WorldWideScience

Sample records for strictly positive parsimonious

  1. Using genes as characters and a parsimony analysis to explore the phylogenetic position of turtles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Lu

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic position of turtles within the vertebrate tree of life remains controversial. Conflicting conclusions from different studies are likely a consequence of systematic error in the tree construction process, rather than random error from small amounts of data. Using genomic data, we evaluate the phylogenetic position of turtles with both conventional concatenated data analysis and a "genes as characters" approach. Two datasets were constructed, one with seven species (human, opossum, zebra finch, chicken, green anole, Chinese pond turtle, and western clawed frog and 4584 orthologous genes, and the second with four additional species (soft-shelled turtle, Nile crocodile, royal python, and tuatara but only 1638 genes. Our concatenated data analysis strongly supported turtle as the sister-group to archosaurs (the archosaur hypothesis, similar to several recent genomic data based studies using similar methods. When using genes as characters and gene trees as character-state trees with equal weighting for each gene, however, our parsimony analysis suggested that turtles are possibly sister-group to diapsids, archosaurs, or lepidosaurs. None of these resolutions were strongly supported by bootstraps. Furthermore, our incongruence analysis clearly demonstrated that there is a large amount of inconsistency among genes and most of the conflict relates to the placement of turtles. We conclude that the uncertain placement of turtles is a reflection of the true state of nature. Concatenated data analysis of large and heterogeneous datasets likely suffers from systematic error and over-estimates of confidence as a consequence of a large number of characters. Using genes as characters offers an alternative for phylogenomic analysis. It has potential to reduce systematic error, such as data heterogeneity and long-branch attraction, and it can also avoid problems associated with computation time and model selection. Finally, treating genes as

  2. Using Genes as Characters and a Parsimony Analysis to Explore the Phylogenetic Position of Turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Yang, Weizhao; Dai, Qiang; Fu, Jinzhong

    2013-01-01

    The phylogenetic position of turtles within the vertebrate tree of life remains controversial. Conflicting conclusions from different studies are likely a consequence of systematic error in the tree construction process, rather than random error from small amounts of data. Using genomic data, we evaluate the phylogenetic position of turtles with both conventional concatenated data analysis and a “genes as characters” approach. Two datasets were constructed, one with seven species (human, opossum, zebra finch, chicken, green anole, Chinese pond turtle, and western clawed frog) and 4584 orthologous genes, and the second with four additional species (soft-shelled turtle, Nile crocodile, royal python, and tuatara) but only 1638 genes. Our concatenated data analysis strongly supported turtle as the sister-group to archosaurs (the archosaur hypothesis), similar to several recent genomic data based studies using similar methods. When using genes as characters and gene trees as character-state trees with equal weighting for each gene, however, our parsimony analysis suggested that turtles are possibly sister-group to diapsids, archosaurs, or lepidosaurs. None of these resolutions were strongly supported by bootstraps. Furthermore, our incongruence analysis clearly demonstrated that there is a large amount of inconsistency among genes and most of the conflict relates to the placement of turtles. We conclude that the uncertain placement of turtles is a reflection of the true state of nature. Concatenated data analysis of large and heterogeneous datasets likely suffers from systematic error and over-estimates of confidence as a consequence of a large number of characters. Using genes as characters offers an alternative for phylogenomic analysis. It has potential to reduce systematic error, such as data heterogeneity and long-branch attraction, and it can also avoid problems associated with computation time and model selection. Finally, treating genes as characters

  3. A Criterium for the Strict Positivity of the Density of the Law of a Poisson Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léandre Rémi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We translate in semigroup theory our result (Léandre, 1990 giving a necessary condition so that the law of a Markov process with jumps could have a strictly positive density. This result express, that we have to jump in a finite number of jumps in a "submersive" way from the starting point to the end point if the density of the jump process is strictly positive in . We use the Malliavin Calculus of Bismut type of (Léandre, (2008;2010 translated in semi-group theory as a tool, and the interpretation in semi-group theory of some classical results of the stochastic analysis for Poisson process as, for instance, the formula giving the law of a compound Poisson process.

  4. Parsimonious Surface Wave Interferometry

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2017-10-24

    To decrease the recording time of a 2D seismic survey from a few days to one hour or less, we present a parsimonious surface-wave interferometry method. Interferometry allows for the creation of a large number of virtual shot gathers from just two reciprocal shot gathers by crosscoherence of trace pairs, where the virtual surface waves can be inverted for the S-wave velocity model by wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD). Synthetic and field data tests suggest that parsimonious wave-equation dispersion inversion (PWD) gives S-velocity tomograms that are comparable to those obtained from a full survey with a shot at each receiver. The limitation of PWD is that the virtual data lose some information so that the resolution of the S-velocity tomogram can be modestly lower than that of the S-velocity tomogram inverted from a conventional survey.

  5. Parsimonious refraction interferometry

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif

    2016-09-06

    We present parsimonious refraction interferometry where a densely populated refraction data set can be obtained from just two shot gathers. The assumptions are that the first arrivals are comprised of head waves and direct waves, and a pair of reciprocal shot gathers is recorded over the line of interest. The refraction traveltimes from these reciprocal shot gathers can be picked and decomposed into O(N2) refraction traveltimes generated by N virtual sources, where N is the number of geophones in the 2D survey. This enormous increase in the number of virtual traveltime picks and associated rays, compared to the 2N traveltimes from the two reciprocal shot gathers, allows for increased model resolution and better condition numbers in the normal equations. Also, a reciprocal survey is far less time consuming than a standard refraction survey with a dense distribution of sources.

  6. Maximum Parsimony on Phylogenetic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic networks are generalizations of phylogenetic trees, that are used to model evolutionary events in various contexts. Several different methods and criteria have been introduced for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Maximum Parsimony is a character-based approach that infers a phylogenetic tree by minimizing the total number of evolutionary steps required to explain a given set of data assigned on the leaves. Exact solutions for optimizing parsimony scores on phylogenetic trees have been introduced in the past. Results In this paper, we define the parsimony score on networks as the sum of the substitution costs along all the edges of the network; and show that certain well-known algorithms that calculate the optimum parsimony score on trees, such as Sankoff and Fitch algorithms extend naturally for networks, barring conflicting assignments at the reticulate vertices. We provide heuristics for finding the optimum parsimony scores on networks. Our algorithms can be applied for any cost matrix that may contain unequal substitution costs of transforming between different characters along different edges of the network. We analyzed this for experimental data on 10 leaves or fewer with at most 2 reticulations and found that for almost all networks, the bounds returned by the heuristics matched with the exhaustively determined optimum parsimony scores. Conclusion The parsimony score we define here does not directly reflect the cost of the best tree in the network that displays the evolution of the character. However, when searching for the most parsimonious network that describes a collection of characters, it becomes necessary to add additional cost considerations to prefer simpler structures, such as trees over networks. The parsimony score on a network that we describe here takes into account the substitution costs along the additional edges incident on each reticulate vertex, in addition to the substitution costs along the other edges which are

  7. Strict confluent drawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Eppstein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We define strict confluent drawing, a form of confluent drawing in which the existence of an edge is indicated by the presence of a smooth path through a system of arcs and junctions (without crossings, and in which such a path, if it exists, must be unique. We prove that it is NP-complete to determine whether a given graph has a strict confluent drawing but polynomial to determine whether it has an outerplanar strict confluent drawing with a fixed vertex ordering (a drawing within a disk, with the vertices placed in a given order on the boundary.

  8. Parsimonious Language Models for Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Robertson, Stephen; Zaragoza, Hugo

    We systematically investigate a new approach to estimating the parameters of language models for information retrieval, called parsimonious language models. Parsimonious language models explicitly address the relation between levels of language models that are typically used for smoothing. As such,

  9. Parsimonious nonstationary flood frequency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serago, Jake M.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2018-02-01

    There is now widespread awareness of the impact of anthropogenic influences on extreme floods (and droughts) and thus an increasing need for methods to account for such influences when estimating a frequency distribution. We introduce a parsimonious approach to nonstationary flood frequency analysis (NFFA) based on a bivariate regression equation which describes the relationship between annual maximum floods, x, and an exogenous variable which may explain the nonstationary behavior of x. The conditional mean, variance and skewness of both x and y = ln (x) are derived, and combined with numerous common probability distributions including the lognormal, generalized extreme value and log Pearson type III models, resulting in a very simple and general approach to NFFA. Our approach offers several advantages over existing approaches including: parsimony, ease of use, graphical display, prediction intervals, and opportunities for uncertainty analysis. We introduce nonstationary probability plots and document how such plots can be used to assess the improved goodness of fit associated with a NFFA.

  10. Strictly convex renormings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moltó, A.; Orihuela, J.; Troyanski, S.; Zizler, Václav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 3 (2007), s. 647-658 ISSN 0024-6107 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : strictly convex norms * lattice norm * quasi-diagonal sets Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.733, year: 2007

  11. Quine's "Strictly Vegetarian" Analyticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decock, L.B.

    2017-01-01

    I analyze Quine’s later writings on analyticity from a linguistic point of view. In Word and Object Quine made room for a “strictly vegetarian” notion of analyticity. In later years, he developed this notion into two more precise notions, which I have coined “stimulus analyticity” and “behaviorist

  12. Parsimonious Refraction Interferometry and Tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif

    2017-02-04

    We present parsimonious refraction interferometry and tomography where a densely populated refraction data set can be obtained from two reciprocal and several infill shot gathers. The assumptions are that the refraction arrivals are head waves, and a pair of reciprocal shot gathers and several infill shot gathers are recorded over the line of interest. Refraction traveltimes from these shot gathers are picked and spawned into O(N2) virtual refraction traveltimes generated by N virtual sources, where N is the number of geophones in the 2D survey. The virtual traveltimes can be inverted to give the velocity tomogram. This enormous increase in the number of traveltime picks and associated rays, compared to the many fewer traveltimes from the reciprocal and infill shot gathers, allows for increased model resolution and a better condition number with the system of normal equations. A significant benefit is that the parsimonious survey and the associated traveltime picking is far less time consuming than that for a standard refraction survey with a dense distribution of sources.

  13. Dirichlet Process Parsimonious Mixtures for clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Chamroukhi, Faicel; Bartcus, Marius; Glotin, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    The parsimonious Gaussian mixture models, which exploit an eigenvalue decomposition of the group covariance matrices of the Gaussian mixture, have shown their success in particular in cluster analysis. Their estimation is in general performed by maximum likelihood estimation and has also been considered from a parametric Bayesian prospective. We propose new Dirichlet Process Parsimonious mixtures (DPPM) which represent a Bayesian nonparametric formulation of these parsimonious Gaussian mixtur...

  14. Improved Maximum Parsimony Models for Phylogenetic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Iersel, Leo; Jones, Mark; Scornavacca, Celine

    2018-05-01

    Phylogenetic networks are well suited to represent evolutionary histories comprising reticulate evolution. Several methods aiming at reconstructing explicit phylogenetic networks have been developed in the last two decades. In this article, we propose a new definition of maximum parsimony for phylogenetic networks that permits to model biological scenarios that cannot be modeled by the definitions currently present in the literature (namely, the "hardwired" and "softwired" parsimony). Building on this new definition, we provide several algorithmic results that lay the foundations for new parsimony-based methods for phylogenetic network reconstruction.

  15. Reconstructing phylogenetic networks using maximum parsimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhleh, Luay; Jin, Guohua; Zhao, Fengmei; Mellor-Crummey, John

    2005-01-01

    Phylogenies - the evolutionary histories of groups of organisms - are one of the most widely used tools throughout the life sciences, as well as objects of research within systematics, evolutionary biology, epidemiology, etc. Almost every tool devised to date to reconstruct phylogenies produces trees; yet it is widely understood and accepted that trees oversimplify the evolutionary histories of many groups of organims, most prominently bacteria (because of horizontal gene transfer) and plants (because of hybrid speciation). Various methods and criteria have been introduced for phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Parsimony is one of the most widely used and studied criteria, and various accurate and efficient heuristics for reconstructing trees based on parsimony have been devised. Jotun Hein suggested a straightforward extension of the parsimony criterion to phylogenetic networks. In this paper we formalize this concept, and provide the first experimental study of the quality of parsimony as a criterion for constructing and evaluating phylogenetic networks. Our results show that, when extended to phylogenetic networks, the parsimony criterion produces promising results. In a great majority of the cases in our experiments, the parsimony criterion accurately predicts the numbers and placements of non-tree events.

  16. Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction with Maximum Parsimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Lina; Fischer, Mareike

    2017-12-01

    One of the main aims in phylogenetics is the estimation of ancestral sequences based on present-day data like, for instance, DNA alignments. One way to estimate the data of the last common ancestor of a given set of species is to first reconstruct a phylogenetic tree with some tree inference method and then to use some method of ancestral state inference based on that tree. One of the best-known methods both for tree inference and for ancestral sequence inference is Maximum Parsimony (MP). In this manuscript, we focus on this method and on ancestral state inference for fully bifurcating trees. In particular, we investigate a conjecture published by Charleston and Steel in 1995 concerning the number of species which need to have a particular state, say a, at a particular site in order for MP to unambiguously return a as an estimate for the state of the last common ancestor. We prove the conjecture for all even numbers of character states, which is the most relevant case in biology. We also show that the conjecture does not hold in general for odd numbers of character states, but also present some positive results for this case.

  17. Efficient Strictness Analysis of Haskell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Damm; Hjæresen, Peter; Rosendahl, Mads

    1994-01-01

    Strictness analysis has been a living field of investigation since Mycroft's original work in 1980, and is getting increasingly significant with the still wider use of lazy functional programming languages. This paper focuses on an actual implementation of a strictness analyser for Haskell...

  18. Species Protection in the European Union : How Strict is Strict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoukens, Hendrik; Bastmeijer, Kees; Born et al., Charles-Hubert

    2015-01-01

    European Union law to protect wild species of plants and animals is generally considered as ‘strict’. Opponents of nature conservation law often pick the species protection components of the EU Bird Directive and Habitat Directive as a prime example of an unnecessary strict regulatory scheme that

  19. Quality Assurance Based on Descriptive and Parsimonious Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannik Boll; Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Kristensen, Rasmus Lyngby

    2015-01-01

    In this positional paper, we discuss the potential benefits of using appearance models in additive manufacturing, metal casting, wind turbine blade production, and 3D content acquisition. Current state of the art in acquisition and rendering of appearance cannot easily be used for quality assurance...... in these areas. The common denominator is the need for descriptive and parsimonious appearance models. By ‘parsimonious’ we mean with few parameters so that a model is useful both for fast acquisition, robust fitting, and fast rendering of appearance. The word ‘descriptive’ refers to the fact that a model should...

  20. Maximum parsimony on subsets of taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Mareike; Thatte, Bhalchandra D

    2009-09-21

    In this paper we investigate mathematical questions concerning the reliability (reconstruction accuracy) of Fitch's maximum parsimony algorithm for reconstructing the ancestral state given a phylogenetic tree and a character. In particular, we consider the question whether the maximum parsimony method applied to a subset of taxa can reconstruct the ancestral state of the root more accurately than when applied to all taxa, and we give an example showing that this indeed is possible. A surprising feature of our example is that ignoring a taxon closer to the root improves the reliability of the method. On the other hand, in the case of the two-state symmetric substitution model, we answer affirmatively a conjecture of Li, Steel and Zhang which states that under a molecular clock the probability that the state at a single taxon is a correct guess of the ancestral state is a lower bound on the reconstruction accuracy of Fitch's method applied to all taxa.

  1. The worst case complexity of maximum parsimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Amir; Musa-Lempel, Noa; Tsur, Dekel; Ziv-Ukelson, Michal

    2014-11-01

    One of the core classical problems in computational biology is that of constructing the most parsimonious phylogenetic tree interpreting an input set of sequences from the genomes of evolutionarily related organisms. We reexamine the classical maximum parsimony (MP) optimization problem for the general (asymmetric) scoring matrix case, where rooted phylogenies are implied, and analyze the worst case bounds of three approaches to MP: The approach of Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards, the approach of Hendy and Penny, and a new agglomerative, "bottom-up" approach we present in this article. We show that the second and third approaches are faster than the first one by a factor of Θ(√n) and Θ(n), respectively, where n is the number of species.

  2. Mammalian evolution may not be strictly bifurcating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallström, Björn M; Janke, Axel

    2010-12-01

    The massive amount of genomic sequence data that is now available for analyzing evolutionary relationships among 31 placental mammals reduces the stochastic error in phylogenetic analyses to virtually zero. One would expect that this would make it possible to finally resolve controversial branches in the placental mammalian tree. We analyzed a 2,863,797 nucleotide-long alignment (3,364 genes) from 31 placental mammals for reconstructing their evolution. Most placental mammalian relationships were resolved, and a consensus of their evolution is emerging. However, certain branches remain difficult or virtually impossible to resolve. These branches are characterized by short divergence times in the order of 1-4 million years. Computer simulations based on parameters from the real data show that as little as about 12,500 amino acid sites could be sufficient to confidently resolve short branches as old as about 90 million years ago (Ma). Thus, the amount of sequence data should no longer be a limiting factor in resolving the relationships among placental mammals. The timing of the early radiation of placental mammals coincides with a period of climate warming some 100-80 Ma and with continental fragmentation. These global processes may have triggered the rapid diversification of placental mammals. However, the rapid radiations of certain mammalian groups complicate phylogenetic analyses, possibly due to incomplete lineage sorting and introgression. These speciation-related processes led to a mosaic genome and conflicting phylogenetic signals. Split network methods are ideal for visualizing these problematic branches and can therefore depict data conflict and possibly the true evolutionary history better than strictly bifurcating trees. Given the timing of tectonics, of placental mammalian divergences, and the fossil record, a Laurasian rather than Gondwanan origin of placental mammals seems the most parsimonious explanation.

  3. Strictness Analysis for Attribute Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1992-01-01

    interpretation of attribute grammars. The framework is used to construct a strictness analysis for attribute grammars. Results of the analysis enable us to transform an attribute grammar such that attributes are evaluated during parsing, if possible. The analysis is proved correct by relating it to a fixpoint...... semantics for attribute grammars. An implementation of the analysis is discussed and some extensions to the analysis are mentioned....

  4. Approximate maximum parsimony and ancestral maximum likelihood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Noga; Chor, Benny; Pardi, Fabio; Rapoport, Anat

    2010-01-01

    We explore the maximum parsimony (MP) and ancestral maximum likelihood (AML) criteria in phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Both problems are NP-hard, so we seek approximate solutions. We formulate the two problems as Steiner tree problems under appropriate distances. The gist of our approach is the succinct characterization of Steiner trees for a small number of leaves for the two distances. This enables the use of known Steiner tree approximation algorithms. The approach leads to a 16/9 approximation ratio for AML and asymptotically to a 1.55 approximation ratio for MP.

  5. Ancestral sequence reconstruction with Maximum Parsimony

    OpenAIRE

    Herbst, Lina; Fischer, Mareike

    2017-01-01

    One of the main aims in phylogenetics is the estimation of ancestral sequences based on present-day data like, for instance, DNA alignments. One way to estimate the data of the last common ancestor of a given set of species is to first reconstruct a phylogenetic tree with some tree inference method and then to use some method of ancestral state inference based on that tree. One of the best-known methods both for tree inference as well as for ancestral sequence inference is Maximum Parsimony (...

  6. Flexible or Strict Taxonomic Organization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Fumiko Kano; Mørup, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This work compares methods for constructing feature-based ontologies that are supposed to be used for culturally-specific knowledge transfer. The methods to be compared are the Terminological Ontology (TO) [1], a method of constructing ontology based on strict principles and rules, and the Infinite...... Relational Model (IRM) [2], a novel unsupervised machine learning method that learns multi-dimensional relations among concepts and features from loosely structured datasets. These methods are combined with a novel cognitive model, the Bayesian Model of Generalization (BMG) [3] that maps culturally...

  7. Principle of Parsimony, Fake Science, and Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, T. C. J.; Wan, L.; Wang, X. S.

    2017-12-01

    Considering difficulties in predicting exact motions of water molecules, and the scale of our interests (bulk behaviors of many molecules), Fick's law (diffusion concept) has been created to predict solute diffusion process in space and time. G.I. Taylor (1921) demonstrated that random motion of the molecules reach the Fickian regime in less a second if our sampling scale is large enough to reach ergodic condition. Fick's law is widely accepted for describing molecular diffusion as such. This fits the definition of the parsimony principle at the scale of our concern. Similarly, advection-dispersion or convection-dispersion equation (ADE or CDE) has been found quite satisfactory for analysis of concentration breakthroughs of solute transport in uniformly packed soil columns. This is attributed to the solute is often released over the entire cross-section of the column, which has sampled many pore-scale heterogeneities and met the ergodicity assumption. Further, the uniformly packed column contains a large number of stationary pore-size heterogeneity. The solute thus reaches the Fickian regime after traveling a short distance along the column. Moreover, breakthrough curves are concentrations integrated over the column cross-section (the scale of our interest), and they meet the ergodicity assumption embedded in the ADE and CDE. To the contrary, scales of heterogeneity in most groundwater pollution problems evolve as contaminants travel. They are much larger than the scale of our observations and our interests so that the ergodic and the Fickian conditions are difficult. Upscaling the Fick's law for solution dispersion, and deriving universal rules of the dispersion to the field- or basin-scale pollution migrations are merely misuse of the parsimony principle and lead to a fake science ( i.e., the development of theories for predicting processes that can not be observed.) The appropriate principle of parsimony for these situations dictates mapping of large

  8. Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony and likelihood methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z

    1996-02-01

    The assumptions underlying the maximum-parsimony (MP) method of phylogenetic tree reconstruction were intuitively examined by studying the way the method works. Computer simulations were performed to corroborate the intuitive examination. Parsimony appears to involve very stringent assumptions concerning the process of sequence evolution, such as constancy of substitution rates between nucleotides, constancy of rates across nucleotide sites, and equal branch lengths in the tree. For practical data analysis, the requirement of equal branch lengths means similar substitution rates among lineages (the existence of an approximate molecular clock), relatively long interior branches, and also few species in the data. However, a small amount of evolution is neither a necessary nor a sufficient requirement of the method. The difficulties involved in the application of current statistical estimation theory to tree reconstruction were discussed, and it was suggested that the approach proposed by Felsenstein (1981, J. Mol. Evol. 17: 368-376) for topology estimation, as well as its many variations and extensions, differs fundamentally from the maximum likelihood estimation of a conventional statistical parameter. Evidence was presented showing that the Felsenstein approach does not share the asymptotic efficiency of the maximum likelihood estimator of a statistical parameter. Computer simulations were performed to study the probability that MP recovers the true tree under a hierarchy of models of nucleotide substitution; its performance relative to the likelihood method was especially noted. The results appeared to support the intuitive examination of the assumptions underlying MP. When a simple model of nucleotide substitution was assumed to generate data, the probability that MP recovers the true topology could be as high as, or even higher than, that for the likelihood method. When the assumed model became more complex and realistic, e.g., when substitution rates were

  9. Strategy and Aspects of Monitoring / Control Strictly in Coordinated Subsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William José Borges

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the approach structures of the strictly coordinated theoretical framework developed by Zylbersztajn and Farina (1999 as an expanded perspective of the firm, taking into account the food supply chains as an extension of the nexus of contracts proposed by Coase (1937 and taken up by Williamson (1985. The structures stand out as strictly coordinated. Zylbersztajn and Farina (1999 turn to identifying points of common interests that encourage firms to promote contracts between themselves in a strictly coordinated way, considering the degree of asset specificity involved in the transaction and the competitive forces that determine the search for strategic positioning organizations to achieve sustainable superior results.

  10. Bijective Diameters of Gene Tree Parsimony Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorecki, Pawel; Eulenstein, Oliver

    2017-08-04

    Synthesizing median trees from a collection of gene trees under the biologically motivated gene tree parsimony (GTP) costs has provided credible species tree estimates. GTP costs are defined for each of the classic evolutionary processes. These costs count the minimum number of events necessary to reconcile the gene tree with the species tree where the leaf-genes are mapped to the leaf-species through a function called labeling. To better understand the synthesis of median trees under these costs there is an increased interest in analyzing their diameters. The diameters of a GTP cost between a gene tree and a species tree are the maximum values of this cost of one or both topologies of the trees involved. We are concerned about the diameters of the GTP costs under bijective labelings. While these diameters are linear time computable for the gene duplication and deep coalescence costs, this has been unknown for the classic gene duplication and loss, and for the loss cost. For the first time, we show how to compute these diameters and proof that this can be achieved in linear time, and thus, completing the computational time analysis for all of the bijective diameters under the GTP costs.

  11. Parsimonious modeling with information filtering networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfuss, Wolfram; Massara, Guido Previde; Di Matteo, T.; Aste, Tomaso

    2016-12-01

    We introduce a methodology to construct parsimonious probabilistic models. This method makes use of information filtering networks to produce a robust estimate of the global sparse inverse covariance from a simple sum of local inverse covariances computed on small subparts of the network. Being based on local and low-dimensional inversions, this method is computationally very efficient and statistically robust, even for the estimation of inverse covariance of high-dimensional, noisy, and short time series. Applied to financial data our method results are computationally more efficient than state-of-the-art methodologies such as Glasso producing, in a fraction of the computation time, models that can have equivalent or better performances but with a sparser inference structure. We also discuss performances with sparse factor models where we notice that relative performances decrease with the number of factors. The local nature of this approach allows us to perform computations in parallel and provides a tool for dynamical adaptation by partial updating when the properties of some variables change without the need of recomputing the whole model. This makes this approach particularly suitable to handle big data sets with large numbers of variables. Examples of practical application for forecasting, stress testing, and risk allocation in financial systems are also provided.

  12. A unifying model of genome evolution under parsimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paten, Benedict; Zerbino, Daniel R; Hickey, Glenn; Haussler, David

    2014-06-19

    Parsimony and maximum likelihood methods of phylogenetic tree estimation and parsimony methods for genome rearrangements are central to the study of genome evolution yet to date they have largely been pursued in isolation. We present a data structure called a history graph that offers a practical basis for the analysis of genome evolution. It conceptually simplifies the study of parsimonious evolutionary histories by representing both substitutions and double cut and join (DCJ) rearrangements in the presence of duplications. The problem of constructing parsimonious history graphs thus subsumes related maximum parsimony problems in the fields of phylogenetic reconstruction and genome rearrangement. We show that tractable functions can be used to define upper and lower bounds on the minimum number of substitutions and DCJ rearrangements needed to explain any history graph. These bounds become tight for a special type of unambiguous history graph called an ancestral variation graph (AVG), which constrains in its combinatorial structure the number of operations required. We finally demonstrate that for a given history graph G, a finite set of AVGs describe all parsimonious interpretations of G, and this set can be explored with a few sampling moves. This theoretical study describes a model in which the inference of genome rearrangements and phylogeny can be unified under parsimony.

  13. Quality Quandaries- Time Series Model Selection and Parsimony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Søren; Kulahci, Murat

    2009-01-01

    Some of the issues involved in selecting adequate models for time series data are discussed using an example concerning the number of users of an Internet server. The process of selecting an appropriate model is subjective and requires experience and judgment. The authors believe an important...... consideration in model selection should be parameter parsimony. They favor the use of parsimonious mixed ARMA models, noting that research has shown that a model building strategy that considers only autoregressive representations will lead to non-parsimonious models and to loss of forecasting accuracy....

  14. Reduction rules for the maximum parsimony distance on phylogenetic trees

    OpenAIRE

    Kelk, Steven; Fischer, Mareike; Moulton, Vincent; Wu, Taoyang

    2015-01-01

    In phylogenetics, distances are often used to measure the incongruence between a pair of phylogenetic trees that are reconstructed by different methods or using different regions of genome. Motivated by the maximum parsimony principle in tree inference, we recently introduced the maximum parsimony (MP) distance, which enjoys various attractive properties due to its connection with several other well-known tree distances, such as tbr and spr. Here we show that computing the MP distance between...

  15. Direct maximum parsimony phylogeny reconstruction from genotype data

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar, Srinath; Lam, Fumei; Blelloch, Guy E; Ravi, R; Schwartz, Russell

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Maximum parsimony phylogenetic tree reconstruction from genetic variation data is a fundamental problem in computational genetics with many practical applications in population genetics, whole genome analysis, and the search for genetic predictors of disease. Efficient methods are available for reconstruction of maximum parsimony trees from haplotype data, but such data are difficult to determine directly for autosomal DNA. Data more commonly is available in the form of ge...

  16. Time-Dependent-Asymmetric-Linear-Parsimonious Ancestral State Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didier, Gilles

    2017-10-01

    The time-dependent-asymmetric-linear parsimony is an ancestral state reconstruction method which extends the standard linear parsimony (a.k.a. Wagner parsimony) approach by taking into account both branch lengths and asymmetric evolutionary costs for reconstructing quantitative characters (asymmetric costs amount to assuming an evolutionary trend toward the direction with the lowest cost). A formal study of the influence of the asymmetry parameter shows that the time-dependent-asymmetric-linear parsimony infers states which are all taken among the known states, except for some degenerate cases corresponding to special values of the asymmetry parameter. This remarkable property holds in particular for the Wagner parsimony. This study leads to a polynomial algorithm which determines, and provides a compact representation of, the parametric reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree, that is for all the unknown nodes, the set of all the possible reconstructed states associated with the asymmetry parameters leading to them. The time-dependent-asymmetric-linear parsimony is finally illustrated with the parametric reconstruction of the body size of cetaceans.

  17. Extremely strict ideals in Banach spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Motivated by the notion of an ideal introduced by Godefroy {\\it et al.} ({\\it Studia Math.} {\\bf 104} (1993) 13–59), in this article, we introduce and study the notion of an extremely strict ideal. For a Poulsen simplex K , we show that the space of affine continuous functions on K is an extremely strict ideal in the space of continuous ...

  18. Hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Kokkendorff, Simon L.; Markvorsen, Steen

    2002-01-01

    We study finite metric spaces with elements picked from, and distances consistent with, ambient Riemannian manifolds. The concepts of negative type and strictly negative type are reviewed, and the conjecture that hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type is settled, in the affirmative...

  19. Extremely strict ideals in Banach spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Motivated by the notion of an ideal introduced by Godefroy et al. (Stu- dia Math. 104 (1993) 13–59), in this article, we introduce and study the notion of an extremely strict ideal. For a Poulsen simplex K, we show that the space of affine contin- uous functions on K is an extremely strict ideal in the space of continuous ...

  20. Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly negative Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    If a finite metric space is of strictly negative type then its transfinite diameter is uniquely realized by an infinite extent (“load vector''). Finite metric spaces that have this property include all trees, and all finite subspaces of Euclidean and Hyperbolic spaces. We prove that if the distance...... matrix of a finite metric space is both hypermetric and regular, then it is of strictly negative type. We show that the strictly negative type finite subspaces of spheres are precisely those which do not contain two pairs of antipodal points....

  1. Hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Kokkendorff, Simon L.; Markvorsen, Steen

    2002-01-01

    We study finite metric spaces with elements picked from, and distances consistent with, ambient Riemannian manifolds. The concepts of negative type and strictly negative type are reviewed, and the conjecture that hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type is settled, in the affirmative....... The technique of the proof is subsequently applied to show that every compact manifold of negative type must have trivial fundamental group, and to obtain a necessary criterion for product manifolds to be of negative type....

  2. Parsimonious mathematical characterization of channel shape and size

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work has two purposes: 1) using a Leopold and Maddock (1953) hydraulic geometry approach, present a mathematically parsimonious, two parameter, characterization of channel shape and size; and 2) analytically quantify cross-sectional area, top width, average depth, critical energy, and bankfull ...

  3. Direct maximum parsimony phylogeny reconstruction from genotype data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Srinath; Lam, Fumei; Blelloch, Guy E; Ravi, R; Schwartz, Russell

    2007-12-05

    Maximum parsimony phylogenetic tree reconstruction from genetic variation data is a fundamental problem in computational genetics with many practical applications in population genetics, whole genome analysis, and the search for genetic predictors of disease. Efficient methods are available for reconstruction of maximum parsimony trees from haplotype data, but such data are difficult to determine directly for autosomal DNA. Data more commonly is available in the form of genotypes, which consist of conflated combinations of pairs of haplotypes from homologous chromosomes. Currently, there are no general algorithms for the direct reconstruction of maximum parsimony phylogenies from genotype data. Hence phylogenetic applications for autosomal data must therefore rely on other methods for first computationally inferring haplotypes from genotypes. In this work, we develop the first practical method for computing maximum parsimony phylogenies directly from genotype data. We show that the standard practice of first inferring haplotypes from genotypes and then reconstructing a phylogeny on the haplotypes often substantially overestimates phylogeny size. As an immediate application, our method can be used to determine the minimum number of mutations required to explain a given set of observed genotypes. Phylogeny reconstruction directly from unphased data is computationally feasible for moderate-sized problem instances and can lead to substantially more accurate tree size inferences than the standard practice of treating phasing and phylogeny construction as two separate analysis stages. The difference between the approaches is particularly important for downstream applications that require a lower-bound on the number of mutations that the genetic region has undergone.

  4. PTree: pattern-based, stochastic search for maximum parsimony phylogenies

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor, Ivan; Steinbr?ck, Lars; McHardy, Alice C.

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic reconstruction is vital to analyzing the evolutionary relationship of genes within and across populations of different species. Nowadays, with next generation sequencing technologies producing sets comprising thousands of sequences, robust identification of the tree topology, which is optimal according to standard criteria such as maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood or posterior probability, with phylogenetic inference methods is a computationally very demanding task. Here, we ...

  5. MPBoot: fast phylogenetic maximum parsimony tree inference and bootstrap approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Diep Thi; Vinh, Le Sy; Flouri, Tomáš; Stamatakis, Alexandros; von Haeseler, Arndt; Minh, Bui Quang

    2018-02-02

    The nonparametric bootstrap is widely used to measure the branch support of phylogenetic trees. However, bootstrapping is computationally expensive and remains a bottleneck in phylogenetic analyses. Recently, an ultrafast bootstrap approximation (UFBoot) approach was proposed for maximum likelihood analyses. However, such an approach is still missing for maximum parsimony. To close this gap we present MPBoot, an adaptation and extension of UFBoot to compute branch supports under the maximum parsimony principle. MPBoot works for both uniform and non-uniform cost matrices. Our analyses on biological DNA and protein showed that under uniform cost matrices, MPBoot runs on average 4.7 (DNA) to 7 times (protein data) (range: 1.2-20.7) faster than the standard parsimony bootstrap implemented in PAUP*; but 1.6 (DNA) to 4.1 times (protein data) slower than the standard bootstrap with a fast search routine in TNT (fast-TNT). However, for non-uniform cost matrices MPBoot is 5 (DNA) to 13 times (protein data) (range:0.3-63.9) faster than fast-TNT. We note that MPBoot achieves better scores more frequently than PAUP* and fast-TNT. However, this effect is less pronounced if an intensive but slower search in TNT is invoked. Moreover, experiments on large-scale simulated data show that while both PAUP* and TNT bootstrap estimates are too conservative, MPBoot bootstrap estimates appear more unbiased. MPBoot provides an efficient alternative to the standard maximum parsimony bootstrap procedure. It shows favorable performance in terms of run time, the capability of finding a maximum parsimony tree, and high bootstrap accuracy on simulated as well as empirical data sets. MPBoot is easy-to-use, open-source and available at http://www.cibiv.at/software/mpboot .

  6. Strictly convex functions on complete Finsler manifolds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 126; Issue 4. Strictly convex functions on complete Finsler manifolds. YOE ITOKAWA KATSUHIRO SHIOHAMA BANKTESHWAR TIWARI. Research Article Volume 126 Issue 4 October 2016 pp 623-627 ...

  7. Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly Negative Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul; Lisonek, P.; Markvorsen, Steen

    1998-01-01

    We prove that, if a finite metric space is of strictly negative type, then its transfinite diameter is uniquely realized by the infinite extender (load vector). Finite metric spaces that have this property include all spaces on two, three, or four points, all trees, and all finite subspaces of Eu...

  8. Direct maximum parsimony phylogeny reconstruction from genotype data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi R

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maximum parsimony phylogenetic tree reconstruction from genetic variation data is a fundamental problem in computational genetics with many practical applications in population genetics, whole genome analysis, and the search for genetic predictors of disease. Efficient methods are available for reconstruction of maximum parsimony trees from haplotype data, but such data are difficult to determine directly for autosomal DNA. Data more commonly is available in the form of genotypes, which consist of conflated combinations of pairs of haplotypes from homologous chromosomes. Currently, there are no general algorithms for the direct reconstruction of maximum parsimony phylogenies from genotype data. Hence phylogenetic applications for autosomal data must therefore rely on other methods for first computationally inferring haplotypes from genotypes. Results In this work, we develop the first practical method for computing maximum parsimony phylogenies directly from genotype data. We show that the standard practice of first inferring haplotypes from genotypes and then reconstructing a phylogeny on the haplotypes often substantially overestimates phylogeny size. As an immediate application, our method can be used to determine the minimum number of mutations required to explain a given set of observed genotypes. Conclusion Phylogeny reconstruction directly from unphased data is computationally feasible for moderate-sized problem instances and can lead to substantially more accurate tree size inferences than the standard practice of treating phasing and phylogeny construction as two separate analysis stages. The difference between the approaches is particularly important for downstream applications that require a lower-bound on the number of mutations that the genetic region has undergone.

  9. Parsimonious extreme learning machine using recursive orthogonal least squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Er, Meng Joo; Han, Min

    2014-10-01

    Novel constructive and destructive parsimonious extreme learning machines (CP- and DP-ELM) are proposed in this paper. By virtue of the proposed ELMs, parsimonious structure and excellent generalization of multiinput-multioutput single hidden-layer feedforward networks (SLFNs) are obtained. The proposed ELMs are developed by innovative decomposition of the recursive orthogonal least squares procedure into sequential partial orthogonalization (SPO). The salient features of the proposed approaches are as follows: 1) Initial hidden nodes are randomly generated by the ELM methodology and recursively orthogonalized into an upper triangular matrix with dramatic reduction in matrix size; 2) the constructive SPO in the CP-ELM focuses on the partial matrix with the subcolumn of the selected regressor including nonzeros as the first column while the destructive SPO in the DP-ELM operates on the partial matrix including elements determined by the removed regressor; 3) termination criteria for CP- and DP-ELM are simplified by the additional residual error reduction method; and 4) the output weights of the SLFN need not be solved in the model selection procedure and is derived from the final upper triangular equation by backward substitution. Both single- and multi-output real-world regression data sets are used to verify the effectiveness and superiority of the CP- and DP-ELM in terms of parsimonious architecture and generalization accuracy. Innovative applications to nonlinear time-series modeling demonstrate superior identification results.

  10. Bootstrap-based Support of HGT Inferred by Maximum Parsimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakhleh Luay

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maximum parsimony is one of the most commonly used criteria for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Recently, Nakhleh and co-workers extended this criterion to enable reconstruction of phylogenetic networks, and demonstrated its application to detecting reticulate evolutionary relationships. However, one of the major problems with this extension has been that it favors more complex evolutionary relationships over simpler ones, thus having the potential for overestimating the amount of reticulation in the data. An ad hoc solution to this problem that has been used entails inspecting the improvement in the parsimony length as more reticulation events are added to the model, and stopping when the improvement is below a certain threshold. Results In this paper, we address this problem in a more systematic way, by proposing a nonparametric bootstrap-based measure of support of inferred reticulation events, and using it to determine the number of those events, as well as their placements. A number of samples is generated from the given sequence alignment, and reticulation events are inferred based on each sample. Finally, the support of each reticulation event is quantified based on the inferences made over all samples. Conclusions We have implemented our method in the NEPAL software tool (available publicly at http://bioinfo.cs.rice.edu/, and studied its performance on both biological and simulated data sets. While our studies show very promising results, they also highlight issues that are inherently challenging when applying the maximum parsimony criterion to detect reticulate evolution.

  11. Bootstrap-based support of HGT inferred by maximum parsimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Jung; Jin, Guohua; Nakhleh, Luay

    2010-05-05

    Maximum parsimony is one of the most commonly used criteria for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Recently, Nakhleh and co-workers extended this criterion to enable reconstruction of phylogenetic networks, and demonstrated its application to detecting reticulate evolutionary relationships. However, one of the major problems with this extension has been that it favors more complex evolutionary relationships over simpler ones, thus having the potential for overestimating the amount of reticulation in the data. An ad hoc solution to this problem that has been used entails inspecting the improvement in the parsimony length as more reticulation events are added to the model, and stopping when the improvement is below a certain threshold. In this paper, we address this problem in a more systematic way, by proposing a nonparametric bootstrap-based measure of support of inferred reticulation events, and using it to determine the number of those events, as well as their placements. A number of samples is generated from the given sequence alignment, and reticulation events are inferred based on each sample. Finally, the support of each reticulation event is quantified based on the inferences made over all samples. We have implemented our method in the NEPAL software tool (available publicly at http://bioinfo.cs.rice.edu/), and studied its performance on both biological and simulated data sets. While our studies show very promising results, they also highlight issues that are inherently challenging when applying the maximum parsimony criterion to detect reticulate evolution.

  12. Extremely strict ideals in Banach spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the space of regular Borel measures, it is easy to see that with respect to the projection μ → μ|(0, 1), M is an extremely strict ideal in C([0, 1]) but as the Lebesgue measure is non-atomic, M. ∗. 1 is not the norm closed ..... (Grenoble) 28 (1978) 35–65. [10] Rao T S S R K, On ideals in Banach spaces, Rocky Mountain J. Math.

  13. Strictness Analysis and Denotational Abstract Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming

    1988-01-01

    there and this sufices to make the framework applicable to strictness analysis for the lambda-calculus. This shows the possibility of a general theory for the analysis of functional programs and it gives more insight into the relative precision of the various analyses. In particular it is shown that a collecting (static......A theory of abstract interpretation () is developed for a typed lambda-calculus. The typed lambda-calculus may be viewed as the ''static'' part of a two-level denotational metalanguage for which abstract interpretation was developed by ). The present development relaxes a condition imposed...

  14. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992] ...

  15. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color. ...

  16. Efficient parsimony-based methods for phylogenetic network reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guohua; Nakhleh, Luay; Snir, Sagi; Tuller, Tamir

    2007-01-15

    Phylogenies--the evolutionary histories of groups of organisms-play a major role in representing relationships among biological entities. Although many biological processes can be effectively modeled as tree-like relationships, others, such as hybrid speciation and horizontal gene transfer (HGT), result in networks, rather than trees, of relationships. Hybrid speciation is a significant evolutionary mechanism in plants, fish and other groups of species. HGT plays a major role in bacterial genome diversification and is a significant mechanism by which bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics. Maximum parsimony is one of the most commonly used criteria for phylogenetic tree inference. Roughly speaking, inference based on this criterion seeks the tree that minimizes the amount of evolution. In 1990, Jotun Hein proposed using this criterion for inferring the evolution of sequences subject to recombination. Preliminary results on small synthetic datasets. Nakhleh et al. (2005) demonstrated the criterion's application to phylogenetic network reconstruction in general and HGT detection in particular. However, the naive algorithms used by the authors are inapplicable to large datasets due to their demanding computational requirements. Further, no rigorous theoretical analysis of computing the criterion was given, nor was it tested on biological data. In the present work we prove that the problem of scoring the parsimony of a phylogenetic network is NP-hard and provide an improved fixed parameter tractable algorithm for it. Further, we devise efficient heuristics for parsimony-based reconstruction of phylogenetic networks. We test our methods on both synthetic and biological data (rbcL gene in bacteria) and obtain very promising results.

  17. A Parsimonious Bootstrap Method to Model Natural Inflow Energy Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Cyrino Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian energy generation and transmission system is quite peculiar in its dimension and characteristics. As such, it can be considered unique in the world. It is a high dimension hydrothermal system with huge participation of hydro plants. Such strong dependency on hydrological regimes implies uncertainties related to the energetic planning, requiring adequate modeling of the hydrological time series. This is carried out via stochastic simulations of monthly inflow series using the family of Periodic Autoregressive models, PAR(p, one for each period (month of the year. In this paper it is shown the problems in fitting these models by the current system, particularly the identification of the autoregressive order “p” and the corresponding parameter estimation. It is followed by a proposal of a new approach to set both the model order and the parameters estimation of the PAR(p models, using a nonparametric computational technique, known as Bootstrap. This technique allows the estimation of reliable confidence intervals for the model parameters. The obtained results using the Parsimonious Bootstrap Method of Moments (PBMOM produced not only more parsimonious model orders but also adherent stochastic scenarios and, in the long range, lead to a better use of water resources in the energy operation planning.

  18. PTree: pattern-based, stochastic search for maximum parsimony phylogenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Gregor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic reconstruction is vital to analyzing the evolutionary relationship of genes within and across populations of different species. Nowadays, with next generation sequencing technologies producing sets comprising thousands of sequences, robust identification of the tree topology, which is optimal according to standard criteria such as maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood or posterior probability, with phylogenetic inference methods is a computationally very demanding task. Here, we describe a stochastic search method for a maximum parsimony tree, implemented in a software package we named PTree. Our method is based on a new pattern-based technique that enables us to infer intermediate sequences efficiently where the incorporation of these sequences in the current tree topology yields a phylogenetic tree with a lower cost. Evaluation across multiple datasets showed that our method is comparable to the algorithms implemented in PAUP* or TNT, which are widely used by the bioinformatics community, in terms of topological accuracy and runtime. We show that our method can process large-scale datasets of 1,000–8,000 sequences. We believe that our novel pattern-based method enriches the current set of tools and methods for phylogenetic tree inference. The software is available under: http://algbio.cs.uni-duesseldorf.de/webapps/wa-download/.

  19. Mixed integer linear programming for maximum-parsimony phylogeny inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Srinath; Lam, Fumei; Blelloch, Guy E; Ravi, R; Schwartz, Russell

    2008-01-01

    Reconstruction of phylogenetic trees is a fundamental problem in computational biology. While excellent heuristic methods are available for many variants of this problem, new advances in phylogeny inference will be required if we are to be able to continue to make effective use of the rapidly growing stores of variation data now being gathered. In this paper, we present two integer linear programming (ILP) formulations to find the most parsimonious phylogenetic tree from a set of binary variation data. One method uses a flow-based formulation that can produce exponential numbers of variables and constraints in the worst case. The method has, however, proven extremely efficient in practice on datasets that are well beyond the reach of the available provably efficient methods, solving several large mtDNA and Y-chromosome instances within a few seconds and giving provably optimal results in times competitive with fast heuristics than cannot guarantee optimality. An alternative formulation establishes that the problem can be solved with a polynomial-sized ILP. We further present a web server developed based on the exponential-sized ILP that performs fast maximum parsimony inferences and serves as a front end to a database of precomputed phylogenies spanning the human genome.

  20. PTree: pattern-based, stochastic search for maximum parsimony phylogenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregor, Ivan; Steinbrück, Lars; McHardy, Alice C

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic reconstruction is vital to analyzing the evolutionary relationship of genes within and across populations of different species. Nowadays, with next generation sequencing technologies producing sets comprising thousands of sequences, robust identification of the tree topology, which is optimal according to standard criteria such as maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood or posterior probability, with phylogenetic inference methods is a computationally very demanding task. Here, we describe a stochastic search method for a maximum parsimony tree, implemented in a software package we named PTree. Our method is based on a new pattern-based technique that enables us to infer intermediate sequences efficiently where the incorporation of these sequences in the current tree topology yields a phylogenetic tree with a lower cost. Evaluation across multiple datasets showed that our method is comparable to the algorithms implemented in PAUP* or TNT, which are widely used by the bioinformatics community, in terms of topological accuracy and runtime. We show that our method can process large-scale datasets of 1,000-8,000 sequences. We believe that our novel pattern-based method enriches the current set of tools and methods for phylogenetic tree inference. The software is available under: http://algbio.cs.uni-duesseldorf.de/webapps/wa-download/.

  1. The efficiency of different search strategies in estimating parsimony jackknife, bootstrap, and Bremer support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Kai F

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For parsimony analyses, the most common way to estimate confidence is by resampling plans (nonparametric bootstrap, jackknife, and Bremer support (Decay indices. The recent literature reveals that parameter settings that are quite commonly employed are not those that are recommended by theoretical considerations and by previous empirical studies. The optimal search strategy to be applied during resampling was previously addressed solely via standard search strategies available in PAUP*. The question of a compromise between search extensiveness and improved support accuracy for Bremer support received even less attention. A set of experiments was conducted on different datasets to find an empirical cut-off point at which increased search extensiveness does not significantly change Bremer support and jackknife or bootstrap proportions any more. Results For the number of replicates needed for accurate estimates of support in resampling plans, a diagram is provided that helps to address the question whether apparently different support values really differ significantly. It is shown that the use of random addition cycles and parsimony ratchet iterations during bootstrapping does not translate into higher support, nor does any extension of the search extensiveness beyond the rather moderate effort of TBR (tree bisection and reconnection branch swapping plus saving one tree per replicate. Instead, in case of very large matrices, saving more than one shortest tree per iteration and using a strict consensus tree of these yields decreased support compared to saving only one tree. This can be interpreted as a small risk of overestimating support but should be more than compensated by other factors that counteract an enhanced type I error. With regard to Bremer support, a rule of thumb can be derived stating that not much is gained relative to the surplus computational effort when searches are extended beyond 20 ratchet iterations per

  2. Geometrical optimization for strictly localized structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yirong

    2003-07-01

    Recently we proposed the block localized wavefunction (BLW) approach which takes the advantages of valence bond theory and molecular orbital theory and defines the wavefunctions for resonance structures based on the assumption that all electrons and orbitals are partitioned into a few subgroups. In this work, we implement the geometrical optimization of the BLW method based on the algorithm proposed by Gianinetti and coworkers. Thus, we can study the conjugation effect on not only the molecular stability, but also the molecular geometry. With this capability, the π conjugation effect in trans-polyenes C2nH2n+2 (n=2-5) as well as in formamide and its analogs are studied by optimizing their delocalized and strictly localized forms with the 6-31G(d) and 6-311+G(d,p) basis sets. Although it has been well presumed that the π resonance shortens the single bonds and lengthens the double bonds with the delocalization of π electrons across the whole line in polyenes, our optimization of the strictly localized structures quantitatively shows that when the conjugation effect is "turned off," the double bond lengths will be identical to the CC bond length in ethylene and the single Csp2-Csp2 bond length will be about 1.513-1.517 Å. In agreement with the classical Hückel theory, the resonance energies in polyenes are approximately in proportion to the number of double bonds. Similarly, resonance is responsible not only for the planarity of formamide, thioformamide, and selenoformamide, but also for the lengthening of the CX (X=O,S,Se) double bond and the shortening of the CN bonds. Although it is assumed that the CX bond polarization decreases in the order of O>S>Se, the π electronic delocalization increases in the opposite order, i.e., formamide

  3. A Practical pedestrian approach to parsimonious regression with inaccurate inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seppo Karrila

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A measurement result often dictates an interval containing the correct value. Interval data is also created by roundoff, truncation, and binning. We focus on such common interval uncertainty in data. Inaccuracy in model inputs is typically ignored on model fitting. We provide a practical approach for regression with inaccurate data: the mathematics is easy, and the linear programming formulations simple to use even in a spreadsheet. This self-contained elementary presentation introduces interval linear systems and requires only basic knowledge of algebra. Feature selection is automatic; but can be controlled to find only a few most relevant inputs; and joint feature selection is enabled for multiple modeled outputs. With more features than cases, a novel connection to compressed sensing emerges: robustness against interval errors-in-variables implies model parsimony, and the input inaccuracies determine the regularization term. A small numerical example highlights counterintuitive results and a dramatic difference to total least squares.

  4. From Regular to Strictly Locally Testable Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Crespi Reghizzi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A classical result (often credited to Y. Medvedev states that every language recognized by a finite automaton is the homomorphic image of a local language, over a much larger so-called local alphabet, namely the alphabet of the edges of the transition graph. Local languages are characterized by the value k=2 of the sliding window width in the McNaughton and Papert's infinite hierarchy of strictly locally testable languages (k-slt. We generalize Medvedev's result in a new direction, studying the relationship between the width and the alphabetic ratio telling how much larger the local alphabet is. We prove that every regular language is the image of a k-slt language on an alphabet of doubled size, where the width logarithmically depends on the automaton size, and we exhibit regular languages for which any smaller alphabetic ratio is insufficient. More generally, we express the trade-off between alphabetic ratio and width as a mathematical relation derived from a careful encoding of the states. At last we mention some directions for theoretical development and application.

  5. The perpetual search for parsimony: enhancing the epistemological and practical utility of qualitative research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutcliffe, John R; Harder, Henry G

    2009-10-01

    While it appears that the term parsimony has been used in the context of qualitative research and qualitative research methodology, there is a distinct absence of writing that actually explores, seeks to define, understand, critique, apply and/or evaluate the concept in qualitative research literature. This paper explores a number of issues pertaining to parsimony in qualitative research. It is the hope of the authors that this paper might raise awareness of the hitherto unexplored issues, stimulate some further interest in these and prompt other qualitative researchers to contribute to the ensuing debate. While there are currently no definitive criteria for determining the parsimony of qualitative research findings, it would be epistemologically inappropriate and philosophically incongruent to import and translate quantitative notions of parsimony. However, the ideas, principles and epistemological functions that parsimony serves can and should be applied to the qualitative paradigm. The authors suggest that more than one type of qualitative parsimony is required. The authors advance the argument that there is a relationship between the degree of parsimony and the elegance, ease of accessibility and straightforwardness (some might say - beauty) of the writing/findings; the level of expertise of the researcher; and the quality of the data collection interview. The authors also assert that there are a number of practices which, when adhered to, can enhance the parsimony of the findings and that here are a number of major implications arising from qualitative findings that lack parsimony.

  6. 7 CFR 28.404 - Strict Low Middling Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Color. 28.404 Section 28.404... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.404 Strict Low Middling Color. Strict Low Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the United...

  7. 7 CFR 28.406 - Strict Good Ordinary Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Color. 28.406 Section 28.406... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.406 Strict Good Ordinary Color. Strict Good Ordinary Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the...

  8. 7 CFR 28.402 - Strict Middling Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Color. 28.402 Section 28.402... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.402 Strict Middling Color. Strict Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the United States...

  9. On the quirks of maximum parsimony and likelihood on phylogenetic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Christopher; Fischer, Mareike; Linz, Simone; Semple, Charles

    2017-03-21

    Maximum parsimony is one of the most frequently-discussed tree reconstruction methods in phylogenetic estimation. However, in recent years it has become more and more apparent that phylogenetic trees are often not sufficient to describe evolution accurately. For instance, processes like hybridization or lateral gene transfer that are commonplace in many groups of organisms and result in mosaic patterns of relationships cannot be represented by a single phylogenetic tree. This is why phylogenetic networks, which can display such events, are becoming of more and more interest in phylogenetic research. It is therefore necessary to extend concepts like maximum parsimony from phylogenetic trees to networks. Several suggestions for possible extensions can be found in recent literature, for instance the softwired and the hardwired parsimony concepts. In this paper, we analyze the so-called big parsimony problem under these two concepts, i.e. we investigate maximum parsimonious networks and analyze their properties. In particular, we show that finding a softwired maximum parsimony network is possible in polynomial time. We also show that the set of maximum parsimony networks for the hardwired definition always contains at least one phylogenetic tree. Lastly, we investigate some parallels of parsimony to different likelihood concepts on phylogenetic networks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of natural selection on the performance of maximum parsimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofria Charles

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maximum parsimony is one of the most commonly used and extensively studied phylogeny reconstruction methods. While current evaluation methodologies such as computer simulations provide insight into how well maximum parsimony reconstructs phylogenies, they tell us little about how well maximum parsimony performs on taxa drawn from populations of organisms that evolved subject to natural selection in addition to the random factors of drift and mutation. It is clear that natural selection has a significant impact on Among Site Rate Variation (ASRV and the rate of accepted substitutions; that is, accepted mutations do not occur with uniform probability along the genome and some substitutions are more likely to occur than other substitutions. However, little is know about how ASRV and non-uniform character substitutions impact the performance of reconstruction methods such as maximum parsimony. To gain insight into these issues, we study how well maximum parsimony performs with data generated by Avida, a digital life platform where populations of digital organisms evolve subject to natural selective pressures. Results We first identify conditions where natural selection does affect maximum parsimony's reconstruction accuracy. In general, as we increase the probability that a significant adaptation will occur in an intermediate ancestor, the performance of maximum parsimony improves. In fact, maximum parsimony can correctly reconstruct small 4 taxa trees on data that have received surprisingly many mutations if the intermediate ancestor has received a significant adaptation. We demonstrate that this improved performance of maximum parsimony is attributable more to ASRV than to non-uniform character substitutions. Conclusion Maximum parsimony, as well as most other phylogeny reconstruction methods, may perform significantly better on actual biological data than is currently suggested by computer simulation studies because of natural

  11. SEAPODYM-LTL: a parsimonious zooplankton dynamic biomass model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchon, Anna; Lehodey, Patrick; Gehlen, Marion; Titaud, Olivier; Senina, Inna; Séférian, Roland

    2017-04-01

    Mesozooplankton organisms are of critical importance for the understanding of early life history of most fish stocks, as well as the nutrient cycles in the ocean. Ongoing climate change and the need for improved approaches to the management of living marine resources has driven recent advances in zooplankton modelling. The classical modeling approach tends to describe the whole biogeochemical and plankton cycle with increasing complexity. We propose here a different and parsimonious zooplankton dynamic biomass model (SEAPODYM-LTL) that is cost efficient and can be advantageously coupled with primary production estimated either from satellite derived ocean color data or biogeochemical models. In addition, the adjoint code of the model is developed allowing a robust optimization approach for estimating the few parameters of the model. In this study, we run the first optimization experiments using a global database of climatological zooplankton biomass data and we make a comparative analysis to assess the importance of resolution and primary production inputs on model fit to observations. We also compare SEAPODYM-LTL outputs to those produced by a more complex biogeochemical model (PISCES) but sharing the same physical forcings.

  12. Maximum parsimony, substitution model, and probability phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, J F; Thomas, D A; Mareels, I

    2011-01-01

    The problem of inferring phylogenies (phylogenetic trees) is one of the main problems in computational biology. There are three main methods for inferring phylogenies-Maximum Parsimony (MP), Distance Matrix (DM) and Maximum Likelihood (ML), of which the MP method is the most well-studied and popular method. In the MP method the optimization criterion is the number of substitutions of the nucleotides computed by the differences in the investigated nucleotide sequences. However, the MP method is often criticized as it only counts the substitutions observable at the current time and all the unobservable substitutions that really occur in the evolutionary history are omitted. In order to take into account the unobservable substitutions, some substitution models have been established and they are now widely used in the DM and ML methods but these substitution models cannot be used within the classical MP method. Recently the authors proposed a probability representation model for phylogenetic trees and the reconstructed trees in this model are called probability phylogenetic trees. One of the advantages of the probability representation model is that it can include a substitution model to infer phylogenetic trees based on the MP principle. In this paper we explain how to use a substitution model in the reconstruction of probability phylogenetic trees and show the advantage of this approach with examples.

  13. Strictly convex functions on complete Finsler manifolds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    minimum set of a super Busemann function contains a soul of M. Clearly, a complete simply connected Riemannian manifold H of non-positive sec- tional curvature, called Hadamard manifold, has the property that the distance function to an arbitrary fixed point is strongly convex exhaustion. Also, the exponential map expp :.

  14. Modal Inclusion Logic: Being Lax is Simpler than Being Strict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hella, Lauri; Kuusisto, Antti Johannes; Meier, Arne

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the computational complexity of the satisfiability problem of modal inclusion logic. We distinguish two variants of the problem: one for strict and another one for lax semantics. The complexity of the lax version turns out to be complete for EXPTIME, whereas with strict semantics...

  15. 7 CFR 28.431 - Strict Middling Tinged Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Tinged Color. 28.431 Section 28.431 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Tinged Color is color which is better than Middling Tinged Color. ...

  16. 7 CFR 28.433 - Strict Low Middling Tinged Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Tinged Color. 28.433 Section 28.433 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Tinged Color. Strict Low Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of...

  17. 7 CFR 28.424 - Strict Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.424 Section 28.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  18. 7 CFR 28.426 - Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. 28.426 Section 28.426 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  19. 7 CFR 28.422 - Strict Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Spotted Color. 28.422 Section 28.422 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples...

  20. Strictly-regular number system and data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Jensen, Claus; Katajainen, Jyrki

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new number system that we call the strictly-regular system, which efficiently supports the operations: digit-increment, digit-decrement, cut, concatenate, and add. Compared to other number systems, the strictly-regular system has distinguishable properties. It is superior to the re...

  1. On N. Chomsky’s strict subcategorization of verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Orešnik

    1966-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the so-called strict subcategorization rules, and the theory associated with them, in the transformational grammar of. Erigl·ish as proposed by Noarn Chomsky in his Aspects. The syntactic component of English transformational grammar consists of two mutually ordered parts, viz., the base and the transformational subcomponents. The initial part of the base are the so-called categorial rules, which are of almost exclusive interest to us here. Their primary task is to generate what are usually called basic sentence patterns, and will here, with Chomsky (Aspects, p.ll3, be designated with the expression, frames of category symbols.- The rules of the transformational subcomponent modify, in various ways, the frames generated by the base. For several reasons - one of them being that the correct work of the transformational subcomponent quite often depends on the kind of lexical items with which the syntactic positions in the frames of category symbols have been filled, the lexical items must be introduced from the lexicon into the empty positions in the frames before the rules of the transformational subcomponent can be allowed to modify the frames.

  2. Strict finitism and the logic of mathematical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Exploring the logic behind applied mathematics to the physical world, this volume illustrates how radical naturalism, nominalism and strict finitism can account for the applications of classical mathematics in current theories about natural phenomena.

  3. Strict monotonicity and unique continuation of the biharmonic operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najib Tsouli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will show that the strict monotonicity of the eigenvalues of the biharmonic operator holds if and only if some unique continuation property is satisfied by the corresponding eigenfunctions.

  4. Two examples of non strictly convex large deviations

    OpenAIRE

    De Marco, Stefano; Jacquier, Antoine; Roome, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We present two examples of a large deviations principle where the rate function is not strictly convex. This is motivated by a model used in mathematical finance (the Heston model), and adds a new item to the zoology of non strictly convex large deviations. For one of these examples, we show that the rate function of the Cramer-type of large deviations coincides with that of the Freidlin-Wentzell when contraction principles are applied.

  5. Strictly contractive quantum channels and physically realizable quantum computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raginsky, Maxim

    2002-01-01

    We study the robustness of quantum computers under the influence of errors modeled by strictly contractive channels. A channel T is defined to be strictly contractive if, for any pair of density operators ρ, σ in its domain, parallel Tρ-Tσ parallel 1 ≤k parallel ρ-σ parallel 1 for some 0≤k 1 denotes the trace norm). In other words, strictly contractive channels render the states of the computer less distinguishable in the sense of quantum detection theory. Starting from the premise that all experimental procedures can be carried out with finite precision, we argue that there exists a physically meaningful connection between strictly contractive channels and errors in physically realizable quantum computers. We show that, in the absence of error correction, sensitivity of quantum memories and computers to strictly contractive errors grows exponentially with storage time and computation time, respectively, and depends only on the constant k and the measurement precision. We prove that strict contractivity rules out the possibility of perfect error correction, and give an argument that approximate error correction, which covers previous work on fault-tolerant quantum computation as a special case, is possible

  6. Convergence theorems for strictly hemi-contractive maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Osilike, M.O.

    1992-04-01

    It is proved that each of two well-known fixed point iteration methods (the Mann and the Ishikawa iteration methods) converges strongly to the fixed point of strictly hemi-contractive map in real Banach spaces with property (U, λ, m+1,m), λ is an element of R, m is an element of IN. The class of strictly hemi-contractive maps includes all strictly pseudo-contractive maps with nonempty fixed point sets; and Banach spaces with property (U, λ, m+1, m), λ is an element of R, m is an element of IN include the L p (or l p ) spaces, p≥2. Our theorems generalize important known results. (author). 22 refs

  7. The dynamic effect of exchange-rate volatility on Turkish exports: Parsimonious error-correction model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demirhan Erdal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the effect of exchange-rate stability on real export volume in Turkey, using monthly data for the period February 2001 to January 2010. The Johansen multivariate cointegration method and the parsimonious error-correction model are applied to determine long-run and short-run relationships between real export volume and its determinants. In this study, the conditional variance of the GARCH (1, 1 model is taken as a proxy for exchange-rate stability, and generalized impulse-response functions and variance-decomposition analyses are applied to analyze the dynamic effects of variables on real export volume. The empirical findings suggest that exchangerate stability has a significant positive effect on real export volume, both in the short and the long run.

  8. Mann iteration with errors for strictly pseudo-contractive mappings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well known that any fixed point of a Lipschitzian strictly pseudo-contractive self mapping of a nonempty closed convex and bounded subset K of a Banach space X is unique [6] and may be norm approximated by an iterative procedure. In this paper, we show that Mann iteration with errors can be used to approximate the ...

  9. Dominated operators, absolutely summing operators and the strict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    b(X;E) be the space of all E-valued bounded continuous functions on X, equipped with the strict topology β. We study dominated and absolutely summing operators T : Cb(X;E) → F. We derive that if X is a locally compact Hausdorff space and E ...

  10. Convergence of GAOR Iterative Method with Strictly Diagonally Dominant Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangbin Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the convergence of GAOR method for linear systems with strictly diagonally dominant matrices. Moreover, we show that our results are better than ones of Darvishi and Hessari (2006, Tian et al. (2008 by using three numerical examples.

  11. Runaway selection for cooperation and strict-and-severe punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamaru, Mayuko; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2009-03-07

    Punishing defectors is an important means of stabilizing cooperation. When levels of cooperation and punishment are continuous, individuals must employ suitable social standards for defining defectors and for determining punishment levels. Here we investigate the evolution of a social reaction norm, or psychological response function, for determining the punishment level meted out by individuals in dependence on the cooperation level exhibited by their neighbors in a lattice-structured population. We find that (1) cooperation and punishment can undergo runaway selection, with evolution towards enhanced cooperation and an ever more demanding punishment reaction norm mutually reinforcing each other; (2) this mechanism works best when punishment is strict, so that ambiguities in defining defectors are small; (3) when the strictness of punishment can adapt jointly with the threshold and severity of punishment, evolution favors the strict-and-severe punishment of individuals who offer slightly less than average cooperation levels; (4) strict-and-severe punishment naturally evolves and leads to much enhanced cooperation when cooperation without punishment would be weak and neither cooperation nor punishment are too costly; and (5) such evolutionary dynamics enable the bootstrapping of cooperation and punishment, through which defectors who never punish gradually and steadily evolve into cooperators who punish those they define as defectors.

  12. Dominance on Strict Triangular Norms and Mulholland Inequality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrík, Milan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 335, 15 March (2018), s. 3-17 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-07724Y Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : dominance relation * Mulholland inequality * strict triangular norm * transitivity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2016

  13. A Parsimonious Instrument for Predicting Students' Intent to Pursue a Sales Career: Scale Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, James W.; Cummins, Shannon; Pomirleanu, Nadia; Cross, James; Simon, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Students' desire and intention to pursue a career in sales continue to lag behind industry demand for sales professionals. This article develops and validates a reliable and parsimonious scale for measuring and predicting student intention to pursue a selling career. The instrument advances previous scales in three ways. The instrument is…

  14. Assimilating multi-source uncertainties of a parsimonious conceptual hydrological model using hierarchical Bayesian modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei Wu; James Clark; James Vose

    2010-01-01

    Hierarchical Bayesian (HB) modeling allows for multiple sources of uncertainty by factoring complex relationships into conditional distributions that can be used to draw inference and make predictions. We applied an HB model to estimate the parameters and state variables of a parsimonious hydrological model – GR4J – by coherently assimilating the uncertainties from the...

  15. Vector Autoregressions with Parsimoniously Time Varying Parameters and an Application to Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callot, Laurent; Kristensen, Johannes Tang

    the monetary policy response to inflation and business cycle fluctuations in the US by estimating a parsimoniously time varying parameter Taylor rule.We document substantial changes in the policy response of the Fed in the 1970s and 1980s, and since 2007, but also document the stability of this response...

  16. Seeing the elephant: Parsimony, functionalism, and the emergent design of contempt and other sentiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Matthew M; Fessler, Daniel M T

    2017-01-01

    The target article argues that contempt is a sentiment, and that sentiments are the deep structure of social affect. The 26 commentaries meet these claims with a range of exciting extensions and applications, as well as critiques. Most significantly, we reply that construction and emergence are necessary for, not incompatible with, evolved design, while parsimony requires explanatory adequacy and predictive accuracy, not mere simplicity.

  17. Towards a parsimonious program theory of return to work intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudi Jensen, Anne Grete

    2013-01-01

    Presentation of a salutogenic theory of return to work (RTW). The study group include 118 unskilled Danish public employees and privately employed house-cleaners on sick leave due to musculoskeletal and/or common mental illnesses. Theory of RTW is discussed from a theoretical and empirical viewpoint, using baseline-data from an intervention study in a longitudinal, non-randomized study design with follow-up after one year. High work ability, strong social support from colleagues and over-commitment are the most important prognostic factors for RTW. An active coping style, high self-efficacy and Sense of Coherence (SOC) are found to increase RTW and high hostility and over-commitment to decrease RTW. Besides health elements in work ability are SOC, self-efficacy, social support and physical activity. Work ability and active coping mediate positive associations between RTW and health, and a negative association with stress. Work ability seems to express the intention to work decisive for RTW, reflecting the interpretation of the work/health situation based on comprehensibility, meaningfulness and manageability. It is influenced by the personal view of life, attitudes and interaction with the workplace. An ecological theory, integrating health promotion is proposed. A later paper will present the intervention study and further validation of the theory.

  18. Bayesian methods outperform parsimony but at the expense of precision in the estimation of phylogeny from discrete morphological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Joseph E; Puttick, Mark N; Parry, Luke; Tanner, Alastair R; Tarver, James E; Fleming, James; Pisani, Davide; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2016-04-01

    Different analytical methods can yield competing interpretations of evolutionary history and, currently, there is no definitive method for phylogenetic reconstruction using morphological data. Parsimony has been the primary method for analysing morphological data, but there has been a resurgence of interest in the likelihood-based Mk-model. Here, we test the performance of the Bayesian implementation of the Mk-model relative to both equal and implied-weight implementations of parsimony. Using simulated morphological data, we demonstrate that the Mk-model outperforms equal-weights parsimony in terms of topological accuracy, and implied-weights performs the most poorly. However, the Mk-model produces phylogenies that have less resolution than parsimony methods. This difference in the accuracy and precision of parsimony and Bayesian approaches to topology estimation needs to be considered when selecting a method for phylogeny reconstruction. © 2016 The Authors.

  19. Timing of birth: Parsimony favors strategic over dysregulated parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Ralph; Goodman, Julia; Margerison-Zilko, Claire; Falconi, April; Gemmill, Alison; Karasek, Deborah; Anderson, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The "dysregulated parturition" narrative posits that the human stress response includes a cascade of hormones that "dysregulates" and accelerates parturition but provides questionable utility as a guide to understand or prevent preterm birth. We offer and test a "strategic parturition" narrative that not only predicts the excess preterm births that dysregulated parturition predicts but also makes testable, sex-specific predictions of the effect of stressful environments on the timing of birth among term pregnancies. We use interrupted time-series modeling of cohorts conceived over 101 months to test for lengthening of early term male gestations in stressed population. We use an event widely reported to have stressed Americans and to have increased the incidence of low birth weight and fetal death across the country-the terrorist attacks of September 2001. We tested the hypothesis that the odds of male infants conceived in December 2000 (i.e., at term in September 2001) being born early as opposed to full term fell below the value expected from those conceived in the 50 prior and 50 following months. We found that term male gestations exposed to the terrorist attacks exhibited 4% lower likelihood of early, as opposed to full or late, term birth. Strategic parturition explains observed data for which the dysregulated parturition narrative offers no prediction-the timing of birth among gestations stressed at term. Our narrative may help explain why findings from studies examining associations between population- and/or individual-level stressors and preterm birth are generally mixed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Parsimonious data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jakob Baek; Albrechtsen, Thomas; Dahl-Nielsen, Emil

    2017-01-01

    approaches based upon bigger and broader datasets. Combining the online and offline, we connect a subsample of surveyed respondents to their public Facebook activity and apply machine learning classifiers to explore the link between their political liking behaviour and actual voting intention. Through...... to the entire population of a country and even across national borders, to other political multiparty systems. The approach in this study relies on data that are publicly available, and the simple setup we propose can with some limitations, be generalized to millions of users in other multiparty systems....

  1. On the Quirks of Maximum Parsimony and Likelihood on Phylogenetic Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, Christopher; Fischer, Mareike; Linz, Simone; Semple, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Maximum parsimony is one of the most frequently-discussed tree reconstruction methods in phylogenetic estimation. However, in recent years it has become more and more apparent that phylogenetic trees are often not sufficient to describe evolution accurately. For instance, processes like hybridization or lateral gene transfer that are commonplace in many groups of organisms and result in mosaic patterns of relationships cannot be represented by a single phylogenetic tree. This is why phylogene...

  2. FPGA Hardware Acceleration of a Phylogenetic Tree Reconstruction with Maximum Parsimony Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    BLOCK, Henry; MARUYAMA, Tsutomu

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present an FPGA hardware implementation for a phylogenetic tree reconstruction with a maximum parsimony algorithm. We base our approach on a particular stochastic local search algorithm that uses the Progressive Neighborhood and the Indirect Calculation of Tree Lengths method. This method is widely used for the acceleration of the phylogenetic tree reconstruction algorithm in software. In our implementation, we define a tree structure and accelerate the search by parallel an...

  3. Relaxation Methods for Strictly Convex Regularizations of Piecewise Linear Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiwiel, K. C.

    1998-01-01

    We give an algorithm for minimizing the sum of a strictly convex function and a convex piecewise linear function. It extends several dual coordinate ascent methods for large-scale linearly constrained problems that occur in entropy maximization, quadratic programming, and network flows. In particular, it may solve exact penalty versions of such (possibly inconsistent) problems, and subproblems of bundle methods for nondifferentiable optimization. It is simple, can exploit sparsity, and in certain cases is highly parallelizable. Its global convergence is established in the recent framework of B -functions (generalized Bregman functions)

  4. A class representative model for Pure Parsimony Haplotyping under uncertain data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Catanzaro

    Full Text Available The Pure Parsimony Haplotyping (PPH problem is a NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem that consists of finding the minimum number of haplotypes necessary to explain a given set of genotypes. PPH has attracted more and more attention in recent years due to its importance in analysis of many fine-scale genetic data. Its application fields range from mapping complex disease genes to inferring population histories, passing through designing drugs, functional genomics and pharmacogenetics. In this article we investigate, for the first time, a recent version of PPH called the Pure Parsimony Haplotype problem under Uncertain Data (PPH-UD. This version mainly arises when the input genotypes are not accurate, i.e., when some single nucleotide polymorphisms are missing or affected by errors. We propose an exact approach to solution of PPH-UD based on an extended version of Catanzaro et al.[1] class representative model for PPH, currently the state-of-the-art integer programming model for PPH. The model is efficient, accurate, compact, polynomial-sized, easy to implement, solvable with any solver for mixed integer programming, and usable in all those cases for which the parsimony criterion is well suited for haplotype estimation.

  5. Non-strictly black body spectrum from the tunnelling mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corda, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The tunnelling mechanism is widely used to explain Hawking radiation. However, in many cases the analysis used to obtain the Hawking temperature only involves comparing the emission probability for an outgoing particle with the Boltzmann factor. Banerjee and Majhi improved this approach by explicitly finding a black body spectrum associated with black holes. Their result, obtained using a reformulation of the tunnelling mechanism, is in contrast to that of Parikh and Wilczek, who found an emission probability that is compatible with a non-strictly thermal spectrum. Using the recently identified effective state for a black hole, we solve this contradiction via a slight modification of the analysis by Banerjee and Majhi. The final result is a non-strictly black body spectrum from the tunnelling mechanism. We also show that for an effective temperature, we can express the corresponding effective metric using Hawking’s periodicity arguments. Potential important implications for the black hole information puzzle are discussed. -- Highlights: •We review an important result by Banerjee and Majhi on the tunnelling mechanism in the framework of Hawking radiation. •This result is in contrast to another result reported by Parikh and Wilczek. •We introduce the effective state of a black hole. •We explain the contrast via a slight modification of the analysis by Banerjee and Majhi. •We discuss potential important implications for the black hole information puzzle

  6. Phylogeny of the cycads based on multiple single-copy nuclear genes: congruence of concatenated parsimony, likelihood and species tree inference methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Leiva, Dayana E; Meerow, Alan W; Calonje, Michael; Griffith, M Patrick; Francisco-Ortega, Javier; Nakamura, Kyoko; Stevenson, Dennis W; Lewis, Carl E; Namoff, Sandra

    2013-11-01

    Despite a recent new classification, a stable phylogeny for the cycads has been elusive, particularly regarding resolution of Bowenia, Stangeria and Dioon. In this study, five single-copy nuclear genes (SCNGs) are applied to the phylogeny of the order Cycadales. The specific aim is to evaluate several gene tree-species tree reconciliation approaches for developing an accurate phylogeny of the order, to contrast them with concatenated parsimony analysis and to resolve the erstwhile problematic phylogenetic position of these three genera. DNA sequences of five SCNGs were obtained for 20 cycad species representing all ten genera of Cycadales. These were analysed with parsimony, maximum likelihood (ML) and three Bayesian methods of gene tree-species tree reconciliation, using Cycas as the outgroup. A calibrated date estimation was developed with Bayesian methods, and biogeographic analysis was also conducted. Concatenated parsimony, ML and three species tree inference methods resolve exactly the same tree topology with high support at most nodes. Dioon and Bowenia are the first and second branches of Cycadales after Cycas, respectively, followed by an encephalartoid clade (Macrozamia-Lepidozamia-Encephalartos), which is sister to a zamioid clade, of which Ceratozamia is the first branch, and in which Stangeria is sister to Microcycas and Zamia. A single, well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis of the generic relationships of the Cycadales is presented. However, massive extinction events inferred from the fossil record that eliminated broader ancestral distributions within Zamiaceae compromise accurate optimization of ancestral biogeographical areas for that hypothesis. While major lineages of Cycadales are ancient, crown ages of all modern genera are no older than 12 million years, supporting a recent hypothesis of mostly Miocene radiations. This phylogeny can contribute to an accurate infrafamilial classification of Zamiaceae.

  7. Effects of a strict cutoff on Quantum Field Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturnfield, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Standard Quantum Field Theory has a number of integrals which are infinite. Although these are eliminated for some cases by renormalization, this aspect of the theory is not fully satisfactory. A number of theories with fundamental lengths have been introduced as alternatives and it would be useful to be able to distinguish between them. In particular, the effects that a strict cutoff would have on Quantum Field Theory is studied. It is noted that care must be taken in the method used to apply a strict cutoff. This lead to considering a theory where the cutoffs are defined by restricting each internal line. This theory is only piece-wise analytic. The resulting scattering matrix is frame dependent, yet the theory still satisfies the special relativity view that all frames are subjectively identical. The renormalization of this theory is finite. The change in mass from the electron self-energy will be a spinor operator. The main distinctions of this theory from standard theory will occur at super high energies. New poles and resonances which arise from new endpoint singularities will be found. The locations of these singularities will be frame dependent. Some of these singularities will correspond to creations or interactions of the normal particles with tachyons. It will be shown that for the one loop diagram, the form of the cutoff singularities are closely related to the standard singularities. When there is more than one loop, there can appear some new type of behavior. In particular, a cube root type of behavior in the two loop self-energy diagram will be found. Also the asymptotic behavior of the ladder diagram is studied

  8. A comprehensive and systematic evaluation framework for a parsimonious daily rainfall field model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Bree; Thyer, Mark; Leonard, Michael; Lambert, Martin; Bates, Bryson

    2018-01-01

    The spatial distribution of rainfall has a significant influence on catchment dynamics and the generation of streamflow time series. However, there are few stochastic models that can simulate long sequences of stochastic rainfall fields continuously in time and space. To address this issue, the first goal of this study was to present a new parsimonious stochastic model that produces daily rainfall fields across the catchment. To achieve parsimony, the model used the latent-variable approach (because this parsimoniously simulates rainfall occurrences as well as amounts) and several other assumptions (including contemporaneous and separable spatiotemporal covariance structures). The second goal was to develop a comprehensive and systematic evaluation (CASE) framework to identify model strengths and weaknesses. This included quantitative performance categorisation that provided a systematic, succinct and transparent method to assess and summarise model performance over a range of statistics, sites, scales and seasons. The model is demonstrated using a case study from the Onkaparinga catchment in South Australia. The model showed many strengths in reproducing the observed rainfall characteristics with the majority of statistics classified as either statistically indistinguishable from the observed or within 5% of the observed across the majority of sites and seasons. These included rainfall occurrences/amounts, wet/dry spell distributions, annual volumes/extremes and spatial patterns, which are important from a hydrological perspective. One of the few weaknesses of the model was that the total annual rainfall in dry years (lower 5%) was overestimated by 15% on average over all sites. An advantage of the CASE framework was that it was able to identify the source of this overestimation was poor representation of the annual variability of rainfall occurrences. Given the strengths of this continuous daily rainfall field model it has a range of potential hydrological

  9. Learning Parsimonious Classification Rules from Gene Expression Data Using Bayesian Networks with Local Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustgarten, Jonathan Lyle; Balasubramanian, Jeya Balaji; Visweswaran, Shyam; Gopalakrishnan, Vanathi

    2017-03-01

    The comprehensibility of good predictive models learned from high-dimensional gene expression data is attractive because it can lead to biomarker discovery. Several good classifiers provide comparable predictive performance but differ in their abilities to summarize the observed data. We extend a Bayesian Rule Learning (BRL-GSS) algorithm, previously shown to be a significantly better predictor than other classical approaches in this domain. It searches a space of Bayesian networks using a decision tree representation of its parameters with global constraints, and infers a set of IF-THEN rules. The number of parameters and therefore the number of rules are combinatorial to the number of predictor variables in the model. We relax these global constraints to a more generalizable local structure (BRL-LSS). BRL-LSS entails more parsimonious set of rules because it does not have to generate all combinatorial rules. The search space of local structures is much richer than the space of global structures. We design the BRL-LSS with the same worst-case time-complexity as BRL-GSS while exploring a richer and more complex model space. We measure predictive performance using Area Under the ROC curve (AUC) and Accuracy. We measure model parsimony performance by noting the average number of rules and variables needed to describe the observed data. We evaluate the predictive and parsimony performance of BRL-GSS, BRL-LSS and the state-of-the-art C4.5 decision tree algorithm, across 10-fold cross-validation using ten microarray gene-expression diagnostic datasets. In these experiments, we observe that BRL-LSS is similar to BRL-GSS in terms of predictive performance, while generating a much more parsimonious set of rules to explain the same observed data. BRL-LSS also needs fewer variables than C4.5 to explain the data with similar predictive performance. We also conduct a feasibility study to demonstrate the general applicability of our BRL methods on the newer RNA sequencing gene

  10. 7 CFR 28.414 - Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.414 Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or...

  11. Managing Hanford Site solid waste through strict acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.; Pierce, R.D.; Willis, N.P.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) have led to the definition of a group of wastes called radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). As a result of the radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes, strict management programs have been implemented for the management of these wastes. Solid waste management is accomplished through a systems performance approach to waste management that used best-demonstrated available technology (BDAT) and best management practices. The solid waste program at the Hanford Site strives to integrate all aspects of management relative to the treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) of solid waste. Often there are many competing and important needs. It is a difficult task to balance these needs in a manner that is both equitable and productive. Management science is used to help the process of making decisions. Tools used to support the decision making process include five-year planning, cost estimating, resource allocation, performance assessment, waste volume forecasts, input/output models, and waste acceptance criteria. The purpose of this document is to describe how one of these tools, waste acceptance criteria, has helped the Hanford Site manage solid wastes

  12. Effects of strict prolonged bed rest on cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Aarts, Hugo M; Joyner, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    with larger declines in V̇o2max). Furthermore, the systematic review revealed a gap in the knowledge about the cardiovascular response to extreme physical inactivity, particularly in older subjects and women of any age group. In addition to its relevance to spaceflight, this lack of data has significant....... Since 1949, 80 studies with a total of 949 participants (>90% men) have been published with data on strict bed rest and V̇o2max The studies were conducted mainly in young participants [median age (interquartile range) 24.5 (22.4-34.0) yr]. The duration of bed rest ranged from 1 to 90 days. V̇o2max...... declined linearly across bed rest duration. No statistical difference in the decline among studies reporting V̇o2max as l/min (-0.3% per day) compared with studies reporting V̇o2max normalized to body weight (ml·kg-1·min-1; -0.43% per day) was observed. Although both total body weight and lean body mass...

  13. Fixed point iterations for strictly hemi-contractive maps in uniformly smooth Banach spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Osilike, M.O.

    1993-05-01

    It is proved that the Mann iteration process converges strongly to the fixed point of a strictly hemi-contractive map in real uniformly smooth Banach spaces. The class of strictly hemi-contractive maps includes all strictly pseudo-contractive maps with nonempty fixed point sets. A related result deals with the Ishikawa iteration scheme when the mapping is Lipschitzian and strictly hemi-contractive. Our theorems generalize important known results. (author). 29 refs

  14. Beyond technology acceptance to effective technology use: a parsimonious and actionable model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Patricia J; Lesselroth, Blake J; Adams, Kathleen; Wang, Kai; Church, Victoria

    2015-05-01

    To develop and test a parsimonious and actionable model of effective technology use (ETU). Cross-sectional survey of primary care providers (n = 53) in a large integrated health care organization that recently implemented new medication reconciliation technology. Surveys assessed 5 technology-related perceptions (compatibility with work values, implementation climate, compatibility with work processes, perceived usefulness, and ease of use) and 1 outcome variable, ETU. ETU was measured as both consistency and quality of technology use. Compatibility with work values and implementation climate were found to have differential effects on consistency and quality of use. When implementation climate was strong, consistency of technology use was high. However, quality of technology use was high only when implementation climate was strong and values compatibility was high. This is an important finding and highlights the importance of users' workplace values as a key determinant of quality of use. To extend our effectiveness in implementing new health care information technology, we need parsimonious models that include actionable determinants of ETU and account for the differential effects of these determinants on the multiple dimensions of ETU. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Parsimonious wave-equation travel-time inversion for refraction waves

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Lei

    2017-02-14

    We present a parsimonious wave-equation travel-time inversion technique for refraction waves. A dense virtual refraction dataset can be generated from just two reciprocal shot gathers for the sources at the endpoints of the survey line, with N geophones evenly deployed along the line. These two reciprocal shots contain approximately 2N refraction travel times, which can be spawned into O(N2) refraction travel times by an interferometric transformation. Then, these virtual refraction travel times are used with a source wavelet to create N virtual refraction shot gathers, which are the input data for wave-equation travel-time inversion. Numerical results show that the parsimonious wave-equation travel-time tomogram has about the same accuracy as the tomogram computed by standard wave-equation travel-time inversion. The most significant benefit is that a reciprocal survey is far less time consuming than the standard refraction survey where a source is excited at each geophone location.

  16. Strict or graduated punishment? Effect of punishment strictness on the evolution of cooperation in continuous public goods games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Shimao

    Full Text Available Whether costly punishment encourages cooperation is one of the principal questions in studies on the evolution of cooperation and social sciences. In society, punishment helps deter people from flouting rules in institutions. Specifically, graduated punishment is a design principle for long-enduring common-pool resource institutions. In this study, we investigate whether graduated punishment can promote a higher cooperation level when each individual plays the public goods game and has the opportunity to punish others whose cooperation levels fall below the punisher's threshold. We then examine how spatial structure affects evolutionary dynamics when each individual dies inversely proportional to the game score resulting from the social interaction and another player is randomly chosen from the population to produce offspring to fill the empty site created after a player's death. Our evolutionary simulation outcomes demonstrate that stricter punishment promotes increased cooperation more than graduated punishment in a spatially structured population, whereas graduated punishment increases cooperation more than strict punishment when players interact with randomly chosen opponents from the population. The mathematical analysis also supports the results.

  17. Strict or Graduated Punishment? Effect of Punishment Strictness on the Evolution of Cooperation in Continuous Public Goods Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimao, Hajime; Nakamaru, Mayuko

    2013-01-01

    Whether costly punishment encourages cooperation is one of the principal questions in studies on the evolution of cooperation and social sciences. In society, punishment helps deter people from flouting rules in institutions. Specifically, graduated punishment is a design principle for long-enduring common-pool resource institutions. In this study, we investigate whether graduated punishment can promote a higher cooperation level when each individual plays the public goods game and has the opportunity to punish others whose cooperation levels fall below the punisher’s threshold. We then examine how spatial structure affects evolutionary dynamics when each individual dies inversely proportional to the game score resulting from the social interaction and another player is randomly chosen from the population to produce offspring to fill the empty site created after a player’s death. Our evolutionary simulation outcomes demonstrate that stricter punishment promotes increased cooperation more than graduated punishment in a spatially structured population, whereas graduated punishment increases cooperation more than strict punishment when players interact with randomly chosen opponents from the population. The mathematical analysis also supports the results. PMID:23555826

  18. On The Integral Representation of Strictly Continuous Set-Valued Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaté K. Lakmon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Let T be a completely regular topological space and C(T be the space of bounded, continuous real-valued functions on T. C(T is endowed with the strict topology (the topology generated by seminorms determined by continuous functions vanishing at in_nity. R. Giles ([13], p. 472, Theorem 4.6 proved in 1971 that the dual of C(T can be identi_ed with the space of regular Borel measures on T. We prove this result for positive, additive set-valued maps with values in the space of convex weakly compact non-empty subsets of a Banach space and we deduce from this result the theorem of R. Giles ([13], theorem 4.6, p.473.

  19. Time-Lapse Monitoring of Subsurface Fluid Flow using Parsimonious Seismic Interferometry

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif

    2017-04-21

    A typical small-scale seismic survey (such as 240 shot gathers) takes at least 16 working hours to be completed, which is a major obstacle in case of time-lapse monitoring experiments. This is especially true if the subject that needs to be monitored is rapidly changing. In this work, we will discuss how to decrease the recording time from 16 working hours to less than one hour of recording. Here, the virtual data has the same accuracy as the conventional data. We validate the efficacy of parsimonious seismic interferometry with the time-lapse mentoring idea with field examples, where we were able to record 30 different data sets within a 2-hour period. The recorded data are then processed to generate 30 snapshots that shows the spread of water from the ground surface down to a few meters.

  20. Singular Spectrum Analysis for Astronomical Time Series: Constructing a Parsimonious Hypothesis Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, G.; Kondrashov, D.; Kobayashi, S.; Ghil, M.; Branchesi, M.; Guidorzi, C.; Stratta, G.; Ciszak, M.; Marino, F.; Ortolan, A.

    We present a data-adaptive spectral method - Monte Carlo Singular Spectrum Analysis (MC-SSA) - and its modification to tackle astrophysical problems. Through numerical simulations we show the ability of the MC-SSA in dealing with 1/f β power-law noise affected by photon counting statistics. Such noise process is simulated by a first-order autoregressive, AR(1) process corrupted by intrinsic Poisson noise. In doing so, we statistically estimate a basic stochastic variation of the source and the corresponding fluctuations due to the quantum nature of light. In addition, MC-SSA test retains its effectiveness even when a significant percentage of the signal falls below a certain level of detection, e.g., caused by the instrument sensitivity. The parsimonious approach presented here may be broadly applied, from the search for extrasolar planets to the extraction of low-intensity coherent phenomena probably hidden in high energy transients.

  1. Wagner and Dollo: a stochastic duet by composing two parsimonious solos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseyenko, Alexander V; Lee, Christopher J; Suchard, Marc A

    2008-10-01

    New contributions toward generalizing evolutionary models expand greatly our ability to analyze complex evolutionary characters and advance phylogeny reconstruction. In this article, we extend the binary stochastic Dollo model to allow for multi-state characters. In doing so, we align previously incompatible Wagner and Dollo parsimony principles under a common probabilistic framework by embedding arbitrary continuous-time Markov chains into the binary stochastic Dollo model. This approach enables us to analyze character traits that exhibit both Dollo and Wagner characteristics throughout their evolutionary histories. Utilizing Bayesian inference, we apply our novel model to analyze intron conservation patterns and the evolution of alternatively spliced exons. The generalized framework we develop demonstrates potential in distinguishing between phylogenetic hypotheses and providing robust estimates of evolutionary rates. Moreover, for the two applications analyzed here, our framework is the first to provide an adequate stochastic process for the data. We discuss possible extensions to the framework from both theoretical and applied perspectives.

  2. On the Accuracy of Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction for Ultrametric Trees with Parsimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Lina; Fischer, Mareike

    2018-04-01

    We examine a mathematical question concerning the reconstruction accuracy of the Fitch algorithm for reconstructing the ancestral sequence of the most recent common ancestor given a phylogenetic tree and sequence data for all taxa under consideration. In particular, for the symmetric four-state substitution model which is also known as Jukes-Cantor model, we answer affirmatively a conjecture of Li, Steel and Zhang which states that for any ultrametric phylogenetic tree and a symmetric model, the Fitch parsimony method using all terminal taxa is more accurate, or at least as accurate, for ancestral state reconstruction than using any particular terminal taxon or any particular pair of taxa. This conjecture had so far only been answered for two-state data by Fischer and Thatte. Here, we focus on answering the biologically more relevant case with four states, which corresponds to ancestral sequence reconstruction from DNA or RNA data.

  3. Rec-DCM-Eigen: reconstructing a less parsimonious but more accurate tree in shorter time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seunghwa; Tang, Jijun; Schaeffer, Stephen W; Bader, David A

    2011-01-01

    Maximum parsimony (MP) methods aim to reconstruct the phylogeny of extant species by finding the most parsimonious evolutionary scenario using the species' genome data. MP methods are considered to be accurate, but they are also computationally expensive especially for a large number of species. Several disk-covering methods (DCMs), which decompose the input species to multiple overlapping subgroups (or disks), have been proposed to solve the problem in a divide-and-conquer way. We design a new DCM based on the spectral method and also develop the COGNAC (Comparing Orders of Genes using Novel Algorithms and high-performance Computers) software package. COGNAC uses the new DCM to reduce the phylogenetic tree search space and selects an output tree from the reduced search space based on the MP principle. We test the new DCM using gene order data and inversion distance. The new DCM not only reduces the number of candidate tree topologies but also excludes erroneous tree topologies which can be selected by original MP methods. Initial labeling of internal genomes affects the accuracy of MP methods using gene order data, and the new DCM enables more accurate initial labeling as well. COGNAC demonstrates superior accuracy as a consequence. We compare COGNAC with FastME and the combination of the state of the art DCM (Rec-I-DCM3) and GRAPPA. COGNAC clearly outperforms FastME in accuracy. COGNAC--using the new DCM--also reconstructs a much more accurate tree in significantly shorter time than GRAPPA with Rec-I-DCM3.

  4. Rec-DCM-Eigen: reconstructing a less parsimonious but more accurate tree in shorter time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghwa Kang

    Full Text Available Maximum parsimony (MP methods aim to reconstruct the phylogeny of extant species by finding the most parsimonious evolutionary scenario using the species' genome data. MP methods are considered to be accurate, but they are also computationally expensive especially for a large number of species. Several disk-covering methods (DCMs, which decompose the input species to multiple overlapping subgroups (or disks, have been proposed to solve the problem in a divide-and-conquer way. We design a new DCM based on the spectral method and also develop the COGNAC (Comparing Orders of Genes using Novel Algorithms and high-performance Computers software package. COGNAC uses the new DCM to reduce the phylogenetic tree search space and selects an output tree from the reduced search space based on the MP principle. We test the new DCM using gene order data and inversion distance. The new DCM not only reduces the number of candidate tree topologies but also excludes erroneous tree topologies which can be selected by original MP methods. Initial labeling of internal genomes affects the accuracy of MP methods using gene order data, and the new DCM enables more accurate initial labeling as well. COGNAC demonstrates superior accuracy as a consequence. We compare COGNAC with FastME and the combination of the state of the art DCM (Rec-I-DCM3 and GRAPPA. COGNAC clearly outperforms FastME in accuracy. COGNAC--using the new DCM--also reconstructs a much more accurate tree in significantly shorter time than GRAPPA with Rec-I-DCM3.

  5. The Success Rate of Initial {sup 131I} Ablation in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: Comparison Between Less strict and Very Strict Low Iodine Diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Ik Dong; Kim, Sung Hoon; Seo, Ye Young; Oh, Jin Kyoung; O, Joo Hyun; Chung, Soo Kyo [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    To decrease the risk of recurrence or metastasis in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), selected patients receive radioactive iodine ablation of remnant thyroid tissue or tumor. A low iodine diet can enhance uptake of radioactive iodine. We compared the success rates of radioactive iodine ablation therapy in patients who followed two different low iodine diets (LIDs). The success rates of postsurgical radioactive iodine ablation in DTC patients receiving empiric doses of 150 mCi were retrospectively reviewed. First-time radioactive iodine ablation therapy was done in 71 patients following less strict LID. Less strict LID restricted seafood, iodized salt, egg yolk, dairy products, processed meat, instant prepared meals, and multivitamins. Very strict LID additionally restricted rice, freshwater fish, spinach, and soybean products. Radioactive iodine ablation therapy was considered successful when follow up {sup 123I} whole body scan was negative and stimulated serum thyroglobulin level was less than 2.0 ng/mL. The success rate of patients following less strict LID was 80.3% and for very strict LID 75.6%. There was no statistically significant difference in the success rates between the two LID groups (P=0.48). Very strict LID may not contribute to improving the success rate of initial radioactive iodine ablation therapy at the cost of great inconvenience to the patient.

  6. Weight of fitness deviation governs strict physical chaos in replicator dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Varun; Mukhopadhyay, Archan; Chakraborty, Sagar

    2018-03-01

    Replicator equation—a paradigm equation in evolutionary game dynamics—mathematizes the frequency dependent selection of competing strategies vying to enhance their fitness (quantified by the average payoffs) with respect to the average fitnesses of the evolving population under consideration. In this paper, we deal with two discrete versions of the replicator equation employed to study evolution in a population where any two players' interaction is modelled by a two-strategy symmetric normal-form game. There are twelve distinct classes of such games, each typified by a particular ordinal relationship among the elements of the corresponding payoff matrix. Here, we find the sufficient conditions for the existence of asymptotic solutions of the replicator equations such that the solutions—fixed points, periodic orbits, and chaotic trajectories—are all strictly physical, meaning that the frequency of any strategy lies inside the closed interval zero to one at all times. Thus, we elaborate on which of the twelve types of games are capable of showing meaningful physical solutions and for which of the two types of replicator equation. Subsequently, we introduce the concept of the weight of fitness deviation that is the scaling factor in a positive affine transformation connecting two payoff matrices such that the corresponding one-shot games have exactly same Nash equilibria and evolutionary stable states. The weight also quantifies how much the excess of fitness of a strategy over the average fitness of the population affects the per capita change in the frequency of the strategy. Intriguingly, the weight's variation is capable of making the Nash equilibria and the evolutionary stable states, useless by introducing strict physical chaos in the replicator dynamics based on the normal-form game.

  7. Validation of an automatic diagnosis of strict left bundle branch block criteria using 12-lead electrocardiograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Xiaojuan; Ruwald, Anne-Christine; Ruwald, Martin H

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Strict left bundle branch block (LBBB) criteria were recently proposed to identify LBBB patients to benefit most from cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The aim of our study was to automate identification of strict LBBB in order to facilitate its broader application. METHODS: We devel...

  8. 7 CFR 28.416 - Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.416 Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or... Cotton Source: 57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992, unless otherwise noted. ...

  9. Stochastic rainfall modeling in West Africa: Parsimonious approaches for domestic rainwater harvesting assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowden, Joshua R.; Watkins, David W., Jr.; Mihelcic, James R.

    2008-10-01

    SummarySeveral parsimonious stochastic rainfall models are developed and compared for application to domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH) assessment in West Africa. Worldwide, improved water access rates are lowest for Sub-Saharan Africa, including the West African region, and these low rates have important implications on the health and economy of the region. Domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH) is proposed as a potential mechanism for water supply enhancement, especially for the poor urban households in the region, which is essential for development planning and poverty alleviation initiatives. The stochastic rainfall models examined are Markov models and LARS-WG, selected due to availability and ease of use for water planners in the developing world. A first-order Markov occurrence model with a mixed exponential amount model is selected as the best option for unconditioned Markov models. However, there is no clear advantage in selecting Markov models over the LARS-WG model for DRWH in West Africa, with each model having distinct strengths and weaknesses. A multi-model approach is used in assessing DRWH in the region to illustrate the variability associated with the rainfall models. It is clear DRWH can be successfully used as a water enhancement mechanism in West Africa for certain times of the year. A 200 L drum storage capacity could potentially optimize these simple, small roof area systems for many locations in the region.

  10. Parsimonious data: How a single Facebook like predicts voting behavior in multiparty systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Bæk Kristensen

    Full Text Available This study shows how liking politicians' public Facebook posts can be used as an accurate measure for predicting present-day voter intention in a multiparty system. We highlight that a few, but selective digital traces produce prediction accuracies that are on par or even greater than most current approaches based upon bigger and broader datasets. Combining the online and offline, we connect a subsample of surveyed respondents to their public Facebook activity and apply machine learning classifiers to explore the link between their political liking behaviour and actual voting intention. Through this work, we show that even a single selective Facebook like can reveal as much about political voter intention as hundreds of heterogeneous likes. Further, by including the entire political like history of the respondents, our model reaches prediction accuracies above previous multiparty studies (60-70%. The main contribution of this paper is to show how public like-activity on Facebook allows political profiling of individual users in a multiparty system with accuracies above previous studies. Beside increased accuracies, the paper shows how such parsimonious measures allows us to generalize our findings to the entire population of a country and even across national borders, to other political multiparty systems. The approach in this study relies on data that are publicly available, and the simple setup we propose can with some limitations, be generalized to millions of users in other multiparty systems.

  11. An objective and parsimonious approach for classifying natural flow regimes at a continental scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archfield, Stacey A.; Kennen, Jonathan G.; Carlisle, Daren M.; Wolock, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Hydro-ecological stream classification-the process of grouping streams by similar hydrologic responses and, by extension, similar aquatic habitat-has been widely accepted and is considered by some to be one of the first steps towards developing ecological flow targets. A new classification of 1543 streamgauges in the contiguous USA is presented by use of a novel and parsimonious approach to understand similarity in ecological streamflow response. This novel classification approach uses seven fundamental daily streamflow statistics (FDSS) rather than winnowing down an uncorrelated subset from 200 or more ecologically relevant streamflow statistics (ERSS) commonly used in hydro-ecological classification studies. The results of this investigation demonstrate that the distributions of 33 tested ERSS are consistently different among the classification groups derived from the seven FDSS. It is further shown that classification based solely on the 33 ERSS generally does a poorer job in grouping similar streamgauges than the classification based on the seven FDSS. This new classification approach has the additional advantages of overcoming some of the subjectivity associated with the selection of the classification variables and provides a set of robust continental-scale classes of US streamgauges. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Anelastic sensitivity kernels with parsimonious storage for adjoint tomography and full waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Komatitsch, Dimitri

    2016-06-13

    We introduce a technique to compute exact anelastic sensitivity kernels in the time domain using parsimonious disk storage. The method is based on a reordering of the time loop of time-domain forward/adjoint wave propagation solvers combined with the use of a memory buffer. It avoids instabilities that occur when time-reversing dissipative wave propagation simulations. The total number of required time steps is unchanged compared to usual acoustic or elastic approaches. The cost is reduced by a factor of 4/3 compared to the case in which anelasticity is partially accounted for by accommodating the effects of physical dispersion. We validate our technique by performing a test in which we compare the Kα sensitivity kernel to the exact kernel obtained by saving the entire forward calculation. This benchmark confirms that our approach is also exact. We illustrate the importance of including full attenuation in the calculation of sensitivity kernels by showing significant differences with physical-dispersion-only kernels.

  13. Autochthonous self-assembly of nature's nanomaterials: green, parsimonious and antibacterial carbon nanofilms on glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Judy; Muthu, Manikandan; Chun, Sechul

    2016-07-28

    The development of thin film coatings has been a very important development in materials science for the modification of native material surface properties. Thin film coatings are enabled through the use of sophisticated instruments and technologies that demand expertise and huge initial and running costs. Nano-thin films are yet a furtherance of thin films which require more expertise and much more sophistication. In this work for the first time we present a one-pot straightforward carbon thin film coating methodology for glass substrates. There is novelty in every single aspect of the method, with the carbon used in the nanofilm being obtained from turmeric soot, the coating technique consisting of a basic immersion technique, a dip-dry method, in combination with the phytosoot-derived carbon's inherent ability to self-assemble to form a uniform and continuous stable coating. The carbon nanofilm has been characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis, a goniometer and X-ray diffraction (XRD). This study for the first time opens a new school of thought of using such naturally available free nanomaterials as eco-friendly green coatings. The amorphous porous carbon film can be coated on any hydrophilic substrate and is not substrate specific. Its added advantages of being transparent and antibacterial in spite of being green and parsimonious are meant to realize its utility as ideal choices for solar panels, medical implants and other construction applications.

  14. An integer programming formulation of the parsimonious loss of heterozygosity problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzaro, Daniele; Labbé, Martine; Halldórsson, Bjarni V

    2013-01-01

    A loss of heterozygosity (LOH) event occurs when, by the laws of Mendelian inheritance, an individual should be heterozygote at a given site but, due to a deletion polymorphism, is not. Deletions play an important role in human disease and their detection could provide fundamental insights for the development of new diagnostics and treatments. In this paper, we investigate the parsimonious loss of heterozygosity problem (PLOHP), i.e., the problem of partitioning suspected polymorphisms from a set of individuals into a minimum number of deletion areas. Specifically, we generalize Halldórsson et al.'s work by providing a more general formulation of the PLOHP and by showing how one can incorporate different recombination rates and prior knowledge about the locations of deletions. Moreover, we show that the PLOHP can be formulated as a specific version of the clique partition problem in a particular class of graphs called undirected catch-point interval graphs and we prove its general $({\\cal NP})$-hardness. Finally, we provide a state-of-the-art integer programming (IP) formulation and strengthening valid inequalities to exactly solve real instances of the PLOHP containing up to 9,000 individuals and 3,000 SNPs. Our results give perspectives on the mathematics of the PLOHP and suggest new directions on the development of future efficient exact solution approaches.

  15. Impact of gene family evolutionary histories on phylogenetic species tree inference by gene tree parsimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tao

    2016-03-01

    Complicated history of gene duplication and loss brings challenge to molecular phylogenetic inference, especially in deep phylogenies. However, phylogenomic approaches, such as gene tree parsimony (GTP), show advantage over some other approaches in its ability to use gene families with duplications. GTP searches the 'optimal' species tree by minimizing the total cost of biological events such as duplications, but accuracy of GTP and phylogenetic signal in the context of different gene families with distinct histories of duplication and loss are unclear. To evaluate how different evolutionary properties of different gene families can impact on species tree inference, 3900 gene families from seven angiosperms encompassing a wide range of gene content, lineage-specific expansions and contractions were analyzed. It was found that the gene content and total duplication number in a gene family strongly influence species tree inference accuracy, with the highest accuracy achieved at either very low or very high gene content (or duplication number) and lowest accuracy centered in intermediate gene content (or duplication number), as the relationship can fit a binomial regression. Besides, for gene families of similar level of average gene content, those with relatively higher lineage-specific expansion or duplication rates tend to show lower accuracy. Additional correlation tests support that high accuracy for those gene families with large gene content may rely on abundant ancestral copies to provide many subtrees to resolve conflicts, whereas high accuracy for single or low copy gene families are just subject to sequence substitution per se. Very low accuracy reached by gene families of intermediate gene content or duplication number can be due to insufficient subtrees to resolve the conflicts from loss of alternative copies. As these evolutionary properties can significantly influence species tree accuracy, I discussed the potential weighting of the duplication cost by

  16. Modeling the isotopic evolution of snowpack and snowmelt: Testing a spatially distributed parsimonious approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-Aho, Pertti; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; McNamara, James P; Laudon, Hjalmar; Kormos, Patrick; Soulsby, Chris

    2017-07-01

    Use of stable water isotopes has become increasingly popular in quantifying water flow paths and travel times in hydrological systems using tracer-aided modeling. In snow-influenced catchments, snowmelt produces a traceable isotopic signal, which differs from original snowfall isotopic composition because of isotopic fractionation in the snowpack. These fractionation processes in snow are relatively well understood, but representing their spatiotemporal variability in tracer-aided studies remains a challenge. We present a novel, parsimonious modeling method to account for the snowpack isotope fractionation and estimate isotope ratios in snowmelt water in a fully spatially distributed manner. Our model introduces two calibration parameters that alone account for the isotopic fractionation caused by sublimation from interception and ground snow storage, and snowmelt fractionation progressively enriching the snowmelt runoff. The isotope routines are linked to a generic process-based snow interception-accumulation-melt model facilitating simulation of spatially distributed snowmelt runoff. We use a synthetic modeling experiment to demonstrate the functionality of the model algorithms in different landscape locations and under different canopy characteristics. We also provide a proof-of-concept model test and successfully reproduce isotopic ratios in snowmelt runoff sampled with snowmelt lysimeters in two long-term experimental catchment with contrasting winter conditions. To our knowledge, the method is the first such tool to allow estimation of the spatially distributed nature of isotopic fractionation in snowpacks and the resulting isotope ratios in snowmelt runoff. The method can thus provide a useful tool for tracer-aided modeling to better understand the integrated nature of flow, mixing, and transport processes in snow-influenced catchments.

  17. Inferring phylogenetic networks by the maximum parsimony criterion: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guohua; Nakhleh, Luay; Snir, Sagi; Tuller, Tamir

    2007-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) may result in genes whose evolutionary histories disagree with each other, as well as with the species tree. In this case, reconciling the species and gene trees results in a network of relationships, known as the "phylogenetic network" of the set of species. A phylogenetic network that incorporates HGT consists of an underlying species tree that captures vertical inheritance and a set of edges which model the "horizontal" transfer of genetic material. In a series of papers, Nakhleh and colleagues have recently formulated a maximum parsimony (MP) criterion for phylogenetic networks, provided an array of computationally efficient algorithms and heuristics for computing it, and demonstrated its plausibility on simulated data. In this article, we study the performance and robustness of this criterion on biological data. Our findings indicate that MP is very promising when its application is extended to the domain of phylogenetic network reconstruction and HGT detection. In all cases we investigated, the MP criterion detected the correct number of HGT events required to map the evolutionary history of a gene data set onto the species phylogeny. Furthermore, our results indicate that the criterion is robust with respect to both incomplete taxon sampling and the use of different site substitution matrices. Finally, our results show that the MP criterion is very promising in detecting HGT in chimeric genes, whose evolutionary histories are a mix of vertical and horizontal evolution. Besides the performance analysis of MP, our findings offer new insights into the evolution of 4 biological data sets and new possible explanations of HGT scenarios in their evolutionary history.

  18. Synchronization control of cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic system based on cross active backstepping design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jing; Gao Jinfeng; Ma Xikui

    2007-01-01

    This Letter presents a novel cross active backstepping design method for synchronization control of cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic system, in which the ordinary backstepping design is unavailable. The proposed control method, combining backstepping design and active control approach, extends the application of backstepping technique in chaos control. Based on this method, different combinations of controllers can be designed to meet the needs of different applications. The proposed method is applied to achieve chaos synchronization of two identical cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic systems. Also it is used to implement synchronization between cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic system and Roessler hyperchaotic system. Numerical examples illustrate the validity of the control method

  19. Model-Based Adaptive Event-Triggered Control of Strict-Feedback Nonlinear Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-Xin; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2018-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the adaptive event-triggered control problem of nonlinear continuous-time systems in strict-feedback form. By using the event-sampled neural network (NN) to approximate the unknown nonlinear function, an adaptive model and an associated event-triggered controller are designed by exploiting the backstepping method. In the proposed method, the feedback signals and the NN weights are aperiodically updated only when the event-triggered condition is violated. A positive lower bound on the minimum intersample time is guaranteed to avoid accumulation point. The closed-loop stability of the resulting nonlinear impulsive dynamical system is rigorously proved via Lyapunov analysis under an adaptive event sampling condition. In comparing with the traditional adaptive backstepping design with a fixed sample period, the event-triggered method samples the state and updates the NN weights only when it is necessary. Therefore, the number of transmissions can be significantly reduced. Finally, two simulation examples are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  20. The Effect of Strict Segregation on Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mansfeld, Rosa; de Vrankrijker, Angelica; Brimicombe, Roland; Heijerman, Harry; Teding van Berkhout, Ferdinand; Spitoni, Cristian|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304625957; Grave, Sanne; van der Ent, Cornelis; Wolfs, Tom; Willems, Rob; Bonten, Marc

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Segregation of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) was implemented to prevent chronic infection with epidemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with presumed detrimental clinical effects, but its effectiveness has not been carefully evaluated. METHODS: The effect of strict segregation on

  1. Strict deformation quantization for actions of a class of symplectic lie groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieliavsky, Pierre; Massar, Marc

    2002-01-01

    We present explicit universal strict deformation quantization formulae for actions of Iwasawa subgroups AN of SN(1, n). This answers a question raised by Rieffel in [Contemp. Math. 228 (1998), 315]. (author)

  2. Strict optical orthogonal codes for purely asynchronous code-division multiple-access applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Guo

    1996-12-01

    Strict optical orthogonal codes are presented for purely asynchronous optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) applications. The proposed code can strictly guarantee the peaks of its cross-correlation functions and the sidelobes of any of its autocorrelation functions to have a value of 1 in purely asynchronous data communications. The basic theory of the proposed codes is given. An experiment on optical CDMA systems is also demonstrated to verify the characteristics of the proposed code.

  3. Plant use in the medicinal practices known as "strict diets" in Chazuta valley (Peruvian Amazon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Biset, Jaume; Cañigueral, Salvador

    2011-09-01

    Strict diets are traditional medicinal practices where plant remedies are consumed with nearly fasting and with some sort of social seclusion. The aim of this work was to describe these practices of Chazuta and the use of plants within, as well as to analyse the possible functions of the last. The information was obtained through interviews to the 6.3% of the district rural adult population (140 individuals, 75% of which was considered Quechua). In total, 122 strict diets were recorded and 106 different plant species were reported to be used. Strict diets present a characteristic structure and plant use. The main effects reported in strict diets were antinflammatory, antiinfective, brain function alteration and depuration. Strict diets are well structured traditional medicinal practices, also with a symbolic significance in the life cycle of chazutian men. Plants used in strict diets can contribute to the main effects through antinflammation, antiinfective actions, psychoactivity and depurative related activities. The correlation between literature evidence of activity of most used plants and effects reported for the correspondent diet (i.e. in which the plant was used) are 36% for antinflammatory activity, 29% for antimicrobial activity, 18% for psychoactivity and 5% for depurative related activities. The percentages go to 77%, 64%, 73% and 32%, respectively, when literature evidences on related taxa are also considered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Urban micro-scale flood risk estimation with parsimonious hydraulic modelling and census data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Arrighi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of 2007/60/EC Directive requires European countries to implement flood hazard and flood risk maps by the end of 2013. Flood risk is the product of flood hazard, vulnerability and exposure, all three to be estimated with comparable level of accuracy. The route to flood risk assessment is consequently much more than hydraulic modelling of inundation, that is hazard mapping. While hazard maps have already been implemented in many countries, quantitative damage and risk maps are still at a preliminary level. A parsimonious quasi-2-D hydraulic model is here adopted, having many advantages in terms of easy set-up. It is here evaluated as being accurate in flood depth estimation in urban areas with a high-resolution and up-to-date Digital Surface Model (DSM. The accuracy, estimated by comparison with marble-plate records of a historic flood in the city of Florence, is characterized in the downtown's most flooded area by a bias of a very few centimetres and a determination coefficient of 0.73. The average risk is found to be about 14 € m−2 yr−1, corresponding to about 8.3% of residents' income. The spatial distribution of estimated risk highlights a complex interaction between the flood pattern and the building characteristics. As a final example application, the estimated risk values have been used to compare different retrofitting measures. Proceeding through the risk estimation steps, a new micro-scale potential damage assessment method is proposed. This is based on the georeferenced census system as the optimal compromise between spatial detail and open availability of socio-economic data. The results of flood risk assessment at the census section scale resolve most of the risk spatial variability, and they can be easily aggregated to whatever upper scale is needed given that they are geographically defined as contiguous polygons. Damage is calculated through stage–damage curves, starting from census data on building type and

  5. Branch-and-bound approach for parsimonious inference of a species tree from a set of gene family trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, Jean-Philippe; Chauve, Cedric

    2011-01-01

    We describe a Branch-and-Bound algorithm for computing a parsimonious species tree, given a set of gene family trees. Our algorithm can consider three cost measures: number of gene duplications, number of gene losses, and both combined. Moreover, to cope with intrinsic limitations of Branch-and-Bound algorithms for species trees inference regarding the number of taxa that can be considered, our algorithm can naturally take into account predefined relationships between sets of taxa. We test our algorithm on a dataset of eukaryotic gene families spanning 29 taxa.

  6. A new parsimonious model for ordinal longitudinal data with application to subjective evaluations of a gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursino, Moreno; Gasparini, Mauro

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a new discrete statistical model for ordered categorical data is proposed via fixed-point discretization of a beta latent variable. The resulting discretized beta distribution has a highly flexible shape and it can be either over-dispersed or under-dispersed with respect to the binomial distribution. It has only two parameters, which may therefore parsimoniously depend on covariates and on random effects, providing new tools for the analysis of structured, clustered or longitudinal ordinal data. Practical examples and advices are given and an application of the new model to subjective evaluations of a gastrointestinal disease is shown.

  7. Actions of a separately strict cpo-monoid on pointed directed complete posets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halimeh Moghbeli Damaneh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ‎ In the present article‎, ‎we study some categorical properties of the category {$bf‎ Cpo_{Sep}$-$S$} of all {separately strict $S$-cpo's}; cpo's equipped with‎ a compatible right action of a separately strict cpo-monoid $S$ which is‎ strict continuous in each component‎. ‎In particular‎, we show that this category is reflective and coreflective in the‎ category of $S$-cpo's‎, ‎find the free and cofree functors‎, characterize products and coproducts‎. ‎Furthermore‎, ‎epimorphisms and‎  monomorphisms in {$bf Cpo_{Sep}$-$S$} are studied‎, ‎and show that‎ {$bf Cpo_{Sep}$-$S$} is not cartesian closed‎.

  8. The photon is no strict particle and nonlocality is far from being proven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greulich, Karl Otto [Fritz Lipmann Institut, Jena (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Two aspects of philosophical discussions on physics are the wave particle dualism and non locality including entanglement. However the strict particle aspect of the photon, in the common sense view, has never been proven. The accumulation time argument, the only experimental verification of a strictly particle like photon, has so far not yet been satisfied. Also, experiments thought to prove nonlocality have loophole which have so far not yet been safely closed, and now an even more serious loophole emerges. Thus, also nonlocality cannot be seen as proven. This demands some fine tuning of philosophical discussions on critical experiments in physics.

  9. Balancing practicality and hydrologic realism: a parsimonious approach for simulating rapid groundwater recharge via unsaturated-zone preferential flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirus, Benjamin B.; Nimmo, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of preferential flow on recharge and contaminant transport poses a considerable challenge to water-resources management. Typical hydrologic models require extensive site characterization, but can underestimate fluxes when preferential flow is significant. A recently developed source-responsive model incorporates film-flow theory with conservation of mass to estimate unsaturated-zone preferential fluxes with readily available data. The term source-responsive describes the sensitivity of preferential flow in response to water availability at the source of input. We present the first rigorous tests of a parsimonious formulation for simulating water table fluctuations using two case studies, both in arid regions with thick unsaturated zones of fractured volcanic rock. Diffuse flow theory cannot adequately capture the observed water table responses at both sites; the source-responsive model is a viable alternative. We treat the active area fraction of preferential flow paths as a scaled function of water inputs at the land surface then calibrate the macropore density to fit observed water table rises. Unlike previous applications, we allow the characteristic film-flow velocity to vary, reflecting the lag time between source and deep water table responses. Analysis of model performance and parameter sensitivity for the two case studies underscores the importance of identifying thresholds for initiation of film flow in unsaturated rocks, and suggests that this parsimonious approach is potentially of great practical value.

  10. More strictly protected areas are not necessarily more protective: evidence from Bolivia, Costa Rica, Indonesia, and Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Paul J; Hanauer, Merlin M; Miteva, Daniela A; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K; Canavire-Bacarreza, Gustavo Javier; Sims, Katharine R E

    2013-01-01

    National parks and other protected areas are at the forefront of global efforts to protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, not all protection is equal. Some areas are assigned strict legal protection that permits few extractive human uses. Other protected area designations permit a wider range of uses. Whether strictly protected areas are more effective in achieving environmental objectives is an empirical question: although strictly protected areas legally permit less anthropogenic disturbance, the social conflicts associated with assigning strict protection may lead politicians to assign strict protection to less-threatened areas and may lead citizens or enforcement agents to ignore the strict legal restrictions. We contrast the impacts of strictly and less strictly protected areas in four countries using IUCN designations to measure de jure strictness, data on deforestation to measure outcomes, and a quasi-experimental design to estimate impacts. On average, stricter protection reduced deforestation rates more than less strict protection, but the additional impact was not always large and sometimes arose because of where stricter protection was assigned rather than regulatory strictness per se. We also show that, in protected area studies contrasting y management regimes, there are y 2 policy-relevant impacts, rather than only y, as earlier studies have implied. (letter)

  11. Strict Monotonicity and Unique Continuation for the Third-Order Spectrum of Biharmonic Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Ben Haddouch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We will study the spectrum for the biharmonic operator involving the laplacian and the gradient of the laplacian with weight, which we call third-order spectrum. We will show that the strict monotonicity of the eigenvalues of the operator , where , holds if some unique continuation property is satisfied by the corresponding eigenfunctions.

  12. "Let the Master Respond": Should Schools Be Strictly Liable When Employees Sexually Abuse Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossey, Richard; DeMitchell, Todd

    Although sexual abuse against children is a problem in the public schools, school officials have generally not acted aggressively to stop it. This paper argues for a strict liability standard--the assessment of liability without fault--against a school district in cases of student sexual abuse by a school employee. Part 1 explores the principle of…

  13. Detection of low numbers of microplastics in North Sea fish using strict quality assurance criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermsen, E.; Pompe, R.; Besseling, E.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated 400 individual fish of four North Sea species: Atlantic Herring, Sprat, Common Dab, and Whiting on ingestion of > 20 μm microplastic. Strict quality assurance criteria were followed in order to control contamination during the study. Two plastic particles were found in only 1 (a

  14. History, administration, goals, values, and long-term data of Russia's strictly protected scientific nature reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin A. Spetich; Anna E. Kvashnina; Y.D. Nukhimovskya; Olin E. Jr. Rhodes

    2009-01-01

    One of the most comprehensive attempts at biodiversity conservation in Russia and the former Soviet Union has been the establishment of an extensive network of protected natural areas. Among all types of protected areas in Russia, zapovedniks (strictly protected scientific preserve) have been the most effective in protecting biodiversity at the ecosystem scale. Russia...

  15. The Preventive Effect of Strict Gun Control Laws on Suicide and Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; Murrell, Mary E.

    1982-01-01

    Examined state gun control laws and used a multidimensional scaling technique to study the relationship of strictness and death rates. Results showed states with stricter laws had lower suicide rates by firearms but higher rates by other means. No effect on homicide was found. (JAC)

  16. Myelination of parvalbumin interneurons: a parsimonious locus of pathophysiological convergence in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stedehouder, J.; S.A. Kushner (Steven)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractSchizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder characterized by positive, negative and cognitive symptoms. Despite more than a century of research, the neurobiological mechanism underlying schizophrenia remains elusive. White matter abnormalities and interneuron dysfunction are the

  17. A mixed integer linear programming model to reconstruct phylogenies from single nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes under the maximum parsimony criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzaro, Daniele; Ravi, Ramamoorthi; Schwartz, Russell

    2013-01-23

    Phylogeny estimation from aligned haplotype sequences has attracted more and more attention in the recent years due to its importance in analysis of many fine-scale genetic data. Its application fields range from medical research, to drug discovery, to epidemiology, to population dynamics. The literature on molecular phylogenetics proposes a number of criteria for selecting a phylogeny from among plausible alternatives. Usually, such criteria can be expressed by means of objective functions, and the phylogenies that optimize them are referred to as optimal. One of the most important estimation criteria is the parsimony which states that the optimal phylogeny T∗for a set H of n haplotype sequences over a common set of variable loci is the one that satisfies the following requirements: (i) it has the shortest length and (ii) it is such that, for each pair of distinct haplotypes hi,hj∈H, the sum of the edge weights belonging to the path from hi to hj in T∗ is not smaller than the observed number of changes between hi and hj. Finding the most parsimonious phylogeny for H involves solving an optimization problem, called the Most Parsimonious Phylogeny Estimation Problem (MPPEP), which is NP-hard in many of its versions. In this article we investigate a recent version of the MPPEP that arises when input data consist of single nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes extracted from a population of individuals on a common genomic region. Specifically, we explore the prospects for improving on the implicit enumeration strategy of implicit enumeration strategy used in previous work using a novel problem formulation and a series of strengthening valid inequalities and preliminary symmetry breaking constraints to more precisely bound the solution space and accelerate implicit enumeration of possible optimal phylogenies. We present the basic formulation and then introduce a series of provable valid constraints to reduce the solution space. We then prove that these

  18. Use of Parsimony Analysis to Identify Areas of Endemism of Chinese Birds: Implications for Conservation and Biogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lei Huang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE was used to identify areas of endemism (AOEs for Chinese birds at the subregional level. Four AOEs were identified based on a distribution database of 105 endemic species and using 18 avifaunal subregions as the operating geographical units (OGUs. The four AOEs are the Qinghai-Zangnan Subregion, the Southwest Mountainous Subregion, the Hainan Subregion and the Taiwan Subregion. Cladistic analysis of subregions generally supports the division of China’s avifauna into Palaearctic and Oriental realms. Two PAE area trees were produced from two different distribution datasets (year 1976 and 2007. The 1976 topology has four distinct subregional branches; however, the 2007 topology has three distinct branches. Moreover, three Palaearctic subregions in the 1976 tree clustered together with the Oriental subregions in the 2007 tree. Such topological differences may reflect changes in the distribution of bird species through circa three decades.

  19. Structural Components and Assembly in Parsimonious Explanation of Organizational Performance: A Study in the Industry and Service Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Gonçalves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to presents the settings and the degree of intensity on the Organizational Performance based on significant antecedents in two sectors categorized as manufacturing and service. It is present measurements of the effects and combinations set composed by Managerial Factors, External Environment, Internal Organizational efforts, Strategy Process in the Organizational Performance. The research used data collection by interview, survey research and it was made statistical analysis by of Structural Equation Modeling methods and Qualitative Comparative Analysis - ACQ. It can be seen that the construct Strategy Process is the most important in explaining Organizational Performance in relation to other reports. It was also observed that the industry and service sectors have different sets parsimonious explanation for the Organizational Performance.

  20. Prediction of dissolved reactive phosphorus losses from small agricultural catchments: calibration and validation of a parsimonious model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hahn

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Eutrophication of surface waters due to diffuse phosphorus (P losses continues to be a severe water quality problem worldwide, causing the loss of ecosystem functions of the respective water bodies. Phosphorus in runoff often originates from a small fraction of a catchment only. Targeting mitigation measures to these critical source areas (CSAs is expected to be most efficient and cost-effective, but requires suitable tools. Here we investigated the capability of the parsimonious Rainfall-Runoff-Phosphorus (RRP model to identify CSAs in grassland-dominated catchments based on readily available soil and topographic data. After simultaneous calibration on runoff data from four small hilly catchments on the Swiss Plateau, the model was validated on a different catchment in the same region without further calibration. The RRP model adequately simulated the discharge and dissolved reactive P (DRP export from the validation catchment. Sensitivity analysis showed that the model predictions were robust with respect to the classification of soils into "poorly drained" and "well drained", based on the available soil map. Comparing spatial hydrological model predictions with field data from the validation catchment provided further evidence that the assumptions underlying the model are valid and that the model adequately accounts for the dominant P export processes in the target region. Thus, the parsimonious RRP model is a valuable tool that can be used to determine CSAs. Despite the considerable predictive uncertainty regarding the spatial extent of CSAs, the RRP can provide guidance for the implementation of mitigation measures. The model helps to identify those parts of a catchment where high DRP losses are expected or can be excluded with high confidence. Legacy P was predicted to be the dominant source for DRP losses and thus, in combination with hydrologic active areas, a high risk for water quality.

  1. On the use of satellite data to implement a parsimonious ecohydrological model in the upper Ewaso Ngiro river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, G.

    2015-12-01

    Drylands are extensive, covering 30% of the Earth's land surface and 50% of Africa. Projections of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007) indicate that the extent of these regions have high probability to increase with a considerable additional impact on water resources, which should be taken into account by water management plans. In these water-controlled areas, vegetation plays a key role in the water cycle. Ecohydrological models provide a tool to investigate the relationships between vegetation and water resources. However, studies in Africa often face the problem that many ecohydrological models have quite extensive parametrical requirements, while available data are scarce. Therefore, there is a need for assessments using models whose requirements match the data availability. In that context, parsimonious models, together with available remote sensing information, can be valuable tools for ecohydrological studies. For this reason, we have focused on the use of a parsimonious model based on the amount of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by green vegetation (APAR) and the Light Use Efficiency index (the efficiency by which that radiation is converted to plant biomass increment) in order to compute the gross primary production (GPP).This model has been calibrated using only remote sensing data (particularly, NDVI data from Modis products) in order to explore the potential of satellite information in implementing a simple distributed model. The model has been subsequently validated against stream flow data with the aim to define a tool able to account for landuse characteristics in describing water budget. Results are promising for studies aimed at the description of the consequences of ongoing land use changes on water resources.

  2. Innovative Bayesian and Parsimony Phylogeny of Dung Beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae) Enhanced by Ontology-Based Partitioning of Morphological Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Sergei; Génier, François

    2015-01-01

    Scarabaeine dung beetles are the dominant dung feeding group of insects and are widely used as model organisms in conservation, ecology and developmental biology. Due to the conflicts among 13 recently published phylogenies dealing with the higher-level relationships of dung beetles, the phylogeny of this lineage remains largely unresolved. In this study, we conduct rigorous phylogenetic analyses of dung beetles, based on an unprecedented taxon sample (110 taxa) and detailed investigation of morphology (205 characters). We provide the description of morphology and thoroughly illustrate the used characters. Along with parsimony, traditionally used in the analysis of morphological data, we also apply the Bayesian method with a novel approach that uses anatomy ontology for matrix partitioning. This approach allows for heterogeneity in evolutionary rates among characters from different anatomical regions. Anatomy ontology generates a number of parameter-partition schemes which we compare using Bayes factor. We also test the effect of inclusion of autapomorphies in the morphological analysis, which hitherto has not been examined. Generally, schemes with more parameters were favored in the Bayesian comparison suggesting that characters located on different body regions evolve at different rates and that partitioning of the data matrix using anatomy ontology is reasonable; however, trees from the parsimony and all the Bayesian analyses were quite consistent. The hypothesized phylogeny reveals many novel clades and provides additional support for some clades recovered in previous analyses. Our results provide a solid basis for a new classification of dung beetles, in which the taxonomic limits of the tribes Dichotomiini, Deltochilini and Coprini are restricted and many new tribes must be described. Based on the consistency of the phylogeny with biogeography, we speculate that dung beetles may have originated in the Mesozoic contrary to the traditional view pointing to a

  3. The effect of 8 days of strict bed rest on the incretin effect in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Harder-Lauridsen, Nina Majlund; Benatti, Fabiana Braga

    2016-01-01

    in the levels of GLP-1 and Glucagon. Bed rest led to a mean loss of 2.4 kg of fat-free mass, and induced insulin resistance evaluated by the Matsuda index, but did not affect the incretin effect (P = 0.6). In conclusion, 8 days of bed rest induces insulin resistance, but we did not see evidence of an associated......Bed rest and physical inactivity are the consequences of hospital admission for many patients. Physical inactivity induces changes in glucose metabolism, but its effect on the incretin effect, which is reduced in, e.g., Type 2 diabetes, is unknown. To investigate how 8 days of strict bed rest...... affects the incretin effect, 10 healthy nonobese male volunteers underwent 8 days of strict bed rest. Before and after the intervention, all volunteers underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) followed by an intravenous glucose infusion (IVGI) on the following day to mimic the blood glucose profile...

  4. Detection of low numbers of microplastics in North Sea fish using strict quality assurance criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsen, Enya; Pompe, Renske; Besseling, Ellen; Koelmans, Albert A

    2017-09-15

    We investigated 400 individual fish of four North Sea species: Atlantic Herring, Sprat, Common Dab, and Whiting on ingestion of >20μm microplastic. Strict quality assurance criteria were followed in order to control contamination during the study. Two plastic particles were found in only 1 (a Sprat) out of 400 individuals (0.25%, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.09-1.1%). The particles were identified to consist of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) through FTIR spectroscopy. No contamination occurred during the study, showing the method applied to be suitable for microplastic ingestion studies in biota. We discuss the low particle count for North Sea fish with those in other studies and suggest a relation between reported particle count and degree of quality assurance applied. Microplastic ingestion by fish may be less common than thought initially, with low incidence shown in this study, and other studies adhering to strict quality assurance criteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic hydrogen-producing culture enriched from digested household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Kotay, Shireen Meher; Trably, Eric

    2009-01-01

    sources. Growth on glucose produced acetate, H-2 and carbon dioxide. Maximal H-2 production rate on glucose was 1.1 mmol l(-1) h(-1) with a maximum H-2 yield of 1.9 mole H-2 per mole glucose. 16S ribosomal DNA clone library analyses showed that the culture members were phylogenetically affiliated......The aim of this study was to enrich, characterize and identify strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic hydrogen (H-2) producers from digested household solid wastes. A strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic H-2 producing bacterial culture was enriched from a lab-scale digester treating household...... wastes at 70 degrees C. The enriched mixed culture consisted of two rod-shaped bacterial members growing at an optimal temperature of 80 degrees C and an optimal pH 8.1. The culture was able to utilize glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, arabinose, maltose, sucrose, pyruvate and glycerol as carbon...

  6. A Hybrid P2P Overlay Network for Non-strictly Hierarchically Categorized Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yi; Asaka, Takuya; Takahashi, Tatsuro

    In P2P content distribution systems, there are many cases in which the content can be classified into hierarchically organized categories. In this paper, we propose a hybrid overlay network design suitable for such content called Pastry/NSHCC (Pastry for Non-Strictly Hierarchically Categorized Content). The semantic information of classification hierarchies of the content can be utilized regardless of whether they are in a strict tree structure or not. By doing so, the search scope can be restrained to any granularity, and the number of query messages also decreases while maintaining keyword searching availability. Through simulation, we showed that the proposed method provides better performance and lower overhead than unstructured overlays exploiting the same semantic information.

  7. Weak asymptotic solution for a non-strictly hyperbolic system of conservation laws-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Ranjan Sahoo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce a concept of entropy weak asymptotic solution for a system of conservation laws and construct the same for a prolonged system of conservation laws which is highly non-strictly hyperbolic. This is first done for Riemann type initial data by introducing $\\delta,\\delta',\\delta''$ waves along a discontinuity curve and then for general initial data by piecing together the Riemann solutions.

  8. Multiple-Set Split Feasibility Problems for κ-Strictly Pseudononspreading Mapping in Hilbert Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Quan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to prove some weak and strong convergence theorems for solving the multiple-set split feasibility problems for κ-strictly pseudononspreading mapping in infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces by using the proposed iterative method. The main results presented in this paper extend and improve the corresponding results of Xu et al. (2006, of Osilike et al. (2011, and of many other authors.

  9. Multiobjective Optimization for the Forecasting Models on the Base of the Strictly Binary Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Nadezhda Astakhova; Liliya Demidova; Evgeny Nikulchev

    2016-01-01

    The optimization problem dealing with the development of the forecasting models on the base of strictly binary trees has been considered. The aim of paper is the comparative analysis of two optimization variants which are applied for the development of the forecasting models. Herewith the first optimization variant assumes the application of one quality indicator of the forecasting model named as the affinity indicator and the second variant realizes the application of two quality indicators ...

  10. Cannabis legalization with strict regulation, the overall superior policy option for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, J; Fischer, B

    2015-06-01

    Cannabis is the most prevalently used drug globally, with many jurisdictions considering varying reform options to current policies to deal with this substance and associated harm. Three policy options are available: prohibition, decriminalization, and legalization, with prohibition currently the dominant model globally. This contribution gives reasons why legalization with strict regulation should be considered superior to other options with respect to public health in high income countries in North America. © 2015 ASCPT.

  11. Examination of the PCICE method in the nearly incompressible, as well as strictly incompressible, limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, Ray A.; Martineau, Richard C.

    2007-01-01

    The conservative-form, pressure-based PCICE numerical method (Martineau and Berry, 2004) (Berry, 2006), recently developed for computing transient fluid flows of all speeds from very low to very high (with strong shocks), is simplified and generalized. Though the method automatically treats a continuous transition of compressibility, three distinct, limiting compressibility regimes are formally defined for purposes of discussion and comparison with traditional methods - the strictly incompressible limit, the nearly incompressible limit, and the fully compressible limit. The PCICE method's behavior is examined in each limiting regime. In the strictly incompressible limit the PCICE algorithm reduces to the traditional MAC-type method with velocity divergence driving the pressure Poisson equation. In the nearly incompressible limit the PCICE algorithm is found to reduce to a generalization of traditional incompressible methods, i.e. to one in which not only the velocity divergence effect, but also the density gradient effect is included as a driving function in the pressure Poisson equation. This nearly incompressible regime has received little attention, and it appears that in the past, strictly incompressible methods may have been conveniently applied to flows in this regime at the expense of ignoring a potentially important coupling mechanism. This could be significant in many important flows; for example, in natural convection flows resulting from high heat flux. In the fully compressible limit or regime, the algorithm is found to reduce to an expression equivalent to density-based methods for high-speed flow. (author)

  12. Frequency effect on p-nitrophenol degradation under conditions of strict acoustic and electric control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-ping Zhu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of decomposing p-nitrophenol (PNP with power ultrasound requires strict control of acoustic and electric conditions. In this study, the conditions, including acoustic power and acoustic intensity, but not ultrasonic frequency, were controlled strictly at constant levels. The absorbency and the COD concentrations of the samples were measured in order to show the variation of the sample concentration. The results show significant differences in the trend of the solution degradation rate as acoustic power increases after the PNP solution (with a concentration of 114 mg/L and a pH value of 5.4 is irradiated for 60 min with ultrasonic frequencies of 530.8 kHz, 610.6 kHz, 855.0 kHz, and 1 130.0 kHz. The degradation rate of the solution increases with time and acoustic power (acoustic intensity. On the other hand, the degradation rate of the solution is distinctly dependent on frequency when the acoustic power and intensity are strictly controlled and maintained at constant levels. The degradation rate of the PNP solution declines with ultrasonic frequencies of 530.8 kHz, 610.6 kHz, 855.0 kHz, and 1 130.0 kHz; the COD concentration, on the contrary, increase.

  13. TESTING STRICT HYDROSTATIC EQUILIBRIUM IN SIMULATED CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR A1689

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, S. M.; Umetsu, K.; Chiu, I.-N.; Chen, P.; Hearn, N.; Broadhurst, T.; Bryan, G.; Shang, C.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate mass determination of clusters of galaxies is crucial if they are to be used as cosmological probes. However, there are some discrepancies between cluster masses determined based on gravitational lensing and X-ray observations assuming strict hydrostatic equilibrium (i.e., the equilibrium gas pressure is provided entirely by thermal pressure). Cosmological simulations suggest that turbulent gas motions remaining from hierarchical structure formation may provide a significant contribution to the equilibrium pressure in clusters. We analyze a sample of massive clusters of galaxies drawn from high-resolution cosmological simulations and find a significant contribution (20%-45%) from non-thermal pressure near the center of relaxed clusters, and, in accord with previous studies, a minimum contribution at about 0.1 R vir , growing to about 30%-45% at the virial radius, R vir . Our results strongly suggest that relaxed clusters should have significant non-thermal support in their core region. As an example, we test the validity of strict hydrostatic equilibrium in the well-studied massive galaxy cluster A1689 using the latest high-resolution gravitational lensing and X-ray observations. We find a contribution of about 40% from non-thermal pressure within the core region of A1689, suggesting an alternate explanation for the mass discrepancy: the strict hydrostatic equilibrium is not valid in this region.

  14. Temporary Strict Maternal Avoidance of Cow’s Milk and Infantile Colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Sajedi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Infant colic is a common problem characterized by excessive crying and fussing. We examined whether colic symptoms of exclusively breast-milk-fed infants would be improved by temporary strict maternal avoidance of cows milk. This study is analytic and experimental. Sixty-six subjects were recruited during winter of 2006 from a clinic in Isfahan, Iran. Breast-milk-fed in-fants with "colic", age 3-6 months and to be in otherwise good health were referred by pediatri-cians. The intervention was 1 week period of strict maternal avoidance of cows milk while they continued exclusive breast-milk-feeding. All infants showed improvement in distressed behavior (crying and fussing during intervention. The total recorded crying and fussing time was reduced by an average of 31%. A significant difference was found in cry and fuss time between first and last 2 days of intervention (P = 0.000. Cows milk proteins may play an etiologic role in colic. We propose that a brief intervention with strict maternal avoidance of cows milk may be an effective treatment for colic in some breast-milk-fed infants.

  15. Myelination of parvalbumin interneurons: a parsimonious locus of pathophysiological convergence in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedehouder, J; Kushner, S A

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder characterized by positive, negative and cognitive symptoms. Despite more than a century of research, the neurobiological mechanism underlying schizophrenia remains elusive. White matter abnormalities and interneuron dysfunction are the most widely replicated cellular neuropathological alterations in patients with schizophrenia. However, a unifying model incorporating these findings has not yet been established. Here, we propose that myelination of fast-spiking parvalbumin (PV) interneurons could be an important locus of pathophysiological convergence in schizophrenia. Myelination of interneurons has been demonstrated across a wide diversity of brain regions and appears highly specific for the PV interneuron subclass. Given the critical influence of fast-spiking PV interneurons for mediating oscillations in the gamma frequency range (~30–120 Hz), PV myelination is well positioned to optimize action potential fidelity and metabolic homeostasis. We discuss this hypothesis with consideration of data from human postmortem studies, in vivo brain imaging and electrophysiology, and molecular genetics, as well as fundamental and translational studies in rodent models. Together, the parvalbumin interneuron myelination hypothesis provides a falsifiable model for guiding future studies of schizophrenia pathophysiology. PMID:27646261

  16. Rate Control Efficacy in Permanent Atrial Fibrillation : Successful and Failed Strict Rate Control Against a Background of Lenient Rate Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenveld, Hessel F.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Crijns, Harry J. G. M.; Van den Berg, Maarten P.; Hillege, Hans L.; Alings, Marco; Van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to investigate differences in outcome between patients treated with successful strict, failed strict, and lenient rate control. Background The RACE II (Rate Control Efficacy in Permanent Atrial Fibrillation) study showed no difference in outcome between lenient and

  17. Critical thinking, curiosity and parsimony in (emergency) medicine: 'Doing nothing' as a quality measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijzers, Gerben

    2017-06-01

    Current medical decision-making is influenced by many factors, such as competing interests, distractions, as well as fear of missing an important diagnosis. This can result in ordering tests or providing treatments that can be harmful. Unnecessary tests are more likely to lead to false positive diagnosis or incidental findings that are of uncertain clinical relevance. Estimates indicate that almost one-third of all health spending is wasteful. The 'Choosing Wisely' campaign has identified many of these wasteful tests and treatments. This perspective proposes some suggestions to focus on our critical thinking, embrace shared decision-making and stay curious about the patient we are treating. Most importantly, 'doing nothing' could be a quality indicator for EDs, and ACEM supported audits and research to develop benchmarks for certain tests and procedures in the ED are important to achieve a cultural change. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  18. Strict versus liberal insulin therapy in the cardiac surgery patient: An evidence-based practice development, implementation and evaluation project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jacqueline M; Lauver, Lori S; Buck, Harleah G

    2018-02-01

    Hyperglycemia post-cardiac surgery is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Recent studies suggest maintaining liberal glycemic control (liberal CII protocol. Retrospective review of 144 strict CII patient records and 147 liberal CII patient records. Mean blood glucose was 159.8mg/dL (liberal CII) compared to 143.3mg/dL (strict CII) (p≤0.001). No surgical site infections occurred in either group. Mean ICU length of stay was 4.5days (liberal) versus 4.4days (strict) (p=0.74). Two 30-day mortalities occurred for the liberal cohort compared to no deaths in the strict group (p=0.49). Hypoglycemia incidence within 24h after surgery was 0.1% (liberal) compared to 0.3% (strict) compared to (p=0.16). Use of a nurse managed liberal CII resulted in similar outcomes with fewer incidents of hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Effects of growth temperature and strictly anaerobic recovery on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes during pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knabel, S J; Walker, H W; Hartman, P A; Mendonca, A F

    1990-02-01

    Listeria monocytogenes F5069 was suspended in either Trypticase soy broth-0.6% yeast extract (TSBYE) or sterile, whole milk and heated at 62.8 degrees C in sealed thermal death time tubes. Severely heat-injured cells were recovered in TSBYE within sealed thermal death time tubes because of the formation of reduced conditions in the depths of the TSBYE. Also, the use of strictly anaerobic Hungate techniques significantly increased recovery in TSBYE containing 1.5% agar compared with aerobically incubated controls. The exogenous addition of catalase, but not superoxide dismutase, slightly increased the recovery of heat-injured cells in TSBYE containing 1.5% agar incubated aerobically. Growth of cells at 43 degrees C caused a greater increase in heat resistance as compared with cells heat shocked at 43 degrees C or cells grown at lower temperatures. Growth of L. monocytogenes at 43 degrees C and enumeration by the use of strictly anaerobic Hungate techniques resulted in D62.8 degrees C values that were at least sixfold greater than those previously obtained by using cells grown at 37 degrees C and aerobic plating. Results indicate that, under the conditions of the present study, high levels of L. monocytogenes would survive the minimum low-temperature, long-time treatment required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for pasteurizing milk. The possible survival of low levels of L. monocytogenes during high-temperature, short-time pasteurization and enumeration of injured cells by recovery on selective media under strictly anaerobic conditions are discussed.

  20. RelTime Rates Collapse to a Strict Clock When Estimating the Timeline of Animal Diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Fernandez, Jesus; Dos Reis, Mario; Donoghue, Philip C J; Pisani, Davide

    2017-05-01

    Establishing an accurate timescale for the history of life is crucial to understand evolutionary processes. For this purpose, relaxed molecular clock models implemented in a Bayesian MCMC framework are generally used. However, these methods are time consuming. RelTime, a non-Bayesian method implementing a fast, ad hoc, algorithm for relative dating, was developed to overcome the computational inefficiencies of Bayesian software. RelTime was recently used to investigate the timing of origin of animals, yielding results consistent with early strict clock studies from the 1980s and 1990s, estimating metazoans to have a Mesoproterozoic origin-over a billion years ago. RelTime results are unexpected and disagree with the largest majority of modern, relaxed, Bayesian molecular clock analyses, which suggest animals originated in the Tonian-Cryogenian (less that 850 million years ago). Here, we demonstrate that RelTime-inferred divergence times for the origin of animals are spurious, a consequence of the inability of RelTime to relax the clock along the internal branches of the animal phylogeny. RelTime-inferred divergence times are comparable to strict-clock estimates because they are essentially inferred under a strict clock. Our results warn us of the danger of using ad hoc algorithms making implicit assumptions about rate changes along a tree. Our study roundly rejects a Mesoproterozoic origin of animals; metazoans emerged in the Tonian-Cryogenian, and diversified in the Ediacaran, in the immediate prelude to the routine fossilization of animals in the Cambrian associated with the emergence of readily preserved skeletons. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  1. Effect of cryopreservation and lyophilization on viability and growth of strict anaerobic human gut microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bircher, Lea; Geirnaert, Annelies; Hammes, Frederik; Lacroix, Christophe; Schwab, Clarissa

    2018-04-17

    Strict anaerobic gut microbes have been suggested as 'next-generation probiotics' for treating several intestinal disorders. The development of preservation techniques is of major importance for therapeutic application. This study investigated cryopreservation (-80°C) and lyophilization survival and storage stability (4°C for 3 months) of the strict anaerobic gut microbes Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Roseburia intestinalis, Anaerostipes caccae, Eubacterium hallii and Blautia obeum. To improve preservation survival, protectants sucrose and inulin (both 5% w/v) were added for lyophilization and were also combined with glycerol (15% v/v) for cryopreservation. Bacterial fitness, evaluated by maximum growth rate and lag phase, viability and membrane integrity were determined using a standardized growth assay and by flow cytometry as markers for preservation resistance. Lyophilization was more detrimental to viability and fitness than cryopreservation, but led to better storage stability. Adding sucrose and inulin enhanced viability and the proportion of intact cells during lyophilization of all strains. Viability of protectant-free B. thetaiotaomicron, A. caccae and F. prausnitzii was above 50% after cryopreservation and storage and increased to above 80% if protectants were present. The addition of glycerol, sucrose and inulin strongly enhanced the viability of B. obeum, E. hallii and R. intestinalis from 0.03-2% in protectant-free cultures to 11-37%. This is the first study that quantitatively compared the effect of cryopreservation and lyophilization and the addition of selected protectants on viability and fitness of six strict anaerobic gut microbes. Our results suggest that efficiency of protectants is process- and species-specific. © 2018 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Effects of growth temperature and strictly anaerobic recovery on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes during pasteurization.

    OpenAIRE

    Knabel, S J; Walker, H W; Hartman, P A; Mendonca, A F

    1990-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes F5069 was suspended in either Trypticase soy broth-0.6% yeast extract (TSBYE) or sterile, whole milk and heated at 62.8 degrees C in sealed thermal death time tubes. Severely heat-injured cells were recovered in TSBYE within sealed thermal death time tubes because of the formation of reduced conditions in the depths of the TSBYE. Also, the use of strictly anaerobic Hungate techniques significantly increased recovery in TSBYE containing 1.5% agar compared with aerobicall...

  3. The Dirichlet problem for the Monge-Ampere equation in convex (but not strictly convex domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hartenstine

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that the Dirichlet problem for the Monge-Amp`ere equation $det D^2 u = mu$ in a bounded strictly convex domain $Omega$ in $mathbb{R}^n$ has a weak solution (in the sense of Aleksandrov for any finite Borel measure $mu$ on $Omega$ and for any continuous boundary data. We consider the Dirichlet problem when $Omega$ is only assumed to be convex, and give a necessary and sufficient condition on the boundary data for solvability.

  4. Selections of the metric projection operator and strict solarity of sets with continuous metric projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimov, A. R.

    2017-07-01

    In a broad class of finite-dimensional Banach spaces, we show that a closed set with lower semicontinuous metric projection is a strict sun, admits a continuous selection of the metric projection operator onto it, has contractible intersections with balls, and its (nonempty) intersection with any closed ball is a retract of this ball. For sets with continuous metric projection, a number of new results relating the solarity of such sets to the stability of the operator of best approximation are obtained. Bibliography 25 titles.

  5. Transplanting Diseases from Organ Donors in Western Europe: Fault Liability or Strict Liability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckx, Nils; Verhoeven, Dimitri

    2015-06-01

    This article will examine the problem of disease transmission through organ transplantation from a civil liability perspective. Both fault liability and strict product liability might be possible. These two types of liability will be compared, while applying them to the actions of the central parties involved in organ donation and transplantation, namely the physician/hospital, the donor and the organ exchange organisation. While product liability is generally an easier way to obtain compensation than fault liability, it might nevertheless place too heavy a burden on the transplant professionals.

  6. Single molecule experiments challenge the strict wave-particle dualism of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greulich, Karl Otto

    2010-01-21

    Single molecule techniques improve our understanding of the photon and light. If the single photon double slit experiment is performed at the "single photon limit" of a multi-atom light source, faint light pulses with more than one photon hamper the interpretation. Single molecules, quantum dots or defect centres in crystals should be used as light source. "Single photon detectors" do not meet their promise-only "photon number resolving single photon detectors" do so. Particularly, the accumulation time argument, the only safe basis for the postulate of a strictly particle like photon, has so far not yet been verified.

  7. Single Molecule Experiments Challenge the Strict Wave-Particle Dualism of Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Otto Greulich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Single molecule techniques improve our understanding of the photon and light. If the single photon double slit experiment is performed at the “single photon limit” of a multi-atom light source, faint light pulses with more than one photon hamper the interpretation. Single molecules, quantum dots or defect centres in crystals should be used as light source. “Single photon detectors” do not meet their promise―only “photon number resolving single photon detectors” do so. Particularly, the accumulation time argument, the only safe basis for the postulate of a strictly particle like photon, has so far not yet been verified.

  8. Perils of parsimony: properties of reduced-rank estimates of genetic covariance matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Karin; Kirkpatrick, Mark

    2008-10-01

    Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of covariance matrices are important statistics for multivariate problems in many applications, including quantitative genetics. Estimates of these quantities are subject to different types of bias. This article reviews and extends the existing theory on these biases, considering a balanced one-way classification and restricted maximum-likelihood estimation. Biases are due to the spread of sample roots and arise from ignoring selected principal components when imposing constraints on the parameter space, to ensure positive semidefinite estimates or to estimate covariance matrices of chosen, reduced rank. In addition, it is shown that reduced-rank estimators that consider only the leading eigenvalues and -vectors of the "between-group" covariance matrix may be biased due to selecting the wrong subset of principal components. In a genetic context, with groups representing families, this bias is inverse proportional to the degree of genetic relationship among family members, but is independent of sample size. Theoretical results are supplemented by a simulation study, demonstrating close agreement between predicted and observed bias for large samples. It is emphasized that the rank of the genetic covariance matrix should be chosen sufficiently large to accommodate all important genetic principal components, even though, paradoxically, this may require including a number of components with negligible eigenvalues. A strategy for rank selection in practical analyses is outlined.

  9. Fuzzy Adaptive Decentralized Optimal Control for Strict Feedback Nonlinear Large-Scale Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kangkang; Sui, Shuai; Tong, Shaocheng

    2018-04-01

    This paper considers the optimal decentralized fuzzy adaptive control design problem for a class of interconnected large-scale nonlinear systems in strict feedback form and with unknown nonlinear functions. The fuzzy logic systems are introduced to learn the unknown dynamics and cost functions, respectively, and a state estimator is developed. By applying the state estimator and the backstepping recursive design algorithm, a decentralized feedforward controller is established. By using the backstepping decentralized feedforward control scheme, the considered interconnected large-scale nonlinear system in strict feedback form is changed into an equivalent affine large-scale nonlinear system. Subsequently, an optimal decentralized fuzzy adaptive control scheme is constructed. The whole optimal decentralized fuzzy adaptive controller is composed of a decentralized feedforward control and an optimal decentralized control. It is proved that the developed optimal decentralized controller can ensure that all the variables of the control system are uniformly ultimately bounded, and the cost functions are the smallest. Two simulation examples are provided to illustrate the validity of the developed optimal decentralized fuzzy adaptive control scheme.

  10. CapsID: a web-based tool for developing parsimonious sets of CAPS molecular markers for genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Provart Nicholas J

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genotyping may be carried out by a number of different methods including direct sequencing and polymorphism analysis. For a number of reasons, PCR-based polymorphism analysis may be desirable, owing to the fact that only small amounts of genetic material are required, and that the costs are low. One popular and cheap method for detecting polymorphisms is by using cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence, or CAPS, molecular markers. These are also known as PCR-RFLP markers. Results We have developed a program, called CapsID, that identifies snip-SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms that alter restriction endonuclease cut sites within a set or sets of reference sequences, designs PCR primers around these, and then suggests the most parsimonious combination of markers for genotyping any individual who is not a member of the reference set. The output page includes biologist-friendly features, such as images of virtual gels to assist in genotyping efforts. CapsID is freely available at http://bbc.botany.utoronto.ca/capsid. Conclusion CapsID is a tool that can rapidly provide minimal sets of CAPS markers for molecular identification purposes for any biologist working in genetics, community genetics, plant and animal breeding, forensics and other fields.

  11. Molecular mechanism of strict substrate specificity of an extradiol dioxygenase, DesB, derived from Sphingobium sp. SYK-6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Sugimoto

    Full Text Available DesB, which is derived from Sphingobium sp. SYK-6, is a type II extradiol dioxygenase that catalyzes a ring opening reaction of gallate. While typical extradiol dioxygenases show broad substrate specificity, DesB has strict substrate specificity for gallate. The substrate specificity of DesB seems to be required for the efficient growth of S. sp. SYK-6 using lignin-derived aromatic compounds. Since direct coordination of hydroxyl groups of the substrate to the non-heme iron in the active site is a critical step for the catalytic reaction of the extradiol dioxygenases, the mechanism of the substrate recognition and coordination of DesB was analyzed by biochemical and crystallographic methods. Our study demonstrated that the direct coordination between the non-heme iron and hydroxyl groups of the substrate requires a large shift of the Fe (II ion in the active site. Mutational analysis revealed that His124 and His192 in the active site are essential to the catalytic reaction of DesB. His124, which interacts with OH (4 of the bound gallate, seems to contribute to proper positioning of the substrate in the active site. His192, which is located close to OH (3 of the gallate, is likely to serve as the catalytic base. Glu377' interacts with OH (5 of the gallate and seems to play a critical role in the substrate specificity. Our biochemical and structural study showed the substrate recognition and catalytic mechanisms of DesB.

  12. Effect of strict metabolic control on regulation of subcutaneous blood flow in insulin-dependent diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J; Mathiesen, E R; Saurbrey, Nina

    1987-01-01

    washout technique. Mean arterial blood pressure was reduced by a maximum of 23 mmHg by elevating the limb above heart level and elevated to a maximum of 65 mmHg by head-up tilt; in the latter position venous pressure was kept constantly low by activation of the leg muscle vein pump (heel raising......The effect of 10 weeks of improved metabolic control on the impaired autoregulation of the subcutaneous blood flow was studied at the level of the lateral malleolus in eight long-term insulin-dependent diabetic patients with clinical microangiopathy. Blood flow was measured by the local 133-Xenon......). Improved metabolic control was achieved using either continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion or multiple insulin injections. The blood glucose concentration declined from (median) 12.7 to 6.8 mmol/l and the HbA1C level from 10.1 to 7.5% during strict metabolic control (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0...

  13. Study on Environment Performance Evaluation and Regional Differences of Strictly-Environmental-Monitored Cities in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Guo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid economic growth and development, the problem of environmental pollution in China’s cities is becoming increasingly serious, and environmental pollution takes on a regional difference. There is, however, little comprehensive evaluation on the environmental performance and the regional difference of strictly-environmental-monitored cities in China. In this paper, the environmental performance of 109 strictly-environmental-monitored cities in China is evaluated in terms of natural performance, management performance, and scale performance by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA, incorporating PM2.5 and PM10 as undesirable outputs. The empirical results show that: (1 At present, the natural performance is quite high, while the management performance is noticeably low for most cities. (2 The gap between the level of economic development and environmental protection among cities in China is large, and the scale efficiency of big cities is better than that of smaller cities. The efficiency value of large-scale cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, etc. is high, equaling 1; the value of smaller cities such as Sanmenxia, Baoding, Mudanjiang, and Pingdingshan is low, close to 0, indicating that big cities are characterized by high environmental efficiency. (3 From the perspective of region, the level of environmental performance in China is very uneven. For example, the environmental efficiency level of the Pan-Pearl River Delta region is superior to that of the Pan-Yangtze River region and the Bahia Rim region, whose values of environmental efficiency are 0.858, 0.658, and 0.622 respectively. The average efficiency of the Southern Coastal Economic Zone, Eastern Coastal Comprehensive Economic Zone, and the Comprehensive Economic Zone in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River is higher than that of other regions. Finally, corresponding countermeasures and suggestions are put forward. The method used in this paper is applicable

  14. Disordered strictly jammed binary sphere packings attain an anomalously large range of densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Adam B.; Stillinger, Frank H.; Torquato, Salvatore

    2013-08-01

    Previous attempts to simulate disordered binary sphere packings have been limited in producing mechanically stable, isostatic packings across a broad spectrum of packing fractions. Here we report that disordered strictly jammed binary packings (packings that remain mechanically stable under general shear deformations and compressions) can be produced with an anomalously large range of average packing fractions 0.634≤ϕ≤0.829 for small to large sphere radius ratios α restricted to α≥0.100. Surprisingly, this range of average packing fractions is obtained for packings containing a subset of spheres (called the backbone) that are exactly strictly jammed, exactly isostatic, and also generated from random initial conditions. Additionally, the average packing fractions of these packings at certain α and small sphere relative number concentrations x approach those of the corresponding densest known ordered packings. These findings suggest for entropic reasons that these high-density disordered packings should be good glass formers and that they may be easy to prepare experimentally. We also identify an unusual feature of the packing fraction of jammed backbones (packings with rattlers excluded). The backbone packing fraction is about 0.624 over the majority of the α-x plane, even when large numbers of small spheres are present in the backbone. Over the (relatively small) area of the α-x plane where the backbone is not roughly constant, we find that backbone packing fractions range from about 0.606 to 0.829, with the volume of rattler spheres comprising between 1.6% and 26.9% of total sphere volume. To generate isostatic strictly jammed packings, we use an implementation of the Torquato-Jiao sequential linear programming algorithm [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.82.061302 82, 061302 (2010)], which is an efficient producer of inherent structures (mechanically stable configurations at the local maxima in the density landscape). The identification and

  15. Disordered strictly jammed binary sphere packings attain an anomalously large range of densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Adam B; Stillinger, Frank H; Torquato, Salvatore

    2013-08-01

    Previous attempts to simulate disordered binary sphere packings have been limited in producing mechanically stable, isostatic packings across a broad spectrum of packing fractions. Here we report that disordered strictly jammed binary packings (packings that remain mechanically stable under general shear deformations and compressions) can be produced with an anomalously large range of average packing fractions 0.634≤φ≤0.829 for small to large sphere radius ratios α restricted to α≥0.100. Surprisingly, this range of average packing fractions is obtained for packings containing a subset of spheres (called the backbone) that are exactly strictly jammed, exactly isostatic, and also generated from random initial conditions. Additionally, the average packing fractions of these packings at certain α and small sphere relative number concentrations x approach those of the corresponding densest known ordered packings. These findings suggest for entropic reasons that these high-density disordered packings should be good glass formers and that they may be easy to prepare experimentally. We also identify an unusual feature of the packing fraction of jammed backbones (packings with rattlers excluded). The backbone packing fraction is about 0.624 over the majority of the α-x plane, even when large numbers of small spheres are present in the backbone. Over the (relatively small) area of the α-x plane where the backbone is not roughly constant, we find that backbone packing fractions range from about 0.606 to 0.829, with the volume of rattler spheres comprising between 1.6% and 26.9% of total sphere volume. To generate isostatic strictly jammed packings, we use an implementation of the Torquato-Jiao sequential linear programming algorithm [Phys. Rev. E 82, 061302 (2010)], which is an efficient producer of inherent structures (mechanically stable configurations at the local maxima in the density landscape). The identification and explicit construction of binary packings

  16. Attitudes toward Immigration as a Sense of Group Position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farah, Abdulkadir Osman

    2018-01-01

    Departing from Lawrence Bobo’s suggestion that Blumer’s group position theory embodies the most comprehensive and parsimonious framework for understanding not only the dynamics of prejudice toward minority groups, but also for examining potential threats that emanate from policy issues such as af......Departing from Lawrence Bobo’s suggestion that Blumer’s group position theory embodies the most comprehensive and parsimonious framework for understanding not only the dynamics of prejudice toward minority groups, but also for examining potential threats that emanate from policy issues...... economic threat as more important in informing attitudes toward immigration than objective economic conditions; and social and ethnic location threat. Our findings are consistent with and confirm Blumer’s argument that prejudice as a sense of group position is primarily derived from feelings, and are...

  17. Lyme Neuroborreliosis: Preliminary Results from an Urban Referral Center Employing Strict CDC Criteria for Case Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Younger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyme neuroborreliosis or “neurological Lyme disease” was evidenced in 2 of 23 patients submitted to strict criteria for case selection of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention employing a two-tier test to detect antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi at a single institution. One patient had symptomatic polyradiculoneuritis, dysautonomia, and serological evidence of early infection; and another had symptomatic small fiber sensory neuropathy, distal polyneuropathy, dysautonomia, and serological evidence of late infection. In the remaining patients symptoms initially ascribed to Lyme disease were probably unrelated to B. burgdorferi infection. Our findings suggest early susceptibility and protracted involvement of the nervous system most likely due to the immunological effects of B. burgdorferi infection, although the exact mechanisms remain uncertain.

  18. A Total Variation Model Based on the Strictly Convex Modification for Image Denoising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boying Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a strictly convex functional in which the regular term consists of the total variation term and an adaptive logarithm based convex modification term. We prove the existence and uniqueness of the minimizer for the proposed variational problem. The existence, uniqueness, and long-time behavior of the solution of the associated evolution system is also established. Finally, we present experimental results to illustrate the effectiveness of the model in noise reduction, and a comparison is made in relation to the more classical methods of the traditional total variation (TV, the Perona-Malik (PM, and the more recent D-α-PM method. Additional distinction from the other methods is that the parameters, for manual manipulation, in the proposed algorithm are reduced to basically only one.

  19. Residual diffeomorphisms and symplectic soft hairs: The need to refine strict statement of equivalence principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.

    2016-09-01

    General covariance is the cornerstone of Einstein’s general relativity (GR) and implies that any two metrics related by diffeomorphisms are physically equivalent. There are, however, many examples pointing to the fact that this strict statement of general covariance needs refinement. There are a very special (measure-zero) subset of diffeomorphisms, the residual diffeomorphisms, to which one can associate well-defined conserved charges. This would hence render these diffeomorphic geometries physically distinct. We discuss that these symmetries may be appropriately called “symplectic symmetries”. Existence of residual diffeomorphisms and symplectic symmetries can be a quite general feature and not limited to the examples discussed so far in the literature. We propose that, in the context of black holes, these diffeomorphic, but distinct, geometries may be viewed as “symplectic soft hair” on black holes. We comment on how this may remedy black hole microstate problem, which in this context are dubbed as “horizon fluffs”.

  20. Reactions to terror attacks in ultra-orthodox jews: the cost of maintaining strict identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankri, Yael L E; Bachar, Eytan; Shalev, Arieh Y

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic events can shatter faith and beliefs. The responses of Ultra-Orthodox survivors of deadly terrorist attacks illustrate an effort to reconcile dreadful experiences with deeply embedded beliefs. Qualified clinicians prospectively evaluated self-reported and interviewer-generated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and cognitive appraisal in Ultra-Orthodox (n = 20) and non-Ultra-Orthodox (n = 33) survivors of suicide bus-bombing incidents in Jerusalem. Ultra-Orthodox survivors reported higher levels of PTSD symptoms and more personal guilt. Their narratives reflected an unshaken belief in Just Providence, within which being a victim of terror was perceived as a Just retribution for known or unknown wrongdoing. Survivors' reactions to trauma often reflect an effort to reconcile incongruous experiences with previously held beliefs. When treating strict believers, helpers should be sensitive to the identity-preserving function of posttraumatic cognitions.

  1. On a class of adjustable rate mortgage loans subject to a strict balance principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Jensen, Bjarne

    We describe the background and the basic funding mechanisms for the type of adjustable rate mortgageloans that were introduced in the Danish market in 1996. Each loan is funded separately by tap issuingpass-through mortgage bonds (`strict balance principle'). The novelty is a funding mechanism...... that usesa roll-over strategy, where long term loans are funded by sequentially issuing short term pass-throughbonds, and the first issuer of these loans obtained a patent on the funding principles in 1999. Publiclyavailable descriptions of the principles leave an impression of very complicated numerical...... algorithms.The algorithms described here show that the essentials can be reduced to a `back of an envelope' complexity.Keywords: Adjustable rate mortgages, balance principle, patent, yield curve riding...

  2. Patrones de distribución de la flora vascular acuática estricta en el estado de Tamaulipas, México Distributional patterns of the strictly aquatic vascular flora in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Mora-Olivo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron los patrones de riqueza y distribución de las plantas vasculares acuáticas estrictas en el estado de Tamaulipas, México. Se registraron 93 especies, 62 de las cuales son típicas de ambientes lénticos. La subcuenca Río Tamesí fue la que registró el mayor número de especies (68, 73.1%. No se registraron especies endémicas del estado, aunque existen 2 especies restringidas al territorio mexicano (Lobelia purpusii y Oserya coulteriana. Se consideran como raras 29 especies (31.2% por presentarse en una sola subcuenca y sólo 2 especies están distribuidas ampliamente en la mayoría de éstas (Bacopa monnieri y Echinodorus berteroi. Un análisis de parsimonia de endemismos (PAE de las subcuencas hidrológicas del estado con base en la presencia compartida de especies reveló que las plantas acuáticas estrictas presentan un patrón de distribución anidado. Se concluye que las plantas vasculares acuáticas estrictas de Tamaulipas son parte de una misma unidad florística y que su distribución obedece a gradientes altitudinales, latitudinales y climáticos.Patterns of distribution and richness of strictly aquatic vascular plants of the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, were analyzed. We registered 93 species of strictly aquatic vascular plants, which 62 are typical from lentic environments. The Río Tamesí sub-basin contains the highest number of species (68, 73.1%. There are no endemic species to the state of Tamaulipas, but we found 2 species endemic to Mexico (Lobelia purpusii and Oserya coulteriana. Twenty nine species (31.2% are considered rare, because they are present in a single sub-basin; only 2 species are widely distributed in most of them (Bacopa monnieri and Echinodorus berteroi. A parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE of the hydrological sub-basins represented in this state based on the shared presence of species suggested that the strictly aquatic vascular plants have a nested distributional pattern. We conclude that

  3. Strict Liability Versus Policy and Regulation for Environmental Protection and Agricultural Waste Management in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Bakri Ishak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Basically, strict liability is part of the mechanism for expressing judgment or sentence by using direct evidence. This principle is very useful in order to obtain remedies from any damage either directly or indirectly. The principle in Rylands v Fletcher is responsible on imposing strict liability where if something brought onto land or collected there escapes liability under this rule can include not only the owner of land but also those who control or occupation on it. However, as a matter of fact, policy and regulation are also important in taking any action against any party who are responsible for environmental pollution or damage, which may include mismanagement of waste or industrial waste or agricultural waste. There are certain policies and regulations on environmental protection such as the National Environmental Policy, certain Acts and several regulations under the Environmental Quality Act 1974 (Act 127, which are very useful for agricultural waste management inter alia: Waters Act 1920 (Act 418, Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises (Crude Palm Oil Regulations 1977, Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises (Raw Natural Rubber Regulations 1978, Environmental Quality (Sewage and Industrial Effluents Regulations 1979, and Environmental Quality (Compounding of Offences Rules 1978. As a matter of fact, we should realize that time is of an essence for any parties which are involved in court cases and especially in avoiding the element of externality, which is commonly suffered by the government. In making this paper, therefore, some element of comparison with certain developed jurisdiction such as in the United Kingdom and Japan could not be avoided in order to obtain better outcome and to be more practical for the purpose of environmental protection and agricultural waste management.

  4. The Effect of Strict Segregation on Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa van Mansfeld

    Full Text Available Segregation of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF was implemented to prevent chronic infection with epidemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with presumed detrimental clinical effects, but its effectiveness has not been carefully evaluated.The effect of strict segregation on the incidence of P. aeruginosa infection in CF patients was investigated through longitudinal protocolized follow-up of respiratory tract infection before and after segregation. In two nested cross-sectional studies in 2007 and 2011 the P. aeruginosa population structure was investigated and clinical parameters were determined in patients with and without infection with the Dutch epidemic P. aeruginosa clone (ST406.Of 784 included patients 315 and 382 were at risk for acquiring chronic P. aeruginosa infection before and after segregation. Acquisition rates were, respectively, 0.14 and 0.05 per 1,000 days at risk (HR: 0.66, 95% CI [0.2548-1.541]; p = 0.28. An exploratory subgroup analysis indicated lower acquisition after segregation in children < 15 years of age (HR: 0.43, 95% CI[0.21-0.95]; p = 0.04. P. aeruginosa population structure did not change after segregation and ST406 was not associated with lung function decline, death or lung transplantation.Strict segregation was not associated with a statistically significant lower acquisition of chronic P. aeruginosa infection and ST406 was not associated with adverse clinical outcome. After segregation there were no new acquisitions of ST406. In an unplanned exploratory analysis chronic acquisition of P. aeruginosa was lower after implementation of segregation in patients under 15 years of age.

  5. Selvester scoring in patients with strict LBBB using the QUARESS software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaojuan; Chaudhry, Uzma; Wieslander, Björn; Borgquist, Rasmus; Wagner, Galen S; Strauss, David G; Platonov, Pyotr; Ugander, Martin; Couderc, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of the infarct size from body-surface ECGs in post-myocardial infarction patients has become possible using the Selvester scoring method. Automation of this scoring has been proposed in order to speed-up the measurement of the score and improving the inter-observer variability in computing a score that requires strong expertise in electrocardiography. In this work, we evaluated the quality of the QuAReSS software for delivering correct Selvester scoring in a set of standard 12-lead ECGs. Standard 12-lead ECGs were recorded in 105 post-MI patients prescribed implantation of an implantable cardiodefibrillator (ICD). Amongst the 105 patients with standard clinical left bundle branch block (LBBB) patterns, 67 had a LBBB pattern meeting the strict criteria. The QuAReSS software was applied to these 67 tracings by two independent groups of cardiologists (from a clinical group and an ECG core laboratory) to measure the Selvester score semi-automatically. Using various level of agreement metrics, we compared the scores between groups and when automatically measured by the software. The average of the absolute difference in Selvester scores measured by the two independent groups was 1.4±1.5 score points, whereas the difference between automatic method and the two manual adjudications were 1.2±1.2 and 1.3±1.2 points. Eighty-two percent score agreement was observed between the two independent measurements when the difference of score was within two point ranges, while 90% and 84% score agreements were reached using the automatic method compared to the two manual adjudications. The study confirms that the QuAReSS software provides valid measurements of the Selvester score in patients with strict LBBB with minimal correction from cardiologists. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Strict stoichiometric homeostasis of Cryptomonas pyrenoidifera (Cryptophyceae in relation to N:P supply ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Ramos Rodríguez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A common freshwater cryptophyte, Cryptomonas pyrenoidifera, was cultivated in batch-cultures to analyze intraspecific variation in elemental stoichiometry along a broad gradient of pulsed phosphorus (P enrichment during the early acclimation period and to determine the immediate homeostatic capacity of the nitrogen-to-phosphorus (N:P ratio of this alga when nutrients are at saturating levels. Experimental results revealed that nitrogen (N and P cell quotas significantly increased with increasing P concentration. However, despite the wide range of N:P ratios in the medium, Cryptomonas N:P ratios were highly stable at higher P-level treatments, indicating a highly conservative behavior and suggesting strict elemental homeostasis when nutrients are at saturating levels. The strictly homeostatic N:P ratio appears to be attributable to their high potential for a fast luxury consumption of both N and P after a brief and intense episode of increased resource availability and to physiological limits on their nutrient storage capacity. Most importantly, the N:P biomass ratio at nutrient saturating levels converged around 11:1, which was the observed ratio of maximum internal cell quotas for N and P (i.e. Qmax,N:Qmax,P under the prevailing experimental conditions. This value is particularly informative for C. pyrenoidifera because it represents cell storage quotients and may be a taxon-specific evolutionary optimum, providing a reference point to infer the grade of nutrient-limitation. The experimental data give ranges of variation in C. pyrenoidifera elemental composition permitting, among others, proper parameterization of cryptophyte stoichiometry models.

  7. Strict follow-up programme including CT and (18) F-FDG-PET after curative surgery for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, N F; Jensen, A B; Wille-Jørgensen, P

    2010-01-01

    Aim  The risk of local recurrence following curative surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC) is up to 50%. A rigorous follow-up program may increase survival. Guidelines on suitable methods for scheduled follow up examinations are needed. This study evaluates a strict follow-up program including...... supported a strict follow-up program following curative surgery for colorectal cancer. FDG-PET combined with CT should be included in control programs....

  8. Parsimonious concept modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, E.; Trieschnigg, D.; Rijke, M.de; Kraaij, W.

    2008-01-01

    In many collections, documents are annotated using concepts from a structured knowledge source such as an ontology or thesaurus. Examples include the news domain [7], where each news item is categorized according to the nature of the event that took place, and Wikipedia, with its per-article

  9. Parsimonious classification of binary lacunarity data computed from food surface images using kernel principal component analysis and artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Abdullah; Valous, Nektarios A; Sun, Da-Wen; Allen, Paul

    2011-02-01

    Lacunarity is about quantifying the degree of spatial heterogeneity in the visual texture of imagery through the identification of the relationships between patterns and their spatial configurations in a two-dimensional setting. The computed lacunarity data can designate a mathematical index of spatial heterogeneity, therefore the corresponding feature vectors should possess the necessary inter-class statistical properties that would enable them to be used for pattern recognition purposes. The objectives of this study is to construct a supervised parsimonious classification model of binary lacunarity data-computed by Valous et al. (2009)-from pork ham slice surface images, with the aid of kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) and artificial neural networks (ANNs), using a portion of informative salient features. At first, the dimension of the initial space (510 features) was reduced by 90% in order to avoid any noise effects in the subsequent classification. Then, using KPCA, the first nineteen kernel principal components (99.04% of total variance) were extracted from the reduced feature space, and were used as input in the ANN. An adaptive feedforward multilayer perceptron (MLP) classifier was employed to obtain a suitable mapping from the input dataset. The correct classification percentages for the training, test and validation sets were 86.7%, 86.7%, and 85.0%, respectively. The results confirm that the classification performance was satisfactory. The binary lacunarity spatial metric captured relevant information that provided a good level of differentiation among pork ham slice images. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Catchment legacies and time lags: a parsimonious watershed model to predict the effects of legacy storage on nitrogen export.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly J Van Meter

    Full Text Available Nutrient legacies in anthropogenic landscapes, accumulated over decades of fertilizer application, lead to time lags between implementation of conservation measures and improvements in water quality. Quantification of such time lags has remained difficult, however, due to an incomplete understanding of controls on nutrient depletion trajectories after changes in land-use or management practices. In this study, we have developed a parsimonious watershed model for quantifying catchment-scale time lags based on both soil nutrient accumulations (biogeochemical legacy and groundwater travel time distributions (hydrologic legacy. The model accurately predicted the time lags observed in an Iowa watershed that had undergone a 41% conversion of area from row crop to native prairie. We explored the time scales of change for stream nutrient concentrations as a function of both natural and anthropogenic controls, from topography to spatial patterns of land-use change. Our results demonstrate that the existence of biogeochemical nutrient legacies increases time lags beyond those due to hydrologic legacy alone. In addition, we show that the maximum concentration reduction benefits vary according to the spatial pattern of intervention, with preferential conversion of land parcels having the shortest catchment-scale travel times providing proportionally greater concentration reductions as well as faster response times. In contrast, a random pattern of conversion results in a 1:1 relationship between percent land conversion and percent concentration reduction, irrespective of denitrification rates within the landscape. Our modeling framework allows for the quantification of tradeoffs between costs associated with implementation of conservation measures and the time needed to see the desired concentration reductions, making it of great value to decision makers regarding optimal implementation of watershed conservation measures.

  11. Comparison of a one-at-a-step and variance-based global sensitivity analysis applied to a parsimonious urban hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, S.

    2014-12-01

    A sensitivity analysis was conducted on an existing parsimonious model aiming to reproduce flow in engineered urban catchments and sewer networks. The model is characterized by his parsimonious feature and is limited to seven calibration parameters. The objective of this study is to demonstrate how different levels of sensitivity analysis can have an influence on the interpretation of input parameter relevance in urban hydrology, even for light structure models. In this perspective, we applied a one-at-a-time (OAT) sensitivity analysis (SA) as well as a variance-based global and model independent method; the calculation of Sobol indexes. Sobol's first and total effect indexes were estimated using a Monte-Carlo approach. We present evidences of the irrelevance of calculating Sobol's second order indexes when uncertainty on index estimation is too high. Sobol's method results showed that two parameters drive model performance: the subsurface discharge rate and the root zone drainage coefficient (Clapp exponent). Interestingly, the surface discharge rate responsible flow in impervious area has no significant relevance, contrarily to what was expected considering only the one-at-a-time sensitivity analysis. This last statement is clearly not straightforward. It highlights the utility of carrying variance-based sensitivity analysis in the domain of urban hydrology, even when using a parsimonious model, in order to prevent misunderstandings in the system dynamics and consequent management mistakes.

  12. Systematics and morphological evolution within the moss family Bryaceae: a comparison between parsimony and Bayesian methods for reconstruction of ancestral character states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Niklas; Holyoak, David T; Newton, Angela E

    2007-06-01

    The Bryaceae are a large cosmopolitan moss family including genera of significant morphological and taxonomic complexity. Phylogenetic relationships within the Bryaceae were reconstructed based on DNA sequence data from all three genomic compartments. In addition, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference were employed to reconstruct ancestral character states of 38 morphological plus four habitat characters and eight insertion/deletion events. The recovered phylogenetic patterns are generally in accord with previous phylogenies based on chloroplast DNA sequence data and three major clades are identified. The first clade comprises Bryum bornholmense, B. rubens, B. caespiticium, and Plagiobryum. This corroborates the hypothesis suggested by previous studies that several Bryum species are more closely related to Plagiobryum than to the core Bryum species. The second clade includes Acidodontium, Anomobryum, and Haplodontium, while the third clade contains the core Bryum species plus Imbribryum. Within the latter clade, B. subapiculatum and B. tenuisetum form the sister clade to Imbribryum. Reconstructions of ancestral character states under maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference suggest fourteen morphological synapomorphies for the ingroup and synapomorphies are detected for most clades within the ingroup. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian reconstructions of ancestral character states are mostly congruent although Bayesian inference shows that the posterior probability of ancestral character states may decrease dramatically when node support is taken into account. Bayesian inference also indicates that reconstructions may be ambiguous at internal nodes for highly polymorphic characters.

  13. Hide and vanish: data sets where the most parsimonious tree is known but hard to find, and their implications for tree search methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goloboff, Pablo A

    2014-10-01

    Three different types of data sets, for which the uniquely most parsimonious tree can be known exactly but is hard to find with heuristic tree search methods, are studied. Tree searches are complicated more by the shape of the tree landscape (i.e. the distribution of homoplasy on different trees) than by the sheer abundance of homoplasy or character conflict. Data sets of Type 1 are those constructed by Radel et al. (2013). Data sets of Type 2 present a very rugged landscape, with narrow peaks and valleys, but relatively low amounts of homoplasy. For such a tree landscape, subjecting the trees to TBR and saving suboptimal trees produces much better results when the sequence of clipping for the tree branches is randomized instead of fixed. An unexpected finding for data sets of Types 1 and 2 is that starting a search from a random tree instead of a random addition sequence Wagner tree may increase the probability that the search finds the most parsimonious tree; a small artificial example where these probabilities can be calculated exactly is presented. Data sets of Type 3, the most difficult data sets studied here, comprise only congruent characters, and a single island with only one most parsimonious tree. Even if there is a single island, missing entries create a very flat landscape which is difficult to traverse with tree search algorithms because the number of equally parsimonious trees that need to be saved and swapped to effectively move around the plateaus is too large. Minor modifications of the parameters of tree drifting, ratchet, and sectorial searches allow travelling around these plateaus much more efficiently than saving and swapping large numbers of equally parsimonious trees with TBR. For these data sets, two new related criteria for selecting taxon addition sequences in Wagner trees (the "selected" and "informative" addition sequences) produce much better results than the standard random or closest addition sequences. These new methods for Wagner

  14. What is geological entropy and why measure it? A parsimonious approach for predicting transport behaviour in heterogeneous aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Marco; Pedretti, Daniele

    2017-04-01

    We present an approach to predict non-Fickian transport behaviour in alluvial aquifers from knowledge of physical heterogeneity. This parsimonious approach is based on only two measurable parameters describing the global variability and the structure of the hydraulic conductivity (K) field: the variance of the ln(K) values (σY 2), and a newly developed index of geological entropy (HR), based on the concept of Shannon information entropy. Both σY 2 and HR can be obtained from data collected during conventional hydrogeological investigations and from the analysis of a representative model of the spatial distribution of K classes (e.g. hydrofacies) over the domain of interest. The new index HR integrates multiple characteristics of the K field, including the presence of well-connected features, into a unique metric that quantifies the degrees of spatial disorder in the K field structure. Stochastic simulations of tracer tests in synthetic K fields based on realistic distributions of hydrofacies in alluvial aquifers are conducted to identify empirical relations between HR, σY 2, and the first three central temporal moments of the resulting breakthrough curves (BTCs). Results indicate that the first and second moments tend to increase with spatial disorder (i.e, HR increasing). Conversely, high values of the third moment (i.e. skewness), which indicate significant post-peak tailing in the BTCs and non-Fickian transport behaviour, are observed in more orderly structures (i.e, HR decreasing), or for very high σY 2 values. We show that simple closed-form empirical expressions can be derived to describe the bivariate dependency between the skewness of the BTC and corresponding pairs of HR and σY 2. This dependency shows clear correlation for a broad range of structures and Kvariability levels. Therefore, it provides an effective and broadly applicable approach to explain and predict non-Fickian transport in real aquifers, such as those at the well-known MADE site and

  15. Flood modelling with a distributed event-based parsimonious rainfall-runoff model: case of the karstic Lez river catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Coustau

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall-runoff models are crucial tools for the statistical prediction of flash floods and real-time forecasting. This paper focuses on a karstic basin in the South of France and proposes a distributed parsimonious event-based rainfall-runoff model, coherent with the poor knowledge of both evaporative and underground fluxes. The model combines a SCS runoff model and a Lag and Route routing model for each cell of a regular grid mesh. The efficiency of the model is discussed not only to satisfactorily simulate floods but also to get powerful relationships between the initial condition of the model and various predictors of the initial wetness state of the basin, such as the base flow, the Hu2 index from the Meteo-France SIM model and the piezometric levels of the aquifer. The advantage of using meteorological radar rainfall in flood modelling is also assessed. Model calibration proved to be satisfactory by using an hourly time step with Nash criterion values, ranging between 0.66 and 0.94 for eighteen of the twenty-one selected events. The radar rainfall inputs significantly improved the simulations or the assessment of the initial condition of the model for 5 events at the beginning of autumn, mostly in September–October (mean improvement of Nash is 0.09; correction in the initial condition ranges from −205 to 124 mm, but were less efficient for the events at the end of autumn. In this period, the weak vertical extension of the precipitation system and the low altitude of the 0 °C isotherm could affect the efficiency of radar measurements due to the distance between the basin and the radar (~60 km. The model initial condition S is correlated with the three tested predictors (R2 > 0.6. The interpretation of the model suggests that groundwater does not affect the first peaks of the flood, but can strongly impact subsequent peaks in the case of a multi-storm event. Because this kind of model is based on a limited

  16. Immediate effect of instrumentation on the subgingival microflora in deep inflamed pockets under strict plaque control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhemrev, G E; Timmerman, M F; Veldkamp, I; Van Winkelhoff, A J; Van der Velden, U

    2006-01-01

    To investigate (1) reduction in the number of microorganisms obtained directly after subgingival instrumentation, (2) rate of bacterial re-colonization during 2 weeks, under supragingival plaque-free conditions. Effects of subgingival instrumentation were measured at one deep pocket in 22 patients (11 smokers and 11 non-smokers). Immediately after initial therapy, experimental sites, under strict plaque control, were instrumented subgingivally. Microbiological evaluation was performed at pre-instrumentation, immediate post-instrumentation and 1 and 2 weeks post-instrumentation. Mean total anaerobic colony forming units (CFUs) dropped from 3.9 x 10(6) before to 0.09 x 10(6) immediately following instrumentation. Significant reductions were found for Tannerella forsythia, Micromonas micros, Fusobacterium nucleatum and spirochetes. Significant reductions were not observed for Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Campylobacter rectus. Except for spirochetes, no reduction in prevalence of specific periodontal bacteria was found immediately after instrumentation. During follow-up, mean total CFU tended to increase. Prevalence of periodontal bacteria further reduced. No effect of smoking was found. Results indicate that subgingival mechanical cleaning in itself, has a limited effect, in actually removing bacteria. The subsequent reduction in prevalence of specific periodontal bacteria shows that it is apparently difficult for these species to survive in treated pockets.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging quantitation of changes in muscle volume during 7 days of strict bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A A; Stuart, C A; Brunder, D G; Hillman, G R

    1995-10-01

    Prolonged bed rest results in a loss of leg lean body mass. Previous studies using bed rest as a model for microgravity have shown decreases in leg mass after 12 and 14 d, 5 and 17 wk. As magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide a precise and non-invasive means of determining muscle volume, we sought to determine if changes in leg muscle volume could be detected in bed rest periods as short as 7 d. Five young, healthy, male volunteers were subjected to 7 d of absolute bed rest. Each subject underwent MRI quantitation of segmental muscle volumes of the calves and thighs before and after bed rest. Eleven (calf) and nine (thigh) contiguous 1-cm thick transaxial images were generated over prescribed regions using a Technicare MRI imager with a 0.6T superconducting magnet and body coil. Image processing was performed using a generalized 8-bit medical image analysis package developed at University of Texas Medical Branch. Images were analyzed for muscle and non-muscle volumes (including fat, blood vessel, and bone marrow volumes). The MRI quantitation demonstrated bed rest-induced significant decreases in segmental thigh muscle (approximately 3.0%, p image analysis of MRI images provides a sensitive tool capable of detecting leg volume changes of as little as 3.0% over a 7-d period of strict bed rest.

  18. Managing curriculum transformation within strict university governance structures: an example from Damascus University Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayyal, Mohammad; Gibbs, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    As the world of medical education moves forward, it becomes increasingly clear that the transformative process is not as easy a process for all. Across the globe, there appears to be many barriers that obstruct or threaten innovation and change, most of which cause almost insurmountable problems to many schools. If transformative education is to result in an equitable raising of standards across such an unlevel playing field, schools have to find ways in overcoming these barriers. One seemingly common barrier to development occurs when medical schools are trapped within strict University governance structures; rules and regulations which are frequently inappropriate and obstructive to the transformation that must occur in today's medical educational paradigm. The Faculty of Medicine at Damascus University, one of the oldest and foremost medical schools in the Middle East, is one such school where rigid rules and regulations and traditional values are obstructing transformative change. This paper describes the problems, which the authors believe to be common to many, and explores how attempts have been made to overcome them and move the school into the twenty-first century. It is the ultimate purpose of this paper to raise awareness of the issue, share the lessons learned in order to assist others who are experiencing similar problems and possibly create opportunities for dialogue between schools.

  19. On a holomorphic Lefschetz formula in strictly pseudoconvex subdomains of complex manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kytmanov, A M; Myslivets, S G; Tarkhanov, N N

    2004-01-01

    The classical Lefschetz formula expresses the number of fixed points of a continuous map f:M→M in terms of the transformation induced by f on the cohomology of M. In 1966, Atiyah and Bott extended this formula to elliptic complexes over a compact closed manifold. In particular, they obtained a holomorphic Lefschetz formula on compact complex manifolds without boundary. Brenner and Shubin (1981, 1991) extended the Atiyah-Bott theory to compact manifolds with boundary. On compact complex manifolds with boundary the Dolbeault complex is not elliptic, therefore the Atiyah-Bott theory is not applicable. Bypassing difficulties related to the boundary behaviour of Dolbeault cohomology, Donnelly and Fefferman (1986) obtained a formula for the number of fixed points in terms of the Bergman metric. The aim of this paper is to obtain a Lefschetz formula on relatively compact strictly pseudoconvex subdomains of complex manifolds X with smooth boundary, that is, to find the total Lefschetz number for a holomorphic endomorphism f * of the Dolbeault complex and to express it in terms of local invariants of the fixed points of f.

  20. Divergent changes in serum sterols during a strict uncooked vegan diet in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agren, J J; Tvrzicka, E; Nenonen, M T; Helve, T; Hänninen, O

    2001-02-01

    The effects of a strict uncooked vegan diet on serum lipid and sterol concentrations were studied in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The subjects were randomized into a vegan diet group (n 16), who consumed a vegan diet for 2-3 months, or into a control group (n 13), who continued their usual omnivorous diets. Serum total and LDL-cholesterol and -phospholipid concentrations were significantly decreased by the vegan diet. The levels of serum cholestanol and lathosterol also decreased, but serum cholestanol:total cholesterol and lathosterol:total cholesterol did not change. The effect of a vegan diet on serum plant sterols was divergent as the concentration of campesterol decreased while that of sitosterol increased. This effect resulted in a significantly greater sitosterol:campesterol value in the vegan diet group than in the control group (1.48 (SD 0.39) v. 0.72 (SD 0.14); P vegan diet changes the relative absorption rates of these sterols and/or their biliary clearance.

  1. DNA remodelling by Strict Partial Endoreplication in orchids, an original process in the plant kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Spencer C; Bourge, Mickaël; Maunoury, Nicolas; Wong, Maurice; Bianchi, Michele Wolfe; Lepers-Andrzejewski, Sandra; Besse, Pascale; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja; Dron, Michel; Satiat-Jeunemaître, Béatrice

    2017-04-13

    DNA remodelling during endoreplication appears to be a strong developmental characteristic in orchids. In this study, we analysed DNA content and nuclei in 41 species of orchids to further map the genome evolution in this plant family. We demonstrate that the DNA remodelling observed in 36 out of 41 orchids studied corresponds to strict partial endoreplication. Such process is developmentally regulated in each wild species studied. Cytometry data analyses allowed us to propose a model where nuclear states 2C, 4E, 8E, etc. form a series comprising a fixed proportion, the euploid genome 2C, plus 2 to 32 additional copies of a complementary part of the genome. The fixed proportion ranged from 89% of the genome in Vanilla mexicana down to 19% in V. pompona, the lowest value for all 148 orchids reported. Insterspecific hybridisation did not suppress this phenomenon. Interestingly, this process was not observed in mass-produced epiphytes. Nucleolar volumes grow with the number of endocopies present, coherent with high transcription activity in endoreplicated nuclei. Our analyses suggest species-specific chromatin rearrangement. Towards understanding endoreplication, V. planifolia constitutes a tractable system for isolating the genomic sequences that confer an advantage via endoreplication from those that apparently suffice at diploid level. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  2. Strictly hyperbolic models of co-current three-phase flow withgravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juanes, Ruben; Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    2002-11-18

    We study the character of the equations in the traditional formulation of one-dimensional immiscible three-phase flow with gravity, in the limit of negligible capillarity. We restrict our analysis to co-current flow required for a displacement process; in cases of mixed co-current and counter-current flow, capillarity effects cannot be dropped from the formulation. The model makes use of the classical multiphase extension of Darcy's equation. It is well known that, if relative permeabilities are taken as fixed functions of saturations, the model yields regions in the saturation space where the system of equations is locally elliptic. We regard elliptic behavior as a nonphysical artifact of an incomplete formulation, and derive conditions on the relative permeabilities that ensure strict hyperbolicity of the governing equations. The key point is to acknowledge that a Darcy-type formulation is insufficient to capture all the physics of three-phase flow and that, consequently, the relative permeabilities are functionals that depend on the fluid viscosity ratio and the gravity number. The derived conditions are consistent with the type of displacements that take place in porous media. By means of an illustrative example, we show how elliptic behavior can be removed, even when using simplistic relative permeability models.

  3. Clinical impact of strict criteria for selectivity and lateralization in adrenal vein sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparetto, Alessandro; Angle, John F; Darvishi, Pasha; Freeman, Colbey W; Norby, Ray G; Carey, Robert M

    2015-04-01

    Selectivity index (SI) and lateralization index (LI) thresholds determine the adequacy of adrenal vein sampling (AVS) and the degree of lateralization. The purpose of this study was investigate the clinical outcome of patients whose adrenal vein sampling was interpreted using "strict criteria" (SC) (SIpre-stimuli≥3, SIpost-stimuli≥5 and LIpre-stimuli≥4, LIpost-stimuli≥4). A retrospective review of 73 consecutive AVS procedures was performed and 67 were technically successful. Forty-three patients showed lateralization and underwent surgery, while 24 did not lateralize and were managed conservatively. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), kalemia (K(+)), and the change in number of blood pressure (BP) medications were recorded for each patient before and after AVS and potential surgery were performed. In the surgery group, BP and K(+) changed respectively from 160±5.3/100±2.0 mmHg to 127±3.3/80±1.9 (p blood pressure medications were six (14.0%) in the lateralized group and 22 (91.7%) in the non-lateralized group (p <0.001). AVS interpretation with SC leads to significant clinical improvement in both patients who underwent surgery and those managed conservatively.

  4. Generalized mechanical pain sensitivity over nerve tissues in patients with strictly unilateral migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Cuadrado, María Luz; Pareja, Juan A

    2009-06-01

    No study has previously analyzed pressure pain sensitivity of nerve trunks in migraine. This study aimed to examine the differences in mechanical pain sensitivity over specific nerves between patients with unilateral migraine and healthy controls. Blinded investigators assessed pressure pain thresholds (PPT) over the supra-orbital nerves (V1) and peripheral nerve trunks of both upper extremities (median, radial, and ulnar nerves) in 20 patients with strictly unilateral migraine and 20 healthy matched controls. Pain intensity after palpation over both supra-orbital nerves was also assessed. A pressure algometer was used to quantify PPT, whereas a 10-point numerical pain rate scale was used to evaluate pain to palpation over the supra-orbital nerve. The analysis of covariance revealed that pain to palpation over the supra-orbital nerve was significantly higher (P0.6). In patients with unilateral migraine, we found increased mechano-sensitivity of the supra-orbital nerve on the symptomatic side of the head. Outside the head, the same patients showed increased mechano-sensitivity of the main peripheral nerves of both upper limbs, without asymmetries. Such diffuse hypersensitivity of the peripheral nerves lends further evidence to the presence of a state of hyperexcitability of the central nervous system in patients with unilateral migraine.

  5. Sporothrix schenckii (sensu strict S. globosa) mating type 1-2 (MAT1-2) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Rui; Anzawa, Kazushi; Mochizuki, Takashi; Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Hiruma, Masataro; Kamata, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2013-09-01

    Sporotix schenckii is a pathogenic fungus that causes human and animal sporotrichosis, and based on morphology of the sessile conidia and molecular analysis, it was recently recognized as a species complex comprising at least the following six sibling species: S. albicans, S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. luriei, S. mexicana and S. schenckii. However, apart from S. schenckii sensu strict, only S. brasiliensis, S. globosa and S. luriei are associated with human and animal infection. S. globosa has been most commonly isolated in Asia, Europe and the USA; therefore, molecular epidemiological study for S. globosa is important in relation to human sporotrichosis in Japan. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to determine the mating type 1-2 (MAT1-2) gene of Sporothrix schenckii with the aim of understanding the taxonomy of the genus Sporothrix. The MAT1-2 gene (1618 bp) encodes a protein sequence of 198 amino acids. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis also detected MAT1-2 gene mRNA expression in all of the S. schenckii strains examined, indicating that this gene is expressed in S. schenckii cells. Phylogenetic analysis of the MAT1-2 gene fragments of Ophiostoma himal-ulmi, O. novo-ulmi, O. ulmi and S. schenckii indicated that these isolates could be classified into four clusters. MAT1-1 gene-specific polymerase chain reaction was positive in 15 isolates, but negative in four human isolates and one feline isolate. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  6. Strict Criteria for Selection of Laparoscopy for Women with Adnexal Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallum, Luis Felipe; Sarian, Luis Otávio; Bastos, Joana Fróes Bragança; Derchain, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We compared the indication of laparoscopy for treatment of adnexal masses based on the risk scores and tumor diameters with the indication based on gynecology-oncologists' experience. Methods: This was a prospective study of 174 women who underwent surgery for adnexal tumors (116 laparotomies, 58 laparoscopies). The surgeries begun and completed by laparoscopy, with benign pathologic diagnosis, were considered successful. Laparoscopic surgeries that required conversion to laparotomy, led to a malignant diagnosis, or facilitated cyst rupture were considered failures. Two groups were defined for laparoscopy indication: (1) absence of American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG) guideline for referral of high-risk adnexal masses criteria (ACOG negative) associated with 3 different tumor sizes (10, 12, and 14 cm); and (2) Index of Risk of Malignancy (IRM) with cutoffs at 100, 200, and 300, associated with the same 3 tumor sizes. Both groups were compared with the indication based on the surgeon's experience to verify whether the selection based on strict rules would improve the rate of successful laparoscopy. Results: ACOG-negative and tumors ≤10 cm and IRM with a cutoff at 300 points and tumors ≤10cm resulted in the same best performance (78% success = 38/49 laparoscopies). However, compared with the results of the gynecology-oncologists' experience, those were not statistically significant. Discussion: The selection of patients with adnexal mass to laparoscopy by the use of the ACOG guideline or IRM associated with tumor diameter had similar performance as the experience of gynecology-oncologists. Both methods are reproducible and easy to apply to all women with adnexal masses and could be used by general gynecologists to select women for laparoscopic surgery; however, referral to a gynecology-oncologist is advisable when there is any doubt. PMID:25392617

  7. Strict Host-Symbiont Cospeciation and Reductive Genome Evolution in Insect Gut Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Nikoh, Naruo; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

    2006-01-01

    Host-symbiont cospeciation and reductive genome evolution have been identified in obligate endocellular insect symbionts, but no such example has been identified from extracellular ones. Here we first report such a case in stinkbugs of the family Plataspidae, wherein a specific gut bacterium is vertically transmitted via “symbiont capsule.” In all of the plataspid species, females produced symbiont capsules upon oviposition and their gut exhibited specialized traits for capsule production. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the plataspid symbionts constituted a distinct group in the γ-Proteobacteria, whose sister group was the aphid obligate endocellular symbionts Buchnera. Removal of the symbionts resulted in retarded growth, mortality, and sterility of the insects. The host phylogeny perfectly agreed with the symbiont phylogeny, indicating strict host-symbiont cospeciation despite the extracellular association. The symbionts exhibited AT-biased nucleotide composition, accelerated molecular evolution, and reduced genome size, as has been observed in obligate endocellular insect symbionts. These findings suggest that not the endocellular conditions themselves but the population genetic attributes of the vertically transmitted symbionts are probably responsible for the peculiar genetic traits of these insect symbionts. We proposed the designation “Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata” for the plataspid symbionts. The plataspid stinkbugs, wherein the host-symbiont associations can be easily manipulated, provide a novel system that enables experimental approaches to previously untouched aspects of the insect-microbe mutualism. Furthermore, comparative analyses of the sister groups, the endocellular Buchnera and the extracellular Ishikawaella, would lead to insights into how the different symbiotic lifestyles have affected their genomic evolution. PMID:17032065

  8. Analyses des discours non strictement mathematiques accompagnant des cours de mathematiques (Analysis of Not Strictly Mathematical Discourse in Mathematics Classes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Aline

    1995-01-01

    Examines discourse, not strictly mathematical, that teachers might adopt in a mathematics class and presents three major functions of such discourse: communication; structuring and labeling; and reflection. Develops lines for further inquiry, notably on the third function, the most likely focus for specific preparation by the teacher. (13…

  9. Properties of N-person axiomatic bargaining solutions if the Pareto frontier is twice differentiable and strictly concave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douven, R.C.M.H.; Engwerda, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we discuss properties of N-person axiomatic bargaining problems, where the Pareto frontier of S can be described by a strictly concave and twice differentiable function. These type of problems are characteristic for the empirical policy coordination literature. In that literature the

  10. Convergence of Implicit and Explicit Schemes for an Asymptotically Nonexpansive Mapping in -Uniformly Smooth and Strictly Convex Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new iterative scheme with Meir-Keeler contractions for an asymptotically nonexpansive mapping in -uniformly smooth and strictly convex Banach spaces. We also proved the strong convergence theorems of implicit and explicit schemes. The results obtained in this paper extend and improve many recent ones announced by many others.

  11. A non-permselective membrane reactor for chemical processes normally requiring strict stoichiometric feed rates of reactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloot, H.J.; Versteeg, Geert; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1990-01-01

    A novel type of membrane reactor with separated feeding of the reactants is presented for chemical processes normally requiring strict stoichiometric feed rates of premixed reactants. The reactants are fed in the reactor to the different sides of a porous membrane which is impregnated with a

  12. Strict Fathers, Competing Culture(s), and Racialized Poverty: White South African Teachers' Conceptions of Themselves as Racialized Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Zachary A.

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses in particular on four white South African female practicing P-12 teachers' narratives about their own racialized understanding of their classroom practice(s) and their (racio-cultural) self-identity. Each of the four participants reported growing up with what they described as "strict fathers" and shared ways in…

  13. Identité stricte ou partielle et identification dans les phrases à copule. Comment les identifier ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amary-Coudreau Valérie

    2014-07-01

    éristiques propres à l’identité, ainsi que celles propres à la spécification et à l’identification, pour lesquelles X et Y ont des degrés de référentialité et/ou de prédicativité différents. Enfin, cette hypothèse nous amène à distinguer l’identité de l’identification, sur la base de tests qui, à l’inverse de Larreya (2003, différencient l’identité stricte de l’identité partielle.

  14. The Strict Liability Principle and the Human Rights of the Athlete in Doping Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Soek

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAthletes who achieve extraordinary feats on the pitch stir up the imagination and enjoy a unique position within society. However, laurels received one day, may be just as quickly snatched back the next if it becomes known that the athlete achieved his or her exceptional performance

  15. Aspects and Some Results on Passivity and Positivity of Dynamic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Sen, M.

    2017-12-01

    This paper is devoted to discuss certain aspects of passivity results in dynamic systems and the characterization of the regenerative systems counterparts. In particular, the various concepts of passivity as standard passivity, strict input passivity, strict output passivity and very strict passivity (i.e. joint strict input and output passivity) are given and related to the existence of a storage function and a dissipation function. Later on, the obtained results are related to external positivity of systems and positivity or strict positivity of the transfer matrices and transfer functions in the time-invariant case. On the other hand, it is discussed how to achieve or how eventually to increase the passivity effects via linear feedback by the synthesis of the appropriate feed-forward or feedback controllers or, simply, by adding a positive parallel direct input-output matrix interconnection gain.

  16. Strict liability as a legal mechanism protecting the aggrieved parties' interests within the nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotna, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    The no-fault liability principle of nuclear liability regime, its compensation schemes, sociological and legal grounds of its construction as well as liberation grounds are analysed. The simple existence of causation of damage and nuclear accident without necessity of proving negligence or any other type of fault on the part of the operator as an adequate basis for the operator’s strict liability is highlighted thus simplifying the litigation process eliminating potential obstacles, especially such as might exist with the burden of proof. The question of weighing the interests of society in the development of nuclear industry, the necessary extent of protection of victims of nuclear accidents and the interests of operators of nuclear facilities as main determinants of the strict nature of nuclear liability is also described. (orig.)

  17. The impact of Sleep Time-Related Information and Communication Technology (STRICT) on sleep patterns and daytime functioning in American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polos, Peter G; Bhat, Sushanth; Gupta, Divya; O'Malley, Richard J; DeBari, Vincent A; Upadhyay, Hinesh; Chaudhry, Saqib; Nimma, Anitha; Pinto-Zipp, Genevieve; Chokroverty, Sudhansu

    2015-10-01

    This cross-sectional study explored the extent and impact of mobile device-based Sleep Time-Related Information and Communication Technology (STRICT) use among American adolescents (N = 3139, 49.3% female, mean age = 13.3 years). Nearly 62% used STRICT after bedtime, 56.7% texted/tweeted/messaged in bed, and 20.8% awoke to texts. STRICT use was associated with insomnia, daytime sleepiness, eveningness, academic underperformance, later bedtimes and shorter sleep duration. Moderation analysis demonstrated that the association between STRICT use and insomnia increased with age, the association between STRICT use and daytime sleepiness decreased with age, and the association between STRICT use and shorter sleep duration decreased with age and was stronger in girls. Insomnia and daytime sleepiness partially mediated the relationship between STRICT use and academic underperformance. Our results illustrate the adverse interactions between adolescent STRICT use and sleep, with deleterious effects on daytime functioning. These worrisome findings suggest that placing reasonable limitations on adolescent STRICT use may be appropriate. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pseudouridine synthase 1: a site-specific synthase without strict sequence recognition requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibert, Bryan S.; Patton, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Pseudouridine synthase 1 (Pus1p) is an unusual site-specific modification enzyme in that it can modify a number of positions in tRNAs and can recognize several other types of RNA. No consensus recognition sequence or structure has been identified for Pus1p. Human Pus1p was used to determine which structural or sequence elements of human tRNASer are necessary for pseudouridine (Ψ) formation at position 28 in the anticodon stem-loop (ASL). Some point mutations in the ASL stem of tRNASer had significant effects on the levels of modification and compensatory mutation, to reform the base pair, restored a wild-type level of Ψ formation. Deletion analysis showed that the tRNASer TΨC stem-loop was a determinant for modification in the ASL. A mini-substrate composed of the ASL and TΨC stem-loop exhibited significant Ψ formation at position 28 and a number of mutants were tested. Substantial base pairing in the ASL stem (3 out of 5 bp) is required, but the sequence of the TΨC loop is not required for modification. When all nucleotides in the ASL stem other than U28 were changed in a single mutant, but base pairing was retained, a near wild-type level of modification was observed. PMID:22102571

  19. Strict versus liberal target range for perioperative glucose in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Shalin P; Henry, Linda L; Holmes, Sari D; Hunt, Sharon L; Martin, Chidima T; Hebsur, Shrinivas; Ad, Niv

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a liberal blood glucose strategy (121-180 mg/dL) is not inferior to a strict blood glucose strategy (90-120 mg/dL) for outcomes in patients after first-time isolated coronary artery bypass grafting and is superior for glucose control and target blood glucose management. A total of 189 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting were investigated in this prospective randomized study to compare 2 glucose control strategies on patient perioperative outcomes. Three methods of analyses (intention to treat, completer, and per protocol) were conducted. Observed power was robust (>80%) for significant results. The groups were similar on preoperative hemoglobin A(1c) and number of diabetic patients. The liberal group was found to be noninferior to the strict group for perioperative complications and superior on glucose control and target range management. The liberal group had significantly fewer patients with hypoglycemic events (liberal range after coronary artery bypass grafting led to similar outcomes compared with a strict target range and was superior in glucose control and target range management. On the basis of the results of this study, a target blood glucose range of 121 to 180 mg/dL is recommended for patients after coronary artery bypass grafting as advocated by the Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Copyright © 2012 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Strictly Conserved Arg-321 Residue in the Active Site of Escherichia coli Topoisomerase I Plays a Critical Role in DNA Rejoining*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Gagandeep; Annamalai, Thirunavukkarasu; Aedo, Sandra; Cheng, Bokun; Sorokin, Elena; Wong, Agnes; Tse-Dinh, Yuk-Ching

    2011-01-01

    The strictly conserved arginine residue proximal to the active site tyrosine of type IA topoisomerases is required for the relaxation of supercoiled DNA and was hypothesized to be required for positioning of the scissile phosphate for DNA cleavage to take place. Mutants of recombinant Yersinia pestis topoisomerase I with hydrophobic substitutions at this position were found in genetic screening to exhibit a dominant lethal phenotype, resulting in drastic loss in Escherichia coli viability when overexpressed. In depth biochemical analysis of E. coli topoisomerase I with the corresponding Arg-321 mutation showed that DNA cleavage can still take place in the absence of this arginine function if Mg2+ is present to enhance the interaction of the enzyme with the scissile phosphate. However, DNA rejoining is inhibited in the absence of this conserved arginine, resulting in accumulation of the cleaved covalent intermediate and loss of relaxation activity. These new experimental results demonstrate that catalysis of DNA rejoining by type IA topoisomerases has a more stringent requirement than DNA cleavage. In addition to the divalent metal ions, the side chain of this arginine residue is required for the precise positioning of the phosphotyrosine linkage for nucleophilic attack by the 3′-OH end to result in DNA rejoining. Small molecules that can interfere or distort the enzyme-DNA interactions required for DNA rejoining by bacterial type IA topoisomerases could be developed into novel antibacterial drugs. PMID:21478161

  1. Parsimony analysis of endemism (PAE and studies of Mexican biogeography PAE y el estudio de la biogeografía de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Townsend Peterson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Parsimony analysis of endemism (PAE has become a popular analytical approach in efforts to map the biogeography of Mexican biotas. Although attractive, the technique has serious drawbacks that make correct inferences of biogeographic history unlikely, which has been noted amply in the broader literature.El PAE se ha convertido en un método popular en los esfuerzos por resumir, en forma de mapas, la biogeografía de la biota de México. A pesar de su atractivo, la técnica tiene problemas serios que impiden que las conclusiones resultantes sean las correctas. Estos problemas se han hecho ampliamente evidentes en la literatura sobre este campo.

  2. The strict liability principle in antidoping rules and the human rights of athletes: an approach critical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Cunha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Back Ground: the human lives in search of overrun at all levels, whether professional, emotional or in their interpersonal relationships. In the middle of sports this search becomes more visible, because hundredths of seconds can make the difference between the podium and the failure. Journals at any moment announces a new case of a positive doping in several sports. Objective: analyse the processes judged for doping in the STJD of the Brazilian athletism and verify if the pronounced sentences are in accordance with the Brazilian Constitution and with the Universal Declaration of the Human Rights. Materials and Methods: 18 cases were reviewed by the use of prohibited substance, between the years 2003 to 2006 by the STJD of Athletism. Results: of the 18 cases examined only 3 were acquitted by the STJD, however, these three, two have met suspension for two years, in order that WADA, not satisfied with the results asked the International Federation (IAAF to analyze them, and after guided them to the Court of Arbitration Sports (CAS. Conclusion: the rule of objective responsibility are not in accordance with the Brazilian Constitution and with the Universal Declaration of the Human Rights, leading athletes to respond irrespective proven their guilt.

  3. Effectiveness of strict vs. multiple use protected areas in reducing tropical forest fires: a global analysis using matching methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Nelson

    Full Text Available Protected areas (PAs cover a quarter of the tropical forest estate. Yet there is debate over the effectiveness of PAs in reducing deforestation, especially when local people have rights to use the forest. A key analytic problem is the likely placement of PAs on marginal lands with low pressure for deforestation, biasing comparisons between protected and unprotected areas. Using matching techniques to control for this bias, this paper analyzes the global tropical forest biome using forest fires as a high resolution proxy for deforestation; disaggregates impacts by remoteness, a proxy for deforestation pressure; and compares strictly protected vs. multiple use PAs vs indigenous areas. Fire activity was overlaid on a 1 km map of tropical forest extent in 2000; land use change was inferred for any point experiencing one or more fires. Sampled points in pre-2000 PAs were matched with randomly selected never-protected points in the same country. Matching criteria included distance to road network, distance to major cities, elevation and slope, and rainfall. In Latin America and Asia, strict PAs substantially reduced fire incidence, but multi-use PAs were even more effective. In Latin America, where there is data on indigenous areas, these areas reduce forest fire incidence by 16 percentage points, over two and a half times as much as naïve (unmatched comparison with unprotected areas would suggest. In Africa, more recently established strict PAs appear to be effective, but multi-use tropical forest protected areas yield few sample points, and their impacts are not robustly estimated. These results suggest that forest protection can contribute both to biodiversity conservation and CO2 mitigation goals, with particular relevance to the REDD agenda. Encouragingly, indigenous areas and multi-use protected areas can help to accomplish these goals, suggesting some compatibility between global environmental goals and support for local livelihoods.

  4. Hydroxycinnamic acids used as external acceptors of electrons: an energetic advantage for strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filannino, Pasquale; Gobbetti, Marco; De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2014-12-01

    The metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids by strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (19 strains) was investigated as a potential alternative energy route. Lactobacillus curvatus PE5 was the most tolerant to hydroxycinnamic acids, followed by strains of Weissella spp., Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, for which the MIC values were the same. The highest sensitivity was found for Lactobacillus rossiae strains. During growth in MRS broth, lactic acid bacteria reduced caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids into dihydrocaffeic, phloretic, and dihydroferulic acids, respectively, or decarboxylated hydroxycinnamic acids into the corresponding vinyl derivatives and then reduced the latter compounds to ethyl compounds. Reductase activities mainly emerged, and the activities of selected strains were further investigated in chemically defined basal medium (CDM) under anaerobic conditions. The end products of carbon metabolism were quantified, as were the levels of intracellular ATP and the NAD(+)/NADH ratio. Electron and carbon balances and theoretical ATP/glucose yields were also estimated. When CDM was supplemented with hydroxycinnamic acids, the synthesis of ethanol decreased and the concentration of acetic acid increased. The levels of these metabolites reflected on the alcohol dehydrogenase and acetate kinase activities. Overall, some biochemical traits distinguished the common metabolism of strictly heterofermentative strains: main reductase activity toward hydroxycinnamic acids, a shift from alcohol dehydrogenase to acetate kinase activities, an increase in the NAD(+)/NADH ratio, and the accumulation of supplementary intracellular ATP. Taken together, the above-described metabolic responses suggest that strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria mainly use hydroxycinnamic acids as external acceptors of electrons. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Response of molars and non-molars to a strict supragingival control in periodontal patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Daniela Melchiors Angst

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The posterior position in the arches is one of the factors that underlies the poor prognosis of molar teeth (M. It is speculated that M do not benefit from the oral hygiene routine as well as non-molars (NM do. This study evaluated the response of M and NM to supragingival control during a 6-month period in 25 smokers (S and 25 never-smokers (NS with moderate-to-severe periodontitis. One calibrated examiner assessed visible plaque (VPI and gingival bleeding (GBI indexes, periodontal probing depth (PPD, bleeding on probing (BOP, and clinical attachment loss (CAL at days 0 (baseline, 30 and 180. At baseline, M showed significantly higher mean values of VPI (p = 0.017 and PPD (p < 0.001 compared with NM; CAL was also greater in M (p < 0.001 and was affected by smoking (p = 0.007. The reductions obtained for periodontal indicators at day 180 showed similar responses between M and NM. For CAL, M (NS 0.57 ± 0.50; S 0.67 ± 0.64 and NM (NS 0.38 ± 0.23; S 0.50 ± 0.33 reached an almost significant difference (p = 0.05. Smoking did not influence the response to treatment. Multilevel analysis revealed that, only for PDD reductions, the interaction between sites, teeth and patient was significant (p < 0.001. It was concluded that M benefit from an adequate regimen of supragingival biofilm control; therefore, supragingival condition should be considered in the prognosis of molar teeth.

  6. Maintenance of Taste Organs Is Strictly Dependent on Epithelial Hedgehog/GLI Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermilov, Alexandre N; Kumari, Archana; Li, Libo; Joiner, Ariell M; Grachtchouk, Marina A; Allen, Benjamin L; Dlugosz, Andrzej A; Mistretta, Charlotte M

    2016-11-01

    For homeostasis, lingual taste papilla organs require regulation of epithelial cell survival and renewal, with sustained innervation and stromal interactions. To investigate a role for Hedgehog/GLI signaling in adult taste organs we used a panel of conditional mouse models to manipulate GLI activity within epithelial cells of the fungiform and circumvallate papillae. Hedgehog signaling suppression rapidly led to taste bud loss, papilla disruption, and decreased proliferation in domains of papilla epithelium that contribute to taste cells. Hedgehog responding cells were eliminated from the epithelium but retained in the papilla stromal core. Despite papilla disruption and loss of taste buds that are a major source of Hedgehog ligand, innervation to taste papillae was maintained, and not misdirected, even after prolonged GLI blockade. Further, vimentin-positive fibroblasts remained in the papilla core. However, retained innervation and stromal cells were not sufficient to maintain taste bud cells in the context of compromised epithelial Hedgehog signaling. Importantly taste organ disruption after GLI blockade was reversible in papillae that retained some taste bud cell remnants where reactivation of Hedgehog signaling led to regeneration of papilla epithelium and taste buds. Therefore, taste bud progenitors were either retained during epithelial GLI blockade or readily repopulated during recovery, and were poised to regenerate taste buds once Hedgehog signaling was restored, with innervation and papilla connective tissue elements in place. Our data argue that Hedgehog signaling is essential for adult tongue tissue maintenance and that taste papilla epithelial cells represent the key targets for physiologic Hedgehog-dependent regulation of taste organ homeostasis. Because disruption of GLI transcriptional activity in taste papilla epithelium is sufficient to drive taste organ loss, similar to pharmacologic Hedgehog pathway inhibition, the findings suggest that taste

  7. Fermentative Degradation of Polyethylene Glycol by a Strictly Anaerobic, Gram-Negative, Nonsporeforming Bacterium, Pelobacter venetianus sp. nov

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    The synthetic polyether polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a molecular weight of 20,000 was anaerobically degraded in enrichment cultures inoculated with mud of limnic and marine origins. Three strains (Gra PEG 1, Gra PEG 2, and Ko PEG 2) of rod-shaped, gram-negative, nonsporeforming, strictly anaerobic bacteria were isolated in mineral medium with PEG as the sole source of carbon and energy. All strains degraded dimers, oligomers, and polymers of PEG up to a molecular weight of 20,000 completely...

  8. An Iterative Algorithm Combining Viscosity Method with Parallel Method for a Generalized Equilibrium Problem and Strict Pseudocontractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new approximation scheme combining the viscosity method with parallel method for finding a common element of the set of solutions of a generalized equilibrium problem and the set of fixed points of a family of finitely strict pseudocontractions. We obtain a strong convergence theorem for the sequences generated by these processes in Hilbert spaces. Based on this result, we also get some new and interesting results. The results in this paper extend and improve some well-known results in the literature.

  9. Adaptive terminal sliding mode control for hypersonic flight vehicles with strictly lower convex function based nonlinear disturbance observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun-Jie; Zuo, Jing-Xing; Sun, Liang-Hua

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the altitude and velocity tracking control of a generic hypersonic flight vehicle (HFV) is considered. A novel adaptive terminal sliding mode controller (ATSMC) with strictly lower convex function based nonlinear disturbance observer (SDOB) is proposed for the longitudinal dynamics of HFV in presence of both parametric uncertainties and external disturbances. First, for the sake of enhancing the anti-interference capability, SDOB is presented to estimate and compensate the equivalent disturbances by introducing a strictly lower convex function. Next, the SDOB based ATSMC (SDOB-ATSMC) is proposed to guarantee the system outputs track the reference trajectory. Then, stability of the proposed control scheme is analyzed by the Lyapunov function method. Compared with other HFV control approaches, key novelties of SDOB-ATSMC are that a novel SDOB is proposed and drawn into the (virtual) control laws to compensate the disturbances and that several adaptive laws are used to deal with the differential explosion problem. Finally, it is illustrated by the simulation results that the new method exhibits an excellent robustness and a better disturbance rejection performance than the convention approach. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Strictly monolayer large continuous MoS{sub 2} films on diverse substrates and their luminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohapatra, P. K.; Deb, S.; Singh, B. P.; Vasa, P.; Dhar, S., E-mail: dhar@phy.iitb.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2016-01-25

    Despite a tremendous interest on molybdenum disulfide as a thinnest direct band gap semiconductor, single step synthesis of a large area purely monolayer MoS{sub 2} film has not yet been reported. Here, we report a CVD route to synthesize a continuous film of strictly monolayer MoS{sub 2} covering an area as large as a few cm{sup 2} on a variety of different substrates without using any seeding material or any elaborate pretreatment of the substrate. This is achieved by allowing the growth to take place in the naturally formed gap between a piece of SiO{sub 2} coated Si wafer and the substrate, when the latter is placed on top of the former inside a CVD reactor. We propose a qualitative model to explain why the MoS{sub 2} films are always strictly monolayer in this method. The photoluminescence study of these monolayers shows the characteristic excitonic and trionic features associated with monolayer MoS{sub 2}. In addition, a broad defect related luminescence band appears at ∼1.7 eV. As temperature decreases, the intensity of this broad feature increases, while the band edge luminescence reduces.

  11. Event-Sampled Direct Adaptive NN Output- and State-Feedback Control of Uncertain Strict-Feedback System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szanto, Nathan; Narayanan, Vignesh; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2017-04-12

    In this paper, a novel event-triggered implementation of a tracking controller for an uncertain strict-feedback system is presented. Neural networks (NNs) are utilized in the backstepping approach to design a control input by approximating unknown dynamics of the strict-feedback nonlinear system with event-sampled inputs. The system state vector is assumed to be unknown and an NN observer is used to estimate the state vector. By using the estimated state vector and backstepping design approach, an event-sampled controller is introduced. As part of the controller design, first, input-to-state-like stability for a continuously sampled controller that has been injected with bounded measurement errors is demonstrated, and subsequently, an event-execution control law is derived, such that the measurement errors are guaranteed to remain bounded. Lyapunov theory is used to demonstrate that the tracking errors, the observer estimation errors, and the NN weight estimation errors for each NN are locally uniformly ultimately bounded in the presence bounded disturbances, NN reconstruction errors, as well as errors introduced by event sampling. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed controllers.

  12. Calcium signalling in the ciliated protozoan model, Paramecium: strict signal localisation by epigenetically controlled positioning of different Ca²⁺-channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Helmut

    2015-03-01

    The Paramecium tetraurelia cell is highly organised, with regularly spaced elements pertinent to Ca(2+) signalling under epigenetic control. Vesicles serving as stationary Ca(2+) stores or undergoing trafficking contain Ca(2+)-release channels (PtCRCs) which, according to sequence and domain comparison, are related either to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptors (IP3R) or to ryanodine receptor-like proteins (RyR-LP) or to both, with intermediate characteristics or deviation from conventional domain structure. Six groups of such PtCRCs have been found. The ryanodine-InsP3-receptor homology (RIH) domain is not always recognisable, in contrast to the channel domain with six trans-membrane domains and the pore between transmembrane domain 5 and 6. Two CRC subtypes tested more closely, PtCRC-II and PtCRC-IV, with and without an InsP3-binding domain, reacted to InsP3 and to caffeine, respectively, and hence represent IP3Rs and RyR-LPs. IP3Rs occur in the contractile vacuole complex where they allow for stochastic constitutive Ca(2+) reflux into the cytosol. RyR-LPs are localised to cortical Ca(2+) stores; they are engaged in dense core-secretory vesicle exocytosis by Ca(2+) release, superimposed by Ca(2+)-influx via non-ciliary Ca(2+)-channels. One or two different types of PtCRCs also occur in other vesicles undergoing trafficking. Since the PtCRCs described combine different features they are considered derivatives of primitive precursors. The highly regular, epigenetically controlled design of a Paramecium cell allows it to make Ca(2+) available very locally, in a most efficient way, along predetermined trafficking pathways, including regulation of exocytosis, endocytosis, phagocytosis and recycling phenomena. The activity of cilia is also regulated by Ca(2+), yet independently from any CRCs, by de- and hyperpolarisation of the cell membrane potential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. More gain less pain: balance control learning shifts the activation patterns of leg and neck muscles and increases muscular parsimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iodice, Pierpaolo; Cesinaro, Stefano; Romani, Gian Luca; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Athletes such as skaters or surfers maintain their balance on very unstable platforms. Remarkably, the most skilled athletes seem to execute these feats almost effortlessly. However, the dynamics that lead to the acquisition of a defined and efficient postural strategy are incompletely known. To understand the posture reorganization process due to learning and expertise, we trained twelve participants in a demanding balance/posture maintenance task for 4 months and measured their muscular activity before and after a (predictable) disturbance cued by an auditory signal. The balance training determined significant delays in the latency of participants' muscular activity: from largely anticipatory muscular activity (prior to training) to a mixed anticipatory-compensatory control strategy (after training). After training, the onset of activation was delayed for all muscles, and the sequence of activation systematically reflected the muscle position in the body from top to bottom: neck/upper body muscles were recruited first and in an anticipatory fashion, whereas leg muscles were recruited after the disturbance onset, producing compensatory adjustments. The resulting control strategy includes a mixture of anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments, with a systematic sequence of muscular activation reflecting the different demands of neck and leg muscles. Our results suggest that subjects learned the precise timing of the disturbance onset and used this information to deploy postural adjustments just-in-time and to transfer at least part of the control of posture from anticipatory to less-demanding feedback-based strategies. In turn, this strategy shift increases the cost-efficiency of muscular activity, which is a key signature of skilled performance.

  14. Towards parsimony in habit measurement: testing the convergent and predictive validity of an automaticity subscale of the Self-Report Habit Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Benjamin; Abraham, Charles; Lally, Phillippa; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan

    2012-08-30

    The twelve-item Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI) is the most popular measure of energy-balance related habits. This measure characterises habit by automatic activation, behavioural frequency, and relevance to self-identity. Previous empirical research suggests that the SRHI may be abbreviated with no losses in reliability or predictive utility. Drawing on recent theorising suggesting that automaticity is the 'active ingredient' of habit-behaviour relationships, we tested whether an automaticity-specific SRHI subscale could capture habit-based behaviour patterns in self-report data. A content validity task was undertaken to identify a subset of automaticity indicators within the SRHI. The reliability, convergent validity and predictive validity of the automaticity item subset was subsequently tested in secondary analyses of all previous SRHI applications, identified via systematic review, and in primary analyses of four raw datasets relating to energy-balance relevant behaviours (inactive travel, active travel, snacking, and alcohol consumption). A four-item automaticity subscale (the 'Self-Report Behavioural Automaticity Index'; 'SRBAI') was found to be reliable and sensitive to two hypothesised effects of habit on behaviour: a habit-behaviour correlation, and a moderating effect of habit on the intention-behaviour relationship. The SRBAI offers a parsimonious measure that adequately captures habitual behaviour patterns. The SRBAI may be of particular utility in predicting future behaviour and in studies tracking habit formation or disruption.

  15. Towards parsimony in habit measurement: Testing the convergent and predictive validity of an automaticity subscale of the Self-Report Habit Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner Benjamin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The twelve-item Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI is the most popular measure of energy-balance related habits. This measure characterises habit by automatic activation, behavioural frequency, and relevance to self-identity. Previous empirical research suggests that the SRHI may be abbreviated with no losses in reliability or predictive utility. Drawing on recent theorising suggesting that automaticity is the ‘active ingredient’ of habit-behaviour relationships, we tested whether an automaticity-specific SRHI subscale could capture habit-based behaviour patterns in self-report data. Methods A content validity task was undertaken to identify a subset of automaticity indicators within the SRHI. The reliability, convergent validity and predictive validity of the automaticity item subset was subsequently tested in secondary analyses of all previous SRHI applications, identified via systematic review, and in primary analyses of four raw datasets relating to energy‐balance relevant behaviours (inactive travel, active travel, snacking, and alcohol consumption. Results A four-item automaticity subscale (the ‘Self-Report Behavioural Automaticity Index’; ‘SRBAI’ was found to be reliable and sensitive to two hypothesised effects of habit on behaviour: a habit-behaviour correlation, and a moderating effect of habit on the intention-behaviour relationship. Conclusion The SRBAI offers a parsimonious measure that adequately captures habitual behaviour patterns. The SRBAI may be of particular utility in predicting future behaviour and in studies tracking habit formation or disruption.

  16. The transboundary non-renewable Nubian Aquifer System of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan: classical groundwater questions and parsimonious hydrogeologic analysis and modelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.

    2014-01-01

    Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world’s largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.

  17. Strict fibonacci heaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Lagogiannis, George; Tarjan, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first pointer-based heap implementation with time bounds matching those of Fibonacci heaps in the worst case. We support make-heap, insert, find-min, meld and decrease-key in worst-case O(1) time, and delete and delete-min in worst-case O(lg n) time, where n is the size of the heap...... of the smaller heap when doing a meld. We use the pigeonhole principle in place of the redundant counter mechanism. We present the first pointer-based heap implementation with time bounds matching those of Fibonacci heaps in the worst case. We support make-heap, insert, find-min, meld and decrease-key in worst...

  18. Online Recorded Data-Based Composite Neural Control of Strict-Feedback Systems With Application to Hypersonic Flight Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Daipeng; Shi, Zhongke; Pan, Yongping; Chen, Badong; Sun, Fuchun

    2017-09-25

    This paper investigates the online recorded data-based composite neural control of uncertain strict-feedback systems using the backstepping framework. In each step of the virtual control design, neural network (NN) is employed for uncertainty approximation. In previous works, most designs are directly toward system stability ignoring the fact how the NN is working as an approximator. In this paper, to enhance the learning ability, a novel prediction error signal is constructed to provide additional correction information for NN weight update using online recorded data. In this way, the neural approximation precision is highly improved, and the convergence speed can be faster. Furthermore, the sliding mode differentiator is employed to approximate the derivative of the virtual control signal, and thus, the complex analysis of the backstepping design can be avoided. The closed-loop stability is rigorously established, and the boundedness of the tracking error can be guaranteed. Through simulation of hypersonic flight dynamics, the proposed approach exhibits better tracking performance.

  19. Global neural dynamic surface tracking control of strict-feedback systems with application to hypersonic flight vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Chenguang; Pan, Yongping

    2015-10-01

    This paper studies both indirect and direct global neural control of strict-feedback systems in the presence of unknown dynamics, using the dynamic surface control (DSC) technique in a novel manner. A new switching mechanism is designed to combine an adaptive neural controller in the neural approximation domain, together with the robust controller that pulls the transient states back into the neural approximation domain from the outside. In comparison with the conventional control techniques, which could only achieve semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded stability, the proposed control scheme guarantees all the signals in the closed-loop system are globally uniformly ultimately bounded, such that the conventional constraints on initial conditions of the neural control system can be relaxed. The simulation studies of hypersonic flight vehicle (HFV) are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed global neural DSC design.

  20. Iterative algorithms for the input and state recovery from the approximate inverse of strictly proper multivariable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liwen; Xu, Qiang

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes new iterative algorithms for the unknown input and state recovery from the system outputs using an approximate inverse of the strictly proper linear time-invariant (LTI) multivariable system. One of the unique advantages from previous system inverse algorithms is that the output differentiation is not required. The approximate system inverse is stable due to the systematic optimal design of a dummy feedthrough D matrix in the state-space model via the feedback stabilization. The optimal design procedure avoids trial and error to identify such a D matrix which saves tremendous amount of efforts. From the derived and proved convergence criteria, such an optimal D matrix also guarantees the convergence of algorithms. Illustrative examples show significant improvement of the reference input signal tracking by the algorithms and optimal D design over non-iterative counterparts on controllable or stabilizable LTI systems, respectively. Case studies of two Boeing-767 aircraft aerodynamic models further demonstrate the capability of the proposed methods.

  1. Monolithic InP strictly non-blocking 8×8 switch for high-speed WDM optical interconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwack, Myung-Joon; Tanemura, Takuo; Higo, Akio; Nakano, Yoshiaki

    2012-12-17

    A strictly non-blocking 8 × 8 switch for high-speed WDM optical interconnection is realized on InP by using the phased-array scheme for the first time. The matrix switch architecture consists of over 200 functional devices such as star couplers, phase-shifters and so on without any waveguide cross-section. We demonstrate ultra-broad optical bandwidth covering the entire C-band through several Input/Output ports combination with extinction ratio performance of more than 20dB. Also, nanoseconds reconfiguration time was successfully achieved by dynamic switching experiment. Error-free transmission was verified for 40-Gbps (10-Gbps × 4ch) WDM signal.

  2. The LHC Continuous Cryostat Interconnections The Organization of a Logistically Complex Worksite Requiring Strict Quality Standards and High Output

    CERN Document Server

    Fessia, P; Bozzini, D; Cruikshank, P; Jacquemod, A; Maan, W; Musso, A; Oberli, L; Poncet, A; Russenschuck, Stephan; Savary, F; Struik, M; Tock, J Ph; Tommasini, D; Völlinger, C; Kotarba, A; Olek, S; Sulek, Z; Grimaud, A; Vaudaux, L

    2008-01-01

    The interconnections of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) continuous cryostat have been completed in fall 2007: 1695 interconnections magnet to magnet and 224 interconnections between the continuous cryostat and the cryogenic distribution line have been executed along the 27 km of the LHC. The very tight schedule, the complexity of the interconnection sequence, the strict quality standards applied have required the creation of an ad hoc organization in order to steer and coordinate the activities on the worksite dispersed along the whole accelerator ring. The concatenation of construction and test phases carried out by CERN staff, CERN collaborating institutes and contractors have led to the necessity of a common approach and of a very effective information flow. In this paper, after having recalled the main technical challenges, we review the organizational choices that have been taken and we briefly analyze the development of the worksite in term of allocated resources and production.

  3. Analysis of strictly bound modes in photonic crystal fibers by use of a source-model technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Amit; Leviatan, Yehuda

    2004-06-01

    We describe a source-model technique for the analysis of the strictly bound modes propagating in photonic crystal fibers that have a finite photonic bandgap crystal cladding and are surrounded by an air jacket. In this model the field is simulated by a superposition of fields of fictitious electric and magnetic current filaments, suitably placed near the media interfaces of the fiber. A simple point-matching procedure is subsequently used to enforce the continuity conditions across the interfaces, leading to a homogeneous matrix equation. Nontrivial solutions to this equation yield the mode field patterns and propagation constants. As an example, we analyze a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. Symmetry characteristics of the modes are discussed and exploited to reduce the computational burden.

  4. Development of a PCR assay based on the 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer for identification of strictly anaerobic bacterium Zymophilus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Felsberg, Jürgen; Jelínková, Markéta; Kubizniaková, P.; Matoulková, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 33, June (2015), s. 85-89 ISSN 1075-9964 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Brewing microbiology * Strictly anaerobic bacteria * Yeast contamination Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 2.424, year: 2015

  5. Strict blood glucose control by an artificial endocrine pancreas during hepatectomy may prevent postoperative acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Naoji; Kawahito, Shinji; Soga, Tomohiro; Takaishi, Kazumi; Kitahata, Hiroshi; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Shimada, Mitsuo; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumi, Yasuo M; Tanaka, Katsuya

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of a closed-loop system (STG-55; Nikkiso, Tokyo, Japan), a type of artificial endocrine pancreas for the continuous monitoring and control of intraoperative blood glucose, for preventing postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients undergoing hepatectomy. Thirty-eight patients were enrolled in this study. Glucose concentrations were controlled with either a manual injection of insulin based on a commonly used sliding scale (manual insulin group, n = 19) or the programmed infusion of insulin determined by the control algorithm of the artificial endocrine pancreas (programmed insulin group, n = 19). After the induction of anesthesia, a 20-G intravenous catheter was inserted into the peripheral forearm vein of patients in the programmed insulin group and connected to an artificial endocrine pancreas (STG-55). The target range for glucose concentrations was set to 100-150 mg/dL. The mean serum creatinine concentrations of preoperative, postoperative 24 and 48 h were 0.72, 0.78, and 0.79 mg/dL in the programmed insulin group, and 0.81, 0.95, and 1.03 mg/dL in the manual insulin group, respectively. Elevations in serum creatinine concentrations postoperative 48 h were significantly suppressed in the programmed insulin group. The STG-55 closed-loop system was effective for maintaining strict blood glucose control during hepatectomy with minimal variability in blood glucose concentrations and for suppressing elevations in serum creatinine concentrations. Strict blood glucose control by an artificial endocrine pancreas during hepatectomy may prevent postoperative AKI.

  6. Position Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Position Information Data Asset provides the ability to search for active SSA position descriptions using various search criteria. An individual may search by PD...

  7. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the ways in which media discourses become a part of contested consumption activities. We apply a positioning perspective with practice theory to focus on how practitioners relate to media discourse as a symbolic resource in their everyday practices. A typology of performance...... positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...

  8. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  9. Intra-Genomic Heterogeneity in 16S rRNA Genes in Strictly Anaerobic Clinical Isolates from Periodontal Abscesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiazhen; Miao, Xinyu; Xu, Meng; He, Junlin; Xie, Yi; Wu, Xingwen; Chen, Gang; Yu, Liying; Zhang, Wenhong

    2015-01-01

    Background Members of the genera Prevotella, Veillonella and Fusobacterium are the predominant culturable obligate anaerobic bacteria isolated from periodontal abscesses. When determining the cumulative number of clinical anaerobic isolates from periodontal abscesses, ambiguous or overlapping signals were frequently encountered in 16S rRNA gene sequencing chromatograms, resulting in ambiguous identifications. With the exception of the genus Veillonella, the high intra-chromosomal heterogeneity of rrs genes has not been reported. Methods The 16S rRNA genes of 138 clinical, strictly anaerobic isolates and one reference strain were directly sequenced, and the chromatograms were carefully examined. Gene cloning was performed for 22 typical isolates with doublet sequencing signals for the 16S rRNA genes, and four copies of the rrs-ITS genes of 9 Prevotella intermedia isolates were separately amplified by PCR, sequenced and compared. Five conserved housekeeping genes, hsp60, recA, dnaJ, gyrB1 and rpoB from 89 clinical isolates of Prevotella were also amplified by PCR and sequenced for identification and phylogenetic analysis along with 18 Prevotella reference strains. Results Heterogeneity of 16S rRNA genes was apparent in clinical, strictly anaerobic oral bacteria, particularly in the genera Prevotella and Veillonella. One hundred out of 138 anaerobic strains (72%) had intragenomic nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in multiple locations, and 13 strains (9.4%) had intragenomic insertions or deletions in the 16S rRNA gene. In the genera Prevotella and Veillonella, 75% (67/89) and 100% (19/19) of the strains had SNPs in the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Gene cloning and separate amplifications of four copies of the rrs-ITS genes confirmed that 2 to 4 heterogeneous 16S rRNA copies existed. Conclusion Sequence alignment of five housekeeping genes revealed that intra-species nucleotide similarities were very high in the genera Prevotella, ranging from 94.3–100%. However, the

  10. Are our dynamic water quality models too complex? A comparison of a new parsimonious phosphorus model, SimplyP, and INCA-P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Blake, L. A.; Sample, J. E.; Wade, A. J.; Helliwell, R. C.; Skeffington, R. A.

    2017-07-01

    Catchment-scale water quality models are increasingly popular tools for exploring the potential effects of land management, land use change and climate change on water quality. However, the dynamic, catchment-scale nutrient models in common usage are complex, with many uncertain parameters requiring calibration, limiting their usability and robustness. A key question is whether this complexity is justified. To explore this, we developed a parsimonious phosphorus model, SimplyP, incorporating a rainfall-runoff model and a biogeochemical model able to simulate daily streamflow, suspended sediment, and particulate and dissolved phosphorus dynamics. The model's complexity was compared to one popular nutrient model, INCA-P, and the performance of the two models was compared in a small rural catchment in northeast Scotland. For three land use classes, less than six SimplyP parameters must be determined through calibration, the rest may be based on measurements, while INCA-P has around 40 unmeasurable parameters. Despite substantially simpler process-representation, SimplyP performed comparably to INCA-P in both calibration and validation and produced similar long-term projections in response to changes in land management. Results support the hypothesis that INCA-P is overly complex for the study catchment. We hope our findings will help prompt wider model comparison exercises, as well as debate among the water quality modeling community as to whether today's models are fit for purpose. Simpler models such as SimplyP have the potential to be useful management and research tools, building blocks for future model development (prototype code is freely available), or benchmarks against which more complex models could be evaluated.

  11. Ubiquitous positioning

    CERN Document Server

    Mannings, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This groundbreaking resource offers a practical, in-depth understanding of Ubiquitous Positioning - positioning systems that identify the location and position of people, vehicles and objects in time and space in the digitized networked economy. The future and growth of ubiquitous positioning will be fueled by the convergence of many other areas of technology, from mobile telematics, Internet technology, and location systems, to sensing systems, geographic information systems, and the semantic web. This first-of-its-kind volume explores ubiquitous positioning from a convergence perspective, of

  12. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the ways in which media discourses become a part of contested consumption activities. We apply a positioning perspective with practice theory to focus on how practitioners relate to media discourse as a symbolic resource in their everyday practices. A typology of performance...... positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...... are the practice maintenance and the practice change position, with different sorts of adapting in between. Media discourse can become a resource for a resistant position against social control or for an appropriating position in favour of space for action. Regardless of the current relation to a particular media...

  13. Fermentative degradation of polyethylene glycol by a strictly anaerobic, gram-negative, nonsporeforming bacterium, Pelobacter venetianus sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schink, B; Stieb, M

    1983-06-01

    The synthetic polyether polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a molecular weight of 20,000 was anaerobically degraded in enrichment cultures inoculated with mud of limnic and marine origins. Three strains (Gra PEG 1, Gra PEG 2, and Ko PEG 2) of rod-shaped, gram-negative, nonsporeforming, strictly anaerobic bacteria were isolated in mineral medium with PEG as the sole source of carbon and energy. All strains degraded dimers, oligomers, and polymers of PEG up to a molecular weight of 20,000 completely by fermentation to nearly equal amounts of acetate and ethanol. The monomer ethylene glycol was not degraded. An ethylene glycol-fermenting anaerobe (strain Gra EG 12) isolated from the same enrichments was identified as Acetobacterium woodii. The PEG-fermenting strains did not excrete extracellular depolymerizing enzymes and were inhibited by ethylene glycol, probably owing to a blocking of the cellular uptake system. PEG, some PEG-containing nonionic detergents, 1,2-propanediol, 1,2-butanediol, glycerol, and acetoin were the only growth substrates utilized of a broad variety of sugars, organic acids, and alcohols. The isolates did not reduce sulfate, sulfur, thiosulfate, or nitrate and were independent of growth factors. In coculture with A. woodii or Methanospirillum hungatei, PEGs and ethanol were completely fermented to acetate (and methane). A marine isolate is described as the type strain of a new species, Pelobacter venetianus sp. nov. Its physiology and ecological significance, as well as the importance and possible mechanism of anaerobic polyether degradation, are discussed.

  14. Effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy and strict plaque control on preterm/low birth weight: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidlich, Patricia; Moreira, Carlos Heitor C; Fiorini, Tiago; Musskopf, Marta L; da Rocha, José M; Oppermann, Maria Lucia R; Aass, Anne M; Gjermo, Per; Susin, Cristiano; Rösing, Cassiano K; Oppermann, Rui V

    2013-01-01

    This randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out to assess the effect of comprehensive nonsurgical periodontal treatment and strict plaque control performed during pregnancy on the reduction of preterm and/or low birth weight rates (PTLBW). Three hundred and three women were randomly allocated to receive periodontal treatment either during pregnancy (n = 147, test group) or after delivery (n = 156, control group). During pregnancy, the control group received only one session of supragingival scaling and oral hygiene instruction. In contrast, the test group received comprehensive periodontal treatment including multiple sessions of scaling and root planing, oral hygiene instructions, and frequent maintenance visits. At baseline, periodontal inflammation was observed in approximately 50% of sites and attachment loss affected controls, women in the test group had significant reductions in the percentage of sites with plaque (48.5% vs. 10.3%, p control significantly improved periodontal health; however, no reduction of PTLBW rates was observed. Thus, remaining periodontal inflammation posttreatment cannot explain the lack of effect of periodontal treatment on PTLBW. Clinical relevance This study demonstrated that periodontal diseases may be successfully treated during pregnancy. Our results do not support a potential beneficial effect of periodontal treatment on PTLBW.

  15. Nutritionally recommended food for semi- to strict vegetarian diets based on large-scale nutrient composition data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seunghyeon; Fenech, Michael F; Kim, Pan-Jun

    2018-03-12

    Diet design for vegetarian health is challenging due to the limited food repertoire of vegetarians. This challenge can be partially overcome by quantitative, data-driven approaches that utilise massive nutritional information collected for many different foods. Based on large-scale data of foods' nutrient compositions, the recent concept of nutritional fitness helps quantify a nutrient balance within each food with regard to satisfying daily nutritional requirements. Nutritional fitness offers prioritisation of recommended foods using the foods' occurrence in nutritionally adequate food combinations. Here, we systematically identify nutritionally recommendable foods for semi- to strict vegetarian diets through the computation of nutritional fitness. Along with commonly recommendable foods across different diets, our analysis reveals favourable foods specific to each diet, such as immature lima beans for a vegan diet as an amino acid and choline source, and mushrooms for ovo-lacto vegetarian and vegan diets as a vitamin D source. Furthermore, we find that selenium and other essential micronutrients can be subject to deficiency in plant-based diets, and suggest nutritionally-desirable dietary patterns. We extend our analysis to two hypothetical scenarios of highly personalised, plant-based methionine-restricted diets. Our nutrient-profiling approach may provide a useful guide for designing different types of personalised vegetarian diets.

  16. Lack of evidence for phase-only control of retinal photoisomerization in the strict one-photon limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebel, M.; Kukura, P.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of shaping electric fields to steer light-induced processes coherently has fascinated scientists for decades. Despite early theoretical considerations that ruled out one-photon coherent control (CC), several experimental studies reported that molecular responses are sensitive to the shape of the excitation field in the weak-field limit. These observations were largely attributed to the presence of rapid-decay channels, but experimental verification is lacking. Here, we test this hypothesis by investigating the degree of achievable control over the photoisomerization of the retinal protonated Schiff-base in bacteriorhodopsin, isorhodopsin and rhodopsin, all of which exhibit similar chromophores but different isomerization yields and excited-state lifetimes. Irrespective of the system studied, we find no evidence for dissipation-dependent behaviour, nor for any CC in the strict one-photon limit. Our results question the extent to which a photochemical process at ambient conditions can be controlled at the amplitude level, and how the underlying molecular potential-energy surfaces and dynamics may influence this controllability.

  17. Hepatitis A in Puglia (South Italy) after 10 years of universal vaccination: need for strict monitoring and catch-up vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Raw seafood consumption was identified as the major risk factor for hepatitis A during the large epidemic of 1996 and 1997 in Puglia (South Italy). In Puglia, vaccination for toddlers and preadolescents has been recommended since 1998. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence, seroprevalence, molecular epidemiology, and environmental circulation of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in Puglia more than ten years after the introduction of anti-HAV vaccination in the regional immunization program. Methods Data on the incidence of acute hepatitis A in Puglia were analyzed. Characteristics and risk factors of 97 acute hepatitis A cases occurring in 2008–2009 were analyzed. Serum samples from 868 individuals aged 0 to 40 years were tested for anti-HAV antibodies. Fecal samples from 49 hepatitis A cases were analyzed by sequence analysis in the VP1/P2A region. In 2008, 203 mussel samples and 202 water samples from artesian wells were tested for HAV-RNA. Results Between 1998 and 2009, the incidence of acute hepatitis A declined from 14.8 to 0.8 per 100,000. The most frequent risk factors reported by cases in 2008–2009 were shellfish consumption (85%) and travel outside of Puglia or Italy (26%). Seroepidemiologic survey revealed high susceptibility to HAV in children and adults up to age 30 (65%-70%). None of the mussel or water samples were HAV-positive. Phylogenetic analysis revealed co-circulation of subtypes IA (74%) and IB (26%) and clustering of strains with strains from Germany and France, and those previously circulating in Puglia. Conclusion Vaccination and improved sanitation reduced the incidence of hepatitis A. Strict monitoring and improved vaccination coverage are needed to prevent disease resurgence. PMID:23098290

  18. A novel strictly anaerobic recovery and enrichment system incorporating lithium for detection of heat-injured Listeria monocytogenes in pasteurized milk containing background microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonca, A F; Knabel, S J

    1994-11-01

    Heat-injured cells of Listeria monocytogenes were recovered from heated raw milk containing noninjured Enterococcus faecium by combining a simple method for obtaining strict anaerobiosis with a novel enrichment broth, Penn State University broth (PSU broth). Strictly anaerobic conditions were rapidly achieved by adding 0.5 g of filter-sterilized cysteine per liter to PSU broth and then purging the preparation with N2 gas. Little resuscitation or growth occurred in strictly anaerobic PSU broth without lithium chloride because of overgrowth by E. faecium. The growth of E. faecium decreased dramatically with increasing LiCl concentration; LiCl concentrations of 8 and 10 g/liter were completely bacteriostatic. The mechanism of inhibition by LiCl appeared to involve competition with the divalent cations Ca2+ and Mg2+. Heat-injured L. monocytogenes consistently recovered and grew rapidly in strictly anaerobic PSU broth containing 4, 6, or 7 g of LiCl per liter. The use of strictly anaerobic PSU broth containing 7 g of LiCl per liter permitted detection of severely heat-injured L. monocytogenes in one simple recovery-enrichment step by eliminating oxygen toxicity and inhibiting the growth of background microflora, without preventing the resuscitation and subsequent growth of heat-injured L. monocytogenes. L. monocytogenes heated in raw milk at 62.8 degrees C for 10, 15, and 20 min could be consistently recovered from strictly anaerobic PSU broth enrichment cultures at 30 degrees C after 48, 96, and 144 h, respectively, and hence, use of PSU broth may result in better recovery of both injured and noninjured cells from foods than currently used U.S. Department of Agriculture and Food and Drug Administration preenrichment procedures.

  19. Novel microsatellite DNA markers indicate strict parthenogenesis and few genotypes in the invasive willow sawfly Nematus oligospilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, V; Norgate, M; Ede, F J; Nyman, T; Sunnucks, P

    2013-02-01

    Invasive organisms can have major impacts on the environment. Some invasive organisms are parthenogenetic in their invasive range and, therefore, exist as a number of asexual lineages (=clones). Determining the reproductive mode of invasive species has important implications for understanding the evolutionary genetics of such species, more especially, for management-relevant traits. The willow sawfly Nematus oligospilus Förster (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) has been introduced unintentionally into several countries in the Southern Hemisphere where it has subsequently become invasive. To assess the population expansion, reproductive mode and host-plant relationships of this insect, microsatellite markers were developed and applied to natural populations sampled from the native and expanded range, along with sequencing of the cytochrome-oxidase I mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) region. Other tenthredinids across a spectrum of taxonomic similarity to N. oligospilus and having a range of life strategies were also tested. Strict parthenogenesis was apparent within invasive N. oligospilus populations throughout the Southern Hemisphere, which comprised only a small number of genotypes. Sequences of mtDNA were identical for all individuals tested in the invasive range. The microsatellite markers were used successfully in several sawfly species, especially Nematus spp. and other genera of the Nematini tribe, with the degree of success inversely related to genetic divergence as estimated from COI sequences. The confirmation of parthenogenetic reproduction in N. oligospilus and the fact that it has a very limited pool of genotypes have important implications for understanding and managing this species and its biology, including in terms of phenotypic diversity, host relationships, implications for spread and future adaptive change. It would appear to be an excellent model study system for understanding evolution of invasive parthenogens that diverge without sexual reproduction and

  20. Changes in Frequency Intake of Foods in Patients Undergoing Sleeve Gastrectomy and Following a Strict Dietary Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Bozhychko, Maryana; Del-Campo, Jone Miren; Boix, Evangelina; Zubiaga, Lorea; Muñoz, Jose Luis; Llavero, Carolina

    2017-12-17

    Dietary intake and food preferences change after bariatric surgery, secondary to gastrointestinal symptoms and dietitian counseling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the frequency intake of different foods in patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy and following a strict dietary control. A prospective observational study of all the morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy as bariatric procedure between 2007 and 2012 was performed. Dietary assessment was performed using the Alimentary Frequency Questionnaire 1991-2002, developed and validated by the Department of Epidemiology of Miguel Hernandez University (Elche, Alicante Spain). Ninety-three patients were included for analysis, 73 females and 20 males, with a mean preoperative BMI of 46.4 ± 7.9 kg/m 2 . One year after surgery, excess weight loss was 81.1 ± 8.3% and 5 years after surgery, 79.9 ± 6.4%. Total weight loss at 1 year was 38.8 ± 5.3% and at 5 years, 35.4 ± 4.9%. Postoperatively, a reduction in the intake of dairy products, red meat, deli meat products, shellfish, fried potatoes, sweets, rice, pasta, beer, and processed foods was observed. Vegetables, fruits, and legumes intake increased after surgery. In the first postoperative year, there was a slight intolerance to red meat, fruits, vegetables and legumes, dairy products, pasta, and rice that mostly disappeared 5 years after surgery. One year after sleeve gastrectomy, calibrated with a 50-French bougie, there are not important problems in the intake of foods a priori difficult to digest. These problems mostly disappeared 5 years after surgery. The decrease intake of other unhealthy foods is mostly based on the dietary counseling.

  1. Nuclear Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Gregg G.; Worman, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The nucleus is the largest organelle and is commonly depicted in the center of the cell. Yet during cell division, migration and differentiation, it frequently moves to an asymmetric position aligned with cell function. We consider the toolbox of proteins that move and anchor the nucleus within the cell and how forces generated by the cytoskeleton are coupled to the nucleus to move it. The significance of proper nuclear positioning is underscored by numerous diseases resulting from genetic alterations in the toolbox proteins. Finally, we discuss how nuclear position may influence cellular organization and signaling pathways. PMID:23498944

  2. Radiographic positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, R.L.; Dennis, C.A.; May, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book concentrates on the routine radiographic examinations commonly performed. It details the wide variety of examinations possible and their place in initial learning and in the radiology department as references for those occasions when an unusual examination is requested. This book provides information ranging from basic terminology to skeletal positioning to special procedures. Positions are discussed and supplemented with a picture of a patient, the resulting radiograph, and a labeled diagram. Immobilization and proper shielding of the patient are also shown

  3. [Positive psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerby, Nina; Austin, Stephen; Bech, Per

    2016-02-08

    Positive psychiatry (PP) is a field within psychiatry with a particular focus on promoting well-being in people who already have or are at high risk of developing mental or physical illness. PP should be considered a supplement to trad-tional psychiatry and a call for therapists in psychiatry to focus on the person as a whole rather than just as a patient. PP is in line with current national and international health policy focus on promoting positive mental health.

  4. Position encoder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goursky, Vsevolod

    1975-01-01

    A circuitry for deriving the quotient of signal delivered by position-sensitive detectors is described. Digital output is obtained in the form of 10- to 12-bit words. Impact position may be determined with 0.25% accuracy when the dynamic range of the energy signal is less 1:10, and 0.5% accuracy when the dynamic range is 1:20. The division requires an average time of 5μs for 10-bit words

  5. Position encoder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goursky, V.

    1975-05-01

    This paper describes circuitry for deriving the quotient of signals delivered by position-sensitive detectors. Digital output is obtained in the form of 10 to 12 bit words. Impact position may be determined with 0.25% accuracy when the dynamic range of the energy signal is less than 1:10, and 0.5% accuracy when the dynamic range is 1:20. The division requires an average time of 5μs for 10-bit words [fr

  6. Optimization of an effective growth medium for culturing probiotic bacteria for applications in strict vegetarian food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Pathak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to modify de Man Rogosa Sharpe culture medium (termed MRS for selective cultivation of probiotics strain for the consumption by the strictly vegetarian human population. Vegetarian probiotic foods by definition must be free from all animal-derived ingredients. This not only includes the product ingredients but the probiotic inoculum as well. Probiotic starter cultures are traditionally grown and stored in media containing milk or meatderived ingredients. The presence of these ingredients makes the probiotic cell concentrates unsuitable for use in vegetarian products and thus creates the need for a growth medium which isfree from animal-derived ingredients. Present study investigated the growth of a strain of Lactobacillus lactis in MRS. The present invention relates in general to a bacterial culture media,and more specifically a complex microbial culture media, based on plant seed powder extract in place of animal extract for probiotic bacterial growth.Methods: Lactobacillus lactis, a probiotic, was grown in standard MRS culture medium as well as in our various test media (TM containing various vegetal source in place of beef extract, yeast extract and peptone as in case of MRS. The inoculated culture mediums were incubated at 37C for 72 hours and growth of probiotic is recorded at regular intervals. The growth was recorded as Colony Forming Units (CFUs.Results: The best growth of probiotic is observed in TM 2. TM 2 is the leguminous seed extract. Starter culture mediums for probiotics or other bacteria primarily contain protein from animal source. The possibility of using vegetal protein from TM 2 extract in place of peptones and meat extract for the nitrogen supplementation of culture media for the growth of lactic acid bacteria has been demonstrated.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(10:369-378 Conclusion: The absolute vegetarian culture medium containing TM 2 is better than standard MRS for the

  7. Neutronics equations: Positiveness; compactness; spectral theory; time asymptotic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtar-Kharroubi, M.

    1987-12-01

    Neutronics equations are studied: the continuous model (with and without delayed neutrons) and the multigroup model. Asymptotic descriptions of these equations (t→+∞) are obtained, either by the Dunford method or by using semigroup perturbation techniques, after deriving the spectral theory for the equations. Compactness problems are reviewed, and a general theory of compact injection in neutronic functional space is derived. The effects of positiveness in neutronics are analyzed: the irreducibility of the transport semigroup, and the properties of the main eigenvalue (existence, nonexistence, frame, strict dominance, strict monotony in relation to all the parameters). A class of transport operators whose real spectrum can be completely described is shown [fr

  8. Lenient vs. strict rate control in patients with atrial fibrillation and heart failure: a post-hoc analysis of the RACE II study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Bart A.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Crijns, Harry J. G. M.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Hillege, Hans L.; Alings, Marco; Rienstra, Michiel; Groenveld, Hessel F.; van den Berg, Maarten P.; van Gelder, Isabelle C.

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether lenient rate control is an acceptable strategy in patients with AF and heart failure. We evaluated differences in outcome in patients with AF and heart failure treated with lenient or strict rate control. This post-hoc analysis of the RACE II trial included patients with an

  9. A Banach-Dieudonné theorem for the space of bounded continuous functions on a separable metric space with the strict topology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Let X be a separable metric space and let β be the strict topology on the space of bounded continuous functions on X, which has the space of τ-additive Borel measures as a continuous dual space. We prove a Banach-Dieudonné type result for the space of bounded continuous functions equipped with β:

  10. Researcher positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Khawaja, Iram

    2009-01-01

    abstract  This article focuses on the complex and multi-layered process of researcher positioning, specifically in relation to the politically sensitive study of marginalised and ‘othered' groups such as Muslims living in Denmark. We discuss the impact of different ethnic, religious and racial...... backgrounds, of membership in a minoritised[i] or majoritised group, and the influence of different theoretical and methodological outlooks on our common goal of trying to transcend existing othering and objectifying representations of Muslims in Western societies. This process sometimes entails a direct...... political and personal involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives on research and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance of constant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioning as a researcher influences the research...

  11. Positional games

    CERN Document Server

    Hefetz, Dan; Stojaković, Miloš; Szabó, Tibor

    2014-01-01

    This text serves as a thorough introduction to the rapidly developing field of positional games. This area constitutes an important branch of combinatorics, whose aim it is to systematically develop an extensive mathematical basis for a variety of two-player perfect information games. These range from such popular games as Tic-Tac-Toe and Hex to purely abstract games played on graphs and hypergraphs. The subject of positional games is strongly related to several other branches of combinatorics such as Ramsey theory, extremal graph and set theory, and the probabilistic method. These notes cover a variety of topics in positional games, including both classical results and recent important developments. They are presented in an accessible way and are accompanied by exercises of varying difficulty, helping the reader to better understand the theory. The text will benefit both researchers and graduate students in combinatorics and adjacent fields.

  12. Researcher Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram; Mørck, Line Lerche

    2009-01-01

    involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives onresearch and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance ofconstant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioningas a researcher influences the research process. Studying the other...

  13. The "high solubility" definition of the current FDA Guidance on Biopharmaceutical Classification System may be too strict for acidic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanian, Mehran; Briggs, Katherine; Jankovsky, Corinne; Hawi, Amale

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess if the definition of high solubility as proposed in the FDA Guidance on Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) is too strict for highly permeable acidic drugs. The solubility and permeability values of 20 (18 acidic and 2 non-acidic) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) were determined. The NSAIDs were grouped into three different sets having acetic acid, propionic acid, or other acidic moieties such as fenamate, oxicam, and salicylate. Two nonacidic NSAIDs (celecoxib and rofecoxib) were also included for comparison purposes. Equilibrium solubility values were determined at pH 1.2, 5.0, 7.4, and in biorelevant media simulating fed intestinal fluid at pH 5.0. For a select number of acids, we also measured solubility values in media simulating gastric and fasted intestinal fluids. Permeability classification was established relative to that of reference drugs in the Caco-2 cell permeability model. Permeability coefficients for all drugs were measured at concentrations corresponding to the lowest and highest marketed dose strengths dissolved in 250 ml volume, and their potential interaction with cellular efflux pumps was investigated. All NSAIDs with different acidic functional groups were classified as highly permeable based on their Caco-2 cell permeability. Only ketorolac appeared to have a potential for interaction with cellular efflux pumps. Solubility classification was based on comparison of equilibrium solubility at pH 1.2, 5.0. and 7.4 relative to marketed dose strengths in 250 ml. The pKa values for the acidic NSAIDs studied were between 3.5 and 5.1. and, as expected, their solubility increased dramatically at pH 7.4 compared to pH 1.2. Only three NSAIDs, ketorolac, ketoprofen. and acetyl salicylic acid, meet the current criteria for high solubility over the entire pH range. However, with the exception of ibuprofen, oxaprozin, and mefenamic acid, the remaining compounds can be classified as Class I drugs

  14. Positioning apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Max A.; Alter, Paul

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

  15. Anatomic position of the asterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J D; Tschabitscher, M

    1998-01-01

    The asterion is defined as the junction of the lambdoid, parietomastoid, and occipitomastoid sutures. The asterion has been used as a landmark in lateral approaches to the posterior fossa. However, its reliability as a landmark comes into question considering the apparent variability of its position. This study was performed to determine the reliability of the asterion as a surgical landmark. One hundred dried skulls were obtained for study. A 2-mm drill hole was placed at the asterion on each side. The position of the drill hole on the inner surface of the skull was next determined and recorded. The asterion was located over the posterior fossa dura in 32% on the right and 25% on the left. Its position was over the transverse or sigmoid sinus complex in 61% on the right and 66% on the left. The landmark was located above the transverse-sigmoid sinus complex in 7% on the right and 9% on the left. The asterion is not a strictly reliable landmark in terms of locating the underlying posterior fossa dura. Its location is very often directly over the transverse-sigmoid sinus complex. Burr holes placed at the asterion may often open the bone directly over the sinus, leading to potential damage.

  16. Sorption-induced reversible oxidation of Fe(2) at the smectite/water interface under strictly anoxic conditions. A Moessbauer spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehin, A.; Charlet, L. [Laboratoire de Geophysique Interne et Tectonophysique (LGIT), Universite de Grenoble, 38 - Grenoble (France); Gehin, A. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs, ANDRA, 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France); Greneche, J.M. [Laboratoire de Physique de l' Etat Condense, UMR-CNRS 6087, 72 - Le Mans (France); Brendle, J. [Universite de Haute Alsace, Lab. des Materiaux Mineraux (LMM), 68 - Mulhouse (France); Rancourt, D.G. [Ottawa Univ., Dept. of Physics, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Previous studies of Fe(II) sorption onto montmorillonite have been performed with the mineral extracted from the MX80 bentonite. These studies have shown that Fe(II) can be sorbed onto clay minerals in cation exchange position. The affinity of montmorillonite for Fe(II) and Ca(II) is identical. Fe(II) may also be specifically adsorbed onto montmorillonite clay edges. Moessbauer spectroscopy confirmed the high affinity of clay surfaces for Fe(II) sorption and showed that this sorption is mainly due to a two step mechanism: Fe(II) specific adsorption, followed by oxidation of the Fe(II) sorbed. The identification of the oxidizing agent was prohibited due to the complex chemistry of the natural MX80 montmorillonite. Thus, synthetic iron-free montmorillonite was used (chemical formula: Ca{sub 0.3} (A{sub 1.4}Mg{sub 0.6}) (Si{sub 4}) O{sub 10}(OH){sub 2} ). {sup 57}Fe(II) sorption experiments were conducted in a N{sub 2} atmosphere gloves-box, in strictly anoxic conditions. Solid samples were synthesized in order to confirm the clay high affinity for Fe(II), in absence of structural oxidant, and to have a better comprehension of the sorption mechanism. Moessbauer spectra were recorded for each sample. Whereas no Fe(III) is detected in solution as pH was increased and then, a significant amount of surface sorbed Fe(III) was found to be reversibly produced, which amounts for 0-3% of total Fe in the pre-sorption edge acid region, up to 7% of total Fe when all Fe is sorbed in the neutral to alkaline pH range. From pH {approx_equal} 2 to pH {approx_equal} 7, a sorption edge plateau is observed. In this plateau, the sorbed-Fe(III)/sorbed-Fe ratio increases with pH, up to 45% at pH 7. Moessbauer spectra comparison with ferrous hydroxide, synthesized in the same redox conditions at higher pH, show that this oxidation can not be due to the trace amounts Oz in the suspension. The Moessbauer spectra components of both Fe(II) and Fe(III) appears as paramagnetic doublets: iron has

  17. Evaluation of a strict protocol approach in managing women with severe disease due to hypertension in pregnancy: A before and after study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Backer Fèbè

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate whether the introduction of a strict protocol based on the systemic evaluation of critically ill pregnant women with complications of hypertension affected the outcome of those women. Method Study group: Indigent South African women managed in the tertiary hospitals of the Pretoria Academic Complex. Since 1997 a standard definition of women with severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM, also referred to as a Nearmiss, has been used in the Pretoria Academic Complex. All cases of SAMM and maternal deaths (MD were entered on the Maternal Morbidity and Mortality Audit System programme (MaMMAS. A comparison of outcome of severely ill women who had complications of hypertension in pregnancy was performed between 1997–1998 (original protocol and 2002–2003 (strict protocol. Data include women referred from outside the Pretoria Academic Complex area to the tertiary hospitals. Results Between 1997–1998 there were 79 women with SAMM and 18 maternal deaths due to complications of hypertension, compared with 91 women with SAMM and 13 maternal deaths in 2002–2003. The mortality index (MI declined from 18.6% to 12.5% (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.27–1.45. Statistically significant fewer women had renal failure (RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.21 – 0.66 and cerebral complications (RR 0.52, 95%CI 0.34 – 0.81 during the second period, and liver dysfunction (RR 0.27 95%CI 0.06 – 1.25 tended to be lower. However, there tended to be an increase in the number of women, who had immune system failure (RR 4.2 95%CI 0.93 – 18.94 and respiratory failure (RR 1.42 95%CI 0.88 – 2.29 although it did not reach significance. Cardiac failure remained constant (RR 0.84 95%CI 0.54 – 1.30. Conclusion The strict protocol approach based on the systemic evaluation of severely ill pregnant women with complications of hypertension and an intensive, regular feedback mechanism has been associated with a reduction in the number of patients with renal failure and

  18. Softness and amplitudes’ positivity for spinning particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellazzini, Brando [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS,F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2017-02-07

    We derive positivity bounds for scattering amplitudes of particles with arbitrary spin using unitarity, analyticity and crossing symmetry. The bounds imply the positivity of certain low-energy coefficients of the effective action that controls the dynamics of the light degrees of freedom. We show that low-energy amplitudes strictly softer than O(p{sup 4}) do not admit unitary ultraviolet completions unless the theory is free. This enforces a bound on the energy growth of scattering amplitudes in the region of validity of the effective theory. We discuss explicit examples including the Goldstino from spontaneous supersymmetry breaking, and the theory of a spin-1/2 fermion with a shift symmetry.

  19. Benign positional vertigo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertigo - positional; Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo; BPPV: dizziness- positional ... Benign positional vertigo is also called benign paroxysmal ... ear has fluid-filled tubes called semicircular canals. When you ...

  20. Strictly Limited Choice or Agency?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip Christopher; Puck, Jonas F.; Heidenreich, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    the external pressures are joined by strong firm-internal pressures. Our findings contribute to the scarce literature on firms’ political strategies in emerging markets. They also support recent criticism of institutional theory’s strong focus on isomorphism as the most important legitimacy-conveying mechanism......This article analyzes political strategies of MNC subsidiaries in emerging markets. We find that institutional pressures from public and private non-market actors in the emerging market lead to increased political activism. Furthermore, we find that these relationships become stronger, when....... We argue that the isomorphism-based either-or logic gives way to stronger agency of the subsidiary and to a logic of active negotiation and social construction of the subsidiary’s legitimacy in the emerging market. Our findings show support for this idea as political activism is one such way how...

  1. Mapping clinical journeys of Asian patients presenting to the Emergency Department with syncope: Strict adoption of international guidelines does not reduce hospitalisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojodjojo, Pipin; Boey, Elaine; Elangovan, Anita; Chen, Xianyi; Tan, Yuquan; Singh, Devinder; Yeo, Wee Tiong; Lim, Toon Wei; Seow, Swee Chong; Sim, Tiong Beng

    2016-09-01

    Limited data exists about management of syncope in Asia. The American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines have defined the high-risk syncope patient. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of managing syncope in an Asian healthcare system and whether strict adherence of international guidelines would reduce hospitalizations. Patients attending the Emergency Department of a Singaporean tertiary hospital with syncope were identified. Clinical journeys of all patients were meticulously mapped by interrogation of a comprehensive electronic medical record system and linkages with national datasets. Primary endpoint was hospitalization. Secondary endpoints were recurrent syncope within 1year and all-cause mortality. Expected admission rates based on application of ACEP/ESC guidelines were calculated. 638 patients (43.8±22.4years, 49.0% male) presented with syncope. 48.9% were hospitalized for 2.9±3.2days. Yields of common investigations ranged from 0 to 11.5% and no diagnosis was reached in 51.5% of patients. Diuretics use (HR 5.1, p=0.01) and prior hospitalization for syncope (HR 6.9, psyncope. Over 2.8 SD 0.3years of follow-up, 40 deaths occurred. 24 patients who died within 12months of presentation were admitted or had a firm diagnosis upon discharge. Application of guidelines did not significantly reduce hospitalisations, with limited agreement which patients warrant admission. (Actual 376, ACEP 354, ESC 391 admissions, p=NS). Unstructured management of syncope results in nearly half of patients being admitted and substantial healthcare expenditures, yet with limited diagnostic yield. Strict adoption of ACEP or ESC guidelines does not reduce admissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Deviation from strict homeostasis across multiple trophic levels in an invertebrate consumer assemblage exposed to high chronic phosphorus enrichment in a Neotropical stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Gaston E; Pringle, Catherine M

    2010-03-01

    A central tenet of ecological stoichiometry is that consumer elemental composition is relatively independent of food resource nutrient content. Although the P content of some invertebrate consumer taxa can increase as a consequence of P-enriched food resources, little is known about how ecosystem nutrient loading can affect the elemental composition of entire consumer assemblages. Here we examine the potential for P enrichment across invertebrate consumer assemblages in response to chronic high P loading. We measured elemental ratios in invertebrate consumers and basal food resources in a series of streams in lowland Costa Rica that range widely in P levels (2-135 microg l(-1) soluble reactive P). Streams with high P levels receive natural long-term (over millennia) inputs of solute-rich groundwater while low-P streams do not receive these solute-rich groundwater inputs. P content of leaf litter and epilithon increased fourfold across the natural P gradient, exceeding basal resource P content values reported in the literature from other nutrient-rich streams. Invertebrate consumers from the high-P study stream were elevated twofold in P content across multiple taxonomic and functional feeding groups, including predators. Our results strongly support the hypothesis that elevated P content in consumers feeding on P-enriched food resources is a consequence of deviation from strict homeostasis. In contrast to prior studies, we found that between-stream variation in P content of a given taxon greatly exceeded within-stream variation among different taxa, suggesting that environment may be as important as phylogeny in controlling consumer stoichiometry. Relaxing the assumption of strict homeostasis presents challenges and opportunities for advancing our understanding of how nutrient limitation affects consumer growth. Moreover, our findings may provide a window into the future of how chronic anthropogenic nutrient loading can alter stoichiometric relationships in food

  3. Assessing the Land Subsidence Governance in Ningbo City: By a Close Study of the Building Collapse at the Strictly Protected Land Subsidence Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xia

    2016-04-01

    Ningbo is a coastal city in East China, its land subsidence problem was noticed in the 1960s. However, scientific management was insufficient at that time, so with the fast city development from the 1980s, groundwater was used by a large amount of small factories, and tall buildings were built on the land. It was in 2008, scientists predicted that if without doing anything to prevent the land from subsiding, the city will be covered by the East Sea in 2030. From then on, the local government implied several policies, such as shut down most of the groundwater pumping wells, set up a new authority to enhance the cooperation among different administration departments, and also set up a land subsidence monitoring center for the city. Recently, it is declared that a Stereo regulatory system of land subsidence governance has been achieved. However, in 2012, a 23-years old building in the city center collapsed. According to the City Planning 2009, this building is located just in the strictly protected land subsidence area. The experts, however, think that land subsidence is not the main reason, since there are many illegal changes to the building during the past 23 years. The aim of my research is to assess the land subsidence governance in Ningbo city. I studied the collapsed building, how it was built, what has changed after building, how the environment changed in this area, and how this area became the strictly protected land subsidence area, and what kind of protections have been made. Actually, during the case study I discuss the land subsidence governance design of Ningbo, and to see what practices and lessons we can learn from this case.

  4. Studies Of Positive-Position-Feedback Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanson, James L.; Caughey, Thomas K.

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses theoretical and experimental studies of positive-position-feedback control for suppressing vibrations in large flexible structures. Positive-position-feedback control involves placement of actuators and sensors on structure; control voltages applied to actuators in response to outputs of sensors processed via compensator algorithm. Experiments demonstrate feasibility of suppressing vibrations by positive position feedback, and spillover of vibrational energy into uncontrolled modes has stabilizing effect if control gain sufficiently small.

  5. Multiple positive solutions for second order impulsive boundary value problems in Banach spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Wei Lv

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available By means of the fixed point index theory of strict set contraction operators, we establish new existence theorems on multiple positive solutions to a boundary value problem for second-order impulsive integro-differential equations with integral boundary conditions in a Banach space. Moreover, an application is given to illustrate the main result.

  6. Health benefit from decreasing exposure to heavy metals and metalloid after strict pollution control measures near a typical river basin area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Ma, Yingqun; Zhao, Xiuge; Qin, Yanwen; Liu, Yan; Li, Sai; Zheng, Binghui; Wei, Fusheng

    2017-10-01

    The metal(loid) pollution still is a great concern due to the effects from urbanization and industrialization. While, the health risks from the toxic metal(loid)s could decrease if strict pollution control measures were adopted. However, few studies to date investigate the health risks of heavy metal(loid)s in a systematic river basin for the dependent residents, after taking pollution control measures. Thus, the contents of metal(loid)s (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn, As) in surface water along a typical river basin were investigated in this study, and the potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks posed to the residents were assessed. Although the soluble contents of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd exceeded the respective thresholds in two sites located downstream the mine area, they were greatly decreased in comparison with previous contamination levels, and the soluble concentrations of all the metal(loid)s were within the relevant thresholds in the sites far away from the mining area. Moreover, the closer to the mining area, the higher the pollution levels of metal(loid)s. The total hazard index for non-carcinogenic risks of metal(loid)s were basically lower than the threshold (1) for the local population. Whereas, although the content of metal(loid)s were low (such as As), they could pose relative higher non-carcinogenic health risks. The result illustrated that pollution levels, toxicity of the contaminants and exposure behavior patterns all could contribute to the potential detrimental health risks. Additionally, the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks from ingestion exposure were ∼2-∼4 orders of magnitude higher than those from dermal contact. The total carcinogenic risks were basically lower than the maximum tolerable levels (1.0 × 10 -4 ), indicating carcinogenic risks from most areas of the river could also be accepted. Among different population groups, heavy metal(loid)s posed relative higher non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks to the children in

  7. When is it acceptable to kill a strictly protected carnivore? Exploring the legal constraints on wildlife management within Europe’s Bern Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. C. Linnell

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As wolf populations expand across Europe, many countries face challenges in finding ways to address the concerns of some elements among the rural stakeholders who are being asked to share their landscapes with wolves for the first time in several generations. In these recovery landscapes, wolves are associated with a wide range of conflicts that include economic, psychological, perceptional, social, cultural and political dimensions. A recurring demand concerns the desire to introduce the use of carefully regulated lethal control of wolves, through either culling by state employees or hunting conducted by rural hunters. Introducing such measures can be very controversial, and many critics challenge their legality under the international wildlife conservation instruments that have nurtured wolf recovery. We evaluate this issue for the case of wolves in Norway, which are strictly protected under the Bern Convention. Drawing on the latest results of social science research, we present the multiple lines of argumentation that are often used to justify killing wolves and relate these to the criteria for exceptions that exist under the Bern Convention. We conclude that while the Convention provides apparent scope for allowing the killing of wolves as a means to address conflicts, this must be clearly justified and proportional to the conservation status of wolves so as to not endanger their recovery.

  8. Modeling the adsorption of hydrogen, sodium, chloride and phthalate on goethite using a strict charge-neutral ion-exchange theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndu, Udonna

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneous adsorption modeling of four ions was predicted with a strict net charge-neutral ion-exchange theory and its corresponding equilibrium and mass balance equations. An important key to the success of this approach was the proper collection of all the data, particularly the proton adsorption data, and the inclusion of variable concentrations of conjugate ions from the experimental pH adjustments. Using IExFit software, the ion-exchange model used here predicted the competitive retention of several ions on goethite by assuming that the co-adsorption or desorption of all ions occurred in the correct stoichiometries needed to maintain electroneutrality. This approach also revealed that the retention strength of Cl− ions on goethite increases in the presence of phthalate ions. That is, an anion-anion enhancement effect was observed. The retention of Cl− ions was much weaker than phthalate ions, and this also resulted in a higher sensitivity of the Cl− ions toward minor variations in the surface reactivity. The proposed model uses four goethite surface sites. The drop in retention of phthalate ions at low pH was fully described here as resulting from competitive Cl− reactions, which were introduced in increasing concentrations into the matrix as the conjugate base to the acid added to lower the pH. PMID:28464020

  9. Przewalski’ s Horse ( Equus ferus przewalskii Re-intr oduction in the Great Gobi B Strictly Protected Area: from Species to Ecosystem Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kaczensky

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The Przewalski’s horse ( Equus ferus przewalskii Po ljakov , 1881, or “T akhi” in Mongolian, became extinct in the wild by the mid 1960’ s. The last recorded sightings of Przewalski’s horses occurred in the Dzungarian Gobi desert in SW Mo ngolia, today’s Great Gobi B Strictly Protected Area (SP A. A re - introduction program was initiated in 1992 and the fi rs t group of captive-born Przewalski’s horses was airlifted to the SPA. Given the logistical challenges associated with such a venture, the initial project focus has been on transport logistics and the well-being of the re-introduced horses. Tod ay, conservation efforts are spread over the entire protected area. Present day ef forts include other mammals, vegetation and the local people. Due to its important symbolic value in Mongolian culture, the Przewalski’ s horse became an important fl agship species for the protected area’s conservation and management.

  10. Asymmetric reduction of ketopantolactone using a strictly (R)-stereoselective carbonyl reductase through efficient NADPH regeneration and the substrate constant-feeding strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Man; Gao, Liang; Zhang, Li; Bai, Yanbin; Chen, Liang; Yu, Meilan; Cheng, Feng; Sun, Jie; Wang, Zhao; Ying, Xiangxian

    2017-11-01

    To characterize a recombinant carbonyl reductase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SceCPR1) and explore its use in asymmetric synthesis of (R)-pantolactone [(R)-PL]. The NADPH-dependent SceCPR1 exhibited strict (R)-enantioselectivity and high activity in the asymmetric reduction of ketopantolactone (KPL) to (R)-PL. Escherichia coli, coexpressing SceCPR1 and glucose dehydrogenase from Exiguobacterium sibiricum (EsGDH), was constructed to fulfill efficient NADPH regeneration. During the whole-cell catalyzed asymmetric reduction of KPL, the spontaneous hydrolysis of KPL significantly affected the yield of (R)-PL, which was effectively alleviated by the employment of the substrate constant-feeding strategy. The established whole-cell bioreduction for 6 h afforded 458 mM (R)-PL with the enantiomeric excess value of >99.9% and the yield of 91.6%. Escherichia coli coexpressing SceCPR1 and EsGDH efficiently catalyzed the asymmetric synthesis of (R)-PL through the substrate constant-feeding strategy.

  11. Agathobaculum butyriciproducens gen. nov.  sp. nov., a strict anaerobic, butyrate-producing gut bacterium isolated from human faeces and reclassification of Eubacterium desmolans as Agathobaculum desmolans comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sharon; Jin, Tae-Eun; Chang, Dong-Ho; Rhee, Moon-Soo; Kim, Hyun Ju; Lee, Sang Jun; Park, Doo-Sang; Kim, Byoung-Chan

    2016-09-01

    A novel bacterial strain, SR79T, was isolated from a Korean faecal sample and characterized using a polyphasic approach. SR79T was found to be a strictly anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, non-spore-forming, non-motile, catalase- and oxidase-negative short rod with no flagella. SR79T grew optimally at 37 °C in the presence of 0.5 % (w/v) NaCl at pH 7. The NaCl range for growth was 0-1 % (w/v). The isolate produced butyric acid (>18  mM) as a major end product. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the most closely related type strains were Eubacteriumdesmolans ATCC 43058T and Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum 25-3T (96.4 and 96.0 % similarity, respectively). The DNA G+C content was determined to be 52.9 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids (>10 %) were C16 : 0, C18 : 1cis-9, C19 : 1 cyc 9,10 and C14 : 0. Meso-diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell wall peptidoglycan and the cell wall hydrolysates contained ribose, glucose and galactose. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, phylogenetic analysis, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics allowed differentiation of SR79T, which represents a novel species of a new genus within the family Ruminococcaceae, for which the name Agathobaculum butyriciproducens gen. nov. sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SR79T (=KCTC 15532T=DSM 100391T). Based on the results of this study, it is also proposed to transfer Eubacteriumdesmolans to this new genus, as Agathobaculum desmolans comb. nov. The type strain of Agathobaculum desmolans is ATCC 43058T (=CCUG 27818T).

  12. Position automatic determination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This book tells of method of position determination and characteristic, control method of position determination and point of design, point of sensor choice for position detector, position determination of digital control system, application of clutch break in high frequency position determination, automation technique of position determination, position determination by electromagnetic clutch and break, air cylinder, cam and solenoid, stop position control of automatic guide vehicle, stacker crane and automatic transfer control.

  13. Incoming editorial: bigger, purple, pragmatic, and parsimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsenroth, Mark J

    2011-03-01

    It is with great excitement and enthusiasm that I write to you regarding several updates, new initiatives and changes with our journal. As you may have already noticed, this includes the change to a larger format, and a return to the color purple that helped define this journal from the early 1980s through the turn of the century, as well as to the original title "Psychotherapy." The change in format will allow us to benefit from the standard American Psychological Association (APA) journal design and layout, leading to more efficient processing and arrangement within their electronic journal system. I have found this first year as the Incoming Editor of Psychotherapy to be as challenging, rewarding, and intellectually stimulating as I imagined it would be, and I remain quite excited and enthusiastic about the work ahead. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Parsimonious Linear Fingerprinting for Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    broad classes: (a) Feature extraction (and similarity search, indexing etc), using, say, Fourier or wavelet coefficients, piece-wise linear...see Appendix B), the desirable fingerprints should allow for lags, and small variations in frequency. While, • Fourier analysis and wavelet methods...and CHLORINE data and evaluated the quality by relative error defined as: relative error = mse(X̂−X)·m∑ i var (Xi) where mse denotes mean square error

  15. Why Merge really is autonomous and parsimonious

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McQueen, J.M.; Cutler, A.; Norris, D.; Cutler, A.; McQueen, J.M.; Zondervan, R.

    2000-01-01

    We briefly describe the Merge model of phonemic decision-making, and, in the light of general arguments about the possible role of feedback in spoken-word recognition, defend Merge's feedforward structure. Merge not only accounts adequately for the data, without invoking feedback connections, but

  16. Parsimonious Charge Deconvolution for Native Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bern, Marshall; Caval, Tomislav; Kil, Yong J; Tang, Wilfred; Becker, Christopher; Carlson, Eric; Kletter, Doron; Sen, K Ilker; Galy, Nicolas; Hagemans, Dominique; Franc, Vojtech; Heck, Albert J R

    2018-01-01

    Charge deconvolution infers the mass from mass over charge (m/z) measurements in electrospray ionization mass spectra. When applied over a wide input m/z or broad target mass range, charge-deconvolution algorithms can produce artifacts, such as false masses at one-half or one-third of the correct

  17. Parsimony in personality: predicting sexual prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Audrey K; Wagner, Maverick M; Hunt, Amy N

    2012-01-01

    Extant research has established numerous demographic, personal-history, attitudinal, and ideological correlates of sexual prejudice, also known as homophobia. The present study investigated whether Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality domains, particularly Openness, and FFM facets, particularly Openness to Values, contribute independent and incremental variance to the prediction of sexual prejudice beyond these established correlates. Participants were 117 college students who completed a comprehensive FFM measure, measures of sexual prejudice, and a demographics, personal-history, and attitudes-and-ideologies questionnaire. Results of stepwise multiple regression analyses demonstrated that, whereas Openness domain score predicted only marginal incremental variance in sexual prejudice, Openness facet scores (particularly Openness to Values) predicted independent and substantial incremental variance beyond numerous other zero-order correlates of sexual prejudice. The importance of integrating FFM personality variables, especially facet-level variables, into conceptualizations of sexual prejudice is highlighted. Study strengths and weaknesses are discussed as are potential implications for prejudice-reduction interventions.

  18. Parsimonious Charge Deconvolution for Native Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Charge deconvolution infers the mass from mass over charge (m/z) measurements in electrospray ionization mass spectra. When applied over a wide input m/z or broad target mass range, charge-deconvolution algorithms can produce artifacts, such as false masses at one-half or one-third of the correct mass. Indeed, a maximum entropy term in the objective function of MaxEnt, the most commonly used charge deconvolution algorithm, favors a deconvolved spectrum with many peaks over one with fewer peaks. Here we describe a new “parsimonious” charge deconvolution algorithm that produces fewer artifacts. The algorithm is especially well-suited to high-resolution native mass spectrometry of intact glycoproteins and protein complexes. Deconvolution of native mass spectra poses special challenges due to salt and small molecule adducts, multimers, wide mass ranges, and fewer and lower charge states. We demonstrate the performance of the new deconvolution algorithm on a range of samples. On the heavily glycosylated plasma properdin glycoprotein, the new algorithm could deconvolve monomer and dimer simultaneously and, when focused on the m/z range of the monomer, gave accurate and interpretable masses for glycoforms that had previously been analyzed manually using m/z peaks rather than deconvolved masses. On therapeutic antibodies, the new algorithm facilitated the analysis of extensions, truncations, and Fab glycosylation. The algorithm facilitates the use of native mass spectrometry for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of protein and protein assemblies. PMID:29376659

  19. Experiments with positive, negative and topical relevance feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.; Kamps, J.; Li, R.; Hiemstra, D.

    2008-01-01

    This document contains a description of experiments for the 2008 Relevance Feedback track. We experiment with different amounts of feedback, including negative relevance feedback. Feedback is implemented using massive weighted query expansion. Parsimonious query expansion using Dirichlet smoothing

  20. The impact of positive, negative and topical relevance feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.; Kamps, J.; Hiemstra, D.; Voorhees, E.M.; Buckland, L.P.

    2009-01-01

    This document contains a description of experiments for the 2008 Relevance Feedback track. We experiment with different amounts of feedback, including negative relevance feedback. Feedback is implemented using massive weighted query expansion. Parsimonious query expansion using only relevant

  1. The impact of positive, negative and topical relevance feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, Rianne; Kamps, Jaap; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2008-01-01

    This document contains a description of experiments for the 2008 Relevance Feedback track. We experiment with different amounts of feedback, including negative relevance feedback. Feedback is implemented using massive weighted query expansion. Parsimonious query expansion using only relevant

  2. Enrichment of HLA Types and Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Associated With Non-progression in a Strictly Defined Cohort of HIV-1 Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J. Westrop

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 controllers (HIC are extremely rare patients with the ability to control viral replication, maintain unchanging CD4 T-cell count, and evade disease progression for extensive periods of time, in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. In order to establish the representation of key genetic correlates of atypical disease progression within a cohort of HIV-1+ individuals who control viral replication, we examine four-digit resolution HLA type and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP previously identified to be correlated to non-progressive infection, in strictly defined HIC. Clinical histories were examined to identify patients exhibiting HIC status. Genomic DNA was extracted, and high definition HLA typing and genome-wide SNP analysis was performed. Data were compared with frequencies of SNP in European long-term non-progressors (LTNP and primary infection cohorts. HLA-B alleles associated with atypical disease progression were at very high frequencies in the group of five HIC studied. All four HIC of European ancestry were HLA-B*57+ and half were also HLA-B*27+. All HIC, including one of self-reported African ethnicity, had the HLA-Cw*0602 allele, and the HLA-DQ9 allele was present only in HIC of European ancestry. A median 95% of the top 19 SNP known to be associated with LTNP status was observed in European HIC (range 78–100%; 17/19 of the SNP considered mapped to chromosome 6 in the HLA region, whereas 2/19 mapped to chromosome 8. The HIC investigated here demonstrated high enrichment of HLA types and SNP previously associated with long-term non-progression. These findings suggest that the extreme non-progressive phenotype considered here is associated with a genetic signature characterized by a single-genetic unit centered around the HLA-B*57 haplotype and the possible additive effect of HLA-B*27.

  3. Agronomic traits and deoxynivalenol contamination of two tetraploid wheat species (Triticum turgidum spp. durum, Triticum turgidum spp. turanicum grown strictly under low input conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Dinelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of the agronomic performance of two tetraploid wheat varieties (Triticum turgidum spp. durum, Claudio; Triticum turgidum spp. turanicum, Kamut® grown strictly under low input conditions was carried out over three consecutive cropping years. The study reported grain yield values ranging from 1.8 to 2.6 t ha-1. Productivity showed to be primarily affected by environmental conditions, while no differences were observed between the two genotypes. The study of the yield components highlighted that the durum wheat variety had a higher plant density than Kamut®, but this discrepancy was offset by a greater number of kernels per spike and the kernel weight of khorasan wheat. The investigated wheat genotypes were also analysed to assess the mycotoxin (DON levels of wholegrain semolina and the efficiency of cleaning treatments to reduce contamination. Results showed that both wheat varieties had a good hygienic and sanitary quality with a DON content ranging from 0.35 to 1.31 mg kg-1, which was lower than the maximum acceptable level set by the European regulation at 1.75 mg kg-1. In addition, our research work investigated the effects of premilling cleaning procedures, such as water washing and brushing, on mycotoxin levels, which yielded interesting results in terms of decontamination efficiency. These methods were particularly efficient with Kamut® semolina (46-93% DON reduction, suggesting that mycotoxins accumulate in this variety at more superficial levels than in the durum wheat variety. On the whole, our study provided additional knowledge on the traits to be further improved to respond to low input requirements and to enhance the potential adaptability of wheat genotypes to organic agriculture. Our results emphasized the need to develop wheat varieties that can provide adequate performance without high levels of nitrogen inputs by selecting specific traits, such as kernel weight, spike length and kernel/spike. This may help

  4. Altered Na+ transport after an intracellular alpha-subunit deletion reveals strict external sequential release of Na+ from the Na/K pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaragatupalli, Siddhartha; Olivera, J Fernando; Gatto, Craig; Artigas, Pablo

    2009-09-08

    The Na/K pump actively exports 3 Na(+) in exchange for 2 K(+) across the plasmalemma of animal cells. As in other P-type ATPases, pump function is more effective when the relative affinity for transported ions is altered as the ion binding sites alternate between opposite sides of the membrane. Deletion of the five C-terminal residues from the alpha-subunit diminishes internal Na(+) (Na(i)(+)) affinity approximately 25-fold [Morth et al. (2007) Nature 450:1043-1049]. Because external Na(+) (Na(o)(+)) binding is voltage-dependent, we studied the reactions involving this process by using two-electrode and inside-out patch voltage clamp in normal and truncated (DeltaKESYY) Xenopus-alpha1 pumps expressed in oocytes. We observed that DeltaKESYY (i) decreased both Na(o)(+) and Na(i)(+) apparent affinities in the absence of K(o)(+), and (ii) did not affect apparent Na(o)(+) affinity at high K(o)(+). These results support a model of strict sequential external release of Na(+) ions, where the Na(+)-exclusive site releases Na(+) before the sites shared with K(+) and the DeltaKESYY deletion only reduces Na(o)(+) affinity at the shared sites. Moreover, at nonsaturating K(o)(+), DeltaKESYY induced an inward flow of Na(+) through Na/K pumps at negative potentials. Guanidinium(+) can also permeate truncated pumps, whereas N-methyl-D-glucamine cannot. Because guanidinium(o)(+) can also traverse normal Na/K pumps in the absence of both Na(o)(+) and K(o)(+) and can also inhibit Na/K pump currents in a Na(+)-like voltage-dependent manner, we conclude that the normal pathway transited by the first externally released Na(+) is large enough to accommodate guanidinium(+).

  5. Lebetimonas natsushimae sp. nov., a novel strictly anaerobic, moderately thermophilic chemoautotroph isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent polychaete nest in the Mid-Okinawa Trough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Ryousuke; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Tame, Akihiro; Nunoura, Takuro; Muto, Hisashi; Mino, Sayaka; Sawayama, Shigeki; Takai, Ken; Nakagawa, Satoshi

    2017-09-01

    A moderately thermophilic, strictly anaerobic, chemoautotrophic bacterium, designated strain HS1857 T , was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent at the Noho site in the Mid-Okinawa Trough. Strain HS1857 T grew between 35 and 63°C (optimum 55°C), in the presence of 10-55gl -1 NaCl (optimum 25gl -1 ), and pH 5.5-7.1 (optimum 6.4). Growth occurred with molecular hydrogen as the electron donor and elemental sulfur, nitrate, or selenate as the electron acceptors. Formate could serve as an alternative electron donor with nitrate as an electron acceptor. During growth with nitrate as the electron acceptor, strain HS1857 T produced ammonium and formed a biofilm. CO 2 was utilized as the sole carbon source. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 33.2mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain HS1857 T is a member of the order Nautiliales, showing a sequence similarity of 95.0% with Lebetimonas acidiphila Pd55 T . The fatty acid composition was similar to that of L. acidiphila, which was dominated by C 18:0 (47.0%) and C 18:1 (23.7%). Based on the genomic, chemotaxonomic, phenotypic characteristics, the name Lebetimonas natsushimae sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is HS1857 T (=NBRC 112478 T =DSM 104102 T ). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Positive Education: Positive Psychology and Classroom Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Ernst, Randal M.; Gillham, Jane; Reivich, Karen; Linkins, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Positive education is defined as education for both traditional skills and for happiness. The high prevalence worldwide of depression among young people, the small rise in life satisfaction, and the synergy between learning and positive emotion all argue that the skills for happiness should be taught in school. There is substantial evidence from…

  7. Want Positive Behavior? Use Positive Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chip; Freeman-Loftis, Babs

    2012-01-01

    Positive adult language is the professional use of words and tone of voice to enable students to learn in an engaged, active way. This includes learning social skills. To guide children toward choosing and maintaining positive behaviors, adults need to carefully choose the words and tone of voice used when speaking to them. Learning to use…

  8. Evolutionary position of Peruvian land snails (Orthalicidae among Stylommatophora (Mollusca: Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ramirez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The genera Bostryx and Scutalus (Orthalicidae: Bulimulinae are endemics from South America. They are mainly distributed on the western slopes of the Peruvian Andes. The goal of the present work was to assess their evolutionary position among the stylommatophoran gastropods based on the 16S rRNA mitochondrial marker. Four sequences were obtained, and along with 28 sequences of other Stylommatophora retrieved from the GenBank, were aligned with ClustalX. The phylogenetic reconstruction was carried out using the methods of Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference. The multiple sequence alignment had 371 sites, with indels. The two genera of the family Orthalicidae for the first time included in a molecular phylogeny (Bostryx and Scutalus, formed a monophyletic group along with another member of the superfamily Orthalicoidea (Placostylus, result that is comparable with that obtained with nuclear markers. Their evolutionary relationship with other land snails is also discussed.

  9. Mitochondrial evidence on the phylogenetic position of caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardoya, R; Meyer, A

    2000-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence (17,005 bp) of the mitochondrial genome of the caecilian Typhlonectes natans (Gymnophiona, Amphibia) was determined. This molecule is characterized by two distinctive genomic features: there are seven large 109-bp tandem repeats in the control region, and the sequence for the putative origin of replication of the L strand can potentially fold into two alternative secondary structures (one including part of the tRNA(Cys)). The new sequence data were used to assess the phylogenetic position of caecilians and to gain insights into the origin of living amphibians (frogs, salamanders, and caecilians). Phylogenetic analyses of two data sets-one combining protein-coding genes and the other combining tRNA genes-strongly supported a caecilian + frog clade and, hence, monophyly of modern amphibians. These two data sets could not further resolve relationships among the coelacanth, lungfishes, and tetrapods, but strongly supported diapsid affinities of turtles. Phylogenetic relationships among a larger set of species of frogs, salamanders, and caecilians were estimated with a mitochondrial rRNA data set. Maximum parsimony analysis of this latter data set also recovered monophyly of living amphibians and favored a frog + salamander (Batrachia) relationship. However, bootstrap support was only moderate at these nodes. This is likely due to an extensive among-site rate heterogeneity in the rRNA data set and the narrow window of time in which the three main groups of living amphibians were originated. PMID:10835397

  10. Positions, positionings and posture of the enunciator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Rabatel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article draws connections between the notions of enunciator position, positioning and posture, which structure the dialogic, cognitive and interactional co- production of utterances. The notion of enunciative position corresponds to the fact that the (first or second enunciator refers to objects of discourse while positioning himself/herself with regard to them, by indicating from what point of view he/she considers them. In view of the dialogic nature of the discourse, two modal subjects and levels of responsibility can be discerned: the first enunciator has the role of the agent in charge of the discourse and the second enunciator fulfills internal functions of validation, assuming thus a sort of responsibility which does not necessarily commit the first enunciator. The article then analyses the dialogic strategies of positioning by enunciative reduplication and separation which account for auto- dialogic and hetero-dialogic situations. Finally it deals with the enunciative postures of co-enunciation, over-enunciation and under-enunciation, which refine the notions of enunciative reduplication or separation, by specifying the degrees of agreement, according to dialectic between discordant concordance and concordant discordance.

  11. On combination of strict Bayesian principles with model reduction technique or how stochastic model calibration can become feasible for large-scale applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladyshkin, S.; Schroeder, P.; Class, H.; Nowak, W.

    2013-12-01

    Predicting underground carbon dioxide (CO2) storage represents a challenging problem in a complex dynamic system. Due to lacking information about reservoir parameters, quantification of uncertainties may become the dominant question in risk assessment. Calibration on past observed data from pilot-scale test injection can improve the predictive power of the involved geological, flow, and transport models. The current work performs history matching to pressure time series from a pilot storage site operated in Europe, maintained during an injection period. Simulation of compressible two-phase flow and transport (CO2/brine) in the considered site is computationally very demanding, requiring about 12 days of CPU time for an individual model run. For that reason, brute-force approaches for calibration are not feasible. In the current work, we explore an advanced framework for history matching based on the arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion (aPC) and strict Bayesian principles. The aPC [1] offers a drastic but accurate stochastic model reduction. Unlike many previous chaos expansions, it can handle arbitrary probability distribution shapes of uncertain parameters, and can therefore handle directly the statistical information appearing during the matching procedure. We capture the dependence of model output on these multipliers with the expansion-based reduced model. In our study we keep the spatial heterogeneity suggested by geophysical methods, but consider uncertainty in the magnitude of permeability trough zone-wise permeability multipliers. Next combined the aPC with Bootstrap filtering (a brute-force but fully accurate Bayesian updating mechanism) in order to perform the matching. In comparison to (Ensemble) Kalman Filters, our method accounts for higher-order statistical moments and for the non-linearity of both the forward model and the inversion, and thus allows a rigorous quantification of calibrated model uncertainty. The usually high computational costs of

  12. Multi-technology positioning

    CERN Document Server

    Lohan, Elena-Simona; Wymeersch, Henk; Seco-Granados, Gonzalo; Nykänen, Ossi

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview of positioning technologies, applications and services in a format accessible to a wide variety of readers. Readers who have always wanted to understand how satellite-based positioning, wireless network positioning, inertial navigation, and their combinations work will find great value in this book. Readers will also learn about the advantages and disadvantages of different positioning methods, their limitations and challenges. Cognitive positioning, adding the brain to determine which technologies to use at device runtime, is introduced as well. Coverage also includes the use of position information for Location Based Services (LBS), as well as context-aware positioning services, designed for better user experience. • Brings understanding of positioning technology to readers from a variety of disciplines • Reviews multiple techniques, providing insight on the pros, cons and challenges related to each • Designed to be a tutorial on basic principles, avoiding unnecessary de...

  13. Navicular bone position determined by positional MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Philip; Johannsen, Finn E; Hangaard, Stine

    2016-01-01

    -scanner). Scanning was performed in supine and standing position, respectively. Two radiologists evaluated the images in a blinded manner. Reliability and agreement were assessed by calculation of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and 95 % limits of agreement as a percentage of the mean (LOA%). RESULTS...

  14. Reflection Positive Doubles

    OpenAIRE

    Jaffe, Arthur; Janssens, Bas

    2016-01-01

    Here we introduce reflection positive doubles, a general framework for reflection positivity, covering a wide variety of systems in statistical physics and quantum field theory. These systems may be bosonic, fermionic, or parafermionic in nature. Within the framework of reflection positive doubles, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for reflection positivity. We use a reflection-invariant cone to implement our construction. Our characterization allows for a direct interpretation in t...

  15. Perception of eye positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorteije, J.A.M.; Wezel, R.J.A. van; Lankheet, M.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    In a two-alternative forced-choice psychophysical test human subjects were tested for their ability to perceive their own viewing direction. A small red flash was presented at different horizontal positions left or right from the subjects' eye position on the screen. Eye positions were recorded with

  16. The Positivity Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Alessandri, Guido; Eisenberg, Nancy; Kupfer, A.; Steca, Patrizia; Caprara, Maria Giovanna; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Fukuzawa, Ai; Abela, John

    2012-01-01

    Five studies document the validity of a new 8-item scale designed to measure "positivity," defined as the tendency to view life and experiences with a positive outlook. In the first study (N = 372), the psychometric properties of Positivity Scale (P Scale) were examined in accordance with classical test theory using a large number of…

  17. Malignant paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefano, Alessandro; Kulamarva, Gautham; Dispenza, Francesco

    2012-08-01

    An insidious percentage of paroxysmal positional vertigo appears to be intractable with canalith repositioning maneuver and also is not self-limiting. This type of positional vertigo is sustained by the action of intracranial tumors that mimics the clinical aspects of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.Aim of this study is to clarify the features of these forms of positional vertigo, which we indicate as malignant paroxysmal positional vertigo. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of all the patients who presented with vertigo spells and were managed at our tertiary care referral centre over a three years period. Two hundred and eleven patients with diagnosis of positional paroxysmal vertigo were included in the final study. Seven patients were affected by intracranial tumors causing a positional vertigo and were classified as malignant paroxysmal positional vertigo patients after radiological and histological diagnosis. These patients were affected by an internal auditory canal mass alone or with extension in the cerebello pontine angle that mimicked a benign positional vertigo. We can conclude that the clinician should keep in mind the differentiation between benign positional vertigo and malignant positional vertigo. When the patients with positional vertigo presents a strange behaviour of symptoms, nystagmus or response to the canalith repositioning maneuver a radiological investigation must be undertaken in every doubtful case. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Existence, uniqueness and approximation of a solution for a K-positive definite operator equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Aneke, S.J.

    1989-05-01

    The notion of a K-positive definite (K pd) operator which has been studied for Hilbert spaces is extended to real separable strictly convex Banach spaces, X. For such an X, it is proved that the equation Au = f, f ε X, where A is a K pd operator with the same domain as K, has a unique solution. Furthermore, a strongly convergent iteration process is constructed. (author). 14 refs

  19. Pretty Easy Pervasive Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rene; Wind, Rico; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing availability of positioning based on GPS, Wi-Fi, and cellular technologies and the proliferation of mobile devices with GPS, Wi-Fi and cellular connectivity, ubiquitous positioning is becoming a reality. While offerings by companies such as Google, Skyhook, and Spotigo render...... positioning possible in outdoor settings, including urban environments with limited GPS coverage, they remain unable to offer accurate indoor positioning. We will demonstrate a software infrastructure that makes it easy for anybody to build support for accurate Wi-Fi based positioning in buildings. All...... that is needed is a building with Wi-Fi coverage, access to the building, a floor plan of the building, and a Wi-Fi enabled device. Specifically, we will explain the software infrastructure and the steps that must be completed to obtain support for positioning. And we will demonstrate the positioning obtained...

  20. First molecular data and the phylogenetic position of the millipede-like centipede Edentistoma octosulcatum Tömösváry, 1882 (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha: Scolopendridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varpu Vahtera

    Full Text Available Edentistoma octosulcatum Tömösváry, 1882, is a rare, superficially millipede-like centipede known only from Borneo and the Philippines. It is unique within the order Scolopendromorpha for its slow gait, robust tergites, and highly modified gizzard and mandible morphology. Not much is known about the biology of the species but it has been speculated to be arboreal with a possibly vegetarian diet. Until now its phylogenetic position within the subfamily Otostigminae has been based only on morphological characters, being variably ranked as a monotypic tribe (Arrhabdotini or classified with the Southeast Asian genus Sterropristes Attems, 1934. The first molecular data for E. octosulcatum sourced from a newly collected specimen from Sarawak were analysed with and without morphology. Parsimony analysis of 122 morphological characters together with two nuclear and two mitochondrial loci resolves Edentistoma as sister group to three Indo-Australian species of Rhysida, this clade in turn grouping with Ethmostigmus, whereas maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses of the molecular data on their own ally Edentistoma with species of Otostigmus. A position of Edentistoma within Otostigmini (rather than being its sister group as predicted by the Arrhabdotini hypothesis is consistently retrieved under different analytical conditions, but support values within the subfamily remain low for most nodes. The species exhibits strong pushing behaviour, suggestive of burrowing habits. Evidence against a suggested vegetarian diet is provided by observation of E. octosulcatum feeding on millipedes in the genus Trachelomegalus.

  1. Positive criminology in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronel, Natti; Segev, Dana

    2014-11-01

    The discourse regarding offender rehabilitation has been criticized by various scholars who have claimed that reducing negative causes and managing risk will not automatically prompt positive human development and elements that are associated with desistance. Positive criminology is an innovative concept that challenges the common preoccupation with negative elements, by placing emphasis on human encounters and forces of inclusion that are experienced positively by target individuals and that can promote crime desistance. However, as the concept is relatively new, there are still no guiding principles for the practice of positive criminology that could direct research and the criminal justice system. This article attempts to fill that gap by providing principles that could be practiced by criminal justice personnel and examples of different interventions that reflect positive criminology. The article also provides ideological explanations for adopting the concept of positive criminology in practice. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. EAACI taskforce position paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konstantinou, G N; Asero, R; Ferrer, M

    2013-01-01

    between functionality and immunoreactivity. Approximately 25% of CU patients have a positive basophil histamine release assay and show autoreactivity (a positive autologous serum skin test), whereas 50% are negative regarding both. Functionality of CU sera appears to be complement dependent on mast cells...... (positive autoreactivity, functional bioassay and immunoassay) to define preliminary criteria sets for the diagnosis of ACU based on clinical and laboratory features with highest individual sensitivity and specificity....

  3. Positioning and locking apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

    1985-06-19

    A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

  4. Positioning health professional identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ole; Krogh Christensen, Mette; Mørcke, Anne Mette

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on positioning theory, the purpose of this paper is to characterize the activities and positions of students and supervisors at workplaces and on-campus skills training sites across the higher health professional educations of medicine, sports science, and nursing. Furthermore, the study...... explored the impact of work-based learning (WBL) and skills training on students’ personal professional identity development....

  5. Plasma position control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirahama, Hidefumi; Sakurai, Yoshimi.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress the non-linear relationship between the horizontal position of plasmas and the intensity of the vertical magnetic fields, thereby control the horizontal position of the plasmas stably and at a high speed in a closed loop in a tokamak type thermonuclear device. Method: In a control method for approaching the plasma position to a target position in the tokamak type thermonuclear device, a function circuit having two inputs and one output is disposed in a loop constituting the plasma position control system. The characteristics of the function circuit are so designed as to provide a proportional relationship between the first input and the output, while an inverse proportional relationship between the second input and the output. A detected value for the plasma current is used as a signal for the first input, while the detected value for the plasma position or a operation amount based on the difference with the detected value is used as a signal for the second input. By using the function circuit, it is possible to suppress the non-linear characteristics in the dynamic properties of the plasmas, by which the remarkable change of gains in the plasma position control circuit due to the fluctuations of the plasma current and the position can be prevented. (Ikeda, J.)

  6. Detecting Position Using ARKit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilek, Ufuk; Erol, Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    Developed by using ARKit, a novel app which can be used to detect position in physics experiments was introduced. The ARKit relies on a new technique. The result of the experiment presented in this study was satisfactory, suggesting that the new technique can be employed in position detection experiments/demonstrations that are conducted using…

  7. Position display device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Yukio.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To provide a device capable of easily and quickly reading mutual mounting relations of control bodies such as control rods mounted on a nuclear reactor and positions to which the control bodies are driven. Structure: A scanning circuit is provided to scan positions of controllably mounted control bodies such as control rods. Values detected by scanning the positions are converted into character signals according to the values and converted into preranked color signals. The character signals and color signals are stored in a memory circuit by synchronous signals in synchronism with the scanning in the scanning circuit. Outputs of the memory circuit are displayed by a display unit such as a color Braun tube in accordance with the synchronous signals to provide color representations according to positions to which control bodies are driven in the same positional relation as the mounting of the control bodies. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. Precise Point Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaohong

    performance of point positioning for kinematic applications, the precise point positioning attracted a lot of attention and opened a new alternative door to kinematic positioning. In this report different tests have been done to evaluate the ability and accuracy of the software TriP in the kinematic...... and static case by using internal consistency (residuals, RMS, repeatability etc.), known coordinates, ground truth and double-differenced solutions. The kinematic GPS positioning accuracy using four different software systems has been investigated and tested by comparing the degree of agreement between...... the airborne lidar system misalignment angle by automating the matching of lidar data with ground truth. Kinematic GPS positioning has been widely used, but the available commercial software systems are normally only suitable for the short or medium range kinematic baseline. However, in polar areas, airborne...

  9. POSITIONING STRATEGIES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakhshir Ghassan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The positioning strategy has suffered serious changes in the last few decades, being influenced by the rapid development of competition and the growing focus on specific traits belonging to the market, to the consumer or to the product. The purpose of this paper is to present the developments of theoretical positioning strategies and the orientation from more simple, product oriented strategies, to ones more oriented towards the client and with a briefer period of time. The world is moving in a much faster pace than in the past, thanks to communication development so companies are obliged to adopt more specific strategies in order for them to be effective. This essay represents a literary review presenting a documentary research within the scientific articles and strategy and positioning books. The paper begins with the analysis of company strategies and the marketing strategies in general. The first author to group the product positioning strategies is Porter with his three generic strategies. Following the development of brands and because of the lack of competitiveness in the simple generic positioning strategies, this paper has also presented the newer positioning strategies proposed by Kotler, Treacy & Wiersema, and also more complex ones such as Bowman's Strategy Clock and Blankson and Kalafatis positioning strategy based on the type of the consumer. The fast expansion of local brands in all categories has led to mistakes in positioning strategies, categories also presented in the current essay. The results of this study show that new positioning strategies are more and more based on the consumer and market segments and on the product specification - which have also evolved in the last decades. Adaptability to fast changes in the competitive market will represent the future positioning strategies.

  10. CRANE POSITIONING APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsiedel, F.W.; Wolff, H.

    1960-06-28

    An apparatus is described for automatically accomplishing the final accurate horizontal positioning of a crane after the latter has been placed to within 1/8 in. of its selected position. For this purpose there is provided a tiltable member on the crane mast for lowering into contact with a stationary probe. Misalignment of the tiltable member, with respect to the probe as the member is lowered, causes tilting of the latter to actuate appropriate switches that energize motors for bringing the mast into proper position. When properly aligned the member is not tilted and a central switch is actuated to indicate the final alignment of the crane.

  11. Mobile ultrasonic transducer positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Omar Khyam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For positioning a moving ultrasonic transmitter, most of the existing ultrasonic positioning systems require the use of a bank of correlators to estimate the Doppler shift associated with its movement which require high computational complexity. In this paper, for positioning a moving transmitter, a computationally efficient a Doppler shift estimation and compensation technique is proposed. As the proposed approach has the ability to measure the Doppler shift directly from the received signal, it does not require to use a bank of correlators to estimate the Doppler shift associated with its movement of the transmitter.

  12. Positional Concerns and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    their implications for economics, positional concerns imply important normative dimensions. There have been presumed to be a symptom of envy, reduce people’s happiness, and create problems of social interaction or economic inefficiencies. Individuals are, for instance, prone to pick states of the world that improve...... that invoking envy or subjective well-being is not fully satisfying for regulating positional concerns. More compelling reasons seem, in complement with efficiency, to be related to considerations for equality. In other words, if institutions could have strong reasons to pay attention to and regulate positional...... concerns, it would be in virtue of their impact on the social product and individuals’ conditions of living....

  13. The Utility of Job Dimensions Based on Form B of the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) in a Job Component Validation Model. Report No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Lloyd D.; McCormick, Ernest J.

    The study involved the use of a structured job analysis instrument called the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) as the direct basis for the establishment of the job component validity of aptitude tests (that is, a procedure for estimating the aptitude requirements for jobs strictly on the basis of job analysis data). The sample of jobs used…

  14. Reflection Positivity for Parafermions

    OpenAIRE

    Jaffe, Arthur; Pedrocchi, Fabio L.

    2014-01-01

    We establish reflection positivity for Gibbs trace states for a class of gauge-invariant, reflection-invariant Hamiltonians describing parafermion interactions on a lattice. We relate these results to recent work in the condensed-matter physics literature.

  15. Abnormal Head Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Abnormal Head Position En Español Read in Chinese What is an abnormal head posture? An abnormal or compensatory head posture occurs ...

  16. Fluorescent optical position sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2005-11-15

    A fluorescent optical position sensor and method of operation. A small excitation source side-pumps a localized region of fluorescence at an unknown position along a fluorescent waveguide. As the fluorescent light travels down the waveguide, the intensity of fluorescent light decreases due to absorption. By measuring with one (or two) photodetectors the attenuated intensity of fluorescent light emitted from one (or both) ends of the waveguide, the position of the excitation source relative to the waveguide can be determined by comparing the measured light intensity to a calibrated response curve or mathematical model. Alternatively, excitation light can be pumped into an end of the waveguide, which generates an exponentially-decaying continuous source of fluorescent light along the length of the waveguide. The position of a photodetector oriented to view the side of the waveguide can be uniquely determined by measuring the intensity of the fluorescent light emitted radially at that location.

  17. Stress Management: Positive Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Positive thinking helps with stress management and can even improve your health. Practice overcoming negative self-talk ... with optimism is a key part of effective stress management. And effective stress management is associated with ...

  18. Detecting position using ARKit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilek, Ufuk; Erol, Mustafa

    2018-03-01

    Developed by using ARKit, a novel app which can be used to detect position in physics experiments was introduced. The ARKit relies on a new technique. The result of the experiment presented in this study was satisfactory, suggesting that the new technique can be employed in position detection experiments/demonstrations that are conducted using mobile technology. This technique has several promising advantages over video analysis.

  19. «Ad finem vincendi et habendi civitatem per viam obsidionis stricte et continuos stimulos». The siege of Trieste in 1368-69

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata Degrassi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1368-69, Trieste sustained, by the Venetians, a siege that lasted for almost one year, at the end of which the city did not surrender due to hunger but following a battle in which the Austrian forces, that had come to help the people of Trieste, were defeated. The siege was reconstructed on the base of news – a great part from Venetian sources – that handed down the memory of these events and above all on the remains of an exchange of letters between the doge Andrea Contarini and the commander of the Venetian troops positioned under the wall of Trieste, Domenico Michel. This deals with a method that is not very customary, that supplies a large quantity of information regarding the conduction of a siege, but even the difficulties that the besieging armies encounter. The comparison between this unintentional source and the chronicles relevant to the event permit us to verify through what mechanisms of selection and through which processes of elaboration are identified and presented in the historical narrations of the elements to pass down to those which follow – in other words, to become history – and what significance is attributed to them. Finally, a brief treatment of the subject regarding the discussion that was started in Trieste between the Nineteenth and Twentieth century regarding these events which occurred such a long time ago, that, however, marked the start of the city belonging to the state in a Hapsburg scope rather than a Venetian one. In this way, we wanted to focus the attention on the fact that a community and its past is not something definite and for which the discussion can cease once and for all, but it can sustain different interpretations according to the cultural contingencies and sensibilities that time after time develop within the same. In the appendix of the present essay, the choice of sources relevant to the siege is presented.

  20. Comments on the thesis of Schopenhauer's psicology: "The strict distincttion between knowledge and will and the priority of the first one" from Complementos ao mundo como vontade e representação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Simões Pedreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Our paper aims to review the theories of the psychology of Schopenhauer, namely, "strict distinction between will and knowledge and the primacy of the first", contained in the Book Room ons of The World as Will and Representation, in Chapter 41, entitled "on Death and its relationship with the indestructible character of our being itself." The review aimed to present some of the passages ons that ensure the distinction between Will and Intellect in order to provide data to avoid confusion, that many readers Schopenhauer are affected, the Will to confuse metaphysics with its phenomenon, namely the human will.

  1. Absence of positive eigenvalues for hard-core N-body systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ito, K.; Skibsted, Erik

    We show absence of positive eigenvalues for generalized 2-body hard-core Schrödinger operators under the condition of bounded strictly convex obstacles. A scheme for showing absence of positive eigenvalues for generalized N-body hard-core Schrödinger operators, N≥ 2, is presented. This scheme...... involves high energy resolvent estimates, and for N=2 it is implemented by a Mourre commutator type method. A particular example is the Helium atom with the assumption of infinite mass and finite extent nucleus....

  2. Plasma position control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Haruhiko.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct position control stably to various plasmas and reduce the burden on the control coil power source. Constitution: Among the proportional, integration and differentiation controls, a proportional-differentiation control section and an integration control section are connected in parallel. Then, a signal switching circuit is disposed to the control signal input section for the proportional-differentiation control section such that either a present position of plasmas or deviation between the present plasma position and an aimed value can be selected as a control signal depending on the control procedures or the state of the plasmas. For instance, if a rapid response is required for the control, the deviation between the present plasma position and the aimed value is selected as the input signal to conduct proportional, integration and differentiation controls. While on the other hand, if it is intended to reduce the burden on the control coil power source, it is adapted such that the control signal inputted to the proportional-differentiation control section itself can select the present plasma position. (Yoshihara, H.)

  3. Positive psychology. An introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, M E; Csikszentmihalyi, M

    2000-01-01

    A science of positive subjective experience, positive individual traits, and positive institutions promises to improve quality of life and prevent the pathologies that arise when life is barren and meaningless. The exclusive focus on pathology that has dominated so much of our discipline results in a model of the human being lacking the positive features that make life worth living. Hope, wisdom, creativity, future mindedness, courage, spirituality, responsibility, and perseverance are ignored or explained as transformations of more authentic negative impulses. The 15 articles in this millennial issue of the American Psychologist discuss such issues as what enables happiness, the effects of autonomy and self-regulation, how optimism and hope affect health, what constitutes wisdom, and how talent and creativity come to fruition. The authors outline a framework for a science of positive psychology, point to gaps in our knowledge, and predict that the next century will see a science and profession that will come to understand and build the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to flourish.

  4. Beyond Positive Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, James K.; Fincham, Frank D.

    2014-01-01

    The field of positive psychology rests on the assumption that certain psychological traits and processes are inherently beneficial for well-being. We review evidence that challenges this assumption. First, we review data from 4 independent longitudinal studies of marriage revealing that 4 ostensibly positive processes—forgiveness, optimistic expectations, positive thoughts, and kindness—can either benefit or harm well-being depending on the context in which they operate. Although all 4 processes predicted better relationship well-being among spouses in healthy marriages, they predicted worse relationship well-being in more troubled marriages. Then, we review evidence from other research that reveals that whether ostensibly positive psychological traits and processes benefit or harm well-being depends on the context of various noninterpersonal domains as well. Finally, we conclude by arguing that any movement to promote well-being may be most successful to the extent that it (a) examines the conditions under which the same traits and processes may promote versus threaten well-being, (b) examines both healthy and unhealthy people, (c) examines well-being over substantial periods of time, and (d) avoids labeling psychological traits and processes as positive or negative. PMID:21787036

  5. Massive Galileon positivity bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rham, Claudia; Melville, Scott; Tolley, Andrew J.; Zhou, Shuang-Yong

    2017-09-01

    The EFT coefficients in any gapped, scalar, Lorentz invariant field theory must satisfy positivity requirements if there is to exist a local, analytic Wilsonian UV completion. We apply these bounds to the tree level scattering amplitudes for a massive Galileon. The addition of a mass term, which does not spoil the non-renormalization theorem of the Galileon and preserves the Galileon symmetry at loop level, is necessary to satisfy the lowest order positivity bound. We further show that a careful choice of successively higher derivative corrections are necessary to satisfy the higher order positivity bounds. There is then no obstruction to a local UV completion from considerations of tree level 2-to-2 scattering alone. To demonstrate this we give an explicit example of such a UV completion.

  6. Positioning devices for patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavens, M.

    1981-01-01

    It has been suggested that it is very important to position patients reproducibly at different stages of radiotherapy treatment planning and treatment, or similar procedures. Devices have been described for positioning a patient's upper and lower thorax. This invention provides reproducible positioning for a female patient's breasts, for example in planning treatment of and treating breast tumours. The patient is placed prone, using for example an upper thorax device. A support device is placed central to and beneath her breasts to partially displace them outwards. The device may be triangular in section with one apex contacting the chest wall at the sternum. Restraining straps may be provided to hold the breasts against the support device. Means may be provided to take a healthy breast from the path of radiation through the tumour. (author)

  7. Nucleosome Positioning and Epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, David; Bruinsma, Robijn

    2008-03-01

    The role of chromatin structure in gene regulation has recently taken center stage in the field of epigenetics, phenomena that change the phenotype without changing the DNA sequence. Recent work has also shown that nucleosomes, a complex of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer, experience a sequence dependent energy landscape due to the variation in DNA bend stiffness with sequence composition. In this talk, we consider the role nucleosome positioning might play in the formation of heterochromatin, a compact form of DNA generically responsible for gene silencing. In particular, we discuss how different patterns of nucleosome positions, periodic or random, could either facilitate or suppress heterochromatin stability and formation.

  8. Simple and versatile turbidimetric monitoring of bacterial growth in liquid cultures using a customized 3D printed culture tube holder and a miniaturized spectrophotometer: application to facultative and strictly anaerobic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida R. G. Maia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we introduce a novel strategy for turbidimetric monitoring of bacterial growth in liquid culture. The instrumentation comprises a light source, a customized 3D printed culture tube holder and a miniaturized spectrophotometer, connected through optical cables. Due to its small footprint and the possibility to operate with external light, bacterial growth was directly monitored from culture tubes in a simple and versatile fashion. This new portable measurement technique was used to monitor the growth of facultative (Escherichia coli ATCC/25922, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC/29213 and strictly (Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens JW11, Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus P18, and Propionibacterium acnes DSMZ 1897 anaerobic bacteria. For E. coli and S. aureus, the growth rates calculated from normalized optical density values were compared with those ones obtained using a benchtop spectrophotometer without significant differences (P = 0.256. For the strictly anaerobic species, a high precision (RSD < 3.5% was observed between replicates up to 48 h. Regarding its potential for customization, this manifold could accommodate further developments for customized turbidimetric monitoring, such as the use of light-emitting diodes as a light source or flow cells.

  9. Simple and Versatile Turbidimetric Monitoring of Bacterial Growth in Liquid Cultures Using a Customized 3D Printed Culture Tube Holder and a Miniaturized Spectrophotometer: Application to Facultative and Strictly Anaerobic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Margarida R G; Marques, Sara; Cabrita, Ana R J; Wallace, R John; Thompson, Gertrude; Fonseca, António J M; Oliveira, Hugo M

    2016-01-01

    Here we introduce a novel strategy for turbidimetric monitoring of bacterial growth in liquid culture. The instrumentation comprises a light source, a customized 3D printed culture tube holder and a miniaturized spectrophotometer, connected through optical cables. Due to its small footprint and the possibility to operate with external light, bacterial growth was directly monitored from culture tubes in a simple and versatile fashion. This new portable measurement technique was used to monitor the growth of facultative (Escherichia coli ATCC/25922, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC/29213) and strictly (Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens JW11, Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus P18, and Propionibacterium acnes DSMZ 1897) anaerobic bacteria. For E. coli and S. aureus, the growth rates calculated from normalized optical density values were compared with those ones obtained using a benchtop spectrophotometer without significant differences (P = 0.256). For the strictly anaerobic species, a high precision (relative standard deviation < 3.5%) was observed between replicates up to 48 h. Regarding its potential for customization, this manifold could accommodate further developments for customized turbidimetric monitoring, such as the use of light-emitting diodes as a light source or flow cells.

  10. Reflection Positivity and Monotonicity

    OpenAIRE

    Ritter, Gordon; Jaffe, Arthur Michael

    2008-01-01

    We prove general reflection positivity results for both scalar fields and Dirac fields on a Riemannian manifold, and comment on applications to quantum field theory. As another application, we prove the inequality \\(C_D \\leq C_N\\) between Dirichlet and Neumann covariance operators on a manifold with a reflection.

  11. Positionality at the Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Vanner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As a Western feminist supporting and researching gender equality in education in postcolonial contexts, I often wonder: Am I doing more harm than good? The privilege of my social location means that my efforts to support education in postcolonial contexts risk being patronizing, insulting, threatening, imperialist, and recolonizing. Yet neglecting and ignoring postcolonial contexts similarly reflects and reproduces a privileged position. I provide a tentative framework designed to address positionality, power, and privilege while creating an ethical research process for working in a postcolonial context. Beginning with an identification of positionality, the objectives of research, and guiding theoretical frameworks to situate the research in relation to the participants and context, I proceed to establish a methodology designed to minimize the negative effects of power and maximize participants’ empowerment. I position myself as a bricoleur, layering feminist standpoint theory and postcolonial theory, and propose the collaborative data collection and analysis techniques, with particular attention to ethical and cultural sensitivity, using a social constructivist approach to grounded theory. This article highlights the need for Western researchers to reflect upon the power dynamics of their research in postcolonial contexts and develop a strategy for conducting empowering research that prevents the misrepresentation and exploitation of participants. Observations from my doctoral thesis data collection provide examples of how these concepts were operationalized in practice as well as reflections on the disconnect between theorizing and conducting ethical research in postcolonial contexts.

  12. Attitude and position tracking

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Candy, LP

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several applications require the tracking of attitude and position of a body based on velocity data. It is tempting to use direction cosine matrices (DCM), for example, to track attitude based on angular velocity data, and to integrate the linear...

  13. Clinical Positioning Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Lars Peter Hedegaard; Christensen, Mette Krogh; Rytter, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we present a case study of residents’ clinical experiences and communication in outpatient oncology consultations. We apply positioning theory, a dynamic alternative to role theory, to investigate how oncology residents and patients situate themselves as persons with rights and d...

  14. Accommodation facilities positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Pauna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the positioning concept as it was established in 1972 by Al Ries and Jack Trout as being “a tangible good, a service, a company, an organism or even a person. Positioning does not mean what one does with the product but especially what the product represents according to the conception of the one prospecting the market“ ( Ries and Trout 1982. In this case the product accommodation, which is in fact a sum of complex services at the customers’ disposal, makes it impossible to compare on a certain market since the hotels, ˶or commercial accommodation forms˝(Lupu 2010, are classified according to a series of criteria among which the most important being the services offered and the way they are offered, the comfort level or the location in the territory. The aim of this paper is the positioning on a certain market of some accommodation facilities with an agreement on the choice, use and interpretation of common attributes such as: comfort, fares, notoriety, positioning, the complexity of services offered. This undertaking uses the Fishbein-Rosenberg model, as well as the graphic interpretation of the study1 .

  15. Logotherapy and positive psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar R. Oro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychology omitted to approach, during almost a century, the positive aspects from persons, like creativity, humor, optimism, hope, forgiveness, life meaning, and happiness. These themes are approached by Positive Psychology, with Seligman like the principal exponent. Psychology was dedicated to explore the negative aspects from human beings improving human health. Nevertheless, this pathogenic model could not prevent mental disease. Concepts of Positive Psychology have a solid antecedent in Víktor Frankl ́s studies, which is the Logotherapy founder. This allows incorporating another perspective to approach positive aspects, from a philosophical and anthropological focus. Although the ways adopted by Frank and Seligman are different, both considered main aspects of human existence. Nevertheless, they investigated in different countries (from Europe and EE.UU.; in different circumstances (concentration camps, deaths, tortures; vs. academic context; in different historical periods and different social contexts (a country that lost the war and other that gave freedom to Europeans. In this work is used the concept life sense as the focus in professional formation and psychotherapy approach. 

  16. Positive airway pressure treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and depression and a better mood Normal sleep patterns Lower blood pressure (in people with high blood pressure) Your health care provider will prescribe the type of PAP machine that ... patterns. Bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP or BIPAP) has ...

  17. Existence of positive solutions for nonlocal second-order boundary value problem with variable parameter in Banach spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Peiguo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract By obtaining intervals of the parameter λ, this article investigates the existence of a positive solution for a class of nonlinear boundary value problems of second-order differential equations with integral boundary conditions in abstract spaces. The arguments are based upon a specially constructed cone and the fixed point theory in cone for a strict set contraction operator. MSC: 34B15; 34B16.

  18. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Xiang-Dong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV is a common clinical disorder characterized by brief recurrent spells of vertigo often brought about by certain head position changes as may occur with looking up, turning over in bed, or straightening up after bending over. It is important to understand BPPV not only because it may avert expensive and often unnecessary testing, but also because treatment is rapid, easy, and effective in >90% of cases. The diagnosis of BPPV can be made based on the history and examination. Patients usually report episodes of spinning evoked by certain movements, such as lying back or getting out of bed, turning in bed, looking up, or straightening after bending over. At present, the generally accepted recurrence rate of BPPV after successful treatment is 40%-50% at 5 years of average follow-up. There does appear to be a subset of individuals prone to multiple recurrences.

  19. Net positive energy buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, A.; Barreiro, E.; Sanchez Zabala, V.

    2010-01-01

    Buildings are great consumers of energy, being responsible for almost 36% of CO2 emissions in Europe. Though there are many initiatives towards the reduction of energy consumption and CO2 emissions in buildings, many of the alternatives are diminished due to a lack of a unique and holistic approach to the problem. This paper reports a new innovative concept of Positive Energy Buildings (EB+), as well as an integral methodology that covers the overall design process for achieving them. The methodology evaluates energy efficiency solutions at different scales, from building site to generation systems. An educational building design in Navarra serves as a case study to check the feasibility of the proposed methodology. The study concludes that the key to achieve a Positive Energy Building is a minimized energy demand, complemented by efficient facilities and enhanced by distributed power generation from renewable sources. (Author).

  20. Review of HRP Positions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Reliability Studies

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Human Reliability Program (HRP), published as 10 CFR Part 712, is currently being reviewed and revised to address concerns identified during its implementation. Although these ''page changes'' primarily incorporate clarification of terms and language, the following discussion relates to broadening the definition of positions that require HRP certification that is found in {section}712.10.

  1. Are Parton Distributions Positive?

    CERN Document Server

    Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Altarelli, Guido; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1999-01-01

    We show that the naive positivity conditions on polarized parton distributions which follow from their probabilistic interpretation in the naive parton model are reproduced in perturbative QCD at the leading log level if the quark and gluon distribution are defined in terms of physical processes. We show how these conditions are modified at the next-to-leading level, and discuss their phenomenological implications, in particular in view of the determination of the polarized gluon distribution

  2. Are parton distributions positive?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forte, Stefano; Altarelli, Guido; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1999-01-01

    We show that the naive positivity conditions on polarized parton distributions which follow from their probabilistic interpretation in the naive parton model are reproduced in perturbative QCD at the leading log level if the quark and gluon distribution are defined in terms of physical processes. We show how these conditions are modified at the next-to-leading level, and discuss their phenomenological implications, in particular in view of the determination of the polarized gluon distribution

  3. Global Positioning System Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    316. Buisson, J. A., 0. J. Oaks, and H. Warren (1985). "Absolute calibration and precise positioning between major European time observatories and...Fla, 29 November-2 December, pp. 39-46. Krakiwsky, E. J., B. Wanless, B. Buffett , K. P. Schwarz, and M. Nakiboglu (1985). "GPS orbit improvement and...K. P. Schwarz, E. J. Krakiwsky, B. Buffett , and B. Wanless (1984). "A multi-pass, multi-station approach to GPS orbital improvement and precise

  4. Position reconstruction in LUX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerib, D. S.; Alsum, S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Brás, P.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Currie, A.; Cutter, J. E.; Davison, T. J. R.; Dobi, A.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B. N.; Fallon, S. R.; Fan, A.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Genovesi, J.; Ghag, C.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C. R.; Hanhardt, M.; Haselschwardt, S. J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hogan, D. P.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ignarra, C. M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Ji, W.; Kamdin, K.; Kazkaz, K.; Khaitan, D.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lenardo, B. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Manalaysay, A.; Mannino, R. L.; Marzioni, M. F.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H. N.; Neves, F.; O'Sullivan, K.; Oliver-Mallory, K. C.; Palladino, K. J.; Pease, E. K.; Rhyne, C.; Shaw, S.; Shutt, T. A.; Silva, C.; Solmaz, M.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D. J.; Taylor, W. C.; Tennyson, B. P.; Terman, P. A.; Tiedt, D. R.; To, W. H.; Tripathi, M.; Tvrznikova, L.; Uvarov, S.; Velan, V.; Verbus, J. R.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Whitis, T. J.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Xu, J.; Yazdani, K.; Young, S. K.; Zhang, C.

    2018-02-01

    The (x, y) position reconstruction method used in the analysis of the complete exposure of the Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment is presented. The algorithm is based on a statistical test that makes use of an iterative method to recover the photomultiplier tube (PMT) light response directly from the calibration data. The light response functions make use of a two dimensional functional form to account for the photons reflected on the inner walls of the detector. To increase the resolution for small pulses, a photon counting technique was employed to describe the response of the PMTs. The reconstruction was assessed with calibration data including 83mKr (releasing a total energy of 41.5 keV) and 3H (β- with Q = 18.6 keV) decays, and a deuterium-deuterium (D-D) neutron beam (2.45 MeV) . Within the detector's fiducial volume, the reconstruction has achieved an (x, y) position uncertainty of σ = 0.82 cm and σ = 0.17 cm for events of only 200 and 4,000 detected electroluminescence photons respectively. Such signals are associated with electron recoils of energies ~0.25 keV and ~10 keV, respectively. The reconstructed position of the smallest events with a single electron emitted from the liquid surface (22 detected photons) has a horizontal (x, y) uncertainty of 2.13 cm.

  5. Photon beam position monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzay, Tuncer M.; Shu, Deming

    1995-01-01

    A photon beam position monitor for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade "shadowing". Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation.

  6. Beam Position Monitor Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Stephen R.

    1996-07-01

    The design of beam position monitors often involves challenging system design choices. Position transducers must be robust, accurate, and generate adequate position signal without unduly disturbing the beam. Electronics must be reliable and affordable, usually while meeting tough requirements on precision. accuracy, and dynamic range. These requirements may be difficult to achieve simultaneously, leading the designer into interesting opportunities for optimization or compromise. Some useful techniques and tools are shown. Both finite element analysis and analytic techniques will be used to investigate quasi-static aspects of electromagnetic fields such as the impedance of and the coupling of beam to striplines or buttons. Finite-element tools will be used to understand dynamic aspects of the electromagnetic fields of beams, such as wake-fields and transmission-line and cavity effects in vacuum-to-air feed through. Mathematical modeling of electrical signals through a processing chain will be demonstrated, in particular to illuminate areas where neither a pure time-domain nor a pure frequency-domain analysis is obviously advantageous. Emphasis will be on calculational techniques, in particular on using both time-domain and frequency domain approaches to the applicable parts of interesting problems

  7. Hormesis, an update of the present position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Lennart

    2003-01-01

    The ongoing debate over the possible beneficial effects of ionising radiation on health, hormesis, is reviewed from different perspectives. Radiation hormesis has not been strictly defined in the scientific literature. It can be understood as a decrease in the risk of cancer due to low-dose irradiation, but other positive health effects may also be encompassed by the concept. The overwhelming majority of the currently available epidemiological data on populations exposed to ionising radiation support the assumption that there is a linear non-threshold dose-response relationship. However, epidemiological data fail to demonstrate detrimental effects of ionising radiation at absorbed doses smaller than 100-200 mSv. Risk estimates for these levels are therefore based on extrapolations from higher doses. Arguments for hormesis are derived only from a number of epidemiological studies, but also from studies in radiation biology. Radiobiological evidence for hormesis is based on radio-adaptive response; this has been convincingly demonstrated in vitro, but some questions remain as to how it affects humans. Furthermore, there is an ecologically based argument for hormesis in that, given the evolutionary prerequisite of best fitness, it follows that humans are best adapted to background levels of ionising radiation and other carcinogenic agents in our environment. A few animal studies have also addressed the hormesis theory, some of which have supported it while others have not. To complete the picture, the results of new radiobiological research indicate the need for a paradigm shift concerning the mechanisms of cancer induction. Such research is a step towards a better understanding of how ionising radiation affects the living cell and the organism, and thus towards a more reliable judgement on how to interpret the present radiobiological evidence for hormesis. (orig.)

  8. Modeling the probability distribution of positional errors incurred by residential address geocoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazumdar Soumya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assignment of a point-level geocode to subjects' residences is an important data assimilation component of many geographic public health studies. Often, these assignments are made by a method known as automated geocoding, which attempts to match each subject's address to an address-ranged street segment georeferenced within a streetline database and then interpolate the position of the address along that segment. Unfortunately, this process results in positional errors. Our study sought to model the probability distribution of positional errors associated with automated geocoding and E911 geocoding. Results Positional errors were determined for 1423 rural addresses in Carroll County, Iowa as the vector difference between each 100%-matched automated geocode and its true location as determined by orthophoto and parcel information. Errors were also determined for 1449 60%-matched geocodes and 2354 E911 geocodes. Huge (> 15 km outliers occurred among the 60%-matched geocoding errors; outliers occurred for the other two types of geocoding errors also but were much smaller. E911 geocoding was more accurate (median error length = 44 m than 100%-matched automated geocoding (median error length = 168 m. The empirical distributions of positional errors associated with 100%-matched automated geocoding and E911 geocoding exhibited a distinctive Greek-cross shape and had many other interesting features that were not capable of being fitted adequately by a single bivariate normal or t distribution. However, mixtures of t distributions with two or three components fit the errors very well. Conclusion Mixtures of bivariate t distributions with few components appear to be flexible enough to fit many positional error datasets associated with geocoding, yet parsimonious enough to be feasible for nascent applications of measurement-error methodology to spatial epidemiology.

  9. Are strict vegetarians protected against prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantamango-Bartley, Yessenia; Knutsen, Synnove F; Knutsen, Raymond; Jacobsen, Bjarne K; Fan, Jing; Beeson, W Lawrence; Sabate, Joan; Hadley, David; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Penniecook, Jason; Herring, Patti; Butler, Terry; Bennett, Hanni; Fraser, Gary

    2016-01-01

    According to the American Cancer Society, prostate cancer accounts for ∼27% of all incident cancer cases among men and is the second most common (noncutaneous) cancer among men. The relation between diet and prostate cancer is still unclear. Because people do not consume individual foods but rather foods in combination, the assessment of dietary patterns may offer valuable information when determining associations between diet and prostate cancer risk. This study aimed to examine the association between dietary patterns (nonvegetarian, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, vegan, and semi-vegetarian) and prostate cancer incidence among 26,346 male participants of the Adventist Health Study-2. In this prospective cohort study, cancer cases were identified by matching to cancer registries. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to estimate HRs by using age as the time variable. In total, 1079 incident prostate cancer cases were identified. Around 8% of the study population reported adherence to the vegan diet. Vegan diets showed a statistically significant protective association with prostate cancer risk (HR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.85). After stratifying by race, the statistically significant association with a vegan diet remained only for the whites (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.86), but the multivariate HR for black vegans showed a similar but nonsignificant point estimate (HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.18). Vegan diets may confer a lower risk of prostate cancer. This lower estimated risk is seen in both white and black vegan subjects, although in the latter, the CI is wider and includes the null. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. "Strict" Anadeixis, Discourse Deixis and Text Structuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Taking English as the example language, the article begins by presenting a Scale of indexicality characterizing context-bound expression types, ranging from those signalling pure deixis at one pole, to ones expressing pure anaphora at the other. On the basis of this Scale, the article attempts to determine the specific way in which demonstratives…

  11. Unconditional bases and strictly convex dual renormings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, Richard James; Troyanski, S.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 5 (2009), s. 831-840 ISSN 0024-6093 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190801; GA ČR GA201/07/0394 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : descroptive compact spaces * Banach spaces * norms Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.757, year: 2009 http://blms.oxfordjournals.org/content/41/5/831

  12. On Fixed Points of Strictly Causal Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    languages such as VHDL (see [1]) and SystemC (see [2]), modeling and simulation tools such as Simulink and LabVIEW, network simulation tools such as ns-2/ns...interesting direction for future 49 work. References [1] IEEE standard VHDL language reference manual. IEEE Std 1076-2000, pages i–290, 2000. [2] IEEE

  13. Strictly convex functions on complete Finsler manifolds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    convex functions on the metric structures of complete Finsler manifolds. More precisely we discuss ... map expp at some point p ∈ M (and hence at every point on M) is defined on the whole tangent space Mp to M at ... The influence of the existence of convex functions on the metric and topology of under- lying manifolds has ...

  14. Deep Space Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Andrew T. (Inventor); Riedel, Joseph E. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A single, compact, lower power deep space positioning system (DPS) configured to determine a location of a spacecraft anywhere in the solar system, and provide state information relative to Earth, Sun, or any remote object. For example, the DPS includes a first camera and, possibly, a second camera configured to capture a plurality of navigation images to determine a state of a spacecraft in a solar system. The second camera is located behind, or adjacent to, a secondary reflector of a first camera in a body of a telescope.

  15. Positive lubrication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dennis W.; Hooper, Fred L.

    1990-01-01

    As part of the development of an autonomous lubrication system for spin bearings, a system was developed to deliver oil to grease-lubricated bearings upon demand. This positive oil delivery system (PLUS) consists of a pressurized reservoir with a built-in solenoid valve that delivers a predictable quantity of oil to the spin bearing through a system of stainless steel tubes. Considerable testing was performed on the PLUS to characterize its performance and verify its effectiveness, along with qualifying it for flight. Additional development is underway that will lead to the fully autonomous active lubrication system.

  16. Global Positioning System Standard Positioning Service Performance Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    The U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard Positioning Service (SPS) consists of space-based positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT) signals delivered free of direct user fees for peaceful civil, commercial, and scientific uses worldwide. Th...

  17. Triangulation positioning system network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sfendourakis Marios

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents ongoing work on localization and positioning through triangulation procedure for a Fixed Sensors Network - FSN.The FSN has to work as a system.As the triangulation problem becomes high complicated in a case with large numbers of sensors and transmitters, an adequate grid topology is needed in order to tackle the detection complexity.For that reason a Network grid topology is presented and areas that are problematic and need further analysis are analyzed.The Network System in order to deal with problems of saturation and False Triangulations - FTRNs will have to find adequate methods in every sub-area of the Area Of Interest - AOI.Also, concepts like Sensor blindness and overall Network blindness, are presented. All these concepts affect the Network detection rate and its performance and ought to be considered in a way that the network overall performance won’t be degraded.Network performance should be monitored contentiously, with right algorithms and methods.It is also shown that as the number of TRNs and FTRNs is increased Detection Complexity - DC is increased.It is hoped that with further research all the characteristics of a triangulation system network for positioning will be gained and the system will be able to perform autonomously with a high detection rate.

  18. Positional therapy in sleep apnoea - one fits all? What determines success in positional therapy in sleep apnoea syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascha Troester

    Full Text Available Positional therapy is a simple means of therapy in sleep apnoea syndrome, but due to controversial or lacking evidence, it is not widely accepted as appropriate treatment. In this study, we analysed data to positional therapy with regard to successful reduction of AHI and predictors of success.All consecutive patients undergoing polysomnography between 2007 and 2011 were analysed. We used a strict definition of positional sleep apnoea syndrome (supine-exclusive sleep apnoea syndrome and of therapy used. Patients underwent polysomnography initially and during follow-up.1275 patients were evaluated, 112 of which had supine-exclusive sleep apnoea syndrome (AHI 5-66/h, median 13/h, 105 received positional therapy. With this treatment alone 75% (70/105 reached an AHI <5/h, in the follow-up 1 year later 37% (37/105 of these still had AHI<5/h, 46% (43/105 yielded an AHI between 5 and 10/h. Nine patient switched to APAP due to deterioration, 3 wanted to try APAP due to comfort reasons. At the last follow-up, 32% patients (34/105 were still on positional therapy with AHI <5/h. BMI was a predictor for successful reduction of AHI, but success was independent of sex, the presence of obstructive versus central sleep apnoea, severity of sleep apnoea syndrome or co-morbidities.Positional therapy may be a promising therapy option for patients with positional sleep apnoea. With appropriate adherence it yields a reasonable success rate in the clinical routine.

  19. Galileo positioning technology

    CERN Document Server

    Lohan, Elena; Sand, Stephan; Hurskainen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    This book covers multi-band Galileo receivers (especially E1-E5 bands of Galileo) and addresses all receiver building blocks, from the antenna and front end, through details of the baseband receiver processing blocks, up to the navigation processing, including the Galileo message structure and Position, Velocity, Time (PVT) computation. Moreover, hybridization solutions with communications systems for improved localization are discussed and an open-source GNSS receiver platform (available for download) developed at Tampere University of Technology (TUT) is addressed in detail. • Takes a holistic approach to GALILEO and related systems, such as EGNOS and hybrid solutions on mobile phones; • Provides an invaluable reference to Binary Offset Carrier modulations and related families, which are some of the trademarks of GALILEO; • Includes a detailed survey of GALILEO receiver research in Europe and existing software-defined radio (SDR) GALILEO receiver implementations; • Addresses the multiple challen...

  20. DELTA beam position monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinker, S.; Heisterhagen, R.; Wille, K.

    1991-01-01

    For the electron storage ring DELTA (Dortmund ELectron Test Accelerator) a beam-position-monitor system based on button pickups has been designed. Two different concepts for the monitor electronics have been developed obtaining a long-term stability better than ± 150 μm and a short-term resolution below ± 10 μm. There are no hybrids integrated in the electronic circuits as all four button signals should be amplified and digitized to provide redundancy. First, a concept using four separated electronic branches, one for each button, was tested. Then a concept with a multiplexer in front followed by only one amplifier was designed. This concept, the electronic circuits and the measurements are presented

  1. Algorithms for Global Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borre, Kai; Strang, Gilbert

    and replaces the authors' previous work, Linear Algebra, Geodesy, and GPS (1997). An initial discussion of the basic concepts, characteristics and technical aspects of different satellite systems is followed by the necessary mathematical content which is presented in a detailed and self-contained fashion......The emergence of satellite technology has changed the lives of millions of people. In particular, GPS has brought an unprecedented level of accuracy to the field of geodesy. This text is a guide to the algorithms and mathematical principles that account for the success of GPS technology....... At the heart of the matter are the positioning algorithms on which GPS technology relies, the discussion of which will affirm the mathematical contents of the previous chapters. Numerous ready-to-use MATLAB codes are included for the reader. This comprehensive guide will be invaluable for engineers...

  2. The Global Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a constellation of navigation satellites called Navigation Satellite Timing And Ranging (NAVSTAR), maintained by the U.S. Department of Defense. Many outdoor enthusiasts recognize that a handheld GPS receiver can be an accurate tool for determining their location on the terrain. The GPS receiver helps determine locations on the Earth's surface by collecting signals from three or more satellites through a process called triangulation. Identifying a location on the Earth is more useful if you also know about the surrounding topographic conditions. Using a topographic map with the GPS receiver provides important information about features of the surrounding terrain and can help you plot an effective route from one location to another.

  3. Positive void reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, D.J.

    1992-09-01

    This report is a review of some of the important aspects of the analysis of large loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). One important aspect is the calculation of positive void reactivity. To study this subject the lattice physics codes used for void worth calculations and the coupled neutronic and thermal-hydraulic codes used for the transient analysis are reviewed. Also reviewed are the measurements used to help validate the codes. The application of these codes to large LOCAs is studied with attention focused on the uncertainty factor for the void worth used to bias the results. Another aspect of the subject dealt with in the report is the acceptance criteria that are applied. This includes the criterion for peak fuel enthalpy and the question of whether prompt criticality should also be a criterion. To study the former, fuel behavior measurements and calculations are reviewed. (Author) (49 refs., 2 figs., tab.)

  4. Conference - La discipline positive

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Eduquer avec fermeté et bienveillance Véronique Genevay Jeudi 31 mai à 19h00 CERN Meyrin, Salle du Conseil 503-1-001 Venez vous familiariser avec la pensée et le positionnement développé dans la discipline positive. Une approche ni permissive, ni punitive, qui vise à enseigner aux enfants des compétences comme la confiance en soi, l’autonomie, le respect de soi-même et le respect mutuel, la responsabilité, la coopération… Inscrivez-vous : https://indico.cern.ch/e/disciplinepositive   Pour plus d’informations : staff.association@cern.ch ou (+41) 022 766 37 38

  5. Position Sensitive Gaseous Photomultipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Martinengo, P; Peskov, V

    2010-01-01

    Advances in the technologies associated with position sensitive gaseous detectors especially featuring CsI as reflective photoconverters will be reviewed. These photodetectors represent the most effective solution for what concerns cost and performance in the case of large area Cherenkov imaging applications in relatively low rate (or low occupancy) high energy physics and astrophysics experiments. Moreover, they are the only choice when the Cherenkov detector is embedded in a magnetic field. Recently proposed single photon MPGDs (Micropattern Gaseous Detectors) will be also discussed in view of the successful efforts so far made to extend their sensitivity to visible light. With some modifications, photosensitive gaseous detectors can also be used in the imaging of X-rays and particles.

  6. The Power of Positive Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it going. How Positive Emotions Help Us Positive emotions balance out negative ones, but they have other powerful benefits, too. Instead of narrowing our focus like negative emotions do, positive emotions affect our brains in ways ...

  7. Croatian Recommendations for Dialysis of HIV-Positive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulin Marijana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection may be associated with renal impairment since about 0.4% of all HIV-positive patients develop end-stage renal disease. The share of patients with HIV infection in hemodialysis centers throughout the world ranges from 0.3% to as high as 38%. In Croatia, renal replacement therapy was needed by 1% of all the HIV-positive patients from 1985 until the end of 2014. Healthcare professionals (HP should be aware of the risks of occupational exposure to blood-borne infections in their daily work. Performing dialysis in HIV-positive patients increases the risk of exposure to HIV during the extracorporeal circulation of the infected blood. However, post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP with effective antiretroviral drugs significantly reduces the risk of infection after occupational exposure. On behalf of the Croatian Society of Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, the authors of this paper have proposed recommendations for the management of HIVpositive patients on dialysis, which aim to prevent the transmission of HIV among patients and HPs. The important recommendations include the following: 1. when the need arises, it is necessary to provide HIV-positive patients with dialysis in the vicinity of their place of residence. 2. HIV-positive patients should be dialyzed with a separate hemodialysis machine in an isolated area. Alternatively, they can be dialyzed in an area for the hemodialysis of HCV-positive and/or HBVpositive patients. 3. Specialized and trained personnel should be provided during the hemodialysis procedure, together with strict compliance with the standard precautions for the prevention of blood-borne infections. 4. There should be a good and prompt cooperation with the National Referral Center for HIV infection.

  8. Relationship of condylar position to disc position and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Incesu, L.; Taskaya-Yilmaz, N. E-mail: nergizy@omu.edu.tr; Oeguetcen-Toller, M.; Uzun, E

    2004-09-01

    Introduction/objective: The purpose of this study was to assess whether condylar position, as depicted by magnetic resonance imaging, was an indicator of disc morphology and position. Methods and material: One hundred and twenty two TMJs of 61 patients with temporomandibular joint disorder were examined. Condylar position, disc deformity and degree of anterior disc displacement were evaluated by using magnetic resonance imaging. Results and discussion: Posterior condyle position was found to be the main feature of temporomandibular joints with slight and moderate anterior disc displacement. No statistical significance was found between the condylar position, and reducing and nonreducing disc positions. On the other hand, superior disc position was found to be statistically significant for centric condylar position. Conclusion: It was concluded that posterior condyle position could indicate anterior disc displacement whereas there was no relation between the position of condyle and the disc deformity.

  9. Conflict, Memory, and Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brescó, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to bring the dialogical and multivoiced dimension of conflict to the fore in the study of how people remember a particular event in the past. Drawing from different case studies, it contains analyses of how subjects identifying with different political actors in the Basq...... with a discussion on the role of history teaching in promoting a more critical, reflexive, and pluralistic way of dealing with memory, and hence with conflict.......The aim of this paper was to bring the dialogical and multivoiced dimension of conflict to the fore in the study of how people remember a particular event in the past. Drawing from different case studies, it contains analyses of how subjects identifying with different political actors in the Basque...... conflict adopted their respective positions, and interpretation of the conflict, and how, in light of same, they reconstruct the failed peace process that took place in 2006 between the terrorist group ETA (Euzkadi ta Azcatasuna, or Basque Country and Freedom in English) and the Spanish government. Results...

  10. Gathering positive experience

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Last Monday, the new CERN Machine Advisory Committee (CMAC) met for the first time, and we had good news to tell its members. Over the weekend, injection tests for both LHC beams were successfully carried out. In other words, we’ve had beam in the LHC for the first time since September 2008. That’s a good feeling, but it’s no reason for complacency. There’s still a long way to go before first physics at the new energy frontier. As the Bulletin has reported over recent weeks, we’re gathering a lot of positive experience with the new quench detection and protection system (QPS), which is already allowing us to monitor the LHC far better than we were able to in the past. So far, the QPS for three of the LHC’s eight sectors has been put through its paces, and we’ve also power tested those sectors to 2000 amperes, the equivalent of around 1.2 TeV per beam. The next step is to slowly increase the current to 4000 amperes, and...

  11. Thruster allocation for dynamical positioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, K.; van den Berg, J.B.; Blank, E.; Archer, C.; Redeker, M.; Kutter, M.; Hemker, P.

    2010-01-01

    Positioning a vessel at a fixed position in deep water is of great importance when working offshore. In recent years a Dynamical Positioning (DP) system was developed at Marin [2]. After the measurement of the current position and external forces (like waves, wind etc.), each thruster of the vessel

  12. Climate change policy position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) is a firm believer in the need to take action to mitigate the risks associated with climate change, and that clear government policy is called for. The principles of sustainable development must guide this policy development effort. The initiatives required to address greenhouse gas emissions over both the short and long term must be carefully considered, and it is up to industries to ensure their production efficiency and emission intensity. Promoting improved performance of industries in Canada and developing technology that can be deployed internationally for larger global effects represents Canada's best contribution to progress on greenhouse gas emissions. The increase in energy demand along with increases in population and economic growth have contributed to an increase in greenhouse gas emissions despite improved energy efficiency in industry. Significant damage to the economy will result if Canada is to meet its commitment under the Kyoto Protocol, forcing the country to buy large quantities of foreign credits instead of using those funds for increased research and development. CAPP indicated that an effective plan must be: balanced, equitable, responsible, competitive, focused on technology and innovation, and based on agreements on sectoral plans. Each of these principles were discussed, followed by the fundamentals of approach for upstream oil and gas. The framework for climate change policy was described as well as the elements of a sector plan. CAPP wants to work with all levels of government on an appropriate plan for Canada, that considers our unique circumstances. Canada can play a significant role on the international stage by properly implementing the policy position proposed by the CAPP without unnecessary risks to the economy. refs

  13. Positive Technologies for Understanding and Promoting Positive Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baños, Rosa María; Carrillo, Alba; Etchemendy, Ernestina; Botella, Cristina

    2017-10-26

    Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have become increasingly present in our lives, and their use has spread considerably. This paper presents a review of the way ICTs can help practitioners and researchers to study, promote, and train positive emotions. It is framed within the field of Positive Technologies: the applied scientific approach to the study of the use of technology to improve the quality of personal experience, with the goal of increasing wellbeing. First, the article presents an introduction to the topic of technologies and positive emotions. Then, it describes how ICTs can aid in monitoring, assessing, promoting, modifying, and training positive emotions. Finally, implications and future directions of the role of Positive Technologies in positive emotions are discussed. The authors conclude that, in the near future, Positive Technologies and the field of positive emotions will interact synergistically, producing an exponential growth in the understanding and promotion of positive emotions.

  14. Exposing Position Uncertainty in Middleware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langdal, Jakob; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Toftkjær, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, the goal for positioning middleware is to provide developers with seamless position transparency, i.e., providing a connection between the application domain and the positioning sensors while hiding the complexity of the positioning technologies in use. A key part of the hidden...... complexity is the uncertainty associated to positions caused by inherent limitations when using sensors to convert physical phenomena to digital representations. We propose to use the notion of seamful design for developers to design a positioning middleware that provides transparent positioning and still...... allows developers some control of the uncertainty aspects of the positioning process. The design presented in this paper shows how uncertainty of positioning can be conceptualized and internalized into a positioning middleware. Furthermore, we argue that a developer who is interacting with uncertainty...

  15. Guideline Implementation: Positioning the Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlingame, Byron L

    2017-09-01

    Every surgical procedure requires positioning the patient; however, all surgical positions are associated with the potential for the patient to experience a positioning injury. The locations and types of potential injuries (eg, stretching, compression, pressure injury) depend on the position. Factors that may increase the patient's risk for an injury are the length of the procedure and risk factors inherent to the patient (eg, weight, age, frailty). AORN's updated "Guideline for positioning the patient" provides guidance on injury prevention practices for all surgical positions including supine, Trendelenburg, reverse Trendelenburg, lateral, lithotomy, prone, and sitting positions and modifications of these positions. This article focuses on the key points of the guideline covering the use of prophylactic dressings, neurophysiological monitoring, and safely positioning the patient in the supine and prone positions. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Secure positioning in wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capkun, Srdjan; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    So far, the problem of positioning in wireless networks has been studied mainly in a non-adversarial settings. In this work, we analyze the resistance of positioning techniques to position and distance spoofing attacks. We propose a mechanism for secure positioning of wireless devices, that we call...... Verifiable Multilateration. We then show how this mechanism can be used to secure positioning in sensor networks. We analyze our system through simulations....

  17. False Position, Double False Position and Cramer's Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    We state and prove the methods of False Position (Regula Falsa) and Double False Position (Regula Duorum Falsorum). The history of both is traced from ancient Egypt and China through the work of Fibonacci, ending with a connection between Double False Position and Cramer's Rule.

  18. Videofluoroscopic Investigation of Body Position on Articulatory Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Youkyung; Perry, Jamie L.; Kuehn, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively examine the effects of body position on the positioning of the epiglottis, tongue, and velum at rest and during speech. Method: Videofluoroscopic data were obtained from 12 healthy adults in the supine and upright positions at rest and during speech while the participants produced 12 VCV sequences. The effects of body…

  19. Positive Psychology and Positive Education: Old Wine in New Bottles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2012-01-01

    The recently fashionable theories of positive psychology have educational ramifications at virtually every level of engagement, culminating in the model of positive education. In this critical review, I scrutinize positive education as a potential theory in educational psychology. Special attention is given to conceptual controversies and…

  20. CADASTRAL POSITIONING ACCURACY IMPROVEMENT: A CASE STUDY IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Hashim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cadastral map is a parcel-based information which is specifically designed to define the limitation of boundaries. In Malaysia, the cadastral map is under authority of the Department of Surveying and Mapping Malaysia (DSMM. With the growth of spatial based technology especially Geographical Information System (GIS, DSMM decided to modernize and reform its cadastral legacy datasets by generating an accurate digital based representation of cadastral parcels. These legacy databases usually are derived from paper parcel maps known as certified plan. The cadastral modernization will result in the new cadastral database no longer being based on single and static parcel paper maps, but on a global digital map. Despite the strict process of the cadastral modernization, this reform has raised unexpected queries that remain essential to be addressed. The main focus of this study is to review the issues that have been generated by this transition. The transformed cadastral database should be additionally treated to minimize inherent errors and to fit them to the new satellite based coordinate system with high positional accuracy. This review result will be applied as a foundation for investigation to study the systematic and effectiveness method for Positional Accuracy Improvement (PAI in cadastral database modernization.

  1. Timing of organogenesis support basal position of turtles in the amniote tree of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneburg, Ingmar; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2009-04-23

    The phylogenetic position of turtles is the most disputed aspect in the reconstruction of the land vertebrate tree of life. This controversy has arisen after many different kinds and revisions of investigations of molecular and morphological data. Three main hypotheses of living sister-groups of turtles have resulted from them: all reptiles, crocodiles + birds or squamates + tuatara. Although embryology has played a major role in morphological studies of vertebrate phylogeny, data on developmental timing have never been examined to explore and test the alternative phylogenetic hypotheses. We conducted a comprehensive study of published and new embryological data comprising 15 turtle and eight tetrapod species belonging to other taxa, integrating for the first time data on the side-necked turtle clade. The timing of events in organogenesis of diverse character complexes in all body regions is not uniform across amniotes and can be analysed using a parsimony-based method. Changes in the relative timing of particular events diagnose many clades of amniotes and include a phylogenetic signal. A basal position of turtles to the living saurian clades is clearly supported by timing of organogenesis data. The clear signal of a basal position of turtles provided by heterochronic data implies significant convergence in either molecular, adult morphological or developmental timing characters, as only one of the alternative solutions to the phylogenetic conundrum can be right. The development of a standard reference series of embryological events in amniotes as presented here should enable future improvements and expansion of sampling and thus the examination of other hypotheses about phylogeny and patterns of the evolution of land vertebrate development.

  2. What Good Are Positive Emotions?

    OpenAIRE

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    1998-01-01

    This article opens by noting that positive emotions do not fit existing models of emotions. Consequently, a new model is advanced to describe the form and function of a subset of positive emotions, including joy, interest, contentment, and love. This new model posits that these positive emotions serve to broaden an individual’s momentary thought–action repertoire, which in turn has the effect of building that individual’s physical, intellectual, and social resources. Empirical evidence to sup...

  3. Introducing Positive Psychology to SLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Mercer, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA). This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work,…

  4. Positive Psychology and Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    A relatively new movement in psychology, positive psychology, has many implications for the field of outdoor education. Positive psychology has the goal of fostering excellence through the understanding and enhancement of factors that lead to growth. It embraces the view that growth occurs when positive factors are present, as opposed to the…

  5. Navicular bone position determined by positional MRI: a reproducibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Philip; Nybing, Janus D. [Copenhagen University Hospital Frederiksberg and Bispebjerg, Department of Radiology, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Johannsen, Finn E.; Stallknecht, Sandra E. [Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen, Copenhagen, NV (Denmark); Hangaard, Stine; Hansen, Bjarke B. [Copenhagen University Hospital Frederiksberg, Parker Institute, Department of Rheumatology, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Boesen, Mikael [Copenhagen University Hospital Frederiksberg and Bispebjerg, Department of Radiology, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Copenhagen University Hospital Frederiksberg, Parker Institute, Department of Rheumatology, Frederiksberg (Denmark)

    2016-02-15

    To examine intraobserver, interobserver and between-day reproducibility of positional MRI for evaluation of navicular bone height (NVH) and medial navicular position (MNP). Positional MRI (pMRI) of the foot was performed on ten healthy participants (0.25 T G-scanner). Scanning was performed in supine and standing position, respectively. Two radiologists evaluated the images in a blinded manner. Reliability and agreement were assessed by calculation of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and 95 % limits of agreement as a percentage of the mean (LOA%). Intraobserver and interobserver reliability was ''substantial'' in both supine and standing position (ICC 0.86-0.98) and showed good agreement (LOA% 4.9-14.7 %). Between-day reliability of navicular height and medial navicular position in standing position remained substantial (ICC 0.85-0.92) with adequate agreement (LOA% 8.3-19.8 %). In supine position between-day reliability was ''moderate'' for NVH (ICC 0.72) and ''slight'' for MNP (ICC 0.39). Agreement remained adequate between-days for MNP in supine position (LOA% 17.7 %), but it was less than adequate for NVH in supine position (LOA% 24.2 %). Navicular height and medial navicular position can be measured by pMRI in a very reproducible manner within and between observers. Increased measurement variation is observed between-days in supine position, which may be due to small positional differences or other unknown biomechanical factors. (orig.)

  6. Navicular bone position determined by positional MRI: a reproducibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Philip; Nybing, Janus D.; Johannsen, Finn E.; Stallknecht, Sandra E.; Hangaard, Stine; Hansen, Bjarke B.; Boesen, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    To examine intraobserver, interobserver and between-day reproducibility of positional MRI for evaluation of navicular bone height (NVH) and medial navicular position (MNP). Positional MRI (pMRI) of the foot was performed on ten healthy participants (0.25 T G-scanner). Scanning was performed in supine and standing position, respectively. Two radiologists evaluated the images in a blinded manner. Reliability and agreement were assessed by calculation of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and 95 % limits of agreement as a percentage of the mean (LOA%). Intraobserver and interobserver reliability was ''substantial'' in both supine and standing position (ICC 0.86-0.98) and showed good agreement (LOA% 4.9-14.7 %). Between-day reliability of navicular height and medial navicular position in standing position remained substantial (ICC 0.85-0.92) with adequate agreement (LOA% 8.3-19.8 %). In supine position between-day reliability was ''moderate'' for NVH (ICC 0.72) and ''slight'' for MNP (ICC 0.39). Agreement remained adequate between-days for MNP in supine position (LOA% 17.7 %), but it was less than adequate for NVH in supine position (LOA% 24.2 %). Navicular height and medial navicular position can be measured by pMRI in a very reproducible manner within and between observers. Increased measurement variation is observed between-days in supine position, which may be due to small positional differences or other unknown biomechanical factors. (orig.)

  7. Pedagogical Lexicography: Towards a New and Strict Typology Corresponding to the Present State-of-the-Art Pedagogiese leksikografie: Op weg na 'n nuwe en streng tipologie wat ooreenstem met die huidige gebruik daarvan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Tarp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    A frequent and well-known problem within lexicography is the use of various terms to denominate the same phenomenon as well as the use of the same term to denominate various, completely different phenomena. Such a non-systematic terminology may lead to confusion in the discipline and hamper its theoretical and practical development. The problem is especially severe within so-called pedagogical lexicography. A short panoramic review shows that especially the terms "pedagogical lexicography/dictionaries", "didactic lexicography/dictionaries", "school dictionaries" and "learners' dictionaries" are used with a lot of different meanings that vary from author to author, from country to country, from culture to culture. Although publishing houses could hardly be expected to use a strict terminology for their products, this should nevertheless be expected from theoretical lexicography. In order to overcome the present confusion, it is therefore urgent to establish a typology that can be used as reference by scholars dealing theoretically with the subfield of pedagogical lexicography. The article will first show the amazing variety of meanings addressed to the various terms in the theoretical literature. It will then approach the problem along two different lines: 1 establishing a clear definition of the terms "pedagogical", "didactic", "school" and "learner" in a lexicographical perspective, and 2 referring to the existing practice where the terms are frequently used in a much broader sense than in the theoretical literature. Based upon these considerations, a new and strict typology that corresponds to the present practice of pedagogical lexicography will be presented.

    Keywords: pedagogical lexicography; pedagogical dictionaries; learners' lexicography; learners' dictionaries; school dictionaries; children's dictionaries; desk dictionaries; college dictionaries; dictionaries for foreign-language learners; dictionaries

  8. Polyurethane - positioning aids in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzen, G.; Boeck, E.G.; Thelen, M.; Kutzner, J.

    1985-01-01

    A simple and cheap method is described for the manufacturing of individual positioning aids made of foamed polyurethane. Some examples are given to demonstrate the applicability of these positioning aids for the irradiation of different body regions. The reproducibility of the radiation field in the head and neck area was investigated with and without positioning aid. It was proved that the field is adjusted more exactly when positioning aids are applied. The dosimetric investigations performed showed a negligible influence of foamed polyurethane on the radiation quality. So the positioning aids could be left within the radiation field when drawing the field borders. (orig.) [de

  9. An Effective Method to Detect Volatile Intermediates Generated in the Bioconversion of Coal to Methane by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry after In-Situ Extraction Using Headspace Solid-Phase Micro-Extraction under Strict Anaerobic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianmin; Wang, Baoyu; Tai, Chao; Wu, Li; Zhao, Han; Guan, Jiadong; Chen, Linyong

    2016-01-01

    Bioconversion of coal to methane has gained increased attention in recent decades because of its economic and environmental advantages. However, the mechanism of this process is difficult to study in depth, partly because of difficulties associated with the analysis of intermediates generated in coal bioconversion. In this investigation, we report on an effective method to analyze volatile intermediates generated in the bioconversion of coal under strict anaerobic conditions. We conduct in-situ extraction of intermediates using headspace solid-phase micro-extraction followed by detection by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Bioconversion simulation equipment was modified and combined with a solid-phase micro-extraction device. In-situ extraction could be achieved by using the combined units, to avoid a breakdown in anaerobic conditions and to maintain the experiment continuity. More than 30 intermediates were identified qualitatively in the conversion process, and the variation in trends of some typical intermediates has been discussed. Volatile organic acids (C2-C7) were chosen for a quantitative study of the intermediates because of their importance during coal bioconversion to methane. Fiber coating, extraction time, and solution acidity were optimized in the solid-phase micro-extraction procedure. The pressure was enhanced during the bioconversion process to investigate the influence of headspace pressure on analyte extraction. The detection limits of the method ranged from 0.0006 to 0.02 mmol/L for the volatile organic acids and the relative standard deviations were between 4.6% and 11.5%. The volatile organic acids (C2-C7) generated in the bioconversion process were 0.01-1.15 mmol/L with a recovery range from 80% to 105%. The developed method is useful for further in-depth research on the bioconversion of coal to methane.

  10. A Sleep Position Trainer for positional sleep apnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laub, Rasmus R; Tønnesen, Philip; Jennum, Poul J

    2017-01-01

    We tested the effect of the Sleep Position Trainer, a vibrational device, for positional sleep apnea in an open, randomized controlled trial with 101 patients, where 52 patients were allocated to Sleep Position Trainer and 49 patients to a non-treatment control group for 2 months (Part 1). All...... patients were then followed as a cohort for a period of 6 months with use of the Sleep Position Trainer (Part 2). The participants were assessed with polygraphy at entry, and after 2 and 6 months. The mean apnea-hypopnea index supine was 35 per h (SD, 18) in the Sleep Position Trainer group and 38 per h...... (SD, 15) in the control group at entry. In a per protocol analysis, the mean total apnea-hypopnea index at entry and after 2 months in the Sleep Position Trainer group was 18 per h (SD, 10) and 10 per h (SD, 9; P

  11. Are positive emotions just as "positive" across cultures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Janxin; Wang, Jennifer; Koo, Kelly

    2011-08-01

    Whereas positive emotions and feeling unequivocally good may be at the heart of well-being among Westerners, positive emotions often carry negative associations within many Asian cultures. Based on a review of East-West cultural differences in dialectical emotions, or co-occurring positive and negative feelings, we predicted culture to influence the association between positive emotions and depression, but not the association between negative emotions and depression. As predicted, in a survey of over 600 European-, immigrant Asian-, and Asian American college students, positive emotions were associated with depression symptoms among European Americans and Asian Americans, but not immigrant Asians. Negative emotions were associated with depression symptoms among all three groups. We also found initial evidence that acculturation (i.e., nativity) may influence the role of positive emotions in depression: Asian Americans fell "in between" the two other groups. These findings suggest the importance of studying the role of culture in positive emotions and in positive psychology. The use of interventions based on promoting positive emotions in clinical psychology among Asian clients is briefly discussed. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Detecting Positioning Errors and Estimating Correct Positions by Moving Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ha Yoon; Lee, Jun Seok

    2015-01-01

    In recent times, improvements in smart mobile devices have led to new functionalities related to their embedded positioning abilities. Many related applications that use positioning data have been introduced and are widely being used. However, the positioning data acquired by such devices are prone to erroneous values caused by environmental factors. In this research, a detection algorithm is implemented to detect erroneous data over a continuous positioning data set with several options. Our algorithm is based on a moving window for speed values derived by consecutive positioning data. Both the moving average of the speed and standard deviation in a moving window compose a moving significant interval at a given time, which is utilized to detect erroneous positioning data along with other parameters by checking the newly obtained speed value. In order to fulfill the designated operation, we need to examine the physical parameters and also determine the parameters for the moving windows. Along with the detection of erroneous speed data, estimations of correct positioning are presented. The proposed algorithm first estimates the speed, and then the correct positions. In addition, it removes the effect of errors on the moving window statistics in order to maintain accuracy. Experimental verifications based on our algorithm are presented in various ways. We hope that our approach can help other researchers with regard to positioning applications and human mobility research. PMID:26624282

  13. Positive mood broadens visual attention to positive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadlinger, Heather A; Isaacowitz, Derek M

    2006-03-01

    In an attempt to investigate the impact of positive emotions on visual attention within the context of Fredrickson's (1998) broaden-and-build model, eye tracking was used in two studies to measure visual attentional preferences of college students (n=58, n=26) to emotional pictures. Half of each sample experienced induced positive mood immediately before viewing slides of three similarly-valenced images, in varying central-peripheral arrays. Attentional breadth was determined by measuring the percentage viewing time to peripheral images as well as by the number of visual saccades participants made per slide. Consistent with Fredrickson's theory, the first study showed that individuals induced into positive mood fixated more on peripheral stimuli than did control participants; however, this only held true for highly-valenced positive stimuli. Participants under induced positive mood also made more frequent saccades for slides of neutral and positive valence. A second study showed that these effects were not simply due to differences in emotional arousal between stimuli. Selective attentional broadening to positive stimuli may act both to facilitate later building of resources as well as to maintain current positive affective states.

  14. COMPANIES WITH MARKET POSITIONING BRANDS

    OpenAIRE

    Ruxandra Radoviciu; Filimon Stremtan

    2009-01-01

    Positioning a company on the market by the usage of brands is defined as the act ofdesigning the supply and its image on the market, so as to occupy a distinct place in the minds of theirtarget audience. The role of positioning in developing marketing strategy to differentiate products andservices involves the selection of attributes that are considered important for consumers. In order togain a strong position on the market the companies must perform a market analysis, an internalanalysis an...

  15. The Role of Positive Emotions in Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing. PMID:11315248

  16. Positivity of the English language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloumann, Isabel M; Danforth, Christopher M; Harris, Kameron Decker; Bliss, Catherine A; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2012-01-01

    Over the last million years, human language has emerged and evolved as a fundamental instrument of social communication and semiotic representation. People use language in part to convey emotional information, leading to the central and contingent questions: (1) What is the emotional spectrum of natural language? and (2) Are natural languages neutrally, positively, or negatively biased? Here, we report that the human-perceived positivity of over 10,000 of the most frequently used English words exhibits a clear positive bias. More deeply, we characterize and quantify distributions of word positivity for four large and distinct corpora, demonstrating that their form is broadly invariant with respect to frequency of word use.

  17. Which Positive Integers are Interesting?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Interesting positive integers; idoneal numbers; Carmichael numbers; Wieferich primes; Mersenne primes; Fermat primes; Bernoulli numbers; Kaprekar constant; Skewes constants; look-and-say sequence; Graham's constant.

  18. CDDIS_VLBI_products_positions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Station positions and velocity solutions in Software INdependent EXchange (SINEX) format derived from analysis of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data....

  19. CDDIS_DORIS_products_positions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Station position and velocity solutions (weekly and cumulative) in Software INdependent EXchange (SINEX) format derived from analysis of Doppler Orbitography by...

  20. CDDIS_GNSS_products_positions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Weekly station positions and velocity solutions in Software INdependent EXchange (SINEX) format derived from analysis of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)...

  1. Two-Way Parsimonious Classification Models for Evolving Hierarchies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehghani, M.; Azarbonyad, H.; Kamps, J.; Marx, M.; Fuhr, N.; Quaresma, P.; Gonçalves, T.; Larsen, B.; Balog, K.; Macdonald, C.; Cappellato, L.; Ferro, N.

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing volume of semantically annotated data available, in particular due to the emerging use of knowledge bases to annotate or classify dynamic data on the web. This is challenging as these knowledge bases have a dynamic hierarchical or graph structure demanding robustness against

  2. Parsimony in landscape metrics: Strength, universality, and consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Kevin McGarigal; Maile C. Neel

    2008-01-01

    Ecologists can be overwhelmed by the number of metrics available to quantify landscape structure. Clarification of interrelationships and redundancy is needed to guide metric selection and interpretation for the purpose of landscape monitoring. In this study we identified independent components of class- and landscape-level structure in multiple landscapes in each of...

  3. A parsimonious approach to modeling animal movement data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Tremblay

    Full Text Available Animal tracking is a growing field in ecology and previous work has shown that simple speed filtering of tracking data is not sufficient and that improvement of tracking location estimates are possible. To date, this has required methods that are complicated and often time-consuming (state-space models, resulting in limited application of this technique and the potential for analysis errors due to poor understanding of the fundamental framework behind the approach. We describe and test an alternative and intuitive approach consisting of bootstrapping random walks biased by forward particles. The model uses recorded data accuracy estimates, and can assimilate other sources of data such as sea-surface temperature, bathymetry and/or physical boundaries. We tested our model using ARGOS and geolocation tracks of elephant seals that also carried GPS tags in addition to PTTs, enabling true validation. Among pinnipeds, elephant seals are extreme divers that spend little time at the surface, which considerably impact the quality of both ARGOS and light-based geolocation tracks. Despite such low overall quality tracks, our model provided location estimates within 4.0, 5.5 and 12.0 km of true location 50% of the time, and within 9, 10.5 and 20.0 km 90% of the time, for above, equal or below average elephant seal ARGOS track qualities, respectively. With geolocation data, 50% of errors were less than 104.8 km (<0.94 degrees, and 90% were less than 199.8 km (<1.80 degrees. Larger errors were due to lack of sea-surface temperature gradients. In addition we show that our model is flexible enough to solve the obstacle avoidance problem by assimilating high resolution coastline data. This reduced the number of invalid on-land location by almost an order of magnitude. The method is intuitive, flexible and efficient, promising extensive utilization in future research.

  4. A Large Version of the Small Parsimony Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredslund, Jacob; Hein, Jotun; Scharling, Tejs

    2003-01-01

    Given a multiple alignment over k sequences, an evolutionary tree relating the sequences, and a subadditive gap penalty function (e.g. an affine function), we reconstruct the internal nodes of the tree optimally: we find the optimal explanation in terms of indels of the observed gaps and find the...

  5. A Parsimonious and Universal Description of Turbulent Velocity Increments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, O.E.; Blæsild, P.; Schmiegel, J.

    boundary layer experiment with Taylor-Reynolds numbers Rλ = 80,190,17000, respectively. The application of a time change in terms of the scale parameter δ of the normal inverse Gaussian distribution reveals some universal features that are inherent to the pdf of all three data sets....

  6. Parsimonious or Profligate: How Many and Which Discourse Structure Relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    34* relation type: either additive or causal; "* pragmatic : specifying whether the relation conveys some illocutionary meaning; "* basic order...ARGUMENT - CLAIM is defined as follows: Name: NEGATIVE ARGUMENT - CLAIM Definition: causal, +basic-order, -+- pragmatic , -polarity Example: 1. Although it is...textual relations are used to form the discourse into a coherent whole, determining pronouns and other anaphora usage or linearizing sequences of topics

  7. Carbon-nitrogen-water interactions: is model parsimony fruitful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puertes, Cristina; González-Sanchis, María; Lidón, Antonio; Bautista, Inmaculada; Lull, Cristina; Francés, Félix

    2017-04-01

    It is well known that carbon and nitrogen cycles are highly intertwined and both should be explained through the water balance. In fact, in water-controlled ecosystems nutrient deficit is related to this water scarcity. For this reason, the present study compares the capability of three models in reproducing the interaction between the carbon and nitrogen cycles and the water cycle. The models are BIOME-BGCMuSo, LEACHM and a simple carbon-nitrogen model coupled to the hydrological model TETIS. Biome-BGCMuSo and LEACHM are two widely used models that reproduce the carbon and nitrogen cycles adequately. However, their main limitation is that these models are quite complex and can be too detailed for watershed studies. On the contrary, the TETIS nutrient sub-model is a conceptual model with a vertical tank distribution over the active soil depth, dividing it in two layers. Only the input of the added litter and the losses due to soil respiration, denitrification, leaching and plant uptake are considered as external fluxes. Other fluxes have been neglected. The three models have been implemented in an experimental plot of a semi-arid catchment (La Hunde, East of Spain), mostly covered by holm oak (Quercus ilex). Plant transpiration, soil moisture and runoff have been monitored daily during nearly two years (26/10/2012 to 30/09/2014). For the same period, soil samples were collected every two months and taken to the lab in order to obtain the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, ammonium and nitrate. In addition, between field trips soil samples were placed in PVC tubes with resin traps and were left incubating (in situ buried cores). Thus, mineralization and nitrification accumulated fluxes for two months, were obtained. The ammonium and nitrate leaching accumulated for two months were measured using ion-exchange resin cores. Soil respiration was also measured every field trip. Finally, water samples deriving from runoff, were collected to obtain the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, dissolved organic nitrogen, ammonium and nitrate. The comparison shows a better performance of the complex models reproducing carbon and nitrogen cycles. However, the TETIS nutrient sub-model, even simpler than BIOME-BGCMuSo and LEACHM, reproduces the water balance adequately and it obtains a suitable representation of the carbon and nitrogen cycles.

  8. Positive technology: using interactive technologies to promote positive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe; Baños, Rosa M; Botella, Cristina; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Gaggioli, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    It is generally assumed that technology assists individuals in improving the quality of their lives. However, the impact of new technologies and media on well-being and positive functioning is still somewhat controversial. In this paper, we contend that the quality of experience should become the guiding principle in the design and development of new technologies, as well as a primary metric for the evaluation of their applications. The emerging discipline of Positive Psychology provides a useful framework to address this challenge. Positive Psychology is the scientific study of optimal human functioning and flourishing. Instead of drawing on a "disease model" of human behavior, it focuses on factors that enable individuals and communities to thrive and build the best in life. In this paper, we propose the "Positive Technology" approach--the scientific and applied approach to the use of technology for improving the quality of our personal experience through its structuring, augmentation, and/or replacement--as a way of framing a suitable object of study in the field of cyberpsychology and human-computer interaction. Specifically, we suggest that it is possible to use technology to influence three specific features of our experience--affective quality, engagement/actualization, and connectedness--that serve to promote adaptive behaviors and positive functioning. In this framework, positive technologies are classified according to their effects on a specific feature of personal experience. Moreover, for each level, we have identified critical variables that can be manipulated to guide the design and development of positive technologies.

  9. Positive Psychology and Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Peter J.

    2018-01-01

    Positive psychology has been an influential movement within psychology in the early years of the twenty-first century. It is now timely to assess the value of its contribution to career education and guidance. This paper provides a critique of this perspective. Positive psychology can enrich approaches to career development. It can provide a…

  10. Positive Psychology and Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulthouse, Michelle; Kolbert, Jered B.; Bundick, Matthew J.; Crothers, Laura M.

    2017-01-01

    The article details how school counselors can use principles of positive psychology to promote students' career development by facilitating students' pursuit of purpose and meaning. Specifically, the publication identifies how school counselors can actively employ with their students five constructs of positive psychology--namely strengths,…

  11. Indoor Positioning System using Bluetooth

    OpenAIRE

    Sahil Puri

    2015-01-01

    This Paper on Bluetooth Indoor Positioning System is the intersection of Bluetooth Technology and Indoor Positioning Systems. Almost every smartphone today is Bluetooth enabled, making the use of the technology more flexible. We aim at using the RSSI value of Bluetooth signals to track the location of a device.

  12. Signature Strengths in Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Positive psychology can be thought of as the scientific study of what is "right about people" as opposed to the traditional focus on the healing of psychological pain or trauma. The philosophical roots of positive psychology can be traced back to Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, as well as Islamic and Athenian…

  13. World-Economy Centrality and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: A New Look at the Position in the Capitalist World-System and Environmental Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Prew

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the ever-growing concern of climate change, much attention has been paid to the factors driving carbon dioxide emissions. Previous research in the World-Systems perspective has identified a relationship between carbon dioxide emissions and position in the world-economy. This study intends to build on the previous research by developing a new, more parsimonious indicator of World-System position based on Immanuel Wallerstein’s theoretical concepts of incorporation and core-periphery processes. The new World-System indicator is derived from the centrality measure in network analysis based on import data from the International Monetary Fund’s Direction of Trade Statistics. Based on the theoretical concepts of core-periphery processes, carbon dioxide emissions are predicted to rise based on the predominance of energy-intensive, high-technology, core processes within the nation. The results tend to demonstrate a strong relationship between carbon dioxide emissions and position in the world-economy, and the new World-System position indicator is more strongly related with carbon dioxide emissions than Gross Domestic Product per capita.

  14. Libera Electron Beam Position Processor

    CERN Document Server

    Ursic, Rok

    2005-01-01

    Libera is a product family delivering unprecedented possibilities for either building powerful single station solutions or architecting complex feedback systems in the field of accelerator instrumentation and controls. This paper presents functionality and field performance of its first member, the electron beam position processor. It offers superior performance with multiple measurement channels delivering simultaneously position measurements in digital format with MHz kHz and Hz bandwidths. This all-in-one product, facilitating pulsed and CW measurements, is much more than simply a high performance beam position measuring device delivering micrometer level reproducibility with sub-micrometer resolution. Rich connectivity options and innate processing power make it a powerful feedback building block. By interconnecting multiple Libera electron beam position processors one can build a low-latency high throughput orbit feedback system without adding additional hardware. Libera electron beam position processor ...

  15. Positivity VII (Zaanen Centennial Conference)

    CERN Document Server

    Pagter, Ben; Gaans, Onno; Veraar, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of Positivity VII, held from 22-26 July 2013, in Leiden, the Netherlands. Positivity is the mathematical field concerned with ordered structures and their applications in the broadest sense of the word. A biyearly series of conferences is devoted to presenting the latest developments in this lively and growing discipline. The lectures at the conference covered a broad spectrum of topics, ranging from order-theoretic approaches to stochastic processes, positive solutions of evolution equations and positive operators on vector lattices, to order structures in the context of algebras of operators on Hilbert spaces. The contributions in the book reflect this variety and appeal to university researchers in functional analysis, operator theory, measure and integration theory and operator algebras. Positivity VII was also the Zaanen Centennial Conference to mark the 100th birth year of Adriaan Cornelis Zaanen, who held the chair of Analysis in Leiden for more than 25 years and was ...

  16. Introducing positive psychology to SLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mercer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA. This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work, including the humanistic movement in language teaching, models of motivation, the concept of an affective filter, studies of the good language learner, and the concepts related to the self. There are reasons for both encouragement and caution as studies inspired by positive psychology are undertaken. Papers in this special issue of SSLLT cover a range of quantitative and qualitative methods with implications for theory, research, and teaching practice. The special issue serves as a springboard for future research in SLA under the umbrella of positive psychology.

  17. Updated thinking on positivity ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, Barbara L

    2013-12-01

    This article presents my response to the article by Brown, Sokal, and Friedman (2013), which critically examined Losada's conceptual and mathematical work (as presented in Losada, 1999; Losada & Heaphy, 2004; and Fredrickson & Losada; 2005) and concluded that mathematical claims for a critical tipping point positivity ratio are unfounded. In the present article, I draw recent empirical evidence together to support the continued value of computing and seeking to elevate positivity ratios. I also underscore the necessity of modeling nonlinear effects of positivity ratios and, more generally, the value of systems science approaches within affective science and positive psychology. Even when scrubbed of Losada's now-questioned mathematical modeling, ample evidence continues to support the conclusion that, within bounds, higher positivity ratios are predictive of flourishing mental health and other beneficial outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. THE LIMITS OF POSITIVE INTERVENTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Hervás

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive interventions have been developed extensively in recent years and they have been tested and applied in very diverse settings. Despite the fact that most of the findings regarding their efficacy can be considered from positive to very positive, the possibility that, in some cases, positive interventions may have unexpected or even iatrogenic effects cannot be discarded. In this article, research from several sources is reviewed in order to inform decisions about what interventions might be inadequate for cases with specific characteristics or vulnerability traits. Finally, the importance of using positive interventions with caution and rigor even when working with individuals who do not have overt problems or psychological disorders is discussed.

  19. [POSITIONING OF IMMOBALE NEUROLOGIC PATIENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maček, Z; Mandić, M

    2016-01-01

    Damage to the central nervous system leads to the loss of motor control, loss of consciousness, sensory, cognitive and perceptive dysfunction. Patients are immobile in the early phase of recovery, therefore therapeutic approach demands appropriate methods of patient positioning in bed. The positioning has to ensure conditions that will stimulate and promote functional rehabilitation and prevent complications of immobility. The positioning has to rely on functional assessment of the patient problem, while it should also be therapeutic and individually adjusted to the patient needs. In the methods of positioning an immobile patient, all medical team members take part, especially nurses, physical therapists and occupational therapists. Results of positioning are better if mobilization and integration of the abilities regained by the patient are included.

  20. CLINICAL EVALUATION OF POSITIONAL VERTIGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen N

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Vertigo is a very common symptom with which patients see a doctor in clinical practice. It is defined as “subjective sense of imbalance”. Vertigo can be broadly classified into Subjective and Objective types. Each can be again divided into episodic lasting for seconds or hours and prolonged lasting for weeks. A common presenting form of vertigo is that which is experienced when the patient turns his head in a particular position i.e. the positional vertigo, in some cases the vertiginous symptoms are also accompanied by a positional nystagmus. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV is one the most common causes of vertigo. In the present study 100 patients were evaluated for Positional Vertigo. The aim of the study is to analyse patients presenting with positional vertigo and to evaluate the Effectiveness of Epley’s manoeuvre in BPPV and Medical management in patients with negative Dix Hallpike’s Positional test. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study included 100 consecutive patients diagnosed with positional vertigo. A detailed history and general examination and ENT examination was done including vestibular function evaluation. X-Ray cervical spine, P T A and caloric test (cold were done. CT scan and MRI performed. Positional test positive patients were treated with Epley’s manoeuvre and results analysed. RESULTS 100 patients with positional vertigo and among them 70 with BPPV were included in the present study. The mean age of the patient’s was 42.34±4.6 years. 30% of the patients belonged to the age group of 51 to 60 years, 25% to the age group of 41 to 50 years, and 20% to the age group of 31 to 40 years. 70/100 patients were treated with Epley’s manoeuvre. The response to Epley’s manoeuvre in the study showed that 65 patients were symptom free after 2 weeks, 67 after 1 month and 69 after 3 to 6 months period. CONCLUSION BPPV is one of the major causes of Positional Vertigo and that it could be very effectively

  1. Position-sensitive phoswich detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Y.

    1987-01-01

    They have constructed three types of phoswich detectors used frequently in the research programs, (1) a phoswich hodoscope array, (2) modular 1-dimensional position-sensitive phoswich slices (the Plastic Curtain), and also (3) a 2-dimensional position-sensitive 8'' x 8'' phoswich detector. Both the fast and slow components of these detectors are plastic scintillators (NE102, tau∼2.5 ns and NE115 tau∼225 ns). The hodoscope comprises 25 cube-shaped elements. It provides multiplicity information and has good particle identification capability. The Plastic Curtain is made up of 10 25-cm long position-sensitive phoswich modules. The position dependence of the light output, I∞exp(+/-ax+bx 2 ), (where a and b are empirical constants and x is the position measured from the center of the slice) provides the desired position information. The continuous 2-dimensional (X- and Y-) position sensitivity of the large area detector is achieved by measuring light-outputs from all 4-edges of the rectangular-shaped detector via adiabatic light-guide coupling

  2. Positive geometries and canonical forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bai, Yuntao; Lam, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Recent years have seen a surprising connection between the physics of scattering amplitudes and a class of mathematical objects — the positive Grassmannian, positive loop Grassmannians, tree and loop Amplituhedra — which have been loosely referred to as "positive geometries". The connection between the geometry and physics is provided by a unique differential form canonically determined by the property of having logarithmic singularities (only) on all the boundaries of the space, with residues on each boundary given by the canonical form on that boundary. The structures seen in the physical setting of the Amplituhedron are both rigid and rich enough to motivate an investigation of the notions of "positive geometries" and their associated "canonical forms" as objects of study in their own right, in a more general mathematical setting. In this paper we take the first steps in this direction. We begin by giving a precise definition of positive geometries and canonical forms, and introduce two general methods for finding forms for more complicated positive geometries from simpler ones — via "triangulation" on the one hand, and "push-forward" maps between geometries on the other. We present numerous examples of positive geometries in projective spaces, Grassmannians, and toric, cluster and flag varieties, both for the simplest "simplex-like" geometries and the richer "polytope-like" ones. We also illustrate a number of strategies for computing canonical forms for large classes of positive geometries, ranging from a direct determination exploiting knowledge of zeros and poles, to the use of the general triangulation and push-forward methods, to the representation of the form as volume integrals over dual geometries and contour integrals over auxiliary spaces. These methods yield interesting representations for the canonical forms of wide classes of positive geometries, ranging from the simplest Amplituhedra to new expressions for the volume of arbitrary convex

  3. Irreversibility of Asymptotic Entanglement Manipulation Under Quantum Operations Completely Preserving Positivity of Partial Transpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Duan, Runyao

    2017-11-01

    We demonstrate the irreversibility of asymptotic entanglement manipulation under quantum operations that completely preserve the positivity of partial transpose (PPT), resolving a major open problem in quantum information theory. Our key tool is a new efficiently computable additive lower bound for the asymptotic relative entropy of entanglement with respect to PPT states, which can be used to evaluate the entanglement cost under local operations and classical communication (LOCC). We find that for any rank-two mixed state supporting on the 3 ⊗3 antisymmetric subspace, the amount of distillable entanglement by PPT operations is strictly smaller than one entanglement bit (ebit) while its entanglement cost under PPT operations is exactly one ebit. As a by-product, we find that for this class of states, both the Rains's bound and its regularization are strictly less than the asymptotic relative entropy of entanglement. So, in general, there is no unique entanglement measure for the manipulation of entanglement by PPT operations. We further show a computable sufficient condition for the irreversibility of entanglement distillation by LOCC (or PPT) operations.

  4. Classification of positive blood cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, Kim Oren; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Arpi, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Information from blood cultures is utilized for infection control, public health surveillance, and clinical outcome research. This information can be enriched by physicians assessments of positive blood cultures, which are, however, often available from selected patient groups...... or pathogens only. The aim of this work was to determine whether patients with positive blood cultures can be classified effectively for outcome research in epidemiological studies by the use of administrative data and computer algorithms, taking physicians assessments as reference. METHODS: Physicians...... assessments of positive blood cultures were routinely recorded at two Danish hospitals from 2006 through 2008. The physicians assessments classified positive blood cultures as: a) contamination or bloodstream infection; b) bloodstream infection as mono- or polymicrobial; c) bloodstream infection as community...

  5. Astrographic Positions of Minor Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskrecki, W.; Swierkowska, S.

    The paper presents the photographic position of minor planets taken in the years 1986/1987 at the Astronomical Observatory of A. Mickiewicz University, Poznan, with an astrograph of the F=1500 mm, d=300 mm.

  6. Precision Constellation Position Determination Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For a distributed aperture sensor, especially at infrared and optical wavelengths, the relative position of the aperture components must be known and controlled...

  7. The Case for Positive Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses both three basic strategies, preferences, allocational priorities, and incentives--and four principles of positive discrimination--compensation and rectification, appropriate meritocratic criteria, the development of the discriminated, and fairness. (JM)

  8. Radar Plan Position Indicator Scope

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radar Plan Position Indicator Scope is the collection of weather radar imagery for the period prior to the beginning of the Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) system...

  9. Electrostatic beam-position monitor

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1969-01-01

    Electrostatic beam-position monitor installed in its final location (bake-out cover removed). The ISR will contain about 110 of these monitors. Their accuracy is better than 1 mm, their band width about 1 MHz.

  10. Positivity of the English language.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M Kloumann

    Full Text Available Over the last million years, human language has emerged and evolved as a fundamental instrument of social communication and semiotic representation. People use language in part to convey emotional information, leading to the central and contingent questions: (1 What is the emotional spectrum of natural language? and (2 Are natural languages neutrally, positively, or negatively biased? Here, we report that the human-perceived positivity of over 10,000 of the most frequently used English words exhibits a clear positive bias. More deeply, we characterize and quantify distributions of word positivity for four large and distinct corpora, demonstrating that their form is broadly invariant with respect to frequency of word use.

  11. Diagnosing Dementia—Positive Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Diagnosing Dementia—Positive Signs Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of ... easy, affordable blood test that could accurately diagnose Alzheimer's disease (AD)—even before symptoms began to show? Researchers ...

  12. Positive train control shared network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The Interoperable Train Control (ITC) Positive : Train Control (PTC) Shared Network (IPSN) : project investigated anticipated industry benefits : and the level of support for the development of : a hosted technological platform for PTC : messaging ac...

  13. Which Positive Integers are Interesting?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    interesting numbers which are positive integers, each of us comes with our own list. Indeed, the question “ ... tegers n such that every positive integer a co-prime to n possesses the property that an−1 − 1 is a multiple of ..... Thus, each element of the sequence is a word in the 92 basic elements and the number of digits can be ...

  14. Positive empathy: a therapeutic skill inspired by positive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conoley, Collie W; Pontrelli, Marla E; Oromendia, Mercedes Fernández; Del Carmen Bello, Beatriz; Nagata, Chelsea M

    2015-06-01

    Positive empathy (PE), a type of empathy response that focuses on a client's hidden message of desire for a better life, was hypothesized to increase the expression of positive emotions, approach goals, and strengths, and to communicate equivalent understanding when compared to traditional empathy (TE). We examined 4 hypotheses in 2 studies. In study 1, college participants read therapy session vignettes incorporating PE or TE and then listed the client's strengths and goals and rated the therapist and how well they imagined themselves as the client in the vignettes. In study 2, therapist-client dyads attended 6 weekly sessions that incorporated both PE and TE, after which clients rated therapists' level of empathic understanding and session observers rated clients' emotional responses, revelations of strengths, and goals in response to empathy. In both studies, the results of PE and TE were similar, while PE elicited a greater number of approach goals. In study 2, clients expressed more strengths and positive emotions after PE responses than TE. Our results support PE for enhancing client growth (i.e., when a client pursues approach goals, enlists strengths, and experiences positive emotions), which is consistent with the process of positive psychology-informed psychotherapy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Phylogenetic position of the acariform mites: sensitivity to homology assessment under total evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pepato Almir R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mites (Acari have traditionally been treated as monophyletic, albeit composed of two major lineages: Acariformes and Parasitiformes. Yet recent studies based on morphology, molecular data, or combinations thereof, have increasingly drawn their monophyly into question. Furthermore, the usually basal (molecular position of one or both mite lineages among the chelicerates is in conflict to their morphology, and to the widely accepted view that mites are close relatives of Ricinulei. Results The phylogenetic position of the acariform mites is examined through employing SSU, partial LSU sequences, and morphology from 91 chelicerate extant terminals (forty Acariformes. In a static homology framework, molecular sequences were aligned using their secondary structure as guide, whereby regions of ambiguous alignment were discarded, and pre-aligned sequences analyzed under parsimony and different mixed models in a Bayesian inference. Parsimony and Bayesian analyses led to trees largely congruent concerning infra-ordinal, well-supported branches, but with low support for inter-ordinal relationships. An exception is Solifugae + Acariformes (P. P = 100%, J. = 0.91. In a dynamic homology framework, two analyses were run: a standard POY analysis and an analysis constrained by secondary structure. Both analyses led to largely congruent trees; supporting a (Palpigradi (Solifugae Acariformes clade and Ricinulei as sister group of Tetrapulmonata with the topology (Ricinulei (Amblypygi (Uropygi Araneae. Combined analysis with two different morphological data matrices were run in order to evaluate the impact of constraining the analysis on the recovered topology when employing secondary structure as a guide for homology establishment. The constrained combined analysis yielded two topologies similar to the exclusively molecular analysis for both morphological matrices, except for the recovery of Pedipalpi instead of the (Uropygi Araneae clade. The

  16. Phylogenetic position of the acariform mites: sensitivity to homology assessment under total evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepato, Almir R; da Rocha, Carlos E F; Dunlop, Jason A

    2010-08-02

    Mites (Acari) have traditionally been treated as monophyletic, albeit composed of two major lineages: Acariformes and Parasitiformes. Yet recent studies based on morphology, molecular data, or combinations thereof, have increasingly drawn their monophyly into question. Furthermore, the usually basal (molecular) position of one or both mite lineages among the chelicerates is in conflict to their morphology, and to the widely accepted view that mites are close relatives of Ricinulei. The phylogenetic position of the acariform mites is examined through employing SSU, partial LSU sequences, and morphology from 91 chelicerate extant terminals (forty Acariformes). In a static homology framework, molecular sequences were aligned using their secondary structure as guide, whereby regions of ambiguous alignment were discarded, and pre-aligned sequences analyzed under parsimony and different mixed models in a Bayesian inference. Parsimony and Bayesian analyses led to trees largely congruent concerning infra-ordinal, well-supported branches, but with low support for inter-ordinal relationships. An exception is Solifugae + Acariformes (P. P = 100%, J. = 0.91). In a dynamic homology framework, two analyses were run: a standard POY analysis and an analysis constrained by secondary structure. Both analyses led to largely congruent trees; supporting a (Palpigradi (Solifugae Acariformes)) clade and Ricinulei as sister group of Tetrapulmonata with the topology (Ricinulei (Amblypygi (Uropygi Araneae))). Combined analysis with two different morphological data matrices were run in order to evaluate the impact of constraining the analysis on the recovered topology when employing secondary structure as a guide for homology establishment. The constrained combined analysis yielded two topologies similar to the exclusively molecular analysis for both morphological matrices, except for the recovery of Pedipalpi instead of the (Uropygi Araneae) clade. The standard (direct optimization) POY

  17. [Positioning diagnosis of benign positional paroxysmal vertigo by VNG].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Chen, Taisheng; Lin, Peng; Song, Wei; Dong, Hong

    2009-07-01

    To analyze the value of positioning diagnosis of VNG (Videonystagmograph) in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). One hundred and twenty-six patients with BPPV were enrolled in this retrospective study. Their positional nystagmus recorded by VNG in Dix-Hallpike and roll tests were analyzed to summarize the characteristics of nystagmus on nystagmography of various BPPV. Of 126 patients with BPPV diagnosed in our center, the posterior semicircular canals (PSC) were involved in 98 patients (77.8%), whereas the horizontal semicircular canal (HSC) and anterior semicircular canal (ASC) were involved in 17 (13.5%) and 5 (3.9%), respectively. Six patients (4.8%) confirmed combined-BPPV had HSC-BPPV and ipsilateral PSC-BPPV. Twenty-eight patients with PSC-BPPV had reversal phase on nystagmography. The nystagmus of patients with P/ASC-canalithiasis showed upward/downward on the vertical phase of nystagmography and orientated the opposite side on horizontal phase in the head hanging position, and the nystagmus reversed when returned to sit. Nystagmus on horizontal phase could be provoked when the head turned to both sides of the roll tests in patients with HSC-BPPV. If the nystagmus and the head-turning shared the same direction, then HSC-canalithiasis was confirmed, and the direction of the head-turning which provoked the stronger nystagmus indicates the lesion side. If the nystagmus and the head-turning had the opposite direction, then HSC-cupulolithiasis was confirmed, and the direction of the head-turning which provoked the weaker nystagmus indicates the lesion side. Positional nystagmus can be recorded objectively using VNG, According to which positioning the semicircular canal involved would be easier and more accurate. The recording conserved also could be helpful for clinical diagnosis and repositioning of BPPV.

  18. Position coincidence optical identifications using Texas interferometer radio positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozyan, E.P.

    1979-01-01

    1048 radio source positions measured with the Texas Interferometer were searched for optical identifications on glass copies of the Palomar Sky Survey E and O plates, resulting in 242 identifications and 806 blank fields. Finding charts are presented for 124 of the 125 new identifications not previously reported in the literature, and for 73 blank fields containing nearby optical objects which may be real identifications. This brings the cumulative number of Texas radio positions searched to 2015, producing 864 optical identifications and 1151 blank fields

  19. Use of a Tilting Orthopedic Fracture Table to Facilitate Proper Patient Positioning During Intrathecal Neurolysis With Hyperbaric Phenol: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Nathaniel H; Matchett, Gerald

    2017-09-15

    We describe the case of a 41-year-old woman with metastatic cervical cancer and a large mass eroding into the pelvis and left lumbosacral plexus. The patient had intractable left lower extremity pain refractory to standard therapies, and she elected to undergo intrathecal neurolysis. A diagnostic intrathecal block was performed at the T11-12 interspace followed by intrathecal neurolysis with 6% phenol in glycerin on a subsequent date. During both procedures, we used a tilting radiolucent orthopedic fracture table to maintain strict left lateral-supine positioning. A tilting orthopedic fracture table may be a valuable adjunct to ensure positional stability during intrathecal neurolysis.

  20. Serial position learning in honeybees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randolf Menzel

    Full Text Available Learning of stimulus sequences is considered as a characteristic feature of episodic memory since it contains not only a particular item but also the experience of preceding and following events. In sensorimotor tasks resembling navigational performance, the serial order of objects is intimately connected with spatial order. Mammals and birds develop episodic(-like memory in serial spatio-temporal tasks, and the honeybee learns spatio-temporal order when navigating between the nest and a food source. Here I examine the structure of the bees' memory for a combined spatio-temporal task. I ask whether discrimination and generalization are based solely on simple forms of stimulus-reward learning or whether they require sequential configurations. Animals were trained to fly either left or right in a continuous T-maze. The correct choice was signaled by the sequence of colors (blue, yellow at four positions in the access arm. If only one of the possible 4 signals is shown (either blue or yellow, the rank order of position salience is 1, 2 and 3 (numbered from T-junction. No learning is found if the signal appears at position 4. If two signals are shown, differences at positions 1 and 2 are learned best, those at position 3 at a low level, and those at position 4 not at all. If three or more signals are shown these results are corroborated. This salience rank order again appeared in transfer tests, but additional configural phenomena emerged. Most of the results can be explained with a simple model based on the assumption that the four positions are equipped with different salience scores and that these add up independently. However, deviations from the model are interpreted by assuming stimulus configuration of sequential patterns. It is concluded that, under the conditions chosen, bees rely most strongly on memories developed during simple forms of associative reward learning, but memories of configural serial patterns contribute, too.

  1. Silencing, positive selection and parallel evolution: busy history of primate cytochromes C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Pierron

    Full Text Available Cytochrome c (cyt c participates in two crucial cellular processes, energy production and apoptosis, and unsurprisingly is a highly conserved protein. However, previous studies have reported for the primate lineage (i loss of the paralogous testis isoform, (ii an acceleration and then a deceleration of the amino acid replacement rate of the cyt c somatic isoform, and (iii atypical biochemical behavior of human cyt c. To gain insight into the cause of these major evolutionary events, we have retraced the history of cyt c loci among primates. For testis cyt c, all primate sequences examined carry the same nonsense mutation, which suggests that silencing occurred before the primates diversified. For somatic cyt c, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses yielded the same tree topology. The evolutionary analyses show that a fast accumulation of non-synonymous mutations (suggesting positive selection occurred specifically on the anthropoid lineage root and then continued in parallel on the early catarrhini and platyrrhini stems. Analysis of evolutionary changes using the 3D structure suggests they are focused on the respiratory chain rather than on apoptosis or other cyt c functions. In agreement with previous biochemical studies, our results suggest that silencing of the cyt c testis isoform could be linked with the decrease of primate reproduction rate. Finally, the evolution of cyt c in the two sister anthropoid groups leads us to propose that somatic cyt c evolution may be related both to COX evolution and to the convergent brain and body mass enlargement in these two anthropoid clades.

  2. Not all developmental assets are related to positive health outcomes in college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teoli Daniel A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this investigation was to model the relationships between developmental assets, life satisfaction, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL among a stratified, random sample (n = 765, 56% response rate of college students. Methods Structural equation modeling techniques were employed to test the relationships using Mplus v4.21; Model evaluations were based on 1 theoretical salience, 2 global fit indices (chi-square goodness of fit, comparative fit index: CFI and Tucker-Lewis Index: TLI, 3 microfit indices (parameter estimates, root mean squared error of approximation: RMSEA and residuals and 4 parsimony. Results The model fit the data well: χ2(n = 581, 515 = 1252.23, CFI = .94, TLI = .93 and RMSEA = .05. First, participants who reported increased Family Communication also reported higher levels of life satisfaction. Second, as participants reported having more Non-Parental Role Models, life satisfaction decreased and poor mental HRQOL days increased. Finally increased Future Aspirations was related to increased poor mental HRQOL days. Results were variant across gender. Conclusions Preliminary results suggest not all developmental assets are related to positive health outcomes among college students, particularly mental health outcomes. While the findings for Family Communication were expected, the findings for Non-Parental Role Models suggest interactions with potential role models in college settings may be naturally less supportive. Future Aspirations findings suggest college students may harbor a greater temporal urgency for the rigors of an increasingly competitive work world. In both cases, these assets appear associated with increased poor mental HRQOL days.

  3. New evidence on the systematic and phylogenetic position of Parides burchellanus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Brandão, K L; Azeredo-Espin, A M L; Freitas, A V L

    2008-05-01

    Parides burchellanus is considered a rare and threatened swallowtail species restricted to central Brazil. It shows considerable morphological similarity to Parides panthonus jaguarae, with which it shares both geographical range and larval host plant. At present, P. burchellanus and P. panthonus are believed to be distinct species, based on minor differences in male genitalia. In this study, the phylogenetic and systematic position of P. burchellanus in relation to three subspecies of P. panthonus (P. p. jaguarae, P. p. lysimachus and P. p. aglaope) was evaluated using molecular evidence: the complete sequence of the mtDNA genes COI and COII and of the nuclear gene EF-1α (c. 3300 bp). In addition, the informativeness of the 'barcode' region next to the 5' end of COI (c. 650 bp) was evaluated for delimiting these taxa. Individual analysis by neighbour-joining, using Kimura 2-parameter distance model, and by maximum parsimony showed that P. p. jaguarae + P. p. lysimachus + P. p. aglaope + P. burchellanus form a strongly supported monophyletic clade, and all molecular regions consistently recovered P. p. jaguarae and P. burchellanus as sister species. The genetic divergence among the subspecies of P. panthonus and P. burchellanus is equivalent to the divergence among conspecifics of other species of Parides, and smaller than the interspecific divergence among different sister species of this genus. The results support the proposal that P. p. jaguarae and P. burchellanus are likely to be synonymous, and suggest that P. burchellanus can be considered conspecific with P. panthonus. The taxonomic classification of P. burchellanus should be revised on the basis of the molecular data. © 2007 The Authors.

  4. Cadastral Database Positional Accuracy Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, N. M.; Omar, A. H.; Ramli, S. N. M.; Omar, K. M.; Din, N.

    2017-10-01

    Positional Accuracy Improvement (PAI) is the refining process of the geometry feature in a geospatial dataset to improve its actual position. This actual position relates to the absolute position in specific coordinate system and the relation to the neighborhood features. With the growth of spatial based technology especially Geographical Information System (GIS) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), the PAI campaign is inevitable especially to the legacy cadastral database. Integration of legacy dataset and higher accuracy dataset like GNSS observation is a potential solution for improving the legacy dataset. However, by merely integrating both datasets will lead to a distortion of the relative geometry. The improved dataset should be further treated to minimize inherent errors and fitting to the new accurate dataset. The main focus of this study is to describe a method of angular based Least Square Adjustment (LSA) for PAI process of legacy dataset. The existing high accuracy dataset known as National Digital Cadastral Database (NDCDB) is then used as bench mark to validate the results. It was found that the propose technique is highly possible for positional accuracy improvement of legacy spatial datasets.

  5. Positive Youth Psychology: Lessons from Positive Peer Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinebach, Christoph; Steinebach, Ursula; Brendtro, Larry K.

    2013-01-01

    Positive Peer Culture (PPC) is a strength-oriented approach developed by Vorrath and Brendtro (1985) to prevent or reverse negative peer influence by building a climate of peer concern and respect. PPC operates in a range of settings including residential treatment, alternative schools, juvenile justice, and youth leadership groups. It is an…

  6. CONTEMPLATIVE POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: INTRODUCING MINDFULNESS INTO POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausiàs Cebolla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although mindfulness is included in many positive psychology manuals as a “positive” technique, the implications of its use have scarcely been developed and the relationship between mindfulness and human well-being has barely been researched. Analyzing the main strengths of the two fields, the possibilities for their integration and the potential contradictions between their messages is essential in order to establish connections. Mindfulness is more than a meditation technique. It has implicit within it a set of values and ethical conditions that coincide to a great extent with the proposed assumptions from positive psychology, such as the development of kindness, compassion, and positive emotions. The aim of this paper is to present, on the one hand, the commonalities and similarities, and on the other, the differences between mindfulness and positive psychology. We also present the main studies that have investigated the role of mindfulness and contemplative practices on human well-being. Finally future research will be discussed and intervention suggested in order to bring the two proposals together.

  7. Implicitly positive about alcohol? Implicit positive associations predict drinking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, K.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Research using unipolar Implicit Association Tests (IATs) demonstrated that positive but not negative implicit alcohol associations are related to drinking behavior. However, the relative nature of the IAT with respect to target concepts (i.e., alcohol vs. soft drinks) obscures the interpretation of

  8. Sleep position and shoulder pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenian, John

    2010-04-01

    The overuse theory for musculoskeletal joint pain cannot explain adequately the occurrence of shoulder pain in those who do not engage in activities that involve repeated and stressful use of the shoulder since the percentage of the painful right shoulders usually does not match the percentage of dominant right arms in such individuals. An alternative hypothesis is presented to propose that shoulder pain is caused by postural immobility in the decubitus or side position during sleep. Prolonged pressure on the shoulder caused by the weight of the thorax can produce enough damage to cause subsequent shoulder pain. In order to test this hypothesis, a preliminary study was carried out to compare the laterality of shoulder pain with the laterality of sleep position. The calculated laterality ratios for sleep position and shoulder pain were found to be strikingly similar, suggesting a causal relationship between the two phenomena. However, the prevalence of shoulder pain in the general population was found to be smaller than the percentage of the time people would spend sleeping in the decubitus position. This discrepancy could be explained by the idea that in order for shoulder pain to develop subjects may have to spend longer times in the same decubitus position before changing to another position than the average person would. Additional evidence from published clinical studies also supports the postural theory of shoulder pain. More studies can be done to test this hypothesis by focusing on the sleep habits of patients with shoulder pain. According to the present hypothesis shoulder pain should for the most part occur on the side that the patient preferred to sleep on before the onset of shoulder pain. The postural theory of shoulder pain provides the possibility for a new and noninvasive method to treat shoulder pain by the modification of posture during sleep. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Promise of Positive Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Positive Psychology has demonstrated its usefulness in studying and contributing to individual well being. The next big challenge for this new field is to help improving the social and cultural conditions in which people live. Three specific goals are discussed: A more complete understanding of human nature; forging a more sustainable and more fair social contract; and a rediscovery of the joys of existence. If Positive Psychology will be able to support these goals, it will become an important contributor to the evolution of human consciousness and the evolution of culture.

  10. Efficient GPS Position Determination Algorithms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nguyen, Thao Q

    2007-01-01

    ... differential GPS algorithm for a network of users. The stand-alone user GPS algorithm is a direct, closed-form, and efficient new position determination algorithm that exploits the closed-form solution of the GPS trilateration equations and works...

  11. Getting real or staying positive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob von Holderstein

    with a dilemma between two mutually exclusive models for a modern legal realism. I suggest in closing that in so far that American realism can be seen to rely only on forward-looking rule-skepticism it occupies an uncomfortable and ultimately untenable middle-position between “real” legal realism and legal...

  12. Work zone positive protection guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The goal of this project was to develop implementation guidance that the Texas Department of : Transportation (TxDOT) can use to make better decisions regarding when and where to use positive : protection in work zones and when to consider exposure c...

  13. Positive Psychology: The Emerging Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly

    2000-01-01

    Discusses positive psychology, which focuses on health and well-being utilizing the elements of belief, hope, self-esteem, responsibility, elation, and wisdom as the basis of psychological theory and practice. Describes efforts to change the psychology field, including identifying promising young professionals, establishing monetary prizes, and…

  14. Positive Pedagogy for Sport Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Richard L.; Harvey, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The literature suggests that, despite some challenges in their implementation, player/athlete-centred, inquiry-based approaches to teaching games and coaching team sport can improve game playing ability, increase player/athlete motivation and provide positive affective experiences of learning. A range of these approaches, including Teaching Games…

  15. Different positions of uncertain lives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenum, Helle

    On the basis of my ethnographic research in Denmark and Spain, I will investigate and compare four different positions of illegality in two different national contexts. Legal and institutional practices on the one hand produce the conditions for migrant illegality as such, but are also decisive...

  16. The dilemmas of victim positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2015-01-01

    Based on a conceptualization of bullying and relational aggression in groups as an effect of social dynamics rather than individual deficits – this article reflects upon some of the intricate mechanisms and dilemmas involved in victim positioning. Victims of bullying and relational aggression often...

  17. Positivity bounds for Sivers functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Zhongbo; Soffer, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    We generalize a positivity constraint derived initially for parity-conserving processes to the parity-violating ones, and use it to derive non-trivial bounds on several Sivers functions, entering in the theoretical description of single spin asymmetry for various processes.

  18. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Niels; Hansen, Søren; Bloch, Sune Land

    2017-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) remains the most frequent cause of vertigo. The TRV chair is a mechanical device suited for optimization of managing complex cases of BPPV. Although the use of repositioning devices in the management of BPPV is increasing, no applicable guide for the TRV...

  19. Marijuana and Children. Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endsley, Patricia; Embrey, Mary Louise

    2014-01-01

    Registered professional school nurses (hereinafter referred to as school nurses) promote wellness and disease prevention to improve health outcomes for our nation's children. It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the marijuana plant remain under the United States Drug Enforcement Agency's (DEA) Schedule I…

  20. Mallinckrodt's position on SLR production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    The potential of the short-lived radionuclides used in nuclear medicine applications and Mallinckrodt's position are discussed. An update of Mallinckrodt's activities and future plans are also given. The keen interest of Mallinckrodt, Inc., in the application and development of short-lived radionuclides for medical use is stressed, as well as envisioned innovations