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Sample records for strictly light dependent

  1. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color. ...

  2. 7 CFR 28.414 - Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.414 Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or...

  3. 7 CFR 28.416 - Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.416 Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or... Cotton Source: 57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992, unless otherwise noted. ...

  4. Single molecule experiments challenge the strict wave-particle dualism of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greulich, Karl Otto

    2010-01-21

    Single molecule techniques improve our understanding of the photon and light. If the single photon double slit experiment is performed at the "single photon limit" of a multi-atom light source, faint light pulses with more than one photon hamper the interpretation. Single molecules, quantum dots or defect centres in crystals should be used as light source. "Single photon detectors" do not meet their promise-only "photon number resolving single photon detectors" do so. Particularly, the accumulation time argument, the only safe basis for the postulate of a strictly particle like photon, has so far not yet been verified.

  5. Single Molecule Experiments Challenge the Strict Wave-Particle Dualism of Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Otto Greulich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Single molecule techniques improve our understanding of the photon and light. If the single photon double slit experiment is performed at the “single photon limit” of a multi-atom light source, faint light pulses with more than one photon hamper the interpretation. Single molecules, quantum dots or defect centres in crystals should be used as light source. “Single photon detectors” do not meet their promise―only “photon number resolving single photon detectors” do so. Particularly, the accumulation time argument, the only safe basis for the postulate of a strictly particle like photon, has so far not yet been verified.

  6. Maintenance of Taste Organs Is Strictly Dependent on Epithelial Hedgehog/GLI Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermilov, Alexandre N; Kumari, Archana; Li, Libo; Joiner, Ariell M; Grachtchouk, Marina A; Allen, Benjamin L; Dlugosz, Andrzej A; Mistretta, Charlotte M

    2016-11-01

    For homeostasis, lingual taste papilla organs require regulation of epithelial cell survival and renewal, with sustained innervation and stromal interactions. To investigate a role for Hedgehog/GLI signaling in adult taste organs we used a panel of conditional mouse models to manipulate GLI activity within epithelial cells of the fungiform and circumvallate papillae. Hedgehog signaling suppression rapidly led to taste bud loss, papilla disruption, and decreased proliferation in domains of papilla epithelium that contribute to taste cells. Hedgehog responding cells were eliminated from the epithelium but retained in the papilla stromal core. Despite papilla disruption and loss of taste buds that are a major source of Hedgehog ligand, innervation to taste papillae was maintained, and not misdirected, even after prolonged GLI blockade. Further, vimentin-positive fibroblasts remained in the papilla core. However, retained innervation and stromal cells were not sufficient to maintain taste bud cells in the context of compromised epithelial Hedgehog signaling. Importantly taste organ disruption after GLI blockade was reversible in papillae that retained some taste bud cell remnants where reactivation of Hedgehog signaling led to regeneration of papilla epithelium and taste buds. Therefore, taste bud progenitors were either retained during epithelial GLI blockade or readily repopulated during recovery, and were poised to regenerate taste buds once Hedgehog signaling was restored, with innervation and papilla connective tissue elements in place. Our data argue that Hedgehog signaling is essential for adult tongue tissue maintenance and that taste papilla epithelial cells represent the key targets for physiologic Hedgehog-dependent regulation of taste organ homeostasis. Because disruption of GLI transcriptional activity in taste papilla epithelium is sufficient to drive taste organ loss, similar to pharmacologic Hedgehog pathway inhibition, the findings suggest that taste

  7. Effect of strict metabolic control on regulation of subcutaneous blood flow in insulin-dependent diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J; Mathiesen, E R; Saurbrey, Nina

    1987-01-01

    washout technique. Mean arterial blood pressure was reduced by a maximum of 23 mmHg by elevating the limb above heart level and elevated to a maximum of 65 mmHg by head-up tilt; in the latter position venous pressure was kept constantly low by activation of the leg muscle vein pump (heel raising......The effect of 10 weeks of improved metabolic control on the impaired autoregulation of the subcutaneous blood flow was studied at the level of the lateral malleolus in eight long-term insulin-dependent diabetic patients with clinical microangiopathy. Blood flow was measured by the local 133-Xenon......). Improved metabolic control was achieved using either continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion or multiple insulin injections. The blood glucose concentration declined from (median) 12.7 to 6.8 mmol/l and the HbA1C level from 10.1 to 7.5% during strict metabolic control (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0...

  8. Functional Itô versus Banach space stochastic calculus and strict solutions of semilinear path-dependent equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosso, Andrea; Russo, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    Functional Itô calculus was introduced in order to expand a functional F(t,Xṡ+t,Xt) depending on time t, past and present values of the process X. Another possibility to expand F(t,Xṡ+t,Xt) consists in considering the path Xṡ+t = {Xx+t,x ∈ [-T, 0]} as an element of the Banach space of continuous functions on C([-T, 0]) and to use Banach space stochastic calculus. The aim of this paper is threefold. (1) To reformulate functional Itô calculus, separating time and past, making use of the regularization procedures which match more naturally the notion of horizontal derivative which is one of the tools of that calculus. (2) To exploit this reformulation in order to discuss the (not obvious) relation between the functional and the Banach space approaches. (3) To study existence and uniqueness of smooth solutions to path-dependent partial differential equations which naturally arise in the study of functional Itô calculus. More precisely, we study a path-dependent equation of Kolmogorov type which is related to the window process of the solution to an Itô stochastic differential equation with path-dependent coefficients. We also study a semilinear version of that equation.

  9. Kidney function during 12 months of strict metabolic control in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with incipient nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Mathiesen, E R; Hegedüs, L

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-six patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus who had Albustix-negative urine but elevated urinary albumin excretion (30 to 300 mg per 24 hours) were matched in pairs according to their urinary albumin level, blood glycosylated hemoglobin level, and sex and assigned randomly...... in all patients during insulin infusion, but no consistent change was observed in the control group. No significant change was observed in the glomerular filtration rate. Our data suggest that the pathologic processes causing microalbuminuria in early renal disease are not reversed during 12 months...

  10. Effect of two years of strict metabolic control on progression of incipient nephropathy in insulin-dependent diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Mathiesen, E R; Deckert, T

    1986-01-01

    36 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus who had 'Albustix'-negative urine but raised urinary albumin excretion (30 to 300 mg/24 h) were randomly assigned to either remaining on conventional insulin treatment or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and followed up for 2 years...... albumin excretion rate above 300 mg/24 h in at least two of three 24 h urine collections) developed in 5 patients in the conventional-treatment group, but not in the insulin-infusion group (p less than 0.05, two-tailed). Fractional albumin clearance (mean and range X 10(7] increased in the conventional...

  11. Strict confluent drawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Eppstein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We define strict confluent drawing, a form of confluent drawing in which the existence of an edge is indicated by the presence of a smooth path through a system of arcs and junctions (without crossings, and in which such a path, if it exists, must be unique. We prove that it is NP-complete to determine whether a given graph has a strict confluent drawing but polynomial to determine whether it has an outerplanar strict confluent drawing with a fixed vertex ordering (a drawing within a disk, with the vertices placed in a given order on the boundary.

  12. Light-dependent electrogenic activity of cyanobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Pisciotta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cyanobacteria account for 20-30% of Earth's primary photosynthetic productivity and convert solar energy into biomass-stored chemical energy at the rate of approximately 450 TW [1]. These single-cell microorganisms are resilient predecessors of all higher oxygenic phototrophs and can be found in self-sustaining, nitrogen-fixing communities the world over, from Antarctic glaciers to the Sahara desert [2]. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that diverse genera of cyanobacteria including biofilm-forming and pelagic strains have a conserved light-dependent electrogenic activity, i.e. the ability to transfer electrons to their surroundings in response to illumination. Naturally-growing biofilm-forming photosynthetic consortia also displayed light-dependent electrogenic activity, demonstrating that this phenomenon is not limited to individual cultures. Treatment with site-specific inhibitors revealed the electrons originate at the photosynthetic electron transfer chain (P-ETC. Moreover, electrogenic activity was observed upon illumination only with blue or red but not green light confirming that P-ETC is the source of electrons. The yield of electrons harvested by extracellular electron acceptor to photons available for photosynthesis ranged from 0.05% to 0.3%, although the efficiency of electron harvesting likely varies depending on terminal electron acceptor. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The current study illustrates that cyanobacterial electrogenic activity is an important microbiological conduit of solar energy into the biosphere. The mechanism responsible for electrogenic activity in cyanobacteria appears to be fundamentally different from the one exploited in previously discovered electrogenic bacteria, such as Geobacter, where electrons are derived from oxidation of organic compounds and transported via a respiratory electron transfer chain (R-ETC [3], [4]. The electrogenic pathway of cyanobacteria might be exploited to

  13. Strictly convex renormings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moltó, A.; Orihuela, J.; Troyanski, S.; Zizler, Václav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 3 (2007), s. 647-658 ISSN 0024-6107 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : strictly convex norms * lattice norm * quasi-diagonal sets Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.733, year: 2007

  14. Quine's "Strictly Vegetarian" Analyticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decock, L.B.

    2017-01-01

    I analyze Quine’s later writings on analyticity from a linguistic point of view. In Word and Object Quine made room for a “strictly vegetarian” notion of analyticity. In later years, he developed this notion into two more precise notions, which I have coined “stimulus analyticity” and “behaviorist

  15. Wavelength Dependence of Light-Induced Cycloadditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Jan P; Noble, Benjamin B; Lauer, Andrea; Coote, Michelle L; Blinco, James P; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher

    2017-11-08

    The wavelength-dependent conversion of two rapid photoinduced ligation reactions, i.e., the light activation of o-methylbenzaldehydes, leading to the formation of reactive o-quinodimethanes (photoenols), and the photolysis of 2,5-diphenyltetrazoles, affording highly reactive nitrile imines, is probed via a monochromatic wavelength scan at constant photon count. The transient species are trapped by cycloaddition with N-ethylmaleimide, and the reactions are traced by high resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The resulting action plots are assessed in the context of Beer-Lambert's law and provide combined with time-dependent density functional theory and multireference calculations an in-depth understanding of the underpinning mechanistic processes, including conical intersections. The π → π* transition of the carbonyl group of the o-methylbenzaldehyde correlates with a highly efficient conversion to the cycloadduct, showing no significant wavelength dependence, while conversion following the n → π* transition proceeds markedly less efficient at longer wavelengths. The influence of absorbance and reactivity has critical consequences for an effective reaction design: At high concentrations of o-methylbenzaldehydes (c = 8 mmol L -1 ), photoligations with N-ethylmaleimide (possible for λ ≤ 390 nm) are ideally performed at 330 nm, whereas at high light penetration regimes at lower concentrations (c = 0.3 mmol L -1 ), 315 nm irradiation leads to the highest conversion. Activation and trapping of 2,5-diphenyltetrazoles (possible for λ ≤ 322 nm) proceeds best at a wavelength shorter than 295 nm, irrespective of concentration.

  16. Colour dependence of zodiacal light models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, R. H.; Hanner, M. S.; Leinert, C.

    1973-01-01

    Colour models of the zodiacal light in the ecliptic have been calculated for both dielectric and metallic particles in the sub-micron and micron size range. Two colour ratios were computed, a blue ratio and a red ratio. The models with a size distribution proportional to s to the -2.5 power ds (where s is the particle radius) generally show a colour close to the solar colour and almost independent of elongation. Especially in the blue colour ratio there is generally no significant dependence on the lower cutoff size (0.1-1 micron). The main feature of absorbing particles is a reddening at small elongations. The models for size distributions proportional to s to the -4 power ds show larger departures from solar colour and more variation with model parameters. Colour measurements, including red and near infra-red, therefore are useful to distinguish between flat and steep size spectra and to verify the presence of slightly absorbing particles.

  17. Efficient Strictness Analysis of Haskell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Damm; Hjæresen, Peter; Rosendahl, Mads

    1994-01-01

    Strictness analysis has been a living field of investigation since Mycroft's original work in 1980, and is getting increasingly significant with the still wider use of lazy functional programming languages. This paper focuses on an actual implementation of a strictness analyser for Haskell...

  18. Volume dependence of light hadron masses in full lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, B.; Lippert, T.; Schilling, K

    2004-03-01

    The aim of the GRAL project is to simulate full QCD with standard Wilson fermions at light quark masses on small to medium-sized lattices and to obtain infinite-volume results by extrapolation. In order to establish the functional form of the volume dependence we study systematically the finite-size effects in the light hadron spectrum. We give an update on the status of the GRAL project and show that our simulation data for the light hadron masses depend exponentially on the lattice size.

  19. Polarized light modulates light-dependent magnetic compass orientation in birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muheim, Rachel; Sjöberg, Sissel; Pinzon-Rodriguez, Atticus

    2016-01-01

    Magnetoreception of the light-dependent magnetic compass in birds is suggested to be mediated by a radical-pair mechanism taking place in the avian retina. Biophysical models on magnetic field effects on radical pairs generally assume that the light activating the magnetoreceptor molecules is nondirectional and unpolarized, and that light absorption is isotropic. However, natural skylight enters the avian retina unidirectionally, through the cornea and the lens, and is often partially polarized. In addition, cryptochromes, the putative magnetoreceptor molecules, absorb light anisotropically, i.e., they preferentially absorb light of a specific direction and polarization, implying that the light-dependent magnetic compass is intrinsically polarization sensitive. To test putative interactions between the avian magnetic compass and polarized light, we developed a spatial orientation assay and trained zebra finches to magnetic and/or overhead polarized light cues in a four-arm “plus” maze. The birds did not use overhead polarized light near the zenith for sky compass orientation. Instead, overhead polarized light modulated light-dependent magnetic compass orientation, i.e., how the birds perceive the magnetic field. Birds were well oriented when tested with the polarized light axis aligned parallel to the magnetic field. When the polarized light axis was aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, the birds became disoriented. These findings are the first behavioral evidence to our knowledge for a direct interaction between polarized light and the light-dependent magnetic compass in an animal. They reveal a fundamentally new property of the radical pair-based magnetoreceptor with key implications for how birds and other animals perceive the Earth’s magnetic field. PMID:26811473

  20. Light dependency of VOC emissions from selected Mediterranean plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S. M.; Harley, P.; Guenther, A.; Hewitt, C. N.

    The light, temperature and stomatal conductance dependencies of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from ten plant species commonly found in the Mediterranean region were studied using a fully controlled leaf cuvette in the laboratory. At standard conditions of temperature and light (30°C and 1000 μmol m -2 s -1 PAR), low emitting species ( Arbutus unedo, Pinus halepensis, Cistus incanus, Cistus salvifolius, Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris) emitted between 0.1 and 5.0 μg (C) (total VOCs) g -1 dw h -1, a medium emitter ( Pinus pinea) emitted between 5 and 10 μg (C) g -1 dw h -1 and high emitters ( Cistus monspeliensis, Lavendula stoechas and Quercus sp.) emitted more than 10 μg (C) g -1 dw h -1. VOC emissions from all of the plant species investigated showed some degree of light dependency, which was distinguishable from temperature dependency. Emissions of all compounds from Quercus sp. were light dependent. Ocimene was one of several monoterpene compounds emitted by P. pinea and was strongly correlated to light. Only a fraction of monoterpene emissions from C. incanus exhibited apparent weak light dependency but emissions from this plant species were strongly correlated to temperature. Data presented here are consistent with past studies, which show that emissions are independent of stomatal conductance. These results may allow more accurate predictions of monoterpene emission fluxes from the Mediterranean region to be made.

  1. Light intensity dependent optical rotation in azobenzene polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, M.; Ilieva, D.; Petrova, T.; Dragostinova, V.; Todorov, T.; Nikolova, L.

    2006-05-01

    We investigate the self-induced rotation of the azimuth of light polarization ellipse in azobenzene polymers. It is initiated by the photoreorientation and ordering of the azobenzenes on illumination with elliptically polarized light resulting in the appearance of an optical axis whose direction is gradually rotated along the depth of the film. A macroscopic chiral structure is created with a pitch depending on light ellipticity and the photobirefringence ▵n in the successive layers of the film. In this work we make use of the fact that at elevated temperatures ▵n is very sensitive to light intensity. In our acrylic amorphous azobenzene polymer at temperatures 50-65°C the saturated values of ▵n are much higher for low intensity of the exciting light than for higher intensity. In this temperature range the polarization azimuth of monochromatic blue light with different intensity is rotated to a different angle after passing through the polymer film. This effect can be used for passive elements rotating the polarization azimuth depending on light intensity and for the formation of light beams with a space-variant polarization state.

  2. Light field reconstruction robust to signal dependent noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kun; Bian, Liheng; Suo, Jinli; Dai, Qionghai

    2014-11-01

    Capturing four dimensional light field data sequentially using a coded aperture camera is an effective approach but suffers from low signal noise ratio. Although multiplexing can help raise the acquisition quality, noise is still a big issue especially for fast acquisition. To address this problem, this paper proposes a noise robust light field reconstruction method. Firstly, scene dependent noise model is studied and incorporated into the light field reconstruction framework. Then, we derive an optimization algorithm for the final reconstruction. We build a prototype by hacking an off-the-shelf camera for data capturing and prove the concept. The effectiveness of this method is validated with experiments on the real captured data.

  3. Species Protection in the European Union : How Strict is Strict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoukens, Hendrik; Bastmeijer, Kees; Born et al., Charles-Hubert

    2015-01-01

    European Union law to protect wild species of plants and animals is generally considered as ‘strict’. Opponents of nature conservation law often pick the species protection components of the EU Bird Directive and Habitat Directive as a prime example of an unnecessary strict regulatory scheme that

  4. On acceleration dependence of Doppler effect in light

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 81; Issue 3. On acceleration dependence of ... Using only the geometric relationships of suitable locations, we analyse Doppler effect in light to show how the acceleration of the source also contributes to the Doppler shift. We further propose that an experiment be ...

  5. On acceleration dependence of Doppler effect in light

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using only the geometric relationships of suitable locations, we analyse Doppler effect in light to show how the acceleration of the source also contributes to the Doppler shift. We further propose that an experiment be performed using cyclotron-type devices to determine the acceleration dependence of the Doppler shift.

  6. Angle-dependent rotation of calcite in elliptically polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herne, Catherine M.; Cartwright, Natalie A.; Cattani, Matthew T.; Tracy, Lucas A.

    2017-08-01

    Calcite crystals trapped in an elliptically polarized laser field exhibit intriguing rotational motion. In this paper, we show measurements of the angle-dependent motion, and discuss how the motion of birefringent calcite can be used to develop a reliable and efficient process for determining the polarization ellipticity and orientation of a laser mode. The crystals experience torque in two ways: from the transfer of spin angular momentum (SAM) from the circular polarization component of the light, and from a torque due to the linear polarization component of the light that acts to align the optic axis of the crystal with the polarization axis of the light. These torques alternatingly compete with and amplify each other, creating an oscillating rotational crystal velocity. We model the behavior as a rigid body in an angle-dependent torque. We experimentally demonstrate the dependence of the rotational velocity on the angular orientation of the crystal by placing the crystals in a sample solution in our trapping region, and observing their behavior under different polarization modes. Measurements are made by acquiring information simultaneously from a quadrant photodiode collecting the driving light after it passes through the sample region, and by imaging the crystal motion onto a camera. We finish by illustrating how to use this model to predict the ellipticity of a laser mode from rotational motion of birefringent crystals.

  7. Strictness Analysis for Attribute Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1992-01-01

    interpretation of attribute grammars. The framework is used to construct a strictness analysis for attribute grammars. Results of the analysis enable us to transform an attribute grammar such that attributes are evaluated during parsing, if possible. The analysis is proved correct by relating it to a fixpoint...... semantics for attribute grammars. An implementation of the analysis is discussed and some extensions to the analysis are mentioned....

  8. Stray light field dependence for large astronomical space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsey, Paul A.; Bowers, Charles W.

    2017-09-01

    aspect ratio of the tubular baffle length to PM diameter. Additional analysis has been done to examine the stray light implications for the fields near the image of a bright source. This near field stray light is shown to be dependent on the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) characteristics of the mirrors in the optical train. The near field stray light contribution is dominated by those mirrors closer to the focal plane compared to the contributions from the PM and SM. Hence the near field stray light is independent of the exterior telescope baffle geometry. Contributions from self-emission from the telescope have been compared to natural background for telescopes operating at infrared wavelengths.

  9. Diffusion and light-dependent compartmentalization of transducin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerov, Vasily; Artemyev, Nikolai O

    2011-01-01

    Diffusion and light-dependent compartmentalization of transducin are essential for phototransduction and light adaptation of rod photoreceptors. Here, transgenic Xenopus laevis models were designed to probe the roles of transducin/rhodopsin interactions and lipid modifications in transducin compartmentalization, membrane mobility, and light-induced translocation. Localization and diffusion of EGFP-fused rod transducin-α subunit (Gα(t1)), mutant Gα(t1) that is predicted to be N-acylated and S-palmitoylated (Gα(t1)A3C), and mutant Gα(t1) uncoupled from light-activated rhodopsin (Gα(t1)-Ctα(s)), were examined by EGFP-fluorescence imaging and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). Similar to Gα(t1), Gα(t1)A3C and Gα(t1)-Ctα(s) were correctly targeted to the rod outer segments in the dark, however the light-dependent translocation of both mutants was markedly impaired. Our analysis revealed a moderate acceleration of the lateral diffusion for the activated Gα(t1) consistent with the diffusion of the separated Gα(t1)GTP and Gβ(1)γ(1) on the membrane surface. Unexpectedly, the kinetics of longitudinal diffusion were comparable for Gα(t1)GTP with a single lipid anchor and heterotrimeric Gα(t1)β(1)γ(1) or Gα(t1)-Ctα(s)β(1)γ(1) with two lipid modifications. This contrasted the lack of the longitudinal diffusion of the Gα(t1)A3C mutant apparently caused by its stable two lipid attachment to the membrane and suggests the existence of a mechanism that facilitates axial diffusion of Gα(t1)β(1)γ(1). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Flexible or Strict Taxonomic Organization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Fumiko Kano; Mørup, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This work compares methods for constructing feature-based ontologies that are supposed to be used for culturally-specific knowledge transfer. The methods to be compared are the Terminological Ontology (TO) [1], a method of constructing ontology based on strict principles and rules, and the Infinite...... Relational Model (IRM) [2], a novel unsupervised machine learning method that learns multi-dimensional relations among concepts and features from loosely structured datasets. These methods are combined with a novel cognitive model, the Bayesian Model of Generalization (BMG) [3] that maps culturally...

  11. Cryptochrome mediates light-dependent magnetosensitivity of Drosophila's circadian clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taishi Yoshii

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Since 1960, magnetic fields have been discussed as Zeitgebers for circadian clocks, but the mechanism by which clocks perceive and process magnetic information has remained unknown. Recently, the radical-pair model involving light-activated photoreceptors as magnetic field sensors has gained considerable support, and the blue-light photoreceptor cryptochrome (CRY has been proposed as a suitable molecule to mediate such magnetosensitivity. Since CRY is expressed in the circadian clock neurons and acts as a critical photoreceptor of Drosophila's clock, we aimed to test the role of CRY in magnetosensitivity of the circadian clock. In response to light, CRY causes slowing of the clock, ultimately leading to arrhythmic behavior. We expected that in the presence of applied magnetic fields, the impact of CRY on clock rhythmicity should be altered. Furthermore, according to the radical-pair hypothesis this response should be dependent on wavelength and on the field strength applied. We tested the effect of applied static magnetic fields on the circadian clock and found that flies exposed to these fields indeed showed enhanced slowing of clock rhythms. This effect was maximal at 300 muT, and reduced at both higher and lower field strengths. Clock response to magnetic fields was present in blue light, but absent under red-light illumination, which does not activate CRY. Furthermore, cry(b and cry(OUT mutants did not show any response, and flies overexpressing CRY in the clock neurons exhibited an enhanced response to the field. We conclude that Drosophila's circadian clock is sensitive to magnetic fields and that this sensitivity depends on light activation of CRY and on the applied field strength, consistent with the radical pair mechanism. CRY is widespread throughout biological systems and has been suggested as receptor for magnetic compass orientation in migratory birds. The present data establish the circadian clock of Drosophila as a model system

  12. Organic light-emitting devices using spin-dependent processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardeny, Z. Valy; Wohlgenannt, Markus

    2010-03-23

    The maximum luminous efficiency of organic light-emitting materials is increased through spin-dependent processing. The technique is applicable to all electro-luminescent processes in which light is produced by singlet exciton decay, and all devices which use such effects, including LEDs, super-radiant devices, amplified stimulated emission devices, lasers, other optical microcavity devices, electrically pumped optical amplifiers, and phosphorescence (Ph) based light emitting devices. In preferred embodiments, the emissive material is doped with an impurity, or otherwise modified, to increase the spin-lattice relaxation rate (i.e., decrease the spin-lattice time), and hence raise the efficiency of the device. The material may be a polymer, oligomer, small molecule, single crystal, molecular crystal, or fullerene. The impurity is preferably a magnetic or paramagnetic substance. The invention is applicable to IR, UV, and other electromagnetic radiation generation and is thus not limited to the visible region of the spectrum. The methods of the invention may also be combined with other techniques used to improve device performance.

  13. Reflectance dependence of polytetrafluoroethylene on thickness for xenon scintillation light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, J.; Neff, A.; Arthurs, M.; Batista, E.; Morton, D.; Okunawo, M.; Pushkin, K.; Sander, A.; Stephenson, S.; Wang, Y.; Lorenzon, W.

    2017-06-01

    Many rare event searches including dark matter direct detection and neutrinoless double beta decay experiments take advantage of the high VUV reflective surfaces made from polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) reflector materials to achieve high light collection efficiency in their detectors. As the detectors have grown in size over the past decade, there has also been an increased need for ever thinner detector walls without significant loss in reflectance to reduce dead volumes around active noble liquids, outgassing, and potential backgrounds. We report on the experimental results to measure the dependence of the reflectance on thickness of two PTFE samples at wavelengths near 178 nm. No change in reflectance was observed as the wall thickness of a cylindrically shaped PTFE vessel immersed in liquid xenon was varied between 1 mm to 9.5 mm.

  14. Electroluminescence dependence of the simplified green light organic light emitting diodes on in situ thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Haichuan, E-mail: hcmu@ecust.edu.cn [Department of Physics, School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Rao, Lu [Department of Physics, School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Li, Weiling; Wei, Bin [Key Laboratory of Advanced Display and System Applications, Ministry of Education, School of Mechanics Engineering and Automation, Shanghai University, 149 Yanchang Road, Shanghai 200072 (China); Wang, Keke; Xie, Haifen [Department of Physics, School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • In-situ thermal treating the organic tri-layer (CBP/CBP:Ir(ppy){sub 3}/TPBi) of the green light PHOLED under various temperatures during the organic materials evaporation. • Investigating the effect of in situ thermal treatment on the electroluminescence (EL) performance of the green light PHOLED with tri-layer structures. • Provide an easy and practical way to improve the EL performance of the OLEDs without major modification of the organic materials and OLEDs structures required. - Abstract: Simplified multilayer green light phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (PHOLED) with the structure of ITO/MoO{sub 3}(1 nm)/CBP(20 nm)/CBP:Ir(ppy){sub 3} (1 wt%) (15 nm)/TPBi(60 nm)/LiF(0.5 nm)/Al were fabricated via thermal evaporation and in situ thermal treatment (heating the OLED substrates to certain temperatures during the thermal evaporation of the organic materials) was performed. The effect of the in situ thermal treatment on the electroluminescence (EL) performance of the PHOLED was investigated. It was found that the OLED exhibited strong EL dependence on the thermal treatment temperatures, and their current efficiency was improved with the increasing temperature from room temperature (RT) to 69 °C and deteriorated with the further increasing temperature to 105 °C. At the brightness of 1000 cd/m{sup 2}, over 80% improvement of the current efficiency at the optimal thermal treatment temperature of 69 °C (64 cd/A) was demonstrated compared to that at RT (35 cd/A). Meanwhile, the tremendous influences of the in situ thermal treatment on the morphology of the multilayer CBP/CBP:Ir(ppy){sub 3}/TPBi were also observed. At the optimal thermal treatment temperature of 69 °C, the improvement of the EL performance could be ascribed to the enhancement of the electron and hole transporting in the CBP:Ir(ppy){sub 3} emitting layer, which suppressed the triplets self-quenching interactions and promoted the charge balance and excitons formation. The

  15. Strictly contractive quantum channels and physically realizable quantum computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raginsky, Maxim

    2002-01-01

    We study the robustness of quantum computers under the influence of errors modeled by strictly contractive channels. A channel T is defined to be strictly contractive if, for any pair of density operators ρ, σ in its domain, parallel Tρ-Tσ parallel 1 ≤k parallel ρ-σ parallel 1 for some 0≤k 1 denotes the trace norm). In other words, strictly contractive channels render the states of the computer less distinguishable in the sense of quantum detection theory. Starting from the premise that all experimental procedures can be carried out with finite precision, we argue that there exists a physically meaningful connection between strictly contractive channels and errors in physically realizable quantum computers. We show that, in the absence of error correction, sensitivity of quantum memories and computers to strictly contractive errors grows exponentially with storage time and computation time, respectively, and depends only on the constant k and the measurement precision. We prove that strict contractivity rules out the possibility of perfect error correction, and give an argument that approximate error correction, which covers previous work on fault-tolerant quantum computation as a special case, is possible

  16. Extremely strict ideals in Banach spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Motivated by the notion of an ideal introduced by Godefroy {\\it et al.} ({\\it Studia Math.} {\\bf 104} (1993) 13–59), in this article, we introduce and study the notion of an extremely strict ideal. For a Poulsen simplex K , we show that the space of affine continuous functions on K is an extremely strict ideal in the space of continuous ...

  17. Hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Kokkendorff, Simon L.; Markvorsen, Steen

    2002-01-01

    We study finite metric spaces with elements picked from, and distances consistent with, ambient Riemannian manifolds. The concepts of negative type and strictly negative type are reviewed, and the conjecture that hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type is settled, in the affirmative...

  18. Extremely strict ideals in Banach spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Motivated by the notion of an ideal introduced by Godefroy et al. (Stu- dia Math. 104 (1993) 13–59), in this article, we introduce and study the notion of an extremely strict ideal. For a Poulsen simplex K, we show that the space of affine contin- uous functions on K is an extremely strict ideal in the space of continuous ...

  19. Measurements of polarization-dependent angle-resolved light scattering from individual microscopic samples using Fourier transform light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, JaeHwang; Kim, Jinhyung; Seo, Min-Kyo; Park, YongKeun

    2018-03-01

    We present a method to measure the vector-field light scattering of individual microscopic objects. The polarization-dependent optical field images are measured with quantitative phase imaging at the sample plane, and then numerically propagated to the far-field plane. This approach allows the two-dimensional polarization-dependent angle-resolved light scattered patterns from individual object to be obtained with high precision and sensitivity. Using this method, we present the measurements of the polarization-dependent light scattering of a liquid crystal droplet and individual silver nanowires over scattering angles of 50{\\deg}. In addition, the spectroscopic extension of the polarization-dependent angle-resolved light scattering is demonstrated using wavelength-scanning illumination.

  20. Spatial light modulator using polymer-dispersed liquid crystal: Dependence of resolution on reading light intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Kuniharu; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Fujikake, Hideo; Kodama, Kenichi; Kishi, Kiyoshi

    1994-03-01

    A spatial light modulator consisting of a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) film, a dielectric mirror, and a Bi12SiO20 photoconductor is useful for projection-type displays, optical image processing, and optical computing. However, a portion of the reading light scattered by the PDLC film passes through the dielectric mirror and illuminates the photoconductor, thus causing deterioration of display-image quality. This article reports on the results of a detailed study on the influence of reading light on the resolution and amplification factor, which is the ratio of reading light intensity to the maximum intensity of writing light. Angular distributions of light scattered by a PDLC cell were measured and the results were used to calculate the intensity of scattered light absorbed by the photoconductor. We then analyzed the optical input/output characteristics of the spatial light modulator with regard to the optical feedback effect caused by the reading light in order to discover the parameter for evaluating image quality. The relation between amplification and resolution is derived from this parameter. We have also considered a light absorption layer for preventing the deterioration of image quality and obtained the relation between the amplification factor and the transmittance of the light absorption layer for high definition images of high brightness. Finally, these theoretical results were confirmed by an experiment using a spatial light modulator with no dielectric mirror.

  1. From Regular to Strictly Locally Testable Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Crespi Reghizzi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A classical result (often credited to Y. Medvedev states that every language recognized by a finite automaton is the homomorphic image of a local language, over a much larger so-called local alphabet, namely the alphabet of the edges of the transition graph. Local languages are characterized by the value k=2 of the sliding window width in the McNaughton and Papert's infinite hierarchy of strictly locally testable languages (k-slt. We generalize Medvedev's result in a new direction, studying the relationship between the width and the alphabetic ratio telling how much larger the local alphabet is. We prove that every regular language is the image of a k-slt language on an alphabet of doubled size, where the width logarithmically depends on the automaton size, and we exhibit regular languages for which any smaller alphabetic ratio is insufficient. More generally, we express the trade-off between alphabetic ratio and width as a mathematical relation derived from a careful encoding of the states. At last we mention some directions for theoretical development and application.

  2. Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly negative Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    If a finite metric space is of strictly negative type then its transfinite diameter is uniquely realized by an infinite extent (“load vector''). Finite metric spaces that have this property include all trees, and all finite subspaces of Euclidean and Hyperbolic spaces. We prove that if the distance...... matrix of a finite metric space is both hypermetric and regular, then it is of strictly negative type. We show that the strictly negative type finite subspaces of spheres are precisely those which do not contain two pairs of antipodal points....

  3. Geometrical optimization for strictly localized structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yirong

    2003-07-01

    Recently we proposed the block localized wavefunction (BLW) approach which takes the advantages of valence bond theory and molecular orbital theory and defines the wavefunctions for resonance structures based on the assumption that all electrons and orbitals are partitioned into a few subgroups. In this work, we implement the geometrical optimization of the BLW method based on the algorithm proposed by Gianinetti and coworkers. Thus, we can study the conjugation effect on not only the molecular stability, but also the molecular geometry. With this capability, the π conjugation effect in trans-polyenes C2nH2n+2 (n=2-5) as well as in formamide and its analogs are studied by optimizing their delocalized and strictly localized forms with the 6-31G(d) and 6-311+G(d,p) basis sets. Although it has been well presumed that the π resonance shortens the single bonds and lengthens the double bonds with the delocalization of π electrons across the whole line in polyenes, our optimization of the strictly localized structures quantitatively shows that when the conjugation effect is "turned off," the double bond lengths will be identical to the CC bond length in ethylene and the single Csp2-Csp2 bond length will be about 1.513-1.517 Å. In agreement with the classical Hückel theory, the resonance energies in polyenes are approximately in proportion to the number of double bonds. Similarly, resonance is responsible not only for the planarity of formamide, thioformamide, and selenoformamide, but also for the lengthening of the CX (X=O,S,Se) double bond and the shortening of the CN bonds. Although it is assumed that the CX bond polarization decreases in the order of O>S>Se, the π electronic delocalization increases in the opposite order, i.e., formamidedependence for the results.

  4. Disruptive effects of light pollution on sleep in free-living birds: Season and/or light intensity-dependent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raap, Thomas; Sun, Jiachen; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2017-11-01

    Light pollution or artificial light at night (ALAN) is an increasing anthropogenic environmental pollutant posing an important potential threat for wildlife. Evidence of its effects on animal physiology and behaviour is accumulating. However, in order to effectively mitigate light pollution it is important to determine which factors contribute to the severity of effects of ALAN. In this experimental study we explored whether there are seasonal-dependent effects of ALAN on sleep in free-living great tits (Parus major), an important model species. Additionally, we looked at whether light intensity determined the severity of effects of ALAN on sleep. We therefore exposed animals to artificial light inside the nest box (3lx) in December (winter) and February (pre-breeding season). Results from February were compared with the results from a previous study in February, using a lower light intensity (1.6lx). We found little evidence for a season-dependent response. Effects of ALAN hardly differed between high and low light intensity. ALAN disrupted sleep with as main effect a decrease in sleep duration (≈-40min) as animals woke up earlier (≈-24min). However, compared to a natural dark situation sleep onset was delayed by high but not by low light intensity of ALAN. Our study underlines earlier found disruptive effects of ALAN on sleep of free-living animals. While we found no conclusive evidence for seasonal or light intensity-dependent effects of ALAN, additional experimental work using lower light intensities might show such differences. Examining potential management options is crucial in mitigating disruptive effects of light pollution, which will be an important focus for future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Kokkendorff, Simon L.; Markvorsen, Steen

    2002-01-01

    We study finite metric spaces with elements picked from, and distances consistent with, ambient Riemannian manifolds. The concepts of negative type and strictly negative type are reviewed, and the conjecture that hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type is settled, in the affirmative....... The technique of the proof is subsequently applied to show that every compact manifold of negative type must have trivial fundamental group, and to obtain a necessary criterion for product manifolds to be of negative type....

  6. On acceleration dependence of Doppler effect in light

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    being the speed of light (in vacuum). Now, at the aforementioned initial instant of time, let the observer at O move with uniform velocity v making an angle θ with the line SO, the initial line-of-sight with the source, as shown in figure 1a. Furthermore, let the wave at M reach the observer at point. P after a lapse T of time.

  7. Time Dependence of Aerosol Light Scattering Downwind of Forest Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, L. I.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Wang, J.; Lewis, E. R.; Springston, S. R.; Chand, D.; Shilling, J.; Arnott, W. P.; Freedman, A.; Onasch, T. B.; Fortner, E.; Zhang, Q.; Yokelson, R. J.; Adachi, K.; Buseck, P. R.

    2017-12-01

    In the first phase of BBOP (Biomass Burn Observation Project), a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored study, wildland fires in the Pacific Northwest were sampled from the G-1 aircraft via sequences of transects that encountered emission whose age (time since emission) ranged from approximately 15 minutes to four hours. Comparisons between transects allowed us to determine the near-field time evolution of trace gases, aerosol particles, and optical properties. The fractional increase in aerosol concentration with plume age was typically less than a third of the fractional increase in light scattering. In some fires the increase in light scattering exceeded a factor of two. Two possible causes for the discrepancy between scattering and aerosol mass are i) the downwind formation of refractory tar balls that are not detected by the AMS and therefore contribute to scattering but not to aerosol mass and ii) changes to the aerosol size distribution. Both possibilities are considered. Our information on tar balls comes from an analysis of TEM grids. A direct determination of size changes is complicated by extremely high aerosol number concentrations that caused coincidence problems for the PCASP and UHSAS probes. We instead construct a set of plausible log normal size distributions and for each member of the set do Mie calculations to determine mass scattering efficiency (MSE), angstrom exponents, and backscatter ratios. Best fit size distributions are selected by comparison with observed data derived from multi-wavelength scattering measurements, an extrapolated FIMS size distribution, and mass measurements from an SP-AMS. MSE at 550 nm varies from a typical near source value of 2-3 to about 4 in aged air.

  8. Runaway selection for cooperation and strict-and-severe punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamaru, Mayuko; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2009-03-07

    Punishing defectors is an important means of stabilizing cooperation. When levels of cooperation and punishment are continuous, individuals must employ suitable social standards for defining defectors and for determining punishment levels. Here we investigate the evolution of a social reaction norm, or psychological response function, for determining the punishment level meted out by individuals in dependence on the cooperation level exhibited by their neighbors in a lattice-structured population. We find that (1) cooperation and punishment can undergo runaway selection, with evolution towards enhanced cooperation and an ever more demanding punishment reaction norm mutually reinforcing each other; (2) this mechanism works best when punishment is strict, so that ambiguities in defining defectors are small; (3) when the strictness of punishment can adapt jointly with the threshold and severity of punishment, evolution favors the strict-and-severe punishment of individuals who offer slightly less than average cooperation levels; (4) strict-and-severe punishment naturally evolves and leads to much enhanced cooperation when cooperation without punishment would be weak and neither cooperation nor punishment are too costly; and (5) such evolutionary dynamics enable the bootstrapping of cooperation and punishment, through which defectors who never punish gradually and steadily evolve into cooperators who punish those they define as defectors.

  9. Light-dependent magnetic compass orientation in amphibians and insects: candidate receptors and candidate molecular mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John B.; Jorge, Paulo E.; Muheim, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic compass orientation by amphibians, and some insects, is mediated by a light-dependent magnetoreception mechanism. Cryptochrome photopigments, best known for their role in circadian rhythms, are proposed to mediate such responses. In this paper, we explore light-dependent properties of magnetic sensing at three levels: (i) behavioural (wavelength-dependent effects of light on magnetic compass orientation), (ii) physiological (photoreceptors/photopigment systems with properties suggesting a role in magnetoreception), and (iii) molecular (cryptochrome-based and non-cryptochrome-based signalling pathways that are compatible with behavioural responses). Our goal is to identify photoreceptors and signalling pathways that are likely to play a specialized role in magnetoreception in order to definitively answer the question of whether the effects of light on magnetic compass orientation are mediated by a light-dependent magnetoreception mechanism, or instead are due to input from a non-light-dependent (e.g. magnetite-based) magnetoreception mechanism that secondarily interacts with other light-dependent processes. PMID:20124357

  10. Strictly convex functions on complete Finsler manifolds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 126; Issue 4. Strictly convex functions on complete Finsler manifolds. YOE ITOKAWA KATSUHIRO SHIOHAMA BANKTESHWAR TIWARI. Research Article Volume 126 Issue 4 October 2016 pp 623-627 ...

  11. Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly Negative Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul; Lisonek, P.; Markvorsen, Steen

    1998-01-01

    We prove that, if a finite metric space is of strictly negative type, then its transfinite diameter is uniquely realized by the infinite extender (load vector). Finite metric spaces that have this property include all spaces on two, three, or four points, all trees, and all finite subspaces of Eu...

  12. Temperature-Dependent Light-Stabilized States in Thin-Film PV Modules: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deceglie, Michael G.; Silverman, Timothy J.; Marion, Bill; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2015-09-17

    Thin-film photovoltaic modules are known to exhibit light-induced transient behavior which interferes with accurate and repeatable measurements of power. Typically power measurements are made after a light exposure in order to target a 'light state' of the module that is representative of outdoor performance. Here we show that the concept of a unique light state is poorly defined for both CIGS and CdTe modules. Instead we find that their metastable state after a light exposure can depend on the temperature of the module during the exposure. We observe changes in power as large as 5.8% for a 20 degrees C difference in light exposure temperature. These results lead us to conclude that for applications in which reproducibility and repeatability are critical, module temperature should be tightly controlled during light exposure.

  13. The burnup dependence of light water reactor spent fuel oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, B.D.

    1998-07-01

    Over the temperature range of interest for dry storage or for placement of spent fuel in a permanent repository under the conditions now being considered, UO{sub 2} is thermodynamically unstable with respect to oxidation to higher oxides. The multiple valence states of uranium allow for the accommodation of interstitial oxygen atoms in the fuel matrix. A variety of stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric phases is therefore possible as the fuel oxidizers from UO{sub 2} to higher oxides. The oxidation of UO{sub 2} has been studied extensively for over 40 years. It has been shown that spent fuel and unirradiated UO{sub 2} oxidize via different mechanisms and at different rates. The oxidation of LWR spent fuel from UO{sub 2} to UO{sub 2.4} was studied previously and is reasonably well understood. The study presented here was initiated to determine the mechanism and rate of oxidation from UO{sub 2.4} to higher oxides. During the early stages of this work, a large variability in the oxidation behavior of samples oxidized under nearly identical conditions was found. Based on previous work on the effect of dopants on UO{sub 2} oxidation and this initial variability, it was hypothesized that the substitution of fission product and actinide impurities for uranium atoms in the spent fuel matrix was the cause of the variable oxidation behavior. Since the impurity concentration is roughly proportional to the burnup of a specimen, the oxidation behavior of spent fuel was expected to be a function of both temperature and burnup. This report (1) summarizes the previous oxidation work for both unirradiated UO{sub 2} and spent fuel (Section 2.2) and presents the theoretical basis for the burnup (i.e., impurity concentration) dependence of the rate of oxidation (Sections 2.3, 2.4, and 2.5), (2) describes the experimental approach (Section 3) and results (Section 4) for the current oxidation tests on spent fuel, and (3) establishes a simple model to determine the activation energies

  14. Light Effects on Behavioural Performance Depend on the Individual State of Vigilance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Antonio; Padilla, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that exposure to bright white light or blue-enriched light enhances alertness, but this effect is not consistently observed in tasks demanding high-level cognition (e.g., Sustained Attention to Response Task—SART, which measures inhibitory control). Individual differences in sensitivity to light effects might be mediated by variations in the basal level of arousal. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the participants’ behavioural state of vigilance before light exposure, through the Psychomotor Vigilance Task. Then we compared the effects of a blue-enriched vs. dim light at nighttime on the performance of the auditory SART, by controlling for individual differences in basal arousal. The results replicated the alerting effects of blue-enriched light, as indexed by lower values of both proximal temperature and distal-proximal gradient. The main finding was that lighting effects on SART performance were highly variable across individuals and depended on their prior state of vigilance. Specifically, participants with higher levels of basal vigilance before light exposure benefited most from blue-enriched lighting, responding faster in the SART. These results highlight the importance of considering basal vigilance to define the boundary conditions of light effects on cognitive performance. Our study adds to current research delineating the complex and reciprocal interactions between lighting effects, arousal, cognitive task demands and behavioural performance. PMID:27820822

  15. Extremely strict ideals in Banach spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the space of regular Borel measures, it is easy to see that with respect to the projection μ → μ|(0, 1), M is an extremely strict ideal in C([0, 1]) but as the Lebesgue measure is non-atomic, M. ∗. 1 is not the norm closed ..... (Grenoble) 28 (1978) 35–65. [10] Rao T S S R K, On ideals in Banach spaces, Rocky Mountain J. Math.

  16. The Light-Induced FOS Response in Melanopsin Expressing HEK-293 Cells is Correlated with Melanopsin Quantity and Dependent on Light Duration and Irradiance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Birgitte; Rask, Lene; Hannibal, Jens

    2014-01-01

    after light resulted in reduction of the response compared to exposure to light solely showing dependency on continuous light. Increasing irradiances of blue light (480 nm) up to 10(11) quanta cm(-2) s(-1) elicited steep increases in FOS mRNA, while increases between 10(12) and 5 × 10(13) quanta cm(-2...

  17. Light-dependent expression of flg22-induced defense genes in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi eSano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chloroplasts have been reported to generate retrograde immune signals that activate defense gene expression in the nucleus. However, the roles of light and photosynthesis in plant immunity remain largely elusive. In this study, we evaluated the effects of light on the expression of defense genes induced by flg22, a peptide derived from bacterial flagellins which acts as a potent elicitor in plants. Whole-transcriptome analysis of flg22-treated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings under light and dark conditions for 30 min revealed that a number of (30% genes strongly induced by flg22 (>4.0 require light for their rapid expression, whereas flg22-repressed genes include a significant number of genes that are down-regulated by light. Furthermore, light is responsible for the flg22-induced accumulation of salicylic acid, indicating that light is indispensable for basal defense responses in plants. To elucidate the role of photosynthesis in defense, we further examined flg22-induced defense gene expression in the presence of specific inhibitors of photosynthetic electron transport: 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU and 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-benzoquinone (DBMIB. Light-dependent expression of defense genes was largely suppressed by DBMIB, but only partially suppressed by DCMU. These findings suggest that photosynthetic electron flow plays a role in controling the light-dependent expression of flg22-inducible defense genes.

  18. White LED compared with other light sources: age-dependent photobiological effects and parameters for evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebec, Katja Malovrh; Klanjšek-Gunde, Marta; Bizjak, Grega; Kobav, Matej B

    2015-01-01

    Ergonomic science at work and living places should appraise human factors concerning the photobiological effects of lighting. Thorough knowledge on this subject has been gained in the past; however, few attempts have been made to propose suitable evaluation parameters. The blue light hazard and its influence on melatonin secretion in age-dependent observers is considered in this paper and parameters for its evaluation are proposed. New parameters were applied to analyse the effects of white light-emitting diode (LED) light sources and to compare them with the currently applied light sources. The photobiological effects of light sources with the same illuminance but different spectral power distribution were determined for healthy 4-76-year-old observers. The suitability of new parameters is discussed. Correlated colour temperature, the only parameter currently used to assess photobiological effects, is evaluated and compared to new parameters.

  19. A Raf-like protein kinase BHP mediates blue light-dependent stomatal opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Maki; Inoue, Shin-Ichiro; Ueno, Yoshihisa; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2017-03-30

    Stomata in the plant epidermis open in response to blue light and affect photosynthesis and plant growth by regulating CO 2 uptake and transpiration. In stomatal guard cells under blue light, plasma membrane H + -ATPase is phosphorylated and activated via blue light-receptor phototropins and a signaling mediator BLUS1, and H + -ATPase activation drives stomatal opening. However, details of the signaling between phototropins and H + -ATPase remain largely unknown. In this study, through a screening of specific inhibitors for the blue light-dependent H + -ATPase phosphorylation in guard cells, we identified a Raf-like protein kinase, BLUE LIGHT-DEPENDENT H + -ATPASE PHOSPHORYLATION (BHP). Guard cells in the bhp mutant showed impairments of stomatal opening and H + -ATPase phosphorylation in response to blue light. BHP is abundantly expressed in the cytosol of guard cells and interacts with BLUS1 both in vitro and in vivo. Based on these results, BHP is a novel signaling mediator in blue light-dependent stomatal opening, likely downstream of BLUS1.

  20. Time-dependent scattering of incident light of various wavelengths in ferrofluids under external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingyu; Song, Dongxing; Geng, Jiafeng; Jing, Dengwei

    2018-02-01

    Ferrofluids can exhibit the anisotropic thermodynamic properties under magnetic fields. The dynamic optical properties of ferrofluids in the presence of magnetic fields are of particular interest due to their potential application as various optical devices. Although time-dependent light scattering by ferrofluids have been extensively studied, the effect of wavelength of incident light have been rarely considered. Here, for the first time, we investigated both the time- and wavelength-dependent light scattering in water based ferrofluids containing Fe3O4 nanoparticles under an external magnetic field. The field-induced response behavior of the prepared ferrofluid samples was determined and verified first by thermal conductivity measurement and numerical simulation. Double-beam UV-Vis spectrophotometer was employed to record the temporal evolution of transmitted intensity of incident light of various wavelengths passing through the ferrofluid sample and propagating parallel to the applied field. As expected, the light intensity decreases to a certain value right after the field is turned on due to the thermal fluctuation induced disorder inside the flexible particle chains. Then the light intensity further decreases with time until the appearance of a minimum at time τ0 followed by an inversed increase before finally reaches equilibrium at a particular time. More importantly, the characteristic inversion time τ0 was found to follow a power law increase with the wavelength of incident light (τ0 ∼ λα, where α = 2.07). A quantitative explanation for the wavelength dependence of characteristic time was proposed based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The simulation results are in good agreement with our experimental observations. The time-dependent light scattering in ferrofluids under different incident wavelengths was rationalized by considering both the coarsening process of the particle chains and the occurrence of resonance within the

  1. Light-dependent changes in outer retinal water diffusion in rats in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissig, David; Berkowitz, Bruce A

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that in rats, intraretinal light-dependent changes on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vivo are consistent with known retinal layer-specific physiology. In male Sprague-Dawley rats, retinal morphology (thickness, extent, surface area, volume) and intraretinal profiles of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC, i.e., water mobility) parallel and perpendicular to the optic nerve were measured in vivo using quantitative MRI methods during light and dark stimulation. The parallel ADC in the posterior half of the avascular, photoreceptor-dominated outer retina was significantly higher in light than dark, and this pattern was reversed (dark>light) in the anterior outer retina. The perpendicular ADC in the posterior outer retina was similar in light and dark, but was significantly higher in dark than light in the anterior outer retina. No light-dark changes in the inner retina were noted. We identified light-dependent intraretinal diffusion changes that reflected established stimulation-based changes in outer retinal hydration. These findings are expected to motivate future applications of functional diffusion-based MRI in blinding disorders of the outer retina.

  2. Strictness Analysis and Denotational Abstract Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming

    1988-01-01

    there and this sufices to make the framework applicable to strictness analysis for the lambda-calculus. This shows the possibility of a general theory for the analysis of functional programs and it gives more insight into the relative precision of the various analyses. In particular it is shown that a collecting (static......A theory of abstract interpretation () is developed for a typed lambda-calculus. The typed lambda-calculus may be viewed as the ''static'' part of a two-level denotational metalanguage for which abstract interpretation was developed by ). The present development relaxes a condition imposed...

  3. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992] ...

  4. Diffraction-dependent spin splitting in spin Hall effect of light on reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiaodong; Xie, Linguo; Qiu, Jiangdong; Zhang, Zhiyou; Du, Jinglei; Gao, Fuhua

    2015-07-27

    We report on a diffraction-dependent spin splitting of the paraxial Gaussian light beams on reflection theoretically and experimentally. In the case of horizontal incident polarization, the spin splitting is proportional to the diffraction length of light beams near the Brewster angle. However, the spin splitting is nearly independent with the diffraction length for the vertical incident polarization. By means of the angular spectrum theory, we find that the diffraction-dependent spin splitting is attributed to the first order expansion term of the reflection coefficients with respect to the transverse wave-vector which is closely related to the diffraction length.

  5. Light sensitive memristor with bi-directional and wavelength-dependent conductance control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, P.; Hartmann, F.; Emmerling, M.; Schneider, C.; Kamp, M.; Worschech, L.; Rebello Sousa Dias, M.; Castelano, L. K.; Marques, G. E.; Lopez-Richard, V.; Höfling, S.

    2016-01-01

    We report the optical control of localized charge on positioned quantum dots in an electro-photo-sensitive memristor. Interband absorption processes in the quantum dot barrier matrix lead to photo-generated electron-hole-pairs that, depending on the applied bias voltage, charge or discharge the quantum dots and hence decrease or increase the conductance. Wavelength-dependent conductance control is observed by illumination with red and infrared light, which leads to charging via interband and discharging via intraband absorption. The presented memristor enables optical conductance control and may thus be considered for sensory applications in artificial neural networks as light-sensitive synapses or optically tunable memories.

  6. DOC concentrations across a depth-dependent light gradient on a Caribbean coral reef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Mueller

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthates released by benthic primary producers (BPP, such as reef algae and scleractinian corals, fuel the dissolved organic carbon (DOC production on tropical coral reefs. DOC concentrations near BPP have repeatedly been observed to be elevated compared to those in the surrounding water column. As the DOC release of BPP increases with increasing light availability, elevated DOC concentrations near them will, in part, also depend on light availability. Consequently, DOC concentrations are likely to be higher on the shallow, well-lit reef terrace than in deeper sections on the fore reef slope. We measured in situ DOC concentrations and light intensity in close proximity to the reef alga Dictyota sp. and the scleractinian coral Orbicella faveolata along a depth-dependent light gradient from 5 to 20 m depth and compared these to background concentrations in the water column. At 10 m (intermediate light, DOC concentrations near Dictyota sp. were elevated by 15 µmol C L−1 compared to background concentrations in the water column, but not at 5 and 20 m (high and low light, respectively, or near O. faveolata at any of the tested depths. DOC concentrations did not differ between depths and thereby light environments for any of the tested water types. However, water type and depth appear to jointly affect in situ DOC concentrations across the tested depth-dependent light gradient. Corroborative ex situ measurements of excitation pressure on photosystem II suggest that photoinhibition in Dictyota sp. is likely to occur at light intensities that are commonly present on Curaçaoan coral reefs under high light levels at 5 m depth during midday. Photoinhibition may have thereby reduced the DOC release of Dictyota sp. and DOC concentrations in its close proximity. Our results indicate that the occurrence of elevated DOC concentrations did not follow a natural light gradient across depth. Instead, a combination of multiple factors, such as water type

  7. DOC concentrations across a depth-dependent light gradient on a Caribbean coral reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Benjamin; Meesters, Erik H; van Duyl, Fleur C

    2017-01-01

    Photosynthates released by benthic primary producers (BPP), such as reef algae and scleractinian corals, fuel the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) production on tropical coral reefs. DOC concentrations near BPP have repeatedly been observed to be elevated compared to those in the surrounding water column. As the DOC release of BPP increases with increasing light availability, elevated DOC concentrations near them will, in part, also depend on light availability. Consequently, DOC concentrations are likely to be higher on the shallow, well-lit reef terrace than in deeper sections on the fore reef slope. We measured in situ DOC concentrations and light intensity in close proximity to the reef alga Dictyota sp. and the scleractinian coral Orbicella faveolata along a depth-dependent light gradient from 5 to 20 m depth and compared these to background concentrations in the water column. At 10 m (intermediate light), DOC concentrations near Dictyota sp. were elevated by 15 µmol C L -1 compared to background concentrations in the water column, but not at 5 and 20 m (high and low light, respectively), or near O. faveolata at any of the tested depths. DOC concentrations did not differ between depths and thereby light environments for any of the tested water types. However, water type and depth appear to jointly affect in situ DOC concentrations across the tested depth-dependent light gradient. Corroborative ex situ measurements of excitation pressure on photosystem II suggest that photoinhibition in Dictyota sp. is likely to occur at light intensities that are commonly present on Curaçaoan coral reefs under high light levels at 5 m depth during midday. Photoinhibition may have thereby reduced the DOC release of Dictyota sp. and DOC concentrations in its close proximity. Our results indicate that the occurrence of elevated DOC concentrations did not follow a natural light gradient across depth. Instead, a combination of multiple factors, such as water type, light

  8. Zebra finches have a light-dependent magnetic compass similar to migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon-Rodriguez, Atticus; Muheim, Rachel

    2017-04-01

    Birds have a light-dependent magnetic compass that provides information about the spatial alignment of the geomagnetic field. It is proposed to be located in the avian retina and mediated by a light-induced, radical-pair mechanism involving cryptochromes as sensory receptor molecules. To investigate how the behavioural responses of birds under different light spectra match with cryptochromes as the primary magnetoreceptor, we examined the spectral properties of the magnetic compass in zebra finches. We trained birds to relocate a food reward in a spatial orientation task using magnetic compass cues. The birds were well oriented along the trained magnetic compass axis when trained and tested under low-irradiance 521 nm green light. In the presence of a 1.4 MHz radio-frequency electromagnetic (RF)-field, the birds were disoriented, which supports the involvement of radical-pair reactions in the primary magnetoreception process. Birds trained and tested under 638 nm red light showed a weak tendency to orient ∼45 deg clockwise of the trained magnetic direction. Under low-irradiance 460 nm blue light, they tended to orient along the trained magnetic compass axis, but were disoriented under higher irradiance light. Zebra finches trained and tested under high-irradiance 430 nm indigo light were well oriented along the trained magnetic compass axis, but disoriented in the presence of a RF-field. We conclude that magnetic compass responses of zebra finches are similar to those observed in nocturnally migrating birds and agree with cryptochromes as the primary magnetoreceptor, suggesting that light-dependent, radical-pair-mediated magnetoreception is a common property for all birds, including non-migratory species. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. A CRE1- regulated cluster is responsible for light dependent production of dihydrotrichotetronin in Trichoderma reesei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Alonso Monroy

    Full Text Available Changing light conditions, caused by the rotation of earth resulting in day and night or growth on the surface or within a substrate, result in considerably altered physiological processes in fungi. For the biotechnological workhorse Trichoderma reesei, regulation of glycoside hydrolase gene expression, especially cellulase expression was shown to be a target of light dependent gene regulation. Analysis of regulatory targets of the carbon catabolite repressor CRE1 under cellulase inducing conditions revealed a secondary metabolite cluster to be differentially regulated in light and darkness and by photoreceptors. We found that this cluster is involved in production of trichodimerol and that the two polyketide synthases of the cluster are essential for biosynthesis of dihydrotrichotetronine (syn. bislongiquinolide or bisorbibutenolide. Additionally, an indirect influence on production of the peptaibol antibiotic paracelsin was observed. The two polyketide synthetase genes as well as the monooxygenase gene of the cluster were found to be connected at the level of transcription in a positive feedback cycle in darkness, but negative feedback in light, indicating a cellular sensing and response mechanism for the products of these enzymes. The transcription factor TR_102497/YPR2 residing within the cluster regulates the cluster genes in a light dependent manner. Additionally, an interrelationship of this cluster with regulation of cellulase gene expression was detected. Hence the regulatory connection between primary and secondary metabolism appears more widespread than previously assumed, indicating a sophisticated distribution of resources either to degradation of substrate (feed or to antagonism of competitors (fight, which is influenced by light.

  10. arXiv Black hole superradiance and polarization-dependent bending of light

    CERN Document Server

    Plascencia, Alexis D.

    2017-01-01

    An inhomogeneous pseudo-scalar field configuration behaves like an optically active medium. Consequently, if a light ray passes through an axion cloud surrounding a Kerr black hole, it may experience a polarization-dependent bending. We explore the size and relevance of such effect considering both the QCD axion and a generic axion-like particle.

  11. Intensity-dependent change in polarization state of light in normal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Intensity-dependent change in polarization state of light in normal incidence on an isotropic nonlinear Kerr medium. Hari Prakash Devendra K ... Devendra K Singh2. Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211 002, India; Department of Physics, Udai Pratap Autonomous College, Varanasi 221 002, India ...

  12. Wavelength dependence of light diffusion in strongly scattering macroporous gallium phosphide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, W.H.; Vellekoop, Ivo Micha; Mosk, Allard; Lagendijk, Aart

    2008-01-01

    We present time-resolved measurements of light transport through strongly scattering macroporous gallium phosphide at various vacuum wavelengths between 705 nm and 855 nm. Within this range the transport mean free path is strongly wavelength dependent, whereas the observed energy velocity is shown

  13. Light-dependent pigment migration in blowfly photoreceptors studied by in vivo CLSM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, DG; Leertouwer, HL; Smits, RP

    The light-dependent migration of pigment granules in the soma of fly photoreceptors has been studied in vivo with a fast confocal laser scanning microscope. Images as well as photometric measurements were obtained in the reflection and fluorescence modes. Measurements at the single cell level were

  14. State dependence, personality, and plants: light-foraging decisions in Mimosa pudica (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Franz W; Hodson, Christina N; Roitberg, Bernard D

    2016-09-01

    Plants make foraging decisions that are dependent on ecological conditions, such as resource availability and distribution. Despite the field of plant behavioral ecology gaining momentum, ecologists still know little about what factors impact plant behavior, especially light-foraging behavior. We made use of the behavioral reaction norm approach to investigate light foraging in a plant species that exhibits rapid movement: Mimosa pudica. We explored how herbivore avoidance behavior in M. pudica (which closes its leaflets temporarily when disturbed) is affected by an individual's energy state and the quality of the current environment and also repeatedly tested the behavior of individuals from two seed sources to determine whether individuals exhibit a "personality" (i.e., behavioral syndrome). We found that when individuals are in a low-energy state, they adopt a riskier light-foraging strategy, opening leaflets faster, and not closing leaflets as often in response to a disturbance. However, when plants are in a high-energy state, they exhibit a plastic light-foraging strategy dependent on environment quality. Although we found no evidence that individuals exhibit behavioral syndromes, we found that individuals from different seed sources consistently behave differently from each other. Our results suggest that plants are capable of making state-dependent decisions and that plant decision making is complex, depending on the interplay between internal and external factors.

  15. Light wavelength dependency of mating activity in the drosophila melanogaster species subgroup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takaomi; Tomaru, Masatoshi; Oguma, Yuzuru; Isono, Kunio; Fukatami, Akishi

    2002-01-01

    The action spectra of mating activity among the six species of the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup were compared to understand how light wavelength affects mating activity. The species fell into three groups with respect to the action spectrum of mating activity. We chose one representative species from each of the three types for detailed study: D. melanogaster, D. sechellia and D. yakuba. The mating activities were investigated under three different light intensities of three monochromatic lights stimulus. Each species showed a unique spectral and intensity response. To know the evolutionary meaning of the light wavelength dependency of mating activity, we superimposed the type of action spectrum of mating activity in these six species on a cladogram. Mating inhibition under UV was conserved in evolution among these species. Furthermore we clarified that D. melanogaster showed low mating activity under UV because males courted less under UV. (author)

  16. Study of temperature dependence of light yield from NaBi(WO4)2 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amosov, C.Yu.; Kalinin, B.N.; Krechetov, Yu.F.; Moiseenko, A.V.; Naumenko, G.A.; Potylitsin, A.P.; Sarytchev, V.P.; Shuvalov, Ye.N.; Vznuzdaev, Ye.A.; Samsonov, V.M.; Solodov, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    The scintillation time structure and the temperature dependence of the light yield from NaBi(WO 4 ) 2 crystals bombarded by 500 MeV electrons have been measured experimentally. These crystals showed a tendency to exhibit scintillator properties when the temperature of the samples was decreased. The light yield increased by more than an order of magnitude with the temperature falling from the room level to that of liquid nitrogen. The scintillation time structure was of a complex pattern, and a slow luminescent component (τ=30 ns) was present in the spectrum. ((orig.))

  17. Light Signaling-Dependent Regulation of Photoinhibition and Photoprotection in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Wu, Nan; Zhang, Luyue; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Chen, Xiaoxiao; Xiang, Xun; Zhou, Jie; Xia, Xiaojian; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan; Foyer, Christine H; Zhou, Yanhong

    2018-02-01

    Photoreceptor-mediated light signaling plays a critical role in plant growth, development, and stress responses but its contribution to the spatial regulation of photoinhibition and photoprotection within the canopy remains unclear. Here, we show that low-red/far-red ( L - R / FR ) ratio light conditions significantly alleviate PSII and PSI photoinhibition in the shade leaves of tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) plants. This protection is accompanied by a phytochrome A-dependent induction of LONG HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5). HY5 binds to the promoter of ABA INSENSITIVE 5 ( ABI5 ), triggering RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOG1 ( RBOH1 )-dependent H 2 O 2 production in the apoplast. Decreased levels of HY5 , ABI5 , and RBOH1 transcripts increased cold-induced photoinhibition and abolished L - R / FR -induced alleviation of photoinhibition. L - R / FR illumination induced nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) of chlorophyll a fluorescence and increased the activities of Foyer-Halliwell-Asada cycle enzymes and cyclic electron flux (CEF) around PSI. In contrast, decreased HY5 , ABI5 , and RBOH1 transcript levels abolished the positive effect of L - R / FR on photoprotection. Loss of PROTON GRADIENT REGULATION5 -dependent CEF led to increased photoinhibition and attenuated L - R / FR -dependent NPQ. These data demonstrate that HY5 is an important hub in the cross talk between light and cold response pathways, integrating ABA and reactive oxygen species signaling, leading to the attenuation of photoinhibition by enhanced induction of photoprotection in shade leaves. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. 7 CFR 28.404 - Strict Low Middling Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Color. 28.404 Section 28.404... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.404 Strict Low Middling Color. Strict Low Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the United...

  19. 7 CFR 28.406 - Strict Good Ordinary Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Color. 28.406 Section 28.406... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.406 Strict Good Ordinary Color. Strict Good Ordinary Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the...

  20. 7 CFR 28.402 - Strict Middling Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Color. 28.402 Section 28.402... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.402 Strict Middling Color. Strict Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the United States...

  1. Angle-dependent light emission from aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes under CO2 laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y; Gong, T; Liu, W J; Wei, J Q; Zhang, X F; Wang, K L; Zhong, M L; Wu, D H

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the light emission from aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) under continuous wave CO 2 laser (λ = 10.6 μm) irradiation. Results indicate that the light emission is dependent on the angle θ between the laser incident direction and the nanotube axis. The relative intensity of the light emission at certain wavelengths shows a Lorentzian feature when θ varies from 0 0 to 90 0 . The Lorentzian fitting curve displays a distinct tendency between shorter (λ 700 nm). A minimum intensity was observed at θ m close to 67 0 under shorter wavelength, whereas a maximum intensity was shown at θ m of about 60 0 at longer wavelength. These results show the anisotropic property of aligned MWNTs

  2. Mammalian evolution may not be strictly bifurcating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallström, Björn M; Janke, Axel

    2010-12-01

    The massive amount of genomic sequence data that is now available for analyzing evolutionary relationships among 31 placental mammals reduces the stochastic error in phylogenetic analyses to virtually zero. One would expect that this would make it possible to finally resolve controversial branches in the placental mammalian tree. We analyzed a 2,863,797 nucleotide-long alignment (3,364 genes) from 31 placental mammals for reconstructing their evolution. Most placental mammalian relationships were resolved, and a consensus of their evolution is emerging. However, certain branches remain difficult or virtually impossible to resolve. These branches are characterized by short divergence times in the order of 1-4 million years. Computer simulations based on parameters from the real data show that as little as about 12,500 amino acid sites could be sufficient to confidently resolve short branches as old as about 90 million years ago (Ma). Thus, the amount of sequence data should no longer be a limiting factor in resolving the relationships among placental mammals. The timing of the early radiation of placental mammals coincides with a period of climate warming some 100-80 Ma and with continental fragmentation. These global processes may have triggered the rapid diversification of placental mammals. However, the rapid radiations of certain mammalian groups complicate phylogenetic analyses, possibly due to incomplete lineage sorting and introgression. These speciation-related processes led to a mosaic genome and conflicting phylogenetic signals. Split network methods are ideal for visualizing these problematic branches and can therefore depict data conflict and possibly the true evolutionary history better than strictly bifurcating trees. Given the timing of tectonics, of placental mammalian divergences, and the fossil record, a Laurasian rather than Gondwanan origin of placental mammals seems the most parsimonious explanation.

  3. Angular-dependent light scattering from cancer cells in different phases of the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaogang; Wan, Nan; Weng, Lingdong; Zhou, Yong

    2017-10-10

    Cancer cells in different phases of the cell cycle result in significant differences in light scattering properties. In order to harvest cancer cells in particular phases of the cell cycle, we cultured cancer cells through the process of synchronization. Flow cytometric analysis was applied to check the results of cell synchronization and prepare for light scattering measurements. Angular-dependent light scattering measurements of cancer cells arrested in the G1, S, and G2 phases have been performed. Based on integral calculations for scattering intensities from 5° to 10° and from 110° to 150°, conclusions have been reached. Clearly, the sizes of the cancer cells in different phases of the cell cycle dominated the forward scatter. Accompanying the increase of cell size with the progression of the cell cycle, the forward scattering intensity also increased. Meanwhile, the DNA content of cancer cells in every phase of the cell cycle is responsible for light scattering at large scatter angles. The higher the DNA content of cancer cells was, the greater the positive effect on the high-scattering intensity. As expected, understanding the relationships between the light scattering from cancer cells and cell cycles will aid in the development of cancer diagnoses. Also, it may assist in the guidance of antineoplastic drugs clinically.

  4. Light-Dependent Expression of Four Cryptic Archaeal Circadian Gene Homologs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eManiscalco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms are important biological signals that have been found in almost all major groups of life from bacteria to man, yet it remains unclear if any members of the second major prokaryotic domain of life, the Archaea, also possess a biological clock. To investigate this question, we examined the regulation of four cyanobacterial-like circadian gene homologs present in the genome of the haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii. These genes, designated cirA, cirB, cirC, and cirD, display similarity to the KaiC-family of cyanobacterial clock proteins, which act to regulate rhythmic gene expression and to control the timing of cell division. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis was used to examine the expression of each of the four cir genes in response to 12 h light/12 h dark cycles (LD 12:12 during balanced growth in H. volcanii. Our data reveal that there is an approximately two to sixteen-fold increase in cir gene expression when cells are shifted from light to constant darkness and this pattern of gene expression oscillates with the light conditions in a rhythmic manner. Targeted single- and double-gene knockouts in the H. volcanii cir genes results in disruption of light-dependent, rhythmic gene expression, although it does not lead to any significant effect on growth under these conditions. Restoration of light-dependent, rhythmic gene expression was demonstrated by introducing, in trans, a wild-type copy of individual cir genes into knockout strains. These results are noteworthy as this is the first attempt to characterize the transcriptional expression and regulation of the ubiquitous kaiC homologs found among archaeal genomes.

  5. Effects of a strict cutoff on Quantum Field Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturnfield, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Standard Quantum Field Theory has a number of integrals which are infinite. Although these are eliminated for some cases by renormalization, this aspect of the theory is not fully satisfactory. A number of theories with fundamental lengths have been introduced as alternatives and it would be useful to be able to distinguish between them. In particular, the effects that a strict cutoff would have on Quantum Field Theory is studied. It is noted that care must be taken in the method used to apply a strict cutoff. This lead to considering a theory where the cutoffs are defined by restricting each internal line. This theory is only piece-wise analytic. The resulting scattering matrix is frame dependent, yet the theory still satisfies the special relativity view that all frames are subjectively identical. The renormalization of this theory is finite. The change in mass from the electron self-energy will be a spinor operator. The main distinctions of this theory from standard theory will occur at super high energies. New poles and resonances which arise from new endpoint singularities will be found. The locations of these singularities will be frame dependent. Some of these singularities will correspond to creations or interactions of the normal particles with tachyons. It will be shown that for the one loop diagram, the form of the cutoff singularities are closely related to the standard singularities. When there is more than one loop, there can appear some new type of behavior. In particular, a cube root type of behavior in the two loop self-energy diagram will be found. Also the asymptotic behavior of the ladder diagram is studied

  6. Energy-dependent microscopic optical potential for scattering of nucleons on light nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farag, M.Y.H.; Esmael, E.H. [Cairo University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Giza (Egypt); Maridi, H.M. [Cairo University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Giza (Egypt); Taiz University, Physics Department, Faculty of Applied Science, Taiz (Yemen)

    2014-06-15

    We present an energy-dependent microscopic optical model potential for elastic scattering of nucleons on light nuclei. The single-folding model is used for the real part of the optical potential (OP), while the imaginary part is derived within the high-energy approximation theory. The energy dependence of the OP is determined from the parameterization of the volume integrals those calculated from the best-fit OP that fit the experimental data of the cross sections and analyzing powers. This energy-dependent OP is successfully applied to analyze the proton elastic scattering of {sup 4,6,i8}He, {sup 6,7}Li, and {sup 9,10}Be nuclei at low and intermediate incident energies up to 200MeV/nucleon. (orig.)

  7. Temperature and current dependent electroluminescence measurements on colour-coded multiple quantum well light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergbauer, Werner; Laubsch, Ansgar; Peter, Matthias; Mayer, Tobias; Bader, Stefan; Oberschmid, Raimund; Hahn, Berthold; Benstetter, Guenther

    2008-01-01

    As the efficiency and the luminous flux have been increased enormously in the last few years, today Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are even pushed to applications like general lighting and Home Cinema Projection. Still, InGaN/GaN heterostructure based LEDs suffer from loss-mechanisms like non-radiative defect and Auger recombination, carrier leakage and piezo-field induced carrier separation. To optimize the high current efficiency we evaluated the benefit of Multiple Quantum Well (MQW) compared to Single Quantum Well (SQW) LEDs. Temperature dependent electroluminescence of colour-coded structures with different Indium content in certain Quantum Wells was measured. The experiments demonstrated a strong temperature and current dependence of the MQW operation. The comparison between different LED structures showed effectively the increased LED performance of those structures which operate with a well adjusted MQW active area. Due to the enhanced carrier distribution in the high current range, these LEDs show a higher light output and additionally a reduced wavelength shift

  8. Illuminating light-dependent color shifts in core and veneer layers of dental all-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Cha, Hyun-Suk; Yu, Bin

    2014-09-01

    The color of an object is perceived differently depending on the ambient light conditions. Since dental all-ceramic restorations are fabricated by building up several layers to reproduce the tooth shade, the optical properties of each layer should be optimized for successful shade reproduction. This study aimed to determine the separate contributions of the color shifts in each of the core and veneer layers of all-ceramics by switching the illuminating lights on the color shifts of layered ceramics. Specimens of seven kinds of core ceramics and the corresponding veneer ceramics for each core were fabricated with a layered thickness of 1.5 mm. A sintering ceramic was used as a reference core material. The Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates of core, veneer, and layered specimens were measured with a spectroradiometer under the CIE illuminant D65 (daylight), A (incandescent lamp), and F9 (fluorescent lamp) simulating lights. Color shifts of the layered specimens were primarily determined by the CIE a shifts (D65 to A switch) or by the CIE b shifts (D65 to F9 switch) of the veneer layer. The color coordinates shifts in the constituent layers differentially influenced those of the layered specimens by the kind of switched lights. Therefore, the optical properties of the constituent layers of all-ceramics should be controlled to reflect these findings.

  9. Experiments on Frequency Dependence of the Deflection of Light in Yang-Mills Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yun; Zhu, Yiyi; Hsu, Jong-Ping

    2018-01-01

    In Yang-Mills gravity based on flat space-time, the eikonal equation for a light ray is derived from the modified Maxwell's wave equations in the geometric-optics limit. One obtains a Hamilton-Jacobi type equation, GLµv∂µΨ∂vΨ = 0 with an effective Riemannian metric tensor GLµv. According to Yang-Mills gravity, light rays (and macroscopic objects) move as if they were in an effective curved space-time with a metric tensor. The deflection angle of a light ray by the sun is about 1.53″ for experiments with optical frequencies ≈ 1014Hz. It is roughly 12% smaller than the usual value 1.75″. However, the experimental data in the past 100 years for the deflection of light by the sun in optical frequencies have uncertainties of (10-20)% due to large systematic errors. If one does not take the geometric-optics limit, one has the equation, GLµv[∂µΨ∂vΨcosΨ+ (∂µ∂vΨ)sinΨ] = 0, which suggests that the deflection angle could be frequency-dependent, according to Yang-Mills gravity. Nowadays, one has very accurate data in the radio frequencies ≈ 109Hz with uncertainties less than 0.1%. Thus, one can test this suggestion by using frequencies ≈ 1012 Hz, which could have a small uncertainty 0.1% due to the absence of systematic errors in the very long baseline interferometry.

  10. Is photocleavage of DNA by YOYO-1 using a synchrotron radiation light source sequence dependent?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilroy, Emma L.; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Jones, Nykola C.

    2011-01-01

    The photocleavage of double-stranded and single-stranded DNA by the fluorescent dye YOYO-1 was investigated in real time by using the synchrotron radiation light source ASTRID (ISA, Denmark) both to initiate the reaction and to monitor its progress using Couette flow linear dichroism (LD) through......The photocleavage of double-stranded and single-stranded DNA by the fluorescent dye YOYO-1 was investigated in real time by using the synchrotron radiation light source ASTRID (ISA, Denmark) both to initiate the reaction and to monitor its progress using Couette flow linear dichroism (LD...... different LD kinetic behaviors, and there was significant sequence dependence of the kinetics. However, in contrast to expectations from the literature, we found that poly(dA), mlDNA, low salt ctDNA and low salt poly[(dA-dT)2] all had significant populations of groove-bound YOYO. It seems that this mode...

  11. Which bulb is brighter? It depends on connection! Strategies for illuminating electrical concepts using light bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Darren; Lee, Paul; Foong, S. K.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we examined teachers’ understanding of electrical concepts such as power, current and potential difference based on how these concepts were applied to understand the relative brightness seen in bulbs of different wattage under different connections—series or parallel. From the responses of teachers to a concept question, we identified common lines of reasoning and the associated conceptual difficulties. To support the explanation of the concept question, we set up relevant circuits and made measurements of the circuits. We discuss the temperature dependence of the resistance of the light bulb which although critical for in depth understanding of the relative brightness, was often omitted in the teacher responses. Lastly, we share insights and strategies to elicit and confront students' thinking and to help them resolve, extend and apply their thinking with regard to the related electrical concepts using various light bulb activities.

  12. Multiplicity dependence of light flavour hadron production at LHC energies in the strangeness canonical suppression picture

    CERN Document Server

    Vislavicius, Vytautas

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of data on light flavour hadron production as function of event multiplicity at LHC energies measured by the ALICE collaboration. The strangeness-canonical approach within the framework of the THERMUS statistical hadronisation model is used for a simultaneous description of pp, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions. The rapidity window dependence of the strangeness correlation volume is addressed and a value of $\\Delta y = 1.43 \\pm 0.13$ is found. With the exception of the $\\phi$-meson, an excellent description of the experimental data is found.

  13. Lighting

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Lighting Systems Test Facilities aid research that improves the energy efficiency of lighting systems. • Gonio-Photometer: Measures illuminance from each portion of...

  14. Polarized angular dependent light scattering from plasmonic nanoparticles: Modeling, measurements, and biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Kun

    Several significant applications have been realized for light scattering in biomedical imaging. In order to improve imaging results with light scattering-based techniques, a variety of nanoparticles have been investigated as contrast agents, including gold nanoshells. As a method for studying the optical properties of plasmonic gold nanoparticles used as contrast agents for molecular imaging, we developed an automated goniometer instrumentation system. This system, which allows us to specifically study polarized angular-dependent light scattering of plasmonic nanoparticles, allowed us to perform a series of theoretical and experimental step-wise studies. The basic optical properties of the following gold nanoparticles were progressively investigated: (1) bare nanoshells at multipolar plasmonic resonances, (2) nanoshells with PEG modifications, (3) surface-textured nanoshells and (4) immunotargeted nanoshells (nanoshell-antibody bioconjugates) for cancer imaging. Based on the results from these studies, a new technique was developed to quantitatively measure the number of immunotargeted nanoparticles that bind to HER2-positive SKBR3 human breast cancer cells. Preliminary studies of determining the minimal incubation time of immunotargeted nanoshells with SKBR3 cells were also carried out to evaluate the potential clinical application of using gold nanoshells intraoperatively. We, therefore, anticipate that our findings will provide the theoretical groundwork required for further studies aimed at optimizing the application of plasmonic nanoparticles in scattering-based optical imaging techniques.

  15. The Blue Light-Dependent Polyubiquitination and Degradation of Arabidopsis Cryptochrome2 Requires Multiple E3 Ubiquitin Ligases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Wang, Qin; Liu, Bin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xu; Park, Joon; Yang, Zhenming; Du, Xinglin; Bian, Mingdi; Lin, Chentao

    2016-10-01

    Cryptochromes are blue light receptors regulated by light-dependent ubiquitination and degradation in both plant and animal lineages. The Arabidopsis genome encodes two cryptochromes, CRY1 and CRY2, of which CRY2 undergoes blue light-dependent ubiquitination and 26S proteasome-dependent degradation. The molecular mechanism regulating blue light-dependent proteolysis of CRY2 is still not fully understood. We found that the F-box proteins ZEITLUPE (ZTL) and Lov Kelch Protein2 (LKP2), which mediate blue light suppression of degradation of the CRY2 signaling partner CIB1, are not required for the blue light-dependent CRY2 degradation. We further showed that the previously reported function of the COP1-SPA1 protein complex in blue light-dependent CRY2 degradation is more likely to be attributable to its cullin 4 (CUL4)-based E3 ubiquitin ligase activity than its activity as the cryptochrome signaling partner. However, the blue light-dependent CRY2 degradation is only partially impaired in the cul4 mutant, the cop1-5 null mutant and the spa1234 quadruple mutant, suggesting a possible involvement of additional E3 ubiquitin ligases in the regulation of CRY2. Consistent with this hypothesis, we demonstrated that the blue light-dependent CRY2 degradation is significantly impaired in the temperature-sensitive cul1 mutant allele (axr6-3), especially under the non-permissive temperature. Based on these and other results presented, we propose that photoexcited CRY2 undergoes Lys48-linked polyubiquitination catalyzed by the CUL4- and CUL1-based E3 ubiquitin ligases. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, N.B.; Kristensen, Helle Halkjær; Wathes, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality......This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality...

  17. Experiments with the light-dependent phosphorylation of rhodopsin in rod outer segment suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilden, U.

    1981-09-01

    The light-dependent phosphorylation of frog and bovine rhodopsin was investigated under different conditions with suspensions of isolated rod outer segments. For both frog and bovine rhodopsin the average phosphorylation extent was found to be as high as 7,0 +- 0,3 mol phosphate per mol rhodopsin under optimal incubation conditions. Rhodopsin samples of all average phosphorylation extents between 1 and 7 mol phosphate per mol rhodopsin were found to be mixtures of differently phosphorylated rhodopsins and unphosphorylated rhodopsin. Even at the maximum average phosphorylation extent of 7 mol phosphate per mol rhodopsin 2 to 3% of the rhodopsin remains unphosphorylated. It is shown that individual rhodopsin molecules are able to incorporate up to 9 phosphate residues. There is evidence for the existence of rhodopsin molecules of all phosphorylation extents between 0 and 9 mol phosphate per mol of rhodopsin. The time course of phosphorylation is shown to be much faster with bleaching of only 13 to 23% of rhodopsin; addition of kinase containing extract also accelerates the rate of phosphorylation. Dephosphorylation experiments led to a release of about 60% of the phosphate incorporated. A possible role of rhodopsin phosphorylation in the regulation of light-dependent enzyme reactions is discussed.

  18. Optical Dependence of Electrically Detected Magnetic Resonance in Lightly Doped Si:P Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lihuang; van Schooten, Kipp J.; Guy, Mallory L.; Ramanathan, Chandrasekhar

    2017-06-01

    Using frequency-modulated electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR), we show that signals measured from lightly doped (1.2 - 5 ×1 015 cm-3 ) silicon devices vary significantly with the wavelength of the optical excitation used to generate the mobile carriers. We measure EDMR spectra at 4.2 K as a function of modulation frequency and applied microwave power using a 980-nm laser, a 405-nm laser, and a broadband white-light source. EDMR signals are observed from the phosphorus donor and two distinct defect species in all of the experiments. With near-infrared irradiation, we find that the EDMR signal primarily arises from donor-defect pairs, while, at higher photon energies, there are significant additional contributions from defect-defect pairs. The contribution of spins from different spatial regions to the EDMR signal is seen to vary as the optical penetration depth changes from about 120 nm at 405-nm illumination to 100 μ m at 980-nm illumination. The modulation frequency dependence of the EDMR signal shows that the energy of the optical excitation strongly modulates the kinetics of the underlying spin-dependent recombination (SDR) process. Careful tuning of the optical photon energy could therefore be used to control both the subset of spin pairs contributing to the EDMR signal and the dynamics of the SDR process.

  19. Molecular basis for blue light-dependent phosphorylation of Arabidopsis cryptochrome 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Wang, Qin; Deng, Weixian; Wang, Xu; Piao, Mingxin; Cai, Dawei; Li, Yaxing; Barshop, William D.; Yu, Xiaolan; Zhou, Tingting; Liu, Bin; Oka, Yoshito; Wohlschlegel, James; Zuo, Zecheng; Lin, Chentao

    2017-01-01

    Plant cryptochromes undergo blue light-dependent phosphorylation to regulate their activity and abundance, but the protein kinases that phosphorylate plant cryptochromes have remained unclear. Here we show that photoexcited Arabidopsis cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) is phosphorylated in vivo on as many as 24 different residues, including 7 major phosphoserines. We demonstrate that four closely related Photoregulatory Protein Kinases (previously referred to as MUT9-like kinases) interact with and phosphorylate photoexcited CRY2. Analyses of the ppk123 and ppk124 triple mutants and amiR4k artificial microRNA-expressing lines demonstrate that PPKs catalyse blue light-dependent CRY2 phosphorylation to both activate and destabilize the photoreceptor. Phenotypic analyses of these mutant lines indicate that PPKs may have additional substrates, including those involved in the phytochrome signal transduction pathway. These results reveal a mechanism underlying the co-action of cryptochromes and phytochromes to coordinate plant growth and development in response to different wavelengths of solar radiation in nature. PMID:28492234

  20. Macroalgal responses to ocean acidification depend on nutrient and light levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula S.M. eCelis-Plá

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification may benefit algae that are able to capitalise on increased carbon availability for photosynthesis but is expected to have adverse effects on calcified algae through dissolution. Shifts in dominance between primary producers will have knock-on effects on marine ecosystems and will likely vary regionally, depending on factors such as irradiance (light vs shade and nutrient levels (oligotrophic vs eutrophic. Thus experiments are needed to evaluate interactive effects of combined stressors in the field. In this study, we investigated the physiological responses of macroalgae near a CO2 seep in oligotrophic waters off Vulcano (Italy. The algae were incubated in situ at 0.2 m depth using a combination of three mean CO2 levels (500, 700-800 and 1200 µatm CO2, two light levels (100 and 70% of surface irradiance and two nutrient levels of N, P, and K (enriched vs non-enriched treatments in the non-calcified macroalga Cystoseira compressa (Phaeophyceae, Fucales and calcified Padina pavonica (Phaeophyceae, Dictyotales. A suite of biochemical assays and in vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters showed that elevated CO2 levels benefitted both of these algae, although their responses varied depending on light and nutrient availability. In C. compressa, elevated CO2 treatments resulted in higher carbon content and antioxidant activity in shaded conditions both with and without nutrient enrichment - they had more Chla, phenolic and fucoxanthin with nutrient enrichment and higher quantum yield (Fv/Fm and photosynthetic efficiency (αETR without nutrient enrichment. In P. pavonica, elevated CO2 treatments had higher carbon content, Fv/Fm, αETR, and Chla regardless of nutrient levels - they had higher concentrations of phenolic compounds in nutrient enriched, fully-lit conditions and more antioxidants in shaded, nutrient enriched conditions. Nitrogen content increased significantly in fertilised treatments, confirming that these algae

  1. Experiments on Frequency Dependence of the Deflection of Light in Yang-Mills Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Yang-Mills gravity based on flat space-time, the eikonal equation for a light ray is derived from the modified Maxwell’s wave equations in the geometric-optics limit. One obtains a Hamilton-Jacobi type equation, GLµv∂µΨ∂vΨ = 0 with an effective Riemannian metric tensor GLµv. According to Yang-Mills gravity, light rays (and macroscopic objects move as if they were in an effective curved space-time with a metric tensor. The deflection angle of a light ray by the sun is about 1.53″ for experiments with optical frequencies ≈ 1014Hz. It is roughly 12% smaller than the usual value 1.75″. However, the experimental data in the past 100 years for the deflection of light by the sun in optical frequencies have uncertainties of (10-20% due to large systematic errors. If one does not take the geometric-optics limit, one has the equation, GLµv[∂µΨ∂vΨcosΨ+ (∂µ∂vΨsinΨ] = 0, which suggests that the deflection angle could be frequency-dependent, according to Yang-Mills gravity. Nowadays, one has very accurate data in the radio frequencies ≈ 109Hz with uncertainties less than 0.1%. Thus, one can test this suggestion by using frequencies ≈ 1012 Hz, which could have a small uncertainty 0.1% due to the absence of systematic errors in the very long baseline interferometry.

  2. Modal Inclusion Logic: Being Lax is Simpler than Being Strict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hella, Lauri; Kuusisto, Antti Johannes; Meier, Arne

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the computational complexity of the satisfiability problem of modal inclusion logic. We distinguish two variants of the problem: one for strict and another one for lax semantics. The complexity of the lax version turns out to be complete for EXPTIME, whereas with strict semantics...

  3. 7 CFR 28.431 - Strict Middling Tinged Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Tinged Color. 28.431 Section 28.431 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Tinged Color is color which is better than Middling Tinged Color. ...

  4. 7 CFR 28.433 - Strict Low Middling Tinged Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Tinged Color. 28.433 Section 28.433 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Tinged Color. Strict Low Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of...

  5. 7 CFR 28.424 - Strict Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.424 Section 28.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  6. 7 CFR 28.426 - Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. 28.426 Section 28.426 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  7. 7 CFR 28.422 - Strict Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Spotted Color. 28.422 Section 28.422 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples...

  8. Strictly-regular number system and data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Jensen, Claus; Katajainen, Jyrki

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new number system that we call the strictly-regular system, which efficiently supports the operations: digit-increment, digit-decrement, cut, concatenate, and add. Compared to other number systems, the strictly-regular system has distinguishable properties. It is superior to the re...

  9. Light-dependent uptake, translocation and foliar release of phosphorus by the intertidal seagrass Zostera noltii Hornem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Lloréns, J.J.; De Visscher, P.R.M.; Nienhuis, P.H.; Niell, F.X.

    1993-01-01

    Light-dependent P uptake by root-rhizomes, acropetal translocation and subsequent foliar release by Zostera noltii Hornem. was studied under laboratory conditions in two-compartment chambers using 32P. The uptake by underground parts was unaffected by light conditions but the acropetal translocation

  10. Spectral and directional dependence of light-trapping in solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulbrich, Carolin

    2011-02-17

    This thesis investigates the directional and spectral dependence of light-incoupling and light-trapping in solar cells. The light-trapping does not notably change under increased angles of incidence. To enhance the incoupling at the front of the solar cell, the effects of a textured surface structure on the cover glass of the solar cell are investigated. The texture reduces the reflectance at the air-glass interface and, additionally, reduces the reflection losses originating at the interface between the glass and the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) as well as the TCO and the silicon (Si) absorber due to the randomization of light. On samples without a textured TCO/Si interface, the textured foil induces additional light-trapping in the photovoltaically active absorber material. This effect is not observed for samples with a textured TCO/Si interface. In this case, using tandem solar cells, a redistribution of light absorption in the top and bottom subcells is detected. The antireflective texture increases the short circuit current density in thin film silicon tandem solar cells by up to 1 mA/cm{sup 2}, and the conversion efficiency by up to 0.7 % absolute. The increase in the annual yield of solar cells is estimated to be up to 10 %. Further, the spectral dependence of the efficiency and annual yield of a tandem solar cell was investigated. The daily variation of the incident spectrum causes a change in the current matching of the serial connected subcells. Simulations determine the optimum subcell layer thicknesses of tandem solar cells. The thicknesses optimized in respect to the annual yield overlap in a wide range for both investigated locations with those for the AM1.5g standard spectrum. Though, a slight top limitation is favorable. Matching the short circuit currents of the subcells maximizes the overall current, but minimizes the fill factor. This thesis introduces a new definition for the matching condition of tandem solar cells. This definition

  11. Measurements of the depth-dependent characteristics of light bulb implosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sungho; Kang, Donhyug

    2015-11-01

    Impulsive signals generated by the implosion of an incandescent light bulb were measured in shallow water with implosion depths in the range of 10 - 80 m. The received waveform was characterized by successive negative and positive pressure pulses originating from the bubble oscillation process. The time intervals between successive bubble pulses decreased with increasing implosion depth and the peaks of subsequent bubble oscillations dissipated relatively quickly. In this paper, semi-empirical formulas are derived to model the depth-dependent characteristics of the bulb implosion signal, including the time interval between bubble pulses and peak source level. The model predictions are compared with the measured signals and with the results in the literature. Possible causes of the differences in the comparison with previous results are discussed.

  12. Temperature dependence of Brillouin light scattering spectra of acoustic phonons in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Kevin S.; Klimovich, Nikita; An, Kyongmo; Sullivan, Sean; Weathers, Annie; Shi, Li; Li, Xiaoqin

    2015-01-01

    Electrons, optical phonons, and acoustic phonons are often driven out of local equilibrium in electronic devices or during laser-material interaction processes. The need for a better understanding of such non-equilibrium transport processes has motivated the development of Raman spectroscopy as a local temperature sensor of optical phonons and intermediate frequency acoustic phonons, whereas Brillouin light scattering (BLS) has recently been explored as a temperature sensor of low-frequency acoustic phonons. Here, we report the measured BLS spectra of silicon at different temperatures. The origins of the observed temperature dependence of the BLS peak position, linewidth, and intensity are examined in order to evaluate their potential use as temperature sensors for acoustic phonons

  13. Light-Dependent Aerobic Methane Oxidation Reduces Methane Emissions from Seasonally Stratified Lakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Oswald

    Full Text Available Lakes are a natural source of methane to the atmosphere and contribute significantly to total emissions compared to the oceans. Controls on methane emissions from lake surfaces, particularly biotic processes within anoxic hypolimnia, are only partially understood. Here we investigated biological methane oxidation in the water column of the seasonally stratified Lake Rotsee. A zone of methane oxidation extending from the oxic/anoxic interface into anoxic waters was identified by chemical profiling of oxygen, methane and δ13C of methane. Incubation experiments with 13C-methane yielded highest oxidation rates within the oxycline, and comparable rates were measured in anoxic waters. Despite predominantly anoxic conditions within the zone of methane oxidation, known groups of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea were conspicuously absent. Instead, aerobic gammaproteobacterial methanotrophs were identified as the active methane oxidizers. In addition, continuous oxidation and maximum rates always occurred under light conditions. These findings, along with the detection of chlorophyll a, suggest that aerobic methane oxidation is tightly coupled to light-dependent photosynthetic oxygen production both at the oxycline and in the anoxic bottom layer. It is likely that this interaction between oxygenic phototrophs and aerobic methanotrophs represents a widespread mechanism by which methane is oxidized in lake water, thus diminishing its release into the atmosphere.

  14. Intrinsic climate dependency of ecosystem light and water-use-efficiencies across Australian biomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Hao; Li, Longhui; Eamus, Derek; Cleverly, James; Huete, Alfredo; Yu, Qiang; Beringer, Jason; Van Gorsel, Eva; Hutley, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    The sensitivity of ecosystem gross primary production (GPP) to availability of water and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) differs among biomes. Here we investigated variations of ecosystem light-use-efficiency (eLUE: GPP/PAR) and water-use-efficiency (eWUE: GPP/evapotranspiration) among seven Australian eddy covariance sites with differing annual precipitation, species composition and temperature. Changes to both eLUE and eWUE were primarily correlated with atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD) at multiple temporal scales across biomes, with minor additional correlations observed with soil moisture and temperature. The effects of leaf area index on eLUE and eWUE were also relatively weak compared to VPD, indicating an intrinsic dependency of eLUE and eWUE on climate. Additionally, eLUE and eWUE were statistically different for biomes between summer and winter, except eWUE for savannas and the grassland. These findings will improve our understanding of how light- and water-use traits in Australian ecosystems may respond to climate change. (letter)

  15. Light-Dependent Aerobic Methane Oxidation Reduces Methane Emissions from Seasonally Stratified Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Kirsten; Milucka, Jana; Brand, Andreas; Littmann, Sten; Wehrli, Bernhard; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Schubert, Carsten J.

    2015-01-01

    Lakes are a natural source of methane to the atmosphere and contribute significantly to total emissions compared to the oceans. Controls on methane emissions from lake surfaces, particularly biotic processes within anoxic hypolimnia, are only partially understood. Here we investigated biological methane oxidation in the water column of the seasonally stratified Lake Rotsee. A zone of methane oxidation extending from the oxic/anoxic interface into anoxic waters was identified by chemical profiling of oxygen, methane and δ13C of methane. Incubation experiments with 13C-methane yielded highest oxidation rates within the oxycline, and comparable rates were measured in anoxic waters. Despite predominantly anoxic conditions within the zone of methane oxidation, known groups of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea were conspicuously absent. Instead, aerobic gammaproteobacterial methanotrophs were identified as the active methane oxidizers. In addition, continuous oxidation and maximum rates always occurred under light conditions. These findings, along with the detection of chlorophyll a, suggest that aerobic methane oxidation is tightly coupled to light-dependent photosynthetic oxygen production both at the oxycline and in the anoxic bottom layer. It is likely that this interaction between oxygenic phototrophs and aerobic methanotrophs represents a widespread mechanism by which methane is oxidized in lake water, thus diminishing its release into the atmosphere. PMID:26193458

  16. On N. Chomsky’s strict subcategorization of verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Orešnik

    1966-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the so-called strict subcategorization rules, and the theory associated with them, in the transformational grammar of. Erigl·ish as proposed by Noarn Chomsky in his Aspects. The syntactic component of English transformational grammar consists of two mutually ordered parts, viz., the base and the transformational subcomponents. The initial part of the base are the so-called categorial rules, which are of almost exclusive interest to us here. Their primary task is to generate what are usually called basic sentence patterns, and will here, with Chomsky (Aspects, p.ll3, be designated with the expression, frames of category symbols.- The rules of the transformational subcomponent modify, in various ways, the frames generated by the base. For several reasons - one of them being that the correct work of the transformational subcomponent quite often depends on the kind of lexical items with which the syntactic positions in the frames of category symbols have been filled, the lexical items must be introduced from the lexicon into the empty positions in the frames before the rules of the transformational subcomponent can be allowed to modify the frames.

  17. Strategy and Aspects of Monitoring / Control Strictly in Coordinated Subsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William José Borges

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the approach structures of the strictly coordinated theoretical framework developed by Zylbersztajn and Farina (1999 as an expanded perspective of the firm, taking into account the food supply chains as an extension of the nexus of contracts proposed by Coase (1937 and taken up by Williamson (1985. The structures stand out as strictly coordinated. Zylbersztajn and Farina (1999 turn to identifying points of common interests that encourage firms to promote contracts between themselves in a strictly coordinated way, considering the degree of asset specificity involved in the transaction and the competitive forces that determine the search for strategic positioning organizations to achieve sustainable superior results.

  18. Broadband direction-dependent transmission of light with photonic crystal heterostructure grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, D.; Giden, I. H.; Kurt, H.

    2018-01-01

    Direction-dependent light transmission is a remarkable phenomenon owing to its great potential to be used in optical communication processing systems such as optical diodes, isolators and rectifiers. All these applications require optical reciprocity breaking mechanisms such as magneto-optical effect. Keeping the reciprocity intact, it is possible to manipulate the amount and spatial form of the two oppositely propagating lights exiting from a passive photonic medium. In this paper, a photonic crystal diffraction grating (PCDG) configuration is studied for the investigation of asymmetric light transport due to the spatial inversion symmetry breaking in the designed compact all-dielectric PC heterostructure. Thanks to the periodic corrugations at the back-surface of the designed structure, the backward transmission of the zero-order diffracted wave is notably suppressed while the efficient unidirectional forward transmission is achieved. Numerical calculations show that up to 73% of the incoming electromagnetic energy is transmitted in the forward illumination whereas it reduces down to a value of 6% (which corresponds to 10.85 dB beam suppression) in the case of backward illumination. That asymmetric light transmission leads to a contrast ratio (CR) of above 0.55 (CR  =  (T +x   -  T -x )/(T +x   +  T -x ), in which T -x and T +x are the transmission efficiencies in the  -x and  +x directions, respectively). The highest contrast ratio of CR  =  0.99 is calculated at the incident frequency of a/λ  =  0.5338 having the forward and backward transmissions of {T +x ,T -x }  =  {42%,0.1%}, which corresponds to the beam suppression of 26.23 dB. Furthermore, the proposed PCDG exhibits the diffraction grating effect at the considerable range of angle of incidence up to  ±20° at certain frequencies indicating that the proposed grating system is durable to source misalignments.

  19. Attitudes of nursing professionals in light of the cost of care with high-dependency patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Fernandes Costa Lima

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to identify the attitudes of nurses regarding the results of a study on the cost of nursing care with high-dependency patients admitted to a university hospital. Eleven recorded interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed by the technique of content analysis and discussed in light of the theoretical framework on cost management. Respondents showed favorable attitudes as to having knowledge of the direct cost of human and material resources and how they contribute to managing the care given to high-dependency patients. They explained that the use of this knowledge will assist in the awareness of professionals, encouraging them to change their attitudes aimed at rational use of the resources available, assessing the real needs of the clientele cared for and avoiding waste. The attitudes of nurses denoted their pre-disposition to appropriate this knowledge concerning the direct cost of resources in order to contribute to managing the care given. doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i4.23473.

  20. Strict finitism and the logic of mathematical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Exploring the logic behind applied mathematics to the physical world, this volume illustrates how radical naturalism, nominalism and strict finitism can account for the applications of classical mathematics in current theories about natural phenomena.

  1. Strict monotonicity and unique continuation of the biharmonic operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najib Tsouli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will show that the strict monotonicity of the eigenvalues of the biharmonic operator holds if and only if some unique continuation property is satisfied by the corresponding eigenfunctions.

  2. Two examples of non strictly convex large deviations

    OpenAIRE

    De Marco, Stefano; Jacquier, Antoine; Roome, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We present two examples of a large deviations principle where the rate function is not strictly convex. This is motivated by a model used in mathematical finance (the Heston model), and adds a new item to the zoology of non strictly convex large deviations. For one of these examples, we show that the rate function of the Cramer-type of large deviations coincides with that of the Freidlin-Wentzell when contraction principles are applied.

  3. Current trends for improving the design of membrane devices for photoautotrophic biosynthesis is light dependent microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Shevtsov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern trends in improving the design of membrane devices for photoautotrophic biosynthesis dependent lighting microorganisms aimed at a significant increase in the productivity of valuable products from biomass of microalgae and obtaining on the basis of their individual useful substances (drugs used in various industries and medicine. In film devices effectively the processes of heat - and mass-exchange with the gas comes into contact with the culture fluid flowing as a film on a transparent film-forming surface is STI in its light intensity and autotrophic biosynthesis occurs only in the presence of a mixture of air with carbon dioxide. Thus, completely eliminated the accumulation of metabolic products due to their continuous removal from film culture liquid with the process gas, which is not typical for devices of other types. Small size membrane bioreactors may increase the degree of saturation of the liquid carbon dioxide with the possibility of changing the concentration of gas in the culture fluid and to ensure the cultivation of microorganisms with a specified biomass yield. At present up to date-developed a significant number of ways to ensure contact of the gas with the liquid (bubbling, gas-lift, mechanical stirring, jet, membrane, etc. on the basis of which an industrial bioreactor, with various "stress" effect. It is believed that for the cultivation of the most optimal are bioreactors with mechanical stirring of the liquid, which allow the greatest productivity of biomass. However, the applied model of a mechanical mixing device to create a work whose cavity of the bioreactor chaotic, disorganized mixing, which contributes to the emergence, insufficient for the sustenance of the cell cultures and microorganisms. Analysis of the interactions of the gas with the liquid film devices showed the need to create a new generation of bioreactor with intensive mass transfer without the possibility of limiting the productivity of

  4. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Why is left right and right left in the mirror? Baffled by the basics of reflection and refraction? Wondering just how the eye works? If you have trouble teaching concepts about light that you don t fully grasp yourself, get help from a book that s both scientifically accurate and entertaining with Light. By combining clear explanations, clever drawings, and activities that use easy-to-find materials, this book covers what science teachers and parents need to know to teach about light with confidence. It uses ray, wave, and particle models of light to explain the basics of reflection and refraction, optical instruments, polarization of light, and interference and diffraction. There s also an entire chapter on how the eye works. Each chapter ends with a Summary and Applications section that reinforces concepts with everyday examples. Whether you need a deeper understanding of how light bends or a good explanation of why the sky is blue, you ll find Light more illuminating and accessible than a college textbook...

  5. Arabidopsis cryptochrome 1 is a soluble protein mediating blue light-dependent regulation of plant growth and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin ChenTao; Ahmad, M.; Cashmore, A.R.

    1996-01-01

    Cryptochrome 1 (CRY1) is a flavin-type blue type receptor of Arabidopsis thaliana which mediates inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. In the work described in this report it is demonstrated that CRY1 is a soluble protein expressed in both young seedlings grown either in the dark or under light, and in different organs of adult plants. The functional role of CRY1 was further investigated using transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing CRY1. It is demonstrated that overexpression of CRY1 resulted in hypersensitivity to blue, UV-A, and green light for the inhibition of hypocotyl elongation response. Transgenic plants overexpressing CRY1 also exhibited a dwarf phenotype with reduced size in almost every organ. This was in keeping with the previous observation of reciprocal alterations found in hy4 mutant plants and is consistent with a hypothesis that CRY1 mediates a light-dependent process resulting in a general inhibitory effect on plant growth. In addition, transgenic plants overexpressing CRY1 showed increased anthocyanin accumulation in response to blue, UV-A, and green light in a fluence rate-dependent manner. This increase in anthocyanin accumulation in transgenic plants was shown to be concomitant with increased blue light-induction of CHS gene expression. It is concluded that CRY1 is a photoreceptor mediating blue light-dependent regulation of gene expression in addition to its affect on plant growth. (author)

  6. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Rivera, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Light is all around us. Learn how it is used in art, technology, and engineering. Five easy-to-read chapters explain the science behind light, as well as its real-world applications. Vibrant, full-color photos, bolded glossary words, and a key stats section let readers zoom in even deeper. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Abdo Zoom is a division of ABDO.

  7. Daytime Effect of Monochromatic Blue Light on EEG Activity Depends on Duration and Timing of Exposure in Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskra-Golec, Irena; Golonka, Krystyna; Wyczesany, Miroslaw; Smith, Lawrence; Siemiginowska, Patrycja; Wątroba, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests an alerting effect of monochromatic blue light on brain activity. Little is known about the moderation of those effects by timing and duration of exposure. The present electroencephalography (EEG ) study examined such moderations on delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, and beta EEG bands. A counterbalanced repeated-measures design was applied. The 16-hr daytime period was divided into three sessions: 07:00-12:20, 12:20-17:40, and 17:40-23:00 (timing of exposure). Two light conditions comparable in luminance but differing in wavelength were applied, namely polychromatic white light and monochromatic blue light (460 nm). There were two durations of exposure-the shorter one lasting 30 min and the longer one lasting 4 hrs. Thirty male students participated in the study. Four factors analyses of variance (ANOV As, for light conditions, timing of exposure, duration of exposure, and brain area) were performed on each EEG band. Results indicated an alerting effect of short exposure to monochromatic blue light at midday and in the evening, which was demonstrated by a decrease in lower frequency bands (alpha1, delta, and theta, respectively). Long exposure to blue light may have a reverse effect, especially in the morning and at midday, when increases in lower frequency bands (theta in the morning and theta and alpha1 at midday) were observed. It can be concluded that the daytime effect of monochromatic blue light on EEG activity depends on timing and duration of exposure.

  8. Convergence theorems for strictly hemi-contractive maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Osilike, M.O.

    1992-04-01

    It is proved that each of two well-known fixed point iteration methods (the Mann and the Ishikawa iteration methods) converges strongly to the fixed point of strictly hemi-contractive map in real Banach spaces with property (U, λ, m+1,m), λ is an element of R, m is an element of IN. The class of strictly hemi-contractive maps includes all strictly pseudo-contractive maps with nonempty fixed point sets; and Banach spaces with property (U, λ, m+1, m), λ is an element of R, m is an element of IN include the L p (or l p ) spaces, p≥2. Our theorems generalize important known results. (author). 22 refs

  9. Differences between height- and light-dependent changes in shoot traits in five deciduous tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Noriyuki; Okabe, Yoshihiko; Hayashi, Daisuke; Katsuyama, Tomonori; Tokuchi, Naoko

    2014-01-01

    The effects of tree height on shoot traits may in some cases differ in magnitude and direction from the effects of light. Nevertheless, general patterns of change in shoot traits in relation to variations in height and light have not so far been revealed. A comprehensive analysis of the differences between the effects of height and light on a range of leaf and shoot traits is important for the scaling of these traits to individual trees. We investigated the biomass allocation and structure of current-year shoots at the top of the crowns of five deciduous tree species in Japan. Height effect was investigated by comparing shoot traits among trees of different heights growing under a high light environment. The effects of light were examined by comparing saplings growing in high- and low-light environments. The effects of light were significant for most traits, while those of height were not significant for some traits. The magnitudes of the effects of light were larger than those of height for most traits related to biomass allocation. There was an extreme difference between the effects of height and light in the direction of change in the length of current-year shoots and in the number of standing leaves. The measures of both parameters increased with the increase in light, but decreased with the increase in tree height. Thus, the effects of height and light on diverse traits at the level of current-year shoots were not always similar. These results suggest that great care must be taken when scaling shoot traits from small trees to tall trees because the effects of height and light can be complex.

  10. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Ditchburn, R W

    1963-01-01

    This classic study, available for the first time in paperback, clearly demonstrates how quantum theory is a natural development of wave theory, and how these two theories, once thought to be irreconcilable, together comprise a single valid theory of light. Aimed at students with an intermediate-level knowledge of physics, the book first offers a historical introduction to the subject, then covers topics such as wave theory, interference, diffraction, Huygens' Principle, Fermat's Principle, and the accuracy of optical measurements. Additional topics include the velocity of light, relativistic o

  11. TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENCE OF CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE INDUCTION AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN TOMATO AS AFFECTED BY TEMPERATURE AND LIGHT CONDITIONS DURING GROWTH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JANSSEN, LHJ; WAMS, HE; VANHASSELT, PR

    The temperature dependence of chlorophyll fluorescence induction and photosynthesis of tomato plants grown at different temperatures and light intensities was studied. Chlorophyll fluorescence induction and photosynthetic activity of leaf discs was determined between 0-degrees and 30-degrees-C. Two

  12. Bounds on an Energy-Dependent and Observer-Independent Speed of Light from Violations of Locality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossenfelder, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    We show that models with deformations of special relativity that have an energy-dependent speed of light have nonlocal effects. The requirement that the arising nonlocality is not in conflict with known particle physics allows us to derive strong bounds on deformations of special relativity and rule out a modification to first order in energy over the Planck mass.

  13. Mastery Motivation and Secure Attachment among Preschool Children in the Light of Depending on Domestic Workers in the Saudi Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulfattah, Azza Khalil; Badawood, Asma Saeid

    2017-01-01

    The current study aims to verify the impact of children's secure attachment to their mothers on their mastery motivation in the light of the dependence on domestic workers' phenomenon in the Saudi society. To achieve the goals of the study, a random sample of Saudi children was selected from Riyadh city in Saudi Arabia, whose favorable economic…

  14. Light-Dependency of Growth and Secondary Metabolite Production in the Captive Zooxanthellate Soft Coral Sinularia flexibilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalesi, M.K.; Beeftink, H.H.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    The branching zooxanthellate soft coral Sinularia flexibillis releases antimicrobial and toxic compounds with potential pharmaceutical importance. As photosynthesis by the symbiotic algae is vital to the host, the light-dependency of the coral, including its specific growth rate (µ day-1) and the

  15. The Flux of Euglena gracilis Cells Depends on the Gradient of Light Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Takuma; Shoji, Erika; Suematsu, Nobuhiko J; Nishimori, Hiraku; Izumi, Shunsuke; Awazu, Akinori; Iima, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    We have quantified the photomovement behavior of a suspension of Euglena gracilis representing a behavioral response to a light gradient. Despite recent measurements of phototaxis and photophobicity, the details of macroscopic behavior of cell photomovements under conditions of light intensity gradients, which are critical to understand recent experiments on spatially localized bioconvection patterns, have not been fully understood. In this paper, the flux of cell number density under a light intensity gradient was measured by the following two experiments. In the first experiment, a capillary containing the cell suspension was illuminated with different light intensities in two regions. In the steady state, the differences of the cell numbers in the two regions normalized by the total number were proportional to the light difference, where the light intensity difference ranged from 0.5-2.0 μmol m-2 s-1. The proportional coefficient was positive (i.e., the bright region contained many microorganisms) when the mean light intensity was weak (1.25 μmol m-2 s-1), whereas it was negative when the mean intensity was strong (13.75 μmol m-2 s-1). In the second experiment, a shallow rectangular container of the suspension was illuminated with stepwise light intensities. The cell number density distribution exhibited a single peak at the position where the light intensity was about Ic ≃ 3.8 μmol m-2 s-1. These results suggest that the suspension of E. gracilis responded to the light gradient and that the favorable light intensity was Ic.

  16. The Flux of Euglena gracilis Cells Depends on the Gradient of Light Intensity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuma Ogawa

    Full Text Available We have quantified the photomovement behavior of a suspension of Euglena gracilis representing a behavioral response to a light gradient. Despite recent measurements of phototaxis and photophobicity, the details of macroscopic behavior of cell photomovements under conditions of light intensity gradients, which are critical to understand recent experiments on spatially localized bioconvection patterns, have not been fully understood. In this paper, the flux of cell number density under a light intensity gradient was measured by the following two experiments. In the first experiment, a capillary containing the cell suspension was illuminated with different light intensities in two regions. In the steady state, the differences of the cell numbers in the two regions normalized by the total number were proportional to the light difference, where the light intensity difference ranged from 0.5-2.0 μmol m-2 s-1. The proportional coefficient was positive (i.e., the bright region contained many microorganisms when the mean light intensity was weak (1.25 μmol m-2 s-1, whereas it was negative when the mean intensity was strong (13.75 μmol m-2 s-1. In the second experiment, a shallow rectangular container of the suspension was illuminated with stepwise light intensities. The cell number density distribution exhibited a single peak at the position where the light intensity was about Ic ≃ 3.8 μmol m-2 s-1. These results suggest that the suspension of E. gracilis responded to the light gradient and that the favorable light intensity was Ic.

  17. Lucifer Yellow slows voltage-gated Na+ current inactivation in a light-dependent manner in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higure, Yoko; Katayama, Yoshimi; Takeuchi, Keita; Ohtubo, Yoshitaka; Yoshii, Kiyonori

    2003-01-01

    Lucifer Yellow CH (LY), a membrane-impermeant fluorescent dye, has been used in electrophysiological studies to visualize cell morphology, with little concern about its pharmacological effects. We investigated its effects on TTX-sensitive voltage-gated Na+ channels in mouse taste bud cells and hippocampal neurons under voltage-clamp conditions. LY applied inside cells irreversibly slowed the inactivation of Na+ currents upon exposure to light of usual intensities. The inactivation time constant of Na+ currents elicited by a depolarization to −15 mV was increased by fourfold after a 5 min exposure to halogen light of 3200 lx at source (3200 lx light), and sevenfold after a 1-min exposure to 12 000 lx light. A fraction of the Na+ current became non-inactivating following the exposure. The non-inactivating current was ≈ 20 % of the peak total Na+ current after a 5 min exposure to 3200 lx light, and ≈ 30 % after a 1 min exposure to 12 000 lx light. Light-exposed LY shifted slightly the current-voltage relationship of the peak Na+ current and of the steady-state inactivation curve, in the depolarizing direction. A similar light-dependent decrease in kinetics occurred in whole-cell Na+ currents of cultured mouse hippocampal neurones. Single-channel recordings showed that exposure to 6500 lx light for 3 min increased the mean open time of Na+ channels from 1.4 ms to 2.4 ms without changing the elementary conductance. The pre-incubation of taste bud cells with 1 mM dithiothreitol, a scavenger of radical species, blocked these LY effects. These results suggest that light-exposed LY yields radical species that modify Na+ channels. PMID:12879866

  18. Light dependence of calcium and membrane potential measured in blowfly photoreceptors in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberwinkler, J; Stavenga, DG

    Light adaptation in insect photoreceptors is caused by an increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. To better understand this process, we measured the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in vivo as a function of adapting light intensity in the white-eyed blowfly mutant chalky. We developed a technique

  19. Light-dependent transport processes in isolated membranes of Rhodospeudomonas spaeroides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, Paulus Aloysius Matheus

    1978-01-01

    The phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudemonas ashaeroides can obtain the energy for the uptake of amino acids from aerobic metabolism and from the absorption of light (Chapter II). The conversion of light energy into a chemical useful form is accomplished by a photosynthetic apparatus wich is located

  20. Mann iteration with errors for strictly pseudo-contractive mappings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well known that any fixed point of a Lipschitzian strictly pseudo-contractive self mapping of a nonempty closed convex and bounded subset K of a Banach space X is unique [6] and may be norm approximated by an iterative procedure. In this paper, we show that Mann iteration with errors can be used to approximate the ...

  1. Dominated operators, absolutely summing operators and the strict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    b(X;E) be the space of all E-valued bounded continuous functions on X, equipped with the strict topology β. We study dominated and absolutely summing operators T : Cb(X;E) → F. We derive that if X is a locally compact Hausdorff space and E ...

  2. Convergence of GAOR Iterative Method with Strictly Diagonally Dominant Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangbin Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the convergence of GAOR method for linear systems with strictly diagonally dominant matrices. Moreover, we show that our results are better than ones of Darvishi and Hessari (2006, Tian et al. (2008 by using three numerical examples.

  3. Dominance on Strict Triangular Norms and Mulholland Inequality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrík, Milan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 335, 15 March (2018), s. 3-17 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-07724Y Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : dominance relation * Mulholland inequality * strict triangular norm * transitivity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2016

  4. Genetics of the Blue Light-Dependent Signal Cascade That Controls Phototaxis in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Yuki; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Ren, Shukun; Hori, Koichi; Masuda, Shinji

    2017-03-01

    The Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 can move on a solid surface in response to light, a phenomenon called phototaxis. Although many of the photoreceptors involved in phototaxis have been identified, the mechanisms that regulate directional motility of Synechocystis are not well understood. Previous studies showed that a mutant lacking the blue light-using flavin (BLUF) photoreceptor PixD exhibits negative phototaxis under conditions where the wild type responds positively. PixD interacts with the pseudo-response regulator-like protein PixE in a light-dependent manner, suggesting that this intermolecular interaction is important for phototaxis regulation, although genetic evidence has been lacking. To gain further insight into phototaxis regulation by PixD-PixE signaling, we constructed the deletion mutants ΔPixE and ΔPixD-ΔPixE, and characterized their phenotypes, which matched those of the wild type (positive phototaxis). Because ΔPixD exhibited negative phototaxis, PixE must function downstream of PixD. Under intense blue light (>100 μmol m-2 s-1; 470 nm) the wild type exhibited negative phototaxis, but ΔPixD-PixE exhibited positive phototaxis toward low-intensity blue light (∼0.8 μmol m-2 s-1; 470 nm). These results suggest that an unknown light-sensing system(s), that is necessary for directional cell movement, can be activated by low-intensity blue light; on the other hand, PixD needs high-intensity blue light to be activated. We also isolated spontaneous mutants that compensated for the pixE deletion. Genome-wide sequencing of the mutants revealed that the uncharacterized gene sll2003 regulates positive and negative phototaxis in response to light intensity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The effect of spatial light modulator (SLM) dependent dispersion on spatial beam shaping

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Spangenberg, D-M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available . This introduces a phase difference between the different wavelengths of the light thereby causing the different wavelengths to disperse as it propagates through the medium. Spatial dispersion occurs when light with different wavelengths is incident on some mask... SLM and adjusts the wave front of light passing through it by no more than a few wavelengths. The combination of many pixels allows us to generate a mask which causes spatial dispersion to occur. The refractive index of the LC cells of the SLM has a...

  6. [Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylations as sources of energy for the light-dependent chloride uptake in Elodea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, W D

    1967-06-01

    The light-dependent chloride uptake in leaves of Elodea densa and the distribution of chloride ions within the cells were investigated. The active uptake of Cl(-) into the chloroplasts and into the remainder of the cell proved to be enhanced by light to a similar degree. The percentage of (36)Cl(-) (with respect to the total (36)Cl(-)) found in the chloroplasts was low after short times of uptake but increased to about 24% within 5 minutes. From this it was concluded that also in the light the cytoplasm is the primary site of Cl(-) uptake. Thus the latter cannot be driven by electron-transfer reactions within the chloroplasts.Comparative studies on the action of inhibitors and far-red light on chloride uptake and oxygen evolution in Elodea leaves led to the following results: 1. Concentrations of DCMU that almost completely inhibit the oxygen evolution do not affect the Cl(-) uptake in the light in N2 and in air in the absence of CO2. 2. In the presence of 0.5% CO2 in N2 low concentrations of DCMU partly inhibit the light-dependent chloride uptake. 3. The uncoupling agents of photosynthetic phosphorylation, atebrin (quinacrine) and low concentrations of CCCP, inhibit, the Cl(-) uptake while leaving the oxygen evolution unaffected or even enhancing it. 4. Low intensities of far-red light (λmax=717 nm) can support a small light-driven chloride uptake which cannot be inhibited by CO2. On the other hand, at low intensities of 681 nm light CO2 partly inhibits the Cl(-) uptake, presumably by competing for ATP. From these results it is concluded that photophosphorylation provides the energy for the active chloride uptake in the light. Cyclic photophosphorylation seems to be the only source of energy in the absence of CO2 and in far-red light. In the presence of CO2 also the non-cyclic photophosphorylation seems to furnish part of the available energy for chloride uptake. Evidence is given that the uptake measured in these experiments of rather short duration consists

  7. Magnetic-field-dependent slow light in strontium atom-cavity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zeng-Xing; Wang, Bao; Kong, Cui; Xiong, Hao; Wu, Ying

    2018-03-01

    Realizing and controlling a long-lived slow light is of fundamental importance in physics and may find applications in quantum router and quantum information processing. In this work, we propose a feasible scheme to realize the slow light in a strontium atom-cavity system, in which the value of group delay can be continuously adjusted within a range of different Zeeman splittings and vacuum Rabi frequencies by varying the applied static magnetic field and the atom number instead of a strong coherent field. In our scheme, the major limitations of the slow-light structure, namely, dispersion and loss, can be effectively resolved, and so our scheme may help to achieve the practical application of slow light relevant to the optical communication network.

  8. Temperature and light dependent modifications of chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics in spruce needles during winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhàr-Nordenkampf, H R; Lechner, E G

    1988-11-01

    Prompt chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics at room temperature were measured from intact spruce needles. The fluorescence signal was recorded after varying light pretreatments. During the winter, induction curves showed characteristic changes in both the initial peak of fluorescence FV/FP (FP-FO/FP) and the steady state level Fdr (FP-FT/FP). Winter stress induced decreases in both values which showed close correlation to the light and temperature pre-history of the plants. In February changes in fluorescence induction indicative of a restoration of photosynthesis were detected and these corresponded to a rise of temperature above zero in combination with low light levels. In March increasing light intensity combined with chilling temperatures induced again decreases of both values of chlorophyll fluorescence induction suggesting the occurrence of photoinhibition.

  9. Synaptic regulation of the light-dependent oscillatory currents in starburst amacrine cells of the mouse retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit-Jacques, Jerome; Bloomfield, Stewart A

    2008-08-01

    Responses of on-center starburst amacrine cells to steady light stimuli were recorded in the dark-adapted mouse retina. The response to spots of dim white light appear to show two components, an initial peak that correspond to the onset of the light stimulus and a series of oscillations that ride on top of the initial peak relaxation. The frequency of oscillations during light stimulation was three time higher than the frequency of spontaneous oscillations recorded in the dark. The light-evoked responses in starburst cells were exclusively dependent on the release of glutamate likely from presynaptic bipolar axon terminals and the binding of glutamate to AMPA/kainate receptors because they were blocked by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxalene-2,3-dione. The synaptic pathway responsible for the light responses was blocked by AP4, an agonist of metabotropic glutamate receptors that hyperpolarize on-center bipolar cells on activation. Light responses were inhibited by the calcium channel blockers cadmium ions and nifedipine, suggesting that the release of glutamate was calcium dependent. The oscillatory component of the response was specifically inhibited by blocking the glutamate transporter with d-threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartic acid, suggesting that glutamate reuptake is necessary for the oscillatory release. GABAergic antagonists bicuculline, SR 95531, and picrotoxin increased the amplitude of the initial peak while they inhibit the frequency of oscillations. TTX had a similar effect. Strychnine, the blocker of glycine receptors did not affect the initial peak but strongly decreased the oscillations frequency. These inhibitory inputs onto the bipolar axon terminals shape and synchronize the oscillatory component.

  10. Depth enhancement of multi-layer light field display using polarization dependent internal reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Na-Young; Lim, Hong-Gi; Lee, Sung-Keun; Kim, Yong-Soo; Park, Jae-Hyeung

    2013-12-02

    A technique to enhance the depth range of the multi-layer light field three-dimensional display is proposed. A set of the optical plates are stacked in front of the conventional multi-layer light field display, creating additional internal reflection for one polarization state. By switching between two orthogonal polarization states in synchronization with the displayed three-dimensional images, the depth range of the display can be doubled. The proposed method is verified experimentally, confirming its feasibility.

  11. Dependence of reconstructed image characteristics on the observation condition in light-in-flight recording by holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Aya; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Kubota, Toshihiro

    2005-08-01

    We analyze the dependence of the reconstructed image characteristic on the observation condition in the light-in-flight recording by holography both theoretically and experimentally. This holography makes it possible to record a propagating light pulse. We have found that the shape of the reconstructed image is changed when the observation position is vertically moved along the hologram plane. The reconstructed image is numerically simulated on the basis of the theory and is experimentally obtained by using a 373 fs pulsed laser. The numerical results agree with the experimental result, and the validity of the theory is verified. Also, experimental results are analyzed and the restoration of the reconstructed image is discussed.

  12. Photosynthesis-dependent H2O2 transfer from chloroplasts to nuclei provides a high-light signalling mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposito-Rodriguez, Marino; Laissue, Pierre Philippe; Yvon-Durocher, Gabriel; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Mullineaux, Philip M

    2017-06-29

    Chloroplasts communicate information by signalling to nuclei during acclimation to fluctuating light. Several potential operating signals originating from chloroplasts have been proposed, but none have been shown to move to nuclei to modulate gene expression. One proposed signal is hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) produced by chloroplasts in a light-dependent manner. Using HyPer2, a genetically encoded fluorescent H 2 O 2 sensor, we show that in photosynthetic Nicotiana benthamiana epidermal cells, exposure to high light increases H 2 O 2 production in chloroplast stroma, cytosol and nuclei. Critically, over-expression of stromal ascorbate peroxidase (H 2 O 2 scavenger) or treatment with DCMU (photosynthesis inhibitor) attenuates nuclear H 2 O 2 accumulation and high light-responsive gene expression. Cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase over-expression has little effect on nuclear H 2 O 2 accumulation and high light-responsive gene expression. This is because the H 2 O 2 derives from a sub-population of chloroplasts closely associated with nuclei. Therefore, direct H 2 O 2 transfer from chloroplasts to nuclei, avoiding the cytosol, enables photosynthetic control over gene expression.Multiple plastid-derived signals have been proposed but not shown to move to the nucleus to promote plant acclimation to fluctuating light. Here the authors use a fluorescent hydrogen peroxide sensor to provide evidence that H 2 O 2 is transferred directly from chloroplasts to nuclei to control nuclear gene expression.

  13. Blue light-dependent changes in loosely bound calcium in Arabidopsis mesophyll cells: an X-ray microanalysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łabuz, Justyna; Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Hermanowicz, Paweł; Wyroba, Elżbieta; Pilarska, Maria; Gabryś, Halina

    2016-06-01

    Calcium is involved in the signal transduction pathway from phototropins, the blue light photoreceptor kinases which mediate chloroplast movements. The chloroplast accumulation response in low light is controlled by both phot1 and phot2, while only phot2 is involved in avoidance movement induced by strong light. Phototropins elevate cytosolic Ca(2+) after activation by blue light. In higher plants, both types of chloroplast responses depend on Ca(2+), and internal calcium stores seem to be crucial for these processes. Yet, the calcium signatures generated after the perception of blue light by phototropins are not well understood. To characterize the localization of calcium in Arabidopsis mesophyll cells, loosely bound (exchangeable) Ca(2+) was precipitated with potassium pyroantimonate and analyzed by transmission electron microscopy followed by energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. In dark-adapted wild-type Arabidopsis leaves, calcium precipitates were observed at the cell wall, where they formed spherical structures. After strong blue light irradiation, calcium at the apoplast prevailed, and bigger, multilayer precipitates were found. Spherical calcium precipitates were also detected at the tonoplast. After red light treatment as a control, the precipitates at the cell wall were smaller and less numerous. In the phot2 and phot1phot2 mutants, calcium patterns were different from those of wild-type plants. In both mutants, no elevation of calcium after blue light treatment was observed at the cell periphery (including the cell wall and a fragment of cytoplasm). This result confirms the involvement of phototropin2 in the regulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis in mesophyll cells. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  14. Blue light-dependent changes in loosely bound calcium in Arabidopsis mesophyll cells: an X-ray microanalysis study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łabuz, Justyna; Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Hermanowicz, Paweł; Wyroba, Elżbieta; Pilarska, Maria; Gabryś, Halina

    2016-01-01

    Calcium is involved in the signal transduction pathway from phototropins, the blue light photoreceptor kinases which mediate chloroplast movements. The chloroplast accumulation response in low light is controlled by both phot1 and phot2, while only phot2 is involved in avoidance movement induced by strong light. Phototropins elevate cytosolic Ca2+ after activation by blue light. In higher plants, both types of chloroplast responses depend on Ca2+, and internal calcium stores seem to be crucial for these processes. Yet, the calcium signatures generated after the perception of blue light by phototropins are not well understood. To characterize the localization of calcium in Arabidopsis mesophyll cells, loosely bound (exchangeable) Ca2+ was precipitated with potassium pyroantimonate and analyzed by transmission electron microscopy followed by energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. In dark-adapted wild-type Arabidopsis leaves, calcium precipitates were observed at the cell wall, where they formed spherical structures. After strong blue light irradiation, calcium at the apoplast prevailed, and bigger, multilayer precipitates were found. Spherical calcium precipitates were also detected at the tonoplast. After red light treatment as a control, the precipitates at the cell wall were smaller and less numerous. In the phot2 and phot1phot2 mutants, calcium patterns were different from those of wild-type plants. In both mutants, no elevation of calcium after blue light treatment was observed at the cell periphery (including the cell wall and a fragment of cytoplasm). This result confirms the involvement of phototropin2 in the regulation of Ca2+ homeostasis in mesophyll cells. PMID:26957564

  15. Transgenic Mice Over-Expressing RBP4 Have RBP4-Dependent and Light-Independent Retinal Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mei; Phelps, Eric; Balangue, Michael J; Dockins, Aaron; Moiseyev, Gennadiy; Shin, Younghwa; Kane, Shelley; Otalora, Laura; Ma, Jian-Xing; Farjo, Rafal; Farjo, Krysten M

    2017-08-01

    Transgenic mice overexpressing serum retinol-binding protein (RBP4-Tg) develop progressive retinal degeneration, characterized by microglia activation, yet the precise mechanisms underlying retinal degeneration are unclear. Previous studies showed RBP4-Tg mice have normal ocular retinoid levels, suggesting that degeneration is independent of the retinoid visual cycle or light exposure. The present study addresses whether retinal degeneration is light-dependent and RBP4-dependent by testing the effects of dark-rearing and pharmacological lowering of serum RBP4 levels, respectively. RBP4-Tg mice reared on normal mouse chow in normal cyclic light conditions were directly compared to RBP4-Tg mice exposed to chow supplemented with the RBP4-lowering compound A1120 or dark-rearing conditions. Quantitative retinal histological analysis was conducted to assess retinal degeneration, and electroretinography (ERG) and optokinetic tracking (OKT) tests were performed to assess retinal and visual function. Ocular retinoids and bis-retinoid A2E were quantified. Dark-rearing RBP4-Tg mice effectively reduced ocular bis-retinoid A2E levels, but had no significant effect on retinal degeneration or dysfunction in RBP4-Tg mice, demonstrating that retinal degeneration is light-independent. A1120 treatment lowered serum RBP4 levels similar to wild-type mice, and prevented structural retinal degeneration. However, A1120 treatment did not prevent retinal dysfunction in RBP4-Tg mice. Moreover, RBP4-Tg mice on A1120 diet had significant worsening of OKT response and loss of cone photoreceptors compared to RBP4-Tg mice on normal chow. This may be related to the very significant reduction in retinyl ester levels in the retina of mice on A1120-supplemented diet. Retinal degeneration in RBP4-Tg mice is RBP4-dependent and light-independent.

  16. Light-dependent roles of the G-protein α subunit GNA1 of Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubicek Christian P

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The filamentous ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei is primarily known for its efficient enzymatic machinery that it utilizes to decompose cellulosic substrates. Nevertheless, the nature and transmission of the signals initiating and modulating this machinery are largely unknown. Heterotrimeric G-protein signaling represents one of the best studied signal transduction pathways in fungi. Results Analysis of the regulatory targets of the G-protein α subunit GNA1 in H. jecorina revealed a carbon source and light-dependent role in signal transduction. Deletion of gna1 led to significantly decreased biomass formation in darkness in submersed culture but had only minor effects on morphology and hyphal apical extension rates on solid medium. Cellulase gene transcription was abolished in Δgna1 on cellulose in light and enhanced in darkness. However, analysis of strains expressing a constitutively activated GNA1 revealed that GNA1 does not transmit the essential inducing signal. Instead, it relates a modulating signal with light-dependent significance, since induction still required the presence of an inducer. We show that regulation of transcription and activity of GNA1 involves a carbon source-dependent feedback cycle. Additionally we found a function of GNA1 in hydrophobin regulation as well as effects on conidiation and tolerance of osmotic and oxidative stress. Conclusion We conclude that GNA1 transmits a signal the physiological relevance of which is dependent on both the carbon source as well as the light status. The widespread consequences of mutations in GNA1 indicate a broad function of this Gα subunit in appropriation of intracellular resources to environmental (especially nutritional conditions.

  17. Light intensity dependence of open-circuit voltage of polymer : fullerene solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, LJA; Mihailetchi, VD; Blom, PWM

    2005-01-01

    The open-circuit voltage V-oc of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells is investigated as a function of light intensity for different temperatures. Devices consisted of a blend of a poly(p-phenylene vinylene) derivative as the hole conductor and 6,6-phenyl C-61-butyric acid methyl ester

  18. ANGULAR-DEPENDENCE OF HENE-LASER LIGHT-SCATTERING BY BOVINE AND HUMAN DENTIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZIJP, [No Value; TENBOSCH, JJ

    1991-01-01

    The scattering phase functions for HeNe-laser light of dentine sections 10-20-mu-m thick were measured. The functions perpendicular to the tubules had first-order maxima at angles of 4-degrees for bovine dentine and 5-degrees for human dentine; those parallel to the tubules showed no first-order

  19. Molecular mechanisms for mediating light-dependent nucleo/cytoplasmic partitioning of phytochrome photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Cornelia; Viczián, András; Kircher, Stefan; Schäfer, Eberhard; Nagy, Ferenc

    2015-05-01

    The photoreceptors phytochromes monitor the red/far-red part of the spectrum, exist in the biologically active Pfr (far-red absorbing) or inactive Pr (red absorbing) forms, and function as red/far-red light-regulated molecular switches to modulate plant development and growth. Phytochromes are synthesized in the cytoplasm, and light induces translocation of the Pfr conformer into the nucleus. Nuclear import of phytochromes is a highly regulated process and is fine-tuned by the quality and quantity of light. It appears that phytochrome A (phyA) and phytochrome B (phyB) do not possess active endogenous nuclear import signals (NLSs), thus light-induced translocation of these photoreceptors into the nucleus requires direct protein–protein interactions with their NLS-containing signaling partners. Sub-cellular partitioning of the various phytochrome species is mediated by different molecular machineries. Translocation of phyA into the nucleus is promoted by FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 1 (FHY1) and FHY1-LIKE (FHL), but the identity of nuclear transport facilitators mediating the import of phyB-E into the nucleus remains elusive. Phytochromes localized in the nucleus are associated with specific protein complexes, termed photobodies. The size and distribution of these structures are regulated by the intensity and duration of irradiation, and circumstantial evidence indicates that they are involved in fine-tuning phytochrome signaling.

  20. Wavelength and orientation dependent capture of light by diatom frustule nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romann, Julien; Valmalette, Jean-Christophe; Chauton, Matilde Skogen; Tranell, Gabriella; Einarsrud, Mari-Ann; Vadstein, Olav

    2015-12-02

    The ecological success of diatoms is emphasized by regular blooms of many different species in all aquatic systems, but the reason behind their success is not fully understood. A special feature of the diatom cell is the frustule, a nano-patterned cell encasement made of amorphous biosilica. The optical properties of a cleaned single valve (one half of a frustule) from the diatom Coscinodiscus centralis were studied using confocal micro-spectroscopy. A photonic crystal function in the frustule was observed, and analysis of the hyperspectral mapping revealed an enhancement of transmitted light around 636 and 663 nm. These wavelengths match the absorption maxima of chlorophyll a and c, respectively. Additionally, we demonstrate that a highly efficient light trapping mechanism occurred, resulting from strong asymmetry between the cribrum and foramen pseudo-periodic structures. This effect may prevent transmitted light from being backscattered and in turn enhance the light absorption. Based on our results, we hypothesize that the multi-scaled layered structure of the frustule improves photosynthetic efficiency by these three mechanisms. The optical properties of the frustule described here may contribute to the ecological success of diatoms in both lentic and marine ecosystems, and should be studies further in vivo.

  1. Rice MYC2 (OsMYC2) modulates light-dependent seedling ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mrunmay Kumar Giri

    2017-08-03

    Aug 3, 2017 ... tomorphogenesis is not known. In this study, we identified the putative homologues of. AtMYC2 from rice, OsMYC2, which show 47% amino acid sequence identity with AtMYC2. We have shown that. OsMYC2-1 efficiently complements blue light signalling in. Arabidopsis with respect to seedling phenotype.

  2. Primary structure of the light-dependent regulatory site of corn NADP-malate dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decottignies, P.; Schmitter, J.M.; Miginiac-Maslow, M.; Le Marechal, P.; Jacquot, J.P.; Gadal, P.

    1988-01-01

    The light-activated NADP-malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH) catalyzes the reduction of oxaloacetate to malate in higher plant chloroplasts. This enzyme is regulated in vivo by the ferredoxin-thioredoxin system through redox reactions. NADP-MDH has been photoactivated in vitro in a chloroplast system reconstituted from the pure protein components and thylakoid membranes. Photoactivation was accompanied by the appearance of new thiol groups (followed by [14C]iodoacetate incorporation). 14C-Carboxymethylated NADP-MDH has been purified from the incubation mixture and its amino-terminal sequence analyzed. Two [14C]carboxymethylcysteines were identified at positions 10 and 15 after light activation, while they were not detected in the dark-treated protein. In addition, the analysis of the tryptic digest of light-activated [14C]carboxymethylated NADP-MDH revealed that the radioactive label was mostly incorporated in Cys10 and Cys15, indicating that these 2 residues play a major role in the light activation mechanism. Moreover, an activation model, in which photoreduced thio-redoxin was replaced by the dithiol reductant dithio-threitol, has been developed. When NADP-MDH was activated in this way, the same sulfhydryls were found to be labeled, and alternatively, they did not incorporate any radioactivity when dithiothreitol reduction was performed after carboxymethylation in denaturating conditions. These results indicate that activation (by light or by dithiothreitol) proceeds on each subunit by reduction of a disulfide bridge located at the amino terminus of the enzyme between Cys10 and Cys15

  3. Primary structure of the light-dependent regulatory site of corn NADP-malate dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decottignies, P.; Schmitter, J.M.; Miginiac-Maslow, M.; Le Marechal, P.; Jacquot, J.P.; Gadal, P.

    1988-08-25

    The light-activated NADP-malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH) catalyzes the reduction of oxaloacetate to malate in higher plant chloroplasts. This enzyme is regulated in vivo by the ferredoxin-thioredoxin system through redox reactions. NADP-MDH has been photoactivated in vitro in a chloroplast system reconstituted from the pure protein components and thylakoid membranes. Photoactivation was accompanied by the appearance of new thiol groups (followed by (14C)iodoacetate incorporation). 14C-Carboxymethylated NADP-MDH has been purified from the incubation mixture and its amino-terminal sequence analyzed. Two (14C)carboxymethylcysteines were identified at positions 10 and 15 after light activation, while they were not detected in the dark-treated protein. In addition, the analysis of the tryptic digest of light-activated (14C)carboxymethylated NADP-MDH revealed that the radioactive label was mostly incorporated in Cys10 and Cys15, indicating that these 2 residues play a major role in the light activation mechanism. Moreover, an activation model, in which photoreduced thio-redoxin was replaced by the dithiol reductant dithio-threitol, has been developed. When NADP-MDH was activated in this way, the same sulfhydryls were found to be labeled, and alternatively, they did not incorporate any radioactivity when dithiothreitol reduction was performed after carboxymethylation in denaturating conditions. These results indicate that activation (by light or by dithiothreitol) proceeds on each subunit by reduction of a disulfide bridge located at the amino terminus of the enzyme between Cys10 and Cys15.

  4. Leveraging brightness from transportation lighting systems through light source color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Roadway transportation lighting is installed for multiple reasons including traffic safety and pedestrian : security. Judgments of pedestrian safety and security along roadways are not strictly correlated to : specified light levels, but the color of...

  5. Frequency effect on p-nitrophenol degradation under conditions of strict acoustic and electric control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-ping Zhu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of decomposing p-nitrophenol (PNP with power ultrasound requires strict control of acoustic and electric conditions. In this study, the conditions, including acoustic power and acoustic intensity, but not ultrasonic frequency, were controlled strictly at constant levels. The absorbency and the COD concentrations of the samples were measured in order to show the variation of the sample concentration. The results show significant differences in the trend of the solution degradation rate as acoustic power increases after the PNP solution (with a concentration of 114 mg/L and a pH value of 5.4 is irradiated for 60 min with ultrasonic frequencies of 530.8 kHz, 610.6 kHz, 855.0 kHz, and 1 130.0 kHz. The degradation rate of the solution increases with time and acoustic power (acoustic intensity. On the other hand, the degradation rate of the solution is distinctly dependent on frequency when the acoustic power and intensity are strictly controlled and maintained at constant levels. The degradation rate of the PNP solution declines with ultrasonic frequencies of 530.8 kHz, 610.6 kHz, 855.0 kHz, and 1 130.0 kHz; the COD concentration, on the contrary, increase.

  6. Rice MYC2 (OsMYC2) modulates light-dependent seedling ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The rice geneOs10g42430 has been referred earlier as OsMYC2 and has been shown to promote expression of JA-inducible genes.However, the role of OsMYC2 in seedling development under ABA, dark or light of specific wavelengths was not known.It was also not known whether OsMYC2 complements AtMYC2 function ...

  7. Metal ion dependent luminescence effects in metal tris-quinolate organic heterojunction light emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, P. E.; Sapochak, L. S.; McCarty, D. M.; Forrest, S. R.; Thompson, M. E.

    1994-05-01

    We present a systematic analysis of the relationship between the photoluminescence (PL), light emitting device electroluminescence (EL), and conducting properties of a series of metalquinolates, Mq3, where M is a metal (Al, Ga, In, or Sc), and q3 is tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline). We compare the solution and thin film PL quantum yields and spectra of each quinolate with the EL quantum efficiencies of organic heterojunction light emitting diodes using the compound as the emitter layer. Our results indicate that, contrary to previous reports, the relative PL yield is not a good indicator of the EL quantum efficiency of a particular material. Specifically, we find that while the PL of Alq3 films is four times that of Gaq3, light emitting devices made from these two materials have comparable electroluminescence quantum efficiencies and long-term stabilities. Furthermore, the Gaq3 devices have an approximately 50% higher power efficiency than Alq3 structures, suggesting that Gaq3 is a superior emitter material for display applications.

  8. Relaxation Methods for Strictly Convex Regularizations of Piecewise Linear Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiwiel, K. C.

    1998-01-01

    We give an algorithm for minimizing the sum of a strictly convex function and a convex piecewise linear function. It extends several dual coordinate ascent methods for large-scale linearly constrained problems that occur in entropy maximization, quadratic programming, and network flows. In particular, it may solve exact penalty versions of such (possibly inconsistent) problems, and subproblems of bundle methods for nondifferentiable optimization. It is simple, can exploit sparsity, and in certain cases is highly parallelizable. Its global convergence is established in the recent framework of B -functions (generalized Bregman functions)

  9. Wavelength-dependent visible light response in vertically aligned nanohelical TiO2-based Schottky diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyunah; Sung, Ji Ho; Lee, Yuna; Jo, Moon-Ho; Kim, Jong Kyu

    2018-01-01

    Enhancements in photocatalytic performance under visible light have been reported by noble metal functionalization on nanostructured TiO2; however, the non-uniform and discrete distribution of metal nanoparticles on the TiO2 surface makes it difficult to directly clarify the optical and electrical mechanisms. Here, we investigate the light absorption and the charge separation at the metal/TiO2 Schottky junctions by using a unique device architecture with an array of TiO2 nanohelixes (NHs) forming Schottky junctions both with Au-top and Pt-bottom electrodes. Wavelength-dependent photocurrent measurements through the Pt/TiO2 NHs/Au structures revealed that the origin of the visible light absorption and the separation of photogenerated carriers is the internal photoemission at the metal/nanostructured TiO2 Schottky junctions. In addition, a huge persistent photoconductivity was observed by the time-dependent photocurrent measurement, implying a long lifetime of the photogenerated carriers before recombination. We believe that the results help one to understand the role of metal functionalization on TiO2 and hence to enhance the photocatalytic efficiency by utilizing appropriately designed Schottky junctions.

  10. Density-dependent light-assisted tunneling in fermionic optical lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenchao; Morong, William; Demarco, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Many recent theoretical proposals have discussed the possibility to realize density-dependent tunneling in optical lattices via external periodic driving. These methods enable the simulation of novel many-body quantum phases. Here we present experimental progress on realizing density-dependent tunneling for ultracold 40K atoms trapped in a cubic optical lattice via stimulated Raman transitions. After preparing a spin-polarized gas in the Mott insulator regime of the Hubbard model, a pair of Raman beams is applied to flip the spin of atoms. The Raman beams also introduce an effective density-dependent tunneling that can be tuned by the Raman frequency difference and Rabi rate. The Mott gap inferred from measurements of the fraction of atoms transferred between spin states as the Raman frequency difference is adjusted matches the prediction based on a tight-binding model. We also observe the interaction-dependent tunneling by measuring the fraction of doubly-occupied sites created by the Raman driving. This method allows the engineering of density-dependent tunneling and effective nearest-neighbor interactions in fermionic optical lattices. The authors acknowledge funding from the National Science Foundation (Grant No. PHY15-05468) and the Army Research Office (Grant No. W911NF-12-1-0462).

  11. Ultraviolet-B component of sunlight stimulates photosynthesis and flavonoid accumulation in variegated Plectranthus coleoides leaves depending on background light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidović, Marija; Morina, Filis; Milić, Sonja; Zechmann, Bernd; Albert, Andreas; Winkler, Jana Barbro; Veljović Jovanović, Sonja

    2015-05-01

    We used variegated Plectranthus coleoides as a model plant with the aim of clarifying whether the effects of realistic ultraviolet-B (UV-B) doses on phenolic metabolism in leaves are mediated by photosynthesis. Plants were exposed to UV-B radiation (0.90 W m(-2) ) combined with two photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) intensities [395 and 1350 μmol m(-2)  s(-1) , low light (LL) and high light (HL)] for 9 d in sun simulators. Our study indicates that UV-B component of sunlight stimulates CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance, depending on background light. UV-B-specific induction of apigenin and cyanidin glycosides was observed in both green and white tissues. However, all the other phenolic subclasses were up to four times more abundant in green leaf tissue. Caffeic and rosmarinic acids, catechin and epicatechin, which are endogenous peroxidase substrates, were depleted at HL in green tissue. This was correlated with increased peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase activities and increased ascorbate content. The UV-B supplement to HL attenuated antioxidative metabolism and partly recovered the phenolic pool indicating stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway. In summary, we propose that ortho-dihydroxy phenolics are involved in antioxidative defence in chlorophyllous tissue upon light excess, while apigenin and cyanidin in white tissue have preferentially UV-screening function. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Entrance channel dependent light-charged particle emission of the 156Er compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, J.F.; Bierman, J.D.; Kelly, M.P.; Sonzogni, A.A.; Vandenbosch, R.; van Schagen, J.P.S.

    1996-01-01

    Light-charged particle decay from the 156 Er compound nucleus, populated by 12 C+ 144 Sm and 60 Ni+ 96 Zr at the same excitation energy, were measured in coincidence with the evaporation residues. The high energy slope of charged particle spectra for the 60 Ni-induced reaction is steeper than for the 12 C-induced reaction. Model calculations including particle evaporation during compound nucleus formation result in good agreement with the data. This suggests that the difference in the charged particle spectra between the two entrance channels is due to a longer formation time in the 60 Ni-induced reaction. 14 refs., 3 figs

  13. Lack of evidence for phase-only control of retinal photoisomerization in the strict one-photon limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebel, M.; Kukura, P.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of shaping electric fields to steer light-induced processes coherently has fascinated scientists for decades. Despite early theoretical considerations that ruled out one-photon coherent control (CC), several experimental studies reported that molecular responses are sensitive to the shape of the excitation field in the weak-field limit. These observations were largely attributed to the presence of rapid-decay channels, but experimental verification is lacking. Here, we test this hypothesis by investigating the degree of achievable control over the photoisomerization of the retinal protonated Schiff-base in bacteriorhodopsin, isorhodopsin and rhodopsin, all of which exhibit similar chromophores but different isomerization yields and excited-state lifetimes. Irrespective of the system studied, we find no evidence for dissipation-dependent behaviour, nor for any CC in the strict one-photon limit. Our results question the extent to which a photochemical process at ambient conditions can be controlled at the amplitude level, and how the underlying molecular potential-energy surfaces and dynamics may influence this controllability.

  14. Non-strictly black body spectrum from the tunnelling mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corda, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The tunnelling mechanism is widely used to explain Hawking radiation. However, in many cases the analysis used to obtain the Hawking temperature only involves comparing the emission probability for an outgoing particle with the Boltzmann factor. Banerjee and Majhi improved this approach by explicitly finding a black body spectrum associated with black holes. Their result, obtained using a reformulation of the tunnelling mechanism, is in contrast to that of Parikh and Wilczek, who found an emission probability that is compatible with a non-strictly thermal spectrum. Using the recently identified effective state for a black hole, we solve this contradiction via a slight modification of the analysis by Banerjee and Majhi. The final result is a non-strictly black body spectrum from the tunnelling mechanism. We also show that for an effective temperature, we can express the corresponding effective metric using Hawking’s periodicity arguments. Potential important implications for the black hole information puzzle are discussed. -- Highlights: •We review an important result by Banerjee and Majhi on the tunnelling mechanism in the framework of Hawking radiation. •This result is in contrast to another result reported by Parikh and Wilczek. •We introduce the effective state of a black hole. •We explain the contrast via a slight modification of the analysis by Banerjee and Majhi. •We discuss potential important implications for the black hole information puzzle

  15. Measuring polarization dependent dispersion of non-polarizing beam splitter cubes with spectrally resolved white light interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csonti, K.; Hanyecz, V.; Mészáros, G.; Kovács, A. P.

    2017-06-01

    In this work we have measured the group-delay dispersion of an empty Michelson interferometer for s- and p-polarized light beams applying two different non-polarizing beam splitter cubes. The interference pattern appearing at the output of the interferometer was resolved with two different spectrometers. It was found that the group-delay dispersion of the empty interferometer depended on the polarization directions in case of both beam splitter cubes. The results were checked by inserting a glass plate in the sample arm of the interferometer and similar difference was obtained for the two polarization directions. These results show that to reach high precision, linearly polarized white light beam should be used and the residual dispersion of the empty interferometer should be measured at both polarization directions.

  16. Magnetic field perception in the rainbow trout Oncorynchus mykiss: magnetite mediated, light dependent or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinger, Jens; Hoffmann, Klaus-Peter

    2012-08-01

    In the present study, we demonstrate the role of the trigeminal system in the perception process of different magnetic field parameters by heartbeat conditioning, i.e. a significantly longer interval between two consecutive heartbeats after magnetic stimulus onset in the salmonid fish Oncorhynchus mykiss. The electrocardiogram was recorded with subcutaneous silver wire electrodes in freely swimming fish. Inactivation of the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve by local anaesthesia revealed its role in the perception of intensity/inclination of the magnetic field by abolishing the conditioned response (CR). In contrast, experiments with 90° direction shifts clearly showed the normal conditioning effect during trigeminal inactivation. In experiments under red light and in darkness, CR occurred in case of both the intensity/inclination stimulation and 90° direction shifts, respectively. With regard to the data obtained, we propose the trigeminal system to perceive the intensity/inclination of the magnetic field in rainbow trouts and suggest the existence of another light-independent sensory structure that enables fish to detect the magnetic field direction.

  17. Photocurrent response of B12As2 crystals to blue light, and its temperature- dependent electrical characterizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gul

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available With the global shortage of 3He gas, researchers worldwide are looking for alternative materials for detecting neutrons. Among the candidate materials, semiconductors are attractive because of their light weight and ease in handling. Currently, we are looking into the suitability of boron arsenide (B12As2 for this specific application. As the first step in evaluating the material qualitatively, the photo-response of B12As2 bulk crystals to light with different wavelengths was examined. The crystals showed photocurrent response to a band of 407- and 470- nm blue light. The maximum measured photoresponsivity and the photocurrent density at 0.7 V for 470 nm blue light at room temperature were 0.25 A ⋅ W−1 and 2.47 mA ⋅ cm−2, respectively. In addition to photo current measurements, the electrical properties as a function of temperature (range: 50-320 K were measured. Reliable data were obtained for the low-temperature I-V characteristics, the temperature dependence of dark current and its density, and the resistivity variations with temperature in B12As2 bulk crystals. The experiments showed an exponential dependence on temperature for the dark current, current density, and resistivity; these three electrical parameters, respectively, had a variation of a few nA to μA, 1-100 μA ⋅ cm−2 and 7.6x105-7.7x103 Ω ⋅ cm, for temperature increasing from 50 K to 320 K. The results from this study reported the first photoresponse and demonstrated that B12As2 is a potential candidate for thermal-neutron detectors.

  18. High Statistics Analysis using Anisotropic Clover Lattices: (IV) The Volume Dependence of the Light Hadron Masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beane, S R; Detmold, W; Lin, H W; Luu, T C; Orginos, K; Parreno, A; Savage, M J; Torok, A; Walker-Loud, A

    2011-07-01

    The volume dependence of the octet baryon masses and relations among them are explored with Lattice QCD. Calculations are performed with nf = 2 + 1 clover fermion discretization in four lattice volumes, with spatial extent L ? 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 4.0 fm, with an anisotropic lattice spacing of b_s ? 0.123 fm in the spatial direction, and b_t = b_s/3.5 in the time direction, and at a pion mass of m_\\pi ? 390 MeV. The typical precision of the ground-state baryon mass determination is dependence of the masses, the Gell-Mann Okubo mass-relation, and of other mass combinations. A comparison with the predictions of heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory is performed in both the SU(2)L ? SU(2)R and SU(3)L ? SU(3)R expansions. Predictions of the three-flavor expansion for the hadron masses are found to describe the observed volume dependences reasonably well. Further, the ?N? axial coupling constant is extracted from the volume dependence of the nucleon mass in the two-flavor expansion, with only small modifications in the three-flavor expansion from the inclusion of kaons and eta's. At a given value of m?L, the finite-volume contributions to the nucleon mass are predicted to be significantly smaller at m_\\pi ? 140 MeV than at m_\\pi ? 390 MeV due to a coefficient that scales as ? m_\\pi^3. This is relevant for the design of future ensembles of lattice gauge-field configurations. Finally, the volume dependence of the pion and kaon masses are analyzed with two-flavor and three-flavor chiral perturbation theory.

  19. Carbon and Nitrogen dynamics in forest soils depending on light conditions and tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselinovic, Bojana; Hager, Herbert

    2013-04-01

    Climate change mitigation actions under the Kyoto Protocol apply among other decreases of CO2-emissions and/or increases of carbon (C) stocks. As soils represent the second biggest C-reservoir on Earth, an exact estimation of the stocks and reliable knowledge on C-dynamics in forest soils is of high importance. Anyhow, here, the accurate GHG-accounting, emission reductions and increase in C stocks is hampered due to lack of reliable data and solid statistical methods for the factors which influence C-sequestration in and its release from these systems. In spite of good progress in the scientific research, these factors are numerous and diverse in their interactions. This work focuses on influence of the economically relevant tree species - Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus spp. - and light conditions on forest floor and mineral soil C and N dynamics in forest soils. Spruce monocultures have been widely used management practices in central European forests during the past century. Such stands are in lower altitudes and on heavy and water logged soils unstable and prone to disturbances, especially to windthrows. We hypothesize that windthrow areas loose C & N and that the establishment of the previous nutrient stocks is, if at all, only possible to be reached over the longer periods of time. We research also how the increased OM depletion affects the change of C & N stocks in forest floor vs. mineral soil. Conversion of such secondary spruce monocultures to site adequate beech and oak forests may enable higher stocks allocated predominantly as stable organic carbon and as plant available nitrogen. For this purpose sites at 300-700 m altitude with planosols were chosen in the region of the Northern Alpine Foothills. A false chronosequence approach was used in order to evaluate the impacts of the tree species and change in light conditions on dynamic of C & N in the forest floor and mineral soil, over the period 0-100 (for oak 120 y.) years. The C- and N

  20. Development of a Light Dependent Automatic- Off Timer for House Holds Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Gana KOLO

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This work was undertaken to design and construct a device that would be of use to persons who are in the habit of falling asleep while watching or listening to music. The scope of work ranges from the conceptualization of the idea and theories behind the operation of the device to the stage of packaging the design.The unit provides automatic disconnection of the appliances from the alternating current (AC mains supply upon the expiration of a pre-set time delay period. The system works by detecting a transition from light to darkness in a room, which triggers the device into a time-out mode. During the time delay period, the appliance e.g. CD (Compact Disk player is connected to the mains supply. Disconnection occurs after the pre-set time delay period elapses.

  1. Numerical Simulations of Light Bullets, Using The Full Vector, Time Dependent, Nonlinear Maxwell Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorjian, Peter M.; Silberberg, Yaron; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This paper will present results in computational nonlinear optics. An algorithm will be described that solves the full vector nonlinear Maxwell's equations exactly without the approximations that we currently made. Present methods solve a reduced scalar wave equation, namely the nonlinear Schrodinger equation, and neglect the optical carrier. Also, results will be shown of calculations of 2-D electromagnetic nonlinear waves computed by directly integrating in time the nonlinear vector Maxwell's equations. The results will include simulations of 'light bullet' like pulses. Here diffraction and dispersion will be counteracted by nonlinear effects. The time integration efficiently implements linear and nonlinear convolutions for the electric polarization, and can take into account such quantum effects as Karr and Raman interactions. The present approach is robust and should permit modeling 2-D and 3-D optical soliton propagation, scattering, and switching directly from the full-vector Maxwell's equations.

  2. Laser based imaging of time depending microscopic scenes with strong light emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahlweg, Cornelius; Wilhelm, Eugen; Rothe, Hendrik

    2011-10-01

    Investigating volume scatterometry methods based on short range LIDAR devices for non-static objects we achieved interesting results aside the intended micro-LIDAR: the high speed camera recording of the illuminated scene of an exploding wire -intended for Doppler LIDAR tests - delivered a very effective method of observing details of objects with extremely strong light emission. As a side effect a schlieren movie is gathered without any special effort. The fact that microscopic features of short time processes with high emission and material flow might be imaged without endangering valuable equipment makes this technique at least as interesting as the intended one. So we decided to present our results - including latest video and photo material - instead of a more theoretical paper on our progress concerning the primary goal.

  3. A versatile proximity-dependent probe based on light-up DNA-scaffolded silver nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jin-Liang; Yin, Bin-Cheng; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2016-02-21

    It is well-known that proximity-dependent probes containing an analyte recognization site and a signal formation domain could be assembled specifically into a sandwich-like structure (probe-analyte-probe) via introducing an analyte. In this work, using the design for zirconium ion (Zr(4+)) detection as the model, we develop a novel and reliable proximity-dependent DNA-scaffolded silver nanocluster (DNA/AgNC) probe for Zr(4+) detection via target-induced emitter proximity. The proposed strategy undergoes the two following processes: target-mediated emitter pair proximity as target recognition implement and the synthesis of DNA/AgNCs with fluorescence as a signal reporter. Upon combination of the rationally designed probe with Zr(4+), the intact templates were obtained according to the -PO3(2-)-Zr(4+)-PO3(2-)- pattern. The resultant structure with an emitter pair serves as a potent template to achieve highly fluorescent DNA/AgNCs. To verify the universality of the proposed proximity-dependent DNA/AgNC probe, we extend the application of the proximity-dependent probe to DNA and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) detection by virtue of a specific DNA complementary sequence and ATP aptamer as a recognition unit, respectively. The produced fluorescence enhancement of the DNA/AgNCs in response to the analyte concentration allows a quantitative evaluation of the target, including Zr(4+), DNA, and ATP with detection limits of ∼3.00 μM, ∼9.83 nM, and ∼0.81 mM, respectively. The proposed probe possesses good performance with simple operation, cost-effectiveness, good selectivity, and without separation procedures.

  4. "Spin-dependent" \\varvec{μ → e} conversion on light nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Sacha; Kuno, Yoshitaka; Saporta, Albert

    2018-02-01

    The experimental sensitivity to μ → e conversion will improve by four or more orders of magnitude in coming years, making it interesting to consider the "spin-dependent" (SD) contribution to the rate. This process does not benefit from the atomic-number-squared enhancement of the spin-independent (SI) contribution, but probes different operators. We give details of our recent estimate of the spin-dependent rate, expressed as a function of operator coefficients at the experimental scale. Then we explore the prospects for distinguishing coefficients or models by using different targets, both in an EFT perspective, where a geometric representation of different targets as vectors in coefficient space is introduced, and also in three leptoquark models. It is found that comparing the rate on isotopes with and without spin could allow one to detect spin-dependent coefficients that are at least a factor of few larger than the spin-independent ones. Distinguishing among the axial, tensor and pseudoscalar operators that induce the SD rate would require calculating the nuclear matrix elements for the second two. Comparing the SD rate on nuclei with an odd proton vs. odd neutron could allow one to distinguish operators involving u quarks from those involving d quarks; this is interesting because the distinction is difficult to make for SI operators.

  5. Dependence of Changes of Histogram Shapes from Time and Space Direction is the Same when Fluctuation Intensities of Both Light-Diode Light Flow and 239-Pu Alpha-Activity are Measured

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubinshtein I. A.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper tells that spectra of fluctuation amplitudes, that is, shapes of corresponding histograms, resulting measurements of intensity of light fluxes issued by a light-diode and measurements of intensity of 239 Pu alpha-particles issues change synchronously. Experiments with light beams show the same diurnal periodicity and space direction dependencies as experiments with radioactivity. Thus new possibilities for investigation of “macroscopic fluctuations” come.

  6. Blue-Violet Light Irradiation Dose Dependently Decreases Carotenoids in Human Skin, Which Indicates the Generation of Free Radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Vandersee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to ultraviolet and infrared irradiation, which are known to facilitate cutaneous photoaging, immunosuppression, or tumour emergence due to formation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species, potentially similar effects of visible light on the human skin are still poorly characterized. Using a blue-violet light irradiation source and aiming to characterize its potential influence on the antioxidant status of the human skin, the cutaneous carotenoid concentration was measured noninvasively in nine healthy volunteers using resonance Raman spectroscopy following irradiation. The dose-dependent significant degradation of carotenoids was measured to be 13.5% and 21.2% directly after irradiation at 50 J/cm² and 100 J/cm² (P<0.05. The irradiation intensity was 100 mW/cm². This is above natural conditions; the achieved doses, though, are acquirable under natural conditions. The corresponding restoration lasted 2 and 24 hours, respectively. The degradation of cutaneous carotenoids indirectly shows the amount of generated free radicals and especially reactive oxygen species in human skin. In all volunteers the cutaneous carotenoid concentration dropped down in a manner similar to that caused by the infrared or ultraviolet irradiations, leading to the conclusion that also blue-violet light at high doses could represent a comparably adverse factor for human skin.

  7. Dependence of optical properties of monoclinic MnWO{sub 4} on the electric field of incident light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Lugang [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Micro-nano Measurement-Manipulation and Physics (Ministry of Education), Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Liu Famin, E-mail: fmliu@buaa.edu.cn [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Micro-nano Measurement-Manipulation and Physics (Ministry of Education), Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang Dian; Zhong Wenwu [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Micro-nano Measurement-Manipulation and Physics (Ministry of Education), Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2012-09-01

    Considering the electric field of incident light along four particular directions [100], [110], [011], and [010], the optical properties of monoclinic MnWO{sub 4} were investigated by the first-principle methods. The calculated electronic structures show that the O 2p states and Mn 3d states dominate the top of the valence bands, while the W 5d and Mn 3d states play a key role in the bottom of the conduction bands. The dielectric function and other optical properties, including absorption coefficient, reflectivity spectra, and energy-loss spectra, were calculated and analyzed. The results predicted the maximum static dielectric function when the electric field of incident light was along the [100] direction; meanwhile the absorption edge was calculated to be consistent with the energy band gap and the values and positions of peaks in absorption coefficient are related with the electric field of light. Otherwise, it is found that the appearance of peaks in the energy-loss spectra is also dependent on the electric field and simultaneously corresponds to the edge of absorption spectra and the peaks' position of reflectivity spectra.

  8. Light-dependent kinetics of 2-carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate metabolism and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobza, J; Seemann, J R

    1989-01-01

    The light-dependent kinetics of the apparent in vivo synthesis and degradation of 2-carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate (CA1P) were studied in three species of higher plants which differ in the extent to which this compound is involved in the light-dependent regulation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) activity. Detailed studies with Phaseolus vulgaris indicate that both the degradation and synthesis of this compound are light-stimulated, although light is absolutely required only for CA1P degradation. We hypothesize that the steady state level of CAIP at any particular photon flux density (PFD) represents a pseudo-steady state balance between ongoing synthesis and degradation of this compound. The rate of CA1P synthesis in P. vulgaris and the resultant reduction in the total catalytic constant of Rubisco were maximal at 200 micromoles quanta per square meter per second following a step decrease from a saturating PFD, and substantially faster than the rate of synthesis in the dark. Under these conditions an amount of CA1P equivalent to approximately 25% of the Rubisco catalytic site content was synthesized in less than 1 minute. The rate of synthesis was reduced at higher or lower PFDs. In Beta vulgaris, the rate of CA1P synthesis at 200 micromoles quanta per square meter per second was substantially slower than in P. vulgaris. In Spinacea oleracea, an apparent noncatalytic tight-binding of RuBP to deactivated sites on the enzyme was found to occur following a step decrease in PFD. When dark acclimated leaves of P. vulgaris were exposed to a step increase in PFD, the initial rate of CA1P degradation was also found to be dependent on PFD up to a maximum of approximately 300 to 400 micromoles quanta per square meter per second. The rate of degradation of this compound was similar in B. vulgaris. In S. oleracea, a step increase in PFD resulted in noncatalytic RuBP binding to Rubisco followed by an apparent release of RuBP and activation of the enzyme. The

  9. In situ measurements of angular-dependent light scattering by aerosols over the contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed Espinosa, W.; Vanderlei Martins, J.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Puthukkudy, Anin; Orozco, Daniel; Dolgos, Gergely

    2018-03-01

    This work provides a synopsis of aerosol phase function (F11) and polarized phase function (F12) measurements made by the Polarized Imaging Nephelometer (PI-Neph) during the Studies of Emissions, Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) and the Deep Convection Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) field campaigns. In order to more easily explore this extensive dataset, an aerosol classification scheme is developed that identifies the different aerosol types measured during the deployments. This scheme makes use of ancillary data that include trace gases, chemical composition, aerodynamic particle size and geographic location, all independent of PI-Neph measurements. The PI-Neph measurements are then grouped according to their ancillary data classifications and the resulting scattering patterns are examined in detail. These results represent the first published airborne measurements of F11 and -F12/F11 for many common aerosol types. We then explore whether PI-Neph light-scattering measurements alone are sufficient to reconstruct the results of this ancillary data classification algorithm. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used to reduce the dimensionality of the multi-angle PI-Neph scattering data and the individual measurements are examined as a function of ancillary data classification. Clear clustering is observed in the PCA score space, corresponding to the ancillary classification results, suggesting that, indeed, a strong link exists between the angular-scattering measurements and the aerosol type or composition. Two techniques are used to quantify the degree of clustering and it is found that in most cases the results of the ancillary data classification can be predicted from PI-Neph measurements alone with better than 85 % recall. This result both emphasizes the validity of the ancillary data classification as well as the PI-Neph's ability to distinguish common aerosol types without additional information.

  10. Frequency dependent detection in a STED microscope using modulated excitation light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzitti, Emiliano; Harke, Benjamin; Diaspro, Alberto

    2013-01-14

    We present a novel concept adaptable to any kind of STED microscope in order to expand the limited number of compatible dyes for performing super resolution imaging. The approach is based on an intensity modulated excitation beam in combination with a frequency dependent detection in the form of a standard lock-in amplifier. This enables to unmix fluorescence signal originated by the excitation beam from the fluorescence caused by the STED beam. The benefit of this concept is demonstrated by imaging biological samples as well as fluorescent spheres, whose spectrum does not allow STED imaging in the conventional way. Our concept is suitable with CW or pulsed STED microscope and can thereby be seen as a general improvement adaptable to any existing setup.

  11. Chimeric Anti-Human Podoplanin Antibody NZ-12 of Lambda Light Chain Exerts Higher Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity and Complement-Dependent Cytotoxicity Compared with NZ-8 of Kappa Light Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Mika K; Abe, Shinji; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Fujii, Yuki; Yamada, Shinji; Murata, Takeshi; Uchida, Hiroaki; Tahara, Hideaki; Nishioka, Yasuhiko; Kato, Yukinari

    2017-02-01

    Podoplanin (PDPN), a type I transmembrane 36-kDa glycoprotein, is expressed not only in normal cells, such as renal epithelial cells (podocytes), lymphatic endothelial cells, and pulmonary type I alveolar cells, but also in cancer cells, including brain tumors and lung squamous cell carcinomas. Podoplanin activates platelet aggregation by binding to C-type lectin-like receptor-2 (CLEC-2) on platelets, and the podoplanin/CLEC-2 interaction facilitates blood/lymphatic vessel separation. We previously produced neutralizing anti-human podoplanin monoclonal antibody (mAb), clone NZ-1 (rat IgG 2a , lambda), which neutralizes the podoplanin/CLEC-2 interaction and inhibits platelet aggregation and cancer metastasis. Human-rat chimeric antibody, NZ-8, was previously developed using variable regions of NZ-1 and human constant regions of heavy chain (IgG 1 ) and light chain (kappa chain). Although NZ-8 showed high antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) against human podoplanin-expressing cancer cells, the binding affinity of NZ-8 was lower than that of NZ-1. Herein, we produced a novel human-rat chimeric antibody, NZ-12, the constant regions of which consist of IgG 1 heavy chain and lambda light chain. Using flow cytometry, we demonstrated that the binding affinity of NZ-12 was much higher than that of NZ-8. Furthermore, ADCC and CDC activities of NZ-12 were significantly increased against glioblastoma cell lines (LN319 and D397) and lung cancer cell line (PC-10). These results suggested that NZ-12 could become a promising therapeutic antibody against podoplanin-expressing brain tumors and lung cancers.

  12. EFFECT OF LONGITUDE-DEPENDENT CLOUD COVERAGE ON EXOPLANET VISIBLE WAVELENGTH REFLECTED-LIGHT PHASE CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Matthew W.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Cahoy, Kerri [Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Cambridge, MA (United States); Marley, Mark [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Morley, Caroline; Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2015-05-10

    We use a planetary albedo model to investigate variations in visible wavelength phase curves of exoplanets. Thermal and cloud properties for these exoplanets are derived using one-dimensional radiative-convective and cloud simulations. The presence of clouds on these exoplanets significantly alters their planetary albedo spectra. We confirm that non-uniform cloud coverage on the dayside of tidally locked exoplanets will manifest as changes to the magnitude and shift of the phase curve. In this work, we first investigate a test case of our model using a Jupiter-like planet, at temperatures consistent to 2.0 AU insolation from a solar type star, to consider the effect of H{sub 2}O clouds. We then extend our application of the model to the exoplanet Kepler-7b and consider the effect of varying cloud species, sedimentation efficiency, particle size, and cloud altitude. We show that, depending on the observational filter, the largest possible shift of the phase curve maximum will be ∼2°–10° for a Jupiter-like planet, and up to ∼30° (∼0.08 in fractional orbital phase) for hot-Jupiter exoplanets at visible wavelengths as a function of dayside cloud distribution with a uniformly averaged thermal profile. The models presented in this work can be adapted for a variety of planetary cases at visible wavelengths to include variations in planet–star separation, gravity, metallicity, and source-observer geometry. Finally, we tailor our model for comparison with, and confirmation of, the recent optical phase-curve observations of Kepler-7b with the Kepler space telescope. The average planetary albedo can vary between 0.1 and 0.6 for the 1300 cloud scenarios that were compared to the observations. Many of these cases cannot produce a high enough albedo to match the observations. We observe that smaller particle size and increasing cloud altitude have a strong effect on increasing albedo. In particular, we show that a set of models where Kepler-7b has roughly half of

  13. Managing Hanford Site solid waste through strict acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.; Pierce, R.D.; Willis, N.P.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) have led to the definition of a group of wastes called radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). As a result of the radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes, strict management programs have been implemented for the management of these wastes. Solid waste management is accomplished through a systems performance approach to waste management that used best-demonstrated available technology (BDAT) and best management practices. The solid waste program at the Hanford Site strives to integrate all aspects of management relative to the treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) of solid waste. Often there are many competing and important needs. It is a difficult task to balance these needs in a manner that is both equitable and productive. Management science is used to help the process of making decisions. Tools used to support the decision making process include five-year planning, cost estimating, resource allocation, performance assessment, waste volume forecasts, input/output models, and waste acceptance criteria. The purpose of this document is to describe how one of these tools, waste acceptance criteria, has helped the Hanford Site manage solid wastes

  14. Effects of strict prolonged bed rest on cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Aarts, Hugo M; Joyner, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    with larger declines in V̇o2max). Furthermore, the systematic review revealed a gap in the knowledge about the cardiovascular response to extreme physical inactivity, particularly in older subjects and women of any age group. In addition to its relevance to spaceflight, this lack of data has significant....... Since 1949, 80 studies with a total of 949 participants (>90% men) have been published with data on strict bed rest and V̇o2max The studies were conducted mainly in young participants [median age (interquartile range) 24.5 (22.4-34.0) yr]. The duration of bed rest ranged from 1 to 90 days. V̇o2max...... declined linearly across bed rest duration. No statistical difference in the decline among studies reporting V̇o2max as l/min (-0.3% per day) compared with studies reporting V̇o2max normalized to body weight (ml·kg-1·min-1; -0.43% per day) was observed. Although both total body weight and lean body mass...

  15. Fixed point iterations for strictly hemi-contractive maps in uniformly smooth Banach spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Osilike, M.O.

    1993-05-01

    It is proved that the Mann iteration process converges strongly to the fixed point of a strictly hemi-contractive map in real uniformly smooth Banach spaces. The class of strictly hemi-contractive maps includes all strictly pseudo-contractive maps with nonempty fixed point sets. A related result deals with the Ishikawa iteration scheme when the mapping is Lipschitzian and strictly hemi-contractive. Our theorems generalize important known results. (author). 29 refs

  16. Mycorrhizal symbiosis effects on growth of chalk false-brome (Brachypodium pinnatum) are dependent on the environmental light regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füzy, Anna; Bothe, Hermann; Molnár, Edit; Biró, Borbála

    2014-03-01

    AMF (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) colonization of the grass chalk false-brome (Brachypodium pinnatum (L.) P. B.) was studied in selected habitats under spatially different light regimes: (a) shade condition under oak trees, (b) half shade in a shrubby area and (c) full-sun conditions on unshaded grassland. This study assessed the variations in AMF colonization of the grass dependent on the light supply in field habitats. Soil, root and shoot samples were collected four times during the vegetation period (in June, July, September and October). Root colonization, root and shoot biomass as well as soil water content were determined. The highest rate of AMF colonization was detected in June under half-sun and full-sun conditions, where about 50% of the roots were colonized. The average amount of arbuscules was less than 20% in the roots at the three sites, with the highest number of arbuscules in June, under half-sun and full-sun conditions, however, not under the trees. Overall, best mycorrhizal colonization occurred during summer, and its rate decreased in autumn. This tendency inversely correlated with the amount of precipitation, and thus with the water content of soils. The high colonization rate of the examined root samples, and also its seasonal fluctuation, might reflect the importance of the symbiosis where inorganic nutrients and water are the growth-limiting factors. The marginal AMF colonization of chalk false-brome under shade conditions indicates that plants do not use AMF under all stress conditions. When low light limits photosynthesis and thus growth of the plants, they dispense with the colonization of AMF in order to save the expenditure of organic carbon. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. The Development Of Windows Service Based Data Log System Using Light Dependent Resistor And Thingspeak IOT Cloud Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Jay P. Calaguas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Microcontrollers are using in control and information processing it can be used in wide application such as agriculture health care commercial facilities robotics and education. These micro controllers are computers in chip that comprises of input and output ports central processing unit registers and main memory as well as communication interface such as Ethernet interface serial interface High Definition Multimedia Interface power source and many existing interface that can be found in this type of computer. In this study the researcher decided to conceptualize an innovative application of this type of computer where it has a potential to use as tracking system in specific individuals activities. Since some of office people are complaining in CCTV camera about their privacy this innovative concept of technology is in similar purpose but if we will compare the application concept in closed circuit camera the researcher decided to use visual graph instead video data that is in high exposure In the first phase the researcher made a concept on how the simple Light Dependent Resistor will apply in Schools Office Environment Application domain using microcontroller that was used as data log system and how this can be optimized without forcing the Dean or any designated person in office to operate it in hand due to their busy working hours. In the second phase the researcher develop the proposed data log system that are acquiring data through light luminance from fluorescent light of deans office and sending it in the IOT cloud platform. The researcher used fuzzy logic theory to model the operation of the proposed data log system. This study used experimental type of research when the prototype was developed during second phase the researcher simulated the operation. As the result the proposed data log system is sending data to Thingspeak IOT Cloud platform it displays the correct output which based from the rules and it is in column graph content

  18. Size-dependent magnetization dynamics in individual Ni80Fe20 disk using micro-focused Brillouin Light Scattering spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shimon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A direct and systematic investigation of the magnetization dynamics in individual circular Ni80Fe20 disk of diameter (D in the range from 300 nm to 1 μm measured using micro-focused Brillouin Light Scattering (μ-BLS spectroscopy is presented. At high field, when the disks are in a single domain state, the resonance frequency of the uniform center mode is observed to reduce with reducing disk’s diameter. For D = 300 nm, additional edge and end-domains resonant modes are observed due to size effects. At low field, when the disks are in a vortex state, a systematic increase of resonant frequency of magnetostatic modes in a vortex state with the square root of the disks’ aspect ratio (thickness divided by radius is observed. Such dependence diminishes for disks with larger aspect ratio due to an increasing exchange energy contribution. Micromagnetic simulations are in excellent agreement with the experiments.

  19. The response of mammalian cells to UV-light reveals Rad54-dependent and independent pathways of homologous recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eppink, Berina; Tafel, Agnieszka A; Hanada, Katsuhiro

    2011-01-01

    with lesions in replicating DNA. The core HR protein in mammalian cells is the strand exchange protein RAD51, which is aided by numerous proteins, including RAD54. We used RAD54 as a cellular marker for HR to study the response of mammalian embryonic stem (ES) cells to UV irradiation. In contrast to yeast, ES......Ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced DNA lesions can be efficiently repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER). However, NER is less effective during replication of UV-damaged chromosomes. In contrast, translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) and homologous recombination (HR) are capable of dealing....... We demonstrate using chromosome fiber analysis at the individual replication fork level, that HR activity is important for the restart of DNA replication after induction of DNA damage by UV-light in NER-deficient cells. Furthermore, our data reveal RAD54-dependent and -independent contributions of HR...

  20. Genistein: a novel anthocyanin synthesis promoter that directly regulates biosynthetic genes in red cabbage in a light-dependent way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Genistein (GNT, an isoflavone, is used in the clinical treatment of various health disorders. GNT is found in primary food source plants and some medical plants. However, studies on the functions of GNT in plants are rarely reported. In this study, we demonstrated that GNT plays an important role in promoting anthocyanin accumulation in red cabbage. GNT solutions (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mg/L as foliar fertilizers were applied to red cabbage. Consequently, anthocyanin accumulation in red cabbage increased in a light-dependent manner. GNT solution at 30 mg/L exhibited the optimal effect on anthocyanin accumulation, which was twice that of the control. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that GNT application upregulated the expression of all structural genes, contributing to anthocyanin biosynthesis under light conditions. Under dark conditions, GNT exerted no significant promotive effect on anthocyanin accumulation; only early biosynthetic genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis responded to GNT. The promotive effect of GNT on anthocyanin biosynthesis is directly attributable to the regulation of structural gene expression. Transcription factors exhibited no response to GNT. The levels of anthocyanin in red cabbage positively correlated with the enzyme activities of antioxidant systems. This finding correlation suggested that the promotive effect of GNT on anthocyanin levels was correlated with improved antioxidant activity in the red cabbage.

  1. Mechanisms for light-dependent regulation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity and photosynthesis in intact leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobza, J; Seemann, J R

    1988-06-01

    The mechanisms involved in the in vivo light-dependent regulation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RbuP(2)) carboxylase [3-phospho-D-glycerate carboxy-lyase (dimerizing), EC 4.1.1.39] activity in intact leaves were studied. In the three species examined, Phaseolus vulgaris, Beta vulgaris, and Spinacea oleracea, the regulated level of RbuP(2) carboxylase activity (assayed in vitro with saturating substrate) was highly correlated (r = 0.96) with the rate of net CO(2) uptake of the corresponding leaves measured over a wide range of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD). However, the mechanisms by which the enzyme was regulated differed between these species. In Phaseolus, the inhibitor 2-carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate (CAP) accounted for all of the PPFD-dependent regulation of RbuP(2) carboxylase activity. A similar compound was detected in Beta, and changes in its concentration accounted for about half of the PPFD-dependent regulation of enzyme activity in this species. No CAP was detected in Spinacea, but evidence we obtained suggests that a different inhibitor (possibly RbuP(2)) accounts for a significant portion of the PPFD-dependent regulation of enzyme activity in this species. Changes in the activation state of the enzyme were observed with Beta and Spinacea, while in Phaseolus the enzyme was apparently fully activated at all PPFD levels. These results indicate that plant species may differ markedly in the mechanisms they use to regulate RbuP(2) carboxylase activity as PPFD changes. The results also suggest that tight binding inhibitors are a more widespread mechanism for regulation of this enzyme than previously thought. Furthermore, the results establish the importance of such inhibitors in regulating both the activity of RbuP(2) carboxylase and whole leaf photosynthesis over a range of PPFD.

  2. An Ultra-light PRNG Passing Strict Randomness Tests and Suitable for Low Cost Tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OZCANHAN, M. H.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A pseudo-random number generator for low-cost RFID tags is presented. The scheme is simple, sequential and secure, yet has a high performance. Despite its lowest hardware complexity, our proposal represents a better alternative than previous proposals for low-cost tags. The scheme is based on the well-founded pseudo random number generator, Mersenne Twister. The proposed generator takes low-entropy seeds extracted from a physical characteristic of the tag and produces outputs that pass popular randomness tests. Contrarily, previous proposal tests are based on random number inputs from a popular online source, which are simply unavailable to tags. The high performance and satisfactory randomness of present work are supported by extensive test results and compared with similar previous works. Comparison using proven estimation formulae indicates that our proposal has the best hardware complexity, power consumption, and the least cost.

  3. Long-term blue light exposure induces RGC-5 cell death in vitro: involvement of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, oxidative stress, and MAPK signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen; Zhang, Pei; Wang, Wei; Xu, Yongsheng; Wang, Minshu; Chen, Xiaoyong; Dong, Xuran

    2014-06-01

    The mechanism of blue light-induced retinal ganglion cell (RGC) injury is poorly understood. In this study, we established a patented light-emitting diode-based system to study the effects of long-term blue light exposure under culture conditions on RGC-5 cells. Long-term blue light exposure significantly reduced cell viability in a time-dependent manner and induced apoptosis and necrosis in RGC-5 cells. Long-term blue light exposure marked an increase in the expression of Bax and active Caspase-3 (p17), which was accompanied by Bcl-2 down-regulation, and displayed features of the mitochondria-dependent apoptosis pathway. Blue light exposure also increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and was a strong inducer of ROS-sensitive protein nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. Moreover, blue light exposure constitutively activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), as well as induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the early phase, in blue light-exposed RGC-5 cells. The protein expression of c-jun and c-fos was further enhanced after RGC-5 cells were exposed to blue light. Taken together, these findings indicated that blue light induced RGC-5 cell line death in dependence upon exposure duration. The potential mechanisms for this phenomenon might be via activated mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, increased ROS production and protein expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1, and activated JNK/p38 MAPK signaling pathways.

  4. Strict or graduated punishment? Effect of punishment strictness on the evolution of cooperation in continuous public goods games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Shimao

    Full Text Available Whether costly punishment encourages cooperation is one of the principal questions in studies on the evolution of cooperation and social sciences. In society, punishment helps deter people from flouting rules in institutions. Specifically, graduated punishment is a design principle for long-enduring common-pool resource institutions. In this study, we investigate whether graduated punishment can promote a higher cooperation level when each individual plays the public goods game and has the opportunity to punish others whose cooperation levels fall below the punisher's threshold. We then examine how spatial structure affects evolutionary dynamics when each individual dies inversely proportional to the game score resulting from the social interaction and another player is randomly chosen from the population to produce offspring to fill the empty site created after a player's death. Our evolutionary simulation outcomes demonstrate that stricter punishment promotes increased cooperation more than graduated punishment in a spatially structured population, whereas graduated punishment increases cooperation more than strict punishment when players interact with randomly chosen opponents from the population. The mathematical analysis also supports the results.

  5. Strict or Graduated Punishment? Effect of Punishment Strictness on the Evolution of Cooperation in Continuous Public Goods Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimao, Hajime; Nakamaru, Mayuko

    2013-01-01

    Whether costly punishment encourages cooperation is one of the principal questions in studies on the evolution of cooperation and social sciences. In society, punishment helps deter people from flouting rules in institutions. Specifically, graduated punishment is a design principle for long-enduring common-pool resource institutions. In this study, we investigate whether graduated punishment can promote a higher cooperation level when each individual plays the public goods game and has the opportunity to punish others whose cooperation levels fall below the punisher’s threshold. We then examine how spatial structure affects evolutionary dynamics when each individual dies inversely proportional to the game score resulting from the social interaction and another player is randomly chosen from the population to produce offspring to fill the empty site created after a player’s death. Our evolutionary simulation outcomes demonstrate that stricter punishment promotes increased cooperation more than graduated punishment in a spatially structured population, whereas graduated punishment increases cooperation more than strict punishment when players interact with randomly chosen opponents from the population. The mathematical analysis also supports the results. PMID:23555826

  6. Natural Variation in the VELVET Gene bcvel1 Affects Virulence and Light-Dependent Differentiation in Botrytis cinerea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Julia; Pradier, Jean-Marc; Simon, Adeline; Traeger, Stefanie; Moraga, Javier; Collado, Isidro González; Viaud, Muriel; Tudzynski, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea is an aggressive plant pathogen causing gray mold disease on various plant species. In this study, we identified the genetic origin for significantly differing phenotypes of the two sequenced B. cinerea isolates, B05.10 and T4, with regard to light-dependent differentiation, oxalic acid (OA) formation and virulence. By conducting a map-based cloning approach we identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in an open reading frame encoding a VELVET gene (bcvel1). The SNP in isolate T4 results in a truncated protein that is predominantly found in the cytosol in contrast to the full-length protein of isolate B05.10 that accumulates in the nuclei. Deletion of the full-length gene in B05.10 resulted in the T4 phenotype, namely light-independent conidiation, loss of sclerotial development and oxalic acid production, and reduced virulence on several host plants. These findings indicate that the identified SNP represents a loss-of-function mutation of bcvel1. In accordance, the expression of the B05.10 copy in T4 rescued the wild-type/B05.10 phenotype. BcVEL1 is crucial for full virulence as deletion mutants are significantly hampered in killing and decomposing plant tissues. However, the production of the two best known secondary metabolites, the phytotoxins botcinic acid and botrydial, are not affected by the deletion of bcvel1 indicating that other factors are responsible for reduced virulence. Genome-wide expression analyses of B05.10- and Δbcvel1-infected plant material revealed a number of genes differentially expressed in the mutant: while several protease- encoding genes are under-expressed in Δbcvel1 compared to the wild type, the group of over-expressed genes is enriched for genes encoding sugar, amino acid and ammonium transporters and glycoside hydrolases reflecting the response of Δbcvel1 mutants to nutrient starvation conditions. PMID:23118899

  7. Photobody Localization of Phytochrome B Is Tightly Correlated with Prolonged and Light-Dependent Inhibition of Hypocotyl Elongation in the Dark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buskirk, Elise K; Reddy, Amit K; Nagatani, Akira; Chen, Meng

    2014-06-01

    Photobody localization of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) phytochrome B (phyB) fused to green fluorescent protein (PBG) correlates closely with the photoinhibition of hypocotyl elongation. However, the amino-terminal half of phyB fused to green fluorescent protein (NGB) is hypersensitive to light despite its inability to localize to photobodies. Therefore, the significance of photobodies in regulating hypocotyl growth remains debatable. Accumulating evidence indicates that under diurnal conditions, photoactivated phyB persists into darkness to inhibit hypocotyl elongation. Here, we examine whether photobodies are involved in inhibiting hypocotyl growth in darkness by comparing the PBG and NGB lines after the red light-to-dark transition. Surprisingly, after the transition from 10 μmol m -2 s -1 red light to darkness, PBG inhibits hypocotyl elongation three times longer than NGB. The disassembly of photobodies in PBG hypocotyl nuclei correlates tightly with the accumulation of the growth-promoting transcription factor PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR3 (PIF3). Destabilizing photobodies by either decreasing the light intensity or adding monochromatic far-red light treatment before the light-to-dark transition leads to faster PIF3 accumulation and a dramatic reduction in the capacity for hypocotyl growth inhibition in PBG. In contrast, NGB is defective in PIF3 degradation, and its hypocotyl growth in the dark is nearly unresponsive to changes in light conditions. Together, our results support the model that photobodies are required for the prolonged, light-dependent inhibition of hypocotyl elongation in the dark by repressing PIF3 accumulation and by stabilizing the far-red light-absorbing form of phyB. Our study suggests that photobody localization patterns of phyB could serve as instructive cues that control light-dependent photomorphogenetic responses in the dark. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Photobody Localization of Phytochrome B Is Tightly Correlated with Prolonged and Light-Dependent Inhibition of Hypocotyl Elongation in the Dark1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buskirk, Elise K.; Reddy, Amit K.; Nagatani, Akira; Chen, Meng

    2014-01-01

    Photobody localization of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) phytochrome B (phyB) fused to green fluorescent protein (PBG) correlates closely with the photoinhibition of hypocotyl elongation. However, the amino-terminal half of phyB fused to green fluorescent protein (NGB) is hypersensitive to light despite its inability to localize to photobodies. Therefore, the significance of photobodies in regulating hypocotyl growth remains debatable. Accumulating evidence indicates that under diurnal conditions, photoactivated phyB persists into darkness to inhibit hypocotyl elongation. Here, we examine whether photobodies are involved in inhibiting hypocotyl growth in darkness by comparing the PBG and NGB lines after the red light-to-dark transition. Surprisingly, after the transition from 10 μmol m−2 s−1 red light to darkness, PBG inhibits hypocotyl elongation three times longer than NGB. The disassembly of photobodies in PBG hypocotyl nuclei correlates tightly with the accumulation of the growth-promoting transcription factor PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR3 (PIF3). Destabilizing photobodies by either decreasing the light intensity or adding monochromatic far-red light treatment before the light-to-dark transition leads to faster PIF3 accumulation and a dramatic reduction in the capacity for hypocotyl growth inhibition in PBG. In contrast, NGB is defective in PIF3 degradation, and its hypocotyl growth in the dark is nearly unresponsive to changes in light conditions. Together, our results support the model that photobodies are required for the prolonged, light-dependent inhibition of hypocotyl elongation in the dark by repressing PIF3 accumulation and by stabilizing the far-red light-absorbing form of phyB. Our study suggests that photobody localization patterns of phyB could serve as instructive cues that control light-dependent photomorphogenetic responses in the dark. PMID:24769533

  9. Phosphorescence lifetimes of organic light-emitting diodes from two-component time-dependent density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kühn, Michael [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Kaiserstraße 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Weigend, Florian, E-mail: florian.weigend@kit.edu [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Kaiserstraße 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut für Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-12-14

    “Spin-forbidden” transitions are calculated for an eight-membered set of iridium-containing candidate molecules for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) using two-component time-dependent density functional theory. Phosphorescence lifetimes (obtained from averaging over relevant excitations) are compared to experimental data. Assessment of parameters like non-distorted and distorted geometric structures, density functionals, relativistic Hamiltonians, and basis sets was done by a thorough study for Ir(ppy){sub 3} focussing not only on averaged phosphorescence lifetimes, but also on the agreement of the triplet substate structure with experimental data. The most favorable methods were applied to an eight-membered test set of OLED candidate molecules; Boltzmann-averaged phosphorescence lifetimes were investigated concerning the convergence with the number of excited states and the changes when including solvent effects. Finally, a simple model for sorting out molecules with long averaged phosphorescence lifetimes is developed by visual inspection of computationally easily achievable one-component frontier orbitals.

  10. The Success Rate of Initial {sup 131I} Ablation in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: Comparison Between Less strict and Very Strict Low Iodine Diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Ik Dong; Kim, Sung Hoon; Seo, Ye Young; Oh, Jin Kyoung; O, Joo Hyun; Chung, Soo Kyo [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    To decrease the risk of recurrence or metastasis in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), selected patients receive radioactive iodine ablation of remnant thyroid tissue or tumor. A low iodine diet can enhance uptake of radioactive iodine. We compared the success rates of radioactive iodine ablation therapy in patients who followed two different low iodine diets (LIDs). The success rates of postsurgical radioactive iodine ablation in DTC patients receiving empiric doses of 150 mCi were retrospectively reviewed. First-time radioactive iodine ablation therapy was done in 71 patients following less strict LID. Less strict LID restricted seafood, iodized salt, egg yolk, dairy products, processed meat, instant prepared meals, and multivitamins. Very strict LID additionally restricted rice, freshwater fish, spinach, and soybean products. Radioactive iodine ablation therapy was considered successful when follow up {sup 123I} whole body scan was negative and stimulated serum thyroglobulin level was less than 2.0 ng/mL. The success rate of patients following less strict LID was 80.3% and for very strict LID 75.6%. There was no statistically significant difference in the success rates between the two LID groups (P=0.48). Very strict LID may not contribute to improving the success rate of initial radioactive iodine ablation therapy at the cost of great inconvenience to the patient.

  11. Influence of UV-A or UV-B light and of the nitrogen source on the induction of ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase in etiolated tomato cotyledons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migge, A.; Carrayol, E.; Hirel, B.; Lohmann, M.; Meya, G.; Becker, T.W.

    1998-01-01

    The influence of ultraviolet A (UV-A) or B (UV-B) light and of the nitrogen source on the induction of ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase (Fd-GOGAT, EC 1.4.7.1) was examined in etiolated cotyledons of tomato (Lycopersicon escu- lentum L.). The Fd-GOGAT activity increased upon illumination of etiolated tomato cotyledons with UV-A or UV-B light. This stimulation of Fd-GOGAT activity was correlated with an increase in both the Fd-GOGAT transcript level and the Fd-GOGAT protein abundance. These results suggest that UV-A or UV-B light stimulates the de novo synthesis of Fd-GOGAT in etiolated tomato cotyledons. Both UV-A and UV-B light failed to influence the activity of NADH-GOGAT (EC 1.4.1.14) in etiolated tomato cotyledons. Taken together, our data indicate that the tomato genes encoding Fd- or NADH-dependent glutamate synthase are regulated differently by UV-A or UV-B light. No difference with respect to both the Fd-GOGAT transcript and protein abundance was found between cotyledons of tomato seedlings grown with either nitrate or ammonium as the sole N-source in the dark or in white light. In addition, the increase in the Fd-GOGAT protein pool induced by white light in etiolated nitrate-grown tomato seedling cotyledons was similar to that induced by white light in etiolated ammonium-grown tomato seedling cotyledons. These results show that the tomato Fd-GOGAT protein level does not depend strongly on the nature of the nitrogen source and that there appears to be no major stimulatory effect on the Fd-GOGAT protein pool produced by nitrate during the illumination of etiolated tomato cotyledons

  12. The Whitish Inner Mantle of the Giant Clam, Tridacna squamosa, Expresses an Apical Plasma Membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA Which Displays Light-Dependent Gene and Protein Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen K. Ip

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Giant clams live in symbiosis with extracellular zooxanthellae and display high rates of growth and shell formation (calcification in light. Light-enhanced calcification requires an increase in the supply of Ca2+ to, and simultaneously an augmented removal of H+ from, the extrapallial fluid where shell formation occurs. We have obtained the complete coding cDNA sequence of Plasma Membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA from the thin and whitish inner mantle, which is in touch with the extrapallial fluid, of the giant clam Tridacna squamosa. The deduced PMCA sequence consisted of an apical targeting element. Immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed that PMCA had an apical localization in the shell-facing epithelium of the inner mantle, whereby it can actively secrete Ca2+ in exchange for H+. More importantly, the apical PMCA-immunofluorescence of the shell-facing epithelium of the inner mantle increased significantly after 12 h of exposure to light. The transcript and protein levels of PMCA/PMCA also increased significantly in the inner mantle after 6 or 12 h of light exposure. These results offer insights into a light-dependable mechanism of shell formation in T. squamosa and a novel explanation of light-enhanced calcification in general. As the inner mantle normally lacks light sensitive pigments, our results support a previous proposition that symbiotic zooxanthellae, particularly those in the colorful and extensible outer mantle, may act as light-sensing elements for the host clam.

  13. Weight of fitness deviation governs strict physical chaos in replicator dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Varun; Mukhopadhyay, Archan; Chakraborty, Sagar

    2018-03-01

    Replicator equation—a paradigm equation in evolutionary game dynamics—mathematizes the frequency dependent selection of competing strategies vying to enhance their fitness (quantified by the average payoffs) with respect to the average fitnesses of the evolving population under consideration. In this paper, we deal with two discrete versions of the replicator equation employed to study evolution in a population where any two players' interaction is modelled by a two-strategy symmetric normal-form game. There are twelve distinct classes of such games, each typified by a particular ordinal relationship among the elements of the corresponding payoff matrix. Here, we find the sufficient conditions for the existence of asymptotic solutions of the replicator equations such that the solutions—fixed points, periodic orbits, and chaotic trajectories—are all strictly physical, meaning that the frequency of any strategy lies inside the closed interval zero to one at all times. Thus, we elaborate on which of the twelve types of games are capable of showing meaningful physical solutions and for which of the two types of replicator equation. Subsequently, we introduce the concept of the weight of fitness deviation that is the scaling factor in a positive affine transformation connecting two payoff matrices such that the corresponding one-shot games have exactly same Nash equilibria and evolutionary stable states. The weight also quantifies how much the excess of fitness of a strategy over the average fitness of the population affects the per capita change in the frequency of the strategy. Intriguingly, the weight's variation is capable of making the Nash equilibria and the evolutionary stable states, useless by introducing strict physical chaos in the replicator dynamics based on the normal-form game.

  14. Light cone thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, Tommaso; Perez, Alejandro

    2018-02-01

    We show that null surfaces defined by the outgoing and infalling wave fronts emanating from and arriving at a sphere in Minkowski spacetime have thermodynamical properties that are in strict formal correspondence with those of black hole horizons in curved spacetimes. Such null surfaces, made of pieces of light cones, are bifurcate conformal Killing horizons for suitable conformally stationary observers. They can be extremal and nonextremal depending on the radius of the shining sphere. Such conformal Killing horizons have a constant light cone (conformal) temperature, given by the standard expression in terms of the generalization of surface gravity for conformal Killing horizons. Exchanges of conformally invariant energy across the horizon are described by a first law where entropy changes are given by 1 /(4 ℓp2) of the changes of a geometric quantity with the meaning of horizon area in a suitable conformal frame. These conformal horizons satisfy the zeroth to the third laws of thermodynamics in an appropriate way. In the extremal case they become light cones associated with a single event; these have vanishing temperature as well as vanishing entropy.

  15. Editor's Highlight: Periodic Exposure to Smartphone-Mimic Low-Luminance Blue Light Induces Retina Damage Through Bcl-2/BAX-Dependent Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Hui; Wu, Man-Ru; Li, Ching-Hao; Cheng, Hui-Wen; Huang, Shih-Hsuan; Tsai, Chi-Hao; Lin, Fan-Li; Ho, Jau-Der; Kang, Jaw-Jou; Hsiao, George; Cheng, Yu-Wen

    2017-05-01

    Blue light-induced phototoxicity plays an important role in retinal degeneration and might cause damage as a consequence of smartphone dependency. Here, we investigated the effects of periodic exposure to blue light-emitting diode in a cell model and a rat retinal damage model. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells were subjected to blue light in vitro and the effects of blue light on activation of key apoptotic pathways were examined by measuring the levels of Bcl-2, Bax, Fas ligand (FasL), Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD), and caspase-3 protein. Blue light treatment of RPE cells increased Bax, cleaved caspase-3, FasL, and FADD expression, inhibited Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL accumulation, and inhibited Bcl-2/Bax association. A rat model of retinal damage was developed with or without continuous or periodic exposure to blue light for 28 days. In this rat model of retinal damage, periodic blue light exposure caused fundus damage, decreased total retinal thickness, caused atrophy of photoreceptors, and injured neuron transduction in the retina. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Bright-light intervention induces a dose-dependent increase in striatal response to risk in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Fisher, Patrick M; Madsen, Martin K

    2016-01-01

    Bright-light interventions have successfully been used to reduce depression symptoms in patients with seasonal affective disorder, a depressive disorder most frequently occurring during seasons with reduced daylight availability. Yet, little is known about how light exposure impacts human brain f...

  17. Visual acuity of fly photoreceptors in natural conditions - dependence on UV sensitizing pigment and light-controlling pupil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, DG

    The effect of the UV-absorbing sensitizing pigment fly photoreceptors on absolute, spectral and angular sensitivity was investigated with a wave-optics model for the facet lens-rhabdomere system. When sky light was used as a UV-rich light source, one sensitizing pigment molecule per rhodopsin

  18. EXTRASOLAR STORMS: PRESSURE-DEPENDENT CHANGES IN LIGHT-CURVE PHASE IN BROWN DWARFS FROM SIMULTANEOUS HST AND SPITZER OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hao; Apai, Dániel; Karalidi, Theodora [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Marley, Mark S. [NASA Ames Research Center, Naval Air Station, Moffett Field, Mountain View, CA 94035 (United States); Flateau, Davin [Department of Planetary Sciences, 1629 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Showman, Adam P. [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, 1629 University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Metchev, Stanimir [The University of Western Ontario, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration, 1151 Richmond St., London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Buenzli, Esther [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Radigan, Jacqueline [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Artigau, Étienne [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Lowrance, Patrick J. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Burgasser, Adam J., E-mail: haoyang@email.arizona.edu, E-mail: apai@arizona.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2016-07-20

    We present Spitzer /Infrared Array Camera Ch1 and Ch2 monitoring of six brown dwarfs during eight different epochs over the course of 20 months. For four brown dwarfs, we also obtained simulataneous Hubble Space Telescope ( HST )/WFC3 G141 grism spectra during two epochs and derived light curves in five narrowband filters. Probing different pressure levels in the atmospheres, the multiwavelength light curves of our six targets all exhibit variations, and the shape of the light curves evolves over the timescale of a rotation period, ranging from 1.4 to 13 hr. We compare the shapes of the light curves and estimate the phase shifts between the light curves observed at different wavelengths by comparing the phase of the primary Fourier components. We use state-of-the-art atmosphere models to determine the flux contribution of different pressure layers to the observed flux in each filter. We find that the light curves that probe higher pressures are similar and in phase, but are offset and often different from the light curves that probe lower pressures. The phase differences between the two groups of light curves suggest that the modulations seen at lower and higher pressures may be introduced by different cloud layers.

  19. Dose-dependent collagen cross-linking of rabbit scleral tissue by blue light and riboflavin treatment probed by dynamic shear rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Carsten; Karl, Anett; Körber, Nicole; Koch, Christian; Liu, Qing; Fritsch, Anatol W; Reichenbach, Andreas; Wiedemann, Peter; Käs, Josef A; Francke, Mike; Iseli, Hans Peter

    2015-08-01

    To determine the visco-elastic properties of isolated rabbit scleral tissue and dose-dependent biomechanical and morphological changes after collagen cross-linking by riboflavin/blue light treatment. Scleral patches from 87 adult albino rabbit eyes were examined by dynamic shear rheology. Scleral patches were treated by riboflavin and different intensities of blue light (450 nm), and the impact on the visco-elastic properties was determined by various rheological test regimes. The relative elastic modulus was calculated from non-treated and corresponding treated scleral patches, and treatments with different blue light intensities were compared. Shear rheology enables us to study the material properties of scleral tissue within physiological relevant parameters. Cross-linking treatment increased the viscous as well as the elastic modulus and changed the ratio of the elastic versus viscous proportion in scleral tissue. Constant riboflavin application combined with different blue light intensities from 12 mW/cm(2) up to 100 mW/cm(2) increased the relative elastic modulus of scleral tissue by factors up to 1.8. Further enhancement of the applied light intensity caused a decline of the relative elastic modulus. This might be due to destructive changes of the collagen bundle structure at larger light intensities, as observed by histological examination. Collagen cross-linking by riboflavin/blue light application increases the biomechanical stiffness of the sclera in a dose-dependent manner up to certain light intensities. Therefore, this treatment might be a suitable therapeutic approach to stabilize the biomechanical properties of scleral tissue in cases of pathological eye expansion. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. [The Action of CO2 on the Light-dependent Cl(-)-Uptake by Elodea densa: Regulation between Noncyclic and Cyclic photophosphorylation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, W D; Simonis, W

    1969-06-01

    The light curve of Cl(-)-uptake (uptake vs. light intensity) byElodea densa in pure N2 shows that saturation is reached at a very low light intensity. In N2+3% CO2, on the other hand, there is considerably less Cl(-) uptake. Under these conditions, the saturation attained at low light intensity is only temporary, and the Cl(-)-uptake increases steadily with a further rise in light intensity. It is suggested that the reason for the low intensity of light saturation may be the necessity for an intracellular transport of ATP from the site of its formation to the site of Cl(-)-uptake.CO2 exerts a strong inhibitory influence on the Cl(-)-uptake, especially at low light intensities. At higher intensities the inhibition diminishes and it is nearly absent at high intensities of white light.The inhibition by CO2 is also a function of the wavelength of the light; it is greatest in the region below 683 nm, where photosynthesis occurs with high efficiency, but it is still present at wavelengths beyond 700 nm.CO2 also inhibits the Cl(-)-uptake at high light intensities of white light when small concentration of DCMU (5×10(-7) M) is present at the same time.The inhibitory action of CO2 is partly interpreted as a consequence of a competition for ATP between CO2-assimilation (espectially below 683 nm) and the light-dependent Cl(-)-uptake. In addition, however, it is suggested that at low light intensities the presence of CO2 effects a regulation between noncyclic and cyclic electron transports and photophosphorylation which is supposed to be a consequence of a change in the redox potential of ferredoxin or another cofactor acting in noncyclic and cyclic electron transports. Especially the inhibition of the Cl(-)-uptake by CO2 in far-red light (λ>700 nm) and in the presence of DCMU is taken to be an indication of this intracellular regulation.

  1. Validation of an automatic diagnosis of strict left bundle branch block criteria using 12-lead electrocardiograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Xiaojuan; Ruwald, Anne-Christine; Ruwald, Martin H

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Strict left bundle branch block (LBBB) criteria were recently proposed to identify LBBB patients to benefit most from cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The aim of our study was to automate identification of strict LBBB in order to facilitate its broader application. METHODS: We devel...

  2. On the effect of ballistic overflow on the temperature dependence of the quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prudaev, I. A., E-mail: funcelab@gmail.com; Kopyev, V. V.; Romanov, I. S.; Oleynik, V. L. [National Research Tomsk State University (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    The dependences of the quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes on the temperature and excitation level are studied. The experiment is performed for two luminescence excitation modes. A comparison of the results obtained during photo- and electroluminescence shows an additional (to the loss associated with Auger recombination) low-temperature loss in the high-density current region. This causes inversion of the temperature dependence of the quantum efficiency at temperatures lower than 220–300 K. Analysis shows that the loss is associated with electron leakage from the light-emitting-diode active region. The experimental data are explained using the ballistic-overflow model. The simulation results are in qualitative agreement with the experimental dependences of the quantum efficiency on temperature and current density.

  3. [Metabolic mechanisms underlying reparative action of metal-dependent spectral light flux from a hollow cathode lamp (experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusyreva, G A; Frolkov, V K; Bobrovnitskiĭ, I P

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of serial irradiation of experimental animals with a visible light flow showing spectral lines of copper and manganese on the rate of reparative processes and the associated metabolic events. The cathode of the lamp that contained both microelements generated the light flux possessed of significant biological activity. Specifically, it accelerated reduction of the wound surface area and optimized regulation of carbohydrate metabolism in the lipid peroxidation system by insulin and cotisol. The light flux emitted by the cathode containing only one of the two elements (either copper or manganese) produced a similar but less pronounced effect.

  4. Phosphorylation-dependent Autoinhibition of Myosin Light Chain Phosphatase Accounts for Ca2+ Sensitization Force of Smooth Muscle Contraction*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khromov, Alexander; Choudhury, Nandini; Stevenson, Andra S.; Somlyo, Avril V.; Eto, Masumi

    2009-01-01

    The reversible regulation of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) in response to agonist stimulation and cAMP/cGMP signals plays an important role in the regulation of smooth muscle (SM) tone. Here, we investigated the mechanism underlying the inhibition of MLCP induced by the phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase targeting subunit (MYPT1), a regulatory subunit of MLCP, at Thr-696 and Thr-853 using glutathione S-transferase (GST)-MYPT1 fragments having the inhibitory phosphorylation sites. GST-MYPT1 fragments, including only Thr-696 and only Thr-853, inhibited purified MLCP (IC50 = 1.6 and 60 nm, respectively) when they were phosphorylated with RhoA-dependent kinase (ROCK). The activities of isolated catalytic subunits of type 1 and type 2A phosphatases (PP1 and PP2A) were insensitive to either fragment. Phospho-GST-MYPT1 fragments docked directly at the active site of MLCP, and this was blocked by a PP1/PP2A inhibitor microcystin (MC)-LR or by mutation of the active sites in PP1. GST-MYPT1 fragments induced a contraction of β-escin-permeabilized ileum SM at constant pCa 6.3 (EC50 = 2 μm), which was eliminated by Ala substitution of the fragment at Thr-696 or by ROCK inhibitors or 8Br-cGMP. GST-MYPT1-(697–880) was 5-times less potent than fragments including Thr-696. Relaxation induced by 8Br-cGMP was not affected by Ala substitution at Ser-695, a known phosphorylation site for protein kinase A/G. Thus, GST-MYPT1 fragments are phosphorylated by ROCK in permeabilized SM and mimic agonist-induced inhibition and cGMP-induced activation of MLCP. We propose a model in which MYPT1 phosphorylation at Thr-696 and Thr-853 causes an autoinhibition of MLCP that accounts for Ca2+ sensitization of smooth muscle force. PMID:19531490

  5. LM-OSL signals from some insulators: an analysis of the dependency of the detrapping probability on stimulation light intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulur, E.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Murray, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signals from various insulators including quartz, Al2O3 : C, BeO and NaCl have been studied using the linear modulation OSL (LM-OSL) technique. LM-OSL is based on the linear increase of the stimulation light power from zero to a maximum during the measurement...... is not always correct. The initial decay rates of the blue (similar to 470 nm) light stimulated constant power OSL decay curves were examined to test the relation between the detrapping rates and the stimulation light intensity. In SiO2, Al2O3 : C and BeO a linear relation between the detrapping rates....... The resultant OSL curve initially increases and then decays after reaching a maximum, The analysis of LM-OSL data usually assumes a linear relationship between the detrapping rate and the stimulation light intensity. However, experiments carried out using various insulators have shown that this assumption...

  6. Time-of-day-dependent effects of bright light exposure on human psychophysiology : comparison of daytime and nighttime exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruger, M; Gordijn, MCM; Beersma, DGM; de Vries, B; Daan, S

    Bright light can influence human psychophysiology instantaneously by inducing endocrine ( suppression of melatonin, increasing cortisol levels), other physiological changes ( enhancement of core body temperature), and psychological changes ( reduction of sleepiness, increase of alertness). Its broad

  7. [On the light-dependent influx of ions in leaves of Elodea densa. Comparison of the influxes of K(+) and Cl (-) ions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, W D

    1972-06-01

    The light-dependent influxes of K(+) and Cl(-) in detached leaves of Elodea densa were measured using (36)Cl(-) and (42)K(+) or (86)Rb(+) as tracers.The K(+) and Cl(-) influxes were enhanced by light and also in the dark after a preillumination. The rate of influx decayed in the dark according to a first order reaction with a half-time of 25 or 27 sec.DCMU inhibits the light-dependent K(+) influx more severely in the presence of CO2 than in its absence in an atmosphere of N2 containing a trace of oxygen. This is similar to the effect of DCMU on the Cl(-) influx. CCCP(1), atebrin (quinacrine) and Dio-9 all affect the influx of K(+) and Cl(-) in a comparable way. CCCP exerts the strongest effect at low light intensities; atebrin and Dio-9 inhibit strongly even at high intensities when the ion influxes are light-saturated. The influence of these two inhibitors in attributed to an effect at the cellular membranes in addition to an effect on photophosphorylation. The effect of CCCP is ascribed to uncoupling of photophosphorylation, as photosynthesis is inhibited by about the same concentration as is ion influx.In far-red light the relative quantum yields of K(+) and Cl(-) influx drop to a similar degree as does the quantum yield of photosynthesis. Estimated values of the quantum requirement of ion influx are given. The quantum requirement in air is higher than in an atmosphere of N2. It is a function of ion concentration and is lower at higher external concentrations.The results indicate that the K(+) and Cl(-) influxes are partially coupled. The linkage of the ion influxes with the energy sources in the light and a possible contribution of a pseudocyclic photophosphorylation are discussed.

  8. Theory of photostructural changes in glasses with negative-U centers: dependencies of steady-state photodarkening on gap-light intensity and frequency, pressure and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, M.I.

    2004-01-01

    A theory is presented of a mechanism for the photostructural changes observed in semiconducting glasses. The theory takes into account that in these materials negative-U centers are the basic charge carriers, and gap-light generated excited states of such centers are accompanied by metastable 'defects' in the original structure, which can be identified as the photostructural changes. The theory gives rise to a consistent interpretation, and some predictions, of dependencies of the steady-state photodarkening on gap-light intensity and frequency, pressure and temperature

  9. Phenol Removal by a Novel Non-Photo-Dependent Semiconductor Catalyst in a Pilot-Scaled Study: Effects of Initial Phenol Concentration, Light, and Catalyst Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel non-photo-dependent semiconductor catalyst (CT was employed to degrade phenol in the present pilot-scaled study. Effect of operational parameters such as phenol initial concentration, light area, and catalyst loading on phenol degradation, was compared between CT catalyst and the conventional photocatalyst titanium dioxide. CT catalyst excelled titanium dioxide in treating and mineralizing low-level phenol, under both mild UV radiation and thunder conditions of nonphoton. The result suggested that CT catalyst could be applied in circumstances when light is not easily accessible in pollutant-carrying media (e.g., particles, cloudy water, and colored water.

  10. Light-dependent and -independent behavioral effects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields in a land snail are consistent with a parametric resonance mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prato, F.S.; Thomas, A.W. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)]|[St. Joseph`s Health Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Kavaliers, M. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Cullen, A.P. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). School of Optometry

    1997-05-01

    Exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields has been shown to attenuate endogenous opioid peptide mediated antinociception or analgesia in the terrestrial pulmonate snail, Cepaea nemoralis. Here the authors examine the roles of light in determining this effect and address the mechanisms associated with mediating the effects of the ELF magnetic fields in both the presence and absence of light. Specifically, they consider whether the magnetic field effects involve an indirect induced electric current mechanism or a direct effect such as a parametric resonance mechanism (PRM). They exposed snails in both the presence and absence of light at three different frequencies (30, 60, and 120 Hz) with static field values (B{sub DC}) and ELF magnetic field amplitude (peak) and direction (B{sub AC}) set according to the predictions of the PRM for Ca{sup 2+}. Analgesia was induced in snails by injecting them with an enkephalinase inhibitor, which augments endogenous opioid (enkephalin) activity. They found that the magnetic field exposure reduced this opioid-induced analgesia significantly more if the exposure occurred in the presence rather than the absence of light. However, the percentage reduction in analgesia in both the presence and absence of light was not dependent on the ELF frequency. This finding suggests that in both the presence and the absence of light the effect of the ELF magnetic field was mediated by a direct magnetic field detection mechanism such as the PRM rather than an induced current mechanism.

  11. Dependence on the incident light power of the internal electric fields in a GaAs p-i-n solar cell according to bright photoreflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hyun-Jun; Mun, Young Hee; Kim, Jong Su; Lee, Sang Jun

    2016-07-01

    Bright photoreflectance (BPR) spectroscopy at room temperature is used to examine the internal electric fields in a GaAs p-i-n solar cell for their dependence on the incident light power. Electric fields are observed at 30 µW and 100 µW of incident light. With increasing power, the strengths of the two electric fields are reduced due to the photovoltage effect. The electric field observed at 30 µW is assigned to the p-i interface, which is close to the surface. The other electric field is due to the i-n interface because the incident light penetrates deeper as the light power is increased. The electric field strength of 35.6 kV/cm at the p-i interface is lower than that of 42.9 kV/cm at the i-n interface at 500 µW of light power because the photovoltage effect is proportional to the number of photo-generated carriers, which is reduced as the distance from the surface increases. When the incident light power is similar to the excitation beam power, the electric fields at the p-i interface are saturated.

  12. Strictly hyperbolic models of co-current three-phase flow withgravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juanes, Ruben; Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    2002-11-18

    We study the character of the equations in the traditional formulation of one-dimensional immiscible three-phase flow with gravity, in the limit of negligible capillarity. We restrict our analysis to co-current flow required for a displacement process; in cases of mixed co-current and counter-current flow, capillarity effects cannot be dropped from the formulation. The model makes use of the classical multiphase extension of Darcy's equation. It is well known that, if relative permeabilities are taken as fixed functions of saturations, the model yields regions in the saturation space where the system of equations is locally elliptic. We regard elliptic behavior as a nonphysical artifact of an incomplete formulation, and derive conditions on the relative permeabilities that ensure strict hyperbolicity of the governing equations. The key point is to acknowledge that a Darcy-type formulation is insufficient to capture all the physics of three-phase flow and that, consequently, the relative permeabilities are functionals that depend on the fluid viscosity ratio and the gravity number. The derived conditions are consistent with the type of displacements that take place in porous media. By means of an illustrative example, we show how elliptic behavior can be removed, even when using simplistic relative permeability models.

  13. Synchronization control of cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic system based on cross active backstepping design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jing; Gao Jinfeng; Ma Xikui

    2007-01-01

    This Letter presents a novel cross active backstepping design method for synchronization control of cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic system, in which the ordinary backstepping design is unavailable. The proposed control method, combining backstepping design and active control approach, extends the application of backstepping technique in chaos control. Based on this method, different combinations of controllers can be designed to meet the needs of different applications. The proposed method is applied to achieve chaos synchronization of two identical cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic systems. Also it is used to implement synchronization between cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic system and Roessler hyperchaotic system. Numerical examples illustrate the validity of the control method

  14. Discussion of dosimetric dependencies of experimental light-induced melatonin suppression studies; Diskussion dosimetrischer Aspekte bei experimentellen Studien zur lichtinduzierten Melatoninreduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, M.; Schulmeister, K. [ARC Seibersdorf Research (Austria). Akkreditierte Pruefstelle fuer Laser und Optische Strahlung

    2004-07-01

    Based on a literature review, dosimetric dependencies of light-induced melatonin suppression are discussed. The quantity of light used to suppress melatonin in study trials is often given in terms of illuminance at the cornea, as this is easy to measure. The use of the term illuminance for such studies is critically discussed. A more appropriate measure would be effective irradiance. In our work we present a simplified model to estimate the photobiological effective irradiance and the spot size of the retinal image. Important issues which should ideally be considered in melatonin suppression study trials are pointed out. Another aim of this work is to derive from the literature data, up to what time frame the dosedependent relationship between time and melatonin suppression is valid. An evaluation is made of the situation on the workplace with regard to light-induced melatonin suppression. (orig.)

  15. Stationary Light Waves in Anizotropy and Nonolinear Plane Media, whose Dielectric Tensor's Principal Values Arbitrarily Depend upon Intensity Case of Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Ochirbat, G

    2000-01-01

    A plane medium, whose dielectric tensor's principal values arbitrarily depend upon intensity, is considered. The problems of the TM and TE waves, within the problem of light scattering, are reduced to quadrature. A question of integrability of the full system of Maxwell equations is discussed. A closed equation has been obtained for an auxiliary variable for a nonlinearity of Kerr type. A scheme for integrating the full system of Maxwell equations by solving the equation over the auxiliary variable is suggested.

  16. A teoria da dependência à luz da realidade atual (The dependency theory in the light of the current state of affairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenesio Aduci Mendes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este trabalho visa apresentar os alcances e limites da teoria da dependência, delineada a partir de 1970, como proposta de leitura da realidade econômica do continente latino-americano. Procuraremos mostrar que a teoria da dependência está vinculada às ideias mestras da teoria do desenvolvimento da CEPAL. Nesse sentido, os alcances da teoria da dependência, se comparada com a teoria do desenvolvimento, estão vinculados à ideia de que a situação de subdesenvolvimento no continente latino-americano se relaciona com o mundo da economia e da política. Por outro lado, os limites da teoria da dependência radicam no fato de que ela não cumpriu com sua proposta inicial, pois sua leitura da realidade latinoamericana ficou restrita a aspectos econômicos. A análise parte do pressuposto de que a crise da modernidade se dá em todos os aspectos da vida ocidental, fruto da racionalidade econômica e do desenvolvimento unidimensional, o que atinge a região latino-americana diretamente. Assim, tanto a compreensão da realidade que nos circunda, assim como a sua transformação, exigem que se repense o modelo de homogeneização do padrão de produção e de consumo, vigentes na sociedade latino-americana, cuja matriz é o modelo ocidental dos países do centro.Abstract: This work aims at presenting the range and the limits of the dependence theory, fi rst outlined in 1970, as a means of analyzing the economic reality of the Latin American continent. The objective of the following article is to demonstrate that the dependence theory is closely related to the ideas behind the CEPAL’s development theory. In this sense, the range of the dependence theory, when compared to the development theory, is bound to the idea that the underdevelopment state of the Latin American continent is linked to the economic and political worlds. On the other hand, the limits of the dependence theory are based on the fact that it hasn’t accomplished its

  17. The Effect of Strict Segregation on Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mansfeld, Rosa; de Vrankrijker, Angelica; Brimicombe, Roland; Heijerman, Harry; Teding van Berkhout, Ferdinand; Spitoni, Cristian|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304625957; Grave, Sanne; van der Ent, Cornelis; Wolfs, Tom; Willems, Rob; Bonten, Marc

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Segregation of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) was implemented to prevent chronic infection with epidemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with presumed detrimental clinical effects, but its effectiveness has not been carefully evaluated. METHODS: The effect of strict segregation on

  18. Strict deformation quantization for actions of a class of symplectic lie groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieliavsky, Pierre; Massar, Marc

    2002-01-01

    We present explicit universal strict deformation quantization formulae for actions of Iwasawa subgroups AN of SN(1, n). This answers a question raised by Rieffel in [Contemp. Math. 228 (1998), 315]. (author)

  19. Investigation of black and brown carbon multiple-wavelength-dependent light absorption from biomass and fossil fuel combustion source emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael R. Olson; Mercedes Victoria Garcia; Michael A. Robinson; Paul Van Rooy; Mark A. Dietenberger; Michael Bergin; James Jay Schauer

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of the black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) components of source emissions is critical to understanding the impact combustion aerosols have on atmospheric light absorption. Multiple-wavelength absorption was measured from fuels including wood, agricultural biomass, coals, plant matter, and petroleum distillates in controlled combustion settings....

  20. Blue light activates the sigmaB-dependent stress response of Bacillus subtilis via YtvA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila-Pérez, Marcela; Hellingwerf, Klaas J; Kort, Remco

    Here we present evidence for a physiologically relevant light response mediated by the LOV domain-containing protein YtvA in the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis. The loss and overproduction of YtvA abolish and enhance, respectively, the increase in sigma(B)-controlled ctc promoter activity at

  1. Light at night acutely impairs glucose tolerance in a time-, intensity- and wavelength-dependent manner in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opperhuizen, Anne-Loes; Stenvers, Dirk J.; Jansen, Remi D.; Foppen, Ewout; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2017-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Exposure to light at night (LAN) has increased dramatically in recent decades. Animal studies have shown that chronic dim LAN induced obesity and glucose intolerance. Furthermore, several studies in humans have demonstrated that chronic exposure to artificial LAN may have adverse

  2. Light at night acutely impairs glucose tolerance in a time-, intensity- and wavelength-dependent manner in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opperhuizen, Anneloes; Stenvers, Dirk J; Jansen, Remi D; Foppen, Ewout; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, A.

    2017-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Exposure to light at night (LAN) has increased dramatically in recent decades. Animal studies have shown that chronic dim LAN induced obesity and glucose intolerance. Furthermore, several studies in humans have demonstrated that chronic exposure to artificial LAN may have adverse

  3. Unpolarized state of light revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, H.; Chandra, N.

    1981-04-01

    The general form of probability distribution function of analytic signal for unpolarized light is found using simple classical arguments. It is shown that the concepts of unpolarized light given in some common standard books are, strictly speaking, not correct. It is proved that if any two orthogonally polarized components of unpolarized light are statistically independent of each other, the light is of chaotic nature. (author)

  4. Light and Nutrient Dependent Responses in Secondary Metabolites of Plantago lanceolata Offspring Are Due to Phenotypic Plasticity in Experimental Grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annegret Miehe-Steier

    Full Text Available A few studies in the past have shown that plant diversity in terms of species richness and functional composition can modify plant defense chemistry. However, it is not yet clear to what extent genetic differentiation of plant chemotypes or phenotypic plasticity in response to diversity-induced variation in growth conditions or a combination of both is responsible for this pattern. We collected seed families of ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata from six-year old experimental grasslands of varying plant diversity (Jena Experiment. The offspring of these seed families was grown under standardized conditions with two levels of light and nutrients. The iridoid glycosides, catalpol and aucubin, and verbascoside, a caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycoside, were measured in roots and shoots. Although offspring of different seed families differed in the tissue concentrations of defensive metabolites, plant diversity in the mothers' environment did not explain the variation in the measured defensive metabolites of P. lanceolata offspring. However secondary metabolite levels in roots and shoots were strongly affected by light and nutrient availability. Highest concentrations of iridoid glycosides and verbascoside were found under high light conditions, and nutrient availability had positive effects on iridoid glycoside concentrations in plants grown under high light conditions. However, verbascoside concentrations decreased under high levels of nutrients irrespective of light. The data from our greenhouse study show that phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental variation rather than genetic differentiation in response to plant community diversity is responsible for variation in secondary metabolite concentrations of P. lanceolata in the six-year old communities of the grassland biodiversity experiment. Due to its large phenotypic plasticity P. lanceolata has the potential for a fast and efficient adjustment to varying environmental conditions in

  5. Strict optical orthogonal codes for purely asynchronous code-division multiple-access applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Guo

    1996-12-01

    Strict optical orthogonal codes are presented for purely asynchronous optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) applications. The proposed code can strictly guarantee the peaks of its cross-correlation functions and the sidelobes of any of its autocorrelation functions to have a value of 1 in purely asynchronous data communications. The basic theory of the proposed codes is given. An experiment on optical CDMA systems is also demonstrated to verify the characteristics of the proposed code.

  6. Plant use in the medicinal practices known as "strict diets" in Chazuta valley (Peruvian Amazon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Biset, Jaume; Cañigueral, Salvador

    2011-09-01

    Strict diets are traditional medicinal practices where plant remedies are consumed with nearly fasting and with some sort of social seclusion. The aim of this work was to describe these practices of Chazuta and the use of plants within, as well as to analyse the possible functions of the last. The information was obtained through interviews to the 6.3% of the district rural adult population (140 individuals, 75% of which was considered Quechua). In total, 122 strict diets were recorded and 106 different plant species were reported to be used. Strict diets present a characteristic structure and plant use. The main effects reported in strict diets were antinflammatory, antiinfective, brain function alteration and depuration. Strict diets are well structured traditional medicinal practices, also with a symbolic significance in the life cycle of chazutian men. Plants used in strict diets can contribute to the main effects through antinflammation, antiinfective actions, psychoactivity and depurative related activities. The correlation between literature evidence of activity of most used plants and effects reported for the correspondent diet (i.e. in which the plant was used) are 36% for antinflammatory activity, 29% for antimicrobial activity, 18% for psychoactivity and 5% for depurative related activities. The percentages go to 77%, 64%, 73% and 32%, respectively, when literature evidences on related taxa are also considered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Multiplicity dependent light particle correlations in 40Ar+197Au reaction at E/A=60 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyanowski, A.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Ardouin, D.; Delagrange, H.; Doubre, H.; Gregoire, C.; Mittig, W.; Peghaire, A.; Peter, J.; Viyogi, Y.P.; Zwieglinski, B.; Quebert, J.; Bizard, G.; Lefebvres, F.; Tamain, B.; Pochodzalla, J.; Gelbke, C.K.; Lynch, W.; Maier, M.

    1986-01-01

    Correlations between light particles in 40 Ar induced reactions on 197 Au at E/A=60 MeV have been measured in coincidence with a multidetector system. The correlations decrease monotonously with increasing charged particle multiplicity. With the help of a participant-spectator model, this multiplicity is tentatively connected to the impact parameter. The correlation function is analyzed in the framework of the final state interaction model in order to extract the spacetime extent of the emitting source. (orig.)

  8. Excitation light source dependence of emission in Sn2+-Ce3+ codoped ZnO-P2O5 glasses

    OpenAIRE

    Masai, Hirokazu; Hino, Yusuke; Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Fukuda, Kentaro; Yoko, Toshinobu

    2013-01-01

    Correlation between excitation light source and the emission property of Sn^{2+}-Ce^{3+} co-doped zinc phosphate glasses is examined. Although photoluminescence (PL) peaks of both Sn^{2+}and Ce^{3+} shifted with increasing amount of Ce^{3+}, there was little energy resonance between Sn^{2+} and Ce^{3+} emission centers. On the other hand, radioluminescence (RL) spectra excited by X-ray was independent of the Ce concentration, indicating that emission was mainly observed from Sn^{2+} emission ...

  9. Quantitative analysis with advanced compensated polarized light microscopy on wavelength dependence of linear birefringence of single crystals causing arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanabe, Akifumi; Tanaka, Masahito; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Asahi, Toru

    2014-07-01

    To improve our ability to identify single crystals causing arthritis, we have developed a practical measurement system of polarized light microscopy called advanced compensated polarized light microscopy (A-CPLM). The A-CPLM system is constructed by employing a conventional phase retardation plate, an optical fibre and a charge-coupled device spectrometer in a polarized light microscope. We applied the A-CPLM system to measure linear birefringence (LB) in the visible region, which is an optical anisotropic property, for tiny single crystals causing arthritis, i.e. monosodium urate monohydrate (MSUM) and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD). The A-CPLM system performance was evaluated by comparing the obtained experimental data using the A-CPLM system with (i) literature data for a standard sample, MgF2, and (ii) experimental data obtained using an established optical method, high-accuracy universal polarimeter, for the MSUM. The A-CPLM system was found to be applicable for measuring the LB spectra of the single crystals of MSUM and CPPD, which cause arthritis, in the visible regions. We quantitatively reveal the large difference in LB between MSUM and CPPD crystals. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the A-CPLM system for distinguishing the crystals causing arthritis.

  10. Short-term sleep deprivation with nocturnal light exposure alters time-dependent glucagon-like peptide-1 and insulin secretion in male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Lozano, Manuel; Hunter, Paola M; Behan, Lucy-Ann; Gladanac, Bojana; Casper, Robert F; Brubaker, Patricia L

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal L cell is the principal source of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a major determinant of insulin release. Because GLP-1 secretion is regulated in a circadian manner in rodents, we investigated whether the activity of the human L cell is also time sensitive. Rhythmic fluctuations in the mRNA levels of canonical clock genes were found in the human NCI-H716 L cell model, which also showed a time-dependent pattern in their response to well-established secretagogues. A diurnal variation in GLP-1 responses to identical meals (850 kcal), served 12 h apart in the normal dark (2300) and light (1100) periods, was also observed in male volunteers maintained under standard sleep and light conditions. These findings suggest the existence of a daily pattern of activity in the human L cell. Moreover, we separately tested the short-term effects of sleep deprivation and nocturnal light exposure on basal and postprandial GLP-1, insulin, and glucose levels in the same volunteers. Sleep deprivation with nocturnal light exposure disrupted the melatonin and cortisol profiles and increased insulin resistance. Moreover, it also induced profound derangements in GLP-1 and insulin responses such that postprandial GLP-1 and insulin levels were markedly elevated and the normal variation in GLP-1 responses was abrogated. These alterations were not observed in sleep-deprived participants maintained under dark conditions, indicating a direct effect of light on the mechanisms that regulate glucose homeostasis. Accordingly, the metabolic abnormalities known to occur in shift workers may be related to the effects of irregular light-dark cycles on these glucoregulatory pathways. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Arabidopsis Pol II-Dependent in Vitro Transcription System Reveals Role of Chromatin for Light-Inducible rbcS Gene Transcription1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ido, Ayaka; Iwata, Shinya; Iwata, Yuka; Igarashi, Hisako; Hamada, Takahiro; Sonobe, Seiji; Sugiura, Masahiro; Yukawa, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    In vitro transcription is an essential tool to study the molecular mechanisms of transcription. For over a decade, we have developed an in vitro transcription system from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)-cultured cells (BY-2), and this system supported the basic activities of the three RNA polymerases (Pol I, Pol II, and Pol III). However, it was not suitable to study photosynthetic genes, because BY-2 cells have lost their photosynthetic activity. Therefore, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) in vitro transcription systems were developed from green and etiolated suspension cells. Sufficient in vitro Pol II activity was detected after the minor modification of the nuclear soluble extracts preparation method; removal of vacuoles from protoplasts and L-ascorbic acid supplementation in the extraction buffer were particularly effective. Surprisingly, all four Arabidopsis Rubisco small subunit (rbcS-1A, rbcS-1B, rbcS-2B, and rbcS-3B) gene members were in vitro transcribed from the naked DNA templates without any light-dependent manner. However, clear light-inducible transcriptions were observed using chromatin template of rbcS-1A gene, which was prepared with a human nucleosome assembly protein 1 (hNAP1) and HeLa histones. This suggested that a key determinant of light-dependency through the rbcS gene transcription was a higher order of DNA structure (i.e. chromatin). PMID:26662274

  12. Developmental and reproductive performance of a specialist herbivore depend on seasonality of, and light conditions experienced by, the host plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osariyekemwen O Uyi

    Full Text Available Host plant phenology (as influenced by seasonality and light-mediated changes in the phenotypic and phytochemical properties of leaves have been hypothesised to equivocally influence insect herbivore performance. Here, we examined the effects of seasonality, through host plant phenology (late growth-season = autumn vs flowering-season = winter and light environment (shade vs full-sun habitat on the leaf characteristics of the invasive alien plant, Chromolaena odorata. In addition, the performance of a specialist folivore, Pareuchaetes insulata, feeding on leaves obtained from both shaded and full-sun habitats during autumn and winter, was evaluated over two generations. Foliar nitrogen and magnesium contents were generally higher in shaded plants with much higher levels during winter. Leaf water content was higher in shaded and in autumn plants. Total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC and phosphorus contents did not differ as a function of season, but were higher in shaded foliage compared to full-sun leaves. Leaf toughness was noticeably higher on plants growing in full-sun during winter. With the exception of shaded leaves in autumn that supported the best performance [fastest development, heaviest pupal mass, and highest growth rate and Host Suitability Index (HSI score], full-sun foliage in autumn surprisingly also supported an improved performance of the moth compared to shaded or full-sun leaves in winter. Our findings suggest that shaded and autumn foliage are nutritionally more suitable for the growth and reproduction of P. insulata. However, the heavier pupal mass, increased number of eggs and higher HSI score in individuals that fed on full-sun foliage in autumn compared to their counterparts that fed on shaded or full-sun foliage in winter suggest that full-sun foliage during autumn is also a suitable food source for larvae of the moth. In sum, our study demonstrates that seasonal and light-modulated changes in leaf characteristics can

  13. Blue-light dependent reactive oxygen species formation by Arabidopsis cryptochrome may define a novel evolutionarily conserved signaling mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consentino, Laurent; Lambert, Stefan; Martino, Carlos; Jourdan, Nathalie; Bouchet, Pierre-Etienne; Witczak, Jacques; Castello, Pablo; El-Esawi, Mohamed; Corbineau, Francoise; d'Harlingue, Alain; Ahmad, Margaret

    2015-06-01

    Cryptochromes are widespread blue-light absorbing flavoproteins with important signaling roles. In plants they mediate de-etiolation, developmental and stress responses resulting from interaction with downstream signaling partners such as transcription factors and components of the proteasome. Recently, it has been shown that Arabidopsis cry1 activation by blue light also results in direct enzymatic conversion of molecular oxygen (O2 ) to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) in vitro. Here we explored whether direct enzymatic synthesis of ROS by Arabidopsis cry1 can play a physiological role in vivo. ROS formation resulting from cry1 expression was measured by fluorescence assay in insect cell cultures and in Arabidopsis protoplasts from cryptochrome mutant seedlings. Cell death was determined by colorimetric assay. We found that ROS formation results from cry1 activation and induces cell death in insect cell cultures. In plant protoplasts, cryptochrome activation results in rapid increase in ROS formation and cell death. We conclude that ROS formation by cryptochromes may indeed be of physiological relevance and could represent a novel paradigm for cryptochrome signaling. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Spectral dependence of aerosol light absorption at an urban and a remote site over the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chong-Shu; Cao, Jun-Ji; Hu, Ta-Feng; Shen, Zhen-Xing; Tie, Xue-Xi; Huang, Hong; Wang, Qi-Yuan; Huang, Ru-Jin; Zhao, Zhu-Zi; Močnik, Griša; Hansen, Anthony D A

    2017-07-15

    We present a study of aerosol light absorption by using a 7-wavelength Aethalometer model AE33 at an urban site (Lhasa) and a remote site (Lulang) in the Tibetan Plateau. Approximately 5 times greater aerosol absorption values were observed at Lhasa (53±46Mm -1 at 370nm and 20±18Mm -1 at 950nm, respectively) in comparison to Lulang (15±19Mm -1 at 370nm and 4±5Mm -1 at 950nm, respectively). Black carbon (BC) was the dominant light absorbing aerosol component at all wavelengths. The brown carbon (BrC) absorption at 370nm is 32±15% of the total aerosol absorption at Lulang, whereas it is 8±6% at Lhasa. Higher value of absorption Ångström exponent (AAE, 370-950nm) was obtained for Lulang (1.18) than that for Lhasa (1.04) due to the presence of BrC. The AAEs (370-950nm) of BrC were directly extracted at Lulang (3.8) and Lhasa (3.3). The loading compensation parameters (k) increased with wavelengths for both sites, and lower values were obtained at Lulang than those observed at Lhasa for all wavelengths. This study underlines the relatively high percentage of BrC absorption contribution in remote area compared to urban site over the Tibetan Plateau. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Soil compaction effects on growth and root traits of tobacco depend on light, water regime and mechanical stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alameda, D.; Anten, N.P.R.; Villar, R.

    2012-01-01

    Soil compaction can strongly affect plant performance as many other stress factors. In nature, many combinations of different stress factors may be found. We expect that the effects of soil compaction may be different depending of the occurrence of other stress. This has not been fully investigated;

  16. Effect of mid-term drought on Quercus pubescens BVOCs' emission seasonality and their dependency on light and/or temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, Amélie; Ormeño, Elena; Boissard, Christophe; Wortham, Henri; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Lecareux, Caroline; Armengaud, Alexandre; Fernandez, Catherine

    2017-06-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by plants represent a large source of carbon compounds released into the atmosphere, where they account for precursors of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosols. Being directly involved in air pollution and indirectly in climate change, understanding what factors drive BVOC emissions is a prerequisite for modeling their emissions and predict air pollution. The main algorithms currently used to model BVOC emissions are mainly light and/or temperature dependent. Additional factors such as seasonality and drought also influence isoprene emissions, especially in the Mediterranean region, which is characterized by a rather long drought period in summer. These factors are increasingly included in models but only for the principal studied BVOC, namely isoprene, but there are still some discrepancies in estimations of emissions. In this study, the main BVOCs emitted by Quercus pubescens - isoprene, methanol, acetone, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, MACR, MVK and ISOPOOH (these three last compounds detected under the same m/z) - were monitored with a PTR-ToF-MS over an entire seasonal cycle during both in situ natural and amplified drought, which is expected with climate change. Amplified drought impacted all studied BVOCs by reducing emissions in spring and summer while increasing emissions in autumn. All six BVOCs monitored showed daytime light and temperature dependencies while three BVOCs (methanol, acetone and formaldehyde) also showed emissions during the night despite the absence of light under constant temperature. Moreover, methanol and acetaldehyde burst in the early morning and formaldehyde deposition and uptake were also punctually observed, which were not assessed by the classical temperature and light models.

  17. Do we expect light flavor sea-quark asymmetry also for the spin-dependent distribution functions of the nucleon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamatsu, M.; Watabe, T.

    2000-07-01

    The theoretical predictions of the chiral quark soliton model for the unpolarized and longitudinally polarized structure functions of the nucleon are compared with recent high energy data. The theory is shown to explain all the qualitative features of the experiments, including the NMC data for Fp2(x)-Fn2(x), Fn2(x)/Fp2(x), the Hermes and NuSea data for d¯(x)-ū(x), and the EMC and SMC data for gp1(x), gn1(x) and gd1(x). It also predicts at Q2=4 GeV that Δd¯(x)-Δū(x)=Cxα[d¯(x)-ū(x)] with a sizable negative coefficient C~=-2.0 (and α~=0.12), thereby strongly indicating light flavor sea-quark asymmetry also for the longitudinally polarized distribution functions.

  18. Actions of a separately strict cpo-monoid on pointed directed complete posets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halimeh Moghbeli Damaneh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ‎ In the present article‎, ‎we study some categorical properties of the category {$bf‎ Cpo_{Sep}$-$S$} of all {separately strict $S$-cpo's}; cpo's equipped with‎ a compatible right action of a separately strict cpo-monoid $S$ which is‎ strict continuous in each component‎. ‎In particular‎, we show that this category is reflective and coreflective in the‎ category of $S$-cpo's‎, ‎find the free and cofree functors‎, characterize products and coproducts‎. ‎Furthermore‎, ‎epimorphisms and‎  monomorphisms in {$bf Cpo_{Sep}$-$S$} are studied‎, ‎and show that‎ {$bf Cpo_{Sep}$-$S$} is not cartesian closed‎.

  19. The photon is no strict particle and nonlocality is far from being proven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greulich, Karl Otto [Fritz Lipmann Institut, Jena (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Two aspects of philosophical discussions on physics are the wave particle dualism and non locality including entanglement. However the strict particle aspect of the photon, in the common sense view, has never been proven. The accumulation time argument, the only experimental verification of a strictly particle like photon, has so far not yet been satisfied. Also, experiments thought to prove nonlocality have loophole which have so far not yet been safely closed, and now an even more serious loophole emerges. Thus, also nonlocality cannot be seen as proven. This demands some fine tuning of philosophical discussions on critical experiments in physics.

  20. Physics-Based Compact Model for CIGS and CdTe Solar Cells: From Voltage-Dependent Carrier Collection to Light-Enhanced Reverse Breakdown: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xingshu; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful; Raguse, John; Garris, Rebekah; Deline, Chris; Silverman, Timothy

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, we develop a physics-based compact model for copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) heterojunction solar cells that attributes the failure of superposition to voltage-dependent carrier collection in the absorber layer, and interprets light-enhanced reverse breakdown as a consequence of tunneling-assisted Poole-Frenkel conduction. The temperature dependence of the model is validated against both simulation and experimental data for the entire range of bias conditions. The model can be used to characterize device parameters, optimize new designs, and most importantly, predict performance and reliability of solar panels including the effects of self-heating and reverse breakdown due to partial-shading degradation.

  1. Impact of brown and clear carbon on light absorption enhancement, single scatter albedo and absorption wavelength dependence of black carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Lack

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of clear coatings on atmospheric black carbon (BC particles is known to enhance the magnitude of light absorption by the BC cores. Based on calculations using core/shell Mie theory, we demonstrate that the enhancement of light absorption (EAbs by atmospheric black carbon (BC when it is coated in mildly absorbing material (CBrown is reduced relative to the enhancement induced by non-absorbing coatings (CClear. This reduction, sensitive to both the CBrown coating thickness and imaginary refractive index (RI, can be up to 50% for 400 nm radiation and 25% averaged across the visible radiation spectrum for reasonable core/shell diameters. The enhanced direct radiative forcing possible due to the enhancement effect of CClear is therefore reduced if the coating is absorbing. Additionally, the need to explicitly treat BC as an internal, as opposed to external, mixture with CBrown is shown to be important to the calculated single scatter albedo only when models treat BC as large spherical cores (>50 nm. For smaller BC cores (or fractal agglomerates consideration of the BC and CBrown as an external mixture leads to relatively small errors in the particle single scatter albedo of <0.03. It has often been assumed that observation of an absorption Angström exponent (AAE>1 indicates absorption by a non-BC aerosol. Here, it is shown that BC cores coated in CClear can reasonably have an AAE of up to 1.6, a result that complicates the attribution of observed light absorption to CBrown within ambient particles. However, an AAE<1.6 does not exclude the possibility of CBrown; rather CBrown cannot be confidently assigned unless AAE>1.6. Comparison of these model

  2. History dependent magnetoresistance in lightly doped La2−xSrxCuO4 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Xiaoyan; Popović, Dragana; Panagopoulos, C.; Logvenov, G.; Bollinger, A.T.; Božović, I.

    2012-01-01

    The in-plane magnetoresistance (MR) in atomically smooth La 2−x Sr x CuO 4 thin films grown by molecular-beam-epitaxy was measured in magnetic fields B up to 9 T over a wide range of temperatures T. The films, with x=0.03 and x=0.05, are insulating, and the positive MR emerges at T<4K. The positive MR exhibits glassy features, including history dependence and memory, for all orientations of B. The results show that this behavior, which reflects the onset of glassiness in the dynamics of doped holes, is a robust feature of the insulating state.

  3. Exciton quenching in emitter blends for organic light emitting devices probed by electric field-dependent time-resolved luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, J; Mezyk, J; Meinardi, F; Tubino, R; Cocchi, M; Virgili, D

    2008-03-28

    We investigate quenching mechanisms of excited states in emitter layers for organic light emitting diodes (LEDs). An extensive study of a strong electric field-induced modulation (over 50%) of the time-resolved luminescence in a diamine derivative (TPD): polycarbonate blend films doped with an organic complex of europium are presented as a typical example of an important class of emitters for organic monochromatic LEDs. Using this method allowed us to identify the quenched species as the excited ligand precursors of the emissive europium ion states. Manipulating the electrode materials and their electrical bias, the electric field-enhanced dissociation, and interaction with injected charge could be separated and found as principal quenching mechanisms. We show the first one to follow the three-dimensional Onsager theory of geminate recombination, and the second one raised by their interaction with the TPD-transported holes. The interaction rate constant is found to be underlain by the three-dimensional diffusion of excited ligand singlets, combining the exciton diffusion coefficient and long-range (Forster type) energy transfer parameters. The dynamic parameters of the hole-precursor excitons interactions, extracted from the experimental data, allow us to establish the criteria for identifying useful ligands and matrices in the optimized design of electrophosphorescent, linelike emitting molecules, and device structure for organic LEDs.

  4. Observing how others lift light or heavy objects: time-dependent encoding of grip force in the primary motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaerts, Kaat; de Beukelaar, Toon T; Swinnen, Stephan P; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2012-07-01

    During movement observation, corticomotor excitability of the observer's primary motor cortex (M1) is modulated according to the force requirements of the observed action. Here, we explored the time course of observation-induced force encoding. Force-related changes in M1-excitability were assessed by delivering transcranial magnetic stimulations at distinct temporal phases of an observed reach-grasp-lift action. Temporal changes in force-related electromyographic activity were also assessed during active movement execution. In observation conditions in which a heavy object was lifted, M1-excitability was higher compared to conditions in which a light object was lifted. Both during observation and execution, differential force encoding tended to gradually increase from the grasping phase until the late lift phase. Surprisingly, however, during observation, force encoding was already present at the early reach phase: a time point at which no visual cues on the object's weight were available to the observer. As the observer was aware that the same weight condition was presented repeatedly, this finding may indicate that prior predictions concerning the upcoming weight condition are reflected by M1 excitability. Overall, findings may provide indications that the observer's motor system represents motor predictions as well as muscular requirements to infer the observed movement goal.

  5. More strictly protected areas are not necessarily more protective: evidence from Bolivia, Costa Rica, Indonesia, and Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Paul J; Hanauer, Merlin M; Miteva, Daniela A; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K; Canavire-Bacarreza, Gustavo Javier; Sims, Katharine R E

    2013-01-01

    National parks and other protected areas are at the forefront of global efforts to protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, not all protection is equal. Some areas are assigned strict legal protection that permits few extractive human uses. Other protected area designations permit a wider range of uses. Whether strictly protected areas are more effective in achieving environmental objectives is an empirical question: although strictly protected areas legally permit less anthropogenic disturbance, the social conflicts associated with assigning strict protection may lead politicians to assign strict protection to less-threatened areas and may lead citizens or enforcement agents to ignore the strict legal restrictions. We contrast the impacts of strictly and less strictly protected areas in four countries using IUCN designations to measure de jure strictness, data on deforestation to measure outcomes, and a quasi-experimental design to estimate impacts. On average, stricter protection reduced deforestation rates more than less strict protection, but the additional impact was not always large and sometimes arose because of where stricter protection was assigned rather than regulatory strictness per se. We also show that, in protected area studies contrasting y management regimes, there are y 2 policy-relevant impacts, rather than only y, as earlier studies have implied. (letter)

  6. Light-Dependent Kinetics of 2-Carboxyarabinitol 1-Phosphate Metabolism and Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase Activity in Vivo1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobza, John; Seemann, Jeffrey R.

    1989-01-01

    The light-dependent kinetics of the apparent in vivo synthesis and degradation of 2-carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate (CA1P) were studied in three species of higher plants which differ in the extent to which this compound is involved in the light-dependent regulation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) activity. Detailed studies with Phaseolus vulgaris indicate that both the degradation and synthesis of this compound are light-stimulated, although light is absolutely required only for CA1P degradation. We hypothesize that the steady state level of CAIP at any particular photon flux density (PFD) represents a pseudo-steady state balance between ongoing synthesis and degradation of this compound. The rate of CA1P synthesis in P. vulgaris and the resultant reduction in the total catalytic constant of Rubisco were maximal at 200 micromoles quanta per square meter per second following a step decrease from a saturating PFD, and substantially faster than the rate of synthesis in the dark. Under these conditions an amount of CA1P equivalent to approximately 25% of the Rubisco catalytic site content was synthesized in less than 1 minute. The rate of synthesis was reduced at higher or lower PFDs. In Beta vulgaris, the rate of CA1P synthesis at 200 micromoles quanta per square meter per second was substantially slower than in P. vulgaris. In Spinacea oleracea, an apparent noncatalytic tight-binding of RuBP to deactivated sites on the enzyme was found to occur following a step decrease in PFD. When dark acclimated leaves of P. vulgaris were exposed to a step increase in PFD, the initial rate of CA1P degradation was also found to be dependent on PFD up to a maximum of approximately 300 to 400 micromoles quanta per square meter per second. The rate of degradation of this compound was similar in B. vulgaris. In S. oleracea, a step increase in PFD resulted in noncatalytic RuBP binding to Rubisco followed by an apparent release of RuBP and activation of the enzyme. The

  7. Time-of-day- and light-dependent expression of ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component N-recognin 4 (UBR4 in the suprachiasmatic nucleus circadian clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrod H Ling

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms of behavior and physiology are driven by the biological clock that operates endogenously but can also be entrained to the light-dark cycle of the environment. In mammals, the master circadian pacemaker is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, which is composed of individual cellular oscillators that are driven by a set of core clock genes interacting in transcriptional/translational feedback loops. Light signals can trigger molecular events in the SCN that ultimately impact on the phase of expression of core clock genes to reset the master pacemaker. While transcriptional regulation has received much attention in the field of circadian biology in the past, other mechanisms including targeted protein degradation likely contribute to the clock timing and entrainment process. In the present study, proteome-wide screens of the murine SCN led to the identification of ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component N-recognin 4 (UBR4, a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase component of the N-end rule pathway, as a time-of-day-dependent and light-inducible protein. The spatial and temporal expression pattern of UBR4 in the SCN was subsequently characterized by immunofluorescence microscopy. UBR4 is expressed across the entire rostrocaudal extent of the SCN in a time-of-day-dependent fashion. UBR4 is localized exclusively to arginine vasopressin (AVP-expressing neurons of the SCN shell. Upon photic stimulation in the early subjective night, the number of UBR4-expressing cells within the SCN increases. This study is the first to identify a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase component, UBR4, in the murine SCN and to implicate the N-end rule degradation pathway as a potential player in regulating core clock mechanisms and photic entrainment.

  8. Sex Ratio and Body Mass of Adult Herbivorous Beetles Depend on Time of Occurrence and Light Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Łukowski

    Full Text Available Body mass and sex ratio (F/M of folivorous insects are easily measured parameters that are commonly used to assess the effect of food quality, living conditions, and preferences on the selection of favourable sites for offspring. A study was conducted on the polyphagous beetle, Gonioctenaquinquepunctata (a pest of the native Prunus padus and alien P. serotina and on the monophagous beetle, Alticabrevicollis coryletorum (a pest of Corylus avellana. Both species have a similar life cycle with emergence of current-year adults in summer, and reproduction of 1-year-old insects in spring. A. brevicollis coryletorum feeds primarily on sunlit shrubs, while G. quinquepunctata prefers shaded leaves. The present study assessed the effect of time of occurrence(insect age on body mass in both sexes and on the sex ratio F/M, taking into account the influence of light conditions associated with their favoured food source (sunlit vs. shaded leaves. We hypothesized that a change in body mass in current-year insects would be determined by the amount of consumed food, while the sex ratio would be stable, when in 1-year-old insects females would die shortly after oviposition, while males would be active for a prolonged time. Results confirmed the hypothesis that changes in mass of current-year beetles was determined by the amount of food intake. We also found that in spring, unfertilized females coexist with fertilized ones and that the latter females live for some time after oviposition; resulting in fluctuations of the mean mass for females. In both species, 1-year-old beetles were heavier than current-year. The preference of A. brevicollis coryletorum for sunlit leaves results in a higher body weight than in G. quinquepunctata in both seasons. The data are consistent and indicate seasonal fluctuations in body mass and changes in the sex ratio in 1-year-old beetles, due to the entrance into their reproductive period.

  9. Dependence of plasma treatment of ITO electrode films on electrical and optical properties of polymer light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Baek, Seung Jun; Chang, Ho Jung; Chang, Young Chul

    2012-01-01

    Polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) having indium tin oxide (ITO)/PEDOT:PSS [poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate]/PVK [poly-vinylcarbazole]:PFO-poss [poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) end capped by polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane]/TPBI [2,2',2''-(1,3,5-benzinetriyl)-tris(1-phenyl-1-H-benzimidazole)]/LiF/Al structures were prepared on plasma-treated ITO/glass substrates using spin-coating and thermal evaporation methods. The effects of the plasma treatment on the ITO films to the optical and electrical properties of the PLEDs were examined. The sheet resistance of the ITO films decreased with an increasing radio frequency (RF) plasma intensity from 20 to 200 W under a 20 mTorr Ar + O 2 gas (50:50 vol.%) pressure. The work function of the ITO films without plasma treatment was 4.97 eV, and increased to about 5.16-5.23 eV after the plasma treatment of the films. The surface roughness improved with increasing plasma intensities. The luminance and current efficiency of the PLEDs were improved when the devices were prepared on the plasma-treated ITO/glass substrates. The maximum current density and luminance for the PLEDs was obtained at a 150-W RF plasma intensity; they were 310 mA cm -2 and 2535 cd m -2 at 9 V, respectively. The Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates were found to be x, y = 0.17, 0.06-0.07, showing a good blue color. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Assessment Of Mold-Design Dependent Textures In CIM-Components By Polarized Light Optical Texture Analysis (PLOTA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, Frank; Rauch, Johannes; Gadow, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    By thermoplastic ceramic injection moulding (CIM) ceramic components of high complexity can be produced in a large number of items at low dimensional tolerances. The cost advantage by the high degree of automation leads to an economical mass-production. The structure of injection-moulded components is determined by the form filling behaviour and viscosity of the feedstock, the machine parameters, the design of the mold and the gate design. With an adapted mold- and gate-design CIM-components without textures are possible. The ''Polarized Light Optical Texture analysis'' (PLOTA) makes it possible to inspect the components and detect and quantify the textures produced by a new mold. Based on the work of R. Fischer (2004) the PLOTA procedure was improved by including the possibility to measure the inclination angle and thus describe the orientation of the grains in three dimensions. Sampled thin sections of ceramic components are analysed under the polarization microscope and are brought in diagonal position. Pictures are taken with a digital camera. The pictures are converted in the L*a*b*- colour space and the crystals color values a* and b* in the picture are measured. The color values are compared with the values of a quartz wedge, which serves as universal standard. From the received values the inclination angle can be calculated relative to the microscope axis. It is possible to use the received data quantitatively e.g. for the FEM supported simulation of texture-conditioned divergences of mechanical values. Thus the injection molding parameters can be optimized to obtain improved mechanical properties

  11. Dipole resonances in light neutron-rich nuclei studied with time-dependent calculations of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanada-En'yo, Y.; Kimura, M.

    2005-01-01

    To study isovector dipole responses of neutron-rich nuclei, we applied a time-dependent method of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics. The dipole resonances in Be, B, and C isotopes were investigated. In 10 Be, 15 B, and 16 C, collective modes of the vibration between a core and valence neutrons cause soft resonances at the excitation energy E x =10-15 MeV below the giant dipole resonance (GDR). In 16 C, we found that a remarkable peak at E x =14 MeV corresponds to the coherent motion of four valence neutrons against a 12 C core, whereas the GDR arises in the E x >20 MeV region because of vibration within the core. In 17 B and 18 C, the dipole strengths in the low-energy region decline compared with those in 15 B and 16 C. We also discuss the energy-weighted sum rule for the E1 transitions

  12. Strict Monotonicity and Unique Continuation for the Third-Order Spectrum of Biharmonic Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Ben Haddouch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We will study the spectrum for the biharmonic operator involving the laplacian and the gradient of the laplacian with weight, which we call third-order spectrum. We will show that the strict monotonicity of the eigenvalues of the operator , where , holds if some unique continuation property is satisfied by the corresponding eigenfunctions.

  13. "Let the Master Respond": Should Schools Be Strictly Liable When Employees Sexually Abuse Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossey, Richard; DeMitchell, Todd

    Although sexual abuse against children is a problem in the public schools, school officials have generally not acted aggressively to stop it. This paper argues for a strict liability standard--the assessment of liability without fault--against a school district in cases of student sexual abuse by a school employee. Part 1 explores the principle of…

  14. Detection of low numbers of microplastics in North Sea fish using strict quality assurance criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermsen, E.; Pompe, R.; Besseling, E.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated 400 individual fish of four North Sea species: Atlantic Herring, Sprat, Common Dab, and Whiting on ingestion of > 20 μm microplastic. Strict quality assurance criteria were followed in order to control contamination during the study. Two plastic particles were found in only 1 (a

  15. History, administration, goals, values, and long-term data of Russia's strictly protected scientific nature reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin A. Spetich; Anna E. Kvashnina; Y.D. Nukhimovskya; Olin E. Jr. Rhodes

    2009-01-01

    One of the most comprehensive attempts at biodiversity conservation in Russia and the former Soviet Union has been the establishment of an extensive network of protected natural areas. Among all types of protected areas in Russia, zapovedniks (strictly protected scientific preserve) have been the most effective in protecting biodiversity at the ecosystem scale. Russia...

  16. The Preventive Effect of Strict Gun Control Laws on Suicide and Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; Murrell, Mary E.

    1982-01-01

    Examined state gun control laws and used a multidimensional scaling technique to study the relationship of strictness and death rates. Results showed states with stricter laws had lower suicide rates by firearms but higher rates by other means. No effect on homicide was found. (JAC)

  17. Diabetic retinopathy assessed by dynamic light scattering and corneal autofluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovati, Luigi; Fankhauser, Franz; Docchio, Franco; Van Best, Jaap A.

    1998-07-01

    Autofluorescence of the cornea within specific wavelength region and dynamic light scattering measurements of ocular tissue have both been used for early-stage detection of the presence of diabetic retinopathy. In the present study, autofluorescence of the cornea and dynamic light scattering in the cornea and vitreous have been measured and compared using two innovative research instruments in twenty-two insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients, for the diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy. Corneal autofluorescence mean values in each diabetic retinopathy grade significantly correlated with dynamic light scattering measurements in the vitreous, and in the cornea, thus confirming that changes in the natural fluorescence is strictly correlated with molecular changes of ocular tissues.

  18. Pressure-Dependent Light Emission of Charged and Neutral Excitons in Monolayer MoSe 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Xinpeng [State; Li, Fangfei [State; Lin, Jung-Fu [Department; Gong, Yuanbo [State; Huang, Xiaoli [State; Huang, Yanping [State; Han, Bo [State; Zhou, Qiang [State; Cui, Tian [State

    2017-07-19

    Tailoring the excitonic properties in two-dimensional monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) through strain engineering is an effective means to explore their potential applications in optoelectronics and nanoelectronics. Here we report pressure-tuned photon emission of trions and excitons in monolayer MoSe2 via a diamond anvil cell (DAC) through photoluminescence measurements and theoretical calculations. Under quasi-hydrostatic compressive strain, our results show neutral (X0) and charged (X–) exciton emission of monolayer MoSe2 can be effectively tuned by alcohol mixture vs inert argon pressure transmitting media (PTM). During this process, X– emission undergoes a continuous blue shift until reaching saturation, while X0 emission turns up splitting. The pressure-dependent charging effect observed in alcohol mixture PTM results in the increase of the X– exciton component and facilitates the pressure-tuned emission of X– excitons. This substantial tunability of X– and X0 excitons in MoSe2 can be extended to other 2D TMDs, which holds potential for developing strained and optical sensing devices.

  19. Close correspondence between the action spectra for the blue light responses of the guard cell and coleoptile chloroplasts, and the spectra for blue light-dependent stomatal opening and coleoptile phototropism.

    OpenAIRE

    Quiñones, M A; Lu, Z; Zeiger, E

    1996-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to characterize blue light responses from chloroplasts of adaxial guard cells from Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense) and coleoptile tips from corn (Zea mays). The chloroplast response to blue light was quantified by measurements of the blue light-induced enhancement of a red light-stimulated quenching of chlorophyll a fluorescence. In adaxial (upper) guard cells, low fluence rates of blue light applied under saturating fluence rates of red light enhanced th...

  20. Dependence of Interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction on Layer Thicknesses in Ta /Co -Fe -B /TaOx Heterostructures from Brillouin Light Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasiya, Avinash Kumar; Choudhury, Samiran; Sinha, Jaivardhan; Barman, Anjan

    2018-01-01

    The interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (IDMI) has recently drawn extensive research interest due to its fundamental role in stabilizing chiral spin textures in ultrathin ferromagnets, which are suitable candidates for future magnetic-memory devices. Here, we explore the ferromagnetic and heavy-metal layer-thickness dependence of IDMI in technologically important Ta /Co20Fe60B20/TaOx heterostructures by measuring nonreciprocity in spin-wave frequency using the Brillouin light-scattering technique. The observed value of the IDMI constant agrees with that obtained from a separate measurement of in-plane angular dependence of frequency nonreciprocity, which is also in good agreement with the theory predicted by Cortes-Ortuno and Landeros. Linear scaling behavior of IDMI with the inverse of Co-Fe-B thicknesses suggests that IDMI originates primarily from the interface in these heterostructures, whereas we observe a weak dependence of Ta thickness on the strength of IDMI. Importantly, the observed value of the IDMI constant is reasonably large by a factor of 3 compared to annealed Ta /Co -Fe -B /MgO heterostructures. We propose that the observation of large IDMI is likely due to the absence of boron diffusion towards the Ta /Co -Fe -B interface as the heterostructures are as deposited. Our detailed investigation opens up a route to designing thin-film heterostructures with the tailored IDMI constant for controlling Skyrmion-based magnetic-memory devices.

  1. Light and low-CO2-dependent LCIB-LCIC complex localization in the chloroplast supports the carbon-concentrating mechanism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Takashi; Tsujikawa, Tomoki; Hatano, Kyoko; Ozawa, Shin-Ichiro; Takahashi, Yuichiro; Fukuzawa, Hideya

    2010-09-01

    The carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) is essential to support photosynthesis under CO2-limiting conditions in aquatic photosynthetic organisms, including the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The CCM is assumed to be comprised of inorganic carbon transport systems that, in conjunction with carbonic anhydrases, maintain high levels of CO2 around ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in a specific compartment called the pyrenoid. A set of transcripts up-regulated during the induction of the CCM was identified previously and designated as low-CO2 (LC)-inducible genes. Although the functional importance of one of these LC-inducible genes, LciB, has been shown recently, the biochemical properties and detailed subcellular localization of its product LCIB remain to be elucidated. Here, using yeast two-hybrid, immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analyses we provide evidence to demonstrate that LCIB interacts with the LCIB homologous protein LCIC in yeast and in vivo. We also show that LCIB and LCIC are co-localized in the vicinity of the pyrenoid under LC conditions in the light, forming a hexamer complex of approximately 350 kDa, as estimated by gel filtration chromatography. LCIB localization around the pyrenoid was dependent on light illumination and LC conditions during active operation of the CCM. In contrast, in the dark or under high-CO2 conditions when the CCM was inactive, LCIB immediately diffused away from the pyrenoid. Based on these observations, we discuss possible functions of the LCIB-LCIC complex in the CCM.

  2. Light- and pH-dependent conformational changes in protein structure induce strong bending of purple membranes--active membranes studied by cryo-SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhinow, Daniel; Hampp, Norbert A

    2008-10-16

    Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) undergoes a conformational change during the photocycle and the proton transport through the membrane. For the first time, we could demonstrate by direct imaging of freely suspended native purple membranes (PMs) that the flat disk-like shape of PMs changes dramatically as soon as most of the BRs are in a state characterized by a deprotonated Schiff base. Light-induced shape changes are easily observed with mutated BRs of the BR-D96N type, i.e., all variants which show an increased M 2 lifetime. On the other hand, large-scale shape changes are induced by pH changes with PM containing mutated BRs of the BR-D85T type, where Asp85 is replaced for a neutral amino acid. In such PMs, all BRs are titrated simultaneously and the resulting shape of the membranes depends on the initial shape only. As the majority of PMs in the "flat" state are more or less round disks, the bent membranes often comprise bowl-like and tube-like bent structures. The method presented here enables one to derive size changes of membrane-embedded BRs on the single molecule level from "macroscopic", easily accessible data like the curvature radii observed in cryo-SEM. The potential of BR as a pH-controlled and/or light-controlled microscaled biological actuator needs further consideration.

  3. A Criterium for the Strict Positivity of the Density of the Law of a Poisson Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léandre Rémi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We translate in semigroup theory our result (Léandre, 1990 giving a necessary condition so that the law of a Markov process with jumps could have a strictly positive density. This result express, that we have to jump in a finite number of jumps in a "submersive" way from the starting point to the end point if the density of the jump process is strictly positive in . We use the Malliavin Calculus of Bismut type of (Léandre, (2008;2010 translated in semi-group theory as a tool, and the interpretation in semi-group theory of some classical results of the stochastic analysis for Poisson process as, for instance, the formula giving the law of a compound Poisson process.

  4. The effect of 8 days of strict bed rest on the incretin effect in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Harder-Lauridsen, Nina Majlund; Benatti, Fabiana Braga

    2016-01-01

    in the levels of GLP-1 and Glucagon. Bed rest led to a mean loss of 2.4 kg of fat-free mass, and induced insulin resistance evaluated by the Matsuda index, but did not affect the incretin effect (P = 0.6). In conclusion, 8 days of bed rest induces insulin resistance, but we did not see evidence of an associated......Bed rest and physical inactivity are the consequences of hospital admission for many patients. Physical inactivity induces changes in glucose metabolism, but its effect on the incretin effect, which is reduced in, e.g., Type 2 diabetes, is unknown. To investigate how 8 days of strict bed rest...... affects the incretin effect, 10 healthy nonobese male volunteers underwent 8 days of strict bed rest. Before and after the intervention, all volunteers underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) followed by an intravenous glucose infusion (IVGI) on the following day to mimic the blood glucose profile...

  5. Detection of low numbers of microplastics in North Sea fish using strict quality assurance criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsen, Enya; Pompe, Renske; Besseling, Ellen; Koelmans, Albert A

    2017-09-15

    We investigated 400 individual fish of four North Sea species: Atlantic Herring, Sprat, Common Dab, and Whiting on ingestion of >20μm microplastic. Strict quality assurance criteria were followed in order to control contamination during the study. Two plastic particles were found in only 1 (a Sprat) out of 400 individuals (0.25%, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.09-1.1%). The particles were identified to consist of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) through FTIR spectroscopy. No contamination occurred during the study, showing the method applied to be suitable for microplastic ingestion studies in biota. We discuss the low particle count for North Sea fish with those in other studies and suggest a relation between reported particle count and degree of quality assurance applied. Microplastic ingestion by fish may be less common than thought initially, with low incidence shown in this study, and other studies adhering to strict quality assurance criteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic hydrogen-producing culture enriched from digested household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Kotay, Shireen Meher; Trably, Eric

    2009-01-01

    sources. Growth on glucose produced acetate, H-2 and carbon dioxide. Maximal H-2 production rate on glucose was 1.1 mmol l(-1) h(-1) with a maximum H-2 yield of 1.9 mole H-2 per mole glucose. 16S ribosomal DNA clone library analyses showed that the culture members were phylogenetically affiliated......The aim of this study was to enrich, characterize and identify strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic hydrogen (H-2) producers from digested household solid wastes. A strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic H-2 producing bacterial culture was enriched from a lab-scale digester treating household...... wastes at 70 degrees C. The enriched mixed culture consisted of two rod-shaped bacterial members growing at an optimal temperature of 80 degrees C and an optimal pH 8.1. The culture was able to utilize glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, arabinose, maltose, sucrose, pyruvate and glycerol as carbon...

  7. A Hybrid P2P Overlay Network for Non-strictly Hierarchically Categorized Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yi; Asaka, Takuya; Takahashi, Tatsuro

    In P2P content distribution systems, there are many cases in which the content can be classified into hierarchically organized categories. In this paper, we propose a hybrid overlay network design suitable for such content called Pastry/NSHCC (Pastry for Non-Strictly Hierarchically Categorized Content). The semantic information of classification hierarchies of the content can be utilized regardless of whether they are in a strict tree structure or not. By doing so, the search scope can be restrained to any granularity, and the number of query messages also decreases while maintaining keyword searching availability. Through simulation, we showed that the proposed method provides better performance and lower overhead than unstructured overlays exploiting the same semantic information.

  8. Weak asymptotic solution for a non-strictly hyperbolic system of conservation laws-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Ranjan Sahoo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce a concept of entropy weak asymptotic solution for a system of conservation laws and construct the same for a prolonged system of conservation laws which is highly non-strictly hyperbolic. This is first done for Riemann type initial data by introducing $\\delta,\\delta',\\delta''$ waves along a discontinuity curve and then for general initial data by piecing together the Riemann solutions.

  9. Multiple-Set Split Feasibility Problems for κ-Strictly Pseudononspreading Mapping in Hilbert Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Quan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to prove some weak and strong convergence theorems for solving the multiple-set split feasibility problems for κ-strictly pseudononspreading mapping in infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces by using the proposed iterative method. The main results presented in this paper extend and improve the corresponding results of Xu et al. (2006, of Osilike et al. (2011, and of many other authors.

  10. Multiobjective Optimization for the Forecasting Models on the Base of the Strictly Binary Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Nadezhda Astakhova; Liliya Demidova; Evgeny Nikulchev

    2016-01-01

    The optimization problem dealing with the development of the forecasting models on the base of strictly binary trees has been considered. The aim of paper is the comparative analysis of two optimization variants which are applied for the development of the forecasting models. Herewith the first optimization variant assumes the application of one quality indicator of the forecasting model named as the affinity indicator and the second variant realizes the application of two quality indicators ...

  11. Cannabis legalization with strict regulation, the overall superior policy option for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, J; Fischer, B

    2015-06-01

    Cannabis is the most prevalently used drug globally, with many jurisdictions considering varying reform options to current policies to deal with this substance and associated harm. Three policy options are available: prohibition, decriminalization, and legalization, with prohibition currently the dominant model globally. This contribution gives reasons why legalization with strict regulation should be considered superior to other options with respect to public health in high income countries in North America. © 2015 ASCPT.

  12. Examination of the PCICE method in the nearly incompressible, as well as strictly incompressible, limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, Ray A.; Martineau, Richard C.

    2007-01-01

    The conservative-form, pressure-based PCICE numerical method (Martineau and Berry, 2004) (Berry, 2006), recently developed for computing transient fluid flows of all speeds from very low to very high (with strong shocks), is simplified and generalized. Though the method automatically treats a continuous transition of compressibility, three distinct, limiting compressibility regimes are formally defined for purposes of discussion and comparison with traditional methods - the strictly incompressible limit, the nearly incompressible limit, and the fully compressible limit. The PCICE method's behavior is examined in each limiting regime. In the strictly incompressible limit the PCICE algorithm reduces to the traditional MAC-type method with velocity divergence driving the pressure Poisson equation. In the nearly incompressible limit the PCICE algorithm is found to reduce to a generalization of traditional incompressible methods, i.e. to one in which not only the velocity divergence effect, but also the density gradient effect is included as a driving function in the pressure Poisson equation. This nearly incompressible regime has received little attention, and it appears that in the past, strictly incompressible methods may have been conveniently applied to flows in this regime at the expense of ignoring a potentially important coupling mechanism. This could be significant in many important flows; for example, in natural convection flows resulting from high heat flux. In the fully compressible limit or regime, the algorithm is found to reduce to an expression equivalent to density-based methods for high-speed flow. (author)

  13. TESTING STRICT HYDROSTATIC EQUILIBRIUM IN SIMULATED CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR A1689

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, S. M.; Umetsu, K.; Chiu, I.-N.; Chen, P.; Hearn, N.; Broadhurst, T.; Bryan, G.; Shang, C.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate mass determination of clusters of galaxies is crucial if they are to be used as cosmological probes. However, there are some discrepancies between cluster masses determined based on gravitational lensing and X-ray observations assuming strict hydrostatic equilibrium (i.e., the equilibrium gas pressure is provided entirely by thermal pressure). Cosmological simulations suggest that turbulent gas motions remaining from hierarchical structure formation may provide a significant contribution to the equilibrium pressure in clusters. We analyze a sample of massive clusters of galaxies drawn from high-resolution cosmological simulations and find a significant contribution (20%-45%) from non-thermal pressure near the center of relaxed clusters, and, in accord with previous studies, a minimum contribution at about 0.1 R vir , growing to about 30%-45% at the virial radius, R vir . Our results strongly suggest that relaxed clusters should have significant non-thermal support in their core region. As an example, we test the validity of strict hydrostatic equilibrium in the well-studied massive galaxy cluster A1689 using the latest high-resolution gravitational lensing and X-ray observations. We find a contribution of about 40% from non-thermal pressure within the core region of A1689, suggesting an alternate explanation for the mass discrepancy: the strict hydrostatic equilibrium is not valid in this region.

  14. Temporary Strict Maternal Avoidance of Cow’s Milk and Infantile Colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Sajedi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Infant colic is a common problem characterized by excessive crying and fussing. We examined whether colic symptoms of exclusively breast-milk-fed infants would be improved by temporary strict maternal avoidance of cows milk. This study is analytic and experimental. Sixty-six subjects were recruited during winter of 2006 from a clinic in Isfahan, Iran. Breast-milk-fed in-fants with "colic", age 3-6 months and to be in otherwise good health were referred by pediatri-cians. The intervention was 1 week period of strict maternal avoidance of cows milk while they continued exclusive breast-milk-feeding. All infants showed improvement in distressed behavior (crying and fussing during intervention. The total recorded crying and fussing time was reduced by an average of 31%. A significant difference was found in cry and fuss time between first and last 2 days of intervention (P = 0.000. Cows milk proteins may play an etiologic role in colic. We propose that a brief intervention with strict maternal avoidance of cows milk may be an effective treatment for colic in some breast-milk-fed infants.

  15. Rate Control Efficacy in Permanent Atrial Fibrillation : Successful and Failed Strict Rate Control Against a Background of Lenient Rate Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenveld, Hessel F.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Crijns, Harry J. G. M.; Van den Berg, Maarten P.; Hillege, Hans L.; Alings, Marco; Van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to investigate differences in outcome between patients treated with successful strict, failed strict, and lenient rate control. Background The RACE II (Rate Control Efficacy in Permanent Atrial Fibrillation) study showed no difference in outcome between lenient and

  16. The Chloroplastic Protein THF1 Interacts with the Coiled-Coil Domain of the Disease Resistance Protein N′ and Regulates Light-Dependent Cell Death1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Ken-Taro; Wallon, Thérèse; Sugiwaka, Yuji; Kobayashi, Kappei

    2016-01-01

    One branch of plant immunity is mediated through nucleotide-binding/Leu-rich repeat (NB-LRR) family proteins that recognize specific effectors encoded by pathogens. Members of the I2-like family constitute a well-conserved subgroup of NB-LRRs from Solanaceae possessing a coiled-coil (CC) domain at their N termini. We show here that the CC domains of several I2-like proteins are able to induce a hypersensitive response (HR), a form of programmed cell death associated with disease resistance. Using yeast two-hybrid screens, we identified the chloroplastic protein Thylakoid Formation1 (THF1) as an interacting partner for several I2-like CC domains. Co-immunoprecipitations and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays confirmed that THF1 and I2-like CC domains interact in planta and that these interactions take place in the cytosol. Several HR-inducing I2-like CC domains have a negative effect on the accumulation of THF1, suggesting that the latter is destabilized by active CC domains. To confirm this model, we investigated N′, which recognizes the coat protein of most Tobamoviruses, as a prototypical member of the I2-like family. Transient expression and gene silencing data indicated that THF1 functions as a negative regulator of cell death and that activation of full-length N′ results in the destabilization of THF1. Consistent with the known function of THF1 in maintaining chloroplast homeostasis, we show that the HR induced by N′ is light-dependent. Together, our results define, to our knowledge, novel molecular mechanisms linking light and chloroplasts to the induction of cell death by a subgroup of NB-LRR proteins. PMID:26951433

  17. The Chloroplastic Protein THF1 Interacts with the Coiled-Coil Domain of the Disease Resistance Protein N' and Regulates Light-Dependent Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Louis-Philippe; Sekine, Ken-Taro; Wallon, Thérèse; Sugiwaka, Yuji; Kobayashi, Kappei; Moffett, Peter

    2016-05-01

    One branch of plant immunity is mediated through nucleotide-binding/Leu-rich repeat (NB-LRR) family proteins that recognize specific effectors encoded by pathogens. Members of the I2-like family constitute a well-conserved subgroup of NB-LRRs from Solanaceae possessing a coiled-coil (CC) domain at their N termini. We show here that the CC domains of several I2-like proteins are able to induce a hypersensitive response (HR), a form of programmed cell death associated with disease resistance. Using yeast two-hybrid screens, we identified the chloroplastic protein Thylakoid Formation1 (THF1) as an interacting partner for several I2-like CC domains. Co-immunoprecipitations and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays confirmed that THF1 and I2-like CC domains interact in planta and that these interactions take place in the cytosol. Several HR-inducing I2-like CC domains have a negative effect on the accumulation of THF1, suggesting that the latter is destabilized by active CC domains. To confirm this model, we investigated N', which recognizes the coat protein of most Tobamoviruses, as a prototypical member of the I2-like family. Transient expression and gene silencing data indicated that THF1 functions as a negative regulator of cell death and that activation of full-length N' results in the destabilization of THF1. Consistent with the known function of THF1 in maintaining chloroplast homeostasis, we show that the HR induced by N' is light-dependent. Together, our results define, to our knowledge, novel molecular mechanisms linking light and chloroplasts to the induction of cell death by a subgroup of NB-LRR proteins. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Strict versus liberal insulin therapy in the cardiac surgery patient: An evidence-based practice development, implementation and evaluation project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jacqueline M; Lauver, Lori S; Buck, Harleah G

    2018-02-01

    Hyperglycemia post-cardiac surgery is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Recent studies suggest maintaining liberal glycemic control (liberal CII protocol. Retrospective review of 144 strict CII patient records and 147 liberal CII patient records. Mean blood glucose was 159.8mg/dL (liberal CII) compared to 143.3mg/dL (strict CII) (p≤0.001). No surgical site infections occurred in either group. Mean ICU length of stay was 4.5days (liberal) versus 4.4days (strict) (p=0.74). Two 30-day mortalities occurred for the liberal cohort compared to no deaths in the strict group (p=0.49). Hypoglycemia incidence within 24h after surgery was 0.1% (liberal) compared to 0.3% (strict) compared to (p=0.16). Use of a nurse managed liberal CII resulted in similar outcomes with fewer incidents of hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Effects of growth temperature and strictly anaerobic recovery on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes during pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knabel, S J; Walker, H W; Hartman, P A; Mendonca, A F

    1990-02-01

    Listeria monocytogenes F5069 was suspended in either Trypticase soy broth-0.6% yeast extract (TSBYE) or sterile, whole milk and heated at 62.8 degrees C in sealed thermal death time tubes. Severely heat-injured cells were recovered in TSBYE within sealed thermal death time tubes because of the formation of reduced conditions in the depths of the TSBYE. Also, the use of strictly anaerobic Hungate techniques significantly increased recovery in TSBYE containing 1.5% agar compared with aerobically incubated controls. The exogenous addition of catalase, but not superoxide dismutase, slightly increased the recovery of heat-injured cells in TSBYE containing 1.5% agar incubated aerobically. Growth of cells at 43 degrees C caused a greater increase in heat resistance as compared with cells heat shocked at 43 degrees C or cells grown at lower temperatures. Growth of L. monocytogenes at 43 degrees C and enumeration by the use of strictly anaerobic Hungate techniques resulted in D62.8 degrees C values that were at least sixfold greater than those previously obtained by using cells grown at 37 degrees C and aerobic plating. Results indicate that, under the conditions of the present study, high levels of L. monocytogenes would survive the minimum low-temperature, long-time treatment required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for pasteurizing milk. The possible survival of low levels of L. monocytogenes during high-temperature, short-time pasteurization and enumeration of injured cells by recovery on selective media under strictly anaerobic conditions are discussed.

  20. RelTime Rates Collapse to a Strict Clock When Estimating the Timeline of Animal Diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Fernandez, Jesus; Dos Reis, Mario; Donoghue, Philip C J; Pisani, Davide

    2017-05-01

    Establishing an accurate timescale for the history of life is crucial to understand evolutionary processes. For this purpose, relaxed molecular clock models implemented in a Bayesian MCMC framework are generally used. However, these methods are time consuming. RelTime, a non-Bayesian method implementing a fast, ad hoc, algorithm for relative dating, was developed to overcome the computational inefficiencies of Bayesian software. RelTime was recently used to investigate the timing of origin of animals, yielding results consistent with early strict clock studies from the 1980s and 1990s, estimating metazoans to have a Mesoproterozoic origin-over a billion years ago. RelTime results are unexpected and disagree with the largest majority of modern, relaxed, Bayesian molecular clock analyses, which suggest animals originated in the Tonian-Cryogenian (less that 850 million years ago). Here, we demonstrate that RelTime-inferred divergence times for the origin of animals are spurious, a consequence of the inability of RelTime to relax the clock along the internal branches of the animal phylogeny. RelTime-inferred divergence times are comparable to strict-clock estimates because they are essentially inferred under a strict clock. Our results warn us of the danger of using ad hoc algorithms making implicit assumptions about rate changes along a tree. Our study roundly rejects a Mesoproterozoic origin of animals; metazoans emerged in the Tonian-Cryogenian, and diversified in the Ediacaran, in the immediate prelude to the routine fossilization of animals in the Cambrian associated with the emergence of readily preserved skeletons. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  1. Effect of cryopreservation and lyophilization on viability and growth of strict anaerobic human gut microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bircher, Lea; Geirnaert, Annelies; Hammes, Frederik; Lacroix, Christophe; Schwab, Clarissa

    2018-04-17

    Strict anaerobic gut microbes have been suggested as 'next-generation probiotics' for treating several intestinal disorders. The development of preservation techniques is of major importance for therapeutic application. This study investigated cryopreservation (-80°C) and lyophilization survival and storage stability (4°C for 3 months) of the strict anaerobic gut microbes Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Roseburia intestinalis, Anaerostipes caccae, Eubacterium hallii and Blautia obeum. To improve preservation survival, protectants sucrose and inulin (both 5% w/v) were added for lyophilization and were also combined with glycerol (15% v/v) for cryopreservation. Bacterial fitness, evaluated by maximum growth rate and lag phase, viability and membrane integrity were determined using a standardized growth assay and by flow cytometry as markers for preservation resistance. Lyophilization was more detrimental to viability and fitness than cryopreservation, but led to better storage stability. Adding sucrose and inulin enhanced viability and the proportion of intact cells during lyophilization of all strains. Viability of protectant-free B. thetaiotaomicron, A. caccae and F. prausnitzii was above 50% after cryopreservation and storage and increased to above 80% if protectants were present. The addition of glycerol, sucrose and inulin strongly enhanced the viability of B. obeum, E. hallii and R. intestinalis from 0.03-2% in protectant-free cultures to 11-37%. This is the first study that quantitatively compared the effect of cryopreservation and lyophilization and the addition of selected protectants on viability and fitness of six strict anaerobic gut microbes. Our results suggest that efficiency of protectants is process- and species-specific. © 2018 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Effects of growth temperature and strictly anaerobic recovery on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes during pasteurization.

    OpenAIRE

    Knabel, S J; Walker, H W; Hartman, P A; Mendonca, A F

    1990-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes F5069 was suspended in either Trypticase soy broth-0.6% yeast extract (TSBYE) or sterile, whole milk and heated at 62.8 degrees C in sealed thermal death time tubes. Severely heat-injured cells were recovered in TSBYE within sealed thermal death time tubes because of the formation of reduced conditions in the depths of the TSBYE. Also, the use of strictly anaerobic Hungate techniques significantly increased recovery in TSBYE containing 1.5% agar compared with aerobicall...

  3. The Dirichlet problem for the Monge-Ampere equation in convex (but not strictly convex domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hartenstine

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that the Dirichlet problem for the Monge-Amp`ere equation $det D^2 u = mu$ in a bounded strictly convex domain $Omega$ in $mathbb{R}^n$ has a weak solution (in the sense of Aleksandrov for any finite Borel measure $mu$ on $Omega$ and for any continuous boundary data. We consider the Dirichlet problem when $Omega$ is only assumed to be convex, and give a necessary and sufficient condition on the boundary data for solvability.

  4. Selections of the metric projection operator and strict solarity of sets with continuous metric projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimov, A. R.

    2017-07-01

    In a broad class of finite-dimensional Banach spaces, we show that a closed set with lower semicontinuous metric projection is a strict sun, admits a continuous selection of the metric projection operator onto it, has contractible intersections with balls, and its (nonempty) intersection with any closed ball is a retract of this ball. For sets with continuous metric projection, a number of new results relating the solarity of such sets to the stability of the operator of best approximation are obtained. Bibliography 25 titles.

  5. Transplanting Diseases from Organ Donors in Western Europe: Fault Liability or Strict Liability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckx, Nils; Verhoeven, Dimitri

    2015-06-01

    This article will examine the problem of disease transmission through organ transplantation from a civil liability perspective. Both fault liability and strict product liability might be possible. These two types of liability will be compared, while applying them to the actions of the central parties involved in organ donation and transplantation, namely the physician/hospital, the donor and the organ exchange organisation. While product liability is generally an easier way to obtain compensation than fault liability, it might nevertheless place too heavy a burden on the transplant professionals.

  6. Hollow Au-Cu2O Core-Shell Nanoparticles with Geometry-Dependent Optical Properties as Efficient Plasmonic Photocatalysts under Visible Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Biao; Liu, Aiping; Wu, Huaping; Shen, Qiuping; Zhao, Tingyu; Wang, Jianshan

    2016-03-29

    Hollow Au-Cu2O core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized by using hollow gold nanoparticles (HGNs) as the plasmon-tailorable cores to direct epitaxial growth of Cu2O nanoshells. The effective geometry control of hollow Au-Cu2O core-shell nanoparticles was achieved through adjusting the HGN core sizes, Cu2O shell thicknesses, and morphologies related to structure-directing agents. The morphology-dependent plasmonic band red-shifts across the visible and near-infrared spectral regions were observed from experimental extinction spectra and theoretical simulation based on the finite-difference time-domain method. Moreover, the hollow Au-Cu2O core-shell nanoparticles with synergistic optical properties exhibited higher photocatalytic performance in the photodegradation of methyl orange when compared to pristine Cu2O and solid Au-Cu2O core-shell nanoparticles under visible-light irradiation due to the efficient photoinduced charge separation, which could mainly be attributed to the Schottky barrier and plasmon-induced resonant energy transfer. Such optical tunability achieved through the hollow cores and structure-directed shells is of benefit to the performance optimization of metal-semiconductor nanoparticles for photonic, electronic, and photocatalytic applications.

  7. Effects of glycerol upon the biological actions of near-ultraviolet light: spectra and concentration dependence for transforming DNA and for Escherichia coli B/r

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peak, J.G.; Peak, M.J.; Foote, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    The concentration dependence for the protection of isolated transforming DNA and Escherichia coli by glycerol against 365-nm monochromatic near-ultraviolet light (UV) was measured. Glycerol protection saturates at a concentration of about 0.1 M for DNA and 1.0 M for E. coli. Action spectra for glycerol protection of transforming DNA (tryptophan and histidine markers) are similar to those obtained previously for diazobicyclo[2.2.2.]octane (DABCO) protection, with protection reaching a maximum near 350-nm UV and decreasing rapidly at wavelengths above and below 350 nm. However, glycerol protects against near-UV about twice as efficiently as DABCO. The action spectrum for protection of E. coli by glycerol against the lethal effects of near-UV was not the same as the spectrum for DNA since glycerol sensitized the cells, but not the DNA, at wavelengths longer than about 380 nm. A possible role of hydroxyl or other radicals was supported by the observation that benzoate also protected DNA against inactivation by 334-nm UV. (author)

  8. Recruitment of a ribosomal release factor for light- and stress-dependent regulation of petB transcript stability in Arabidopsis chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppel, Rhea; Lezhneva, Lina; Schwenkert, Serena; Torabi, Salar; Felder, Susanne; Meierhoff, Karin; Westhoff, Peter; Meurer, Jörg

    2011-07-01

    Land plant genomes encode four functional ribosomal peptide chain release factors (Prf) of eubacterial origin, two (PrfA and PrfB homologs) for each endosymbiotic organelle. Formerly, we have shown that the Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplast-localized PrfB homolog, PrfB1, is required not only for termination of translation but also for stabilization of UGA stop codon-containing chloroplast transcripts. A previously undiscovered PrfB-like protein, PrfB3, is localized to the chloroplast stroma in a petB RNA-containing complex and found only in vascular plants. Highly conserved positions of introns unequivocally indicate that PrfB3 arose from a duplication of PrfB1. Notably, PrfB3 is lacking the two most important tripeptide motifs characteristic for all eubacterial and organellar PrfB homologs described so far: the stop codon recognition motif SPF and the catalytic center GGQ for peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis. Complementation studies, as well as functional and molecular analyses of two allelic mutations in Arabidopsis, both of which lead to a specific deficiency of the cytochrome b₆f complex, revealed that PrfB3 is essentially required for photoautotrophic growth. Plastid transcript, polysome, and translation analyses indicate that PrfB3 has been recruited in vascular plants for light- and stress-dependent regulation of stability of 3' processed petB transcripts to adjust cytochrome b₆ levels.

  9. Recruitment of a Ribosomal Release Factor for Light- and Stress-Dependent Regulation of petB Transcript Stability in Arabidopsis Chloroplasts[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppel, Rhea; Lezhneva, Lina; Schwenkert, Serena; Torabi, Salar; Felder, Susanne; Meierhoff, Karin; Westhoff, Peter; Meurer, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Land plant genomes encode four functional ribosomal peptide chain release factors (Prf) of eubacterial origin, two (PrfA and PrfB homologs) for each endosymbiotic organelle. Formerly, we have shown that the Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplast-localized PrfB homolog, PrfB1, is required not only for termination of translation but also for stabilization of UGA stop codon-containing chloroplast transcripts. A previously undiscovered PrfB-like protein, PrfB3, is localized to the chloroplast stroma in a petB RNA-containing complex and found only in vascular plants. Highly conserved positions of introns unequivocally indicate that PrfB3 arose from a duplication of PrfB1. Notably, PrfB3 is lacking the two most important tripeptide motifs characteristic for all eubacterial and organellar PrfB homologs described so far: the stop codon recognition motif SPF and the catalytic center GGQ for peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis. Complementation studies, as well as functional and molecular analyses of two allelic mutations in Arabidopsis, both of which lead to a specific deficiency of the cytochrome b6f complex, revealed that PrfB3 is essentially required for photoautotrophic growth. Plastid transcript, polysome, and translation analyses indicate that PrfB3 has been recruited in vascular plants for light- and stress-dependent regulation of stability of 3′ processed petB transcripts to adjust cytochrome b6 levels. PMID:21771930

  10. Spectra and quantum efficiency of light-emitting diodes based on GaN heterostructures with quantum wells and their dependence on current and voltage

    CERN Document Server

    Kudryashov, V E; Turkin, A N; Yunovich, A E; Kovalev, A N; Manyakhin, F I

    2001-01-01

    Spectra and quantum efficiency of light-emitted diodes based on heterostructures InGaN/AlGaN/GaN with multiple quantum wells have been studied at currents J = 10 sup - sup 6 -10 sup - sup 1 A. Minor differences in quantum efficiency (of +- 10% at J approx = 10 mA) are caused by sufficiently different distribution of effective charges in the space charge region as well as by different role of the tunnel component of current at low voltages. The main peak in spectra near of 2.35-2.36 eV at small current (0.05-0.5 mA) does not depend on the voltage and is explained by radiative transitions in localized states. At J > 1 mA the spectral band 2.36-2.52 eV shifts with gamma current. The band form is described in the 4-parameter model of tail population of two-dimensional energy-level density

  11. Fuzzy Adaptive Decentralized Optimal Control for Strict Feedback Nonlinear Large-Scale Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kangkang; Sui, Shuai; Tong, Shaocheng

    2018-04-01

    This paper considers the optimal decentralized fuzzy adaptive control design problem for a class of interconnected large-scale nonlinear systems in strict feedback form and with unknown nonlinear functions. The fuzzy logic systems are introduced to learn the unknown dynamics and cost functions, respectively, and a state estimator is developed. By applying the state estimator and the backstepping recursive design algorithm, a decentralized feedforward controller is established. By using the backstepping decentralized feedforward control scheme, the considered interconnected large-scale nonlinear system in strict feedback form is changed into an equivalent affine large-scale nonlinear system. Subsequently, an optimal decentralized fuzzy adaptive control scheme is constructed. The whole optimal decentralized fuzzy adaptive controller is composed of a decentralized feedforward control and an optimal decentralized control. It is proved that the developed optimal decentralized controller can ensure that all the variables of the control system are uniformly ultimately bounded, and the cost functions are the smallest. Two simulation examples are provided to illustrate the validity of the developed optimal decentralized fuzzy adaptive control scheme.

  12. Efficacy of 670 nm Light Therapy to Protect against Photoreceptor Cell Death Is Dependent on the Severity of Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Chu-Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photobiomodulation at a wavelength of 670 nm has been shown to be effective in preventing photoreceptor cell death in the retina. We treated Sprague-Dawley (SD rats with varying doses of 670 nm light (9; 18; 36; 90 J/cm2 before exposing them to different intensities of damaging white light (750; 1000; 1500 lux. 670 nm light exhibited a biphasic response in its amelioration of cell death in light-induced degeneration in vivo. Lower light damage intensities required lower doses of 670 nm light to reduce TUNEL cell death. At higher damage intensities, the highest dose of 670 nm light showed protection. In vitro, the Seahorse XFe96 Extracellular Flux Analyzer revealed that 670 nm light directly influences mitochondrial metabolism by increasing the spare respiratory capacity of mitochondria in 661 W photoreceptor-like cells in light damaged conditions. Our findings further support the use of 670 nm light as an effective treatment against retinal degeneration as well as shedding light on the mechanism of protection through the increase of the mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity.

  13. Pressure dependence of emission intensity of rare-gas excimer light produced by silent discharge; Teikiatsu ryoiki ni okeru musei hoden reiki ki gas excimer hikari shutsuryoku no atsuryoku izonsei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Yukimura, K. [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1996-09-20

    To establish the pressure dependence of silent discharge excited rare gas excimer light emission, a vacua ultraviolet light was subjected to spectroscopic analysis at a pressure lower than 20kPa. Researches are under way to apply the discharge excited rare gas excimer lamp as a vacuum ultraviolet light source for the development of new materials and for the conservation of environments. When the pressure is as low as 1.8kPa or 4.4kPa, the emission has peaks at wavelengths centering on 147nm and 149nm, both of which are the resonance lines of the xenon atom. Excimer generation becomes prominent as the pressure increases, with the second continuum of light growing dominant at 35kPa to weaken relatively the resonance lines and the first continuum of light. In the first continuum, emission increases only at a suppressed rate, as compared with emission in the second continuum, due for instance to a collision caused relaxation process in which excimers are lost. In the case of xenon in the vicinity of 10-11kPa, the first continuum of light and the second continuum of light are approximately equal in emission intensity, producing a vacuum ultraviolet light source with a bandwidth relatively large for a single gas spectrum. 14 refs., 11 figs.

  14. Study on Environment Performance Evaluation and Regional Differences of Strictly-Environmental-Monitored Cities in China

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    Ji Guo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid economic growth and development, the problem of environmental pollution in China’s cities is becoming increasingly serious, and environmental pollution takes on a regional difference. There is, however, little comprehensive evaluation on the environmental performance and the regional difference of strictly-environmental-monitored cities in China. In this paper, the environmental performance of 109 strictly-environmental-monitored cities in China is evaluated in terms of natural performance, management performance, and scale performance by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA, incorporating PM2.5 and PM10 as undesirable outputs. The empirical results show that: (1 At present, the natural performance is quite high, while the management performance is noticeably low for most cities. (2 The gap between the level of economic development and environmental protection among cities in China is large, and the scale efficiency of big cities is better than that of smaller cities. The efficiency value of large-scale cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, etc. is high, equaling 1; the value of smaller cities such as Sanmenxia, Baoding, Mudanjiang, and Pingdingshan is low, close to 0, indicating that big cities are characterized by high environmental efficiency. (3 From the perspective of region, the level of environmental performance in China is very uneven. For example, the environmental efficiency level of the Pan-Pearl River Delta region is superior to that of the Pan-Yangtze River region and the Bahia Rim region, whose values of environmental efficiency are 0.858, 0.658, and 0.622 respectively. The average efficiency of the Southern Coastal Economic Zone, Eastern Coastal Comprehensive Economic Zone, and the Comprehensive Economic Zone in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River is higher than that of other regions. Finally, corresponding countermeasures and suggestions are put forward. The method used in this paper is applicable

  15. Disordered strictly jammed binary sphere packings attain an anomalously large range of densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Adam B.; Stillinger, Frank H.; Torquato, Salvatore

    2013-08-01

    Previous attempts to simulate disordered binary sphere packings have been limited in producing mechanically stable, isostatic packings across a broad spectrum of packing fractions. Here we report that disordered strictly jammed binary packings (packings that remain mechanically stable under general shear deformations and compressions) can be produced with an anomalously large range of average packing fractions 0.634≤ϕ≤0.829 for small to large sphere radius ratios α restricted to α≥0.100. Surprisingly, this range of average packing fractions is obtained for packings containing a subset of spheres (called the backbone) that are exactly strictly jammed, exactly isostatic, and also generated from random initial conditions. Additionally, the average packing fractions of these packings at certain α and small sphere relative number concentrations x approach those of the corresponding densest known ordered packings. These findings suggest for entropic reasons that these high-density disordered packings should be good glass formers and that they may be easy to prepare experimentally. We also identify an unusual feature of the packing fraction of jammed backbones (packings with rattlers excluded). The backbone packing fraction is about 0.624 over the majority of the α-x plane, even when large numbers of small spheres are present in the backbone. Over the (relatively small) area of the α-x plane where the backbone is not roughly constant, we find that backbone packing fractions range from about 0.606 to 0.829, with the volume of rattler spheres comprising between 1.6% and 26.9% of total sphere volume. To generate isostatic strictly jammed packings, we use an implementation of the Torquato-Jiao sequential linear programming algorithm [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.82.061302 82, 061302 (2010)], which is an efficient producer of inherent structures (mechanically stable configurations at the local maxima in the density landscape). The identification and

  16. Disordered strictly jammed binary sphere packings attain an anomalously large range of densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Adam B; Stillinger, Frank H; Torquato, Salvatore

    2013-08-01

    Previous attempts to simulate disordered binary sphere packings have been limited in producing mechanically stable, isostatic packings across a broad spectrum of packing fractions. Here we report that disordered strictly jammed binary packings (packings that remain mechanically stable under general shear deformations and compressions) can be produced with an anomalously large range of average packing fractions 0.634≤φ≤0.829 for small to large sphere radius ratios α restricted to α≥0.100. Surprisingly, this range of average packing fractions is obtained for packings containing a subset of spheres (called the backbone) that are exactly strictly jammed, exactly isostatic, and also generated from random initial conditions. Additionally, the average packing fractions of these packings at certain α and small sphere relative number concentrations x approach those of the corresponding densest known ordered packings. These findings suggest for entropic reasons that these high-density disordered packings should be good glass formers and that they may be easy to prepare experimentally. We also identify an unusual feature of the packing fraction of jammed backbones (packings with rattlers excluded). The backbone packing fraction is about 0.624 over the majority of the α-x plane, even when large numbers of small spheres are present in the backbone. Over the (relatively small) area of the α-x plane where the backbone is not roughly constant, we find that backbone packing fractions range from about 0.606 to 0.829, with the volume of rattler spheres comprising between 1.6% and 26.9% of total sphere volume. To generate isostatic strictly jammed packings, we use an implementation of the Torquato-Jiao sequential linear programming algorithm [Phys. Rev. E 82, 061302 (2010)], which is an efficient producer of inherent structures (mechanically stable configurations at the local maxima in the density landscape). The identification and explicit construction of binary packings

  17. Regulation of per and cry genes reveals a central role for the D-box enhancer in light-dependent gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Mracek

    Full Text Available Light serves as a key environmental signal for synchronizing the circadian clock with the day night cycle. The zebrafish represents an attractive model for exploring how light influences the vertebrate clock mechanism. Direct illumination of most fish tissues and cell lines induces expression of a broad range of genes including DNA repair, stress response and key clock genes. We have previously identified D- and E-box elements within the promoter of the zebrafish per2 gene that together direct light-induced gene expression. However, is the combined regulation by E- and D-boxes a general feature for all light-induced gene expression? We have tackled this question by examining the regulation of additional light-inducible genes. Our results demonstrate that with the exception of per2, all other genes tested are not induced by light upon blocking of de novo protein synthesis. We reveal that a single D-box serves as the principal light responsive element within the cry1a promoter. Furthermore, upon inhibition of protein synthesis D-box mediated gene expression is abolished while the E-box confers light driven activation as observed in the per2 gene. Given the existence of different photoreceptors in fish cells, our results implicate the D-box enhancer as a general convergence point for light driven signaling.

  18. Injection current dependences of electroluminescence transition energy in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells light emitting diodes under pulsed current conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Feng; Ikeda, Masao; Liu, Jianping; Zhang, Shuming; Zhou, Kun; Yang, Hui; Liu, Zongshun

    2015-01-01

    Injection current dependences of electroluminescence transition energy in blue InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells light emitting diodes (LEDs) with different quantum barrier thicknesses under pulsed current conditions have been analyzed taking into account the related effects including deformation caused by lattice strain, quantum confined Stark effects due to polarization field partly screened by carriers, band gap renormalization, Stokes-like shift due to compositional fluctuations which are supposed to be random alloy fluctuations in the sub-nanometer scale, band filling effect (Burstein-Moss shift), and quantum levels in finite triangular wells. The bandgap renormalization and band filling effect occurring at high concentrations oppose one another, however, the renormalization effect dominates in the concentration range studied, since the band filling effect arising from the filling in the tail states in the valence band of quantum wells is much smaller than the case in the bulk materials. In order to correlate the carrier densities with current densities, the nonradiative recombination rates were deduced experimentally by curve-fitting to the external quantum efficiencies. The transition energies in LEDs both with 15 nm quantum barriers and 5 nm quantum barriers, calculated using full strengths of theoretical macroscopic polarization given by Barnardini and Fiorentini [Phys. Status Solidi B 216, 391 (1999)] are in excellent accordance with experimental results. The LED with 5 nm barriers has been shown to exhibit a higher transition energy and a smaller blue shift than those of LED with 15 nm barriers, which is mainly caused by the smaller internal polarization field in the quantum wells

  19. Injection current dependences of electroluminescence transition energy in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells light emitting diodes under pulsed current conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Feng; Ikeda, Masao, E-mail: mikeda2013@sinano.ac.cn; Liu, Jianping; Zhang, Shuming [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Suzhou 215123 (China); Key Lab of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhou, Kun; Yang, Hui [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Suzhou 215123 (China); Key Lab of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Suzhou 215123 (China); Institute of Semiconductors (CAS), Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, Zongshun [Institute of Semiconductors (CAS), Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-07-21

    Injection current dependences of electroluminescence transition energy in blue InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells light emitting diodes (LEDs) with different quantum barrier thicknesses under pulsed current conditions have been analyzed taking into account the related effects including deformation caused by lattice strain, quantum confined Stark effects due to polarization field partly screened by carriers, band gap renormalization, Stokes-like shift due to compositional fluctuations which are supposed to be random alloy fluctuations in the sub-nanometer scale, band filling effect (Burstein-Moss shift), and quantum levels in finite triangular wells. The bandgap renormalization and band filling effect occurring at high concentrations oppose one another, however, the renormalization effect dominates in the concentration range studied, since the band filling effect arising from the filling in the tail states in the valence band of quantum wells is much smaller than the case in the bulk materials. In order to correlate the carrier densities with current densities, the nonradiative recombination rates were deduced experimentally by curve-fitting to the external quantum efficiencies. The transition energies in LEDs both with 15 nm quantum barriers and 5 nm quantum barriers, calculated using full strengths of theoretical macroscopic polarization given by Barnardini and Fiorentini [Phys. Status Solidi B 216, 391 (1999)] are in excellent accordance with experimental results. The LED with 5 nm barriers has been shown to exhibit a higher transition energy and a smaller blue shift than those of LED with 15 nm barriers, which is mainly caused by the smaller internal polarization field in the quantum wells.

  20. Lyme Neuroborreliosis: Preliminary Results from an Urban Referral Center Employing Strict CDC Criteria for Case Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Younger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyme neuroborreliosis or “neurological Lyme disease” was evidenced in 2 of 23 patients submitted to strict criteria for case selection of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention employing a two-tier test to detect antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi at a single institution. One patient had symptomatic polyradiculoneuritis, dysautonomia, and serological evidence of early infection; and another had symptomatic small fiber sensory neuropathy, distal polyneuropathy, dysautonomia, and serological evidence of late infection. In the remaining patients symptoms initially ascribed to Lyme disease were probably unrelated to B. burgdorferi infection. Our findings suggest early susceptibility and protracted involvement of the nervous system most likely due to the immunological effects of B. burgdorferi infection, although the exact mechanisms remain uncertain.

  1. On The Integral Representation of Strictly Continuous Set-Valued Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaté K. Lakmon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Let T be a completely regular topological space and C(T be the space of bounded, continuous real-valued functions on T. C(T is endowed with the strict topology (the topology generated by seminorms determined by continuous functions vanishing at in_nity. R. Giles ([13], p. 472, Theorem 4.6 proved in 1971 that the dual of C(T can be identi_ed with the space of regular Borel measures on T. We prove this result for positive, additive set-valued maps with values in the space of convex weakly compact non-empty subsets of a Banach space and we deduce from this result the theorem of R. Giles ([13], theorem 4.6, p.473.

  2. A Total Variation Model Based on the Strictly Convex Modification for Image Denoising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boying Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a strictly convex functional in which the regular term consists of the total variation term and an adaptive logarithm based convex modification term. We prove the existence and uniqueness of the minimizer for the proposed variational problem. The existence, uniqueness, and long-time behavior of the solution of the associated evolution system is also established. Finally, we present experimental results to illustrate the effectiveness of the model in noise reduction, and a comparison is made in relation to the more classical methods of the traditional total variation (TV, the Perona-Malik (PM, and the more recent D-α-PM method. Additional distinction from the other methods is that the parameters, for manual manipulation, in the proposed algorithm are reduced to basically only one.

  3. Residual diffeomorphisms and symplectic soft hairs: The need to refine strict statement of equivalence principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.

    2016-09-01

    General covariance is the cornerstone of Einstein’s general relativity (GR) and implies that any two metrics related by diffeomorphisms are physically equivalent. There are, however, many examples pointing to the fact that this strict statement of general covariance needs refinement. There are a very special (measure-zero) subset of diffeomorphisms, the residual diffeomorphisms, to which one can associate well-defined conserved charges. This would hence render these diffeomorphic geometries physically distinct. We discuss that these symmetries may be appropriately called “symplectic symmetries”. Existence of residual diffeomorphisms and symplectic symmetries can be a quite general feature and not limited to the examples discussed so far in the literature. We propose that, in the context of black holes, these diffeomorphic, but distinct, geometries may be viewed as “symplectic soft hair” on black holes. We comment on how this may remedy black hole microstate problem, which in this context are dubbed as “horizon fluffs”.

  4. Reactions to terror attacks in ultra-orthodox jews: the cost of maintaining strict identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankri, Yael L E; Bachar, Eytan; Shalev, Arieh Y

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic events can shatter faith and beliefs. The responses of Ultra-Orthodox survivors of deadly terrorist attacks illustrate an effort to reconcile dreadful experiences with deeply embedded beliefs. Qualified clinicians prospectively evaluated self-reported and interviewer-generated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and cognitive appraisal in Ultra-Orthodox (n = 20) and non-Ultra-Orthodox (n = 33) survivors of suicide bus-bombing incidents in Jerusalem. Ultra-Orthodox survivors reported higher levels of PTSD symptoms and more personal guilt. Their narratives reflected an unshaken belief in Just Providence, within which being a victim of terror was perceived as a Just retribution for known or unknown wrongdoing. Survivors' reactions to trauma often reflect an effort to reconcile incongruous experiences with previously held beliefs. When treating strict believers, helpers should be sensitive to the identity-preserving function of posttraumatic cognitions.

  5. On a class of adjustable rate mortgage loans subject to a strict balance principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Jensen, Bjarne

    We describe the background and the basic funding mechanisms for the type of adjustable rate mortgageloans that were introduced in the Danish market in 1996. Each loan is funded separately by tap issuingpass-through mortgage bonds (`strict balance principle'). The novelty is a funding mechanism...... that usesa roll-over strategy, where long term loans are funded by sequentially issuing short term pass-throughbonds, and the first issuer of these loans obtained a patent on the funding principles in 1999. Publiclyavailable descriptions of the principles leave an impression of very complicated numerical...... algorithms.The algorithms described here show that the essentials can be reduced to a `back of an envelope' complexity.Keywords: Adjustable rate mortgages, balance principle, patent, yield curve riding...

  6. Strict Liability Versus Policy and Regulation for Environmental Protection and Agricultural Waste Management in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Bakri Ishak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Basically, strict liability is part of the mechanism for expressing judgment or sentence by using direct evidence. This principle is very useful in order to obtain remedies from any damage either directly or indirectly. The principle in Rylands v Fletcher is responsible on imposing strict liability where if something brought onto land or collected there escapes liability under this rule can include not only the owner of land but also those who control or occupation on it. However, as a matter of fact, policy and regulation are also important in taking any action against any party who are responsible for environmental pollution or damage, which may include mismanagement of waste or industrial waste or agricultural waste. There are certain policies and regulations on environmental protection such as the National Environmental Policy, certain Acts and several regulations under the Environmental Quality Act 1974 (Act 127, which are very useful for agricultural waste management inter alia: Waters Act 1920 (Act 418, Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises (Crude Palm Oil Regulations 1977, Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises (Raw Natural Rubber Regulations 1978, Environmental Quality (Sewage and Industrial Effluents Regulations 1979, and Environmental Quality (Compounding of Offences Rules 1978. As a matter of fact, we should realize that time is of an essence for any parties which are involved in court cases and especially in avoiding the element of externality, which is commonly suffered by the government. In making this paper, therefore, some element of comparison with certain developed jurisdiction such as in the United Kingdom and Japan could not be avoided in order to obtain better outcome and to be more practical for the purpose of environmental protection and agricultural waste management.

  7. The Effect of Strict Segregation on Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa van Mansfeld

    Full Text Available Segregation of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF was implemented to prevent chronic infection with epidemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with presumed detrimental clinical effects, but its effectiveness has not been carefully evaluated.The effect of strict segregation on the incidence of P. aeruginosa infection in CF patients was investigated through longitudinal protocolized follow-up of respiratory tract infection before and after segregation. In two nested cross-sectional studies in 2007 and 2011 the P. aeruginosa population structure was investigated and clinical parameters were determined in patients with and without infection with the Dutch epidemic P. aeruginosa clone (ST406.Of 784 included patients 315 and 382 were at risk for acquiring chronic P. aeruginosa infection before and after segregation. Acquisition rates were, respectively, 0.14 and 0.05 per 1,000 days at risk (HR: 0.66, 95% CI [0.2548-1.541]; p = 0.28. An exploratory subgroup analysis indicated lower acquisition after segregation in children < 15 years of age (HR: 0.43, 95% CI[0.21-0.95]; p = 0.04. P. aeruginosa population structure did not change after segregation and ST406 was not associated with lung function decline, death or lung transplantation.Strict segregation was not associated with a statistically significant lower acquisition of chronic P. aeruginosa infection and ST406 was not associated with adverse clinical outcome. After segregation there were no new acquisitions of ST406. In an unplanned exploratory analysis chronic acquisition of P. aeruginosa was lower after implementation of segregation in patients under 15 years of age.

  8. Selvester scoring in patients with strict LBBB using the QUARESS software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaojuan; Chaudhry, Uzma; Wieslander, Björn; Borgquist, Rasmus; Wagner, Galen S; Strauss, David G; Platonov, Pyotr; Ugander, Martin; Couderc, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of the infarct size from body-surface ECGs in post-myocardial infarction patients has become possible using the Selvester scoring method. Automation of this scoring has been proposed in order to speed-up the measurement of the score and improving the inter-observer variability in computing a score that requires strong expertise in electrocardiography. In this work, we evaluated the quality of the QuAReSS software for delivering correct Selvester scoring in a set of standard 12-lead ECGs. Standard 12-lead ECGs were recorded in 105 post-MI patients prescribed implantation of an implantable cardiodefibrillator (ICD). Amongst the 105 patients with standard clinical left bundle branch block (LBBB) patterns, 67 had a LBBB pattern meeting the strict criteria. The QuAReSS software was applied to these 67 tracings by two independent groups of cardiologists (from a clinical group and an ECG core laboratory) to measure the Selvester score semi-automatically. Using various level of agreement metrics, we compared the scores between groups and when automatically measured by the software. The average of the absolute difference in Selvester scores measured by the two independent groups was 1.4±1.5 score points, whereas the difference between automatic method and the two manual adjudications were 1.2±1.2 and 1.3±1.2 points. Eighty-two percent score agreement was observed between the two independent measurements when the difference of score was within two point ranges, while 90% and 84% score agreements were reached using the automatic method compared to the two manual adjudications. The study confirms that the QuAReSS software provides valid measurements of the Selvester score in patients with strict LBBB with minimal correction from cardiologists. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Strict stoichiometric homeostasis of Cryptomonas pyrenoidifera (Cryptophyceae in relation to N:P supply ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Ramos Rodríguez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A common freshwater cryptophyte, Cryptomonas pyrenoidifera, was cultivated in batch-cultures to analyze intraspecific variation in elemental stoichiometry along a broad gradient of pulsed phosphorus (P enrichment during the early acclimation period and to determine the immediate homeostatic capacity of the nitrogen-to-phosphorus (N:P ratio of this alga when nutrients are at saturating levels. Experimental results revealed that nitrogen (N and P cell quotas significantly increased with increasing P concentration. However, despite the wide range of N:P ratios in the medium, Cryptomonas N:P ratios were highly stable at higher P-level treatments, indicating a highly conservative behavior and suggesting strict elemental homeostasis when nutrients are at saturating levels. The strictly homeostatic N:P ratio appears to be attributable to their high potential for a fast luxury consumption of both N and P after a brief and intense episode of increased resource availability and to physiological limits on their nutrient storage capacity. Most importantly, the N:P biomass ratio at nutrient saturating levels converged around 11:1, which was the observed ratio of maximum internal cell quotas for N and P (i.e. Qmax,N:Qmax,P under the prevailing experimental conditions. This value is particularly informative for C. pyrenoidifera because it represents cell storage quotients and may be a taxon-specific evolutionary optimum, providing a reference point to infer the grade of nutrient-limitation. The experimental data give ranges of variation in C. pyrenoidifera elemental composition permitting, among others, proper parameterization of cryptophyte stoichiometry models.

  10. Strict follow-up programme including CT and (18) F-FDG-PET after curative surgery for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, N F; Jensen, A B; Wille-Jørgensen, P

    2010-01-01

    Aim  The risk of local recurrence following curative surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC) is up to 50%. A rigorous follow-up program may increase survival. Guidelines on suitable methods for scheduled follow up examinations are needed. This study evaluates a strict follow-up program including...... supported a strict follow-up program following curative surgery for colorectal cancer. FDG-PET combined with CT should be included in control programs....

  11. Light Intensity-Dependent Modulation of Chlorophyll b Biosynthesis and Photosynthesis by Overexpression of Chlorophyllide a Oxygenase in Tobacco1[C][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Ajaya K.; Pattanayak, Gopal K.; Pandey, Shiv S.; Leelavathi, Sadhu; Reddy, Vanga S.; Govindjee; Tripathy, Baishnab C.

    2012-01-01

    Chlorophyll b is synthesized by the oxidation of a methyl group on the B ring of a tetrapyrrole molecule to a formyl group by chlorophyllide a oxygenase (CAO). The full-length CAO from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was overexpressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) that grows well at light intensities much higher than those tolerated by Arabidopsis. This resulted in an increased synthesis of glutamate semialdehyde, 5-aminolevulinic acid, magnesium-porphyrins, and chlorophylls. Overexpression of CAO resulted in increased chlorophyll b synthesis and a decreased chlorophyll a/b ratio in low light-grown as well as high light-grown tobacco plants; this effect, however, was more pronounced in high light. The increased potential of the protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase activity and chlorophyll biosynthesis compensated for the usual loss of chlorophylls in high light. Increased chlorophyll b synthesis in CAO-overexpressed plants was accompanied not only by an increased abundance of light-harvesting chlorophyll proteins but also of other proteins of the electron transport chain, which led to an increase in the capture of light as well as enhanced (40%–80%) electron transport rates of photosystems I and II at both limiting and saturating light intensities. Although the quantum yield of carbon dioxide fixation remained unchanged, the light-saturated photosynthetic carbon assimilation, starch content, and dry matter accumulation increased in CAO-overexpressed plants grown in both low- and high-light regimes. These results demonstrate that controlled up-regulation of chlorophyll b biosynthesis comodulates the expression of several thylakoid membrane proteins that increase both the antenna size and the electron transport rates and enhance carbon dioxide assimilation, starch content, and dry matter accumulation. PMID:22419827

  12. Size dependence of silica nanospheres embedded in 385 nm ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on a far-field emission pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Jae; Han, Nam; Ryu, Beo Deul; Han, Min; Ko, Kang Bok; Cuong, Tran Viet; Cho, Jaehee; Suh, Eun-Kyung; Hong, Chang-Hee

    2014-10-20

    We demonstrate that the use of silica nanospheres (SNs) with sizes close to the emission wavelength of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) can enhance the light output power and manipulate the far-field emission pattern. Near-ultraviolet (NUV)-LEDs grown on a patterned sapphire substrate embedded with 300 nm SNs show a three times higher light output power than that without SNs, when measured through the top side. For far-field emission measurements, the LEDs embedded with 300 nm SNs show the significant increase of front emission due to the improved crystal quality of epitaxial films as well as the increase of Mie scattering effect of SNs. These experimental results indicate the important role of the size of embedded SNs in enhancing the light output power for NUV-LEDs.

  13. The inner mantle of the giant clam, Tridacna squamosa, expresses a basolateral Na+/K+-ATPase α-subunit, which displays light-dependent gene and protein expression along the shell-facing epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mel V Boo

    Full Text Available Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA is essential for maintaining the Na+ and K+ gradients, and supporting the secondary active transport of certain ions/molecules, across the plasma membrane of animal cells. This study aimed to clone the NKA α-subunit (NKAα from the inner mantle adjacent to the extrapallial fluid of Tridacna squamosa, to determine its subcellular localization, and to examine the effects of light exposure on its transcript level and protein abundance. The cDNA coding sequence of NKAα from T. squamosa comprised 3105 bp, encoding 1034 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 114 kDa. NKAα had a basolateral localization along the shell-facing epithelium of the inner mantle. Exposure to 12 h of light led to a significantly stronger basolateral NKAα-immunofluorescence at the shell-facing epithelium, indicating that NKA might play a role in light-enhanced calcification in T. squamosa. After 3 h of light exposure, the transcript level of NKAα decreased transiently in the inner mantle, but returned to the control level thereafter. In comparison, the protein abundance of NKAα remained unchanged at hour 3, but became significantly higher than the control after 12 h of light exposure. Hence, the expression of NKAα in the inner mantle of T. squamosa was light-dependent. It is probable that a higher expression level of NKA was needed in the shell-facing epithelial cells of the inner mantle to cope with a rise in Na+ influx, possibly caused by increases in activities of some Na+-dependent ion transporters/channels involved in light-enhanced calcification.

  14. Different effects of energy dependent irradiation of red and green lights on proliferation of human umbilical cord matrix-derived mesenchymal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani Soltani, Samereh; Babaee, Abdolreza; Shojaei, Mohammad; Salehinejad, Parvin; Seyedi, Fatemeh; JalalKamali, Mahshid; Nematollahi-Mahani, Seyed Noureddin

    2016-02-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LED) have recently been introduced as a potential factor for proliferation of various cell types in vitro. Nowadays, stem cells are widely used in regenerative medicine. Human umbilical cord matrix-derived mesenchymal (hUCM) cells can be more easily isolated and cultured than adult mesenchymal stem cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of red and green lights produced by LED on the proliferation of hUCM cells. hUCM cells were isolated from the umbilical cord, and light irradiation was applied at radiation energies of 0.318, 0.636, 0.954, 1.59, 3.18, 6.36, 9.54, and 12.72 J/cm(2). Irradiation of the hUCM cells shows a significant (p green lights irradiation to promote proliferation of hUCM cells in vitro. The energy applied to the cells through LED irradiation is an effective factor with paradoxical alterations. Green light inserted a much profound effect at special dosages than red light.

  15. Changes in the Xanthophyll Cycle and Fluorescence Quenching Indicate Light-Dependent Early Events in the Action of Paraquat and the Mechanism of Resistance to Paraquat in Erigeron canadensis (L.) Cronq1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váradi, Gyula; Darkó, Éva; Lehoczki, Endre

    2000-01-01

    Violaxanthin de-epoxidation, chlorophyll fluorescence quenching, and photosynthetic O2 evolution in the presence of paraquat (Pq) were studied in intact attached leaves of Pq-susceptible, and Pq-resistant (PqR) biotypes of Erigeron canadensis under different light conditions. Initially, similar changes were induced in the two biotypes, but the effects relaxed only in the PqR plants, indicating a Pq elimination process. The penetration of Pq into the chloroplasts of PqR plants proved to be somewhat restricted and highly light-dependent, as revealed by both the light response curves of violaxanthin de-epoxidation and fluorescence quenching and the short-term high-light pre-illumination experiments. An irregular down-regulation of the non-photochemical fluorescence quenching processes was observed, reflected by lower steady-state zeaxanthin and non-photochemical fluorescence quenching levels as compared with the corresponding non-treated high-light controls. It is concluded that light is essential not only for the initiation of the mechanism of resistance to Pq, but also for the penetration of Pq into the chloroplasts in the PqR E. canadensis. Also, the Pq elimination process may cause a modification to the regulation of the non-radiative energy dissipation in PqR plants in the presence of Pq. PMID:10938362

  16. Immediate effect of instrumentation on the subgingival microflora in deep inflamed pockets under strict plaque control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhemrev, G E; Timmerman, M F; Veldkamp, I; Van Winkelhoff, A J; Van der Velden, U

    2006-01-01

    To investigate (1) reduction in the number of microorganisms obtained directly after subgingival instrumentation, (2) rate of bacterial re-colonization during 2 weeks, under supragingival plaque-free conditions. Effects of subgingival instrumentation were measured at one deep pocket in 22 patients (11 smokers and 11 non-smokers). Immediately after initial therapy, experimental sites, under strict plaque control, were instrumented subgingivally. Microbiological evaluation was performed at pre-instrumentation, immediate post-instrumentation and 1 and 2 weeks post-instrumentation. Mean total anaerobic colony forming units (CFUs) dropped from 3.9 x 10(6) before to 0.09 x 10(6) immediately following instrumentation. Significant reductions were found for Tannerella forsythia, Micromonas micros, Fusobacterium nucleatum and spirochetes. Significant reductions were not observed for Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Campylobacter rectus. Except for spirochetes, no reduction in prevalence of specific periodontal bacteria was found immediately after instrumentation. During follow-up, mean total CFU tended to increase. Prevalence of periodontal bacteria further reduced. No effect of smoking was found. Results indicate that subgingival mechanical cleaning in itself, has a limited effect, in actually removing bacteria. The subsequent reduction in prevalence of specific periodontal bacteria shows that it is apparently difficult for these species to survive in treated pockets.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging quantitation of changes in muscle volume during 7 days of strict bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A A; Stuart, C A; Brunder, D G; Hillman, G R

    1995-10-01

    Prolonged bed rest results in a loss of leg lean body mass. Previous studies using bed rest as a model for microgravity have shown decreases in leg mass after 12 and 14 d, 5 and 17 wk. As magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide a precise and non-invasive means of determining muscle volume, we sought to determine if changes in leg muscle volume could be detected in bed rest periods as short as 7 d. Five young, healthy, male volunteers were subjected to 7 d of absolute bed rest. Each subject underwent MRI quantitation of segmental muscle volumes of the calves and thighs before and after bed rest. Eleven (calf) and nine (thigh) contiguous 1-cm thick transaxial images were generated over prescribed regions using a Technicare MRI imager with a 0.6T superconducting magnet and body coil. Image processing was performed using a generalized 8-bit medical image analysis package developed at University of Texas Medical Branch. Images were analyzed for muscle and non-muscle volumes (including fat, blood vessel, and bone marrow volumes). The MRI quantitation demonstrated bed rest-induced significant decreases in segmental thigh muscle (approximately 3.0%, p image analysis of MRI images provides a sensitive tool capable of detecting leg volume changes of as little as 3.0% over a 7-d period of strict bed rest.

  18. Managing curriculum transformation within strict university governance structures: an example from Damascus University Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayyal, Mohammad; Gibbs, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    As the world of medical education moves forward, it becomes increasingly clear that the transformative process is not as easy a process for all. Across the globe, there appears to be many barriers that obstruct or threaten innovation and change, most of which cause almost insurmountable problems to many schools. If transformative education is to result in an equitable raising of standards across such an unlevel playing field, schools have to find ways in overcoming these barriers. One seemingly common barrier to development occurs when medical schools are trapped within strict University governance structures; rules and regulations which are frequently inappropriate and obstructive to the transformation that must occur in today's medical educational paradigm. The Faculty of Medicine at Damascus University, one of the oldest and foremost medical schools in the Middle East, is one such school where rigid rules and regulations and traditional values are obstructing transformative change. This paper describes the problems, which the authors believe to be common to many, and explores how attempts have been made to overcome them and move the school into the twenty-first century. It is the ultimate purpose of this paper to raise awareness of the issue, share the lessons learned in order to assist others who are experiencing similar problems and possibly create opportunities for dialogue between schools.

  19. On a holomorphic Lefschetz formula in strictly pseudoconvex subdomains of complex manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kytmanov, A M; Myslivets, S G; Tarkhanov, N N

    2004-01-01

    The classical Lefschetz formula expresses the number of fixed points of a continuous map f:M→M in terms of the transformation induced by f on the cohomology of M. In 1966, Atiyah and Bott extended this formula to elliptic complexes over a compact closed manifold. In particular, they obtained a holomorphic Lefschetz formula on compact complex manifolds without boundary. Brenner and Shubin (1981, 1991) extended the Atiyah-Bott theory to compact manifolds with boundary. On compact complex manifolds with boundary the Dolbeault complex is not elliptic, therefore the Atiyah-Bott theory is not applicable. Bypassing difficulties related to the boundary behaviour of Dolbeault cohomology, Donnelly and Fefferman (1986) obtained a formula for the number of fixed points in terms of the Bergman metric. The aim of this paper is to obtain a Lefschetz formula on relatively compact strictly pseudoconvex subdomains of complex manifolds X with smooth boundary, that is, to find the total Lefschetz number for a holomorphic endomorphism f * of the Dolbeault complex and to express it in terms of local invariants of the fixed points of f.

  20. Divergent changes in serum sterols during a strict uncooked vegan diet in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agren, J J; Tvrzicka, E; Nenonen, M T; Helve, T; Hänninen, O

    2001-02-01

    The effects of a strict uncooked vegan diet on serum lipid and sterol concentrations were studied in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The subjects were randomized into a vegan diet group (n 16), who consumed a vegan diet for 2-3 months, or into a control group (n 13), who continued their usual omnivorous diets. Serum total and LDL-cholesterol and -phospholipid concentrations were significantly decreased by the vegan diet. The levels of serum cholestanol and lathosterol also decreased, but serum cholestanol:total cholesterol and lathosterol:total cholesterol did not change. The effect of a vegan diet on serum plant sterols was divergent as the concentration of campesterol decreased while that of sitosterol increased. This effect resulted in a significantly greater sitosterol:campesterol value in the vegan diet group than in the control group (1.48 (SD 0.39) v. 0.72 (SD 0.14); P vegan diet changes the relative absorption rates of these sterols and/or their biliary clearance.

  1. Model-Based Adaptive Event-Triggered Control of Strict-Feedback Nonlinear Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-Xin; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2018-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the adaptive event-triggered control problem of nonlinear continuous-time systems in strict-feedback form. By using the event-sampled neural network (NN) to approximate the unknown nonlinear function, an adaptive model and an associated event-triggered controller are designed by exploiting the backstepping method. In the proposed method, the feedback signals and the NN weights are aperiodically updated only when the event-triggered condition is violated. A positive lower bound on the minimum intersample time is guaranteed to avoid accumulation point. The closed-loop stability of the resulting nonlinear impulsive dynamical system is rigorously proved via Lyapunov analysis under an adaptive event sampling condition. In comparing with the traditional adaptive backstepping design with a fixed sample period, the event-triggered method samples the state and updates the NN weights only when it is necessary. Therefore, the number of transmissions can be significantly reduced. Finally, two simulation examples are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  2. DNA remodelling by Strict Partial Endoreplication in orchids, an original process in the plant kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Spencer C; Bourge, Mickaël; Maunoury, Nicolas; Wong, Maurice; Bianchi, Michele Wolfe; Lepers-Andrzejewski, Sandra; Besse, Pascale; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja; Dron, Michel; Satiat-Jeunemaître, Béatrice

    2017-04-13

    DNA remodelling during endoreplication appears to be a strong developmental characteristic in orchids. In this study, we analysed DNA content and nuclei in 41 species of orchids to further map the genome evolution in this plant family. We demonstrate that the DNA remodelling observed in 36 out of 41 orchids studied corresponds to strict partial endoreplication. Such process is developmentally regulated in each wild species studied. Cytometry data analyses allowed us to propose a model where nuclear states 2C, 4E, 8E, etc. form a series comprising a fixed proportion, the euploid genome 2C, plus 2 to 32 additional copies of a complementary part of the genome. The fixed proportion ranged from 89% of the genome in Vanilla mexicana down to 19% in V. pompona, the lowest value for all 148 orchids reported. Insterspecific hybridisation did not suppress this phenomenon. Interestingly, this process was not observed in mass-produced epiphytes. Nucleolar volumes grow with the number of endocopies present, coherent with high transcription activity in endoreplicated nuclei. Our analyses suggest species-specific chromatin rearrangement. Towards understanding endoreplication, V. planifolia constitutes a tractable system for isolating the genomic sequences that confer an advantage via endoreplication from those that apparently suffice at diploid level. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  3. Clinical impact of strict criteria for selectivity and lateralization in adrenal vein sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparetto, Alessandro; Angle, John F; Darvishi, Pasha; Freeman, Colbey W; Norby, Ray G; Carey, Robert M

    2015-04-01

    Selectivity index (SI) and lateralization index (LI) thresholds determine the adequacy of adrenal vein sampling (AVS) and the degree of lateralization. The purpose of this study was investigate the clinical outcome of patients whose adrenal vein sampling was interpreted using "strict criteria" (SC) (SIpre-stimuli≥3, SIpost-stimuli≥5 and LIpre-stimuli≥4, LIpost-stimuli≥4). A retrospective review of 73 consecutive AVS procedures was performed and 67 were technically successful. Forty-three patients showed lateralization and underwent surgery, while 24 did not lateralize and were managed conservatively. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), kalemia (K(+)), and the change in number of blood pressure (BP) medications were recorded for each patient before and after AVS and potential surgery were performed. In the surgery group, BP and K(+) changed respectively from 160±5.3/100±2.0 mmHg to 127±3.3/80±1.9 (p blood pressure medications were six (14.0%) in the lateralized group and 22 (91.7%) in the non-lateralized group (p <0.001). AVS interpretation with SC leads to significant clinical improvement in both patients who underwent surgery and those managed conservatively.

  4. Generalized mechanical pain sensitivity over nerve tissues in patients with strictly unilateral migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Cuadrado, María Luz; Pareja, Juan A

    2009-06-01

    No study has previously analyzed pressure pain sensitivity of nerve trunks in migraine. This study aimed to examine the differences in mechanical pain sensitivity over specific nerves between patients with unilateral migraine and healthy controls. Blinded investigators assessed pressure pain thresholds (PPT) over the supra-orbital nerves (V1) and peripheral nerve trunks of both upper extremities (median, radial, and ulnar nerves) in 20 patients with strictly unilateral migraine and 20 healthy matched controls. Pain intensity after palpation over both supra-orbital nerves was also assessed. A pressure algometer was used to quantify PPT, whereas a 10-point numerical pain rate scale was used to evaluate pain to palpation over the supra-orbital nerve. The analysis of covariance revealed that pain to palpation over the supra-orbital nerve was significantly higher (P0.6). In patients with unilateral migraine, we found increased mechano-sensitivity of the supra-orbital nerve on the symptomatic side of the head. Outside the head, the same patients showed increased mechano-sensitivity of the main peripheral nerves of both upper limbs, without asymmetries. Such diffuse hypersensitivity of the peripheral nerves lends further evidence to the presence of a state of hyperexcitability of the central nervous system in patients with unilateral migraine.

  5. Alteration of light-dependent gene regulation by the absence of the RCO-1/RCM-1 repressor complex in the fungus Neurospora crassa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ruger-Herreros

    Full Text Available The activation of transcription by light in the fungus Neurospora crassa requires the White Collar Complex (WCC, a photoreceptor and transcription factor complex. After light reception two WCCs interact and bind the promoters of light-regulated genes to activate transcription. This process is regulated by VVD, a small photoreceptor that disrupts the interaction between WCCs and leads to a reduction in transcription after long exposures to light. The N. crassa RCO-1/RCM-1 repressor complex is the homolog of the Tup1-Ssn6 repressor complex in yeast, and its absence modifies photoadaptation. We show that the absence of the RCO-1/RCM-1 repressor complex leads to several alterations in transcription that are gene-specific: an increase in the accumulation of mRNAs in the dark, a repression of transcription, and a derepression of transcription after long exposures to light. The absence of the RCO-1/RCM-1 repressor complex leads to lower VVD levels that are available for the regulation of the activity of the WCC. The reduction in the amount of VVD results in increased WCC binding to the promoters of light-regulated genes in the dark and after long exposures to light, leading to the modification of photoadaptation that has been observed in rco-1 and rcm-1 mutants. Our results show that the photoadaptation phenotype of mutants in the RCO-1/RCM-1 repressor complex is, at least in part, an indirect consequence of the reduction of vvd transcription, and the resulting modification in the regulation of transcription by the WCC.

  6. Marinobacterium sp. strain DMS-S1 uses dimethyl sulphide as a sulphur source after light-dependent transformation by excreted flavins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Takako; Fuse, Hiroyuki; Endo, Takayuki; Habe, Hiroshi; Nojiri, Hideaki; Omori, Toshio

    2003-06-01

    Marinobacterium sp. strain DMS-S1 is a unique marine bacterium that can use dimethyl sulphide (DMS) as a sulphur source only in the presence of light. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses of the culture supernatant revealed that excreted factors, which could transform DMS to dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) under light, are FAD and riboflavin. In addition, FAD appeared to catalyse the photolysis of DMS to not only DMSO but also methanesulphonate (MSA), formate, formaldehyde and sulphate. As strain DMS-S1 can use sulphate and MSA as a sole sulphur source independently of light, the excretion of flavins appeared to support the growth on DMS under light. Furthermore, three out of 12 marine bacteria from IAM culture collection were found to be able to grow on DMS with the aid of photolysis by the flavins excreted. This is the first report that bacteria can use light to assimilate oceanic organic sulphur compounds outside the cells by excreting flavins as photosensitizers.

  7. Repeated exposure of male mice to low doses of lipopolysaccharide: dose and time dependent development of behavioral sensitization and tolerance in an automated light-dark anxiety test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banasikowski, Tomek J; Cloutier, Caylen J; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter; Kavaliers, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Although lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is widely used to examine immune behavior relationships there has been little consideration of the effects of low doses and the roles of sensitization and, or tolerance. Here low doses of LPS (1.0, 5.0 and 25.0 μg/kg) were peripherally administered to male mice on Days 1, 4, 28 and 32 after a baseline recording of anxiety-like behaviors in an automated light-dark apparatus (total time in the light chamber, number of light-dark transitions, nose pokes into the light chamber). LPS at 1.0 μg/kg, while having no significant effects on anxiety-like behaviors in the light-dark test on Days 1 and 4, displayed sensitization with the mice exhibiting significantly enhanced anxiety-like responses on Days 28 and 32. LPS at 5.0 μg/kg had no consistent significant effects on anxiety-like behavior on Days 1 and 4, with sensitization and enhanced anxiety-like behaviors on Day 28 followed by tolerance on Day 32. LPS at 25 μg/kg significantly enhanced anxiety-like behaviors on Day 1, followed by tolerance on Day 4, which was not evident by Day 28 and re-emerged on Day 32. There was a similar overall pattern of sensitization and tolerance for LPS-induced decreases in locomotor activity in the safe dark chamber, without, however, any significant effects on activity in the riskier light chamber. This shows that low doses of LPS induce anxiety-like behavior and these effects are subject to sensitization and tolerance in a dose, context, and time related manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Strict Criteria for Selection of Laparoscopy for Women with Adnexal Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallum, Luis Felipe; Sarian, Luis Otávio; Bastos, Joana Fróes Bragança; Derchain, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We compared the indication of laparoscopy for treatment of adnexal masses based on the risk scores and tumor diameters with the indication based on gynecology-oncologists' experience. Methods: This was a prospective study of 174 women who underwent surgery for adnexal tumors (116 laparotomies, 58 laparoscopies). The surgeries begun and completed by laparoscopy, with benign pathologic diagnosis, were considered successful. Laparoscopic surgeries that required conversion to laparotomy, led to a malignant diagnosis, or facilitated cyst rupture were considered failures. Two groups were defined for laparoscopy indication: (1) absence of American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG) guideline for referral of high-risk adnexal masses criteria (ACOG negative) associated with 3 different tumor sizes (10, 12, and 14 cm); and (2) Index of Risk of Malignancy (IRM) with cutoffs at 100, 200, and 300, associated with the same 3 tumor sizes. Both groups were compared with the indication based on the surgeon's experience to verify whether the selection based on strict rules would improve the rate of successful laparoscopy. Results: ACOG-negative and tumors ≤10 cm and IRM with a cutoff at 300 points and tumors ≤10cm resulted in the same best performance (78% success = 38/49 laparoscopies). However, compared with the results of the gynecology-oncologists' experience, those were not statistically significant. Discussion: The selection of patients with adnexal mass to laparoscopy by the use of the ACOG guideline or IRM associated with tumor diameter had similar performance as the experience of gynecology-oncologists. Both methods are reproducible and easy to apply to all women with adnexal masses and could be used by general gynecologists to select women for laparoscopic surgery; however, referral to a gynecology-oncologist is advisable when there is any doubt. PMID:25392617

  9. Strict Host-Symbiont Cospeciation and Reductive Genome Evolution in Insect Gut Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Nikoh, Naruo; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

    2006-01-01

    Host-symbiont cospeciation and reductive genome evolution have been identified in obligate endocellular insect symbionts, but no such example has been identified from extracellular ones. Here we first report such a case in stinkbugs of the family Plataspidae, wherein a specific gut bacterium is vertically transmitted via “symbiont capsule.” In all of the plataspid species, females produced symbiont capsules upon oviposition and their gut exhibited specialized traits for capsule production. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the plataspid symbionts constituted a distinct group in the γ-Proteobacteria, whose sister group was the aphid obligate endocellular symbionts Buchnera. Removal of the symbionts resulted in retarded growth, mortality, and sterility of the insects. The host phylogeny perfectly agreed with the symbiont phylogeny, indicating strict host-symbiont cospeciation despite the extracellular association. The symbionts exhibited AT-biased nucleotide composition, accelerated molecular evolution, and reduced genome size, as has been observed in obligate endocellular insect symbionts. These findings suggest that not the endocellular conditions themselves but the population genetic attributes of the vertically transmitted symbionts are probably responsible for the peculiar genetic traits of these insect symbionts. We proposed the designation “Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata” for the plataspid symbionts. The plataspid stinkbugs, wherein the host-symbiont associations can be easily manipulated, provide a novel system that enables experimental approaches to previously untouched aspects of the insect-microbe mutualism. Furthermore, comparative analyses of the sister groups, the endocellular Buchnera and the extracellular Ishikawaella, would lead to insights into how the different symbiotic lifestyles have affected their genomic evolution. PMID:17032065

  10. Effect of red and blue light on the timing of cyclin-dependent kinase activity and the timing of cell division in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oldenhof, H.; Bišová, Kateřina; Ende, H.; Zachleder, Vilém

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 42, - (2004), s. 341-348 ISSN 0981-9428 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/02/1438 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : blue light * chlamydomonas reingardtii * cell cycle Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.414, year: 2004

  11. Thermal dependence of time-resolved blue light stimulated luminescence in α-Al2O3:C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagonis, Vasilis; Ankjærgaard, Christina; Jain, Mayank

    2013-01-01

    -dependent phosphorescence signal, the delayed-OSL described previously for this material. The temperature dependent luminescence lifetimes obtained from analysis of the optical stimulation period are identical to those obtained from the corresponding relaxation period. However, the values of these luminescence lifetimes...

  12. Simple and versatile turbidimetric monitoring of bacterial growth in liquid cultures using a customized 3D printed culture tube holder and a miniaturized spectrophotometer: application to facultative and strictly anaerobic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida R. G. Maia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we introduce a novel strategy for turbidimetric monitoring of bacterial growth in liquid culture. The instrumentation comprises a light source, a customized 3D printed culture tube holder and a miniaturized spectrophotometer, connected through optical cables. Due to its small footprint and the possibility to operate with external light, bacterial growth was directly monitored from culture tubes in a simple and versatile fashion. This new portable measurement technique was used to monitor the growth of facultative (Escherichia coli ATCC/25922, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC/29213 and strictly (Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens JW11, Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus P18, and Propionibacterium acnes DSMZ 1897 anaerobic bacteria. For E. coli and S. aureus, the growth rates calculated from normalized optical density values were compared with those ones obtained using a benchtop spectrophotometer without significant differences (P = 0.256. For the strictly anaerobic species, a high precision (RSD < 3.5% was observed between replicates up to 48 h. Regarding its potential for customization, this manifold could accommodate further developments for customized turbidimetric monitoring, such as the use of light-emitting diodes as a light source or flow cells.

  13. Simple and Versatile Turbidimetric Monitoring of Bacterial Growth in Liquid Cultures Using a Customized 3D Printed Culture Tube Holder and a Miniaturized Spectrophotometer: Application to Facultative and Strictly Anaerobic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Margarida R G; Marques, Sara; Cabrita, Ana R J; Wallace, R John; Thompson, Gertrude; Fonseca, António J M; Oliveira, Hugo M

    2016-01-01

    Here we introduce a novel strategy for turbidimetric monitoring of bacterial growth in liquid culture. The instrumentation comprises a light source, a customized 3D printed culture tube holder and a miniaturized spectrophotometer, connected through optical cables. Due to its small footprint and the possibility to operate with external light, bacterial growth was directly monitored from culture tubes in a simple and versatile fashion. This new portable measurement technique was used to monitor the growth of facultative (Escherichia coli ATCC/25922, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC/29213) and strictly (Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens JW11, Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus P18, and Propionibacterium acnes DSMZ 1897) anaerobic bacteria. For E. coli and S. aureus, the growth rates calculated from normalized optical density values were compared with those ones obtained using a benchtop spectrophotometer without significant differences (P = 0.256). For the strictly anaerobic species, a high precision (relative standard deviation < 3.5%) was observed between replicates up to 48 h. Regarding its potential for customization, this manifold could accommodate further developments for customized turbidimetric monitoring, such as the use of light-emitting diodes as a light source or flow cells.

  14. Analyses des discours non strictement mathematiques accompagnant des cours de mathematiques (Analysis of Not Strictly Mathematical Discourse in Mathematics Classes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Aline

    1995-01-01

    Examines discourse, not strictly mathematical, that teachers might adopt in a mathematics class and presents three major functions of such discourse: communication; structuring and labeling; and reflection. Develops lines for further inquiry, notably on the third function, the most likely focus for specific preparation by the teacher. (13…

  15. Properties of N-person axiomatic bargaining solutions if the Pareto frontier is twice differentiable and strictly concave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douven, R.C.M.H.; Engwerda, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we discuss properties of N-person axiomatic bargaining problems, where the Pareto frontier of S can be described by a strictly concave and twice differentiable function. These type of problems are characteristic for the empirical policy coordination literature. In that literature the

  16. Convergence of Implicit and Explicit Schemes for an Asymptotically Nonexpansive Mapping in -Uniformly Smooth and Strictly Convex Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new iterative scheme with Meir-Keeler contractions for an asymptotically nonexpansive mapping in -uniformly smooth and strictly convex Banach spaces. We also proved the strong convergence theorems of implicit and explicit schemes. The results obtained in this paper extend and improve many recent ones announced by many others.

  17. A non-permselective membrane reactor for chemical processes normally requiring strict stoichiometric feed rates of reactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloot, H.J.; Versteeg, Geert; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1990-01-01

    A novel type of membrane reactor with separated feeding of the reactants is presented for chemical processes normally requiring strict stoichiometric feed rates of premixed reactants. The reactants are fed in the reactor to the different sides of a porous membrane which is impregnated with a

  18. Strict Fathers, Competing Culture(s), and Racialized Poverty: White South African Teachers' Conceptions of Themselves as Racialized Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Zachary A.

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses in particular on four white South African female practicing P-12 teachers' narratives about their own racialized understanding of their classroom practice(s) and their (racio-cultural) self-identity. Each of the four participants reported growing up with what they described as "strict fathers" and shared ways in…

  19. Crystal growth and temperature dependence of light output of Ce-doped (Gd, La, Y)2Si2O7 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiai, Takahiko; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Murakami, Rikito; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Pejchal, Jan; Yamaji, Akihiro; Ohashi, Yuji; Kamada, Kei; Yokota, Yuui; Ishizu, Tomohiro; Ohishi, Yasuo; Nakaya, Taisuke; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2018-03-01

    Ce-doped (Gd, La)2Si2O7 scintillation crystals are expected to be used as gamma-ray detectors for high temperature measurement. To realize scintillators for high temperature environment, we investigated (Ce0.01 Gd0.59-x La0.40 Yx)2Si2O7 (x = 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15) single crystals grown by the micro-pulling-down method. The results showed that a 5% Y-admixed Ce-doped (Gd, La)2Si2O7 scintillator can yield higher light output when compared with Y-free Ce-doped (Gd, La)2Si2O7 scintillator. The light outputs at 25°C and 175°C were determined to be ∼43,000 and ∼40,000 photons/MeV, respectively. Moreover, 1 inch size 5% Y-admixed Ce-doped (Gd, La)2Si2O7 scintillator was grown by the Czochralski technique, and its light output at 175°C kept the value of around 95% of the value at 25°C.

  20. Identité stricte ou partielle et identification dans les phrases à copule. Comment les identifier ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amary-Coudreau Valérie

    2014-07-01

    éristiques propres à l’identité, ainsi que celles propres à la spécification et à l’identification, pour lesquelles X et Y ont des degrés de référentialité et/ou de prédicativité différents. Enfin, cette hypothèse nous amène à distinguer l’identité de l’identification, sur la base de tests qui, à l’inverse de Larreya (2003, différencient l’identité stricte de l’identité partielle.

  1. Pressure dependence of the solubility of light fullerenes in 1-hexanol from 298.15 K to 363.15 K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenov, Konstantin N.; Regueira Muñiz, Teresa; Fernández, Josefa

    2015-01-01

    The solubility of light fullerenes (C60 and C70) in 1-hexanol was investigated in the range of pressures of 0.1-100 MPa and in the range of temperatures of 298.15-363.15 K. In all of the studied temperatures, solubility increases monotonously with increasing pressure. At ambient pressure, we have...... (monosolvated fullerene C60 and non-solvated C60). The composition of the solid crystallosolvate was determined by thermogravimetric analysis. The solubility diagram of the binary system C70-1-hexanol in the temperature range of 298.15-328.15 K at 0.1 MPa consists of only one branch corresponding...

  2. Production of Gymnemic Acid Depends on Medium, Explants, PGRs, Color Lights, Temperature, Photoperiod, and Sucrose Sources in Batch Culture of Gymnema sylvestre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bakrudeen Ali Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gymnema sylvestre (R.Br. is an important diabetic medicinal plant which yields pharmaceutically active compounds called gymnemic acid (GA. The present study describes callus induction and the subsequent batch culture optimization and GA quantification determined by linearity, precision, accuracy, and recovery. Best callus induction of GA was noticed in MS medium combined with 2,4-D (1.5 mg/L and KN (0.5 mg/L. Evaluation and isolation of GA from the calluses derived from different plant parts, namely, leaf, stem and petioles have been done in the present case for the first time. Factors such as light, temperature, sucrose, and photoperiod were studied to observe their effect on GA production. Temperature conditions completely inhibited GA production. Out of the different sucrose concentrations tested, the highest yield (35.4 mg/g d.w was found at 5% sucrose followed by 12 h photoperiod (26.86 mg/g d.w. Maximum GA production (58.28 mg/g d.w was observed in blue light. The results showed that physical and chemical factors greatly influence the production of GA in callus cultures of G. sylvestre. The factors optimized for in vitro production of GA during the present study can successfully be employed for their large-scale production in bioreactors.

  3. Strict liability as a legal mechanism protecting the aggrieved parties' interests within the nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotna, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    The no-fault liability principle of nuclear liability regime, its compensation schemes, sociological and legal grounds of its construction as well as liberation grounds are analysed. The simple existence of causation of damage and nuclear accident without necessity of proving negligence or any other type of fault on the part of the operator as an adequate basis for the operator’s strict liability is highlighted thus simplifying the litigation process eliminating potential obstacles, especially such as might exist with the burden of proof. The question of weighing the interests of society in the development of nuclear industry, the necessary extent of protection of victims of nuclear accidents and the interests of operators of nuclear facilities as main determinants of the strict nature of nuclear liability is also described. (orig.)

  4. Impact parameter dependent light particle correlations for 40Ar induced reactions on 197Au at E/A = 60 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyanowski, A.

    1987-01-01

    With the help of a multidetector system of 96 plastic detectors, mounted in the forward hemisphere between 3 0 and 30 0 , we measured light charged particles to make an off-line event-type selection. The final aim to distinguish different impact parameter domains with the plastic wall could be achieved using the observed multiplicity as the sampling parameter. With the help of a computer simulation based on a participant-spectator model to describe the reation, the mean observed multiplicity could be established to vary smoothly with the total multiplicity, a variable which is often cited as an indicator for the violence of a reaction. Even if the simulation indicates a broad distribution of the observed multiplicity over the different impact parameters, we could separate the extreme cases of peripheral and central collisions. If the events are selected with the appropriate multiplicity gates, it turns out that peripheral collisions give rise to enhanced correlations, whereas the correlation function is strongly reduced for central collisions. Between these extreme values the correlation reduces smoothly with the impact parameter. The space-time extent of the emitting system is therefore larger for small impact parameters than in peripheral collisions. Supposing that the spatial extent is rather independent of the impact parameter (except for very peripheral collisions) we suggest that the observed variation of the correlation function could indicate a variation of the emission time for light particles rather than a spatial evolution. On the contrary the temperature, determined equally after an event-type selection with the observed multiplicity, shows no variation with the impact parameter. This could indicate that a limiting temperature is reached at a value at which the emission of particles is faster than the temporal development of the temperature. (orig./HSI)

  5. Controllable synthesis of Bi2MoO6 nanosheets and their facet-dependent visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zixin; Shen, Min; Dai, Ke; Zhang, Xuehao; Chen, Hao

    2018-02-01

    Bi2MoO6 nanosheets with exposed {010} facets were selectively synthesized through hydrothermal method by adjusting the pH value in the presence of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as the templates. The effects of CTAB content and hydrothermal conditions on the morphologies and crystal phases of the products were determined by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectrometry, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analyses. It is found that Bi2MoO6 nanosheets with relatively large particle sizes (plate length 0.5-3 μm) and special anisotropic growth along the {010} plane can be obtained from an alkaline hydrothermal environment. The band gap of Bi2MoO6 can be fine-tuned from 2.30 to 2.57 eV by adjusting the pH value of hydrothermal solution. The pH value has a significant effect on the composition of hydrothermal precursors, which results in Bi2MoO6 nanosheets with different ratio of {010} faces, especially the formation of Bi2O3 in the primary stage of the hydrothermal treatment is a key factor for the exposure of {010} facets. The visible-light-driven photocatalytic activities of the Bi2MoO6 products with different ratio of {010} facets exposed are investigated through the degradation of Rhodamine B, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline. Bi2MoO6 nanosheets synthesized at pH 10.0 with highest {010} facet exposed ratio exhibited highly efficient visible light photocatalytic activity for pollutant decomposition, which can be mainly attributed to the flake structures, the crystallinity and most importantly, the exposed {010} facet which generate high concentration of rad O2-.

  6. Concentration dependence of the light yield and energy resolution of NaI:Tl and CsI:Tl crystals excited by gamma, soft X-rays and alpha particles

    CERN Document Server

    Trefilova, L N; Kovaleva, L V; Zaslavsky, B G; Zosim, D I; Bondarenko, S K

    2002-01-01

    Based on the analysis of light yield dependence on activator concentration for NaI:Tl and CsI:Tl excited by gamma-rays, soft X-rays and alpha-particles, an explanation of the effect of energy resolution enhancement with the rise of Tl content has been proposed. Based on the concept regarding the electron track structure, we proposed an alternative explanation of the intrinsic resolution value. The concept does not take into account the non-proportional response to electrons of different energies and is based on the statistic fluctuation of scintillation photon number formed outside and inside the regions of higher ionization density.

  7. The impact of Sleep Time-Related Information and Communication Technology (STRICT) on sleep patterns and daytime functioning in American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polos, Peter G; Bhat, Sushanth; Gupta, Divya; O'Malley, Richard J; DeBari, Vincent A; Upadhyay, Hinesh; Chaudhry, Saqib; Nimma, Anitha; Pinto-Zipp, Genevieve; Chokroverty, Sudhansu

    2015-10-01

    This cross-sectional study explored the extent and impact of mobile device-based Sleep Time-Related Information and Communication Technology (STRICT) use among American adolescents (N = 3139, 49.3% female, mean age = 13.3 years). Nearly 62% used STRICT after bedtime, 56.7% texted/tweeted/messaged in bed, and 20.8% awoke to texts. STRICT use was associated with insomnia, daytime sleepiness, eveningness, academic underperformance, later bedtimes and shorter sleep duration. Moderation analysis demonstrated that the association between STRICT use and insomnia increased with age, the association between STRICT use and daytime sleepiness decreased with age, and the association between STRICT use and shorter sleep duration decreased with age and was stronger in girls. Insomnia and daytime sleepiness partially mediated the relationship between STRICT use and academic underperformance. Our results illustrate the adverse interactions between adolescent STRICT use and sleep, with deleterious effects on daytime functioning. These worrisome findings suggest that placing reasonable limitations on adolescent STRICT use may be appropriate. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Strict versus liberal target range for perioperative glucose in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Shalin P; Henry, Linda L; Holmes, Sari D; Hunt, Sharon L; Martin, Chidima T; Hebsur, Shrinivas; Ad, Niv

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a liberal blood glucose strategy (121-180 mg/dL) is not inferior to a strict blood glucose strategy (90-120 mg/dL) for outcomes in patients after first-time isolated coronary artery bypass grafting and is superior for glucose control and target blood glucose management. A total of 189 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting were investigated in this prospective randomized study to compare 2 glucose control strategies on patient perioperative outcomes. Three methods of analyses (intention to treat, completer, and per protocol) were conducted. Observed power was robust (>80%) for significant results. The groups were similar on preoperative hemoglobin A(1c) and number of diabetic patients. The liberal group was found to be noninferior to the strict group for perioperative complications and superior on glucose control and target range management. The liberal group had significantly fewer patients with hypoglycemic events (liberal range after coronary artery bypass grafting led to similar outcomes compared with a strict target range and was superior in glucose control and target range management. On the basis of the results of this study, a target blood glucose range of 121 to 180 mg/dL is recommended for patients after coronary artery bypass grafting as advocated by the Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Copyright © 2012 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. History dependent magnetoresistance in lightly doped La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Xiaoyan [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Popovic, Dragana, E-mail: dragana@magnet.fsu.edu [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Panagopoulos, C. [Department of Physics, University of Crete and FORTH, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Division of Physics and Applied Physics, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Logvenov, G.; Bollinger, A.T.; Bozovic, I. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The in-plane magnetoresistance (MR) in atomically smooth La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} thin films grown by molecular-beam-epitaxy was measured in magnetic fields B up to 9 T over a wide range of temperatures T. The films, with x=0.03 and x=0.05, are insulating, and the positive MR emerges at T<4K. The positive MR exhibits glassy features, including history dependence and memory, for all orientations of B. The results show that this behavior, which reflects the onset of glassiness in the dynamics of doped holes, is a robust feature of the insulating state.

  10. Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  11. Light scattering from liquid crystal director fluctuations in steady magnetic fields up to 25 tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challa, Pavan K; Curtiss, O; Williams, J C; Twieg, R; Toth, J; McGill, S; Jákli, A; Gleeson, J T; Sprunt, S N

    2012-07-01

    We report on homodyne dynamic light scattering measurements of orientational fluctuation modes in both calamitic and bent-core nematic liquid crystals, carried out in the new split-helix resistive magnet at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. The relaxation rate and inverse scattered intensity of director fluctuations exhibit a linear dependence on field-squared up to 25 tesla, which is consistent with strictly lowest order coupling of the tensor order parameter Q to field (Q(αβ)B(α)B(β)) in the nematic free energy. However, we also observe evidence of field dependence of certain nematic material parameters, an effect which may be expected from the mean field scaling of these quantities with the magnitude of Q and the predicted variation of Q with field.

  12. Levels and Age Dependency of Neurofilament Light and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein in Healthy Individuals and Their Relation to the Brain Parenchymal Fraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias Vågberg

    Full Text Available Neurofilament light (NFL and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP are integral parts of the axonal and astrocytal cytoskeletons respectively and are released into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in cases of cellular damage. In order to interpret the levels of these biomarkers in disease states, knowledge on normal levels in the healthy is required. Another biomarker for neurodegeneration is brain atrophy, commonly measured as brain parenchymal fraction (BPF using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Potential correlations between levels of NFL, GFAP and BPF in healthy individuals have not been investigated.To present levels of NFL and GFAP in healthy individuals stratified for age, and investigate the correlation between them as well as their correlation with BPF.The CSF was analysed in 53 healthy volunteers aged 21 to 70 (1 sample missing for GFAP analysis and 48 of the volunteers underwent determination of BPF using MRI.Mean (±SD NFL was 355 ng/L (±214, mean GFAP was 421 ng/L (±129 and mean BPF was 0.867 (±0.035. All three biomarkers correlated with age. NFL also correlated with both GFAP and BPF. When controlled for age, only the correlation between NFL and GFAP retained statistical significance.This study presents data on age-stratified levels of NFL and GFAP in the CSF of healthy individuals. There is a correlation between levels of NFL and GFAP and both increase with age. A correlation between NFL and BPF was also found, but did not retain statistical significance if controlled for age.

  13. The tryptophan-rich sensory protein (TSPO is involved in stress-related and light-dependent processes in the cyanobacterium Fremyella diplosiphon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eBusch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The tryptophan-rich sensory protein (TSPO is a membrane protein, which is a member of the 18 kilodalton translocator protein/peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (MBR family of proteins that is present in most organisms and is also referred to as Translocator protein 18 kDa. Although TSPO is associated with stress- and disease-related processes in organisms from bacteria to mammals, full elucidation of the functional role of the TSPO protein is lacking for most organisms in which it is found. In this study, we describe the regulation and function of a TSPO homolog in the cyanobacterium Fremyella diplosiphon, designated FdTSPO. Accumulation of the FdTSPO transcript is upregulated by green light and in response to nutrient deficiency and stress. A F. diplosiphon TSPO deletion mutant (i.e., ΔFdTSPO showed altered responses compared to the wild type strain under stress conditions, including salt treatment, osmotic stress and induced oxidative stress. Under salt stress, the FdTSPO transcript is upregulated and a ΔFdTSPO mutant accumulates lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS and displays increased growth compared to WT. In response to osmotic stress, FdTSPO transcript levels are upregulated and ΔFdTSPO mutant cells exhibit impaired growth compared to the wild type. By comparison, methyl viologen-induced oxidative stress results in higher ROS levels in the ΔFdTSPO mutant compared to the wild type strain. Taken together, our results provide support for the involvement of membrane-localized FdTSPO in mediating cellular responses to stress in F. diplosiphon and represent detailed functional analysis of a cyanobacterial TSPO. This study advances our understanding of the functional roles of TSPO homologs in vivo.

  14. Frequency and temperature dependences of capacitance-voltage characteristics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting structures with multiple quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltanovich, O. A.; Shmidt, N. M.; Yakimov, E. B.

    2011-01-01

    A frequency dependence of capacitance-voltage (C–V) characteristics in multiple quantum well InGaN/GaN heterostructures in the range of 60 Hz-5 MHz is investigated at temperatures from 77 to 300 K. It is found that temperature lowering and test frequency increase lead to the similar changes in obtained apparent carrier distributions. It is shown that commonly used conditions for capacitance-voltage profiling of InGaN/GaN LEDs correspond to an intermediate case between low- and high-frequency capacitance approximations. At all temperatures investigated, the edge low-frequency capacitance-voltage profiles are experimentally reached and found to be identical. The process of attainment of equilibrium of the charges in the active region is most likely determined by tunneling of the carriers through the barriers.

  15. Effect of scanner acoustic background noise on strict resting-state fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rondinoni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Functional MRI (fMRI resting-state experiments are aimed at identifying brain networks that support basal brain function. Although most investigators consider a ‘resting-state' fMRI experiment with no specific external stimulation, subjects are unavoidably under heavy acoustic noise produced by the equipment. In the present study, we evaluated the influence of auditory input on the resting-state networks (RSNs. Twenty-two healthy subjects were scanned using two similar echo-planar imaging sequences in the same 3T MRI scanner: a default pulse sequence and a reduced “silent” pulse sequence. Experimental sessions consisted of two consecutive 7-min runs with noise conditions (default or silent counterbalanced across subjects. A self-organizing group independent component analysis was applied to fMRI data in order to recognize the RSNs. The insula, left middle frontal gyrus and right precentral and left inferior parietal lobules showed significant differences in the voxel-wise comparison between RSNs depending on noise condition. In the presence of low-level noise, these areas Granger-cause oscillations in RSNs with cognitive implications (dorsal attention and entorhinal, while during high noise acquisition, these connectivities are reduced or inverted. Applying low noise MR acquisitions in research may allow the detection of subtle differences of the RSNs, with implications in experimental planning for resting-state studies, data analysis, and ergonomic factors.

  16. Characterization and Genetic Analysis of a Novel Light-Dependent Lesion Mimic Mutant, lm3, Showing Adult-Plant Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Common Wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    Full Text Available Lesion mimics (LMs that exhibit spontaneous disease-like lesions in the absence of pathogen attack might confer enhanced plant disease resistance to a wide range of pathogens. The LM mutant, lm3 was derived from a single naturally mutated individual in the F1 population of a 3-1/Jing411 cross, backcrossed six times with 3-1 as the recurrent parent and subsequently self-pollinated twice. The leaves of young seedlings of the lm3 mutant exhibited small, discrete white lesions under natural field conditions. The lesions first appeared at the leaf tips and subsequently expanded throughout the entire leaf blade to the leaf sheath. The lesions were initiated through light intensity and day length. Histochemical staining revealed that lesion formation might reflect programmed cell death (PCD and abnormal accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. The chlorophyll content in the mutant was significantly lower than that in wildtype, and the ratio of chlorophyll a/b was increased significantly in the mutant compared with wildtype, indicating that lm3 showed impairment of the biosynthesis or degradation of chlorophyll, and that Chlorophyll b was prone to damage during lesion formation. The lm3 mutant exhibited enhanced resistance to wheat powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici; Bgt infection, which was consistent with the increased expression of seven pathogenesis-related (PR and two wheat chemically induced (WCI genes involved in the defense-related reaction. Genetic analysis showed that the mutation was controlled through a single partially dominant gene, which was closely linked to Xbarc203 on chromosome 3BL; this gene was delimited to a 40 Mb region between SSR3B450.37 and SSR3B492.6 using a large derived segregating population and the available Chinese Spring chromosome 3B genome sequence. Taken together, our results provide information regarding the identification of a novel wheat LM gene, which will facilitate the additional fine

  17. Adaptive upstream rate adjustment by RSOA-ONU depending on different injection power of seeding light in standard-reach and long-reach PON systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, C. H.; Chow, C. W.; Shih, F. Y.; Pan, C. L.

    2012-08-01

    The wavelength division multiplexing-time division multiplexing (WDM-TDM) passive optical network (PON) using reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA)-based colorless optical networking units (ONUs) is considered as a promising candidate for the realization of fiber-to-the-home (FTTH). And this architecture is actively considered by Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) for the realization of FTTH in Taiwan. However, different fiber distances and optical components would introduce different power budgets to different ONUs in the PON. Besides, due to the aging of optical transmitter (Tx), the power decay of the distributed optical carrier from the central office (CO) could also reduce the injection power into each ONU. The situation will be more severe in the long-reach (LR) PON, which is considered as an option for the future access. In this work, we investigate a WDM-TDM PON using RSOA-based ONU for upstream data rate adjustment depending on different continuous wave (CW) injection powers. Both standard-reach (25 km) and LR (100 km) transmissions are evaluated. Moreover, a detail analysis of the upstream signal bit-error rate (BER) performances at different injection powers, upstream data rates, PON split-ratios under stand-reach and long-reach is presented.

  18. Effectiveness of strict vs. multiple use protected areas in reducing tropical forest fires: a global analysis using matching methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Nelson

    Full Text Available Protected areas (PAs cover a quarter of the tropical forest estate. Yet there is debate over the effectiveness of PAs in reducing deforestation, especially when local people have rights to use the forest. A key analytic problem is the likely placement of PAs on marginal lands with low pressure for deforestation, biasing comparisons between protected and unprotected areas. Using matching techniques to control for this bias, this paper analyzes the global tropical forest biome using forest fires as a high resolution proxy for deforestation; disaggregates impacts by remoteness, a proxy for deforestation pressure; and compares strictly protected vs. multiple use PAs vs indigenous areas. Fire activity was overlaid on a 1 km map of tropical forest extent in 2000; land use change was inferred for any point experiencing one or more fires. Sampled points in pre-2000 PAs were matched with randomly selected never-protected points in the same country. Matching criteria included distance to road network, distance to major cities, elevation and slope, and rainfall. In Latin America and Asia, strict PAs substantially reduced fire incidence, but multi-use PAs were even more effective. In Latin America, where there is data on indigenous areas, these areas reduce forest fire incidence by 16 percentage points, over two and a half times as much as naïve (unmatched comparison with unprotected areas would suggest. In Africa, more recently established strict PAs appear to be effective, but multi-use tropical forest protected areas yield few sample points, and their impacts are not robustly estimated. These results suggest that forest protection can contribute both to biodiversity conservation and CO2 mitigation goals, with particular relevance to the REDD agenda. Encouragingly, indigenous areas and multi-use protected areas can help to accomplish these goals, suggesting some compatibility between global environmental goals and support for local livelihoods.

  19. Hydroxycinnamic acids used as external acceptors of electrons: an energetic advantage for strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filannino, Pasquale; Gobbetti, Marco; De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2014-12-01

    The metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids by strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (19 strains) was investigated as a potential alternative energy route. Lactobacillus curvatus PE5 was the most tolerant to hydroxycinnamic acids, followed by strains of Weissella spp., Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, for which the MIC values were the same. The highest sensitivity was found for Lactobacillus rossiae strains. During growth in MRS broth, lactic acid bacteria reduced caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids into dihydrocaffeic, phloretic, and dihydroferulic acids, respectively, or decarboxylated hydroxycinnamic acids into the corresponding vinyl derivatives and then reduced the latter compounds to ethyl compounds. Reductase activities mainly emerged, and the activities of selected strains were further investigated in chemically defined basal medium (CDM) under anaerobic conditions. The end products of carbon metabolism were quantified, as were the levels of intracellular ATP and the NAD(+)/NADH ratio. Electron and carbon balances and theoretical ATP/glucose yields were also estimated. When CDM was supplemented with hydroxycinnamic acids, the synthesis of ethanol decreased and the concentration of acetic acid increased. The levels of these metabolites reflected on the alcohol dehydrogenase and acetate kinase activities. Overall, some biochemical traits distinguished the common metabolism of strictly heterofermentative strains: main reductase activity toward hydroxycinnamic acids, a shift from alcohol dehydrogenase to acetate kinase activities, an increase in the NAD(+)/NADH ratio, and the accumulation of supplementary intracellular ATP. Taken together, the above-described metabolic responses suggest that strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria mainly use hydroxycinnamic acids as external acceptors of electrons. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. "Tangible Lights"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Tor; Merritt, Timothy; Andersen, Oskar

    2015-01-01

    interaction with lighting technology beyond the smartphone and physical controllers. We examine the usefulness of the in-air gestural interaction style for lighting control. We bring forward "Tangible Lights", which serves as a novel interface for in-air interaction with lighting, drawing on existing...

  1. Light contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda Pena, William Enrique

    1998-01-01

    The article tries on the wrong use of the artificial light, of the main problems of the light contamination, dispersion of the light, noxious effects of the light contamination, ecological effects, effects on the man's biological rhythm, economic effects and effects about the civic and vial security, among other topics

  2. Fermentative Degradation of Polyethylene Glycol by a Strictly Anaerobic, Gram-Negative, Nonsporeforming Bacterium, Pelobacter venetianus sp. nov

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    The synthetic polyether polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a molecular weight of 20,000 was anaerobically degraded in enrichment cultures inoculated with mud of limnic and marine origins. Three strains (Gra PEG 1, Gra PEG 2, and Ko PEG 2) of rod-shaped, gram-negative, nonsporeforming, strictly anaerobic bacteria were isolated in mineral medium with PEG as the sole source of carbon and energy. All strains degraded dimers, oligomers, and polymers of PEG up to a molecular weight of 20,000 completely...

  3. An Iterative Algorithm Combining Viscosity Method with Parallel Method for a Generalized Equilibrium Problem and Strict Pseudocontractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new approximation scheme combining the viscosity method with parallel method for finding a common element of the set of solutions of a generalized equilibrium problem and the set of fixed points of a family of finitely strict pseudocontractions. We obtain a strong convergence theorem for the sequences generated by these processes in Hilbert spaces. Based on this result, we also get some new and interesting results. The results in this paper extend and improve some well-known results in the literature.

  4. Exploring the critical dependence of adsorption of various dyes on the degradation rate using Ln{sup 3+}-TiO{sub 2} surface under UV/solar light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devi, L. Gomathi, E-mail: gomatidevi_naik@yahoo.co.in [Department of Post Graduate Studies in Chemistry, Central College City Campus, Dr. Ambedkar Street, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560001 (India); Kumar, S. Girish [Department of Post Graduate Studies in Chemistry, Central College City Campus, Dr. Ambedkar Street, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560001 (India)

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: The surface reactive acidic sites enhances on doping with rare earth ions which facilitates efficient adsorption of the dye molecules on the catalyst surface. In addition, the nature of the dopant, its concentration and electronic configuration additionally contributes to the overall efficiency. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The degradation of structurally different anionic dyes under different pH conditions is reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pre adsorption of pollutant on catalyst surface is vital for efficient photocatalysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorption of dye on the catalyst surface depends on the substituent's attached to it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dopant with half filled electronic configuration served as shallow traps for charge carriers. - Abstract: The degradation of structurally different anionic dyes like Alizarin Red S (ARS) Amaranth (AR), Brilliant Yellow (BY), Congo Red (CR), Fast Red (FR), Methyl Orange (MO), and Methyl Red (MR) were carried out using Ln{sup 3+} (Ln{sup 3+} = La{sup 3+}, Ce{sup 3+} and Gd{sup 3+}) doped TiO{sub 2} at different pH conditions under UV/solar light. All the anionic dyes underwent rapid degradation at acidic pH, while resisted at alkaline conditions due to the adsorptive tendency of these dyes on the catalyst surface at different pH conditions. Gd{sup 3+} (0.15 mol%)-TiO{sub 2} exhibited better activity compared to other photocatalyst ascribed to half filled electronic configuration of Gd{sup 3+} ions. It is proposed that Ln{sup 3+} serves only as charge carrier traps under UV light, while it also act as visible light sensitizers under solar light. Irrespective of the catalyst and excitation source, the dye degradation followed the order: AR > FR > MO > MR > ARS > BY > CR. The results suggest that pre-adsorption of the pollutant is vital for efficient photocatalysis which is dependent on the nature of the substituent's group attached to the dye molecule.

  5. Dynamic lighting design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnebjerg, Sofie

    Introduction to the concept of dynamic lighting design The importance of dynamic light to support health and well-being has been more and more recognized [Hansen et al., 2017]. Humans has through many years of evolution adapted to the changing light of the sun, varying through the day, seasons...... and under various weather conditions, creating a multitude of light settings. Humans live in interaction with this dynamic light and consider it as a natural part of our world [Mathiasen, 2015]. Furthermore, it has by the recent discovery of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in 2002...... [Berson et al., 2002] become apparent, that light, beside serving a purpose of enabling visual orientation, also are influencing the internal body clock, affecting sleep-wake cycle, immune responses, appetite, behaviour, mood, alertness and attention - depending on the duration, timing and quality...

  6. Adaptive terminal sliding mode control for hypersonic flight vehicles with strictly lower convex function based nonlinear disturbance observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun-Jie; Zuo, Jing-Xing; Sun, Liang-Hua

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the altitude and velocity tracking control of a generic hypersonic flight vehicle (HFV) is considered. A novel adaptive terminal sliding mode controller (ATSMC) with strictly lower convex function based nonlinear disturbance observer (SDOB) is proposed for the longitudinal dynamics of HFV in presence of both parametric uncertainties and external disturbances. First, for the sake of enhancing the anti-interference capability, SDOB is presented to estimate and compensate the equivalent disturbances by introducing a strictly lower convex function. Next, the SDOB based ATSMC (SDOB-ATSMC) is proposed to guarantee the system outputs track the reference trajectory. Then, stability of the proposed control scheme is analyzed by the Lyapunov function method. Compared with other HFV control approaches, key novelties of SDOB-ATSMC are that a novel SDOB is proposed and drawn into the (virtual) control laws to compensate the disturbances and that several adaptive laws are used to deal with the differential explosion problem. Finally, it is illustrated by the simulation results that the new method exhibits an excellent robustness and a better disturbance rejection performance than the convention approach. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Strictly monolayer large continuous MoS{sub 2} films on diverse substrates and their luminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohapatra, P. K.; Deb, S.; Singh, B. P.; Vasa, P.; Dhar, S., E-mail: dhar@phy.iitb.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2016-01-25

    Despite a tremendous interest on molybdenum disulfide as a thinnest direct band gap semiconductor, single step synthesis of a large area purely monolayer MoS{sub 2} film has not yet been reported. Here, we report a CVD route to synthesize a continuous film of strictly monolayer MoS{sub 2} covering an area as large as a few cm{sup 2} on a variety of different substrates without using any seeding material or any elaborate pretreatment of the substrate. This is achieved by allowing the growth to take place in the naturally formed gap between a piece of SiO{sub 2} coated Si wafer and the substrate, when the latter is placed on top of the former inside a CVD reactor. We propose a qualitative model to explain why the MoS{sub 2} films are always strictly monolayer in this method. The photoluminescence study of these monolayers shows the characteristic excitonic and trionic features associated with monolayer MoS{sub 2}. In addition, a broad defect related luminescence band appears at ∼1.7 eV. As temperature decreases, the intensity of this broad feature increases, while the band edge luminescence reduces.

  8. Event-Sampled Direct Adaptive NN Output- and State-Feedback Control of Uncertain Strict-Feedback System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szanto, Nathan; Narayanan, Vignesh; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2017-04-12

    In this paper, a novel event-triggered implementation of a tracking controller for an uncertain strict-feedback system is presented. Neural networks (NNs) are utilized in the backstepping approach to design a control input by approximating unknown dynamics of the strict-feedback nonlinear system with event-sampled inputs. The system state vector is assumed to be unknown and an NN observer is used to estimate the state vector. By using the estimated state vector and backstepping design approach, an event-sampled controller is introduced. As part of the controller design, first, input-to-state-like stability for a continuously sampled controller that has been injected with bounded measurement errors is demonstrated, and subsequently, an event-execution control law is derived, such that the measurement errors are guaranteed to remain bounded. Lyapunov theory is used to demonstrate that the tracking errors, the observer estimation errors, and the NN weight estimation errors for each NN are locally uniformly ultimately bounded in the presence bounded disturbances, NN reconstruction errors, as well as errors introduced by event sampling. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed controllers.

  9. Cycles of light and dark co-ordinate reversible colony differentiation in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiensuu, Teresa; Andersson, Christopher; Rydén, Patrik; Johansson, Jörgen

    2013-02-01

    Recently, several light receptors have been identified in non-phototrophic bacteria, but their physiological roles still remain rather elusive. Here we show that colonies of the saprophytic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes undergo synchronized multicellular behaviour on agar plates, in response to oscillating light/dark conditions, giving rise to alternating ring formation (opaque and translucent rings). On agar plates, bacteria from opaque rings survive increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as repeated cycles of light and dark, better than bacteria from translucent rings. The ring formation is strictly dependent on a blue-light receptor, Lmo0799, acting through the stress-sigma factor, σ(B) . A transposon screening identified 48 mutants unable to form rings at alternating light conditions, with several of them showing a decreased σ(B) activity/level. However, some of the tested mutants displayed a varied σ(B) activity depending on which of the two stress conditions tested (light or H(2) O(2) exposure). Intriguingly, the transcriptional regulator PrfA and the virulence factor ActA were shown to be required for ring formation by a mechanism involving activation of σ(B) . All in all, this suggests a distinct pathway for Lmo0799 that converge into a common signalling pathway for σ(B) activation. Our results show that night and day cycles co-ordinate a reversible differentiation of a L. monocytogenes colony at room temperature, by a process synchronized by a blue-light receptor and σ(B) . © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. OH radical-initiated oxidation of (E)- and (Z)-β-ocimene in the presence of NOx: the role of light-dependent monoterpenes in organic nitrate and secondary organic aerosol formation in the above-canopy forest environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, J. H., Jr.; Jayarathne, T.; Morales, A. C.; Shepson, P. B.

    2017-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) oxidation represents a significant pathway in the production of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). BVOC oxidation products, including organic nitrates (ON), impact both the SOA burden and the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere by sequestering NOx. A recent field study in the mixed deciduous/coniferous forest of northern Michigan showed that concentrations of multifunctional monoterpene-derived hydroxy nitrates (MTN) and SOA can be greater in the above-canopy environment during daytime, but the source of MTN is unclear as model simulations cannot replicate the higher concentrations above canopy. Light-dependent monoterpenes, including the polyolefinic species, trans-ocimene, may be one such contributor to the higher measured ON and SOA above canopy as this compound has been predicted to be an important source of monoterpene-derived ON during daytime in this environment. However, there are currently no measurements of the ON (and SOA yields) from trans-ocimene oxidation by OH in the presence of NOx, the dominant pathway for daytime ON production. Here we conduct photochemical reaction chamber studies of the OH radical-initiated oxidation of authentic (E)- and (Z)-β-ocimene isomers in the presence of NOx to examine the total (gas and particle) ON, hydroxy nitrate, and SOA yields. The effects of variable chamber relative humidity and seed particle acidity on the ON and SOA yields are examined to better understand the role of hydrolysis on SOA formation and the lifetime of ocimene-derived ON in the particles. This work underscores the importance of light-dependent monoterpenes on mediating the oxidative capacity of the near canopy forest environment and has important implications for understanding NOx cycling and the formation of SOA in forests, which are not currently included in atmospheric models.

  11. Asymmetric reduction of ketopantolactone using a strictly (R)-stereoselective carbonyl reductase through efficient NADPH regeneration and the substrate constant-feeding strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Man; Gao, Liang; Zhang, Li; Bai, Yanbin; Chen, Liang; Yu, Meilan; Cheng, Feng; Sun, Jie; Wang, Zhao; Ying, Xiangxian

    2017-11-01

    To characterize a recombinant carbonyl reductase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SceCPR1) and explore its use in asymmetric synthesis of (R)-pantolactone [(R)-PL]. The NADPH-dependent SceCPR1 exhibited strict (R)-enantioselectivity and high activity in the asymmetric reduction of ketopantolactone (KPL) to (R)-PL. Escherichia coli, coexpressing SceCPR1 and glucose dehydrogenase from Exiguobacterium sibiricum (EsGDH), was constructed to fulfill efficient NADPH regeneration. During the whole-cell catalyzed asymmetric reduction of KPL, the spontaneous hydrolysis of KPL significantly affected the yield of (R)-PL, which was effectively alleviated by the employment of the substrate constant-feeding strategy. The established whole-cell bioreduction for 6 h afforded 458 mM (R)-PL with the enantiomeric excess value of >99.9% and the yield of 91.6%. Escherichia coli coexpressing SceCPR1 and EsGDH efficiently catalyzed the asymmetric synthesis of (R)-PL through the substrate constant-feeding strategy.

  12. WOW: light print, light propel, light point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Aabo, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We are presenting so-called Wave-guided Optical Waveguides (WOWs) fabricated by two-photon polymerization and capable of being optically manipulated into any arbitrary orientation. By integrating optical waveguides into the structures we have created freestanding waveguides which can be positioned...... anywhere in a sample at any orientation using real-time 3D optical micromanipulation with six degrees of freedom. One of the key aspects of our demonstrated WOWs is the change in direction of in-coupled light and the marked increase in numerical aperture of the out-coupled light. Hence, each light...... propelled WOW can tap from a relatively broad incident beam and generate a much more tightly confined light at its tip. The presentation contains both numerical simulations related to the propagation of light through a WOW and preliminary experimental demonstrations on our BioPhotonics Workstation...

  13. Health benefit from decreasing exposure to heavy metals and metalloid after strict pollution control measures near a typical river basin area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Ma, Yingqun; Zhao, Xiuge; Qin, Yanwen; Liu, Yan; Li, Sai; Zheng, Binghui; Wei, Fusheng

    2017-10-01

    The metal(loid) pollution still is a great concern due to the effects from urbanization and industrialization. While, the health risks from the toxic metal(loid)s could decrease if strict pollution control measures were adopted. However, few studies to date investigate the health risks of heavy metal(loid)s in a systematic river basin for the dependent residents, after taking pollution control measures. Thus, the contents of metal(loid)s (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn, As) in surface water along a typical river basin were investigated in this study, and the potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks posed to the residents were assessed. Although the soluble contents of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd exceeded the respective thresholds in two sites located downstream the mine area, they were greatly decreased in comparison with previous contamination levels, and the soluble concentrations of all the metal(loid)s were within the relevant thresholds in the sites far away from the mining area. Moreover, the closer to the mining area, the higher the pollution levels of metal(loid)s. The total hazard index for non-carcinogenic risks of metal(loid)s were basically lower than the threshold (1) for the local population. Whereas, although the content of metal(loid)s were low (such as As), they could pose relative higher non-carcinogenic health risks. The result illustrated that pollution levels, toxicity of the contaminants and exposure behavior patterns all could contribute to the potential detrimental health risks. Additionally, the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks from ingestion exposure were ∼2-∼4 orders of magnitude higher than those from dermal contact. The total carcinogenic risks were basically lower than the maximum tolerable levels (1.0 × 10 -4 ), indicating carcinogenic risks from most areas of the river could also be accepted. Among different population groups, heavy metal(loid)s posed relative higher non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks to the children in

  14. Light Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    Light Robotics - Structure-Mediated Nanobiophotonics covers the latest means of sculpting of both light and matter for achieving bioprobing and manipulation at the smallest scales. The synergy between photonics, nanotechnology and biotechnology spans the rapidly growing field of nanobiophotonics...

  15. SCHOOL LIGHTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965

    SEVERAL ARTICLES ON SCHOOL LIGHTING ARE CONTAINED IN THIS JOURNAL. THE TITLES AND AUTHORS INCLUDED ARE AS FOLLOWS--(1) "TODAY'S CONCEPTS IN SCHOOL LIGHTING" BY CHARLES D. GIBSON, (2) "CHALLENGE OF TOMMORROW'S LIGHTING" BY S.K. GUTH AND E.H. WITTE, (3) "PEEK PREVIEW OF THE WINDOWLESS SCHOOL" BY JAMES J. MORISSEAU, (4) "MAINTENANCE BEGINS BEFORE…

  16. Twisted light

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Research at the Mathematical Optics Group uses "twisted" light to study new quatum-based information security systems. In order to understand the structure of "twisted" light, it is useful to start with an ordinary light beam with zero twist, namely...

  17. Strict fibonacci heaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Lagogiannis, George; Tarjan, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first pointer-based heap implementation with time bounds matching those of Fibonacci heaps in the worst case. We support make-heap, insert, find-min, meld and decrease-key in worst-case O(1) time, and delete and delete-min in worst-case O(lg n) time, where n is the size of the heap...... of the smaller heap when doing a meld. We use the pigeonhole principle in place of the redundant counter mechanism. We present the first pointer-based heap implementation with time bounds matching those of Fibonacci heaps in the worst case. We support make-heap, insert, find-min, meld and decrease-key in worst...

  18. Online Recorded Data-Based Composite Neural Control of Strict-Feedback Systems With Application to Hypersonic Flight Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Daipeng; Shi, Zhongke; Pan, Yongping; Chen, Badong; Sun, Fuchun

    2017-09-25

    This paper investigates the online recorded data-based composite neural control of uncertain strict-feedback systems using the backstepping framework. In each step of the virtual control design, neural network (NN) is employed for uncertainty approximation. In previous works, most designs are directly toward system stability ignoring the fact how the NN is working as an approximator. In this paper, to enhance the learning ability, a novel prediction error signal is constructed to provide additional correction information for NN weight update using online recorded data. In this way, the neural approximation precision is highly improved, and the convergence speed can be faster. Furthermore, the sliding mode differentiator is employed to approximate the derivative of the virtual control signal, and thus, the complex analysis of the backstepping design can be avoided. The closed-loop stability is rigorously established, and the boundedness of the tracking error can be guaranteed. Through simulation of hypersonic flight dynamics, the proposed approach exhibits better tracking performance.

  19. Global neural dynamic surface tracking control of strict-feedback systems with application to hypersonic flight vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Chenguang; Pan, Yongping

    2015-10-01

    This paper studies both indirect and direct global neural control of strict-feedback systems in the presence of unknown dynamics, using the dynamic surface control (DSC) technique in a novel manner. A new switching mechanism is designed to combine an adaptive neural controller in the neural approximation domain, together with the robust controller that pulls the transient states back into the neural approximation domain from the outside. In comparison with the conventional control techniques, which could only achieve semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded stability, the proposed control scheme guarantees all the signals in the closed-loop system are globally uniformly ultimately bounded, such that the conventional constraints on initial conditions of the neural control system can be relaxed. The simulation studies of hypersonic flight vehicle (HFV) are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed global neural DSC design.

  20. Iterative algorithms for the input and state recovery from the approximate inverse of strictly proper multivariable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liwen; Xu, Qiang

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes new iterative algorithms for the unknown input and state recovery from the system outputs using an approximate inverse of the strictly proper linear time-invariant (LTI) multivariable system. One of the unique advantages from previous system inverse algorithms is that the output differentiation is not required. The approximate system inverse is stable due to the systematic optimal design of a dummy feedthrough D matrix in the state-space model via the feedback stabilization. The optimal design procedure avoids trial and error to identify such a D matrix which saves tremendous amount of efforts. From the derived and proved convergence criteria, such an optimal D matrix also guarantees the convergence of algorithms. Illustrative examples show significant improvement of the reference input signal tracking by the algorithms and optimal D design over non-iterative counterparts on controllable or stabilizable LTI systems, respectively. Case studies of two Boeing-767 aircraft aerodynamic models further demonstrate the capability of the proposed methods.

  1. Monolithic InP strictly non-blocking 8×8 switch for high-speed WDM optical interconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwack, Myung-Joon; Tanemura, Takuo; Higo, Akio; Nakano, Yoshiaki

    2012-12-17

    A strictly non-blocking 8 × 8 switch for high-speed WDM optical interconnection is realized on InP by using the phased-array scheme for the first time. The matrix switch architecture consists of over 200 functional devices such as star couplers, phase-shifters and so on without any waveguide cross-section. We demonstrate ultra-broad optical bandwidth covering the entire C-band through several Input/Output ports combination with extinction ratio performance of more than 20dB. Also, nanoseconds reconfiguration time was successfully achieved by dynamic switching experiment. Error-free transmission was verified for 40-Gbps (10-Gbps × 4ch) WDM signal.

  2. The LHC Continuous Cryostat Interconnections The Organization of a Logistically Complex Worksite Requiring Strict Quality Standards and High Output

    CERN Document Server

    Fessia, P; Bozzini, D; Cruikshank, P; Jacquemod, A; Maan, W; Musso, A; Oberli, L; Poncet, A; Russenschuck, Stephan; Savary, F; Struik, M; Tock, J Ph; Tommasini, D; Völlinger, C; Kotarba, A; Olek, S; Sulek, Z; Grimaud, A; Vaudaux, L

    2008-01-01

    The interconnections of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) continuous cryostat have been completed in fall 2007: 1695 interconnections magnet to magnet and 224 interconnections between the continuous cryostat and the cryogenic distribution line have been executed along the 27 km of the LHC. The very tight schedule, the complexity of the interconnection sequence, the strict quality standards applied have required the creation of an ad hoc organization in order to steer and coordinate the activities on the worksite dispersed along the whole accelerator ring. The concatenation of construction and test phases carried out by CERN staff, CERN collaborating institutes and contractors have led to the necessity of a common approach and of a very effective information flow. In this paper, after having recalled the main technical challenges, we review the organizational choices that have been taken and we briefly analyze the development of the worksite in term of allocated resources and production.

  3. Analysis of strictly bound modes in photonic crystal fibers by use of a source-model technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Amit; Leviatan, Yehuda

    2004-06-01

    We describe a source-model technique for the analysis of the strictly bound modes propagating in photonic crystal fibers that have a finite photonic bandgap crystal cladding and are surrounded by an air jacket. In this model the field is simulated by a superposition of fields of fictitious electric and magnetic current filaments, suitably placed near the media interfaces of the fiber. A simple point-matching procedure is subsequently used to enforce the continuity conditions across the interfaces, leading to a homogeneous matrix equation. Nontrivial solutions to this equation yield the mode field patterns and propagation constants. As an example, we analyze a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. Symmetry characteristics of the modes are discussed and exploited to reduce the computational burden.

  4. Development of a PCR assay based on the 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer for identification of strictly anaerobic bacterium Zymophilus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Felsberg, Jürgen; Jelínková, Markéta; Kubizniaková, P.; Matoulková, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 33, June (2015), s. 85-89 ISSN 1075-9964 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Brewing microbiology * Strictly anaerobic bacteria * Yeast contamination Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 2.424, year: 2015

  5. Altered Na+ transport after an intracellular alpha-subunit deletion reveals strict external sequential release of Na+ from the Na/K pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaragatupalli, Siddhartha; Olivera, J Fernando; Gatto, Craig; Artigas, Pablo

    2009-09-08

    The Na/K pump actively exports 3 Na(+) in exchange for 2 K(+) across the plasmalemma of animal cells. As in other P-type ATPases, pump function is more effective when the relative affinity for transported ions is altered as the ion binding sites alternate between opposite sides of the membrane. Deletion of the five C-terminal residues from the alpha-subunit diminishes internal Na(+) (Na(i)(+)) affinity approximately 25-fold [Morth et al. (2007) Nature 450:1043-1049]. Because external Na(+) (Na(o)(+)) binding is voltage-dependent, we studied the reactions involving this process by using two-electrode and inside-out patch voltage clamp in normal and truncated (DeltaKESYY) Xenopus-alpha1 pumps expressed in oocytes. We observed that DeltaKESYY (i) decreased both Na(o)(+) and Na(i)(+) apparent affinities in the absence of K(o)(+), and (ii) did not affect apparent Na(o)(+) affinity at high K(o)(+). These results support a model of strict sequential external release of Na(+) ions, where the Na(+)-exclusive site releases Na(+) before the sites shared with K(+) and the DeltaKESYY deletion only reduces Na(o)(+) affinity at the shared sites. Moreover, at nonsaturating K(o)(+), DeltaKESYY induced an inward flow of Na(+) through Na/K pumps at negative potentials. Guanidinium(+) can also permeate truncated pumps, whereas N-methyl-D-glucamine cannot. Because guanidinium(o)(+) can also traverse normal Na/K pumps in the absence of both Na(o)(+) and K(o)(+) and can also inhibit Na/K pump currents in a Na(+)-like voltage-dependent manner, we conclude that the normal pathway transited by the first externally released Na(+) is large enough to accommodate guanidinium(+).

  6. Strict blood glucose control by an artificial endocrine pancreas during hepatectomy may prevent postoperative acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Naoji; Kawahito, Shinji; Soga, Tomohiro; Takaishi, Kazumi; Kitahata, Hiroshi; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Shimada, Mitsuo; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumi, Yasuo M; Tanaka, Katsuya

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of a closed-loop system (STG-55; Nikkiso, Tokyo, Japan), a type of artificial endocrine pancreas for the continuous monitoring and control of intraoperative blood glucose, for preventing postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients undergoing hepatectomy. Thirty-eight patients were enrolled in this study. Glucose concentrations were controlled with either a manual injection of insulin based on a commonly used sliding scale (manual insulin group, n = 19) or the programmed infusion of insulin determined by the control algorithm of the artificial endocrine pancreas (programmed insulin group, n = 19). After the induction of anesthesia, a 20-G intravenous catheter was inserted into the peripheral forearm vein of patients in the programmed insulin group and connected to an artificial endocrine pancreas (STG-55). The target range for glucose concentrations was set to 100-150 mg/dL. The mean serum creatinine concentrations of preoperative, postoperative 24 and 48 h were 0.72, 0.78, and 0.79 mg/dL in the programmed insulin group, and 0.81, 0.95, and 1.03 mg/dL in the manual insulin group, respectively. Elevations in serum creatinine concentrations postoperative 48 h were significantly suppressed in the programmed insulin group. The STG-55 closed-loop system was effective for maintaining strict blood glucose control during hepatectomy with minimal variability in blood glucose concentrations and for suppressing elevations in serum creatinine concentrations. Strict blood glucose control by an artificial endocrine pancreas during hepatectomy may prevent postoperative AKI.

  7. Role of quantum-confined stark effect on bias dependent photoluminescence of N-polar GaN/InGaN multi-quantum disk amber light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangi, Malleswararao; Mishra, Pawan; Janjua, Bilal; Prabaswara, Aditya; Zhao, Chao; Priante, Davide; Min, Jung-Wook; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.

    2018-03-01

    We study the impact of quantum-confined stark effect (QCSE) on bias dependent micro-photoluminescence emission of the quantum disk (Q-disk) based nanowires light emitting diodes (NWs-LED) exhibiting the amber colored emission. The NWs are found to be nitrogen polar (N-polar) verified using KOH wet chemical etching and valence band spectrum analysis of high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The crystal structure and quality of the NWs were investigated by high-angle annular dark field - scanning transmission electron microscopy. The LEDs were fabricated to acquire the bias dependent micro-photoluminescence spectra. We observe a redshift and a blueshift of the μPL peak in the forward and reverse bias conditions, respectively, with reference to zero bias, which is in contrast to the metal-polar InGaN well-based LEDs in the literature. Such opposite shifts of μPL peak emission observed for N-polar NWs-LEDs, in our study, are due to the change in the direction of the internal piezoelectric field. The quenching of PL intensity, under the reverse bias conditions, is ascribed to the reduction of electron-hole overlap. Furthermore, the blueshift of μPL emission with increasing excitation power reveals the suppression of QCSE resulting from the photo-generated carriers. Thereby, our study confirms the presence of QCSE for NWs-LEDs from both bias and power dependent μPL measurements. Thus, this study serves to understand the QCSE in N-polar InGaN Q-disk NWs-LEDs and other related wide-bandgap nitride nanowires, in general.

  8. Role of quantum-confined stark effect on bias dependent photoluminescence of N-polar GaN/InGaN multi-quantum disk amber light emitting diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Tangi, Malleswararao

    2018-03-09

    We study the impact of quantum-confined stark effect (QCSE) on bias dependent micro-photoluminescence emission of the quantum disk (Q-disk) based nanowires light emitting diodes (NWs-LED) exhibiting the amber colored emission. The NWs are found to be nitrogen polar (N-polar) verified using KOH wet chemical etching and valence band spectrum analysis of high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The crystal structure and quality of the NWs were investigated by high-angle annular dark field - scanning transmission electron microscopy. The LEDs were fabricated to acquire the bias dependent micro-photoluminescence spectra. We observe a redshift and a blueshift of the μPL peak in the forward and reverse bias conditions, respectively, with reference to zero bias, which is in contrast to the metal-polar InGaN well-based LEDs in the literature. Such opposite shifts of μPL peak emission observed for N-polar NWs-LEDs, in our study, are due to the change in the direction of the internal piezoelectric field. The quenching of PL intensity, under the reverse bias conditions, is ascribed to the reduction of electron-hole overlap. Furthermore, the blueshift of μPL emission with increasing excitation power reveals the suppression of QCSE resulting from the photo-generated carriers. Thereby, our study confirms the presence of QCSE for NWs-LEDs from both bias and power dependent μPL measurements. Thus, this study serves to understand the QCSE in N-polar InGaN Q-disk NWs-LEDs and other related wide-bandgap nitride nanowires, in general.

  9. Light water reactor safety

    CERN Document Server

    Pershagen, B

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the principles and practices of reactor safety as applied to the design, regulation and operation of light water reactors, combining a historical approach with an up-to-date account of the safety, technology and operating experience of both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. The introductory chapters set out the basic facts upon which the safety of light water reactors depend. The central section is devoted to the methods and results of safety analysis. The accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl are reviewed and their implications for light wate

  10. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...

  11. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... the investigations of lighting scenarios carried out in two test installations: White Cube and White Box. The test installations are discussed as large-scale experiential instruments. In these test installations we examine what could potentially occur when light using LED technology is integrated and distributed...

  12. Limiting the impact of light pollution on human health, environment and stellar visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchi, Fabio; Cinzano, Pierantonio; Elvidge, Christopher D; Keith, David M; Haim, Abraham

    2011-10-01

    Light pollution is one of the most rapidly increasing types of environmental degradation. Its levels have been growing exponentially over the natural nocturnal lighting levels provided by starlight and moonlight. To limit this pollution several effective practices have been defined: the use of shielding on lighting fixture to prevent direct upward light, particularly at low angles above the horizon; no over lighting, i.e. avoid using higher lighting levels than strictly needed for the task, constraining illumination to the area where it is needed and the time it will be used. Nevertheless, even after the best control of the light distribution is reached and when the proper quantity of light is used, some upward light emission remains, due to reflections from the lit surfaces and atmospheric scatter. The environmental impact of this "residual light pollution", cannot be neglected and should be limited too. Here we propose a new way to limit the effects of this residual light pollution on wildlife, human health and stellar visibility. We performed analysis of the spectra of common types of lamps for external use, including the new LEDs. We evaluated their emissions relative to the spectral response functions of human eye photoreceptors, in the photopic, scotopic and the 'meltopic' melatonin suppressing bands. We found that the amount of pollution is strongly dependent on the spectral characteristics of the lamps, with the more environmentally friendly lamps being low pressure sodium, followed by high pressure sodium. Most polluting are the lamps with a strong blue emission, like Metal Halide and white LEDs. Migration from the now widely used sodium lamps to white lamps (MH and LEDs) would produce an increase of pollution in the scotopic and melatonin suppression bands of more than five times the present levels, supposing the same photopic installed flux. This increase will exacerbate known and possible unknown effects of light pollution on human health, environment

  13. WOW: light print, light propel, light point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Bañas, Andrew; Aabo, Thomas; Palima, Darwin

    2012-10-01

    We are presenting so-called Wave-guided Optical Waveguides (WOWs) fabricated by two-photon polymerization and capable of being optically manipulated into any arbitrary orientation. By integrating optical waveguides into the structures we have created freestanding waveguides which can be positioned anywhere in a sample at any orientation using real-time 3D optical micromanipulation with six degrees of freedom. One of the key aspects of our demonstrated WOWs is the change in direction of in-coupled light and the marked increase in numerical aperture of the out-coupled light. Hence, each light propelled WOW can tap from a relatively broad incident beam and generate a much more tightly confined light at its tip. The presentation contains both numerical simulations related to the propagation of light through a WOW and preliminary experimental demonstrations on our BioPhotonics Workstation. In a broader context, this research shows that optically trapped micro-fabricated structures can potentially help bridge the diffraction barrier. This structure-mediated paradigm may be carried forward to open new possibilities for exploiting beams from far-field optics down to the sub-wavelength domain.

  14. Intra-Genomic Heterogeneity in 16S rRNA Genes in Strictly Anaerobic Clinical Isolates from Periodontal Abscesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiazhen; Miao, Xinyu; Xu, Meng; He, Junlin; Xie, Yi; Wu, Xingwen; Chen, Gang; Yu, Liying; Zhang, Wenhong

    2015-01-01

    Background Members of the genera Prevotella, Veillonella and Fusobacterium are the predominant culturable obligate anaerobic bacteria isolated from periodontal abscesses. When determining the cumulative number of clinical anaerobic isolates from periodontal abscesses, ambiguous or overlapping signals were frequently encountered in 16S rRNA gene sequencing chromatograms, resulting in ambiguous identifications. With the exception of the genus Veillonella, the high intra-chromosomal heterogeneity of rrs genes has not been reported. Methods The 16S rRNA genes of 138 clinical, strictly anaerobic isolates and one reference strain were directly sequenced, and the chromatograms were carefully examined. Gene cloning was performed for 22 typical isolates with doublet sequencing signals for the 16S rRNA genes, and four copies of the rrs-ITS genes of 9 Prevotella intermedia isolates were separately amplified by PCR, sequenced and compared. Five conserved housekeeping genes, hsp60, recA, dnaJ, gyrB1 and rpoB from 89 clinical isolates of Prevotella were also amplified by PCR and sequenced for identification and phylogenetic analysis along with 18 Prevotella reference strains. Results Heterogeneity of 16S rRNA genes was apparent in clinical, strictly anaerobic oral bacteria, particularly in the genera Prevotella and Veillonella. One hundred out of 138 anaerobic strains (72%) had intragenomic nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in multiple locations, and 13 strains (9.4%) had intragenomic insertions or deletions in the 16S rRNA gene. In the genera Prevotella and Veillonella, 75% (67/89) and 100% (19/19) of the strains had SNPs in the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Gene cloning and separate amplifications of four copies of the rrs-ITS genes confirmed that 2 to 4 heterogeneous 16S rRNA copies existed. Conclusion Sequence alignment of five housekeeping genes revealed that intra-species nucleotide similarities were very high in the genera Prevotella, ranging from 94.3–100%. However, the

  15. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Kongshaug, Jesper; Søndergaard, Karin

    2015-01-01

    differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...

  16. Fermentative degradation of polyethylene glycol by a strictly anaerobic, gram-negative, nonsporeforming bacterium, Pelobacter venetianus sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schink, B; Stieb, M

    1983-06-01

    The synthetic polyether polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a molecular weight of 20,000 was anaerobically degraded in enrichment cultures inoculated with mud of limnic and marine origins. Three strains (Gra PEG 1, Gra PEG 2, and Ko PEG 2) of rod-shaped, gram-negative, nonsporeforming, strictly anaerobic bacteria were isolated in mineral medium with PEG as the sole source of carbon and energy. All strains degraded dimers, oligomers, and polymers of PEG up to a molecular weight of 20,000 completely by fermentation to nearly equal amounts of acetate and ethanol. The monomer ethylene glycol was not degraded. An ethylene glycol-fermenting anaerobe (strain Gra EG 12) isolated from the same enrichments was identified as Acetobacterium woodii. The PEG-fermenting strains did not excrete extracellular depolymerizing enzymes and were inhibited by ethylene glycol, probably owing to a blocking of the cellular uptake system. PEG, some PEG-containing nonionic detergents, 1,2-propanediol, 1,2-butanediol, glycerol, and acetoin were the only growth substrates utilized of a broad variety of sugars, organic acids, and alcohols. The isolates did not reduce sulfate, sulfur, thiosulfate, or nitrate and were independent of growth factors. In coculture with A. woodii or Methanospirillum hungatei, PEGs and ethanol were completely fermented to acetate (and methane). A marine isolate is described as the type strain of a new species, Pelobacter venetianus sp. nov. Its physiology and ecological significance, as well as the importance and possible mechanism of anaerobic polyether degradation, are discussed.

  17. Molecular mechanism of strict substrate specificity of an extradiol dioxygenase, DesB, derived from Sphingobium sp. SYK-6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Sugimoto

    Full Text Available DesB, which is derived from Sphingobium sp. SYK-6, is a type II extradiol dioxygenase that catalyzes a ring opening reaction of gallate. While typical extradiol dioxygenases show broad substrate specificity, DesB has strict substrate specificity for gallate. The substrate specificity of DesB seems to be required for the efficient growth of S. sp. SYK-6 using lignin-derived aromatic compounds. Since direct coordination of hydroxyl groups of the substrate to the non-heme iron in the active site is a critical step for the catalytic reaction of the extradiol dioxygenases, the mechanism of the substrate recognition and coordination of DesB was analyzed by biochemical and crystallographic methods. Our study demonstrated that the direct coordination between the non-heme iron and hydroxyl groups of the substrate requires a large shift of the Fe (II ion in the active site. Mutational analysis revealed that His124 and His192 in the active site are essential to the catalytic reaction of DesB. His124, which interacts with OH (4 of the bound gallate, seems to contribute to proper positioning of the substrate in the active site. His192, which is located close to OH (3 of the gallate, is likely to serve as the catalytic base. Glu377' interacts with OH (5 of the gallate and seems to play a critical role in the substrate specificity. Our biochemical and structural study showed the substrate recognition and catalytic mechanisms of DesB.

  18. Effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy and strict plaque control on preterm/low birth weight: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidlich, Patricia; Moreira, Carlos Heitor C; Fiorini, Tiago; Musskopf, Marta L; da Rocha, José M; Oppermann, Maria Lucia R; Aass, Anne M; Gjermo, Per; Susin, Cristiano; Rösing, Cassiano K; Oppermann, Rui V

    2013-01-01

    This randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out to assess the effect of comprehensive nonsurgical periodontal treatment and strict plaque control performed during pregnancy on the reduction of preterm and/or low birth weight rates (PTLBW). Three hundred and three women were randomly allocated to receive periodontal treatment either during pregnancy (n = 147, test group) or after delivery (n = 156, control group). During pregnancy, the control group received only one session of supragingival scaling and oral hygiene instruction. In contrast, the test group received comprehensive periodontal treatment including multiple sessions of scaling and root planing, oral hygiene instructions, and frequent maintenance visits. At baseline, periodontal inflammation was observed in approximately 50% of sites and attachment loss affected controls, women in the test group had significant reductions in the percentage of sites with plaque (48.5% vs. 10.3%, p control significantly improved periodontal health; however, no reduction of PTLBW rates was observed. Thus, remaining periodontal inflammation posttreatment cannot explain the lack of effect of periodontal treatment on PTLBW. Clinical relevance This study demonstrated that periodontal diseases may be successfully treated during pregnancy. Our results do not support a potential beneficial effect of periodontal treatment on PTLBW.

  19. Nutritionally recommended food for semi- to strict vegetarian diets based on large-scale nutrient composition data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seunghyeon; Fenech, Michael F; Kim, Pan-Jun

    2018-03-12

    Diet design for vegetarian health is challenging due to the limited food repertoire of vegetarians. This challenge can be partially overcome by quantitative, data-driven approaches that utilise massive nutritional information collected for many different foods. Based on large-scale data of foods' nutrient compositions, the recent concept of nutritional fitness helps quantify a nutrient balance within each food with regard to satisfying daily nutritional requirements. Nutritional fitness offers prioritisation of recommended foods using the foods' occurrence in nutritionally adequate food combinations. Here, we systematically identify nutritionally recommendable foods for semi- to strict vegetarian diets through the computation of nutritional fitness. Along with commonly recommendable foods across different diets, our analysis reveals favourable foods specific to each diet, such as immature lima beans for a vegan diet as an amino acid and choline source, and mushrooms for ovo-lacto vegetarian and vegan diets as a vitamin D source. Furthermore, we find that selenium and other essential micronutrients can be subject to deficiency in plant-based diets, and suggest nutritionally-desirable dietary patterns. We extend our analysis to two hypothetical scenarios of highly personalised, plant-based methionine-restricted diets. Our nutrient-profiling approach may provide a useful guide for designing different types of personalised vegetarian diets.

  20. Baking Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin

    2005-01-01

    decisions. Display quality, comfortable navigation and realistic illumination are crucial ingredients here. Light is one of the principal elements in architectural design, so design reviews must enable the architect to judge the quality of his design in this respect. Realistic light simulations, e.g. via...... radiosity algorithms, are no longer the domain of high-end graphic workstations. Today’s off-the-shelf hardware and 3D-software provide the architect with high-quality tools to simulate physically correct light distributions. But the quality and impression of light is hard to judge by looking at still...... practical experiences with global-light-simulations. We share results which we think are helpful to others, and we highlight areas where further research is necessary....

  1. Light shielding apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Richard Dean; Thom, Robert Anthony

    2017-10-10

    A light shielding apparatus for blocking light from reaching an electronic device, the light shielding apparatus including left and right support assemblies, a cross member, and an opaque shroud. The support assemblies each include primary support structure, a mounting element for removably connecting the apparatus to the electronic device, and a support member depending from the primary support structure for retaining the apparatus in an upright orientation. The cross member couples the left and right support assemblies together and spaces them apart according to the size and shape of the electronic device. The shroud may be removably and adjustably connectable to the left and right support assemblies and configured to take a cylindrical dome shape so as to form a central space covered from above. The opaque shroud prevents light from entering the central space and contacting sensitive elements of the electronic device.

  2. Light Quanta and Photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baublitz, M.; Hersek, M.; Gross, N. A.; Bansil, A.

    2006-03-01

    For many undergraduate students the photoelectric effect and quantum nature of light seem abstract because of their lack of first-hand experience with these phenomena. This is particularly true for non-science students taking general science courses. At Northeastern University through the Embedded Learning MOdules (ELMO) Project, developed with support from NSF and FIPSE, non-science students take part in experiments [1] related to the photoelectric effect that help them understand photochemical processes and the quantum nature of light. Photosensitive materials are produced by depositing thin layers of silver nitrate on paper, and various light sources and light filters are used that permit light from only a specific part of the spectrum to expose the photosensitive material. The dependence of the silver nitrate's photosensitivity on the color of the incident light provides students with an example that can be understood in terms of the quantum nature of light. [1] M. Hersek, N. A. Gross, E. J. Mason, and A. Bansil, J. College Sci. Teaching (in press); N. A. Gross, M. Hersek, and A. Bansil, Am. J. Phys. 73, 986 (2005)

  3. A gestalt account of lightness illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Illusions of lightness offer valuable clues to how lightness values are computed by the visual system. The traditional domain of lightness illusions must be expanded to include failures of constancy, as there is no distinction between these categories. Just as lightness is (relatively) constant in the face of changes in illumination level, so it is equally constant in the face of changes in background reflectance. Simultaneous lightness contrast, the most familiar lightness illusion, is fairly weak, and represents a failure of background-independent lightness constancy. It is argued that a combination of the highest-luminance rule of anchoring plus the Kardos idea of codetermination can account for most lightness illusions. Kardos suggested that the lightness value of a target surface is partly determined relative to the field of illumination (or framework) in which it is embedded, and partly relative to the neighboring field of illumination. Although Kardos did not apply his principle of codetermination to failures of background-independent constancy such as the simultaneous contrast illusion, this can be done rather easily by defining a framework as a perceptual group instead of identifying it strictly with an objective field of illumination.

  4. Effect of Light Curing Unit Characteristics on Light Intensity Output ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Modern dental composite restorations are wholly dependent on the use of Visible Light Curing devices. The characteristics of these devices may influence the quality of composite resin restorations. Objective: To determine the characteristics of light curing units (LCUs) in dental clinics in Nairobi and their effect ...

  5. A novel strictly anaerobic recovery and enrichment system incorporating lithium for detection of heat-injured Listeria monocytogenes in pasteurized milk containing background microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonca, A F; Knabel, S J

    1994-11-01

    Heat-injured cells of Listeria monocytogenes were recovered from heated raw milk containing noninjured Enterococcus faecium by combining a simple method for obtaining strict anaerobiosis with a novel enrichment broth, Penn State University broth (PSU broth). Strictly anaerobic conditions were rapidly achieved by adding 0.5 g of filter-sterilized cysteine per liter to PSU broth and then purging the preparation with N2 gas. Little resuscitation or growth occurred in strictly anaerobic PSU broth without lithium chloride because of overgrowth by E. faecium. The growth of E. faecium decreased dramatically with increasing LiCl concentration; LiCl concentrations of 8 and 10 g/liter were completely bacteriostatic. The mechanism of inhibition by LiCl appeared to involve competition with the divalent cations Ca2+ and Mg2+. Heat-injured L. monocytogenes consistently recovered and grew rapidly in strictly anaerobic PSU broth containing 4, 6, or 7 g of LiCl per liter. The use of strictly anaerobic PSU broth containing 7 g of LiCl per liter permitted detection of severely heat-injured L. monocytogenes in one simple recovery-enrichment step by eliminating oxygen toxicity and inhibiting the growth of background microflora, without preventing the resuscitation and subsequent growth of heat-injured L. monocytogenes. L. monocytogenes heated in raw milk at 62.8 degrees C for 10, 15, and 20 min could be consistently recovered from strictly anaerobic PSU broth enrichment cultures at 30 degrees C after 48, 96, and 144 h, respectively, and hence, use of PSU broth may result in better recovery of both injured and noninjured cells from foods than currently used U.S. Department of Agriculture and Food and Drug Administration preenrichment procedures.

  6. Novel microsatellite DNA markers indicate strict parthenogenesis and few genotypes in the invasive willow sawfly Nematus oligospilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, V; Norgate, M; Ede, F J; Nyman, T; Sunnucks, P

    2013-02-01

    Invasive organisms can have major impacts on the environment. Some invasive organisms are parthenogenetic in their invasive range and, therefore, exist as a number of asexual lineages (=clones). Determining the reproductive mode of invasive species has important implications for understanding the evolutionary genetics of such species, more especially, for management-relevant traits. The willow sawfly Nematus oligospilus Förster (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) has been introduced unintentionally into several countries in the Southern Hemisphere where it has subsequently become invasive. To assess the population expansion, reproductive mode and host-plant relationships of this insect, microsatellite markers were developed and applied to natural populations sampled from the native and expanded range, along with sequencing of the cytochrome-oxidase I mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) region. Other tenthredinids across a spectrum of taxonomic similarity to N. oligospilus and having a range of life strategies were also tested. Strict parthenogenesis was apparent within invasive N. oligospilus populations throughout the Southern Hemisphere, which comprised only a small number of genotypes. Sequences of mtDNA were identical for all individuals tested in the invasive range. The microsatellite markers were used successfully in several sawfly species, especially Nematus spp. and other genera of the Nematini tribe, with the degree of success inversely related to genetic divergence as estimated from COI sequences. The confirmation of parthenogenetic reproduction in N. oligospilus and the fact that it has a very limited pool of genotypes have important implications for understanding and managing this species and its biology, including in terms of phenotypic diversity, host relationships, implications for spread and future adaptive change. It would appear to be an excellent model study system for understanding evolution of invasive parthenogens that diverge without sexual reproduction and

  7. Sporothrix schenckii (sensu strict S. globosa) mating type 1-2 (MAT1-2) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Rui; Anzawa, Kazushi; Mochizuki, Takashi; Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Hiruma, Masataro; Kamata, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2013-09-01

    Sporotix schenckii is a pathogenic fungus that causes human and animal sporotrichosis, and based on morphology of the sessile conidia and molecular analysis, it was recently recognized as a species complex comprising at least the following six sibling species: S. albicans, S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. luriei, S. mexicana and S. schenckii. However, apart from S. schenckii sensu strict, only S. brasiliensis, S. globosa and S. luriei are associated with human and animal infection. S. globosa has been most commonly isolated in Asia, Europe and the USA; therefore, molecular epidemiological study for S. globosa is important in relation to human sporotrichosis in Japan. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to determine the mating type 1-2 (MAT1-2) gene of Sporothrix schenckii with the aim of understanding the taxonomy of the genus Sporothrix. The MAT1-2 gene (1618 bp) encodes a protein sequence of 198 amino acids. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis also detected MAT1-2 gene mRNA expression in all of the S. schenckii strains examined, indicating that this gene is expressed in S. schenckii cells. Phylogenetic analysis of the MAT1-2 gene fragments of Ophiostoma himal-ulmi, O. novo-ulmi, O. ulmi and S. schenckii indicated that these isolates could be classified into four clusters. MAT1-1 gene-specific polymerase chain reaction was positive in 15 isolates, but negative in four human isolates and one feline isolate. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  8. Changes in Frequency Intake of Foods in Patients Undergoing Sleeve Gastrectomy and Following a Strict Dietary Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Bozhychko, Maryana; Del-Campo, Jone Miren; Boix, Evangelina; Zubiaga, Lorea; Muñoz, Jose Luis; Llavero, Carolina

    2017-12-17

    Dietary intake and food preferences change after bariatric surgery, secondary to gastrointestinal symptoms and dietitian counseling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the frequency intake of different foods in patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy and following a strict dietary control. A prospective observational study of all the morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy as bariatric procedure between 2007 and 2012 was performed. Dietary assessment was performed using the Alimentary Frequency Questionnaire 1991-2002, developed and validated by the Department of Epidemiology of Miguel Hernandez University (Elche, Alicante Spain). Ninety-three patients were included for analysis, 73 females and 20 males, with a mean preoperative BMI of 46.4 ± 7.9 kg/m 2 . One year after surgery, excess weight loss was 81.1 ± 8.3% and 5 years after surgery, 79.9 ± 6.4%. Total weight loss at 1 year was 38.8 ± 5.3% and at 5 years, 35.4 ± 4.9%. Postoperatively, a reduction in the intake of dairy products, red meat, deli meat products, shellfish, fried potatoes, sweets, rice, pasta, beer, and processed foods was observed. Vegetables, fruits, and legumes intake increased after surgery. In the first postoperative year, there was a slight intolerance to red meat, fruits, vegetables and legumes, dairy products, pasta, and rice that mostly disappeared 5 years after surgery. One year after sleeve gastrectomy, calibrated with a 50-French bougie, there are not important problems in the intake of foods a priori difficult to digest. These problems mostly disappeared 5 years after surgery. The decrease intake of other unhealthy foods is mostly based on the dietary counseling.

  9. Circadian light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bierman Andrew

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present paper reflects a work in progress toward a definition of circadian light, one that should be informed by the thoughtful, century-old evolution of our present definition of light as a stimulus for the human visual system. This work in progress is based upon the functional relationship between optical radiation and its effects on nocturnal melatonin suppression, in large part because the basic data are available in the literature. Discussed here are the fundamental differences between responses by the visual and circadian systems to optical radiation. Brief reviews of photometry, colorimetry, and brightness perception are presented as a foundation for the discussion of circadian light. Finally, circadian light (CLA and circadian stimulus (CS calculation procedures based on a published mathematical model of human circadian phototransduction are presented with an example.

  10. Dependence of leaf surface potential response of a plant (Ficus Elastica) to light irradiation on room temperature; Shokubutsu (gomunoki) hamen den`i no hikari shosha oto no shitsuon izonsei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, H.; Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    In order to clarify plant body potential information, study was made on a leaf surface potential response to light irradiation. The leaf surface potential change, total transpiration and transpiration rate of Ficus Elastica were measured using light irradiation period and room temperature as parameters. The leaf surface potential change shows a positive peak after the start of light irradiation, while a negative peak after its end. Arrival time to both peaks is constant regardless of the light irradiation period, while decrease with an increase in room temperature. Although the total transpiration increases with room temperature, this tendency disappears with an increase in light irradiation period. The transpiration rate shows its peak after the start of light irradiation. Arrival time to the peak is saturated with the light irradiation period of 60min, while decreases with an increase in room temperature. These results suggest that opening of stomata becomes active with an increase in room temperature, and the peak of the leaf surface potential after the start of light irradiation relates to the opening. 3 refs., 11 figs.

  11. Controlling Light Harvesting with Light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gwizdala, M.S.; Berera, R.; Kirilovsky, D.; van Grondelle, R.; Kruger, T.P.J.

    2016-01-01

    When exposed to intense sunlight, all organisms performing oxygenic photosynthesis implement various photoprotective strategies to prevent potentially lethal photodamage. The rapidly responding photoprotective mechanisms, occurring in the light-harvesting pigment-protein antennae, take effect within

  12. Lighting Computer Programs in Lighting Technology

    OpenAIRE

    EKREN, Nazmi; DURSUN, Bahtiyar; AYKUT, Ercan

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that the computer in lighting technology is a vital component for lighting designers. Lighting computer programs are preferred in preparing architectural projects in lighting techniques, especially in lighting calculations. Lighting computer programs, which arise with the aim of helping lighting designers, gain more interest day by day. The most important property of lighting computer programs is the ability to enable the simulation of lighting projects without requiring any ...

  13. Optimization of an effective growth medium for culturing probiotic bacteria for applications in strict vegetarian food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Pathak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to modify de Man Rogosa Sharpe culture medium (termed MRS for selective cultivation of probiotics strain for the consumption by the strictly vegetarian human population. Vegetarian probiotic foods by definition must be free from all animal-derived ingredients. This not only includes the product ingredients but the probiotic inoculum as well. Probiotic starter cultures are traditionally grown and stored in media containing milk or meatderived ingredients. The presence of these ingredients makes the probiotic cell concentrates unsuitable for use in vegetarian products and thus creates the need for a growth medium which isfree from animal-derived ingredients. Present study investigated the growth of a strain of Lactobacillus lactis in MRS. The present invention relates in general to a bacterial culture media,and more specifically a complex microbial culture media, based on plant seed powder extract in place of animal extract for probiotic bacterial growth.Methods: Lactobacillus lactis, a probiotic, was grown in standard MRS culture medium as well as in our various test media (TM containing various vegetal source in place of beef extract, yeast extract and peptone as in case of MRS. The inoculated culture mediums were incubated at 37C for 72 hours and growth of probiotic is recorded at regular intervals. The growth was recorded as Colony Forming Units (CFUs.Results: The best growth of probiotic is observed in TM 2. TM 2 is the leguminous seed extract. Starter culture mediums for probiotics or other bacteria primarily contain protein from animal source. The possibility of using vegetal protein from TM 2 extract in place of peptones and meat extract for the nitrogen supplementation of culture media for the growth of lactic acid bacteria has been demonstrated.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(10:369-378 Conclusion: The absolute vegetarian culture medium containing TM 2 is better than standard MRS for the

  14. Lenient vs. strict rate control in patients with atrial fibrillation and heart failure: a post-hoc analysis of the RACE II study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Bart A.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Crijns, Harry J. G. M.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Hillege, Hans L.; Alings, Marco; Rienstra, Michiel; Groenveld, Hessel F.; van den Berg, Maarten P.; van Gelder, Isabelle C.

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether lenient rate control is an acceptable strategy in patients with AF and heart failure. We evaluated differences in outcome in patients with AF and heart failure treated with lenient or strict rate control. This post-hoc analysis of the RACE II trial included patients with an

  15. A Banach-Dieudonné theorem for the space of bounded continuous functions on a separable metric space with the strict topology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Let X be a separable metric space and let β be the strict topology on the space of bounded continuous functions on X, which has the space of τ-additive Borel measures as a continuous dual space. We prove a Banach-Dieudonné type result for the space of bounded continuous functions equipped with β:

  16. Synchrotron light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    'Synchrotron Light' is an interactive and detailed introduction to the physics and technology of the generation of coherent radiation from accelerators as well as to its widespread high-tech applications in science, medicine and engineering. The topics covered are the interaction of light and matter, the technology of synchrotron light sources, spectroscopy, imaging, scattering and diffraction of X-rays, and applications to materials science, biology, biochemistry, medicine, chemistry, food and pharmaceutical technology. All synchrotron light facilities are introduced with their home-page addresses. 'Synchrotron Light' provides an instructive and comprehensive multimedia learning tool for students, experienced practitioners and novices wishing to apply synchrotron radiation in their future work. Its multiple-entry points permit an easy exploration of the CD-Rom according to the users knowledge and interest. 2-D and 3-D animations and virtual reconstruction with computer-generated images guide visitors into the scientific and technical world of a synchrotron and into the applications of synchrotron radiation. This bilingual (English and French) CD-Rom can be used for self-teaching and in courses at various levels in physics, chemistry, engineering, and biology. (author)

  17. Light Converting Inorganic Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiao-Wen Yeh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available White light-emitting diodes (WLEDs have matched the emission efficiency of florescent lights and will rapidly spread as light source for homes and offices in the next 5 to 10 years. WLEDs provide a light element having a semiconductor light emitting layer (blue or near-ultraviolet (nUV LEDs and photoluminescence phosphors. These solid-state LED lamps, rather than organic light emitting diode (OLED or polymer light-emitting diode (PLED, have a number of advantages over conventional incandescent bulbs and halogen lamps, such as high efficiency to convert electrical energy into light, reliability and long operating lifetime. To meet with the further requirement of high color rendering index, warm light with low color temperature, high thermal stability and higher energy efficiency for WLEDs, new phosphors that can absorb excitation energy from blue or nUV LEDs and generate visible emissions efficiently are desired. The criteria of choosing the best phosphors, for blue (450-480 nm and nUV (380-400 nm LEDs, strongly depends on the absorption and emission of the phosphors. Moreover, the balance of light between the emission from blue-nUV LEDs and the emissions from phosphors (such as yellow from Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ is important to obtain white light with proper color rendering index and color temperature. Here, we will review the status of phosphors for LEDs and prospect the future development.

  18. Lighting and public health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierland, J. van & Schreuder, D.A.

    1969-01-01

    The following topics; are discussed with respect to public health: - the effect of visible and ultraviolet radiation upon man. - vision with respect to lighting. interior lighting. - artificial lighting of work environments. - day light and windows. - recommendations for lighting. public lighting. -

  19. Lighting Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ellen Kathrine; Mullins, Michael

    2014-01-01

    of design developed from three experiments show how distinct qualitative and quantitative criteria in different disciplinary traditions can be integrated successfully, despite disparate technical/scientific, social scientific and art/humanities backgrounds. The model is applied to a pedagogical curriculum......Light as a multi-dimensional design element has fundamental importance for a sustainable environment. The paper discusses the need for an integration of scientific, technical and creative approaches to light and presents theory, methods and applications toward fulfilling this need. A theory...

  20. Light Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    Light Robotics - Structure-Mediated Nanobiophotonics covers the latest means of sculpting of both light and matter for achieving bioprobing and manipulation at the smallest scales. The synergy between photonics, nanotechnology and biotechnology spans the rapidly growing field of nanobiophotonics...... how nanophotonics can productively be used in both biomedical and life sciences, allowing readers to clearly see how structure-mediated nanobiophotonics can be used to increase our engineering toolbox for biology at the smallest scales. This book will be of great use to researchers and scientists...

  1. Calculus light

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Menahem

    2011-01-01

    Another Calculus book? As long as students find calculus scary, the failure rate in mathematics is higher than in all other subjects, and as long as most people mistakenly believe that only geniuses can learn and understand mathematics, there will always be room for a new book of Calculus. We call it Calculus Light. This book is designed for a one semester course in ""light"" calculus -- mostly single variable, meant to be used by undergraduate students without a wide mathematical background and who do not major in mathematics but study subjects such as engineering, biology or management infor

  2. Light quark spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toernqvist, N.A.

    1984-05-15

    We review recent work done for the light 1S and 1P qq-bar mesons, especially within the unitarized quark model (UQM). In particular we discuss the 0/sup + +/ mesons and compare qq-bar v. s. qqq-barq-bar models. A comment on the A/sub 1/ shape due to the energy dependent mass shift (running mass shift) is made.

  3. The "high solubility" definition of the current FDA Guidance on Biopharmaceutical Classification System may be too strict for acidic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanian, Mehran; Briggs, Katherine; Jankovsky, Corinne; Hawi, Amale

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess if the definition of high solubility as proposed in the FDA Guidance on Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) is too strict for highly permeable acidic drugs. The solubility and permeability values of 20 (18 acidic and 2 non-acidic) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) were determined. The NSAIDs were grouped into three different sets having acetic acid, propionic acid, or other acidic moieties such as fenamate, oxicam, and salicylate. Two nonacidic NSAIDs (celecoxib and rofecoxib) were also included for comparison purposes. Equilibrium solubility values were determined at pH 1.2, 5.0, 7.4, and in biorelevant media simulating fed intestinal fluid at pH 5.0. For a select number of acids, we also measured solubility values in media simulating gastric and fasted intestinal fluids. Permeability classification was established relative to that of reference drugs in the Caco-2 cell permeability model. Permeability coefficients for all drugs were measured at concentrations corresponding to the lowest and highest marketed dose strengths dissolved in 250 ml volume, and their potential interaction with cellular efflux pumps was investigated. All NSAIDs with different acidic functional groups were classified as highly permeable based on their Caco-2 cell permeability. Only ketorolac appeared to have a potential for interaction with cellular efflux pumps. Solubility classification was based on comparison of equilibrium solubility at pH 1.2, 5.0. and 7.4 relative to marketed dose strengths in 250 ml. The pKa values for the acidic NSAIDs studied were between 3.5 and 5.1. and, as expected, their solubility increased dramatically at pH 7.4 compared to pH 1.2. Only three NSAIDs, ketorolac, ketoprofen. and acetyl salicylic acid, meet the current criteria for high solubility over the entire pH range. However, with the exception of ibuprofen, oxaprozin, and mefenamic acid, the remaining compounds can be classified as Class I drugs

  4. No-Light Light Bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern Schools, 1976

    1976-01-01

    A thumbnail sketch of some of the light bulbs manufactured for a purpose other than seeing. These "dark" lamps perform varied tasks including keeping food fresh, detecting and preventing disease, spurring plant growth, heating, and copying printed material. (Author/MLF)

  5. Light Sources and Lighting Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hisashi; Suwa, Takumi; Yasuda, Takeo; Ohtani, Yoshihiko; Maehara, Akiyoshi; Okada, Atsunori; Komatsu, Naoki; Mannami, Tomoaki

    According to the Machinery Statistics of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, the production of incandescent lamps in Japan in 2007 was 990 million units (90.0% of the previous year's total), in which the production of incandescent lamps for general lighting was 110 million units (90.0% of the previous year's total) and of tungsten-halogen lamps was 44 million units (96.6% of the previous year's total). The production of fluorescent lamps was 927 million units (93.9% of the previous year's total), in which general fluorescent lamps, excluding those for LCD back lighting, was 320 million units (87.2% of the previous year's total). Also, the production of HID lamps was 10 million units (101.5% of the previous year's total). On the other hand, when the numbers of sales are compared with the sales of the previous year, incandescent lamps for general use was 99.8%, tungsten-halogen lamps was 96.9%, fluorescent lamps was 95.9%, and HID lamps was 98.9%. Self-ballasted fluorescent lamps alone showed an increase in sales as strong as 29 million units, or 121.7% of the previous year's sales. It is considered that the switchover of incandescent lamps to HID lamps was promoted for energy conservation and carbon dioxide reduction with the problem of global warming in the background. In regard to exhibitions, Lighting Fair 2007 was held in Tokyo in March, and LIGHTFAIR INTERNATIONAL 2007 was held in New York in May. Regarding academic conferences, LS:11 (the 11th International Symposium on the Science & Technology of Light Sources) was held in Shanghai in May, and the First International Conference on White LEDs and Solid State Lighting was held in Tokyo in November. Both conferences suggested that there are strong needs and concerns now about energy conservation, saving natural resources, and restrictions of hazardous materials. In regard to incandescent lamps, the development of products aiming at higher efficacy, electric power savings, and longer life was advanced by

  6. EDITORIAL: Controlling light with light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselink, Lambertus; Feinberg, Jack; Roosen, Gerald

    2008-11-01

    The field of photorefractive physics and optics is mature and, although there is no significant commercial activity using photorefractive media, researchers in the field have had an extraordinary impact on many related areas of research and development. For example, in the late 1990s many of the telecom innovations and products were based on the interaction between light and matter. Examples include optical switches, filters, gratings, routers and light sources. The theory of multiple interacting beams of light inside a photosensitive medium, many of which were developed or further explored in photorefractive media, has found application in medicine, engineering, communication systems, displays and other photonics devices. On the occasions of the 30th anniversary of the theory of coupled wave analysis and the 10th anniversary of the meetings on Photorefractive Effects and Devices, it seemed appropriate to the meeting organizers of PR'07 to broaden the scope to include other related fields. The name of the meeting was changed to Controlling Light with Light: Photorefractive Effects, Photosensitivity, Fiber Gratings, Photonic Materials and More to attract a larger audience than traditionally would attend the more narrowly focused photorefractive meeting. To further disseminate the results of the 2007 meeting, Gerald Roosen proposed a special publication of original full research articles arising from key presentations at the meeting. The selection of papers in this Cluster Issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics is the result of that initiative. We would like to thank all the authors for their contributions, the committee members for their valuable insight and efforts in helping to organize the meeting, and the Optical Society of America for their professional assistance throughout the preparation period of the meeting as well as during the three beautiful days in Lake Tahoe, CA.

  7. On combination of strict Bayesian principles with model reduction technique or how stochastic model calibration can become feasible for large-scale applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladyshkin, S.; Schroeder, P.; Class, H.; Nowak, W.

    2013-12-01

    Predicting underground carbon dioxide (CO2) storage represents a challenging problem in a complex dynamic system. Due to lacking information about reservoir parameters, quantification of uncertainties may become the dominant question in risk assessment. Calibration on past observed data from pilot-scale test injection can improve the predictive power of the involved geological, flow, and transport models. The current work performs history matching to pressure time series from a pilot storage site operated in Europe, maintained during an injection period. Simulation of compressible two-phase flow and transport (CO2/brine) in the considered site is computationally very demanding, requiring about 12 days of CPU time for an individual model run. For that reason, brute-force approaches for calibration are not feasible. In the current work, we explore an advanced framework for history matching based on the arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion (aPC) and strict Bayesian principles. The aPC [1] offers a drastic but accurate stochastic model reduction. Unlike many previous chaos expansions, it can handle arbitrary probability distribution shapes of uncertain parameters, and can therefore handle directly the statistical information appearing during the matching procedure. We capture the dependence of model output on these multipliers with the expansion-based reduced model. In our study we keep the spatial heterogeneity suggested by geophysical methods, but consider uncertainty in the magnitude of permeability trough zone-wise permeability multipliers. Next combined the aPC with Bootstrap filtering (a brute-force but fully accurate Bayesian updating mechanism) in order to perform the matching. In comparison to (Ensemble) Kalman Filters, our method accounts for higher-order statistical moments and for the non-linearity of both the forward model and the inversion, and thus allows a rigorous quantification of calibrated model uncertainty. The usually high computational costs of

  8. Handbook of industrial lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Lyons, Stanley L

    2013-01-01

    Handbook of Industrial Lighting is a practical guide on the specification, design, installation, operation, and maintenance of lighting in industrial premises. Coverage of the book includes the importance of good localized lighting; the different lighting schemes; lighting for difficult visual tasks; lighting in consideration to safety; and emergency lighting. The book also includes the practical, thermal, ventilation, and energy considerations; lighting in different environments; maintenance of lighting installations; and the cost benefits of efficient lighting. Appendices include useful info

  9. Radioluminescent lighting technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The glow-in-the-dark stereotype that characterizes the popular image of nuclear materials is not accidental. When the French scientist, Henri Becquerel, first discovered radioactivity in 1896, he was interested in luminescence. Radioluminescence, the production of light from a mixture of energetic and passive materials, is probably the oldest practical application of the unstable nucleus. Tritium-based radioluminescent lighting, in spite of the biologically favorable character of the gaseous tritium isotope, was included in the general tightening of environmental and safety regulations. Tritium light manufacturers would have to meet two fundamental conditions: (1) The benefit clearly outweighed the risk, to the extent that even the perceived risk of a skeptical public would be overcome. (2) The need was significant enough that the customer/user would be willing and able to afford the cost of regulation that was imposed both in the manufacture, use and eventual disposal of nuclear materials. In 1981, researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were investigating larger radioluminescent applications using byproduct nuclear material such as krypton-85, as well as tritium. By 1982, it appeared that large source, (100 Curies or more) tritium gas tube, lights might be useful for marking runways and drop zones for military operations and perhaps even special civilian aviation applications. The successful development of this idea depended on making the light bright enough and demonstrating that large gas tube sources could be used and maintained safely in the environment. This successful DOE program is now in the process of being completed and closed-out. Working closely with the tritium light industry, State governments and other Federal agencies, the basic program goals have been achieved. This is a detailed report of what they have learned, proven, and discovered. 91 refs., 29 figs., 5 tabs. (JF)

  10. Green lights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Peter Kielberg

    variation in greenness is positively associated with year-on-year changes in luminosity: If a unit of observation experiences a predicted variation in greenness that lies 1 standard deviation below the global mean, on average 1.5 - 2.5 light pixels out of 900 are extinguished that year. Finally, an attempt...... as greenness estimated by lagged variation in monthly rainfall and temperature. This definition of drought performs well in identifying self-reported drought events since 2000 compared with measures of drought that do not take greenness into account, and the subsequent analysis indicates that predicted...

  11. Acclimation of morphology and physiology in turf grass to low light ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-29

    Aug 29, 2011 ... This short review elucidated the significance of the research on acclimation of the morphology and ... Due to lack of sunlight, the turf cannot ... turf grass breeding material, selection is of great significance. The concept of low light stress has no strict definition in plant physiology. It is generally acknowledged ...

  12. Mathematical review of the energy transduction stoichiometries of C4 leaf photosynthesis under limiting light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.; Struik, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    A generalized model for electron (e-) transport limited C4 photosynthesis of NAD–malic enzyme and NADP–malic enzyme subtypes is presented. The model is used to review the thylakoid stoichiometries in vivo under strictly limiting light conditions, using published data on photosynthetic quantum yield

  13. Three months of strictly controlled daily endurance exercise reduces thrombin generation and fibrinolytic risk markers in younger moderately overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Anne Sofie; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Skov, Jane

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Physical activity is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, but dose dependency of long-term physical exercise on biomarkers within coagulation and fibrinolysis is unknown. We aimed to investigate effects of two doses of daily endurance exercise on biomarkers...... of 600 kcal/day (HIGH), 300 kcal/day (MOD), or to maintain their habitual lifestyle (CON). Fasting blood samples were collected before and after the intervention and analysed for thrombin generation (endogenous thrombin potential, ETP) and concentrations of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t......-PA), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), and von Willebrand factor (vWF). RESULTS: We observed significant within-group decreases in ETP (MOD 7 %; HIGH 6 %) and in t-PA (MOD 22 %; HIGH 21 %) and PAI-1 (MOD 16 %; HIGH 32 %) in both training groups, and no changes in the CON group. At 3 months, between...

  14. Dependent Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasiunas, Vaidas; Mezini, Mira; Ostermann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    of dependent classes and a machine-checked type soundness proof in Isabelle/HOL [29], the first of this kind for a language with virtual classes and path-dependent types. [29] T.Nipkow, L.C. Poulson, and M. Wenzel. Isabelle/HOL -- A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order Logic, volume 2283 of LNCS, Springer, 2002......Virtual classes allow nested classes to be refined in subclasses. In this way nested classes can be seen as dependent abstractions of the objects of the enclosing classes. Expressing dependency via nesting, however, has two limitations: Abstractions that depend on more than one object cannot...... be modeled and a class must know all classes that depend on its objects. This paper presents dependent classes, a generalization of virtual classes that expresses similar semantics by parameterization rather than by nesting. This increases expressivity of class variations as well as the flexibility...

  15. Second harmonic generation in gallium phosphide microdisks on silicon: from strict \\bar{4} to random quasi-phase matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemé, P.; Dumeige, Y.; Stodolna, J.; Vallet, M.; Rohel, T.; Létoublon, A.; Cornet, C.; Ponchet, A.; Durand, O.; Léger, Y.

    2017-06-01

    The convergence of nonlinear optical devices and silicon photonics is a key milestone for the practical development of photonic integrated circuits. The associated technological issues often stem from material incompatibility. This is the case of second order nonlinear processes in monolithically integrated III-V semiconductor devices on silicon, where structural defects called antiphase domains strongly impact the optical properties of the material. We theoretically investigate the influence of antiphase domains on second harmonic generation in III-V whispering gallery mode microresonators on silicon and focus on the effects of the antiphase domains’ mean size (i.e. the correlation length of the distribution). We demonstrate that the domain distributions can have opposite effects depending on the nonlinear process under consideration: while antiphase domains negatively impact second harmonic generation under \\bar{4} quasi-phase matching conditions (independent of the correlation length), large conversion efficiencies can arise far from \\bar{4}-quasi-phase matching provided that the APD correlation length remains within an appropriate range, and is still compatible with the spontaneous emergence of such defects in the usual III-V on Si epilayers. Such a build-up can be explained by the occurrence of random quasi-phase matching in the system.

  16. General lighting requirements for photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, D.R. [Univ. of Dayton, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A review of the general lighting requirements for photosynthesis reveals that four aspects of light are important: irradiance, quality, timing and duration. These properties of light affect photosynthesis by providing the energy that drives carbon assimilation as well as by exerting control over physiology, structure and morphology of plants. Irradiance, expressed as energy flux, W m{sup -2}, or photon irradiance, {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, determines the rate at which energy is being delivered to the photosynthetic reaction centers. Spectral quality, the wavelength composition of light, is important because photons differ in their probability of being absorbed by the light harvesting complex and hence their ability to drive carbon assimilation. Also the various light receptors for light-mediated regulation of plant form and physiology have characteristic absorption spectra and hence photons differ in their effectiveness for eliciting responses. Duration is important because both carbon assimilation and regulation are affected by the total energy or integrated irradiance delivered during a given period. Many processes associated with photosynthesis are time-dependent, increasing or decreasing with duration. Timing is important because the effectiveness of light in the regulation of plant processes varies with the phase of the diumal cycle as determined by the plant`s time-measuring mechanisms.

  17. Dependency Parsing

    CERN Document Server

    Kubler, Sandra; Nivre, Joakim

    2009-01-01

    Dependency-based methods for syntactic parsing have become increasingly popular in natural language processing in recent years. This book gives a thorough introduction to the methods that are most widely used today. After an introduction to dependency grammar and dependency parsing, followed by a formal characterization of the dependency parsing problem, the book surveys the three major classes of parsing models that are in current use: transition-based, graph-based, and grammar-based models. It continues with a chapter on evaluation and one on the comparison of different methods, and it close

  18. Analysis of serum free light chains by crossed immunoelectrophoresis: comparison with urinary light chains in light chain disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, B C; Viernes, A; Kyle, R A; Sassetti, R J

    1984-10-01

    We investigated the relationship between serum free light chain levels measured by crossed immunoelectrophoresis in ten patients with light chain disease and traditional 24-hour urinary light chains in the same patients. The crossed immunoelectrophoresis test requires only a venipuncture for specimen acquisition, can be completed within 24 hours, and has a reproducibility (+/- 14%) comparable with that of other immunoprecipitin techniques. Twenty-eight serum-urine pairs, representing 18 discrete intervals, were analyzed. There was a close relationship between changes in serum and urine light chain levels, with a correlation coefficient of .77 or .93, depending on the method of calculation. This suggests that serum light chain levels measured by crossed immunoelectrophoresis would be equivalent to urinary light chain levels as indicators of tumor burden. Monitoring serum levels would have the advantage of greatly simplified specimen acquisition. In patients with renal failure, serum light chain levels should be a superior indicator of light chain synthesis.

  19. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  20. Green Light for Nocturnally Migrating Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke Poot

    2008-12-01

    Laboratory experiments have shown the magnetic compass to be wavelength dependent: migratory birds require light from the blue-green part of the spectrum for magnetic compass orientation, whereas red light (visible long-wavelength disrupts magnetic orientation. We designed a field study to test if and how changing light color influenced migrating birds under field conditions. We found that nocturnally migrating birds were disoriented and attracted by red and white light (containing visible long-wavelength radiation, whereas they were clearly less disoriented by blue and green light (containing less or no visible long-wavelength radiation. This was especially the case on overcast nights. Our results clearly open perspective for the development of bird-friendly artificial lighting by manipulating wavelength characteristics. Preliminary results with an experimentally developed bird-friendly light source on an offshore platform are promising. What needs to be investigated is the impact of bird-friendly light on other organisms than birds.

  1. Fast Light Optical Gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David D.

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation space missions are currently constrained by existing spacecraft navigation systems which are not fully autonomous. These systems suffer from accumulated dead-reckoning errors and must therefore rely on periodic corrections provided by supplementary technologies that depend on line-of-sight signals from Earth, satellites, or other celestial bodies for absolute attitude and position determination, which can be spoofed, incorrectly identified, occluded, obscured, attenuated, or insufficiently available. These dead-reckoning errors originate in the ring laser gyros themselves, which constitute inertial measurement units. Increasing the time for standalone spacecraft navigation therefore requires fundamental improvements in gyroscope technologies. One promising solution to enhance gyro sensitivity is to place an anomalous dispersion or fast light material inside the gyro cavity. The fast light essentially provides a positive feedback to the gyro response, resulting in a larger measured beat frequency for a given rotation rate as shown in figure 1. Game Changing Development has been investing in this idea through the Fast Light Optical Gyros (FLOG) project, a collaborative effort which began in FY 2013 between NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC), and Northwestern University. MSFC and AMRDEC are working on the development of a passive FLOG (PFLOG), while Northwestern is developing an active FLOG (AFLOG). The project has demonstrated new benchmarks in the state of the art for scale factor sensitivity enhancement. Recent results show cavity scale factor enhancements of approx.100 for passive cavities.

  2. Migratory bats respond to artificial green light with positive phototaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian C Voigt

    Full Text Available Artificial light at night is spreading worldwide at unprecedented rates, exposing strictly nocturnal animals such as bats to a novel anthropogenic stressor. Previous studies about the effect of artificial light on bats focused almost exclusively on non-migratory species, yet migratory animals such as birds are known to be largely affected by light pollution. Thus, we conducted a field experiment to evaluate if bat migration is affected by artificial light at night. In late summer, we presented artificial green light of 520 nm wavelength to bats that were migrating south along the shoreline of the Baltic Sea. Using a light on-off treatment, we observed that the activity of Pipistrellus nathusii and P. pygmaeus, the two most abundant migratory species at our site, increased by more than 50% in the light-on compared to the light-off treatment. We observed an increased number of feeding buzzes during the light-on compared to the light-off treatment for P. nathusii. However, feeding activity was low in general and did not increase disproportionately during the light-on treatment in relation to the overall echolocation call activity of bats. Further, P. nathusii were attracted towards the green light at a distance of about 23 m, which is way beyond the echolocation detection range for insects of Nathusius' bats. We therefore infer that migratory bats were not attracted to artificial green light because of high insect densities, but instead by positive phototaxis. We conclude that artificial light at night may potentially impact bat migration in a yet unrecognized way.

  3. Statistical theory of light nucleus reactions with 1p-shell light nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The 1p-shell light elements (Li, Be, B, C, N, and O had long been selected as the most important materials for improving neutron economy in thermal and fast fission reactors and in the design of accelerator-driven spallation neutron sources. A statistical theory of light nucleus reactions (STLN is proposed to describe the double-differential cross sections for both neutron and light charged particle induced nuclear reactions with 1p-shell light nuclei. The dynamics of STLN is described by the unified Hauser-Feshbach and exciton model, in which the angular momentum and parity conservations are strictly considered in equilibrium and pre-equilibrium processes. The Coulomb barriers of the incoming and outgoing charged particles, which significantly influence the open channels of the reaction, can be reasonably considered in incident channel and different outgoing channels. In kinematics, the recoiling effects in various emission processes are strictly taken into account. The analytical energy and angular spectra of the reaction products in sequential and simultaneous emission processes are obtained in terms of the new integral formula proposed in our recent paper. Taking 12C(n, xn, 9Be(n, xn, 16O(n, xn, and 9Be(p,xn reactions as examples, we had calculated the double-differential cross sections of outgoing neutrons and compared with the experimental data. In addition, we had also calculated the partition and total kerma coefficients for 12C(n, xn and 16O(n, xn reactions, respectively. The existing experimental data can be remarkably well reproduced by STLN, which had been used to set up file-6 in CENDL database.

  4. Evaluation of a strict protocol approach in managing women with severe disease due to hypertension in pregnancy: A before and after study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Backer Fèbè

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate whether the introduction of a strict protocol based on the systemic evaluation of critically ill pregnant women with complications of hypertension affected the outcome of those women. Method Study group: Indigent South African women managed in the tertiary hospitals of the Pretoria Academic Complex. Since 1997 a standard definition of women with severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM, also referred to as a Nearmiss, has been used in the Pretoria Academic Complex. All cases of SAMM and maternal deaths (MD were entered on the Maternal Morbidity and Mortality Audit System programme (MaMMAS. A comparison of outcome of severely ill women who had complications of hypertension in pregnancy was performed between 1997–1998 (original protocol and 2002–2003 (strict protocol. Data include women referred from outside the Pretoria Academic Complex area to the tertiary hospitals. Results Between 1997–1998 there were 79 women with SAMM and 18 maternal deaths due to complications of hypertension, compared with 91 women with SAMM and 13 maternal deaths in 2002–2003. The mortality index (MI declined from 18.6% to 12.5% (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.27–1.45. Statistically significant fewer women had renal failure (RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.21 – 0.66 and cerebral complications (RR 0.52, 95%CI 0.34 – 0.81 during the second period, and liver dysfunction (RR 0.27 95%CI 0.06 – 1.25 tended to be lower. However, there tended to be an increase in the number of women, who had immune system failure (RR 4.2 95%CI 0.93 – 18.94 and respiratory failure (RR 1.42 95%CI 0.88 – 2.29 although it did not reach significance. Cardiac failure remained constant (RR 0.84 95%CI 0.54 – 1.30. Conclusion The strict protocol approach based on the systemic evaluation of severely ill pregnant women with complications of hypertension and an intensive, regular feedback mechanism has been associated with a reduction in the number of patients with renal failure and

  5. Slow-light effects in photonic crystal membrane lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Yu, Yi; Ottaviano, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a systematic investigation of photonic crystal cavity laser operating in the slow-light regime. The dependence of lasing threshold on the effect of slow-light will be particularly highlighted.......In this paper, we present a systematic investigation of photonic crystal cavity laser operating in the slow-light regime. The dependence of lasing threshold on the effect of slow-light will be particularly highlighted....

  6. Residential lighting design

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Good lighting is essential to a building. An effective design is not just about introducing light into a space, but rather an appreciation of how the space will be used. A good lighting design is so intertwined with the building that it is only noticed in its absence. This book introduces the tools of the lighting designer and explains how to produce a lighting design for a home. Looking at the nature of light and introducing different lamps and light fittings available, it explains the basics of lighting design and how to provide atmosphere through the play of light and shadow. It gives room-

  7. Lighting Options for Homes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, W.S.

    1991-04-01

    This report covers many aspects of various lighting options for homes. Types of light sources described include natural light, artificial light, incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps, and high intensity discharge lamps. A light source selection guide gives the physical characteristics of these, design considerations, and common applications. Color, strategies for efficient lighting, and types of lighting are discussed. There is one section giving tips for various situations in specific rooms. Rooms and types of fixtures are shown on a matrix with watts saved by using the recommended type lighting for that room and room location. A major emphasis of this report is saving energy by utilizing the most suitable, recommended lighting option. (BN)

  8. Urban lighting, light pollution and society

    CERN Document Server

    Meier, Josiane; Krause, Katharina; Pottharst, Merle

    2014-01-01

    After decades "in the shadows", urban lighting is re-emerging as a matter of public debate. Long-standing truths are increasingly questioned as a confluence of developments affects lighting itself and the way it is viewed. Light has become an integral element of place-making and energy-saving initiatives alike. Rapidly evolving lighting technologies are opening up new possibilities, but also posing new challenges to planners, and awareness is growing that artificial illumination is not purely benign but can actually constitute a form of pollution. As a result, public policy frameworks, incentives and initiatives are undergoing a phase of innovation and change that will affect how cities are lit for years to come. The first comprehensive compilation of current scientific discussions on urban lighting and light pollution from a social science and humanities perspective, Urban Lighting, Light Pollution and Society contributes to an evolving international debate on an increasingly controversial topic. The contrib...

  9. Early Birds by Light at Night

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, De Maaike; Caro, Samuel P.; Gienapp, Phillip; Spoelstra, Kamiel; Visser, Marcel E.

    2017-01-01

    Artificial light at night disturbs the daily rhythms of many organisms. To what extent this disturbance depends on the intensity and spectral composition of light remain obscure. Here, we measured daily activity patterns of captive blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) exposed to similar intensities of

  10. Introduction on Lighting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The question of optimum frequency and voltage should be given careful consideration in the design of a large lighting installation. II - Lighting Design: Lighting and Architecture. The design of any lighting installation involves the consideration of many variables. What is the purpose of installation - is it light for critical seeing,.

  11. Mobile lighting apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, George Michael; Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rea, Gerald W; Drake, Robert A; Johnson, Terry A; Wingert, Steven John; Damberger, Thomas A; Skradski, Thomas J; Radley, Christopher James; Oros, James M; Schuttinger, Paul G; Grupp, David J; Prey, Stephen Carl

    2013-05-14

    A mobile lighting apparatus includes a portable frame such as a moveable trailer or skid having a light tower thereon. The light tower is moveable from a stowed position to a deployed position. A hydrogen-powered fuel cell is located on the portable frame to provide electrical power to an array of the energy efficient lights located on the light tower.

  12. Light addressable gold electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Waqas

    2011-07-01

    The main objective carried out in this dissertation was to fabricate Light Amplified Potentiometric sensors (LAPS) based upon the semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots) instead of its bulk form. Quantum dots (QDs) were opted for this device fabrication because of their superior fluorescent, electric and catalytic properties. Also in comparison to their bulk counterparts they will make device small, light weighted and power consumption is much lower. QDs were immobilized on a Au substrate via 1,4 benzene dithiol (BDT) molecule. Initially a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of BDT was established on Au substrate. Because of SAM, the conductivity of Au substrate decreased dramatically. Furthermore QDs were anchored with the help of BDT molecule on Au substrate. When QDs immobilized on Au substrate (QD/Au) via BDT molecule were irradiated with UV-visible light, electron-hole pairs were generated in QDs. The surface defect states in QDs trapped the excited electrons and long lived electron-hole pairs were formed. By the application of an appropriate bias potential on Au substrate the electrons could be supplied or extracted from the QDs via tunneling through BDT. Thus a cathodic or anodic current could be observed depending upon bias potential under illumination. However without light illumination the QD/Au electrode remained an insulator. To improve the device different modifications were made, including different substrates (Au evaporated on glass, Au evaporated on mica sheets and Au sputtered on SiO{sub 2}/Si) and different dithiol molecules (capped and uncapped biphenyl 4,4' dithiol and capped and uncapped 4,4' dimercaptostilbenes) were tried. Also different QD immobilization techniques (normal incubation, spin coating, layer by layer assembly (LbL) of polyelectrolytes and heat immobilization) were employed. This device was able to detect electrochemically different analytes depending upon the QDs incorporated. For example CdS QDs were able to detect 4

  13. Strictly Limited Choice or Agency?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip Christopher; Puck, Jonas F.; Heidenreich, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    the external pressures are joined by strong firm-internal pressures. Our findings contribute to the scarce literature on firms’ political strategies in emerging markets. They also support recent criticism of institutional theory’s strong focus on isomorphism as the most important legitimacy-conveying mechanism......This article analyzes political strategies of MNC subsidiaries in emerging markets. We find that institutional pressures from public and private non-market actors in the emerging market lead to increased political activism. Furthermore, we find that these relationships become stronger, when....... We argue that the isomorphism-based either-or logic gives way to stronger agency of the subsidiary and to a logic of active negotiation and social construction of the subsidiary’s legitimacy in the emerging market. Our findings show support for this idea as political activism is one such way how...

  14. Mapping clinical journeys of Asian patients presenting to the Emergency Department with syncope: Strict adoption of international guidelines does not reduce hospitalisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojodjojo, Pipin; Boey, Elaine; Elangovan, Anita; Chen, Xianyi; Tan, Yuquan; Singh, Devinder; Yeo, Wee Tiong; Lim, Toon Wei; Seow, Swee Chong; Sim, Tiong Beng

    2016-09-01

    Limited data exists about management of syncope in Asia. The American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines have defined the high-risk syncope patient. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of managing syncope in an Asian healthcare system and whether strict adherence of international guidelines would reduce hospitalizations. Patients attending the Emergency Department of a Singaporean tertiary hospital with syncope were identified. Clinical journeys of all patients were meticulously mapped by interrogation of a comprehensive electronic medical record system and linkages with national datasets. Primary endpoint was hospitalization. Secondary endpoints were recurrent syncope within 1year and all-cause mortality. Expected admission rates based on application of ACEP/ESC guidelines were calculated. 638 patients (43.8±22.4years, 49.0% male) presented with syncope. 48.9% were hospitalized for 2.9±3.2days. Yields of common investigations ranged from 0 to 11.5% and no diagnosis was reached in 51.5% of patients. Diuretics use (HR 5.1, p=0.01) and prior hospitalization for syncope (HR 6.9, psyncope. Over 2.8 SD 0.3years of follow-up, 40 deaths occurred. 24 patients who died within 12months of presentation were admitted or had a firm diagnosis upon discharge. Application of guidelines did not significantly reduce hospitalisations, with limited agreement which patients warrant admission. (Actual 376, ACEP 354, ESC 391 admissions, p=NS). Unstructured management of syncope results in nearly half of patients being admitted and substantial healthcare expenditures, yet with limited diagnostic yield. Strict adoption of ACEP or ESC guidelines does not reduce admissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Deviation from strict homeostasis across multiple trophic levels in an invertebrate consumer assemblage exposed to high chronic phosphorus enrichment in a Neotropical stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Gaston E; Pringle, Catherine M

    2010-03-01

    A central tenet of ecological stoichiometry is that consumer elemental composition is relatively independent of food resource nutrient content. Although the P content of some invertebrate consumer taxa can increase as a consequence of P-enriched food resources, little is known about how ecosystem nutrient loading can affect the elemental composition of entire consumer assemblages. Here we examine the potential for P enrichment across invertebrate consumer assemblages in response to chronic high P loading. We measured elemental ratios in invertebrate consumers and basal food resources in a series of streams in lowland Costa Rica that range widely in P levels (2-135 microg l(-1) soluble reactive P). Streams with high P levels receive natural long-term (over millennia) inputs of solute-rich groundwater while low-P streams do not receive these solute-rich groundwater inputs. P content of leaf litter and epilithon increased fourfold across the natural P gradient, exceeding basal resource P content values reported in the literature from other nutrient-rich streams. Invertebrate consumers from the high-P study stream were elevated twofold in P content across multiple taxonomic and functional feeding groups, including predators. Our results strongly support the hypothesis that elevated P content in consumers feeding on P-enriched food resources is a consequence of deviation from strict homeostasis. In contrast to prior studies, we found that between-stream variation in P content of a given taxon greatly exceeded within-stream variation among different taxa, suggesting that environment may be as important as phylogeny in controlling consumer stoichiometry. Relaxing the assumption of strict homeostasis presents challenges and opportunities for advancing our understanding of how nutrient limitation affects consumer growth. Moreover, our findings may provide a window into the future of how chronic anthropogenic nutrient loading can alter stoichiometric relationships in food

  16. Assessing the Land Subsidence Governance in Ningbo City: By a Close Study of the Building Collapse at the Strictly Protected Land Subsidence Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xia

    2016-04-01

    Ningbo is a coastal city in East China, its land subsidence problem was noticed in the 1960s. However, scientific management was insufficient at that time, so with the fast city development from the 1980s, groundwater was used by a large amount of small factories, and tall buildings were built on the land. It was in 2008, scientists predicted that if without doing anything to prevent the land from subsiding, the city will be covered by the East Sea in 2030. From then on, the local government implied several policies, such as shut down most of the groundwater pumping wells, set up a new authority to enhance the cooperation among different administration departments, and also set up a land subsidence monitoring center for the city. Recently, it is declared that a Stereo regulatory system of land subsidence governance has been achieved. However, in 2012, a 23-years old building in the city center collapsed. According to the City Planning 2009, this building is located just in the strictly protected land subsidence area. The experts, however, think that land subsidence is not the main reason, since there are many illegal changes to the building during the past 23 years. The aim of my research is to assess the land subsidence governance in Ningbo city. I studied the collapsed building, how it was built, what has changed after building, how the environment changed in this area, and how this area became the strictly protected land subsidence area, and what kind of protections have been made. Actually, during the case study I discuss the land subsidence governance design of Ningbo, and to see what practices and lessons we can learn from this case.

  17. Exquisite light sensitivity of Drosophila melanogaster cryptochrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Vinayak

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster shows exquisite light sensitivity for modulation of circadian functions in vivo, yet the activities of the Drosophila circadian photopigment cryptochrome (CRY have only been observed at high light levels. We studied intensity/duration parameters for light pulse induced circadian phase shifts under dim light conditions in vivo. Flies show far greater light sensitivity than previously appreciated, and show a surprising sensitivity increase with pulse duration, implying a process of photic integration active up to at least 6 hours. The CRY target timeless (TIM shows dim light dependent degradation in circadian pacemaker neurons that parallels phase shift amplitude, indicating that integration occurs at this step, with the strongest effect in a single identified pacemaker neuron. Our findings indicate that CRY compensates for limited light sensitivity in vivo by photon integration over extraordinarily long times, and point to select circadian pacemaker neurons as having important roles.

  18. Effects of light on brain and behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brainard, G.C. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    It is obvious that light entering the eye permits the sensory capacity of vision. The human species is highly dependent on visual perception of the environment and consequently, the scientific study of vision and visual mechanisms is a centuries old endeavor. Relatively new discoveries are now leading to an expanded understanding of the role of light entering the eye - in addition to supporting vision, light has various nonvisual biological effects. Over the past thirty years, animal studies have shown that environmental light is the primary stimulus for regulating circadian rhythms, seasonal cycles, and neuroendocrine responses. As with all photobiological phenomena, the wavelength, intensity, timing and duration of a light stimulus is important in determining its regulatory influence on the circadian and neuroendocrine systems. Initially, the effects of light on rhythms and hormones were observed only in sub-human species. Research over the past decade, however, has confirmed that light entering the eyes of humans is a potent stimulus for controlling physiological rhythms. The aim of this paper is to examine three specific nonvisual responses in humans which are mediated by light entering the eye: light-induced melatonin suppression, light therapy for winter depression, and enhancement of nighttime performance. This will serve as a brief introduction to the growing database which demonstrates how light stimuli can influence physiology, mood and behavior in humans. Such information greatly expands our understanding of the human eye and will ultimately change our use of light in the human environment.

  19. Effects of light on brain and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, George C.

    1994-01-01

    It is obvious that light entering the eye permits the sensory capacity of vision. The human species is highly dependent on visual perception of the environment and consequently, the scientific study of vision and visual mechanisms is a centuries old endeavor. Relatively new discoveries are now leading to an expanded understanding of the role of light entering the eye in addition to supporting vision, light has various nonvisual biological effects. Over the past thirty years, animal studies have shown that environmental light is the primary stimulus for regulating circadian rhythms, seasonal cycles, and neuroendocrine responses. As with all photobiological phenomena, the wavelength, intensity, timing and duration of a light stimulus is important in determining its regulatory influence on the circadian and neuroendocrine systems. Initially, the effects of light on rhythms and hormones were observed only in sub-human species. Research over the past decade, however, has confirmed that light entering the eyes of humans is a potent stimulus for controlling physiological rhythms. The aim of this paper is to examine three specific nonvisual responses in humans which are mediated by light entering the eye: light-induced melatonin suppression, light therapy for winter depression, and enhancement of nighttime performance. This will serve as a brief introduction to the growing database which demonstrates how light stimuli can influence physiology, mood and behavior in humans. Such information greatly expands our understanding of the human eye and will ultimately change our use of light in the human environment.

  20. Ontological dependency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamper, R.K.

    1996-01-01

    Successful ontological analysis depends upon having the right underlying theory. The work described here, exploring how to understand organisations as systems of social norms found that the familiar objectivist position did not work, eventually replacing it with a radically subjectivist ontology

  1. LEDs light up the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, N.

    2004-06-30

    A lighting system using light-emitting diodes, and privately financed by a Canadian engineering professor at the University of Calgary, has been set up in a village in Nepal in 2000. Since then, through the efforts of the 'Light Up The World' Foundation, established by Dr. Irvine-Halliday, projects have lit up thousands of homes in the Philippines, India, Afghanistan, the Galapagos Islands, Mexico, Sri Lanka, and Angola. Although the goal of the project is primarily to provide lighting for reading and writing for school-children, the project has been the source of many other advantages; creation of enterprise, increased employment, enhanced income, gender equality, and improvements in health and safety among them. Since LED lamps in most cases replace kerosene lamps, the system also has significant environmental benefits. The system as originally envisioned creates electricity by pedal-powered generator, or by solar panels connected to a battery, depending on what is available at each home. Each home is connected to the power supply and supplied with low-energy diode lamps. The lights are extremely efficient and many homes can be equipped with them using less energy than it takes to power a single 100-watt light bulb. 5 photos.

  2. Time-dependent Autler-Townes spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Qamar, S; Zubairy, M S

    2003-01-01

    Autler-Townes spontaneous emission spectroscopy is revisited for a time-dependent case. We report the results of spontaneous emission spectra for nonstationary scattered light signals using the definition of the time-dependent physical spectrum. This is a rare example of problems where time-dependent spectra can be calculated exactly.

  3. Street light detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Disclosed is a method, a vehicle and a system for measuring light from one or more outdoor lamps on a road, the system comprising a number of light sensors configured to be arranged in a fixed position relative to a vehicle, where at least a first part of the light sensors is configured...... for measuring light from the one or more outdoor lamps, wherein at least a second part of the light sensors comprises at least two light sensors configured for detecting the angle which the light from the one or more outdoor lamps arrives at in the second part of the light sensors; a processing unit configured...... for calculating the position relative to the vehicle of the one or more outdoor lamps based on the detected angle which the light arrives in, and wherein the processing unit is configured for calculating the light on the road based on the light measured in the fixed position relative to the vehicle and based...

  4. Energy Efficient Task Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadottir, Asta; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Johnsen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    made lenses, capable of providing the desired light distribution. The user test shows that when working with general lighti ng of 100 lx in the room the developed task lig ht with its wide light distribution provides flexibility in choosing a reading task area on the desk and provides more visibility......The objectives of this work is to develop a task light for office lighting that fulfils the minimum requirements of the European standard EN12464 - 1 : Light and lightingLighting of work places, Part 1: Indoor workplaces and the Danish standard DS 700 : Lys og belysning I arbejdsrum , or more...... specifically the requirements that apply to the work area and the immediate surrounding area. By providing a task light that fulfils the requirements for task lighting and the immediate surrounding area, the general lighting only needs to provide the illuminance levels required for background lighting...

  5. Measurement of light emission in scintillation vials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran Ramiro, M. Teresa; Garcia-Torano, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    The efficiency and energy resolution of liquid scintillation counting (LSC) systems are strongly dependent on the optical characteristics of scintillators, vials, and reflectors. This article presents the results of measurements of the light-emission profile of scintillation vials. Two measurement techniques, autoradiographs and direct measurements with a photomultiplier tube, have been used to obtain light-emission distribution for standard vials of glass, etched glass and polyethylene. Results obtained with both techniques are in good agreement. For the first time, the effect of the meniscus in terms of light contribution has been numerically estimated. These results can help design LSC systems that are more efficient in terms of light collection

  6. Alerting or Somnogenic Light: Pick Your Color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Bourgin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, light exerts pervasive effects on physiology and behavior in two ways: indirectly through clock synchronization and the phase adjustment of circadian rhythms, and directly through the promotion of alertness and sleep, respectively, in diurnal and nocturnal species. A recent report by Pilorz and colleagues describes an even more complex role for the acute effects of light. In mice, blue light acutely causes behavioral arousal, whereas green wavelengths promote sleep. These opposing effects are mediated by melanopsin-based phototransduction through different neural pathways. These findings reconcile nocturnal and diurnal species through a common alerting response to blue light. One can hypothesize that the opposite responses to natural polychromatic light in night- or day-active animals may reflect higher sensitivity of nocturnal species to green, and diurnals to blue wavelengths, resulting in hypnogenic and alerting effects, respectively. Additional questions remain to be clarified. How do different light wavelengths affect other behaviors such as mood and cognition? How do those results apply to humans? How does light pose either a risk or benefit, depending on whether one needs to be asleep or alert? Indeed, in addition to timing, luminance levels, and light exposure duration, these findings stress the need to understand how best to adapt the color spectrum of light to our needs and to take this into account for the design of daily lighting concepts-a key challenge for today's society, especially with the emergence of LED light technology.

  7. Alerting or Somnogenic Light: Pick Your Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgin, Patrice; Hubbard, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, light exerts pervasive effects on physiology and behavior in two ways: indirectly through clock synchronization and the phase adjustment of circadian rhythms, and directly through the promotion of alertness and sleep, respectively, in diurnal and nocturnal species. A recent report by Pilorz and colleagues describes an even more complex role for the acute effects of light. In mice, blue light acutely causes behavioral arousal, whereas green wavelengths promote sleep. These opposing effects are mediated by melanopsin-based phototransduction through different neural pathways. These findings reconcile nocturnal and diurnal species through a common alerting response to blue light. One can hypothesize that the opposite responses to natural polychromatic light in night- or day-active animals may reflect higher sensitivity of nocturnal species to green, and diurnals to blue wavelengths, resulting in hypnogenic and alerting effects, respectively. Additional questions remain to be clarified. How do different light wavelengths affect other behaviors such as mood and cognition? How do those results apply to humans? How does light pose either a risk or benefit, depending on whether one needs to be asleep or alert? Indeed, in addition to timing, luminance levels, and light exposure duration, these findings stress the need to understand how best to adapt the color spectrum of light to our needs and to take this into account for the design of daily lighting concepts—a key challenge for today’s society, especially with the emergence of LED light technology. PMID:27525420

  8. Light Trapping with Silicon Light Funnel Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Ashish; Nissan, Yuval; Gabay, Tamir; Shalev, Gil

    2018-03-19

    Silicon light funnels are three-dimensional subwavelength structures in the shape of inverted cones with respect to the incoming illumination. Light funnel (LF) arrays can serve as efficient absorbing layers on account of their light trapping capabilities, which are associated with the presence of high-density complex Mie modes. Specifically, light funnel arrays exhibit broadband absorption enhancement of the solar spectrum. In the current study, we numerically explore the optical coupling between surface light funnel arrays and the underlying substrates. We show that the absorption in the LF array-substrate complex is higher than the absorption in LF arrays of the same height (~10% increase). This, we suggest, implies that a LF array serves as an efficient surface element that imparts additional momentum components to the impinging illumination, and hence optically excites the substrate by near-field light concentration, excitation of traveling guided modes in the substrate, and mode hybridization.

  9. Light Trapping with Silicon Light Funnel Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Prajapati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Silicon light funnels are three-dimensional subwavelength structures in the shape of inverted cones with respect to the incoming illumination. Light funnel (LF arrays can serve as efficient absorbing layers on account of their light trapping capabilities, which are associated with the presence of high-density complex Mie modes. Specifically, light funnel arrays exhibit broadband absorption enhancement of the solar spectrum. In the current study, we numerically explore the optical coupling between surface light funnel arrays and the underlying substrates. We show that the absorption in the LF array-substrate complex is higher than the absorption in LF arrays of the same height (~10% increase. This, we suggest, implies that a LF array serves as an efficient surface element that imparts additional momentum components to the impinging illumination, and hence optically excites the substrate by near-field light concentration, excitation of traveling guided modes in the substrate, and mode hybridization.

  10. Light as experiential material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Karin; Petersen, Kjell Yngve

    2013-01-01

    'Light as experiential material' is concerned with the development of a psychophysical method of investigation, by which we can approach the experience and design of architectural lighting in research and education.......'Light as experiential material' is concerned with the development of a psychophysical method of investigation, by which we can approach the experience and design of architectural lighting in research and education....

  11. Light as experiential material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin

    2013-01-01

    'Light as experiential material' is concerned with the development of a psychophysical method of investigation, by which the experience and design of architectural lighting can be approached in research and education......'Light as experiential material' is concerned with the development of a psychophysical method of investigation, by which the experience and design of architectural lighting can be approached in research and education...

  12. Pedestrian Friendly Outdoor Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Koltai, R. N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGowan, T. K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The GATEWAY program followed two pedestrian-scale lighting projects that required multiple mockups – one at Stanford University in California and the other at Chautauqua Institution in upstate New York. The report provides insight into pedestrian lighting criteria, how they differ from street and area lighting criteria, and how solid-state lighting can be better applied in pedestrian applications.

  13. Next Generation Light Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper

    Light Robotics is a new field of research where ingredients from photonics, nanotechnology and biotechnology are put together in new ways to realize light-driven robotics at the smallest scales to solve major challenges primarily within the nanobio-domain but not limited hereto. Exploring the full...... potential of this new ‘drone-like’ light-printed, light-driven, light-actuated micro- and nano-robotics in challenging geometries requires a versatile and real-time reconfigurable light addressing that can dynamically track a plurality of tiny tools in 3D to ensure real-time continuous light...

  14. Light Rhythms in Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Katja

    2013-01-01

    On one hand, urban lighting expresses itself in a complex visual environment made by the interplay by between many separate lighting schemes, as street lighting, shop lighting, luminous commercials etc. On the other, a noticeable order of patterns occurs, when lighting is observed as luminous...... formation and rhythm. When integrated into an architectural concept, electrical lighting non-intended for poetic composition has the ability to contribute to place, time, and function-telling aspects of places in urban contexts. Urban environments are information wise challenging to pre-historic human...... instincts, but they can be met by careful selection and adjustment of existing light situations....

  15. Light Rhythms in Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Katja

    2013-01-01

    formation and rhythm. When integrated into an architectural concept, electrical lighting non-intended for poetic composition has the ability to contribute to place, time, and function-telling aspects of places in urban contexts. Urban environments are information wise challenging to pre-historic human......On one hand, urban lighting expresses itself in a complex visual environment made by the interplay by between many separate lighting schemes, as street lighting, shop lighting, luminous commercials etc. On the other, a noticeable order of patterns occurs, when lighting is observed as luminous...... instincts, but they can be met by careful selection and adjustment of existing light situations....

  16. Outdoor lighting guide

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    As concern grows over environmental issues and light pollution, this book satisfies a need for a straightforward and accessible guide to the use, design and installation of outdoor lighting.This all-inclusive guide to exterior lighting from the Institution of Lighting Engineers, recognized as the pre-eminent professional source in the UK for authoritative guidance on exterior lighting, provides a comprehensive source of information and advice on all forms of exterior lighting, from floodlighting, buildings and road lighting to elaborate Christmas decorations. Useful to practitioners

  17. [Dependency syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorisalo, Sailaritta

    2013-01-01

    The most common causes of lower limb edema include cardiac insufficiency, venous insufficiency, insufficiency of lymph flow, and side effects of drugs. It can also be due to dependency syndrome, in which the edema and skin changes can only be explained by a passive calf muscle pump and the resulting venous hypertension. Underlying the drop foot is always immobilization for one reason or other. The patient must be given an explanation about the situation, activated to move if possible, and in any case guided to the use of support stockings and postural therapy.

  18. Concept of white light in stage lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Mauricio R.

    2002-06-01

    In perceiving objects, generally we see them in a white light situation. But, actually, there is not an absolute white, in such a manner that the different light sources have a determined kind of white, what it is known as color temperature. Even the white light may be of different kinds (different color temperature), the individual mind tends to perceive it as the same kind of white, that is to say, there is in our mind a psychological function by which we operate an integration in the perception in order to do the object perceptually invariable. On the other hand, it is a common practice in stage lighting to use color light sources. It is a well known phenomenon that a color of light produces a change in the object color perception. However, when we go to theater, we see the objects as having their real color, even if the lighting is not white. In this paper the concept of white light in stage lighting is presented, showing its possibilities of aesthetical expression.

  19. Light and colours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Often a dichotomy between daylight and artificial light is observed, often artificial lighting replaces daylight. In Denmark daylight is characterized partly by being "borrowed" half of the year, partly by having long transitions periods between the light and the dark (nautical and civil twilight......). For these reasons artificial lighting does not complement daylight but provides, coupled with the daylight, the total lighting in the indoor environment. Electric lighting is therefore ‐ in a complex interaction with the daylight ‐ of great importance for both our lighting and our wellbeing. Studying artificial...... lighting without studying daylight seem to be a common procedure of the practice of today in Denmark and other parts of the industrialized world. As a consequence of this artificial lighting suffers from a quantifying tyranny, a tyranny where the quality of light is measured in quantities. This procedure...

  20. HALO: Wearable Lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Nan; Paradiso, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    What if lighting were not fixed to our architecture but becomes part of our body? Light would be only where it is needed. Buildings would light up brightly when busy, and dim down when people leave. Lighting would become more energy efficient, more personal, and colorful, tailored to individual needs. What applications beyond illumination would be possible in such a scenario? Halo is a wearable lighting device that aims to investigate this question. More specifically Halo explores the potenti...