and shortening during gait: a parameter to investigate foot function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolwijk, N M; Koenraadt, K L M; Louwerens, J W K; Grim, D; Duysens, J; Keijsers, N L W

    2014-02-01

    Based on the windlass mechanism theory of Hicks, the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) flattens during weight bearing. Simultaneously, foot lengthening is expected. However, changes in foot length during gait and the influence of walking speed has not been investigated yet. The foot length and MLA angle of 34 healthy subjects (18 males, 16 females) at 3 velocities (preferred, low (preferred -0.4 m/s) and fast (preferred +0.4 m/s) speed were investigated with a 3D motion analysis system (VICON(®)). The MLA angle was calculated as the angle between the second metatarsal head, the navicular tuberculum and the heel in the local sagittal plane. Foot length was calculated as the distance between the marker at the heel and the 2nd metatarsal head. A General Linear Model for repeated measures was used to indicate significant differences in MLA angle and foot length between different walking speeds. The foot lengthened during the weight acceptance phase of gait and shortened during propulsion. With increased walking speed, the foot elongated less after heel strike and shortened more during push off. The MLA angle and foot length curve were similar, except between 50% and 80% of the stance phase in which the MLA increases whereas the foot length showed a slight decrease. Foot length seems to represent the Hicks mechanism in the foot and the ability of the foot to bear weight. At higher speeds, the foot becomes relatively stiffer, presumably to act as a lever arm to provide extra propulsion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [The rheumatoid foot. Origin of deformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, L; Claustre, J; Allieu, Y

    1980-02-01

    Deformations of the foot are a logical and predictable function of the biomechanics of the foot and the constraints undergone by the articulations of the foot, that are unstabilized by the inflammatory process. They result from the combination of three factors : anevolutive teno-articular synovitis, predictible forces (the weight of the extrinsic muscle, the anti-physiological foot), and the congenital morphotype of the foot. Typical deformations (peroneal " coup de vent " of the toes, triangular metatarsus), differ on the clinical level in keeping with the morphotype but respond to the same mechanism. The " coup de vent peronier " remains the most characteristic deformation and is furthered by the excentric action of the extrinsic muscles, and in particular the foot muscle. The common denomination of deformations of the back part of the foot is represented by the valgus calcanean, linked to the action of the weight on the orsion forces that is more or less modified. A better knowledge of the cause of these deformations would make it possible to avoid, if not their apparition, at least their worsening.

  7. Diabetic foot ulcer teams in Norwegian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robberstad, Mari; Bentsen, Signe Berit; Berg, Tore Julsrud; Iversen, Marjolein M

    2017-09-19

    The national clincial guidelines for diabetes recommend that diabetic foot ulcers be treated by interdisciplinary diabetic foot ulcer teams. This study aims to survey the extent of diabetic foot ulcer teams in the specialist health service in Norwegian hospitals and to describe their clinical composition, organisation and working routines. The study is cross-sectional with the use of a questionnaire survey. The criteria for participating were somatic hospitals with 24-hour operations and a specialist function for patients with diabetes mellitus. A total of 41 hospitals participated of the 51 that fulfilled the criteria. Altogether 17 of 41 hospitals had diabetic foot ulcer teams. The teams had a broad clinical composition and followed national recommendations for surveying risk factors and treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Nine foot ulcer teams had written routines for assessment, five used the Noklus diabetes patient records to document ulcer treatment, and ten had planned interdisciplinary meetings. Only one-quarter of the teams included both medical and surgical competence in the planned interdisciplinary collaboration. The diabetic foot ulcer teams had broad clinical competence and followed national clinical guidelines. The teams had a short waiting time for the initial consultation, half had written guidelines, and 60 % had planned interdisciplinary meetings. Far fewer had included both medical and surgical competence in the planned interdisciplinary collaboration.

  8. Diabetic Foot Complications Despite Successful Pancreas Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Kyo; Lee, Ho Seong; Park, Jungu; Ryu, Chang Hyun; Han, Duck Jong; Seo, Sang Gyo

    2017-06-01

    It is known that successful pancreas transplantation enables patients with diabetes to maintain a normal glucose level without insulin and reduces diabetes-related complications. However, we have little information about the foot-specific morbidity in patients who have undergone successful pancreas transplantation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and predisposing factors for foot complications after successful pancreas transplantation. This retrospective study included 218 patients (91 males, 127 females) who had undergone pancreas transplantation for diabetes. The mean age was 40.7 (range, 15-76) years. Diabetes type, transplantation type, body mass index, and diabetes duration before transplantation were confirmed. After pancreas transplantation, the occurrence and duration of foot and ankle complications were assessed. Twenty-two patients (10.1%) had diabetic foot complications. Fifteen patients (6.9%) had diabetic foot ulcer and 7 patients (3.2%) had Charcot arthropathy. Three patients had both diabetic foot ulcer and Charcot arthropathy. Three insufficiency fractures (1.4%) were included. Mean time of complications after transplantation was 18.5 (range, 2-77) months. Creatinine level 1 year after surgery was higher in the complication group rather than the noncomplication group ( P = .02). Complications of the foot and ankle still occurred following pancreas transplantation in patients with diabetes. Level III, comparative study.

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... ask for a prescription. There is no such thing as a "one size fits all" contact lens. ...

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical ...

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... seek immediate medical attention from an ophthalmologist. Related resources: Learn how to properly care for contact lenses . ... woman from Oregon made history as the first human host for an eye worm that previously had ...

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From blood-drenched vampire eyes to glow-in-the-dark ... properly fitted may scratch the eye or cause blood vessels to grow into the cornea. Even if ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... people with high myopia? Mar 29, 2017 New Technology Helps the Legally Blind Be More Independent Oct ... Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... had not been properly fitted by an eye care professional, the lenses stuck to my eye like ... lenses do not require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... 2018 By Dan T. Gudgel Do you know what the difference is between ophthalmologists and optometrists? A ...

  16. Ergonomics SA: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Mrs June McDougall. Rhodes University. Department of Human Kinetics and Ergonomics. P.O. Box 94. Rhodes University. Grahamstown. 6140. Phone: +27 46 6038471. Email: j.mcdougall@ru.ac.za ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ... 13, 2017 Histoplasmosis Diagnosis Sep 01, 2017 How common is retinal detachment for people with high myopia? ...

  18. Tomato contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars P; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2012-01-01

    The tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important crop worldwide. Whereas immediate-type reactions to tomato fruits are well known, contact dermatitis caused by tomatoes or tomato plants is rarely reported. The aims of this study were to present new data on contact sensitization to tomato...... plants and review the literature on contact dermatitis caused by both plants and fruits. An ether extract of tomato plants made as the original oleoresin plant extracts, was used in aimed patch testing, and between 2005 and 2011. 8 of 93 patients (9%) tested positive to the oleoresin extracts....... This prevalence is in accordance with the older literature that reports tomato plants as occasional sensitizers. The same applies to tomato fruits, which, in addition, may cause protein contact dermatitis. The allergens of the plant are unknown, but both heat-stable and heat-labile constituents seem...

  19. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager ... About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of ...

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology ...

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ... About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of ...

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but 10 hours after she first put in a pair ... Prescription Contact Lens Laura: Vision Loss After Just 10 Hours Robyn: Blurry Vision and Daily Eye Drops ...

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in beauty salons, novelty shops or in pop-up Halloween stores are not FDA-approved and are ... share contact lenses with another person. Get follow up exams with your eye care provider. If you ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... videos on your website Promotional materials for eye health observances EyeSmart resources are also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at ...

  6. GAS-FOVEAL CONTACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberti, Mark; la Cour, Morten

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare gas-foveal contact in face-down positioning (FDP) and nonsupine positioning (NSP), to analyze causes of gas-foveal separation and to determine how gas-foveal contact affects clinical outcome after idiopathic macular hole repair. METHODS: Single center, randomized controlled...... study. Participants with an idiopathic macular hole were allocated to either FDP or NSP. Primary outcome was gas-foveal contact, calculated by analyzing positioning in relation to intraocular gas fill. Positioning was measured with an electronic device recording positioning for 72 hours postoperatively....... RESULTS: Positioning data were available for 33/35 in the FDP group and 35/37 in the NSP group, thus results are based on 68 analyzed participants. Median gas-foveal contact was 99.82% (range 73.6-100.0) in the FDP group and 99.57% (range 85.3-100.0) in the NSP group (P = 0.22). In a statistical model...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative ...

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... medical attention from an ophthalmologist. Related resources: Learn how to properly care for contact lenses . Learn about ... Shape of the Eclipse Itself Dec 08, 2017 How long does it take the eye to go ...

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to the journals may be interrupted during this time. We are working to resolve the issue quickly ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to ...

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Purchase the colored contact lenses from an eye product retailer who asks for a prescription. Follow the ... for people with high myopia? Mar 29, 2017 New Technology Helps the Legally Blind Be More Independent ...

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los ... contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but ...

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ... American Academy of Ophthalmology 2018 Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery * Required * First Name: * Last ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... are being sold illegally," Dr. Steinemann said. Never buy colored contact lenses from a retailer that does ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without ... been properly fitted by an eye care professional, the lenses stuck to my eye like a suction ...

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription ... people with high myopia? Mar 29, 2017 New Technology Helps the Legally Blind Be More Independent Oct ...

  17. Contact Lens Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tap and distilled water have been associated with Acanthamoeba keratitis, a corneal infection that is resistant to ... to: Advice for Patients With Soft Contact Lenses: Acanthamoeba Keratitis Infections Related to Complete® MoisturePlus Multi Purpose ...

  18. Malignant tumours of the foot and ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascard, E.; Gaspar, N.; Brugières, L.; Glorion, C.; Pannier, S.; Gomez-Brouchet, A.

    2017-01-01

    Most of tumours of the foot are tumour-like (synovial cyst, foreign body reactions and epidermal inclusion cyst) or benign conditions (tenosynovial giant cells tumours, planta fibromatosis). Malignant tumours of the soft-tissue and skeleton are very rare in the foot and their diagnosis is often delayed with referral to specialised teams after initial inappropriate procedures or unplanned excisions. The adverse effect of these misdiagnosed tumours is the increasing rate of amputation or local recurrences in the involved patients. In every lump, imaging should be discussed before any local treatment. Every lesion which is not an obvious synovial cyst or plantar fibromatosis should have a biopsy performed. After the age of 40 years, chondrosarcoma is the most usual malignant tumour of the foot. In young patients bone tumours such as osteosarcoma or Ewing’s sarcoma, are very unusually located in the foot. Synovial sarcoma is the most frequent histological diagnosis in soft tissues. Epithelioid sarcoma or clear cell sarcoma, involve more frequently the foot and ankle than other sites. The classic local treatment of malignant conditions of the foot and ankle was below-knee amputation at different levels. Nowadays, with the development of adjuvant therapies, some patients may benefit from conservative surgery or partial amputation after multidisciplinary team discussions. The prognosis of foot malignancy is not different from that at other locations, except perhaps in chondrosarcoma, which seems to be less aggressive in the foot. The anatomy of the foot is very complex with many bony and soft tissue structures in a relatively small space making large resections and conservative treatments difficult to achieve. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160078. Originally published online at www.efortopenreviews.org PMID:28630763

  19. FOOT POSTURAL DEVIATIONS IN FEMALE KATHAK DANCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopika Sabharwal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kathak is a very complex dance form in which greater emphasis is laid on foot work thus putting substantial amount of stress over the feet. The purpose of this study was to investigate the foot postural deviations amongst the Kathak dancers. Methods: Screening of 40 Female Kathak Dancers was done for the study from Department of Dance, Punjabi University, Patiala on the basis of inclusion criteria. Subjects were assessed for Postural deviations via. Foot Posture Index, Medial Longitudinal Arch Angle, Navicular Drop, Rearfoot angle and Forefoot angle. Results: Percentile analysis of Foot Posture index scores suggested that a large population of kathak dancers (approx 92.5 % have pronated feet. Most of the Kathak dancers showed increase in Rearfoot angle (approx. 90%, Forefoot angle (approx.75% and Navicular drop (approx. 97% and decrease in Medial Longitudinal Arch angle (approx. 95%. Analysis of Coefficient of Correlation suggested a significant positive relationship of Foot Posture Index scores with Rearfoot angle (r = 0.40, p= 0.0087, Navicular Drop (r = 0.62, p= < 0.0001 and Forefoot angle (r = 0.51, p=0.0007 and a significant negative correlation with Medial Longitudinal Arch angle (r = -0.42, p= 0.0059. Conclusion: From the observations, it can be concluded that with time kathak dancers start developing certain Postural Deviations at Foot which can lead to hyperpronation. These changes if not treated on time may lead to various degenerative changes in the Foot and Ankle thus leading to the instabilities and can also make them susceptible to foot and ankle injuries, shin pain, etc. Thus, the study recommends that the dancers should be educated and trained about the foot problems associated with kathak dance and their prevention.

  20. Contact Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, M. L.; Stalmach, D. D.; Cox, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Fluid pressure controls contact between heat pipe and heat exchanger. Heat exchanger system in cross section provides contact interface between fluid system and heat pipe with easy assembly/disassembly of heat-pipe/ pumped-liquid system. Originally developed for use in space, new device applicable on Earth where fluid system is linked with heat pipe, where rapid assembly/disassembly required, or where high pressures or corrosive fluids used.

  1. What has finite element analysis taught us about diabetic foot disease and its management? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Telfer

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades finite element (FE analysis has become a popular tool for researchers seeking to simulate the biomechanics of the healthy and diabetic foot. The primary aims of these simulations have been to improve our understanding of the foot's complicated mechanical loading in health and disease and to inform interventions designed to prevent plantar ulceration, a major complication of diabetes. This article provides a systematic review and summary of the findings from FE analysis-based computational simulations of the diabetic foot.A systematic literature search was carried out and 31 relevant articles were identified covering three primary themes: methodological aspects relevant to modelling the diabetic foot; investigations of the pathomechanics of the diabetic foot; and simulation-based design of interventions to reduce ulceration risk.Methodological studies illustrated appropriate use of FE analysis for simulation of foot mechanics, incorporating nonlinear tissue mechanics, contact and rigid body movements. FE studies of pathomechanics have provided estimates of internal soft tissue stresses, and suggest that such stresses may often be considerably larger than those measured at the plantar surface and are proportionally greater in the diabetic foot compared to controls. FE analysis allowed evaluation of insole performance and development of new insole designs, footwear and corrective surgery to effectively provide intervention strategies. The technique also presents the opportunity to simulate the effect of changes associated with the diabetic foot on non-mechanical factors such as blood supply to local tissues.While significant advancement in diabetic foot research has been made possible by the use of FE analysis, translational utility of this powerful tool for routine clinical care at the patient level requires adoption of cost-effective (both in terms of labour and computation and reliable approaches with clear clinical

  2. A comparison of two total contact cast constructs with variable body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirozzi, Kelly; McGuire, James; Meyr, Andrew J

    2014-07-01

    There is a growing body of evidence implicating obesity as having a negative effect on the development and treatment of diabetic foot disease. The aim of this study was to increase the body of knowledge on the effects of obesity on foot function, specifically as it relates to peak plantar pressures in the total contact cast (TCC). Our investigational objectives were to compare the effect of two different TCC designs on mean peak plantar pressures, and to evaluate the efficacy of two TCC constructs with increasing body mass. The primary outcome measure was mean peak plantar pressure in the heel, midfoot, forefoot and first metatarsal as measured with an in-shoe pressure measurement system. The variables were patient weight (from 'normal' body mass index (BMI) to 'overweight', 'obese' and 'morbidly obese') and the TCC construct (with both a standard and alternate cast design). The standard TCC is considered the gold standard for off-loading of the diabetic foot. The alternate TCC was designed to use the essential offloading component of the traditional TCC, namely the total contact leg section, with use of an open cell polyurethane foam to transfer load from the foot to the lower leg, thereby offloading the foot by suspending it within a padded fiberglass walking cast. We did not observe statistically significant differences in mean peak plantar pressures in any plantar foot anatomic area or with any body mass between the two TCC designs. Based on the results, we concluded that the alternate TCC design provides another viable TCC construct option for practitioners working with the neuropathic foot. This investigation also provides specific data on changes that occur in peak plantar pressures with use of the total contact cast and variable BMIs. none.

  3. Patients with multiple contact allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Berit Christina; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Menné, Torkil

    2008-01-01

    Patients with multiple contact allergies, also referred to as polysensitized, are more frequent than predicted from prevalence of single sensitivities. The understanding of why some people develop multiple contact allergies, and characterization of patients with multiple contact allergies...... of developing multiple contact allergies. Evidence of allergen clusters among polysensitized individuals is also reviewed. The literature supports the idea that patients with multiple contact allergies constitute a special entity within the field of contact allergy. There is no generally accepted definition...... of patients with multiple contact allergies. We suggest that contact allergy to 3 or more allergens are defined as multiple contact allergies....

  4. The effects of an ankle foot orthosis on cerebral palsy gait: A multiple regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Ferdous; Begg, Rezaul; Sangeux, Morgan; Halgamuge, Saman; Ackland, David C

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was twofold. Firstly, to develop a multiple regression normalization (MR) strategy to decorrelate physical properties and walking speed from spatiotemporal gait data in healthy children; and secondly, to use this MR approach to identify the effect of a solid ankle foot orthosis (AFO) on gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Spatiotemporal gait data during self-selected walking were obtained from 51 children with diplegic CP and 34 aged-matched healthy controls. Data were normalized using standard dimensionless equations (DS) and a MR approach. Stride length, stance time, swing time, and double support time were significantly different between children with CP and healthy controls using DS (pchildren with CP walked with and without an AFO. Normalizing gait data using DS demonstrated significant differences in cadence and step time in children with CP when wearing an AFO compared to the controls (pchildren with CP with and without an AFO, except double support time. After MR normalization, spatiotemporal parameters in children wearing an AFO became closer to those of the controls, except for double support time. The MR approach presented will assist in evaluating the effectiveness of conservative interventions such as AFOs in children with CP, as well as in surgery, and may be useful in gait classification using machine learning.

  5. Effect of forward/backward standing posture on foot shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Tan, T.K.; Punte, P.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Foot length and breadth are generally used to determine the correct shoe size. An important question is whether foot length and foot breadth are dependent upon body posture. Therefore, the effect of leaning forward/backward on foot length and breadth is investigated in this study. Seven subjects

  6. Clinical and functional correlates of foot pain in diabetic patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, P.M.; Dekker, J.; Rauwerda, J.A.; Dekker, E.; Lankhorst, G.J.; Bakker, K.; Dooren, J.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: patients with diabetes mellitus frequently suffer from foot pain. This pain seems to be a neglected area in studies on the diabetic foot. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical variables associated with foot pain in diabetic patients. In addition, the relationships between foot

  7. Knowledge evaluation and educating diabetic patients on self foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion and recommendation: A considerable number of diabetic patients have poor self foot care knowledge and the level of knowledge on self foot care improved prominently following foot care education session. Therefore there is a need for establishment and strengthening effective foot care education for diabetic ...

  8. Age-related differences in women's foot shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ansuategui Echeita, Jone; Hijmans, Juha M.; Smits, Sharon; Van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Postema, Klaas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Describe age-related differences in women's foot shape using a wide range of measurements and ages. Study design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Main outcome measurements: Six foot-shape measurements of each foot: foot lengths, ball widths, ball circumferences, low instep

  9. Increased plantar foot pressure in persons affected by leprosy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slim, Frederik J.; van Schie, Carine H.; Keukenkamp, Renske; Faber, William R.; Nollet, Frans

    2012-01-01

    Although foot pressure has been reported to be increased in people affected by leprosy, studies on foot pressure and its determinants are limited. Therefore, the aim was to assess barefoot plantar foot pressure and to identify clinical determinants of increased plantar foot pressure in leprosy

  10. The diabetic foot: recognition and principles of management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lynne Tudhope is President of the Diabetic Foot Working Group of South Africa and an editorial board member for diabetes in the Journal of Wound Healing of South .... foot care team is the most effective way to provide patient education, manage foot ulceration, infection and deformity. Palpation of foot pulses is crucial in.

  11. Foot Complications in a Representative Australian Inpatient Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Lazzarini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the prevalence and factors independently associated with foot complications in a representative inpatient population (adults admitted for any reason with and without diabetes. We analysed data from the Foot disease in inpatients study, a sample of 733 representative inpatients. Previous amputation, previous foot ulceration, peripheral arterial disease (PAD, peripheral neuropathy (PN, and foot deformity were the foot complications assessed. Sociodemographic, medical, and foot treatment history were collected. Overall, 46.0% had a foot complication with 23.9% having multiple; those with diabetes had higher prevalence of foot complications than those without diabetes (p<0.01. Previous amputation (4.1% was independently associated with previous foot ulceration, foot deformity, cerebrovascular accident, and past surgeon treatment (p<0.01. Previous foot ulceration (9.8% was associated with PN, PAD, past podiatry, and past nurse treatment (p<0.02. PAD (21.0% was associated with older age, males, indigenous people, cancer, PN, and past surgeon treatment (p<0.02. PN (22.0% was associated with older age, diabetes, mobility impairment, and PAD (p<0.05. Foot deformity (22.4% was associated with older age, mobility impairment, past podiatry treatment, and PN (p<0.01. Nearly half of all inpatients had a foot complication. Those with foot complications were older, male, indigenous, had diabetes, cerebrovascular accident, mobility impairment, and other foot complications or past foot treatment.

  12. The Occurrence of Ipsilateral or Contralateral Foot Disorders and Hand Dominance: The Framingham Foot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Uyen-Sa D. T.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Positano, Rock G.; Dines, Joshua S.; Dodson, Christopher C.; Gagnon, David R.; Hillstrom, Howard J.; Hannan, Marian T.

    2011-01-01

    Background To our knowledge, hand dominance and side of foot disorders has not been described in the literature. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate whether hand dominance was associated with ipsilateral foot disorders among community-dwelling older men and women Methods Data were from the Framingham Foot Study (n=2,089, examined 2002–2008). Hand preference for writing was used to classify hand dominance. Foot disorders and side of disorders were based on a validated foot examination. Generalized linear models with GEE was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), accounting for intra-person variability. Results Left-handed people were less likely to have foot pain or any foot disorders ipsilateral, but were more likely to have hallux valgus ipsilateral to the left hand. Among right-handed people, the following statistically significant increased odds of having an ipsilateral foot disorder versus contralateral foot disorder were seen: 30% for Morton’s Neuroma, 18% for hammer toes, 21% for lesser toe deformity, and a 2-fold increased odds of any foot disorder; there was a 17% decreased odds for Tailor’s Bunion, and an 11% decreased odds for pes cavus. Conclusion For the 2089 study participants, certain forefoot disorders were shown to be ipsilateral while other foot disorders were contralateral to the dominant hand. It is possible that the side of the dominant hand was a proxy for biomechanics of the dominant foot that may explain some of the associations with ipsilateral forefoot disorders. PMID:23328848

  13. Associations of Foot Posture and Function to Lower Extremity Pain: The Framingham Foot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskowski, JL; Dufour, AB; Hagedorn, TJ; Hillstrom, Howard; Casey, VA; Hannan, MT

    2014-01-01

    Objective Studies have implicated foot posture and foot function as risk factors for lower extremity pain. Empirical population-based evidence for this assertion is lacking; therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate cross-sectional associations of foot posture and foot function to lower extremity joint pain in a population-based study of adults. Methods Participants were members of the Framingham Foot Study. lower extremity joint pain was determined by the response to the NHANES-type question, “On most days do you have pain, aching or stiffness in your [hips, knees, ankles, or feet]?” Modified Arch Index (MAI) classified participants as having planus, rectus (referent) or cavus foot posture. Center of Pressure Excursion Index (CPEI) classified participants as having over-pronated, normal (referent) or over-supinated foot function. Crude and adjusted (age, gender, BMI) logistic regression determined associations of foot posture and function to lower extremity pain. Results Participants with planus structure had higher odds of knee (1.57, 95% CI: 1.24– 1.99) or ankle (1.47, 95% CI: 1.05–2.06) pain, whereas those with a cavus foot structure had increased odds of ankle pain only (7.56, 95% CI: 1.99–28.8) and pain at one lower extremity site (1.37, 95% CI: 1.04–1.80). Associations between foot function and lower extremity joint pain were not statistically significant, except for a reduced risk of hip pain in those with an over-supinated foot function (0.69, 95% CI: 0.51–0.93). Conclusions These findings offer a link between foot posture and lower extremity pain, highlighting the need for longitudinal or intervention studies. PMID:24591410

  14. Angiography in the region of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeitler, E.

    1984-01-01

    It is reported on technique, incidence and findings of angiography of the foot which provided magnifying angiography and non-ionic contrast media are used, is especially qualified for the differentiation of diabetic and non-diabetic angiopathies as well as for the identification of peripherical embolizations and digital arterial occlusions at thrombocytosis or polycythemia. The arteries of the foot represent the peripherical outflow at peripherical reconstructive performances at the lower leg and have to be studied prior to such reconstructive surgical interventions. The different localization of arterial obliterations and changes of the walls in diabetics of stage I-IV according to Fontaine shows the particularly large number of vascular-pathological findings in arteries of the lower leg and foot in diabetics with arterial occlusive diseases of stage III and IV. Therefore, the unfavourable prognoses of arterial occlusive diseases in diabetics have also to be made for peripherical arterial obliterations of the foot and lower leg. (orig.) [de

  15. Foot Swelling during Air Travel: A Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... concern? What causes leg and foot swelling during air travel? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. ... had major surgery or you take birth control pills, for example — consult your doctor before flying. He ...

  16. Diabetic foot infections: current concept review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberlee B. Hobizal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this manuscript is to provide a current concept review on the diagnosis and management of diabetic foot infections which are among the most serious and frequent complications encountered in patients with diabetes mellitus. A literature review on diabetic foot infections with emphasis on pathophysiology, identifiable risk factors, evaluation including physical examination, laboratory values, treatment strategies and assessing the severity of infection has been performed in detail. Diabetic foot infections are associated with high morbidity and risk factors for failure of treatment and classification systems are also described. Most diabetic foot infections begin with a wound and once an infection occurs, the risk of hospitalization and amputation increases dramatically. Early identification of infection and prompt treatment may optimize the patient's outcome and provide limb salvage.

  17. Formal Design Review Foot Clamp Modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OTEN, T.C.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the Design Review performed for the foot clamp modification. The report documents the acceptability of the design, identifies the documents that were reviewed, the scope of the review and the members of the review team

  18. Leg or foot amputation - dressing change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000018.htm Leg or foot amputation - dressing change To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You will need to change the dressing on your limb. This will help ...

  19. On-the-Job Foot Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improves your efficiency and keeps you on the job. Your podiatric physician and surgeon is a specialist ... 20814 FP-65M-4/96 2014 ON-THE-JOB FOOT HEALTH YOUR PODIATRIC PHYSICIAN TALKS ABOUT ON- ...

  20. The Glasgow-Maastricht foot model, evaluation of a 26 segment kinematic model of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwaal, Michiel; Carbes, Sylvain; Telfer, Scott; Woodburn, James; Tørholm, Søren; Al-Munajjed, Amir A; van Rhijn, Lodewijk; Meijer, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Accurately measuring of intrinsic foot kinematics using skin mounted markers is difficult, limited in part by the physical dimensions of the foot. Existing kinematic foot models solve this problem by combining multiple bones into idealized rigid segments. This study presents a novel foot model that allows the motion of the 26 bones to be individually estimated via a combination of partial joint constraints and coupling the motion of separate joints using kinematic rhythms. Segmented CT data from one healthy subject was used to create a template Glasgow-Maastricht foot model (GM-model). Following this, the template was scaled to produce subject-specific models for five additional healthy participants using a surface scan of the foot and ankle. Forty-three skin mounted markers, mainly positioned around the foot and ankle, were used to capture the stance phase of the right foot of the six healthy participants during walking. The GM-model was then applied to calculate the intrinsic foot kinematics. Distinct motion patterns where found for all joints. The variability in outcome depended on the location of the joint, with reasonable results for sagittal plane motions and poor results for transverse plane motions. The results of the GM-model were comparable with existing literature, including bone pin studies, with respect to the range of motion, motion pattern and timing of the motion in the studied joints. This novel model is the most complete kinematic model to date. Further evaluation of the model is warranted.

  1. Body weight and the medial longitudinal foot arch: high-arched foot, a hidden problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniacka, R; Bac, A; Matusik, S; Szczygieł, E; Ciszek, E

    2013-05-01

    This study had two objectives. First, to determine the prevalence of hollow (high-arched) and flat foot among primary school children in Cracow (Poland). Second, to evaluate the relationship between the type of medial longitudinal arch (MLA; determined by the Clarke's angle) and degree of fatness. The prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obesity was determined by means of IOTF cut-offs with respect to age and gender. A sample of 1,115 children (564 boys and 551 girls) aged between 3 and 13 years was analyzed. In all age groups, regardless of gender, high-arched foot was diagnosed in the majority of children. A distinct increase in the number of children with high-arched foot was observed between 7- and 8-year olds. Regardless of the gender, high-arched foot was more common among underweight children. In the group of obese children, the biggest differences were attributed to gender. High-arched foot was the most frequently observed among boys. In all gender and obesity level groups, the flat foot was more common among boys than among girls. High-arched foot is the most common foot defect among children 3-13 years old regardless of gender. Flat foot is least frequently observed in children 3-13 years old. A statistic correlation between MLA and adiposity is observed. Stronger correlation is observed among girls.

  2. Metal-Semiconductor Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, D. I.

    Metal-semiconductor contacts display a range of electrical characteristics from strongly rectifying to ohmic, each having its own applications. The rectifying properties of metal points on metallic sulphides were used extensively as detectors in early radio experiments, while during the second world war the rectifying point contact diode became important as a frequency detector and low level microwave radar detector [1]. Since 1945 the development of metal semiconductor contacts has been stimulated by the intense activity in the field of semiconductor physics and has remained vital in the ohmic connection of semiconductor devices with the outside world. The developments in surface science and the increased use of Schottky barriers in microelectronics has lead to much research with the aim of obtaining a full understanding of the physics of barrier formation and of current transport across the metal-semiconductor interface. Large gain spin electronic devices are possible with appropriate designs by incorporating ferromagnetic layers with semiconductors such as silicon [2]. This inevitably leads to metal-semiconductor contacts, and the impact of such junctions on the device must be considered. In this section we aim to look simply at the physical models that can be used to understand the electrical properties that can arise from these contacts, and then briefly discuss how deviations of these models can occur in practical junctions.

  3. The Foot-Reading Cult of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmia, Anand N; Bosmia, Arpan N; Tubbs, R S

    2017-10-01

    Ho-no-Hana-Sanpogyo was a Japanese new religious movement referred to as the "foot-reading cult" in the media. Its founder, Fukunaga Hogen, claimed to have divine authority and the ability to diagnose physical illness by studying the soles of an individual's feet. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the history of Ho-no-Hana-Sanpogyo and Fukunaga's practice of foot reading.

  4. CLINICOMICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY OF DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal Kumar Palaniappan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease caused by a combination of lifestyle and genetic factors affecting all organs in the body. Foot ulcers are one of the common and serious long-term complications of diabetes leads to recurrent and chronic infections, which results in limb loss when treatment is delayed. The aim of this study is to find out the clinical outcome and microbiological profile in patients admitted with diabetic foot ulcers. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study conducted between November 2008 to November 2009 over 50 patients with history of foot ulceration and diabetes. 50 patients were admitted with diabetic foot ulcer over a period of one year between November 2008-2009. They were studied after getting written consent. A predesigned pro forma was used to get the parameters comprising age, gender, duration, type of diabetes mellitus, presence of neuropathy, nephropathy (serum creatinine, urine albumin, retinopathy (screening funduscopy by ophthalmologist. RESULTS Among 50 patients admitted and treated for diabetic foot ulcers with mean stay of 18 days, 29 (58% had complete healing on conservative management, 18 (36% underwent minor amputation (toes, 3 (6% had major amputation (below knee/above knee. No mortality among the study groups encountered. Gram-negative aerobes E. coli (36%, Pseudomonas (52%, Klebsiella (28%, Proteus vulgaris (20% and Acinetobacter (16% were most frequently isolated followed by gram-positive aerobes MRSA (14%, Enterococcus (6%, Strep pyogenes (4% and no anaerobic growth. CONCLUSION Diabetic foot infections are frequently polymicrobial and predominantly gram-negative aerobic bacteria at presentation. Multidrug resistance pseudomonas aeruginosa and MRSA in diabetic foot ulcer is at its emergence and life threatening. Initial aggressive multimodal approach with surgical intervention, culture specific and sensitive targeted combined broad-spectrum antibiotics decreases the morbidity and mortality

  5. Surgical revascularization techniques for diabetic foot

    OpenAIRE

    Kota, Siva Krishna; Kota, Sunil Kumar; Meher, Lalit Kumar; Sahoo, Satyajit; Mohapatra, Sudeep; Modi, Kirtikumar Dharmsibhai

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis. The diabetic foot is characterized by the presence of arteriopathy and neuropathy. The vascular damage includes non-occlusive microangiopathy and macroangiopathy. Diabetic foot wounds are responsible for 5–10% of the cases of major or minor amputations. In fact, the risk of amputation of the lower limbs is 15–20% higher in diabetic populations than in the general population. The University of Texas classification is the reference class...

  6. Postoperative infection in the foot and ankle.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Victoria O

    2012-07-01

    Our discussion highlights the commonly performed surgical procedures in the foot and ankle and reviews the various imaging modalities available for the detection of infection with graphic examples to better enable radiologists to approach the radiological evaluation of postoperative infection in the foot and ankle. Discrimination between infectious and noninfectious inflammation remains a diagnostic challenge usually needing a combination of clinical assessment, laboratory investigations, and imaging studies to increase diagnostic accuracy.

  7. The growth of foot arches and influencing factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ferial Hadipoetro Idris

    2016-01-01

    Background Foot arches are important components for body sup- port. Foot arch deformity caused by growth abnormalities cause serious limitations in daily activities. Objectives To determine the patterns of foot arch growth, factors influencing foot arch growth, and the timing for intervention in er- rant growth patterns. Methods A cross-sectional study evaluated the foot arches of chil- dren aged 0-18 years according to age and sex. Subjects included had no evidence of...

  8. Effects of strengthening, stretching and functional training on foot function in patients with diabetic neuropathy: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Cristina D; Hasue, Renata H; Cacciari, Lícia P; Butugan, Marco K; Watari, Ricky; Pássaro, Anice C; Giacomozzi, Claudia; Sacco, Isabel C N

    2014-04-27

    Foot musculoskeletal deficits are seldom addressed by preventive medicine despite their high prevalence in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy. To investigate the effects of strengthening, stretching, and functional training on foot rollover process during gait. A two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial with a blinded assessor was designed. Fifty-five patients diagnosed with diabetic polyneuropathy, 45 to 65 years-old were recruited. Exercises for foot-ankle and gait training were administered twice a week, for 12 weeks, to 26 patients assigned to the intervention group, while 29 patients assigned to control group received recommended standard medical care: pharmacological treatment for diabetes and foot care instructions. Both groups were assessed after 12 weeks, and the intervention group at follow-up (24 weeks). Primary outcomes involved foot rollover changes during gait, including peak pressure (PP). Secondary outcomes involved time-to-peak pressure (TPP) and pressure-time integral (PTI) in six foot-areas, mean center of pressure (COP) velocity, ankle kinematics and kinetics in the sagittal plane, intrinsic and extrinsic muscle function, and functional tests of foot and ankle. Even though the intervention group primary outcome (PP) showed a not statistically significant change under the six foot areas, intention-to-treat comparisons yielded softening of heel strike (delayed heel TPP, p=.03), better eccentric control of forefoot contact (decrease in ankle extensor moment, pfoot and ankle function (pfoot rollover towards a more physiological process, supported by improved plantar pressure distribution and better functional condition of the foot ankle complex. Continuous monitoring of the foot status and patient education are necessary, and can contribute to preserving the integrity of foot muscles and joints impaired by polyneuropathy. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01207284, registered in 20th September 2010.

  9. The interaction of tone with voicing and foot structure: evidence from Kera phonetics and phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Mary Dorothy

    This thesis uses acoustic measurements as a basis for the phonological analysis of the interaction of tone with voicing and foot structure in Kera (a Chadic language). In both tone spreading and vowel harmony, the iambic foot acts as a domain for spreading. Further evidence for the foot comes from measurements of duration, intensity and vowel quality. Kera is unusual in combining a tone system with a partially independent metrical system based on iambs. In words containing more than one foot, the foot is the tone bearing unit (TBU), but in shorter words, the TBU is the syllable. In perception and production experiments, results show that Kera speakers, unlike English and French, use the fundamental frequency as the principle cue to 'Voicing" contrast. Voice onset time (VOT) has only a minor role. Historically, tones probably developed from voicing through a process of tonogenesis, but synchronically, the feature voice is no longer contrastive and VOT is used in an enhancing role. Some linguists have claimed that Kera is a key example for their controversial theory of long-distance voicing spread. But as voice is not part of Kera phonology, this thesis gives counter-evidence to the voice spreading claim. An important finding from the experiments is that the phonological grammars are different between village women, men moving to town and town men. These differences are attributed to French contact. The interaction between Kera tone and voicing and contact with French have produced changes from a 2-way voicing contrast, through a 3-way tonal contrast, to a 2-way voicing contrast plus another contrast with short VOT. These diachronic and synchronic tone/voicing facts are analysed using laryngeal features and Optimality Theory. This thesis provides a body of new data, detailed acoustic measurements, and an analysis incorporating current theoretical issues in phonology, which make it of interest to Africanists and theoreticians alike.

  10. ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisna Yuliharti Tersinanda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Allergic contact dermatitis is an immunologic reaction that tends to involve the surrounding skin and may even spread beyond affected sites. This skin disease is one of the more frequent, and costly dermatologic problems. Recent data from United Kingdom and United States suggest that the percentage of occupational contact dermatitis due to allergy may be much higher, thus raising the economic impact of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. There is not enough data about the epidemiology of allergic contact dermatitis in Indonesia, however based on research that include beautician in Denpasar, about 27,6 percent had side effect of cosmetics, which is 25,4 percent of it manifested as allergic contact dermatitis. Diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis is based on anamnesis, physical examination, patch test, and this disease should be distinguished from other eczematous skin disease. The management is prevention of allergen exposure, symptomatic treatment, and physicochemical barrier /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  11. [Computers and contact dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooms-Goossens, A

    1989-01-01

    A computerized database with the complete composition of pharmaceutical products and some cosmetics helps the patient with an allergic contact dermatitis reaction to avoid his specific allergens. Together with a database with patient information (12000 cases) this product, file serves as the basis for an expert system that assists the dermatologist during his every day clinical practice. The use of the computer in the field of contact dermatitis has gained much interest in the course of the last decade. In fact, the computer can be a particularly helpful tool in: 1. The storage of large amounts of data that can help to identify the patient's allergen microenvironment: --literature: articles related to contact dermatitis problems; --product information such as, for example, the composition of pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and industrial materials; --the dermatologist: the filling in of a standardized anamnesis from also helps to assure that relevant clinical data is not overlooked. 2. The diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis: on the basis of all these data stored, an expert system can be developed to provide targeted information to assist the physician with the anamnesis of a new patient. Depending on the profile of the patient, several factors that could be at the source of the contact dermatitis, such as the patient's profession, hobbies, and use of pharmaceutical products and cosmetics, can be considered, thus increasing the efficiency of the allergological examination considerably. 3. Research in contact dermatitis: --The data can be used for epidemiological analyses in behalf of the patients, the medical profession, the industry, and the authorities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. After Contact - Then What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Albert A.

    Few topics ignite the imagination as do the prospects of encountering extraterrestrial life - and what this may mean for individuals, societies, and cultures. Until recently speculation fell largely within the realms of philosophy, science fiction, and UFO studies. By 1960, however, the theoretical feasibility of interstellar transmissions coupled with Frank Drake's initial empirical search, Project Ozma, established a need to put such speculation on a firmer footing. Drake's work had gained the attention of Donald Norman, a psychologist who was developing a report on the peaceful uses of outer space for the US Congress. Whereas most of this report dealt with topics such as communications satellites, remote sensing, and human space exploration, portions dwelled on the possible implications of the discovery.

  13. Taiwanese adult foot shape classification using 3D scanning data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Chi; Wang, Mao-Jiun

    2015-01-01

    This study classifies the foot shapes of Taiwanese using 3D foot scanning data from 2000 males and 1000 females. Nine foot dimensions relative to foot length and absolute measures in the common foot length categories were applied to compare the gender differences. Using foot breadth in % foot length (% FL), ball of foot length in % FL and arch height in % FL as feature parameters, three foot shape types for males and females can be classified. Significant gender differences were found in seven of the nine foot dimensions. Females had greater ball of foot length than males (0.2% FL). When comparing feet of the same foot length, males had greater breadth, girth and height dimensions than females, except for toe height. In addition, ethnic differences in foot shape were also observed. The findings can provide very useful information for building gender-specific shoe lasts and designing footwear insoles. 3D foot scanning data of 2000 males and 1000 females were classified into three different footshapes for males and females, respectively. Gender and ethnic differences on foot shape were also compared. The finding scan provide very useful information for gender-specific shoe last design and footwear production.

  14. Contributions of foot muscles and plantar fascia morphology to foot posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angin, Salih; Mickle, Karen J; Nester, Christopher J

    2018-01-27

    The plantar foot muscles and plantar fascia differ between different foot postures. However, how each individual plantar structure contribute to foot posture has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between static foot posture and morphology of plantar foot muscles and plantar fascia and thus the contributions of these structures to static foot posture. A total of 111 participants were recruited, 43 were classified as having pes planus and 68 as having normal foot posture using Foot Posture Index assessment tool. Images from the flexor digitorum longus (FDL), flexor hallucis longus (FHL), peroneus longus and brevis (PER), flexor hallucis brevis (FHB), flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) and abductor hallucis (AbH) muscles, and the calcaneal (PF1), middle (PF2) and metatarsal (PF3) regions of the plantar fascia were obtained using a Venue 40 ultrasound system with a 5-13 MHz transducer. In order of decreasing contribution, PF3 > FHB > FHL > PER > FDB were all associated with FPI and able to explain 69% of the change in FPI scores. PF3 was the highest contributor explaining 52% of increases in FPI score. Decreased thickness was associated with increased FPI score. Smaller cross sectional area (CSA) in FHB and PER muscles explained 20% and 8% of increase in FPI score. Larger CSA of FDB and FHL muscles explained 4% and 14% increase in FPI score respectively. The medial plantar structures and the plantar fascia appear to be the major contributors to static foot posture. Elucidating the individual contribution of multiple muscles of the foot could provide insight about their role in the foot posture. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Assessment of the influence of jogging on the shape of female foot arches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslon, Agata; Golec, Joanna; Szczygiel, Elzbieta; Czechowska, Dorota; Golec, Boguslaw

    2017-12-23

    Both walking and its faster, running, consist of cyclical subsequent phases of swing and support; however, they differ in their time proportions as well as magnitude of acting forces. There is a lack of studies concerning the long-term consequences of repeated jogging cycles on the function of feet and, above all, on their permanent impact on the shape of foot arches. The objective of this study was to answer the question whether regular jogging changes the shape of the transverse and medial longitudinal arches of the feet. The research material consisted of 96 women with an average age of 26.57, and included 50 actively jogging women, and 46 of non-joggers. The study was performed with the use of EMED-SF force platform. The plantar surface of the foot was divided into 10 regions according to Cavanagh, for which peak pressure and contact time were established. Two indicators were defined: metatarsal bone pressure distribution pattern acc. to Kantali, and longitudinal arch index acc. to Cavanagh. The data obtained revealed more frequent occurrence of the greatest pressure under the centrally located metatarsal heads (lack of functional foot transverse arch) among the female joggers, compared with the non-joggers. Moreover, the findings indicate the higher frequency of medial longitudinal foot arch flattening among female runners, with a great deal of consistency between both feet, whereas results for the control group show asymmetrical medial arch shapes with right foot propensity to normal arch shape and left foot tendency for excessive arch. The observed differences in feet arch shapes between female joggers and non-joggers indicate the influence of jogging on feet functional adaptations.

  16. The influence of foot orthoses on foot mobility magnitude and arch height index in adults with flexible flat feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheykhi-Dolagh, Roghaye; Saeedi, Hassan; Farahmand, Behshid; Kamyab, Mojtaba; Kamali, Mohammad; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Derayatifar, Amir A; Curran, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    Flexible flat foot is described as a reduction in the height of the medial longitudinal arch and may occur from abnormal foot pronation. A foot orthosis is thought to modify and control excessive pronation and improve arch height. To compare the immediate effect of three types of orthoses on foot mobility and the arch height index in subjects with flexible flat feet. A quasi-experimental study. The dorsal arch height, midfoot width, foot mobility and arch height index were assessed in 20 participants with flexible flat feet (mean age = 23.2 ± 3 years) for three different foot orthosis conditions: soft, semi-rigid and rigid University of California Biomechanics Laboratory (UCBL). Maximum midfoot width at 90% with arch mobility in the coronal plane was shown in the semi-rigid orthosis condition. The semi-rigid orthosis resulted in the highest mean foot mobility in 90% of weight bearing, and the rigid orthosis (UCBL) had the lowest mean foot mobility. The soft orthosis resulted in foot mobility between that of the rigid and the semi-rigid orthosis. UCBL orthosis showed the highest arch height index, and the semi-rigid orthosis showed the lowest mean arch height index. Due to its rigid structure and long medial-lateral walls, the UCBL orthosis appears to limit foot mobility. Therefore, it is necessary to make an orthosis that facilitates foot mobility in the normal range of the foot arch. Future studies should address the dynamic mobility of the foot with using various types of foot orthoses. Although there are many studies focussed on flat foot and the use of foot orthoses, the mechanism of action is still unclear. This study explored foot mobility and the influence of foot orthoses and showed that a more rigid foot orthosis should be selected based on foot mobility. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  17. Comparing 3D foot scanning with conventional measurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Chi; Lin, Gloria; Wang, Mao-Jiun J

    2014-01-01

    Foot dimension information on different user groups is important for footwear design and clinical applications. Foot dimension data collected using different measurement methods presents accuracy problems. This study compared the precision and accuracy of the 3D foot scanning method with conventional foot dimension measurement methods including the digital caliper, ink footprint and digital footprint. Six commonly used foot dimensions, i.e. foot length, ball of foot length, outside ball of foot length, foot breadth diagonal, foot breadth horizontal and heel breadth were measured from 130 males and females using four foot measurement methods. Two-way ANOVA was performed to evaluate the sex and method effect on the measured foot dimensions. In addition, the mean absolute difference values and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used for precision and accuracy evaluation. The results were also compared with the ISO 20685 criteria. The participant's sex and the measurement method were found (p < 0.05) to exert significant effects on the measured six foot dimensions. The precision of the 3D scanning measurement method with mean absolute difference values between 0.73 to 1.50 mm showed the best performance among the four measurement methods. The 3D scanning measurements showed better measurement accuracy performance than the other methods (mean absolute difference was 0.6 to 4.3 mm), except for measuring outside ball of foot length and foot breadth horizontal. The ICCs for all six foot dimension measurements among the four measurement methods were within the 0.61 to 0.98 range. Overall, the 3D foot scanner is recommended for collecting foot anthropometric data because it has relatively higher precision, accuracy and robustness. This finding suggests that when comparing foot anthropometric data among different references, it is important to consider the differences caused by the different measurement methods.

  18. Plantar pressure and foot pain in the last trimester of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag-Saygi, Evrim; Unlu-Ozkan, Feyza; Basgul, Alin

    2010-02-01

    Back and foot pain are common complaints during pregnancy. Progression of symptoms is seen especially in the third trimester as the center of gravity (COP) is altered due to weight gain. The aim of the study was to evaluate plantar pressure changes and postural balance differences of pregnant women. Thirty-five last trimester pregnant women with complaints of foot pain were included. The control group consisted of 35 non-pregnant women who were age and body mass index (BMI) matched volunteers. All selected cases were overweight. Foot pain in pregnancy was measured by Visual analogue scale (VAS). Percentages of pressure on forefoot and hindfoot were measured using static pedobarography and peak pressures at forefoot, midfoot and hindfoot were measured using dynamic pedobarography. As a measurement of balance, COP sway length and width were also analyzed. Compared to overweight individuals, pregnant patients had higher forefoot pressure on the right side with standing and walking. Also, significant increases in contact times under the forefoot and longer floor contact times were found. VAS scores were correlated with forefoot contact times during walking. Although the sway length from COP was higher than controls, no significant correlation was found in sway length and weight gain. These data suggest that forefoot pressures increase in the last trimester of pregnancy during standing and walking. There is prominent increased postural sway in anterior-posterior direction in this period. We believe that based on the observed pressure changes, foot pain in pregnancy due to changes in body mass and distribution may be relieved by exercise and shoewear modifications.

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A medical degree and many more years of training, for starters. A recent article from U.S. News and World Report explains what ophthalmologists are and how they can help you look after ... Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical ...

  20. Nigeria Agricultural Journal: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof. J.A. Mbanasor Editor in Chief Head of Department, Agribusiness and Management College of Agribusiness and Financial Management Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Office of the Head of Department. Agribusiness and Management. College of Agribusiness and Financial Management.

  1. Language Contact and Bilingualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appel, René; Muysken, Pieter

    2006-01-01

    What happens - sociologically, linguistically, educationally, politically - when more than one language is in regular use in a community? How do speakers handle these languages simultaneously, and what influence does this language contact have on the languages involved? Although most people in the

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescription. There is no such thing as a "one size fits all" contact lens. Lenses that are not properly fitted may scratch the eye or cause blood vessels to grow into the cornea. Even if you have perfect vision, you need to get an eye exam and a prescription ...

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering ... woman from Oregon made history as the first human host for an eye worm that previously had been reported only in cattle. ... Policy Free EyeSmart Resources for Professionals Link your website to EyeSmart Embed ...

  4. Mathematics Connection: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr. Kofi Mereku Executive Editor Department of Mathematics Education, UCE Mathematical Association of Ghana, C/o Department of Mathematics Education University College of Education of Winneba P. O. Box 25, Winneba, Ghana Phone: +233244961318. Email: dkmereku@uew.edu.gh ...

  5. Contact: Releasing the news

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinotti, Roberto

    The problem of mass behavior after man's future contacts with other intelligences in the universe is not only a challenge for social scientists and political leaders all over the world, but also a cultural time bomb as well. In fact, since the impact of CETI (Contact with Extraterrestrial Intelligence) on human civilization, with its different cultures, might cause a serious socio-anthropological shock, a common and predetermined worldwide strategy is necessary in releasing the news after the contact, in order to keep possible manifestations of fear, panic and hysteria under control. An analysis of past studies in this field and of parallel historical situations as analogs suggests a definite "authority crisis" in the public as a direct consequence of an unexpected release of the news, involving a devastating "chain reaction" process (from both the psychological and sociological viewpoints) of anomie and maybe the collapse of today's society. The only way to prevent all this is to prepare the world's public opinion concerning contact before releasing the news, and to develop a long-term strategy through the combined efforts of scientists, political leaders, intelligence agencies and the mass media, in order to create the cultural conditions in which a confrontation with ETI won't affect mankind in a traumatic way. Definite roles and tasks in this multi-level model are suggested.

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... wear any kind of contact lens. In Butler's case, the lenses caused an infection and left her with a corneal ... A recent article from U.S. News and World Report explains what ophthalmologists are and how they can ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but 10 hours ...

  8. Zoologist (The): Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof. A.B. Odaibo Editor-in-Chief University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Nigeria. Hydrobiology & Fisheries Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Oyo State. Nigeria. West Africa. Alternative Email Address: adebakar19@yahoo.com. Phone: +234-(0)- 803-049-74. Fax: +234-02-8103043

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers ... Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de ...

  10. Open Veterinary Journal: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr. Ibrahim Eldaghayes Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tripoli Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tripoli, P. O. Box 13662, Tripoli, Libya Phone: +218 21 462 8422. Fax: +218 21 462 8421. Email: ibrahim.eldaghayes@vetmed.edu.ly ...

  11. Have Confidence in Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Richard J.; Turner, Rhiannon N.

    2010-01-01

    In an article in the May-June 2009 "American Psychologist," we discussed a new approach to reducing prejudice and encouraging more positive intergroup relations (Crisp & Turner, 2009). We named the approach imagined intergroup contact and defined it as "the mental simulation of a social interaction with a member or members of an outgroup category"…

  12. Disproportionate Minority Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, Rebecca L; Cyperski, Melissa A; Burkhart, Barry R

    2017-04-01

    The overrepresentation of racial/ethnic minorities within the criminal justice system relative to their population percentage, a phenomenon termed disproportionate minority contact, has been examined within general adult and adolescent offender populations; yet few studies have tested whether this phenomenon extends to juvenile sexual offenders (JSOs). In addition, few studies have examined whether offender race/ethnicity influences registration and notification requirements, which JSOs are subject to in some U.S. states. The present study assessed for disproportionate minority contact among general delinquent offenders and JSOs, meaning it aimed to test whether the criminal justice system treats those accused of sexual and non-sexual offenses differently by racial/ethnic group. Furthermore, racial/ethnic group differences in risk, legal classification, and sexual offending were examined for JSOs. Results indicated disproportionate minority contact was present among juveniles with non-sexual offenses and JSOs in Alabama. In addition, offense category and risk scores differed between African American and European American JSOs. Finally, registration classifications were predicted by offending characteristics, but not race/ethnicity. Implications and future directions regarding disproportionate minority contact among JSOs and social and legal policy affecting JSOs are discussed.

  13. Lubrication Of Nonconformal Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Yeau-Ren

    1991-01-01

    Report discusses advances in knowledge of lubrication of nonconformal contacts in bearings and other machine elements. Reviews previous developments in theory of lubrication, presents advances in theory of lubrication to determine minimum film thickness, and describes experiments designed to investigate one of regimes of lubrication for ball bearings.

  14. CODESRIA Bulletin: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Francis B. Nyamnjoh Editor-in-Chief CODESRIA Avenue Cheikh Anta Diop x Canal 4. BP 3304. Dakar SENEGAL. ISSN: 0850-8712. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  15. Ghana Mining Journal: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Professor Daniel Mireku-Gyimah Editor-in-Chief University of Mines & Technology Ghana Mining Journal University of Mines & Technology P. O. BOX 237 Tarkwa Ghana Phone: +233 362 20280/20324. Fax: +233 362 20306. Email: dm.gyimah@umat.edu.gh ...

  16. Contact allergy to spices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Van den Akker Th. (W.); I.D. Roesyanto-Mahadi (I.); A.W. van Toorenenbergen (Albert); Th. van Joost (Theo)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractA group of 103 patients suspected of contact allergy was tested with the European standard series, wood tars and spices; paprika, cinnamon, laurel, celery seed, nutmeg, curry, black pepper, cloves, while pepper, coriander, cacao and garlic. 32 patients (Group I) were selected on the

  17. COMPARISON OF GAIT USING A MULTIFLEX FOOT VERSUS A QUANTUM FOOT IN KNEE DISARTICULATION AMPUTEES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOONSTRA, AM; FIDLER, [No Value; SPITS, GMA; HOF, AL; Tuil, P.

    The subjective responses and gait patterns of unilateral knee disarticulation amputees wearing prostheses fitted first with the Multiflex foot and then with the Quantum foot were studied. Nine amputees were included in the trial. A questionnaire asked the amputees about their preference for one of

  18. Repeatability of the Oxford Foot Model for Kinematic Gait Analysis of the Foot and Ankle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeve, S.; Vos, J.; Weijers, P.; Verbruggen, J.; Willems, P.; Poeze, M.; Meijer, K.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Kinematic gait analysis via the multi-segmental Oxford foot model (OFM) may be a valuable addition to the biomechanical examination of the foot and ankle. The aim of this study is to assess the repeatability of the OFM in healthy subjects. METHODS: Nine healthy subjects, without a

  19. Foot lengthening and shortening during gait: a parameter to investigate foot function?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk, N.M.; Koenraadt, K.L.M.; Louwerens, J.W.; Grim, D.; Duysens, J.E.J.; Keijsers, N.L.W.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Based on the windlass mechanism theory of Hicks, the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) flattens during weight bearing. Simultaneously, foot lengthening is expected. However, changes in foot length during gait and the influence of walking speed has not been investigated yet. METHODS: The

  20. The forgotten foot - an assessment of foot and ankle radiograph pathology in final year medical students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Groarke, P J

    2014-04-27

    It has been shown that doctors in Emergency Departments (EDs) have inconsistent knowledge of musculoskeletal anatomy. This is most likely due to a deficiency in focused musculoskeletal modules at undergraduate level in medical school. The aims of this study were to evaluate the knowledge of final year medical students on foot anatomy and common foot and ankle pathology as seen on radiographs.

  1. Reduction of plantar pressures in leprosy patients by using custom made shoes and total contact insoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Simon Fuk-Tan; Chen, Carl P C; Lin, Shih-Cherng; Wu, Chih-Kuan; Chen, Chih-Kuang; Cheng, Shun-Ping

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe whether our custom made shoes and total contact insoles can effectively increase the plantar contact areas and reduce peak pressures in patients with leprosy. In the rehabilitation laboratory of a tertiary medical center. Six male and two female leprosy patients were recruited in this study. In this study, parameters related to foot pressures were compared between these patients wearing commercial available soft-lining kung-fu shoes and our custom made shoes with total contact insoles. The custom made shoes were made with larger toe box and were able to accommodate both the foot and the insoles. Custom made total contact insoles were made with the subtalar joints under neutral and non-weight-bearing positions. The insole force measurement system of Novel Pedar-X (Novel, Munich, Germany) was used to measure the plantar forces. The parameters of contact area (cm(2)), peak plantar pressures (kPa), contact time (s), and pressure time integral (kPa s) were measured. There were significant contact area increases in the right and left foot heel areas, left medial arch, and second to fifth toes after wearing the custom made shoes and insoles. There were significant decreases in peak plantar pressures in bilateral heels, left lateral midfoot, bilateral second to fourth metatarsal areas, and left fifth metatarsal head after wearing the custom made shoes and insoles (pshoes and total contact insoles were proven to be effective in increasing contact areas and decreasing peak pressures in plantar surfaces, and may therefore be a feasible treatment option in preventing leprosy patients from developing plantar ulcers. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Robust Foot Clearance Estimation Based on the Integration of Foot-Mounted IMU Acceleration Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoussaad, Mourad; Sijobert, Benoît; Mombaur, Katja; Azevedo Coste, Christine

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a method for the robust estimation of foot clearance during walking, using a single inertial measurement unit (IMU) placed on the subject’s foot. The proposed solution is based on double integration and drift cancellation of foot acceleration signals. The method is insensitive to misalignment of IMU axes with respect to foot axes. Details are provided regarding calibration and signal processing procedures. Experimental validation was performed on 10 healthy subjects under three walking conditions: normal, fast and with obstacles. Foot clearance estimation results were compared to measurements from an optical motion capture system. The mean error between them is significantly less than 15% under the various walking conditions. PMID:26703622

  3. Natural gaits of the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Li, Zhiyu; Lv, Changsheng; Luo, Donglin

    2011-03-18

    There has been a controversy as to whether or not the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot have an effect on human walking activities. The 3D foot scanning system was employed to obtain static footprints from subjects adopting a half-weight-bearing stance. Based upon their footprints, the subjects were divided into two groups: the flat-footed and the high-arched. The plantar pressure measurement system was used to measure and record the subjects' successive natural gaits. Two indices were proposed: distribution of vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) of plantar and the rate of change of footprint areas. Using these two indices to compare the natural gaits of the two subject groups, we found that (1) in stance phase, there is a significant difference (pflat-footed while a smaller rate of change of footprint area brings greater stability to the high-arched.

  4. Duality based contact shape optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vondrák, Vít; Dostal, Zdenek; Rasmussen, John

    2001-01-01

    An implementation of semi-analytic method for the sensitivity analysis in contact shape optimization without friction is described. This method is then applied to the contact shape optimization.......An implementation of semi-analytic method for the sensitivity analysis in contact shape optimization without friction is described. This method is then applied to the contact shape optimization....

  5. Beyond the Bottom of the Foot: Topographic Organization of the Foot Dorsum in Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarner, Taryn; Pearcey, Gregory E P; Sun, Yao; Barss, Trevor S; Kaupp, Chelsea; Munro, Bridget; Frank, Nick; Zehr, E Paul

    2017-12-01

    Sensory feedback from the foot dorsum during walking has only been studied globally by whole nerve stimulation. Stimulating the main nerve innervating the dorsal surface produces a functional stumble corrective response that is phase-dependently modulated. We speculated that effects evoked by activation of discrete skin regions on the foot dorsum would be topographically organized, as with the foot sole. Nonnoxious electrical stimulation was delivered to five discrete locations on the dorsal surface of the foot during treadmill walking. Muscle activity from muscles acting at the ankle, knee, hip, and shoulder were recorded along with ankle, knee, and hip kinematics and kinetic information from forces under the foot. All data were sorted on the basis of stimulus occurrence in 12 step cycle phases, before being averaged together within a phase for subsequent analysis. Results reveal dynamic changes in reflex amplitudes and kinematics that are site specific and phase dependent. Most responses from discrete sites on the foot dorsum were seen in the swing phase suggesting function to conform foot trajectory to maintain stability of the moving limb. In general, responses from lateral stimulation differed from medial stimulation, and effects were largest from stimulation at the distal end of the foot at the metatarsals; that is, in anatomical locations where actual impact with an object in the environment is most likely during swing. Responses to stimulation extend to include muscles at the hip and shoulder. We reveal that afferent feedback from specific cutaneous locations on the foot dorsum influences stance and swing phase corrective responses. This emphasizes the critical importance of feedback from the entire foot surface in locomotor control and has application for rehabilitation after neurological injury and in footwear development.

  6. A shift in priority in diabetic foot care and research: 75% of foot ulcers are preventable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus, Sicco A; van Netten, Jaap J

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration poses a heavy burden on the patient and the healthcare system, but prevention thereof receives little attention. For every euro spent on ulcer prevention, ten are spent on ulcer healing, and for every randomized controlled trial conducted on prevention, ten are conducted on healing. In this article, we argue that a shift in priorities is needed. For the prevention of a first foot ulcer, we need more insight into the effect of interventions and practices already applied globally in many settings. This requires systematic recording of interventions and outcomes, and well-designed randomized controlled trials that include analysis of cost-effectiveness. After healing of a foot ulcer, the risk of recurrence is high. For the prevention of a recurrent foot ulcer, home monitoring of foot temperature, pressure-relieving therapeutic footwear, and certain surgical interventions prove to be effective. The median effect size found in a total of 23 studies on these interventions is large, over 60%, and further increases when patients are adherent to treatment. These interventions should be investigated for efficacy as a state-of-the-art integrated foot care approach, where attempts are made to assure treatment adherence. Effect sizes of 75-80% may be expected. If such state-of-the-art integrated foot care is implemented, the majority of problems with foot ulcer recurrence in diabetes can be resolved. It is therefore time to act and to set a new target in diabetic foot care. This target is to reduce foot ulcer incidence with at least 75%. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Electrical contacts principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Slade, Paul G

    2013-01-01

    Covering the theory, application, and testing of contact materials, Electrical Contacts: Principles and Applications, Second Edition introduces a thorough discussion on making electric contact and contact interface conduction; presents a general outline of, and measurement techniques for, important corrosion mechanisms; considers the results of contact wear when plug-in connections are made and broken; investigates the effect of thin noble metal plating on electronic connections; and relates crucial considerations for making high- and low-power contact joints. It examines contact use in switch

  8. Contact Graph Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is a dynamic routing system that computes routes through a time-varying topology of scheduled communication contacts in a network based on the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) architecture. It is designed to enable dynamic selection of data transmission routes in a space network based on DTN. This dynamic responsiveness in route computation should be significantly more effective and less expensive than static routing, increasing total data return while at the same time reducing mission operations cost and risk. The basic strategy of CGR is to take advantage of the fact that, since flight mission communication operations are planned in detail, the communication routes between any pair of bundle agents in a population of nodes that have all been informed of one another's plans can be inferred from those plans rather than discovered via dialogue (which is impractical over long one-way-light-time space links). Messages that convey this planning information are used to construct contact graphs (time-varying models of network connectivity) from which CGR automatically computes efficient routes for bundles. Automatic route selection increases the flexibility and resilience of the space network, simplifying cross-support and reducing mission management costs. Note that there are no routing tables in Contact Graph Routing. The best route for a bundle destined for a given node may routinely be different from the best route for a different bundle destined for the same node, depending on bundle priority, bundle expiration time, and changes in the current lengths of transmission queues for neighboring nodes; routes must be computed individually for each bundle, from the Bundle Protocol agent's current network connectivity model for the bundle s destination node (the contact graph). Clearly this places a premium on optimizing the implementation of the route computation algorithm. The scalability of CGR to very large networks remains a research topic

  9. CRIO-INFLUENCE IN SURGICAL TREATMENT OF BENIGN TUMOURS OF FOOT BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Dianov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The material of investigation was the results of treatment of 131 patients with foot bones tumours. The largest number of patients referred, to age interval from 11 to 30 years (69,6%. More than half of cases were osteochondromas (54%, then solitary bone cyst (14,5% and chondromas (13%. Other nosologic forms were met significantly seldom. Two groups of patients were examined: the main group (with crio-influence - 44 patients and group of comparison (without crio-influence - 87 patients. The plot of operation was in flat, border-line, intrafocusal or segmental resection of damaged section, crio-instillation or contact curio-processing of bone and auto- or allopathic of respected defect. The results of treatment were estimated in a year after operation. After usage of curio-surgical method there were observed positive results in 41 patients, satisfactory - in 2 and unsatisfactory - in 1. The results of treatment with traditional method were positive in 79 cases, satisfactory - in 2, unsatisfactory - in 6. The worked-out method of curio-surgical treatment of foot bone tumours includes resection of pathological focus, itraoperative crio-influence on bone tissue and bone plastic transplantation of resected, defect. The analysis of criosurgical operations of foot gave the foundation to consider such interventions significant and perspective in treatment of patients with tumours and tumour similar damages of foot bone.

  10. Multi-segment foot kinematics and ground reaction forces during gait of individuals with plantar fasciitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ryan; Rodrigues, Pedro A; Van Emmerik, Richard E A; Hamill, Joseph

    2014-08-22

    Clinically, plantar fasciitis (PF) is believed to be a result and/or prolonged by overpronation and excessive loading, but there is little biomechanical data to support this assertion. The purpose of this study was to determine the differences between healthy individuals and those with PF in (1) rearfoot motion, (2) medial forefoot motion, (3) first metatarsal phalangeal joint (FMPJ) motion, and (4) ground reaction forces (GRF). We recruited healthy (n=22) and chronic PF individuals (n=22, symptomatic over three months) of similar age, height, weight, and foot shape (p>0.05). Retro-reflective skin markers were fixed according to a multi-segment foot and shank model. Ground reaction forces and three dimensional kinematics of the shank, rearfoot, medial forefoot, and hallux segment were captured as individuals walked at 1.35 ms(-1). Despite similarities in foot anthropometrics, when compared to healthy individuals, individuals with PF exhibited significantly (pplane forefoot motion, (4) greater maximum FMPJ dorsiflexion, and (5) decreased vertical GRF during propulsion. These data suggest that compared to healthy individuals, individuals with PF exhibit significant differences in foot kinematics and kinetics. Consistent with the theoretical injury mechanisms of PF, we found these individuals to have greater total rearfoot eversion and peak FMPJ dorsiflexion, which may put undue loads on the plantar fascia. Meanwhile, increased medial forefoot plantar flexion at initial contact and decreased propulsive GRF are suggestive of compensatory responses, perhaps to manage pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Diabetic foot care. importance of education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torreguitart, Maite Valverde

    2011-05-01

    Diabetes is the most prevalent chronic disease at present. It is estimated that approximately 250 million people worldwide have diabetes, representing 5.9% of the adult population. According to a study published recently in Spain, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes varies between 10 and 15%. Cardiovascular complications associated with the disease produce a high social and health costs significantly reducing the quality of life of patients and their families and are the leading cause of death in developed countries. Complications of diabetes with higher economic costs are the "diabetic foot", which consume about 20% of resources devoted to the care of these patients. Each year more than 1 million people worldwide suffer from a leg amputation due to this condition. Between 50% and 70% of non-traumatic amputations occur in patients with diabetes. Most of these amputations are preceded by a foot ulcer The most important factors related to the development of these ulcers are loss of sensation due to neuropathy minor trauma, foot deformity and peripheral vascular disease. According to the International Diabetes Federation, 15% of people with diabetes will develop foot ulcers during their lifetime. Interventions aimed at preventing foot ulcers in patients such as the comprehensive control, education of people with diabetes and their families as well as health professionals, have been shown to reduce lower extremity amputations by 50% and 85%.

  12. The diabetic foot management - recent advance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinwar, Prabhu Dayal

    2015-03-01

    Diabetic ulceration of the foot represents a major global medical, social and economic problem. It is the commonest major end-point of diabetic complications. Diabetic neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease are the main etiological factors in foot ulceration and may act alone, together, or in combination with other factors such as microvascular disease, biomechanical abnormalities, limited joint mobility and increased susceptibility to infection. In the diabetic foot, distal sensory polyneuropathy is seen most commonly. The advent of insulin overcame the acute problems of ketoacidosis and infection, but could not prevent the vascular and neurological complications. Management of diabetic neuropathic ulcer by appropriate and timely removal of callus, control of infection and reduction of weight bearing forces. Management of diabetic ischaemic foot are medical management, surgical management and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of stenosed and occluded lower extremity arteries. Foot ulceration in persons with diabetes is the most frequent precursor to amputation. Copyright © 2015 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Diabetic foot: from diagnosis to therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchi, P; Ferrari, P; Spina, M L

    2005-01-01

    Four percent of Italians are affected by diabetes mellitus. There are 120 million diabetics worldwide: it is expected that 15% of them will have wounds on their feet during their lifetime. In industrialized countries diabetes mellitus is the main cause of non-accidental amputation and this risk is approximately 15 times higher in diabetics than in any other population. The vasculopathy and/or the diabetic neuropathy represent the basic pathogenic elements in the development of diabetic foot: 15% of diabetics are affected by arteriopathy after 10 yrs of illness and just 40% have neuropathy after 25 yrs. The infection is the third, and often, concomitant pathogenetic factor in the diabetic ulcera. The diagnostics of the vasculopathic diabetic foot makes use of a careful objective check; doppler ultrasonography and arteriography (with the therapeutic application of the PTCA). In addition to the objective check, EMG and the neuropathy autonomy test are fundamental in the neuropathic diabetic foot. Osteomyelitis represents the most fearful complication in the diabetic foot; it can often be solved only through surgical destructive therapy. Therapy of the diabetic foot must come from careful and synergic team work, in which dietician, vascular surgeon, orthopedist and dermatologist make available their own skill with humility and endless patience.

  14. HTSC-Josephson step contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, K.

    1994-03-01

    In this work the properties of josephson step contacts are investigated. After a short introduction into Josephson step contacts the structure, properties and the Josphson contacts of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x high-T c superconductors is presented. The fabrication of HTSC step contacts and the microstructure is discussed. The electric properties of these contacts are measured together with the Josephson emission and the magnetic field dependence. The temperature dependence of the stationary transport properties is given. (WL)

  15. Iambic Feet in Paumari and the Theory of Foot Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Everett

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes stress and moraic constituencies in Paumari, an endangered language of the Arawan family of the Brazilian Amazon. It argues that Paumari feet are quantity-insensitive iambs, built from right-to-left within the prosodic word. Both of these latter claims are theoretically important because they violate some proposed universals of foot structure. The paper also discusses more general implications of the Paumari data for theories of foot size and shape, proposing two constraints on foot size, Foot Maximality and Foot Minimality, to replace the less fine-tuned constraint Foot Binarity.

  16. Contact dynamics math model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaese, John R.; Tobbe, Patrick A.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station Mechanism Test Bed consists of a hydraulically driven, computer controlled six degree of freedom (DOF) motion system with which docking, berthing, and other mechanisms can be evaluated. Measured contact forces and moments are provided to the simulation host computer to enable representation of orbital contact dynamics. This report describes the development of a generalized math model which represents the relative motion between two rigid orbiting vehicles. The model allows motion in six DOF for each body, with no vehicle size limitation. The rotational and translational equations of motion are derived. The method used to transform the forces and moments from the sensor location to the vehicles' centers of mass is also explained. Two math models of docking mechanisms, a simple translational spring and the Remote Manipulator System end effector, are presented along with simulation results. The translational spring model is used in an attempt to verify the simulation with compensated hardware in the loop results.

  17. Contact allergy to cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Held, E; Johansen, J D; Agner, T

    1999-01-01

    .4%) had doubtfully positive reaction(s) and 31 (5.8%) had irritant reaction(s). Skin-care products were tested most frequently and were also found to cause most positive, doubtfully positive and irritant reactions, 80% of the patients with positive reactions to their own products had no history of contact......In a 2-year period, 1527 patients with contact dermatitis were investigated in the patch-test clinic. In 531 patients, allergy to cosmetics was suspected from the history and they were tested with their own cosmetic products. 40 (7.5%) (of the 531 patients) had 1 or more positive reactions, 82 (15...... of common cosmetic ingredients. Fragrance mix and formaldehyde were found to be the ingredients most often responsible and were significantly more frequent in patients with positive reactions to their own products, compared to a control group of eczema patients also seen in the patch-test clinic....

  18. Critical Points of Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Morelli, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    In contemporary urban societies multiple networks and systems interact, overlap, exist in parallel, converge, conflict etc. creating unforeseen complexity and less transparency. By exploring how layered networks of physical movement, service information, goods delivery, commercial communication etc....... are connected (and disconnected) we get a much better understanding of how to design and intervene regardless if we are thinking about public spaces in the city or new systems of service design. The many networks orchestrating and facilitating contemporary everyday life are dependent on the strategic sites...... where the networks meet and establish contact. Thus we argue for the usefulness of the notion of Critical Point of Contact (CPC) to deepen our understanding of the actual life within networks. En route to this notion we draw upon theories within as diverse realms such as interaction design, service...

  19. Contact allergy to lanolin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransen, Marloes; Overgaard, Line E K; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lanolin has been tested as lanolin alcohols (30% pet.) in baseline patch test series since 1969, and this has shown clinically relevant allergic contact dermatitis cases. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the temporal development of lanolin allergy (i.e. positive reaction to lanolin alcohols...... and/or Amerchol™ L-101), and the association between contact allergy to lanolin and patient characteristics from the MOAHLFA index. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of consecutively patch tested dermatitis patients (n = 9577) between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2015 with lanolin...... alcohols 30% pet. and Amerchol™ L-101 50% pet. was performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of lanolin allergy increased from 0.45% in 2004 to 1.81% in 2015. In age-adjusted and sex-adjusted analyses, weak, significant associations were found between atopic dermatitis and lanolin and lanolin alcohols allergy...

  20. Contact stress sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovsky, Jack [Oakland, CA

    2012-02-07

    A contact stress sensor includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a thermal compensator and a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

  1. Paraben Contact Hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Bajaj

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred patients suspected to be having contact hypersensitivity to topical medicaments were patch tested with methly and propyl parabens along with commercially available topical medicaments. Six patients showed positive reactions to parabens. Two patients each were positive to methyl paraben and propyl paraben and two showed positive reactions to both of these. Three patients each showed positive reactions to soframycin, econazole and nitrofurazone also.

  2. Pediatric contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Vinod

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD in children, until recently, was considered rare. ACD was considered as a disorder of the adult population and children were thought to be spared due to a lack of exposure to potential allergens and an immature immune system. Prevalence of ACD to even the most common allergens in children, like poison ivy and parthenium, is relatively rare as compared to adults. However, there is now growing evidence of contact sensitization of the pediatric population, and it begins right from early childhood, including 1-week-old neonates. Vaccinations, piercing, topical medicaments and cosmetics in younger patients are potential exposures for sensitization. Nickel is the most common sensitizer in almost all studies pertaining to pediatric contact dermatitis. Other common allergens reported are cobalt, fragrance mix, rubber, lanolin, thiomersol, neomycin, gold, mercapto mix, balsum of Peru and colophony. Different factors like age, sex, atopy, social and cultural practices, habit of parents and caregivers and geographic changes affect the patterns of ACD and their variable clinical presentation. Patch testing should be considered not only in children with lesions of a morphology suggestive of ACD, but in any child with dermatitis that is difficult to control.

  3. Effects of ankle-foot orthoses on mediolateral foot-placement ability during post-stroke gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zissimopoulos, Angelika; Fatone, Stefania; Gard, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Accurate and precise mediolateral foot placement is important for balance during gait, but is impaired post stroke. Mediolateral foot placement may be improved with ankle-foot orthosis use. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an ankle-foot orthosis improves mediolateral foot-placement ability during post-stroke ambulation. Crossover trial with randomized order of conditions tested. The accuracy and precision of mediolateral foot placement was quantified while subjects targeted four different randomized step widths. Subjects were tested with and without their regular non-rigid ankle-foot orthosis in two separate visits (order randomized). While ankle-foot orthosis use corrected foot and ankle alignment (i.e. significantly decreased mid-swing plantar flexion, p = 0.000), effects of ankle-foot orthosis use on hip hiking (p = 0.545), circumduction (p = 0.179), coronal plane hip range of motion (p = 0.06), and mediolateral foot-placement ability (p = 0.537) were not significant. While ankle-foot orthosis-mediated equinovarus correction of the affected foot and ankle was not associated with improved biomechanics of walking (i.e. proximal ipsilateral hip kinematics or mediolateral foot-placement ability), it may affect other aspects of balance that were not tested in this study (e.g. proprioception, cerebellar, vestibular, and cognitive mechanisms). Studies that investigate the effect of ankle-foot orthosis on gait can help advance stroke rehabilitation by documenting the specific gait benefits of ankle-foot orthosis use. In this study, we investigated the effect of ankle-foot orthosis use on mediolateral foot-placement ability, an aspect of gait important for maintaining balance. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  4. Metallic Foreign Body in the Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firat Ozan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A foreign body injury of the foot is a frequently encountered problem. These foreign bodies can lead to various complications in the affected tissues, and their removal can be difficult and time consuming. Therefore, the removal of a foreign body requires good preoperative preparations. The surgical treatment results of patients with a foreign body, identified as a sewing needle, that had penetrated their foot were evaluated. Material and Method: Thirty-four patients (11 males, 23 females; mean age, 30.2 ± 18.6 years who were surgically treated between 2011 and 2013 were included. Data concerning the affected limb, placement of the needle, imaging techniques, season when the injury occurred, time between medical intervention and injury, anaesthesia type, fluoroscopy of use during surgery and surgical complications were analyzed. Results: A sewing needle had penetrated the right foot of 20 (58.8% patients and the left foot of 14 (41.1% patients. Broken needles were found in the toes of 14 (41.1% patients, in the middle of the foot of 12 (35.2% patients and in the heel area of 8 (23.5% patients. The injuries occurred in summer in 13 (38.2% patients, in winter in seven (20.6% patients, in spring in one (2.9% patient and in autumn in 13 (38.2% patients. Needle penetration had occurred in 28 (82.3% patients at home and 6 (17.6% patients outside of the home environment. The average follow-up time was 8.9 ± 2.8 months. Discussion: Removal of foreign bodies from the foot requires good preoperative preparations. Foreign bodies can lead to various complications in the affected tissues. It is important to perform detailed physical and radiological examinations to obtain good treatment results in these patients.

  5. Biomechanics and pathophysiology of flat foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boerum, Drew H; Sangeorzan, Bruce J

    2003-09-01

    When the foot works properly it is an amazing, adaptive, powerful aid during walking, running, jumping, and in locomotion up or down hill and over uneven ground. Dysfunction of the foot can often arise from the foot losing its normal structural support, thus altering is shape. An imbalance in the forces that tend to flatten the arch and those that support the arch can lead to loss of the medial longitudinal arch. An increase in the arch-flattening effects of the triceps surae or an increase in the weight of the body will tend to flatten the arch. Weakness of the muscular, ligamentous, or bony arch supporting structures will lead to collapse of the arch. The main factors that contribute to an acquired flat foot deformity are excessive tension in the triceps surae, obesity, PTT dysfunction, or ligamentous laxity in the spring ligament, plantar fascia, or other supporting plantar ligaments. Too little support for the arch or too much arch flattening effect will lead to collapse of the arch. Acquired flat foot most often arises from a combination of too much force flattening the arch in the face of too little support for the arch. Treatment of the adult acquired flat foot is often difficult. The clinician should remember the biomechanics of the normal arch and respond with a treatment that strengthens the supporting structures of the arch or weakens the arch-flattening effects on the arch. After osteotomies or certain hindfoot fusions, the role of the supporting muscles of the arch, in particular the PTT, play less of a role in supporting the arch. Rebalancing the forces that act on the arch can improve function and lessen the chance for further or subsequent development of deformity.

  6. Foot Conditions among Homeless Persons: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Matthew J.; Brothers, Thomas D.; Van Zoost, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Foot problems are common among homeless persons, but are often overlooked. The objectives of this systematic review are to summarize what is known about foot conditions and associated interventions among homeless persons. Methods A literature search was conducted on MEDLINE (1966–2016), EMBASE (1947–2016), and CINAHL (1982–2016) and complemented by manual searches of reference lists. Articles that described foot conditions in homeless persons or associated interventions were included. Data were independently extracted on: general study characteristics; participants; foot assessment methods; foot conditions and associated interventions; study findings; quality score assessed using the Downs and Black checklist. Results Of 333 articles screened, 17 articles met criteria and were included in the study. Prevalence of any foot problem ranged from 9% to 65% across study populations. Common foot-related concerns were corns and calluses, nail pathologies, and infections. Foot pathologies related to chronic diseases such as diabetes were identified. Compared to housed individuals across studies, homeless individuals were more likely to have foot problems including tinea pedis, foot pain, functional limitations with walking, and improperly-fitting shoes. Discussion Foot conditions were highly prevalent among homeless individuals with up to two thirds reporting a foot health concern, approximately one quarter of individuals visiting a health professional, and one fifth of individuals requiring further follow-up due to the severity of their condition. Homeless individuals often had inadequate foot hygiene practices and improperly-fitting shoes. These findings have service provision and public health implications, highlighting the need for evidence-based interventions to improve foot health in this population. An effective interventional approach could include optimization of foot hygiene and footwear, provision of comprehensive medical treatment, and

  7. Foot Conditions among Homeless Persons: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Matthew J; Brothers, Thomas D; Van Zoost, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Foot problems are common among homeless persons, but are often overlooked. The objectives of this systematic review are to summarize what is known about foot conditions and associated interventions among homeless persons. A literature search was conducted on MEDLINE (1966-2016), EMBASE (1947-2016), and CINAHL (1982-2016) and complemented by manual searches of reference lists. Articles that described foot conditions in homeless persons or associated interventions were included. Data were independently extracted on: general study characteristics; participants; foot assessment methods; foot conditions and associated interventions; study findings; quality score assessed using the Downs and Black checklist. Of 333 articles screened, 17 articles met criteria and were included in the study. Prevalence of any foot problem ranged from 9% to 65% across study populations. Common foot-related concerns were corns and calluses, nail pathologies, and infections. Foot pathologies related to chronic diseases such as diabetes were identified. Compared to housed individuals across studies, homeless individuals were more likely to have foot problems including tinea pedis, foot pain, functional limitations with walking, and improperly-fitting shoes. Foot conditions were highly prevalent among homeless individuals with up to two thirds reporting a foot health concern, approximately one quarter of individuals visiting a health professional, and one fifth of individuals requiring further follow-up due to the severity of their condition. Homeless individuals often had inadequate foot hygiene practices and improperly-fitting shoes. These findings have service provision and public health implications, highlighting the need for evidence-based interventions to improve foot health in this population. An effective interventional approach could include optimization of foot hygiene and footwear, provision of comprehensive medical treatment, and addressing social factors that lead to increased risk

  8. Thermography in the follow up of the diabetic foot: best to weigh the enemy more mighty than he seems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pafili, Kalliopi; Papanas, Nikolaos

    2015-03-01

    Thermography is being increasingly appreciated as a further modality contributing to the early detection of incipient tissue damage predisposing to diabetic foot ulceration in selected high-risk patients. Among currently available modalities, liquid crystal thermography and infrared thermography have been most widely used. The former is effective, but its main limitation is low sensitivity. The latter permits non-contact measurements at different angles of the foot, independent of the quality of the camera used. It has been suggested that 5-year use of such techniques for daily self-examination among high-risk patients may contribute to the significant reduction of diabetic foot complications. Clearly, further experience with thermography in the real-life setting is now very welcome.

  9. Prolonging contact lens wear and making contact lens wear safer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulks, Gary N

    2006-02-01

    To summarize the present status of safety and efficacy of contact lens wear. Literature review. Ovid Medline searches were performed on records from 1966 through 2005 using keywords: keratitis, contact lens complications, extended-wear contact lenses, and silicone-hydrogel contact lenses. Patients desire comfort, clarity of vision, and prolonged contact lens wear when contact lenses are used to correct refractive error. Practitioners desire patient satisfaction but also require maintenance of the integrity of the eye and no complications that jeopardize vision or health of the eye. Improvements in the oxygen permeability of the contact lens materials, design of the contact lens and its surface, and solutions for the maintenance of the lens have reduced but not eliminated the risks of infection, inflammation, and conjunctival papillary reaction associated with contact lens wear. The lessons of past and recent history suggest that patient education and practitioner participation in the management of contact lens wear continue to be critical factors for patient satisfaction and safety in the extended wear of contact lenses. The availability of highly oxygen permeable contact lenses has increased the tolerance and safety of extended contact lens wear, but patient instruction and education in proper use and care of lenses is required and caution is advised.

  10. How common are foot problems among individuals with diabetes? Diabetic foot ulcers in the Dutch population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoekenbroek, Robert M; Lokin, Joost L C; Nielen, Mark M; Stroes, Erik S G; Koelemay, Mark J W

    2017-07-01

    Contemporary data on diabetic foot ulcer prevalence are scarce. Most studies were conducted in the 1990s, reporting incidence rates of 1.9-2.6%. Since then the prevalence of diabetes has doubled and the organisation of diabetes care has undergone major changes. Up-to-date data that quantify the occurrence of diabetic foot ulcers are required and could serve as baseline measures for future studies. Individuals with diabetes (n = 81,793) were identified from the NIVEL (Netherlands institute for health services research) Primary Care Database, which contains data for standardised routine care and is representative of the Dutch population. The annual incidence rates of ulcers and other foot abnormalities were calculated using data collected between 2010 and 2013. To account for inaccuracies, incidence rates were calculated using: (1) only individuals with a documented foot examination; (2) all individuals; and (3) individuals with explicit documentation of present/absent foot ulceration. There were 412 individuals with documented ulceration during the registration period (0.50%). The annual incidence rate of foot ulcers was 0.34% (range 0.22-1.08%). Of those individuals with a documented foot examination, 14.6% had absent pedal pulsations, 17.3% had neuropathy and 10.1% had callus/pressure marks. The annual incidence rate of foot ulcers in the current study was lower than previously reported. This observation could reflect the efficacy of screening practices and an increased awareness among professionals and patients. Nevertheless, approximately one in every five diabetic individuals had at least one identifiable risk factor on foot examination. This signifies the importance of preventive screening.

  11. Mechanical Contact Experiments and Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Martins, P; Zhang, W.

    2011-01-01

    . The overall investigation serves for testing and validating the numerical implementation of the mechanical contact, which is one of the main contributions to a system intended for 3D simulation of resistance welding. Correct modelling of contact between parts to be welded, as well as contact with electrodes...... geometries and different materials are analyzed including contact between dissimilar materials. The numerical implementation is performed with a finite element computer program based on the irreducible flow formulation, and contact between deformable objects is modelled by applying the penalty method......, is crucial for satisfactory modelling of the resistance welding process. The resistance heating at the contact interfaces depends on both contact area and pressure, and as the contact areas develop dynamically, the presented tests are relevant for assessing the validity and accuracy of the mechanical contact...

  12. Mechanical Contact Experiments and Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Martins, P; Zhang, W.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical contact is studied under dynamic development by means of a combined numerical and experimental investigation. The experiments are designed to allow dynamical development of non-planar contact areas with significant expansion in all three directions as the load is increased. Different....... The overall investigation serves for testing and validating the numerical implementation of the mechanical contact, which is one of the main contributions to a system intended for 3D simulation of resistance welding. Correct modelling of contact between parts to be welded, as well as contact with electrodes......, is crucial for satisfactory modelling of the resistance welding process. The resistance heating at the contact interfaces depends on both contact area and pressure, and as the contact areas develop dynamically, the presented tests are relevant for assessing the validity and accuracy of the mechanical contact...

  13. Latin American foot and ankle surgery today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abello, Sergio

    2012-02-01

    Latin American medical orthopedic sub specialties have evolved a lot during the past decade. Foot and ankle surgery for instance, has gained high level of proficiency and competence throughout the international scientific communities. This may be due to the availability of new technology in osteosyntheses, orthopedic devices and surgical instruments used to optimize results, regardless of the low economic resources Latin American countries possess. Also, foot and ankle surgery training is being promoted by several International Medical associations that pursuit scientific knowledge and strengthen the practice. Day to day, more Latin American universities offer Fellowships for on-going training.

  14. Foot Pedals for Spacecraft Manual Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Stanley G.; Morin, Lee M.; McCabe, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Fifty years ago, NASA decided that the cockpit controls in spacecraft should be like the ones in airplanes. But controls based on the stick and rudder may not be best way to manually control a vehicle in space. A different method is based on submersible vehicles controlled with foot pedals. A new pilot can learn the sub's control scheme in minutes and drive it hands-free. We are building a pair of foot pedals for spacecraft control, and will test them in a spacecraft flight simulator.

  15. Differences in the susceptibility of dromedary and Bactrian camels to foot-and-mouth disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larska, M.; Wernery, U.; Kinne, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, two sheep, eight dromedary camels and two Bactrian camels were inoculated with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) type A SAU 22/92. Five naive dromedary camels and four sheep were kept in direct or indirect contact with the inoculated camels. The inoculated sheep, which served...... as positive controls, displayed typical moderate clinical signs of FMD and developed viraemia and high antibody titres. The presence of the virus was also detected in probang and mouth-swab samples for several days after inoculation. In contrast, the inoculated dromedary camels were not susceptible to FMDV...... type A infection. None of them showed clinical signs of FMD or developed viraemia or specific anti-FMDV antibodies despite the high dose of virus inoculated. All the contact sheep and contact dromedaries that were kept together with the inoculated camels remained virus-negative and did not seroconvert...

  16. Foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in young lambs: pathogenesis and tissue tropism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryan, Eoin; Horsington, Jacquelyn; Durand, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in adult sheep usually causes milder clinical signs than in cattle or pigs, and is often subtle enough to go undiagnosed. In contrast, FMD in lambs has been reported to cause high mortality during field outbreaks. In order to investigate the pathogenesis of FMD in lambs...... examined for histopathological lesions, and in situ hybridisation (ISH) was used to localise viral RNA within histological sections. The contact-infected lambs became infected approximately 24 h after the ewes were inoculated. Vesicular lesions developed on the feet of all lambs and on the caudo......-lateral part of the tongues of six of the eight inoculated lambs and three of the four contact-infected lambs. Although no lambs developed severe clinical signs, one of the contact-infected lambs died acutely at 5 days post-exposure. Histological examination of the heart from this lamb showed multi-focal areas...

  17. Multiscale electrical contact resistance in clustered contact distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangyoung; Cho, Hyun; Jang, Yong Hoon

    2009-08-01

    For contact between rough surfaces of conductors in which a clustered contact spot distribution is dominant through a multiscale process, electrical contact resistance (ECR) is analysed using a smoothed version of Greenwood's model (Jang and Barber 2003 J. Appl. Phys. 94 7215), which is extended to estimate the statistical distribution of contact spots considering the size and the location simultaneously. The application of this statistical method to a contact spot distribution, generated by the finite element method using a fractal surface defined by the random midpoint displacement algorithm, identifies the effect of the clustered contact distribution on ECR, showing that including a finer scale in the fractal contact surface causes the predicted resistance to approach a finite limit. It is also confirmed that the results are close to that of Barber's analogy (Barber 2003 Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 459 53) regarding incremental stiffness and conductance for elastic contact.

  18. Contact-induced doping in aluminum-contacted molybdenum disulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Yoshihiro; Arai, Kensuke; Iwabuchi, Tatsuya

    2018-01-01

    The interface between two-dimensional semiconductors and metal contacts is an important topic of research of nanoelectronic devices based on two-dimensional semiconducting materials such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). We report transport properties of thin MoS2 flakes in a field-effect transistor geometry with Ti/Au and Al contacts. In contrast to widely used Ti/Au contacts, the conductance of flakes with Al contacts exhibits a smaller gate-voltage dependence, which is consistent with a substantial electron doping effect of the Al contacts. The temperature dependence of two-terminal conductance for the Al contacts is also considerably smaller than for the Ti/Au contacts, in which thermionic emission and thermally assisted tunneling play a dominant role. This result is explained in terms of the assumption that the carrier injection mechanism at an Al contact is dominated by tunneling that is not thermally activated.

  19. The impact of rheumatoid arthritis on foot function in the early stages of disease: a clinical case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emery Paul

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot involvement occurs early in rheumatoid arthritis but the extent to which this impacts on the structure and function leading to impairment and foot related disability is unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare clinical disease activity, impairment, disability, and foot function in normal and early rheumatoid arthritis (RA feet using standardised clinical measures and 3D gait analysis. Methods Twelve RA patients with disease duration ≤2 years and 12 able-bodied adults matched for age and sex underwent 3D gait analysis to measure foot function. Disease impact was measured using the Leeds Foot impact Scale (LFIS along with standard clinical measures of disease activity, pain and foot deformity. For this small sample, the mean differences between the groups and associated confidence intervals were calculated using the t distribution Results Moderate-to-high foot impairment and related disability were detected amongst the RA patients. In comparison with age- and sex-matched controls, the patients with early RA walked slower (1.05 m/s Vs 1.30 m/s and had a longer double-support phase (19.3% Vs 15.8%. In terminal stance, the heel rise angle was reduced in the patients in comparison with normal (-78.9° Vs -85.7°. Medial arch height was lower and peak eversion in stance greater in the RA patients. The peak ankle plantarflexion power profile was lower in the patients in comparison with the controls (3.4 W/kg Vs 4.6 W/kg. Pressure analysis indicated that the RA patients had a reduced lesser toe contact area (7.6 cm2 Vs 8.1 cm2, elevated peak forefoot pressure (672 kPa Vs 553 kPa and a larger mid-foot contact area (24.6 cm2 Vs 19.4 cm2. Conclusion Analysis detected small but clinically important changes in foot function in a small cohort of RA patients with disease duration

  20. Analysis of Foot Slippage Effects on an Actuated Spring-Mass Model of Dynamic Legged Locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhar Or

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The classical model of spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP and its extensions have been widely accepted as a simple description of dynamic legged locomotion at various scales in humans, legged robots and animals. Similar to the majority of models in the literature, the SLIP model assumes ideal sticking contact of the foot. However, there are practical scenarios of low ground friction that causes foot slippage, which can have a significant influence on dynamic behaviour. In this work, an extension of the SLIP model with two masses and torque actuation is considered, which accounts for possible slippage under Coulomb's friction law. The hybrid dynamics of this model is formulated and numerical simulations under representative parameter values reveal several types of stable periodic solutions with stick-slip transitions. Remarkably, it is found that slippage due to low friction can sometimes increase average speed and improve energetic efficiency by significantly reducing the mechanical cost of transport.

  1. Parents: Avoid Kids Foot Problems with the Right Shoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print | Share Avoid Kids Foot Problems with the Right Shoes Before you head to the store to ... College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights Reserved. Privacy Statement | Disclaimer | Terms and Conditions | Site ...

  2. Isolation of a substance activating foot formation in hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Schaller, H C

    1977-01-01

    -forming potential of the tissue (2) It does not accelerate head regeneration, nor do the head factors of hydra discovered by Schaller (1973) and Berking (1977) accelerate foot regeneration. We propose that the foot-activating substance is a morphogen responsible for foot formation in hydra. The foot activator can...... be extracted from hydra tissue with methanol and separated from other known morphogens of hydra by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. A substance with similar biological and physicochemical properties can be isolated from sea anemones.......We have developed an assay for a substance from hydra that accelerates foot regeneration in the animal. This substance is specific for the foot as evidenced by the following findings: (1) It is present in the animal as a steep gradient descending from foot to head, paralleling the foot...

  3. Back to School Foot Pain (Flip-Flops)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... School Soccer Season Prime time for foot and ankle injuries. Parents and coaches should think twice before coaxing ... foot and ankle surgeons see an increase in ankle injuries among young athletes. Football, soccer and basketball are ...

  4. Principles of management of vascular problems in the diabetic foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principles of management of vascular problems in the diabetic foot: A multidisciplinary approach accounting for the complex pathobiology and biomechanics of the diabetic foot is crucial to decrease the rate of amputations.

  5. Comorbidities associated with Egyptian diabetic foot disease subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary N. Rizk

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion Special attention should be paid toward the identification of patients who are at risk of foot ulceration to help prevent foot problems. Comorbid conditions must also be identified early and managed aggressively.

  6. Recognizing the radiographic features of some common bovine foot problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebeid, M.; Steiner, A.

    1996-01-01

    Radiographs of an injured or infected bovine foot can be tricky to interpret - the anatomy is complex, and the signs may be subtle. This guide leads you through the classic radiographic features of several common foot conditions

  7. Tendon lengthening and fascia release for healing and preventing diabetic foot ulcers: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallimore, Sarah M; Kaminski, Michelle R

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers have a devastating impact on an individual's health-related quality of life and functional status. Additionally, diabetic foot ulcers impose a significant economic burden on our health care systems as a result of complications such as infection, hospitalisation and amputation. The current gold standard treatment for diabetic foot ulcers is total contact casting. However, the rate of ulcer recurrence is high, indicating the need for more effective long-term treatment options. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically identify, critique and evaluate all literature investigating the effectiveness of Achilles tendon lengthening, gastrocnemius recession and selective plantar fascia release in healing and preventing diabetic foot ulcers. Searches were conducted in MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library from the earliest available date to November 2014. Methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Downs and Black checklist. Data from randomised-controlled trials were analysed using random effects meta-analysis. For all other studies, data were analysed descriptively. Eleven studies (614 participants) were included in the review, with a median sample size of 29 participants. Meta-analysis of two randomised-controlled trials found that there was no statistically significant difference between Achilles tendon lengthening or gastrocnemius recession and total contact casting for time to healing of diabetic foot ulcers (mean difference, MD, 8.22 days; 95 % CI, -18.99 to 35.43; P = 0.55; I (2)  = 34 %) and the rate of ulcers healed (risk ratio, RR, 1.06; 95 % CI, 0.94 to 1.20; P = 0.34; I (2)  = 41 %). The rate of ulcer recurrence was significantly lower following Achilles tendon lengthening or gastrocnemius recession than total contact casting (RR, 0.45; 95 % CI, 0.28 to 0.72; P diabetic foot ulcers. The rate of ulcer recurrence was lower following Achilles tendon lengthening or

  8. Contextualizing Intergroup Contact: Do Political Party Cues Enhance Contact Effects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Thomsen, Jens Peter Frølund

    2015-01-01

    This article examines intergroup contact effects in different political contexts. We expand on previous efforts of social psychologists by incorporating the messages of political parties as a contextual trigger of group membership awareness in contact situations. We argue that the focus among......,000 individuals confirms that the ability of intergroup contact to reduce antiforeigner sentiment increases when political parties focus intensively on immigration issues and cultural differences. Specifically, both workplace contact and interethnic friendship become more effective in reducing antiforeigner...

  9. Contact Control, Version 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-21

    The contact control code is a generalized force control scheme meant to interface with a robotic arm being controlled using the Robot Operating System (ROS). The code allows the user to specify a control scheme for each control dimension in a way that many different control task controllers could be built from the same generalized controller. The input to the code includes maximum velocity, maximum force, maximum displacement, and a control law assigned to each direction and the output is a 6 degree of freedom velocity command that is sent to the robot controller.

  10. Thermal contact conductance

    CERN Document Server

    Madhusudana, Chakravarti V

    2013-01-01

    The work covers both theoretical and practical aspects of thermal contact conductance. The theoretical discussion focuses on heat transfer through spots, joints, and surfaces, as well as the role of interstitial materials (both planned and inadvertent). The practical discussion includes formulae and data that can be used in designing heat-transfer equipment for a variety of joints, including special geometries and configurations. All of the material has been updated to reflect the latest advances in the field.

  11. Contact ionization ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, N.; Van Der Houven Van Oordt, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    An ion source in which an apertured or foraminous electrode having a multiplicity of openings is spaced from one or more active surfaces of an ionisation electrode, the active surfaces comprising a material capable of ionising by contact ionization a substance to be ionized supplied during operation to the active surface or surfaces comprises means for producing during operation a magnetic field which enables a stable plasma to be formed in the space between the active surface or surfaces and the apertured electrode, the field strength of the magnetic field being preferably in the range between 2 and 8 kilogauss. (U.S.)

  12. Precision contact level gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejci, M.; Pilat, M.; Stulik, P.

    1977-01-01

    Equipment was developed measuring the heavy water level in the TR-0 reactor core within an accuracy of several hundredths of a millimeter in a range of around 3.5 m and at a temperature of up to 90 degC. The equipment uses a vibrating needle contact as a high sensitivity level gauge and a servomechanical system with a motion screw carrying the gauge for monitoring and measuring the level in the desired range. The advantage of the unique level gauge consists in that that the transducer converts the measured level position to an electric signal, ie., pulse width, with high sensitivity and without hysteresis. (Kr)

  13. Contact dermatitis to methylisothiazolinone*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Maria Antonieta Rios; Rocha, Vanessa Barreto; Andrade, Ana Regina Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Methylisothiazolinone (MI) is a preservative found in cosmetic and industrial products. Contact dermatitis caused by either methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI or Kathon CG) or MI has shown increasing frequency. The latter is preferably detected through epicutaneous testing with aqueous MI 2000 ppm, which is not included in the Brazilian standard tray. We describe a series of 23 patients tested using it and our standard tray. A case with negative reaction to MCI/MI and positive to MI is emphasized. PMID:26734880

  14. A Simple New Classification for Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    C Jain, Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    AbstractGangrene, infections like abscesses and ulcers are some of the common diabetic foot complications. Of all these, diabetic foot ulcers pose a major public health problem. Around 80% of all the lower limb amputations are preceded by a foot ulcer. There are various classifications for diabetic foot ulcers out of which the two commonly used classifications are Wagner’s ulcer classification and the classification of University of Texas. The author proposes another simple new classification...

  15. Functionally optimized orthoses for early rheumatoid arthritis foot disease: a study of mechanisms and patient experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Kellie S; Woodburn, James; Porter, Duncan; Telfer, Scott

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the mode-of-action and patient experience of functionally optimized foot orthoses in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We conducted an investigation of 2 functionally optimized foot orthoses (selective laser sintering [SLS] and fused deposition modelling [FDM]) in 15 patients with RA of <2 years duration. The novel devices were optimized for 3 biomechanistic targets exploiting computer-aided design and additive manufacturing. A third standard device was used as the comparator (standard foot orthosis [SFO]). Foot and ankle biomechanical effects were compared. Adverse reactions, orthotic fit and comfort, and short-term symptom benefits were also monitored. Both FDM (P = 0.028) and SLS (P < 0.0001) orthoses significantly reduced peak rearfoot motion in comparison to shod. The average ankle internal moment was significantly decreased in the SFO (P = 0.010) and approached significance in the SLS (P = 0.052) orthosis. SFO, FDM, and SLS orthoses significantly increased the peak height of the medial foot arch between 3.6 to 4.4 mm (P < 0.001). Peak pressures in the medial (P = 0.018) and lateral forefoot (P = 0.022) regions of interest were significantly reduced for the SLS orthosis. SFO, FDM, and SLS orthoses significantly increased midfoot contact area (P < 0.001 for all conditions). In comparison to SFO, SLS and FDM orthoses provided equivalent or better patient experience. No adverse reactions were reported. Functional optimization is a feasible approach for orthoses prescription in early RA and has the potential to provide superior mode-of-action responses for biomechanical therapeutic targets compared to standard devices. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  16. The Manchester–Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, D.; Jenkinson, C.; Doll, H.; Lavis, G.; Sharp, R.; Cooke, P.; Dawson, J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The Manchester–Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ) is a validated 16-item, patient-reported outcome measure for evaluating outcomes of foot or ankle surgery. The original development of the instrument identified three domains. This present study examined whether the three domains could legitimately be summed to provide a single summary index score. Methods The MOXFQ and Short-Form (SF)-36 were administered to 671 patients before surgery of the foot or ankle. Data from the three domains of the MOXFQ (pain, walking/standing and social interaction) were subjected to higher order factor analysis. Reliability and validity of the summary index score was assessed. Results The mean age of the participants was 52.8 years (sd 15.68; 18 to 89). Higher order principle components factor analysis produced one factor, accounting for 74.7% of the variance. The newly derived single index score was found to be internally reliable (α = 0.93) and valid, achieving at least moderate correlations (r ≥ 0.5, p < 0.001) with related (pain/function) domains of the SF-36. Conclusions Analyses indicated that data from the MOXFQ can be presented in summary form. The MOXFQ summary index score (MOXFQ-Index) provides an overall indication of the outcomes of foot and ankle surgery. Furthermore, the single index reduces the number of statistical comparisons, and hence the role of chance, when exploring MOXFQ data. PMID:23673374

  17. Transkei Foot | Schartz | South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An epidemiological investigation of bone and joint abnormalities in a Xhosa population revealed 6 females with a condition characterised by marked lateral deviation of the fifth toes. This disorder does not seem to have been previously described, and we therefore propose that it should be named 'Transkei foot'.

  18. Patient education for preventing diabetic foot ulceration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorresteijn, J.A.; Kriegsman, D.M.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Valk, G.D.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ulceration of the feet, which can result in loss of limbs and even death, is one of the major health problems for people with diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of patient education on the prevention of foot ulcers in patients with diabetes mellitus. SEARCH METHODS:

  19. Patient education for preventing diabetic foot ulceration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorresteijn, J.A.; Kriegsman, D.M.; Assendelft, W.J.; Valk, G.D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ulceration of the feet, which can result in loss of limbs and even death, is one of the major health problems for people with diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of patient education on the prevention of foot ulcers in patients with diabetes mellitus. SEARCH METHODS: We

  20. Habitual Physical Activity, Peripheral Neuropathy, Foot Deformities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Habitual physical activity index (3.2 ± 0.83) was highest in work-related activities; 69 (26.1 %) patients presented with peripheral neuropathy and 52 (19. 7%) had the lowest limb function. Pes planus was the most prevalent foot deformity (20.1%). Significant differences existed in physical activity indices across ...