WorldWideScience

Sample records for strictly declarative modelling

  1. Declarative representation of uncertainty in mathematical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew K; Britten, Randall D; Nielsen, Poul M F

    2012-01-01

    An important aspect of multi-scale modelling is the ability to represent mathematical models in forms that can be exchanged between modellers and tools. While the development of languages like CellML and SBML have provided standardised declarative exchange formats for mathematical models, independent of the algorithm to be applied to the model, to date these standards have not provided a clear mechanism for describing parameter uncertainty. Parameter uncertainty is an inherent feature of many real systems. This uncertainty can result from a number of situations, such as: when measurements include inherent error; when parameters have unknown values and so are replaced by a probability distribution by the modeller; when a model is of an individual from a population, and parameters have unknown values for the individual, but the distribution for the population is known. We present and demonstrate an approach by which uncertainty can be described declaratively in CellML models, by utilising the extension mechanisms provided in CellML. Parameter uncertainty can be described declaratively in terms of either a univariate continuous probability density function or multiple realisations of one variable or several (typically non-independent) variables. We additionally present an extension to SED-ML (the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language) to describe sampling sensitivity analysis simulation experiments. We demonstrate the usability of the approach by encoding a sample model in the uncertainty markup language, and by developing a software implementation of the uncertainty specification (including the SED-ML extension for sampling sensitivty analyses) in an existing CellML software library, the CellML API implementation. We used the software implementation to run sampling sensitivity analyses over the model to demonstrate that it is possible to run useful simulations on models with uncertainty encoded in this form.

  2. Declarative representation of uncertainty in mathematical models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K Miller

    Full Text Available An important aspect of multi-scale modelling is the ability to represent mathematical models in forms that can be exchanged between modellers and tools. While the development of languages like CellML and SBML have provided standardised declarative exchange formats for mathematical models, independent of the algorithm to be applied to the model, to date these standards have not provided a clear mechanism for describing parameter uncertainty. Parameter uncertainty is an inherent feature of many real systems. This uncertainty can result from a number of situations, such as: when measurements include inherent error; when parameters have unknown values and so are replaced by a probability distribution by the modeller; when a model is of an individual from a population, and parameters have unknown values for the individual, but the distribution for the population is known. We present and demonstrate an approach by which uncertainty can be described declaratively in CellML models, by utilising the extension mechanisms provided in CellML. Parameter uncertainty can be described declaratively in terms of either a univariate continuous probability density function or multiple realisations of one variable or several (typically non-independent variables. We additionally present an extension to SED-ML (the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language to describe sampling sensitivity analysis simulation experiments. We demonstrate the usability of the approach by encoding a sample model in the uncertainty markup language, and by developing a software implementation of the uncertainty specification (including the SED-ML extension for sampling sensitivty analyses in an existing CellML software library, the CellML API implementation. We used the software implementation to run sampling sensitivity analyses over the model to demonstrate that it is possible to run useful simulations on models with uncertainty encoded in this form.

  3. A Formal Model For Declarative Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    the declarative nature of the projected graphs (which are also DCR graphs). We have also provided semantics for distributed executions based on synchronous communication among network of projected graphs and proved that global and distributed executions are equivalent. Further, to support modeling of processes...... using DCR Graphs and to make the formal model available to a wider audience, we have developed prototype tools for specification and a workflow engine for the execution of DCR Graphs. We have also developed tools interfacing SPIN model checker to formally verify safety and liveness properties on the DCR...

  4. Streamlining environmental product declarations: a stage model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Elisabeth; Lefebvre, Louis A.; Talbot, Stephane; Le Hen, Gael

    2001-02-01

    General public environmental awareness and education is increasing, therefore stimulating the demand for reliable, objective and comparable information about products' environmental performances. The recently published standard series ISO 14040 and ISO 14025 are normalizing the preparation of Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs) containing comprehensive information relevant to a product's environmental impact during its life cycle. So far, only a few environmentally leading manufacturing organizations have experimented the preparation of EPDs (mostly from Europe), demonstrating its great potential as a marketing weapon. However the preparation of EPDs is a complex process, requiring collection and analysis of massive amounts of information coming from disparate sources (suppliers, sub-contractors, etc.). In a foreseeable future, the streamlining of the EPD preparation process will require product manufacturers to adapt their information systems (ERP, MES, SCADA) in order to make them capable of gathering, and transmitting the appropriate environmental information. It also requires strong functional integration all along the product supply chain in order to ensure that all the information is made available in a standardized and timely manner. The goal of the present paper is two fold: first to propose a transitional model towards green supply chain management and EPD preparation; second to identify key technologies and methodologies allowing to streamline the EPD process and subsequently the transition toward sustainable product development

  5. Multiobjective Optimization for the Forecasting Models on the Base of the Strictly Binary Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Nadezhda Astakhova; Liliya Demidova; Evgeny Nikulchev

    2016-01-01

    The optimization problem dealing with the development of the forecasting models on the base of strictly binary trees has been considered. The aim of paper is the comparative analysis of two optimization variants which are applied for the development of the forecasting models. Herewith the first optimization variant assumes the application of one quality indicator of the forecasting model named as the affinity indicator and the second variant realizes the application of two quality indicators ...

  6. MOCQL: A Declarative Language for Ad-Hoc Model Querying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Language (MOCQL), an experimental declarative textual language to express queries (and constraints) on models. We introduce MOCQL by examples and its grammar, evaluate its usability by means of controlled experiments, and find that modelers perform better and experience less cognitive load when working...

  7. A Total Variation Model Based on the Strictly Convex Modification for Image Denoising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boying Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a strictly convex functional in which the regular term consists of the total variation term and an adaptive logarithm based convex modification term. We prove the existence and uniqueness of the minimizer for the proposed variational problem. The existence, uniqueness, and long-time behavior of the solution of the associated evolution system is also established. Finally, we present experimental results to illustrate the effectiveness of the model in noise reduction, and a comparison is made in relation to the more classical methods of the traditional total variation (TV, the Perona-Malik (PM, and the more recent D-α-PM method. Additional distinction from the other methods is that the parameters, for manual manipulation, in the proposed algorithm are reduced to basically only one.

  8. Strictly hyperbolic models of co-current three-phase flow withgravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juanes, Ruben; Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    2002-11-18

    We study the character of the equations in the traditional formulation of one-dimensional immiscible three-phase flow with gravity, in the limit of negligible capillarity. We restrict our analysis to co-current flow required for a displacement process; in cases of mixed co-current and counter-current flow, capillarity effects cannot be dropped from the formulation. The model makes use of the classical multiphase extension of Darcy's equation. It is well known that, if relative permeabilities are taken as fixed functions of saturations, the model yields regions in the saturation space where the system of equations is locally elliptic. We regard elliptic behavior as a nonphysical artifact of an incomplete formulation, and derive conditions on the relative permeabilities that ensure strict hyperbolicity of the governing equations. The key point is to acknowledge that a Darcy-type formulation is insufficient to capture all the physics of three-phase flow and that, consequently, the relative permeabilities are functionals that depend on the fluid viscosity ratio and the gravity number. The derived conditions are consistent with the type of displacements that take place in porous media. By means of an illustrative example, we show how elliptic behavior can be removed, even when using simplistic relative permeability models.

  9. Model-Based Adaptive Event-Triggered Control of Strict-Feedback Nonlinear Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-Xin; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2018-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the adaptive event-triggered control problem of nonlinear continuous-time systems in strict-feedback form. By using the event-sampled neural network (NN) to approximate the unknown nonlinear function, an adaptive model and an associated event-triggered controller are designed by exploiting the backstepping method. In the proposed method, the feedback signals and the NN weights are aperiodically updated only when the event-triggered condition is violated. A positive lower bound on the minimum intersample time is guaranteed to avoid accumulation point. The closed-loop stability of the resulting nonlinear impulsive dynamical system is rigorously proved via Lyapunov analysis under an adaptive event sampling condition. In comparing with the traditional adaptive backstepping design with a fixed sample period, the event-triggered method samples the state and updates the NN weights only when it is necessary. Therefore, the number of transmissions can be significantly reduced. Finally, two simulation examples are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  10. Declarative Modelling and Safe Distribution of Healthcare Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Slaats, Tijs

    2012-01-01

    We present a formal technique for safe distribution of workflow processes described declaratively as Nested Condition Response (NCR) Graphs and apply the technique to a distributed healthcare workflow. Concretely, we provide a method to synthesize from a NCR Graph and any distribution of its events......-organizational case management. The contributions of this paper is to adapt the technique to allow for nested processes and milestones and to apply it to a healthcare workflow identified in a previous field study at danish hospitals....

  11. Web-Based Modelling and Collaborative Simulation of Declarative Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slaats, Tijs; Marquard, Morten; Shahzad, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    As a provider of Electronic Case Management solutions to knowledge-intensive businesses and organizations, the Danish company Exformatics has in recent years identified a need for flexible process support in the tools that we provide to our customers. We have addressed this need by adapting DCR...... Graphs, a formal declarative workflow notation developed at the IT University of Copenhagen. Through close collaboration with academia we first integrated execution support for the notation into our existing tools, by leveraging a cloud-based process engine implementing the DCR formalism. Over the last...

  12. Understanding Service Composition with Non-functional Properties Using Declarative Model-to-model Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Mäuhlhäuser

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing applications comprising service composition is a complex task. Therefore, to lower the skill barrier for developers, it is important to describe the problem at hand on an abstract level and not to focus on implementation details. This can be done using declarative programming which allows to describe only the result of the problem (which is what the developer wants rather than the description of the implementation. We therefore use purely declarative model-to-model transformations written in a universal model transformation language which is capable of handling even non functional properties using optimization and mathematical programming. This makes it easier to understand and describe service composition and non-functional properties for the developer.

  13. Analysis of strictly bound modes in photonic crystal fibers by use of a source-model technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Amit; Leviatan, Yehuda

    2004-06-01

    We describe a source-model technique for the analysis of the strictly bound modes propagating in photonic crystal fibers that have a finite photonic bandgap crystal cladding and are surrounded by an air jacket. In this model the field is simulated by a superposition of fields of fictitious electric and magnetic current filaments, suitably placed near the media interfaces of the fiber. A simple point-matching procedure is subsequently used to enforce the continuity conditions across the interfaces, leading to a homogeneous matrix equation. Nontrivial solutions to this equation yield the mode field patterns and propagation constants. As an example, we analyze a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. Symmetry characteristics of the modes are discussed and exploited to reduce the computational burden.

  14. A Case for Declarative Process Modelling: Agile Development of a Grant Application System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Slaats, Tijs

    2014-01-01

    We present a new declarative model with composition and hierarchical definition of processes, featuring (a) incremental refinement, (b) adaptation of processes, and (c) dynamic creation of sub-processes. The approach is motivated and exemplified by a recent case management solution delivered by our...

  15. Implications of the Declarative/Procedural Model for Improving Second Language Learning: The Role of Memory Enhancement Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Michael T.; Lovelett, Jarrett T.

    2018-01-01

    The declarative/procedural (DP) model posits that the learning, storage, and use of language critically depend on two learning and memory systems in the brain: declarative memory and procedural memory. Thus, on the basis of independent research on the memory systems, the model can generate specific and often novel predictions for language. Till…

  16. Strict confluent drawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Eppstein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We define strict confluent drawing, a form of confluent drawing in which the existence of an edge is indicated by the presence of a smooth path through a system of arcs and junctions (without crossings, and in which such a path, if it exists, must be unique. We prove that it is NP-complete to determine whether a given graph has a strict confluent drawing but polynomial to determine whether it has an outerplanar strict confluent drawing with a fixed vertex ordering (a drawing within a disk, with the vertices placed in a given order on the boundary.

  17. Declarative Business Process Modelling and the Generation of ERP Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Møller, Nicholas Poul; Hølmer, Christian; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    2009-01-01

    the major entities are rather than how they engage in computations. We show how to develop a domain-specific language on the basis of REA, and a tool which automatically can generate running web-applications. A main contribution is a proof-of-concept showing that business-domain experts can generate...... their own applications without worrying about implementation details. In order to have a well-defined domain-specific language, a formal model of REA has been developed using the specification language Object-Z and this led to clarifications as well as the introduction of new concepts. The compiler for our...

  18. Declarative Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Loo, Boon Thau

    2012-01-01

    Declarative Networking is a programming methodology that enables developers to concisely specify network protocols and services, which are directly compiled to a dataflow framework that executes the specifications. Declarative networking proposes the use of a declarative query language for specifying and implementing network protocols, and employs a dataflow framework at runtime for communication and maintenance of network state. The primary goal of declarative networking is to greatly simplify the process of specifying, implementing, deploying and evolving a network design. In addition, decla

  19. Strictly convex renormings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moltó, A.; Orihuela, J.; Troyanski, S.; Zizler, Václav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 3 (2007), s. 647-658 ISSN 0024-6107 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : strictly convex norms * lattice norm * quasi-diagonal sets Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.733, year: 2007

  20. Quine's "Strictly Vegetarian" Analyticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decock, L.B.

    2017-01-01

    I analyze Quine’s later writings on analyticity from a linguistic point of view. In Word and Object Quine made room for a “strictly vegetarian” notion of analyticity. In later years, he developed this notion into two more precise notions, which I have coined “stimulus analyticity” and “behaviorist

  1. The Layer-Oriented Approach to Declarative Languages for Biological Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikov, Ivan; De Schutter, Erik

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach to modeling languages for computational biology, which we call the layer-oriented approach. The approach stems from the observation that many diverse biological phenomena are described using a small set of mathematical formalisms (e.g. differential equations), while at the same time different domains and subdomains of computational biology require that models are structured according to the accepted terminology and classification of that domain. Our approach uses distinct semantic layers to represent the domain-specific biological concepts and the underlying mathematical formalisms. Additional functionality can be transparently added to the language by adding more layers. This approach is specifically concerned with declarative languages, and throughout the paper we note some of the limitations inherent to declarative approaches. The layer-oriented approach is a way to specify explicitly how high-level biological modeling concepts are mapped to a computational representation, while abstracting away details of particular programming languages and simulation environments. To illustrate this process, we define an example language for describing models of ionic currents, and use a general mathematical notation for semantic transformations to show how to generate model simulation code for various simulation environments. We use the example language to describe a Purkinje neuron model and demonstrate how the layer-oriented approach can be used for solving several practical issues of computational neuroscience model development. We discuss the advantages and limitations of the approach in comparison with other modeling language efforts in the domain of computational biology and outline some principles for extensible, flexible modeling language design. We conclude by describing in detail the semantic transformations defined for our language. PMID:22615554

  2. Flexible or Strict Taxonomic Organization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Fumiko Kano; Mørup, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This work compares methods for constructing feature-based ontologies that are supposed to be used for culturally-specific knowledge transfer. The methods to be compared are the Terminological Ontology (TO) [1], a method of constructing ontology based on strict principles and rules, and the Infinite...... Relational Model (IRM) [2], a novel unsupervised machine learning method that learns multi-dimensional relations among concepts and features from loosely structured datasets. These methods are combined with a novel cognitive model, the Bayesian Model of Generalization (BMG) [3] that maps culturally...

  3. Declarative event based models of concurrency and refinement in psi-calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normann, Håkon; Johansen, Christian; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Psi-calculi constitute a parametric framework for nominal process calculi, where constraint based process calculi and process calculi for mobility can be defined as instances. We apply here the framework of psi-calculi to provide a foundation for the exploration of declarative event-based process...... calculi with support for run-time refinement. We first provide a representation of the model of finite prime event structures as an instance of psi-calculi and prove that the representation respects the semantics up to concurrency diamonds and action refinement. We then proceed to give a psi......-calculi representation of Dynamic Condition Response Graphs, which conservatively extends prime event structures to allow finite representations of (omega) regular finite (and infinite) behaviours and have been shown to support run-time adaptation and refinement. We end by outlining the final aim of this research, which...

  4. Declarative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Wim J; Blokland, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Declarative Memory consists of memory for events (episodic memory) and facts (semantic memory). Methods to test declarative memory are key in investigating effects of potential cognition-enhancing substances--medicinal drugs or nutrients. A number of cognitive performance tests assessing declarative episodic memory tapping verbal learning, logical memory, pattern recognition memory, and paired associates learning are described. These tests have been used as outcome variables in 34 studies in humans that have been described in the literature in the past 10 years. Also, the use of episodic tests in animal research is discussed also in relation to the drug effects in these tasks. The results show that nutritional supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids has been investigated most abundantly and, in a number of cases, but not all, show indications of positive effects on declarative memory, more so in elderly than in young subjects. Studies investigating effects of registered anti-Alzheimer drugs, cholinesterase inhibitors in mild cognitive impairment, show positive and negative effects on declarative memory. Studies mainly carried out in healthy volunteers investigating the effects of acute dopamine stimulation indicate enhanced memory consolidation as manifested specifically by better delayed recall, especially at time points long after learning and more so when drug is administered after learning and if word lists are longer. The animal studies reveal a different picture with respect to the effects of different drugs on memory performance. This suggests that at least for episodic memory tasks, the translational value is rather poor. For the human studies, detailed parameters of the compositions of word lists for declarative memory tests are discussed and it is concluded that tailored adaptations of tests to fit the hypothesis under study, rather than "off-the-shelf" use of existing tests, are recommended.

  5. The declared barriers of the large developing countries waste management projects: The STAR model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufoni, André Luiz; Oliveira, Luciano Basto; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate and describe the barriers system that precludes the feasibility, or limits the performance of the waste management projects through the analysis of which are the declared barriers at the 432 large waste management projects registered as CDM during the period 2004-2014. The final product is a waste management barriers conceptual model proposal (STAR), supported by literature and corroborated by projects design documents. This paper uses the computer assisted qualitative content analysis (CAQCA) methodology with the qualitative data analysis (QDA) software NVivo®, by 890 fragments, to investigate the motives to support our conclusions. Results suggest the main barriers classification in five types: sociopolitical, technological, regulatory, financial, and human resources constraints. Results also suggest that beyond the waste management industry, projects have disadvantages added related to the same barriers inherent to others renewable energies initiatives. The STAR model sheds some light over the interactivity and dynamics related to the main constraints of the industry, describing the mutual influences and relationships among each one. Future researches are needed to better and comprehensively understand these relationships and ease the development of tools to alleviate or eliminate them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. On combination of strict Bayesian principles with model reduction technique or how stochastic model calibration can become feasible for large-scale applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladyshkin, S.; Schroeder, P.; Class, H.; Nowak, W.

    2013-12-01

    Predicting underground carbon dioxide (CO2) storage represents a challenging problem in a complex dynamic system. Due to lacking information about reservoir parameters, quantification of uncertainties may become the dominant question in risk assessment. Calibration on past observed data from pilot-scale test injection can improve the predictive power of the involved geological, flow, and transport models. The current work performs history matching to pressure time series from a pilot storage site operated in Europe, maintained during an injection period. Simulation of compressible two-phase flow and transport (CO2/brine) in the considered site is computationally very demanding, requiring about 12 days of CPU time for an individual model run. For that reason, brute-force approaches for calibration are not feasible. In the current work, we explore an advanced framework for history matching based on the arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion (aPC) and strict Bayesian principles. The aPC [1] offers a drastic but accurate stochastic model reduction. Unlike many previous chaos expansions, it can handle arbitrary probability distribution shapes of uncertain parameters, and can therefore handle directly the statistical information appearing during the matching procedure. We capture the dependence of model output on these multipliers with the expansion-based reduced model. In our study we keep the spatial heterogeneity suggested by geophysical methods, but consider uncertainty in the magnitude of permeability trough zone-wise permeability multipliers. Next combined the aPC with Bootstrap filtering (a brute-force but fully accurate Bayesian updating mechanism) in order to perform the matching. In comparison to (Ensemble) Kalman Filters, our method accounts for higher-order statistical moments and for the non-linearity of both the forward model and the inversion, and thus allows a rigorous quantification of calibrated model uncertainty. The usually high computational costs of

  7. FEMA Disaster Declarations Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The FEMA Disaster Declarations Summary is a summarized dataset describing all federally declared disasters, starting with the first disaster declaration in 1953,...

  8. Efficient Strictness Analysis of Haskell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Damm; Hjæresen, Peter; Rosendahl, Mads

    1994-01-01

    Strictness analysis has been a living field of investigation since Mycroft's original work in 1980, and is getting increasingly significant with the still wider use of lazy functional programming languages. This paper focuses on an actual implementation of a strictness analyser for Haskell...

  9. Modeling the adsorption of hydrogen, sodium, chloride and phthalate on goethite using a strict charge-neutral ion-exchange theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndu, Udonna

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneous adsorption modeling of four ions was predicted with a strict net charge-neutral ion-exchange theory and its corresponding equilibrium and mass balance equations. An important key to the success of this approach was the proper collection of all the data, particularly the proton adsorption data, and the inclusion of variable concentrations of conjugate ions from the experimental pH adjustments. Using IExFit software, the ion-exchange model used here predicted the competitive retention of several ions on goethite by assuming that the co-adsorption or desorption of all ions occurred in the correct stoichiometries needed to maintain electroneutrality. This approach also revealed that the retention strength of Cl− ions on goethite increases in the presence of phthalate ions. That is, an anion-anion enhancement effect was observed. The retention of Cl− ions was much weaker than phthalate ions, and this also resulted in a higher sensitivity of the Cl− ions toward minor variations in the surface reactivity. The proposed model uses four goethite surface sites. The drop in retention of phthalate ions at low pH was fully described here as resulting from competitive Cl− reactions, which were introduced in increasing concentrations into the matrix as the conjugate base to the acid added to lower the pH. PMID:28464020

  10. Species Protection in the European Union : How Strict is Strict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoukens, Hendrik; Bastmeijer, Kees; Born et al., Charles-Hubert

    2015-01-01

    European Union law to protect wild species of plants and animals is generally considered as ‘strict’. Opponents of nature conservation law often pick the species protection components of the EU Bird Directive and Habitat Directive as a prime example of an unnecessary strict regulatory scheme that

  11. (I) A Declarative Framework for ERP Systems(II) Reactors: A Data-Driven Programming Model for Distributed Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefansen, Christian Oskar Erik

    , namely the general ledger and accounts receivable. The result is an event-based approach to designing ERP systems and an abstract-level sketch of the architecture. • Compositional Specification of Commercial Contracts. The paper describes the design, multiple semantics, and use of a domain...... on the idea of soft constraints the paper explains the design, semantics, and use of a language for allocating work in business processes. The language lets process designers express both hard constraints and soft constraints. (II) The Reactors programming model: • Reactors: A Data-Oriented Synchronous....../Asynchronous Programming Model for Distributed Applications. The paper motivates, explains, and defines a distributed data-driven programming model. In the model a reactor is a stateful unit of distribution. A reactor specifies constructive, declarative constraints on its data and the data of other reactors in the style...

  12. Strictness Analysis for Attribute Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1992-01-01

    interpretation of attribute grammars. The framework is used to construct a strictness analysis for attribute grammars. Results of the analysis enable us to transform an attribute grammar such that attributes are evaluated during parsing, if possible. The analysis is proved correct by relating it to a fixpoint...... semantics for attribute grammars. An implementation of the analysis is discussed and some extensions to the analysis are mentioned....

  13. The Use of Problem-Solving Techniques to Develop Semiotic Declarative Knowledge Models about Magnetism and Their Role in Learning for Prospective Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Yilmaz

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to develop a semiotic declarative knowledge model, which is a positive constructive behavior model that systematically facilitates understanding in order to ensure that learners think accurately and ask the right questions about a topic. The data used to develop the experimental model were obtained using four measurement tools…

  14. Analogous Mechanisms of Selection and Updating in Declarative and Procedural Working Memory: Experiments and a Computational Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberauer, Klaus; Souza, Alessandra S.; Druey, Michel D.; Gade, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    The article investigates the mechanisms of selecting and updating representations in declarative and procedural working memory (WM). Declarative WM holds the objects of thought available, whereas procedural WM holds representations of what to do with these objects. Both systems consist of three embedded components: activated long-term memory, a…

  15. libNeuroML and PyLEMS: using Python to combine procedural and declarative modeling approaches in computational neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Michael; Cannon, Robert C; Crook, Sharon; Davison, Andrew P; Ganapathy, Gautham; Robinson, Hugh P C; Silver, R Angus; Gleeson, Padraig

    2014-01-01

    NeuroML is an XML-based model description language, which provides a powerful common data format for defining and exchanging models of neurons and neuronal networks. In the latest version of NeuroML, the structure and behavior of ion channel, synapse, cell, and network model descriptions are based on underlying definitions provided in LEMS, a domain-independent language for expressing hierarchical mathematical models of physical entities. While declarative approaches for describing models have led to greater exchange of model elements among software tools in computational neuroscience, a frequent criticism of XML-based languages is that they are difficult to work with directly. Here we describe two Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) written in Python (http://www.python.org), which simplify the process of developing and modifying models expressed in NeuroML and LEMS. The libNeuroML API provides a Python object model with a direct mapping to all NeuroML concepts defined by the NeuroML Schema, which facilitates reading and writing the XML equivalents. In addition, it offers a memory-efficient, array-based internal representation, which is useful for handling large-scale connectomics data. The libNeuroML API also includes support for performing common operations that are required when working with NeuroML documents. Access to the LEMS data model is provided by the PyLEMS API, which provides a Python implementation of the LEMS language, including the ability to simulate most models expressed in LEMS. Together, libNeuroML and PyLEMS provide a comprehensive solution for interacting with NeuroML models in a Python environment.

  16. libNeuroML and PyLEMS: using Python to combine imperative and declarative modelling approaches in computational neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eVella

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available NeuroML is an XML-based model description language, which provides a powerful common data format for defining and exchanging models of neurons and neuronal networks. In the latest version of NeuroML, the structure and behavior of ion channel, synapse, cell,and network model descriptions are based on underlying definitions provided in LEMS, a domain-independent language for expressing hierarchical mathematical models of physical entities. While declarative approaches for describing models have led to greater exchange of model elements among software tools in computational neuroscience, a frequent criticism of XML-based languages is that they are difficult to work with directly. Here we describe two APIs (Application Programming Interfaces written in Python (http://www.python.org, which simplify the process of developing and modifying models expressed in NeuroML and LEMS. The libNeuroML API provides a Python object model with a direct mapping to all NeuroML concepts defined by the NeuroML Schema, which facilitates reading and writing the XML equivalents. In addition, it offers a memory-efficient, array-based internal representation, which is useful for handling large-scale connectomics data. The libNeuroML API also includes support for performing common operations that are required when working with NeuroML documents. Access to the LEMS data model is provided by the PyLEMS API, which provides a Python implementation of the LEMS language, including the ability to simulate most models expressed in LEMS. Together, libNeuroML and PyLEMS provide a comprehensive solution for interacting with NeuroML models in a Python environment.

  17. Safe Distribution of Declarative Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Slaats, Tijs

    2011-01-01

    . The technique for distribution is based on a new general notion of projection of DCR Graphs relative to a subset of labels and events identifying the set of external events that must be communicated from the other processes in the network in order for the distribution to be safe.We prove that for any vector......We give a general technique for safe distribution of a declarative (global) process as a network of (local) synchronously communicating declarative processes. Both the global and local processes are given as Dynamic Condition Response (DCR) Graphs. DCR Graphs is a recently introduced declarative...... process model generalizing labelled prime event structures to a systems model able to finitely represent ω-regular languages. An operational semantics given as a transition semantics between markings of the graph allows DCR Graphs to be conveniently used as both specification and execution model...

  18. Two examples of non strictly convex large deviations

    OpenAIRE

    De Marco, Stefano; Jacquier, Antoine; Roome, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We present two examples of a large deviations principle where the rate function is not strictly convex. This is motivated by a model used in mathematical finance (the Heston model), and adds a new item to the zoology of non strictly convex large deviations. For one of these examples, we show that the rate function of the Cramer-type of large deviations coincides with that of the Freidlin-Wentzell when contraction principles are applied.

  19. Declarative programming in PROLOG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The declarative programming by declarative languages is clearly the best option a programmer can have for a completely readable, flexible and extensible code. Today, the economics of programming is clearly focused on the declarative paradigm while most imperative languages are trying to become cost effective by using new added declarative features for productivity and ease of use, like the Java 8. This paper tries to demonstrate a declarative language like PROLOG is perfectly suitable to be used to solve even common programming issue, like deciding an element is part of an array or not.

  20. Declarations pursuant to the Articles 2 and 3 of the Model Additional Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Moreno, Sonia

    2001-01-01

    Articles 2 and 3 of the Model Additional Protocol specify the content and the time limits of the information to be provided by the States into the framework of the Safeguard Agreements. To standardize the presentation of this information the IAEA has prepared guidelines for the preparation of the documents. A detailed explanation of the guidelines is given in the paper

  1. Integrating semantics and procedural generation: key enabling factors for declarative modeling of virtual worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bidarra, R.; Kraker, K.J. de; Smelik, R.M.; Tutenel, T.

    2010-01-01

    Manual content creation for virtual worlds can no longer satisfy the increasing demand arising from areas as entertainment and serious games, simulations, movies, etc. Furthermore, currently deployed modeling tools basically do not scale up: while they become more and more specialized and complex,

  2. WTO ministerial conference adopts declaration on TRIPS and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Richard

    2002-03-01

    In November 2001, the 4th Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization adopted a Ministerial Declaration on public health and the WTO's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (the "TRIPS Agreement"). The declaration represents a modest advance in addressing concerns that strict patent laws, and threats of trade sanctions, will be a barrier to most of the world's people with HIV/AIDS accessing affordable medicines. The full significance of the declaration remains to be seen, as it depends on what political impact it has at the WTO and on its member countries, and what legal impact it will have in the interpretation of the TRIPS Agreement.

  3. Extremely strict ideals in Banach spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Motivated by the notion of an ideal introduced by Godefroy {\\it et al.} ({\\it Studia Math.} {\\bf 104} (1993) 13–59), in this article, we introduce and study the notion of an extremely strict ideal. For a Poulsen simplex K , we show that the space of affine continuous functions on K is an extremely strict ideal in the space of continuous ...

  4. Hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Kokkendorff, Simon L.; Markvorsen, Steen

    2002-01-01

    We study finite metric spaces with elements picked from, and distances consistent with, ambient Riemannian manifolds. The concepts of negative type and strictly negative type are reviewed, and the conjecture that hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type is settled, in the affirmative...

  5. Extremely strict ideals in Banach spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Motivated by the notion of an ideal introduced by Godefroy et al. (Stu- dia Math. 104 (1993) 13–59), in this article, we introduce and study the notion of an extremely strict ideal. For a Poulsen simplex K, we show that the space of affine contin- uous functions on K is an extremely strict ideal in the space of continuous ...

  6. Strictly contractive quantum channels and physically realizable quantum computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raginsky, Maxim

    2002-01-01

    We study the robustness of quantum computers under the influence of errors modeled by strictly contractive channels. A channel T is defined to be strictly contractive if, for any pair of density operators ρ, σ in its domain, parallel Tρ-Tσ parallel 1 ≤k parallel ρ-σ parallel 1 for some 0≤k 1 denotes the trace norm). In other words, strictly contractive channels render the states of the computer less distinguishable in the sense of quantum detection theory. Starting from the premise that all experimental procedures can be carried out with finite precision, we argue that there exists a physically meaningful connection between strictly contractive channels and errors in physically realizable quantum computers. We show that, in the absence of error correction, sensitivity of quantum memories and computers to strictly contractive errors grows exponentially with storage time and computation time, respectively, and depends only on the constant k and the measurement precision. We prove that strict contractivity rules out the possibility of perfect error correction, and give an argument that approximate error correction, which covers previous work on fault-tolerant quantum computation as a special case, is possible

  7. Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly negative Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    If a finite metric space is of strictly negative type then its transfinite diameter is uniquely realized by an infinite extent (“load vector''). Finite metric spaces that have this property include all trees, and all finite subspaces of Euclidean and Hyperbolic spaces. We prove that if the distance...... matrix of a finite metric space is both hypermetric and regular, then it is of strictly negative type. We show that the strictly negative type finite subspaces of spheres are precisely those which do not contain two pairs of antipodal points....

  8. Hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Kokkendorff, Simon L.; Markvorsen, Steen

    2002-01-01

    We study finite metric spaces with elements picked from, and distances consistent with, ambient Riemannian manifolds. The concepts of negative type and strictly negative type are reviewed, and the conjecture that hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type is settled, in the affirmative....... The technique of the proof is subsequently applied to show that every compact manifold of negative type must have trivial fundamental group, and to obtain a necessary criterion for product manifolds to be of negative type....

  9. THE BALFOUR DECLARATION

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaç, Müzehher; CARTMILL, Hazel

    2018-01-01

    AbstractAs the BalfourDeclaration approaches its centennial, it remains one of the most significantand controversial documents in recent British foreign policy, for its lastingimpact on the Middle East and British diplomatic relations.   The decision to officially declare sympathyfor the Zionist aspiration to establish a national home for the Jewish peoplein Palestine was as divisive at the time as it is today; with detractorsarguing against it as idealistic, anti-Semitic and strategically un...

  10. 21st Century Declarations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queirolo, F.; Mandl, W.; Ng, J.; Rialhe, A.

    2015-01-01

    The IAEA receives and manages information declared by States, as prescribed by the relevant safeguards agreements, and, together with all other safeguards-relevant information, evaluates it as part of the process supporting safeguards implementation. Within the Division of Information Management (SGIM), the Section for State Declared Information Analysis (ISD) plays a key role in the processing of State declared information - from the transmission of information to the Agency to its ultimate use in the context of the State evaluation process and the drawing of safeguards conclusions. SGIM-ISD handles an increasing variety and volume of these Member State declarations. While the volume of submissions has grown, the submission methods have not kept pace with either the number or the available technology. The paper and supporting presentation will provide an overview of the variety of declarations and transmission methods. The current paradigm and transmission paths between the State authorities and Agency will be evaluated. It will also lay out a future paradigm and desired features of a next generation system. As the Department of Safeguards is currently re-engineering its information technology infrastructure, the future paradigm will be placed within the context of these changes. (author)

  11. Strictly convex functions on complete Finsler manifolds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 126; Issue 4. Strictly convex functions on complete Finsler manifolds. YOE ITOKAWA KATSUHIRO SHIOHAMA BANKTESHWAR TIWARI. Research Article Volume 126 Issue 4 October 2016 pp 623-627 ...

  12. Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly Negative Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul; Lisonek, P.; Markvorsen, Steen

    1998-01-01

    We prove that, if a finite metric space is of strictly negative type, then its transfinite diameter is uniquely realized by the infinite extender (load vector). Finite metric spaces that have this property include all spaces on two, three, or four points, all trees, and all finite subspaces of Eu...

  13. The trouble with universal declarations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatar, David

    2005-09-01

    A number of problems plague universal declarations. To the extent that those drafting and adopting the declaration represent a range of different views, consensus can only be obtained if the declaration makes minimalist claims that all can support, or makes claims that are vague enough that they can be interpreted to everybody's satisfaction. To the extent that a universal declaration avoids these problems, and takes an unequivocal and controversial stand, it does so by privileging the view that is hegemonic (at least among those responsible for the declaration). After discussing these problems I ask whether such declarations could nonetheless do any good.

  14. The Tokyo Declaration 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter the text of the Tokyo declaration is included. The specific recommendations and propositions for action (A) The finance questions; (B) The transfer of the technologies; (C) The reform of samples of production and consumption; (D) The science/technology and information/communication are reviewed

  15. The Stockholm declaration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    The Stockholm Declaration was adopted on 21 January 1988 in Stockholm by the President of Argentina, the Prime Minister of Greece, the Prime Minister of India, the President of Mexico, the Prime Minister of Sweden and the President of the United Republic of Tanzania and it expresses the position of these states concerning nuclear disarmament

  16. Product declaration for cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruetter, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    This reports for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the possible ways of declaring product information on cars. The basic elements of such a declaration are discussed and a recommendation for an energy label for cars is presented. The report discusses the fundamental questions posed such as how long a label should be valid, if comparisons should be made and if it is to be based on CO 2 -emissions or on fuel consumption. Also, the criteria to be used for comparisons - such as vehicle weight, size or power - are looked at and methods of classification are examined along with data fundamentals. Further, the expectations placed on the product declarations with respect to their energetic and economic impact are discussed. The design of the label and the legislature on which it is based are discussed and initial reactions of the automobile industry are noted. The report is rounded off by a discussion of the effects of the declaration in relation to other instruments that have been proposed

  17. Extremely strict ideals in Banach spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the space of regular Borel measures, it is easy to see that with respect to the projection μ → μ|(0, 1), M is an extremely strict ideal in C([0, 1]) but as the Lebesgue measure is non-atomic, M. ∗. 1 is not the norm closed ..... (Grenoble) 28 (1978) 35–65. [10] Rao T S S R K, On ideals in Banach spaces, Rocky Mountain J. Math.

  18. Oscillatory Reinstatement Enhances Declarative Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Glen, James C; Halkiopoulos, Sara; Schulz, Mei; Spiers, Hugo J

    2017-10-11

    Declarative memory recall is thought to involve the reinstatement of neural activity patterns that occurred previously during encoding. Consistent with this view, greater similarity between patterns of activity recorded during encoding and retrieval has been found to predict better memory performance in a number of studies. Recent models have argued that neural oscillations may be crucial to reinstatement for successful memory retrieval. However, to date, no causal evidence has been provided to support this theory, nor has the impact of oscillatory electrical brain stimulation during encoding and retrieval been assessed. To explore this we used transcranial alternating current stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of human participants [ n = 70, 45 females; age mean (SD) = 22.12 (2.16)] during a declarative memory task. Participants received either the same frequency during encoding and retrieval (60-60 or 90-90 Hz) or different frequencies (60-90 or 90-60 Hz). When frequencies matched there was a significant memory improvement (at both 60 and 90 Hz) relative to sham stimulation. No improvement occurred when frequencies mismatched. Our results provide support for the role of oscillatory reinstatement in memory retrieval. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Recent neurobiological models of memory have argued that large-scale neural oscillations are reinstated to support successful memory retrieval. Here we used transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) to test these models. tACS has recently been shown to induce neural oscillations at the frequency stimulated. We stimulated over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during a declarative memory task involving learning a set of words. We found that tACS applied at the same frequency during encoding and retrieval enhances memory. We also find no difference between the two applied frequencies. Thus our results are consistent with the proposal that reinstatement of neural oscillations during retrieval

  19. The Interaction of Declarative & Procedural Memory in the Process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is an exposition of learning models of declarative and procedural memory and its application in the fields of first and second language acquisition and by extension Creole genesis. It provides detailed information on the Declarative/Procedural (DP) Model of Memory and how the model can be used to account for ...

  20. Darwin and the Declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagrave, S Adam

    2011-01-01

    Does the prima facie contradiction between the Declaration of Independence's description of the separate and unique "creation" of human beings and Darwin's evolutionary account indicate a broader contradiction between theories of human rights and Darwinian evolution? While similar troubling questions have been raised and answered in the affirmative since Darwin's time, this article renews, updates and significantly fortifies such answers with original arguments. If a "distilled" formulation of the Declaration's central claims, shorn of complicating entanglements with both theology and comprehensive philosophical doctrines, may still be in contradiction with Darwinian evolutionary theory, this should be cause for substantial concern on the part of all normative political theorists, from Straussians to Rawlsians. Despite the notable recent efforts of a few political theorists, evolutionary ethicists and sociobiologists to establish the compatibility of Darwinian evolutionary theory with moral norms such as the idea of natural or human rights, I argue that significant obstacles remain.

  1. Declarative Programming in Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan DINA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the code is rarely self-explanatory, the imperative programming languages are the most commonly used in our days by the programmers all over the world and Java is definitely the lead language in popularity. This paper tries to conclude if there are any chances to use the most popular programming language of the moment in a declarative manner, even if Java itself is an intrinsic imperative language.

  2. Declarative Programming in Java

    OpenAIRE

    Razvan DINA; Felician ALECU

    2014-01-01

    Despite the code is rarely self-explanatory, the imperative programming languages are the most commonly used in our days by the programmers all over the world and Java is definitely the lead language in popularity. This paper tries to conclude if there are any chances to use the most popular programming language of the moment in a declarative manner, even if Java itself is an intrinsic imperative language.

  3. Logic and declarative language

    CERN Document Server

    Downward, M

    2004-01-01

    Logic has acquired a reputation for difficulty, perhaps because many of the approaches adopted have been more suitable for mathematicians than computer scientists. This book shows that the subject is not inherently difficult and that the connections between logic and declarative language are straightforward. Many exercises have been included in the hope that these will lead to a much greater confidence in manual proofs, therefore leading to a greater confidence in automated proofs.

  4. Strictness Analysis and Denotational Abstract Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming

    1988-01-01

    there and this sufices to make the framework applicable to strictness analysis for the lambda-calculus. This shows the possibility of a general theory for the analysis of functional programs and it gives more insight into the relative precision of the various analyses. In particular it is shown that a collecting (static......A theory of abstract interpretation () is developed for a typed lambda-calculus. The typed lambda-calculus may be viewed as the ''static'' part of a two-level denotational metalanguage for which abstract interpretation was developed by ). The present development relaxes a condition imposed...

  5. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992] ...

  6. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color. ...

  7. Declarative Process Mining for DCR Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas T.; Laursen, Paw Høvsgaard

    2017-01-01

    We investigate process mining for the declarative Dynamic Condition Response (DCR) graphs process modelling language. We contribute (a) a process mining algorithm for DCR graphs, (b) a proposal for a set of metrics quantifying output model quality, and (c) a preliminary example-based comparison...

  8. Cognitive foundations of organizational learning: re-introducing the distinction between declarative and non-declarative knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kump, Barbara; Moskaliuk, Johannes; Cress, Ulrike; Kimmerle, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary research into socio-cognitive foundations of organizational learning tends to disregard the distinction between declarative and non-declarative knowledge. By reviewing the literature from organizational learning research and cognitive psychology we explain that this distinction is crucial. We describe the foundations of organizational learning by referring to models that consider the interplay between individual and collective knowledge-related processes in organizations. We highlight the existence of a research gap resulting from the finding that these approaches have widely neglected the existence of different types of knowledge. We then elaborate on characteristics of declarative and non-declarative knowledge in general, consider organizations as structures of distributed cognition, and discuss the relationship between organizational knowledge and practice. Subsequently, we examine the role of declarative and non-declarative knowledge in the context of organizational learning. Here, we analyze (1) the cognitive and social mechanisms underlying the development of declarative and non-declarative knowledge within structures of distributed cognition; and (2) the relationship between alterations in declarative and non-declarative types of knowledge on the one hand and changes in organizational practice on the other. Concluding, we discuss implications of our analysis for organizational learning research. We explain how our integrative perspective may offer starting points for a refined understanding of the sub-processes involved in organizational learning and unlearning and may support a better understanding of practical problems related to organizational learning and change.

  9. Cognitive foundations of organizational learning: re-introducing the distinction between declarative and non-declarative knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kump, Barbara; Moskaliuk, Johannes; Cress, Ulrike; Kimmerle, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary research into socio-cognitive foundations of organizational learning tends to disregard the distinction between declarative and non-declarative knowledge. By reviewing the literature from organizational learning research and cognitive psychology we explain that this distinction is crucial. We describe the foundations of organizational learning by referring to models that consider the interplay between individual and collective knowledge-related processes in organizations. We highlight the existence of a research gap resulting from the finding that these approaches have widely neglected the existence of different types of knowledge. We then elaborate on characteristics of declarative and non-declarative knowledge in general, consider organizations as structures of distributed cognition, and discuss the relationship between organizational knowledge and practice. Subsequently, we examine the role of declarative and non-declarative knowledge in the context of organizational learning. Here, we analyze (1) the cognitive and social mechanisms underlying the development of declarative and non-declarative knowledge within structures of distributed cognition; and (2) the relationship between alterations in declarative and non-declarative types of knowledge on the one hand and changes in organizational practice on the other. Concluding, we discuss implications of our analysis for organizational learning research. We explain how our integrative perspective may offer starting points for a refined understanding of the sub-processes involved in organizational learning and unlearning and may support a better understanding of practical problems related to organizational learning and change. PMID:26483739

  10. Environmental Labels and Declarations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendal, Jeppe; Hansen, Lisbeth; Bonou, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Based on the terminology and structure developed by the International Organization for Standardization, a description is given on the types of ecolabels that build on life cycle assessments. Focus is on type I labels that point out products and services with an overall environmental preferability...... of labelling, the use of ecolabels in marketing, and the way ecolabels help build a market for “greener products”. Type III labels—or Environmental Product Declarations—are also briefly described with indicative examples from the building sector, a declaration for office furniture, and an introduction is given...... to the European Commission’s programme for product—and organisational environmental footprints ....

  11. From Paper Based Clinical Practice Guidelines to Declarative Workflow Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Karen Marie; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    2009-01-01

    a sub workflow can be described in a declarative workflow management system: the Resultmaker Online Consultant (ROC). The example demonstrates that declarative primitives allow to naturally extend the paper based flowchart to an executable model without introducing a complex cyclic control flow graph....

  12. FEMA Disaster Declaration Summary -shp

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists all official FEMA Disaster Declarations. This is raw, unedited data from FEMA's National Emergency Management Information System (NEMIS) and as...

  13. FEMA Disaster Declaration Summary - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists all official FEMA Disaster Declarations. This is raw, unedited data from FEMA's National Emergency Management Information System (NEMIS) and as...

  14. Geometrical optimization for strictly localized structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yirong

    2003-07-01

    Recently we proposed the block localized wavefunction (BLW) approach which takes the advantages of valence bond theory and molecular orbital theory and defines the wavefunctions for resonance structures based on the assumption that all electrons and orbitals are partitioned into a few subgroups. In this work, we implement the geometrical optimization of the BLW method based on the algorithm proposed by Gianinetti and coworkers. Thus, we can study the conjugation effect on not only the molecular stability, but also the molecular geometry. With this capability, the π conjugation effect in trans-polyenes C2nH2n+2 (n=2-5) as well as in formamide and its analogs are studied by optimizing their delocalized and strictly localized forms with the 6-31G(d) and 6-311+G(d,p) basis sets. Although it has been well presumed that the π resonance shortens the single bonds and lengthens the double bonds with the delocalization of π electrons across the whole line in polyenes, our optimization of the strictly localized structures quantitatively shows that when the conjugation effect is "turned off," the double bond lengths will be identical to the CC bond length in ethylene and the single Csp2-Csp2 bond length will be about 1.513-1.517 Å. In agreement with the classical Hückel theory, the resonance energies in polyenes are approximately in proportion to the number of double bonds. Similarly, resonance is responsible not only for the planarity of formamide, thioformamide, and selenoformamide, but also for the lengthening of the CX (X=O,S,Se) double bond and the shortening of the CN bonds. Although it is assumed that the CX bond polarization decreases in the order of O>S>Se, the π electronic delocalization increases in the opposite order, i.e., formamide

  15. From Regular to Strictly Locally Testable Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Crespi Reghizzi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A classical result (often credited to Y. Medvedev states that every language recognized by a finite automaton is the homomorphic image of a local language, over a much larger so-called local alphabet, namely the alphabet of the edges of the transition graph. Local languages are characterized by the value k=2 of the sliding window width in the McNaughton and Papert's infinite hierarchy of strictly locally testable languages (k-slt. We generalize Medvedev's result in a new direction, studying the relationship between the width and the alphabetic ratio telling how much larger the local alphabet is. We prove that every regular language is the image of a k-slt language on an alphabet of doubled size, where the width logarithmically depends on the automaton size, and we exhibit regular languages for which any smaller alphabetic ratio is insufficient. More generally, we express the trade-off between alphabetic ratio and width as a mathematical relation derived from a careful encoding of the states. At last we mention some directions for theoretical development and application.

  16. [Impact on the improvement of paediatric emergency services using a standardised model for the declaration and analysis of incidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà de Muga, M; Serrano Llop, A; Rifé Escudero, E; Jabalera Contreras, M; Luaces Cubells, C

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse changes in the incidents reported after the implementation of a new model, and study its results on patient safety. In 2012 an observational study with prospective collection of incidents reported between 2007 and 2011 was conducted. In May 2012 a model change was made in order to increase the number of reports, analyse their causes, and improve the feedback to the service. Professional safety representatives were assigned to every department, information and diffusion sessions were held, and a new incident reporting system was implemented. With the new model, a new observational study with prospective collection of the reports during one year was initiated, and the results compared between models. In 2011, only 19 incidents were reported in the Emergency Department, and between June 1, 2012 to June 1, 2013, 106 incidents (5.6 times more). The incidents reported were medication incidents (57%), identification (26%), and procedures (7%). The most frequent causes were human (70.7%), lack of training (22.6%), and working conditions (15.1%). Some measures were implemented as a result of these incidents: a surgical checklist, unit doses of salbutamol, tables of weight-standardised doses of drugs for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The new model of reporting incidents has enhanced the reports and has allowed improvements and the implementation of preventive measures, increasing the patient safety in the Emergency Department. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. 7 CFR 28.404 - Strict Low Middling Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Color. 28.404 Section 28.404... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.404 Strict Low Middling Color. Strict Low Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the United...

  18. 7 CFR 28.406 - Strict Good Ordinary Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Color. 28.406 Section 28.406... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.406 Strict Good Ordinary Color. Strict Good Ordinary Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the...

  19. 7 CFR 28.402 - Strict Middling Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Color. 28.402 Section 28.402... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.402 Strict Middling Color. Strict Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the United States...

  20. Mammalian evolution may not be strictly bifurcating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallström, Björn M; Janke, Axel

    2010-12-01

    The massive amount of genomic sequence data that is now available for analyzing evolutionary relationships among 31 placental mammals reduces the stochastic error in phylogenetic analyses to virtually zero. One would expect that this would make it possible to finally resolve controversial branches in the placental mammalian tree. We analyzed a 2,863,797 nucleotide-long alignment (3,364 genes) from 31 placental mammals for reconstructing their evolution. Most placental mammalian relationships were resolved, and a consensus of their evolution is emerging. However, certain branches remain difficult or virtually impossible to resolve. These branches are characterized by short divergence times in the order of 1-4 million years. Computer simulations based on parameters from the real data show that as little as about 12,500 amino acid sites could be sufficient to confidently resolve short branches as old as about 90 million years ago (Ma). Thus, the amount of sequence data should no longer be a limiting factor in resolving the relationships among placental mammals. The timing of the early radiation of placental mammals coincides with a period of climate warming some 100-80 Ma and with continental fragmentation. These global processes may have triggered the rapid diversification of placental mammals. However, the rapid radiations of certain mammalian groups complicate phylogenetic analyses, possibly due to incomplete lineage sorting and introgression. These speciation-related processes led to a mosaic genome and conflicting phylogenetic signals. Split network methods are ideal for visualizing these problematic branches and can therefore depict data conflict and possibly the true evolutionary history better than strictly bifurcating trees. Given the timing of tectonics, of placental mammalian divergences, and the fossil record, a Laurasian rather than Gondwanan origin of placental mammals seems the most parsimonious explanation.

  1. Concurrency & Asynchrony in Declarative Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Slaats, Tijs

    2015-01-01

    Declarative or constraint-based business process and workflow notations have received increasing interest in the last decade as possible means of addressing the challenge of supporting at the same time flexibility in execution, adaptability and compliance. However, the definition of concurrent...... of concurrency in DCR Graphs admits asynchronous execution of declarative workflows both conceptually and by reporting on a prototype implementation of a distributed declarative workflow engine. Both the theoretical development and the implementation is supported by an extended example; moreover, the theoretical...

  2. FEMA Current Disaster Declarations -shp

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists the current Disaster Declarations in Shapefile. This data was compiled and distributed by FEMA Mapping and Analysis Center (MAC). Metadata file...

  3. FEMA Historical Disaster Declarations - shp

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Historical Disaster Declarations provides geospatial view to the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (referred to as the Stafford Act...

  4. The Historical Significance of the Universal Declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Asbjorn

    1998-01-01

    Explains the historical significance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Focuses on the initiative for the Declaration and its elaboration, the precursors to modern human rights, the foundation of the Declaration, the rights contained in the Universal Declaration, three modes of human rights analysis, and global governance and human…

  5. On Fixed Points of Strictly Causal Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    languages such as VHDL (see [1]) and SystemC (see [2]), modeling and simulation tools such as Simulink and LabVIEW, network simulation tools such as ns-2/ns...interesting direction for future 49 work. References [1] IEEE standard VHDL language reference manual. IEEE Std 1076-2000, pages i–290, 2000. [2] IEEE

  6. Modal Inclusion Logic: Being Lax is Simpler than Being Strict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hella, Lauri; Kuusisto, Antti Johannes; Meier, Arne

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the computational complexity of the satisfiability problem of modal inclusion logic. We distinguish two variants of the problem: one for strict and another one for lax semantics. The complexity of the lax version turns out to be complete for EXPTIME, whereas with strict semantics...

  7. 7 CFR 28.431 - Strict Middling Tinged Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Tinged Color. 28.431 Section 28.431 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Tinged Color is color which is better than Middling Tinged Color. ...

  8. 7 CFR 28.433 - Strict Low Middling Tinged Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Tinged Color. 28.433 Section 28.433 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Tinged Color. Strict Low Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of...

  9. 7 CFR 28.424 - Strict Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.424 Section 28.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  10. 7 CFR 28.426 - Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. 28.426 Section 28.426 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  11. 7 CFR 28.422 - Strict Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Spotted Color. 28.422 Section 28.422 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples...

  12. Strictly-regular number system and data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Jensen, Claus; Katajainen, Jyrki

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new number system that we call the strictly-regular system, which efficiently supports the operations: digit-increment, digit-decrement, cut, concatenate, and add. Compared to other number systems, the strictly-regular system has distinguishable properties. It is superior to the re...

  13. Guidelines and format for preparation and submission of declarations pursuant to Articles 2 and 3 of the Model Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The information to be provided to the International Atomic Energy Agency (hereinafter referred to as 'the Agency') by States under an additional protocol (INFCIRC/540) is identified in Article 2. The timing with which the information is to be provided is specified in Article 3. It was widely recognized during the negotiation of the additional protocol that States and the Agency would need explanation and guidance, regarding the information to be declared, beyond that possible to incorporate in the language of the protocol itself. The Board of Governors, meeting in special session on 15 May 1997 to approve the additional protocol, was assured that such guidance would be quickly available to States. The initial Additional Protocol Reporting Guidelines, drawing from Programme 93+2 documentation and the negotiating record of Committee 24, were published in August 1997. A simplified set of Guidelines was subsequently produced for States whose safeguards agreement includes a small quantities protocol. The Guidelines serve two purposes. First, they provide specificity as to what information is required and at what level of detail. Second, the Guidelines provide a consistent reporting format. The Guidelines have been supplemented with Agency developed software, the PROTOCOL REPORTER, which simplifies the process through which States can prepare and submit their declarations electronically. There is no legal requirement that States follow the Guidelines in preparing and submitting their Article 2 declarations. However, if States submit declarations prepared according to these Guidelines, it will reduce greatly the Agency's workload in processing, reviewing and storing the information provided. With minor exceptions, all States that have submitted declarations prior to 2004 have followed the Guidelines. The process of improving the Guidelines, based on the cumulative experience of States and the Agency, began in mid-2002. The process involved the development of a detailed

  14. Guidelines and format for preparation and submission of declarations pursuant to Articles 2 and 3 of the Model Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The information to be provided to the International Atomic Energy Agency (hereinafter referred to as 'the Agency') by States under an additional protocol (INFCIRC/540) is identified in Article 2. The timing with which the information is to be provided is specified in Article 3. It was widely recognized during the negotiation of the additional protocol that States and the Agency would need explanation and guidance, regarding the information to be declared, beyond that possible to incorporate in the language of the protocol itself. The Board of Governors, meeting in special session on 15 May 1997 to approve the additional protocol, was assured that such guidance would be quickly available to States. The initial Additional Protocol Reporting Guidelines, drawing from Programme 93+2 documentation and the negotiating record of Committee 24, were published in August 1997. A simplified set of Guidelines was subsequently produced for States whose safeguards agreement includes a small quantities protocol. The Guidelines serve two purposes. First, they provide specificity as to what information is required and at what level of detail. Second, the Guidelines provide a consistent reporting format. The Guidelines have been supplemented with Agency developed software, the PROTOCOL REPORTER, which simplifies the process through which States can prepare and submit their declarations electronically. There is no legal requirement that States follow the Guidelines in preparing and submitting their Article 2 declarations. However, if States submit declarations prepared according to these Guidelines, it will reduce greatly the Agency's workload in processing, reviewing and storing the information provided. With minor exceptions, all States that have submitted declarations prior to 2004 have followed the Guidelines. The process of improving the Guidelines, based on the cumulative experience of States and the Agency, began in mid-2002. The process involved the development of a detailed

  15. Making sense of site declarations: Canadian declarations under article 2.a. (iii) of the Additional Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, J.K.; Benjamin, R.; Ghosh, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: While this paper will provide an overview of Additional Protocol implementation activities in Canada, this paper will also deal with a specific, albeit important, component of Canada's initial declaration under the Additional Protocol: site definitions and declarations. A clear description of the problems, solutions and compromises in making site declarations across a variety of sites in Canada would provide a useful insight into the process as other States prepare to do the same. Through the Model Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements Between Member States and the International Atomic Energy Agency, provisions exist to fulfil a longstanding gap in the coverage of international safeguards. The success of these new provisions are dependent on the extent to which declarations balance the intent of expanded declarations and the practical difficulties in making such declarations. The prerogative to delineate site boundaries lies with the Member State. In doing so, four factors merit careful consideration. First, Article 18.b of the Additional Protocol draws connections between facility definition and site delineation. Under comprehensive safeguards, information on facilities has already been submitted to the IAEA specifying site layouts in the design information questionnaire. Consistency between the site layouts specifications of the design information and site definition under the Additional Protocol is important, as differences will lead to inconsistencies, which will have to be resolved during implementation. Second, while Article 18.b specified that specific essential services, co-located in close geographic proximity, should be considered as part of the same site, there are instances where site definition is complicated by close proximity of other, but separate, safeguarded facilities and the existence of services related, but not essentials according to the definitions of the Additional Protocol, to the site. Third, practical limitations come

  16. Strategy and Aspects of Monitoring / Control Strictly in Coordinated Subsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William José Borges

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the approach structures of the strictly coordinated theoretical framework developed by Zylbersztajn and Farina (1999 as an expanded perspective of the firm, taking into account the food supply chains as an extension of the nexus of contracts proposed by Coase (1937 and taken up by Williamson (1985. The structures stand out as strictly coordinated. Zylbersztajn and Farina (1999 turn to identifying points of common interests that encourage firms to promote contracts between themselves in a strictly coordinated way, considering the degree of asset specificity involved in the transaction and the competitive forces that determine the search for strategic positioning organizations to achieve sustainable superior results.

  17. Investigating the Contribution of Procedural and Declarative Memory to the Acquisition of Past Tense Morphology: Evidence from Finnish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Evan; Kirjavainen, Minna

    2011-01-01

    The present paper reports on a study that investigated the role of procedural and declarative memory in the acquisition of Finnish past tense morphology. Two competing models were tested. Ullman's (2004) declarative/procedural model predicts that procedural memory supports the acquisition of regular morphology, whereas declarative memory supports…

  18. Strict finitism and the logic of mathematical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Exploring the logic behind applied mathematics to the physical world, this volume illustrates how radical naturalism, nominalism and strict finitism can account for the applications of classical mathematics in current theories about natural phenomena.

  19. Strict monotonicity and unique continuation of the biharmonic operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najib Tsouli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will show that the strict monotonicity of the eigenvalues of the biharmonic operator holds if and only if some unique continuation property is satisfied by the corresponding eigenfunctions.

  20. Declarative Modeling–An Academic Dream or the Future for BPM?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijers, Hajo; Slaats, Tijs; Stahl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Declarative modeling has attracted much attention over the last years, resulting in the development of several academic declarative modeling techniques and tools. The absence of empirical evaluations on their use and usefulness, however, raises the question whether practitioners are attracted...... to using those techniques. In this paper, we present a study on what practitioners think of declarative modeling. We show that the practitioners we involved in this study are receptive to the idea of a hybrid approach combining imperative and declarative techniques, rather than making a full shift from...

  1. Managing Hanford Site solid waste through strict acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.; Pierce, R.D.; Willis, N.P.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) have led to the definition of a group of wastes called radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). As a result of the radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes, strict management programs have been implemented for the management of these wastes. Solid waste management is accomplished through a systems performance approach to waste management that used best-demonstrated available technology (BDAT) and best management practices. The solid waste program at the Hanford Site strives to integrate all aspects of management relative to the treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) of solid waste. Often there are many competing and important needs. It is a difficult task to balance these needs in a manner that is both equitable and productive. Management science is used to help the process of making decisions. Tools used to support the decision making process include five-year planning, cost estimating, resource allocation, performance assessment, waste volume forecasts, input/output models, and waste acceptance criteria. The purpose of this document is to describe how one of these tools, waste acceptance criteria, has helped the Hanford Site manage solid wastes

  2. Modalities of declaration and codification of criteria related to significant events in the field of radioprotection besides base nuclear installations and transports of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document specifies provisions which must be applied by those in charge of a nuclear activity when declaring significant events regarding radioprotection. It describes the general principles, evokes the declaration criteria (they are more precisely presented in appendix), the declaration delay, and the declaration modalities (the informant, the documents, the addressee). It also evokes obligations regarding population information. A declaration form and a model of event report are provided in appendix

  3. Declaration of income for 2005

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Information from the Legal Service and the HR Department Information for members of the personnel residing in France Following the introduction of the internal taxation of salaries and emoluments of members of the CERN personnel on 1st January 2005 (cf. Bulletin No. 48-49/2005), the French Finance Ministry has communicated the following information on the procedure for completing the 2005 declaration of income form, which must be returned by 31 May 2006 at the latest. All members of the personnel*) residing in France, whether or not they are of French nationality, are required to complete a declaration of income for 2005 according to the following instructions and to return a signed copy to their local tax office by 31 May 2006 at the latest. Members of the personnel should receive an income declaration form for 2005 at the beginning of May. Those who do not receive a form directly should obtain one from their local 'Centre des Impôts', Trésorerie' or 'Mairie', or download one from the Finance Ministry...

  4. Convergence theorems for strictly hemi-contractive maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Osilike, M.O.

    1992-04-01

    It is proved that each of two well-known fixed point iteration methods (the Mann and the Ishikawa iteration methods) converges strongly to the fixed point of strictly hemi-contractive map in real Banach spaces with property (U, λ, m+1,m), λ is an element of R, m is an element of IN. The class of strictly hemi-contractive maps includes all strictly pseudo-contractive maps with nonempty fixed point sets; and Banach spaces with property (U, λ, m+1, m), λ is an element of R, m is an element of IN include the L p (or l p ) spaces, p≥2. Our theorems generalize important known results. (author). 22 refs

  5. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolae Dură

    2015-01-01

    The Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 was preceded by several other Declarations in the first half of the twentieth century, beginning with the Declaration of 1929 and ending with the one of 1947. All these Declarations make express reference only to the “Human rights” and not to those of the “individual” or of the “Citizen”, as in the Declaration of the French Revolution, in 1789, or in the one of the Bolshevik Revolution, in 1917. Among other things, in our paper, we...

  6. Mann iteration with errors for strictly pseudo-contractive mappings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well known that any fixed point of a Lipschitzian strictly pseudo-contractive self mapping of a nonempty closed convex and bounded subset K of a Banach space X is unique [6] and may be norm approximated by an iterative procedure. In this paper, we show that Mann iteration with errors can be used to approximate the ...

  7. Dominated operators, absolutely summing operators and the strict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    b(X;E) be the space of all E-valued bounded continuous functions on X, equipped with the strict topology β. We study dominated and absolutely summing operators T : Cb(X;E) → F. We derive that if X is a locally compact Hausdorff space and E ...

  8. Convergence of GAOR Iterative Method with Strictly Diagonally Dominant Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangbin Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the convergence of GAOR method for linear systems with strictly diagonally dominant matrices. Moreover, we show that our results are better than ones of Darvishi and Hessari (2006, Tian et al. (2008 by using three numerical examples.

  9. Runaway selection for cooperation and strict-and-severe punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamaru, Mayuko; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2009-03-07

    Punishing defectors is an important means of stabilizing cooperation. When levels of cooperation and punishment are continuous, individuals must employ suitable social standards for defining defectors and for determining punishment levels. Here we investigate the evolution of a social reaction norm, or psychological response function, for determining the punishment level meted out by individuals in dependence on the cooperation level exhibited by their neighbors in a lattice-structured population. We find that (1) cooperation and punishment can undergo runaway selection, with evolution towards enhanced cooperation and an ever more demanding punishment reaction norm mutually reinforcing each other; (2) this mechanism works best when punishment is strict, so that ambiguities in defining defectors are small; (3) when the strictness of punishment can adapt jointly with the threshold and severity of punishment, evolution favors the strict-and-severe punishment of individuals who offer slightly less than average cooperation levels; (4) strict-and-severe punishment naturally evolves and leads to much enhanced cooperation when cooperation without punishment would be weak and neither cooperation nor punishment are too costly; and (5) such evolutionary dynamics enable the bootstrapping of cooperation and punishment, through which defectors who never punish gradually and steadily evolve into cooperators who punish those they define as defectors.

  10. Dominance on Strict Triangular Norms and Mulholland Inequality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrík, Milan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 335, 15 March (2018), s. 3-17 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-07724Y Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : dominance relation * Mulholland inequality * strict triangular norm * transitivity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2016

  11. The International Lunar Decade Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, V.; Foing, B.; Bland, D.; Crisafulli, J.

    2015-10-01

    The International Lunar Decade Declaration was discussed at the conference held November 9-13, 2014 in Hawaii "The Next Giant Leap: Leveraging Lunar Assets for Sustainable Pathways to Space" - http://2014giantleap.aerospacehawaii.info/ and accepted by a core group that forms the International Lunar Decade Working Group (ILDWG) that is seeking to make the proposed global event and decade long process a reality. The Declaration will be updated from time to time by members of the ILDWreflecting new knowledge and fresh perspectives that bear on building a global consortium with a mission to progress from lunar exploration to the transformation of the Moon into a wealth gene rating platform for the expansion of humankind into the solar system. When key organizations have endorsed the idea and joined the effort the text of the Declaration will be considered final. An earlier International Lunar Decade proposal was issued at the 8th ICEUM Conference in 2006 in Beijing together with 13 specific initiatives for lunar exploration[1,2,3]. These initiatives have been largely implemented with coordination among the different space agencies involved provided by the International Lunar Exploration Working Group[2,3]. The Second International Lunar Decade from 2015 reflects current trends towards increasing involvement of commercial firms in space, particularly seeking opportunities beyond low Earth orbit. The central vision of the International Lunar Decade is to build the foundations for a sustainable space economy through international collaboration concurrently addressing Lunar exploration and building a shared knowledge base;Policy development that enables collabo rative research and development leading to lunar mining and industrial and commercial development;Infrastructure on the Moon and in cislunar space (communications, transport, energy systems, way-stations, other) that reduces costs, lowers risks and speeds up the time to profitable operations;Enabling technologies

  12. Exformatics Declarative Case Management Workflows as DCR Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slaats, Tijs; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Declarative workflow languages have been a growing research subject over the past ten years, but applications of the declarative approach in industry are still uncommon. Over the past two years Exformatics A/S, a Danish provider of Electronic Case Management systems, has been cooperating with res......Declarative workflow languages have been a growing research subject over the past ten years, but applications of the declarative approach in industry are still uncommon. Over the past two years Exformatics A/S, a Danish provider of Electronic Case Management systems, has been cooperating...... with researchers at IT University of Copenhagen (ITU) to create tools for the declarative workflow language Dynamic Condition Response Graphs (DCR Graphs) and incorporate them into their products and in teaching at ITU. In this paper we give a status report over the work. We start with an informal introduction...... to DCR Graphs. We then show how DCR Graphs are being used by Exformatics to model workflows through a case study of an invoice workflow. Finally we give an overview of the tools that have been developed by Exformatics to support working with DCR Graphs and evaluate their use in capturing requirements...

  13. From Paper Based Clinical Practice Guidelines to Declarative Workflow Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Karen Marie; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    2009-01-01

    We present a field study of oncology workflow, involving doctors, nurses and pharmacists at Danish hospitals and discuss the obstacles, enablers and challenges for the use of computer based clinical practice guidelines. Related to the CIGDec approach of Pesic and van der Aalst we then describe how...... a sub workflow can be described in a declarative workflow management system: the Resultmaker Online Consultant (ROC). The example demonstrates that declarative primitives allow to naturally extend the paper based flowchart to an executable model without introducing a complex cyclic control flow graph....

  14. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Dură

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 was preceded by several other Declarations in the first half of the twentieth century, beginning with the Declaration of 1929 and ending with the one of 1947. All these Declarations make express reference only to the “Human rights” and not to those of the “individual” or of the “Citizen”, as in the Declaration of the French Revolution, in 1789, or in the one of the Bolshevik Revolution, in 1917. Among other things, in our paper, we emphasized that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights remains the first legal international instrument that imposed an unitary and universal conception regarding the human rights and fundamental freedoms, and, ipso facto, of the “Dignitas humana” (dignity of the human person, to which the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (Lisbon, 2007 would make express reference.

  15. Declarative Joint Attention as a Foundation of Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodian, Beate; Kristen-Antonow, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Theories of social-cognitive development have attributed a foundational role to declarative joint attention. The present longitudinal study of 83 children, who were assessed on a battery of social-cognitive tasks at multiple measurement points from the age of 12 to 50 months, tested a predictive model of theory of mind (false-belief…

  16. Cannabis legalization with strict regulation, the overall superior policy option for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, J; Fischer, B

    2015-06-01

    Cannabis is the most prevalently used drug globally, with many jurisdictions considering varying reform options to current policies to deal with this substance and associated harm. Three policy options are available: prohibition, decriminalization, and legalization, with prohibition currently the dominant model globally. This contribution gives reasons why legalization with strict regulation should be considered superior to other options with respect to public health in high income countries in North America. © 2015 ASCPT.

  17. Procedures for declaring pest free status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barclay, H.J.; Hargrove, J.W.; Clift, A.; Meats, A.

    2005-01-01

    Procedures are presented for declaring an area to be 'pest free' following an area-wide eradication programme against a population of an insect pest. These involve two probability models to deal with null trapping results, and a growth model to help verify that pests were no longer present when control actions were stopped. The two probability models are presented for a situation in which trapping for an insect pest is ongoing, and for which the trapping results are all negative. The models calculate the probability of such negative results if in fact insects were present. If this probability is sufficiently low, then the hypothesis that insects are present is rejected. The models depend on knowledge of the efficiency of the traps, and also the area of attractiveness of the traps. The possibility of a rebound of an incipient but non-detectable population, that remains after control measures are discontinued, is considered. Using a growth model, the rate of increase, of an insect population that starts from one or two insects, is examined. An example is given for tsetse flies - both means and confidence limits are calculated for a period of 24 reproductive periods after control has been terminated. If insects are disease vectors, it is also suggested that the progress of the disease be monitored to detect continuing transmission. This should be done in conjunction with a disease transmission model. (author)

  18. Relaxation Methods for Strictly Convex Regularizations of Piecewise Linear Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiwiel, K. C.

    1998-01-01

    We give an algorithm for minimizing the sum of a strictly convex function and a convex piecewise linear function. It extends several dual coordinate ascent methods for large-scale linearly constrained problems that occur in entropy maximization, quadratic programming, and network flows. In particular, it may solve exact penalty versions of such (possibly inconsistent) problems, and subproblems of bundle methods for nondifferentiable optimization. It is simple, can exploit sparsity, and in certain cases is highly parallelizable. Its global convergence is established in the recent framework of B -functions (generalized Bregman functions)

  19. Non-strictly black body spectrum from the tunnelling mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corda, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The tunnelling mechanism is widely used to explain Hawking radiation. However, in many cases the analysis used to obtain the Hawking temperature only involves comparing the emission probability for an outgoing particle with the Boltzmann factor. Banerjee and Majhi improved this approach by explicitly finding a black body spectrum associated with black holes. Their result, obtained using a reformulation of the tunnelling mechanism, is in contrast to that of Parikh and Wilczek, who found an emission probability that is compatible with a non-strictly thermal spectrum. Using the recently identified effective state for a black hole, we solve this contradiction via a slight modification of the analysis by Banerjee and Majhi. The final result is a non-strictly black body spectrum from the tunnelling mechanism. We also show that for an effective temperature, we can express the corresponding effective metric using Hawking’s periodicity arguments. Potential important implications for the black hole information puzzle are discussed. -- Highlights: •We review an important result by Banerjee and Majhi on the tunnelling mechanism in the framework of Hawking radiation. •This result is in contrast to another result reported by Parikh and Wilczek. •We introduce the effective state of a black hole. •We explain the contrast via a slight modification of the analysis by Banerjee and Majhi. •We discuss potential important implications for the black hole information puzzle

  20. Procedural learning during declarative control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Matthew J; Ashby, F Gregory

    2015-09-01

    There is now abundant evidence that human learning and memory are governed by multiple systems. As a result, research is now turning to the next question of how these putative systems interact. For instance, how is overall control of behavior coordinated, and does learning occur independently within systems regardless of what system is in control? Behavioral, neuroimaging, and neuroscience data are somewhat mixed with respect to these questions. Human neuroimaging and animal lesion studies suggest independent learning and are mostly agnostic with respect to control. Human behavioral studies suggest active inhibition of behavioral output but have little to say regarding learning. The results of two perceptual category-learning experiments are described that strongly suggest that procedural learning does occur while the explicit system is in control of behavior and that this learning might be just as good as if the procedural system was controlling the response. These results are consistent with the idea that declarative memory systems inhibit the ability of the procedural system to access motor output systems but do not prevent procedural learning. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Significant events in the field of radioprotection (aside from base nuclear installations and transports of radioactive substances): criteria declaration and codification. Guide No. 11, Index 2, Version from 07.10.2009, updated July 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-07-01

    This document specifies provisions which must be applied by those in charge of a nuclear activity when declaring significant events regarding radioprotection. It describes the general principles, evokes the declaration criteria (they are more precisely presented in appendix), the declaration delay, and the declaration modalities (the informant, the documents, the addressee). It also evokes obligations regarding population information. A declaration form and a model of event report are provided in appendix

  2. Effects of a strict cutoff on Quantum Field Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturnfield, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Standard Quantum Field Theory has a number of integrals which are infinite. Although these are eliminated for some cases by renormalization, this aspect of the theory is not fully satisfactory. A number of theories with fundamental lengths have been introduced as alternatives and it would be useful to be able to distinguish between them. In particular, the effects that a strict cutoff would have on Quantum Field Theory is studied. It is noted that care must be taken in the method used to apply a strict cutoff. This lead to considering a theory where the cutoffs are defined by restricting each internal line. This theory is only piece-wise analytic. The resulting scattering matrix is frame dependent, yet the theory still satisfies the special relativity view that all frames are subjectively identical. The renormalization of this theory is finite. The change in mass from the electron self-energy will be a spinor operator. The main distinctions of this theory from standard theory will occur at super high energies. New poles and resonances which arise from new endpoint singularities will be found. The locations of these singularities will be frame dependent. Some of these singularities will correspond to creations or interactions of the normal particles with tachyons. It will be shown that for the one loop diagram, the form of the cutoff singularities are closely related to the standard singularities. When there is more than one loop, there can appear some new type of behavior. In particular, a cube root type of behavior in the two loop self-energy diagram will be found. Also the asymptotic behavior of the ladder diagram is studied

  3. 40 CFR 52.222 - Negative declarations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... County Air Pollution Control District. (i) Industrial Wastewater, Plastic Parts Coating: Business... Pollution Control District. (i) Aerospace Coatings; Industrial Waste Water Treatment; Plastic Parts Coating... following air pollution control districts submitted negative declarations for volatile organic compound...

  4. Signed reward prediction errors drive declarative learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther De Loof

    Full Text Available Reward prediction errors (RPEs are thought to drive learning. This has been established in procedural learning (e.g., classical and operant conditioning. However, empirical evidence on whether RPEs drive declarative learning-a quintessentially human form of learning-remains surprisingly absent. We therefore coupled RPEs to the acquisition of Dutch-Swahili word pairs in a declarative learning paradigm. Signed RPEs (SRPEs; "better-than-expected" signals during declarative learning improved recognition in a follow-up test, with increasingly positive RPEs leading to better recognition. In addition, classic declarative memory mechanisms such as time-on-task failed to explain recognition performance. The beneficial effect of SRPEs on recognition was subsequently affirmed in a replication study with visual stimuli.

  5. Declarative testing and depolyment of distributed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Burg, S.; Dolstra, E.

    2010-01-01

    System administrators and developers who deploy distributed systems have to deal with a deployment process that is largely manual and hard to reproduce. This paper describes how networks of computer systems can be reproducibly and automatically deployed from declarative specifications.

  6. Signed reward prediction errors drive declarative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Loof, Esther; Ergo, Kate; Naert, Lien; Janssens, Clio; Talsma, Durk; Van Opstal, Filip; Verguts, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Reward prediction errors (RPEs) are thought to drive learning. This has been established in procedural learning (e.g., classical and operant conditioning). However, empirical evidence on whether RPEs drive declarative learning-a quintessentially human form of learning-remains surprisingly absent. We therefore coupled RPEs to the acquisition of Dutch-Swahili word pairs in a declarative learning paradigm. Signed RPEs (SRPEs; "better-than-expected" signals) during declarative learning improved recognition in a follow-up test, with increasingly positive RPEs leading to better recognition. In addition, classic declarative memory mechanisms such as time-on-task failed to explain recognition performance. The beneficial effect of SRPEs on recognition was subsequently affirmed in a replication study with visual stimuli.

  7. Bridging Database Applications and Declarative Similarity Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Ribeiro, Leonardo; Schneider, Natália Cristina; de Souza Inácio, Andrei; Wagner, Harley Michel; von Wangenheim, Aldo

    2017-01-01

    Effective manipulation of string data is of fundamental importance to modern database applications. Very often, textual inconsistencies render equality comparisons meaningless and strings have to be matched in terms of their similarity. Previous work has proposed techniques to express similarity operations using declarative SQL statements. However, the non-trivial issue of embedding similarity support into object-oriented applications has received little attention. Particularly, declarative s...

  8. 37 CFR 1.69 - Foreign language oaths and declarations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign language oaths and... Declaration § 1.69 Foreign language oaths and declarations. (a) Whenever an individual making an oath or declaration cannot understand English, the oath or declaration must be in a language that such individual can...

  9. 47 CFR 2.1072 - Limitation on Declaration of Conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitation on Declaration of Conformity. 2.1072... Conformity § 2.1072 Limitation on Declaration of Conformity. (a) The Declaration of Conformity signifies that...'s rules. (b) A Declaration of Conformity by the responsible party is effective until a termination...

  10. 7 CFR 28.414 - Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.414 Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or...

  11. On N. Chomsky’s strict subcategorization of verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Orešnik

    1966-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the so-called strict subcategorization rules, and the theory associated with them, in the transformational grammar of. Erigl·ish as proposed by Noarn Chomsky in his Aspects. The syntactic component of English transformational grammar consists of two mutually ordered parts, viz., the base and the transformational subcomponents. The initial part of the base are the so-called categorial rules, which are of almost exclusive interest to us here. Their primary task is to generate what are usually called basic sentence patterns, and will here, with Chomsky (Aspects, p.ll3, be designated with the expression, frames of category symbols.- The rules of the transformational subcomponent modify, in various ways, the frames generated by the base. For several reasons - one of them being that the correct work of the transformational subcomponent quite often depends on the kind of lexical items with which the syntactic positions in the frames of category symbols have been filled, the lexical items must be introduced from the lexicon into the empty positions in the frames before the rules of the transformational subcomponent can be allowed to modify the frames.

  12. Effects of strict prolonged bed rest on cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Aarts, Hugo M; Joyner, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    with larger declines in V̇o2max). Furthermore, the systematic review revealed a gap in the knowledge about the cardiovascular response to extreme physical inactivity, particularly in older subjects and women of any age group. In addition to its relevance to spaceflight, this lack of data has significant....... Since 1949, 80 studies with a total of 949 participants (>90% men) have been published with data on strict bed rest and V̇o2max The studies were conducted mainly in young participants [median age (interquartile range) 24.5 (22.4-34.0) yr]. The duration of bed rest ranged from 1 to 90 days. V̇o2max...... declined linearly across bed rest duration. No statistical difference in the decline among studies reporting V̇o2max as l/min (-0.3% per day) compared with studies reporting V̇o2max normalized to body weight (ml·kg-1·min-1; -0.43% per day) was observed. Although both total body weight and lean body mass...

  13. Fixed point iterations for strictly hemi-contractive maps in uniformly smooth Banach spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Osilike, M.O.

    1993-05-01

    It is proved that the Mann iteration process converges strongly to the fixed point of a strictly hemi-contractive map in real uniformly smooth Banach spaces. The class of strictly hemi-contractive maps includes all strictly pseudo-contractive maps with nonempty fixed point sets. A related result deals with the Ishikawa iteration scheme when the mapping is Lipschitzian and strictly hemi-contractive. Our theorems generalize important known results. (author). 29 refs

  14. Declarative terrain modeling for military training games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smelik, R.M.; Tutenel, T.; Kraker, J.K.. de; Bidarra, R.

    2010-01-01

    Military training instructors increasingly often employ computer games to train soldiers in all sorts of skills and tactics. One of the difficulties instructors face when using games as a training tool is the creation of suitable content, including scenarios, entities, and corresponding terrain

  15. Strict or graduated punishment? Effect of punishment strictness on the evolution of cooperation in continuous public goods games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Shimao

    Full Text Available Whether costly punishment encourages cooperation is one of the principal questions in studies on the evolution of cooperation and social sciences. In society, punishment helps deter people from flouting rules in institutions. Specifically, graduated punishment is a design principle for long-enduring common-pool resource institutions. In this study, we investigate whether graduated punishment can promote a higher cooperation level when each individual plays the public goods game and has the opportunity to punish others whose cooperation levels fall below the punisher's threshold. We then examine how spatial structure affects evolutionary dynamics when each individual dies inversely proportional to the game score resulting from the social interaction and another player is randomly chosen from the population to produce offspring to fill the empty site created after a player's death. Our evolutionary simulation outcomes demonstrate that stricter punishment promotes increased cooperation more than graduated punishment in a spatially structured population, whereas graduated punishment increases cooperation more than strict punishment when players interact with randomly chosen opponents from the population. The mathematical analysis also supports the results.

  16. Strict or Graduated Punishment? Effect of Punishment Strictness on the Evolution of Cooperation in Continuous Public Goods Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimao, Hajime; Nakamaru, Mayuko

    2013-01-01

    Whether costly punishment encourages cooperation is one of the principal questions in studies on the evolution of cooperation and social sciences. In society, punishment helps deter people from flouting rules in institutions. Specifically, graduated punishment is a design principle for long-enduring common-pool resource institutions. In this study, we investigate whether graduated punishment can promote a higher cooperation level when each individual plays the public goods game and has the opportunity to punish others whose cooperation levels fall below the punisher’s threshold. We then examine how spatial structure affects evolutionary dynamics when each individual dies inversely proportional to the game score resulting from the social interaction and another player is randomly chosen from the population to produce offspring to fill the empty site created after a player’s death. Our evolutionary simulation outcomes demonstrate that stricter punishment promotes increased cooperation more than graduated punishment in a spatially structured population, whereas graduated punishment increases cooperation more than strict punishment when players interact with randomly chosen opponents from the population. The mathematical analysis also supports the results. PMID:23555826

  17. Climate Change and Professional Responsibility: A Declaration of Helsinki for Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Rob; Morley, Helen

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we argue that the professional engineering institutions ought to develop a Declaration of Climate Action. Climate change is a serious global problem, and the majority of greenhouse gas emissions come from industries that are enabled by engineers and represented by the engineering professional institutions. If the professional institutions take seriously the claim that a profession should be self-regulating, with codes of ethics that go beyond mere obedience to the law, and if they take their own ethical codes seriously, recognising their responsibility to the public and to future generations (and also recognising a duty of "responsible leadership"), the professional institutions ought to develop a declaration for engineers, addressing climate change. Our argument here is largely inspired by the history of the Declaration of Helsinki. The Declaration of Helsinki was created by the medical profession for the profession, and it held physicians to a higher standard of ethical conduct than was found in the legal framework of individual countries. Although it was not originally a legal document, the influence of the Declaration can be seen in the fact that it is now enshrined in law in a number of different countries. Thus, we argue that the engineering profession could, and should, play a significant role in the abatement of climate change by making changes within the profession. If the engineering profession sets strict standards for professional engineers, with sanctions for those who refuse to comply, this could have a significant impact in relation to our efforts to develop a coordinated response to climate change.

  18. RelTime Rates Collapse to a Strict Clock When Estimating the Timeline of Animal Diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Fernandez, Jesus; Dos Reis, Mario; Donoghue, Philip C J; Pisani, Davide

    2017-05-01

    Establishing an accurate timescale for the history of life is crucial to understand evolutionary processes. For this purpose, relaxed molecular clock models implemented in a Bayesian MCMC framework are generally used. However, these methods are time consuming. RelTime, a non-Bayesian method implementing a fast, ad hoc, algorithm for relative dating, was developed to overcome the computational inefficiencies of Bayesian software. RelTime was recently used to investigate the timing of origin of animals, yielding results consistent with early strict clock studies from the 1980s and 1990s, estimating metazoans to have a Mesoproterozoic origin-over a billion years ago. RelTime results are unexpected and disagree with the largest majority of modern, relaxed, Bayesian molecular clock analyses, which suggest animals originated in the Tonian-Cryogenian (less that 850 million years ago). Here, we demonstrate that RelTime-inferred divergence times for the origin of animals are spurious, a consequence of the inability of RelTime to relax the clock along the internal branches of the animal phylogeny. RelTime-inferred divergence times are comparable to strict-clock estimates because they are essentially inferred under a strict clock. Our results warn us of the danger of using ad hoc algorithms making implicit assumptions about rate changes along a tree. Our study roundly rejects a Mesoproterozoic origin of animals; metazoans emerged in the Tonian-Cryogenian, and diversified in the Ediacaran, in the immediate prelude to the routine fossilization of animals in the Cambrian associated with the emergence of readily preserved skeletons. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  19. The Analysis of a Real Life Declarative Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debois, Søren; Slaats, Tijs

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative study of the use of declarative process notations used in a commercial setting. Specifically, we investigate the actual use of a system implemented in terms of DCR graphs for the Danish "Dreyer Foundation" by our industry partner Exformatics A/S. The study is p....... For (2), we find no such model. We leave as a challenge to the community the construction of a flow-based model adequately representing the business constraints and supporting all observed behaviour by the users, whether by hand or by mining....

  20. 19 CFR 10.804 - Declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... agent having knowledge of the relevant facts. (c) Language. The declaration must be completed in the... such representations. I understand that I am liable for any false statements or material omissions made... necessary to support these representations; The goods comply with all the requirements for preferential...

  1. 19 CFR 10.764 - Declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... agent having knowledge of the relevant facts. (c) Language. The declaration must be completed in the... such representations. I understand that I am liable for any false statements or material omissions made... necessary to support these representations; The goods comply with all the requirements for preferential...

  2. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landorf, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    A study of human rights prepares students for their role as global citizens and their study of practices in the world's countries that relate to the rights of human beings. Today, when one talks of human rights it is usually with reference to the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). It is the task of teachers to give students the…

  3. 19 CFR 148.13 - Written declarations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... presentation of written declarations. The person arriving in the United States shall complete the information... the time of arrival. Individual items not exceeding $5 per item in fair retail value in the country of... its equivalent in U.S. currency; or (2) The fair retail value in the country of acquisition if the...

  4. Declarative interpretations of session-based concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cano, Mauricio; Rueda, Camilo; López-Acosta, Hugo-Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Session-based concurrency is a type-based approach to the analysis of communication-intensive systems. Correct behavior in these systems may be specified in an operational or declarative style: the former defines how interactions are structured; the latter defines governing conditions...

  5. The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawksworth, D.L.; Crous, P.W.; Redhead, S.A.; Reynolds, D.R.; Samson, R.A.; Seifert, K.A.; Taylor, J.E.; Wingfield, M.J.; Abaci, Ö.; Aime, C.; Asan, A.; Bai, F.H.; de Beer, Z.W.; Begerow, D.; Berikten, D.; Boekhout, T.; Buchanan, P.K.; Burgess, T.I.; Buzina, W.; Cai, L.; Cannon, P.F.; Crane, J.L.; Damm, U.; Daniel, H.M.; van Diepeningen, A.D.; Druzhinina, I.; Dyer, P.S.; Eberhardt, U.; Fell, J.W.; Frisvad, J.C.; Geiser, D.M.; Geml, J.; Glienke, C.; Gräfenhan, T.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Groenewald, M.; de Gruyter, J.; Guého-Kellermann, E.; Guo, L-D.; Hibbett, D.S.; Hong, S.B.; de Hoog, G.S.; Houbraken, J.; Huhndorf, S.M.; Hyde, K.D.; Ismail, A.; Johnston, P.R.; Kadaifciler, D.G.; Kirk, P.M.; Kõljalg, U.; Kurtzman, C.P.; Lagneau, P-E.; Lévesque, C.A.; Liu, X.S.; Lombard, L.; Meyer, W.; Miller, A.N.; Minter, D.W.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Norvell, L.L.; Ozerskaya, S.M.; Öziç, R.; Pennycook, S.R.; Peterson, S.W.; Pettersson, O.V.; Quaedvlieg, W.; Robert, V.; Ruibal, C.; Schnürer, J.; Schroers, H.J.; Shivas, R.G.; Slippers, B.; Spierenburg, H.; Takashima, M.; Taşkın, E.; Thines, M.; Thrane, U.; Uztan, A.H.; van Raak, M.; Varga, J.; Vasco, A.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Videira, S.I.R.; de Vries, R.P.; Weir, B.S.; Yilmaz, N.; Yurkov, A.; Zhang, N.

    2011-01-01

    The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature was agreed at an international symposium convened in Amsterdam on 19-20 April 2011 under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). The purpose of the symposium was to address the issue of whether or how the current

  6. The Amstersam declaration on fungal nomenclature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawksworth, David L.; Crous, Pedro W.; Redhead, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    to advise on the problem. The Declaration recognizes the need for an orderly transitition to a single-name nomenclatural system for all fungi, and to provide mechanisms to protect names that otherwise then become endangered. That is, meaning that priority should be given to the first described name, except...

  7. Yet another guideline? The UNESCO draft declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, Ruth

    2005-09-01

    Some people might argue that there are already too many different documents, guidelines, and regulations in bioethics. Some overlap with one another, some are advisory and lack legal force, others are legally binding in countries, and still others are directed at narrow topics within bioethics, such as HIV/AIDS and human genetics. As the latest document to enter the fray, the UNESCO Declaration has the widest scope of any previous document. It embraces not only research involving human beings, but addresses broader concerns in medicine and healthcare. The UNESCO draft declaration has some minor weaknesses, but on the whole, the strengths outweigh the weaknesses. One weakness is that some items in the draft are stated in a way that is too restrictive, thereby appearing to rule out legitimate activities. A strength of the Declaration is that it is relatively brief, yet at the same time contains sufficient detail to make it something more than a rehearsal of mere pieties. As the most recent of the numerous bioethics and human rights documents, the UNESCO draft draws on many of the earlier documents and also includes some of the most recent thinking about ethical norms and obligations. Perhaps its greatest strength lies not in details of the principles or their implementation, but rather in its stature as an international declaration issued by a United Nations organization.

  8. Product declaration for cars; Warendeklaration fuer Personenwagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruetter, J.M.

    2000-07-01

    This reports for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the possible ways of declaring product information on cars. The basic elements of such a declaration are discussed and a recommendation for an energy label for cars is presented. The report discusses the fundamental questions posed such as how long a label should be valid, if comparisons should be made and if it is to be based on CO{sub 2}-emissions or on fuel consumption. Also, the criteria to be used for comparisons - such as vehicle weight, size or power - are looked at and methods of classification are examined along with data fundamentals. Further, the expectations placed on the product declarations with respect to their energetic and economic impact are discussed. The design of the label and the legislature on which it is based are discussed and initial reactions of the automobile industry are noted. The report is rounded off by a discussion of the effects of the declaration in relation to other instruments that have been proposed.

  9. A declaration of eco-ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns Jr.

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Eco-ethics is the essential foundation for sustainable use of the planet. Such a foundation must consist of a series of value judgments to which humanity is committed. This declaration is a tentative attempt to provide some illustrative examples.

  10. Reasoning about passive declarations in CHR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2005-01-01

    The programming language of Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) is gaining more and more popularity and this has motivated the development of new optimization techniques to be applied in implementations of CHR. As for other logic programming languages, a program written CHR can be understood declarat......The programming language of Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) is gaining more and more popularity and this has motivated the development of new optimization techniques to be applied in implementations of CHR. As for other logic programming languages, a program written CHR can be understood...... to be applied can be optimized, perhaps changing which rules that are applied and in which order. % A framework for analyzing the effect of passive declarations is presented in terms of a slightly abstract operational semantics which takes into account the effect of passive declarations. Based on it, we can...... give different classifications of the effect of some passive declarations that do not affect the logical semantics. This may be used for reasoning about manual optimizations as well as proposals for automatic strategies to be applied by a compiler for adding passive declarations....

  11. Stress enhances reconsolidation of declarative memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.G.N.; Schuijer, J.; Lodestijn, F.; Beckers, T.; Kindt, M.

    2014-01-01

    Retrieval of negative emotional memories is often accompanied by the experience of stress. Upon retrieval, a memory trace can temporarily return into a labile state, where it is vulnerable to change. An unresolved question is whether post-retrieval stress may affect the strength of declarative

  12. Signed reward prediction errors drive declarative learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Loof, E.; Ergo, K.; Naert, L.; Janssens, C.; Talsma, D.; van Opstal, F.; Verguts, T.

    2018-01-01

    Reward prediction errors (RPEs) are thought to drive learning. This has been established in procedural learning (e.g., classical and operant conditioning). However, empirical evidence on whether RPEs drive declarative learning–a quintessentially human form of learning–remains surprisingly absent. We

  13. The Success Rate of Initial {sup 131I} Ablation in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: Comparison Between Less strict and Very Strict Low Iodine Diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Ik Dong; Kim, Sung Hoon; Seo, Ye Young; Oh, Jin Kyoung; O, Joo Hyun; Chung, Soo Kyo [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    To decrease the risk of recurrence or metastasis in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), selected patients receive radioactive iodine ablation of remnant thyroid tissue or tumor. A low iodine diet can enhance uptake of radioactive iodine. We compared the success rates of radioactive iodine ablation therapy in patients who followed two different low iodine diets (LIDs). The success rates of postsurgical radioactive iodine ablation in DTC patients receiving empiric doses of 150 mCi were retrospectively reviewed. First-time radioactive iodine ablation therapy was done in 71 patients following less strict LID. Less strict LID restricted seafood, iodized salt, egg yolk, dairy products, processed meat, instant prepared meals, and multivitamins. Very strict LID additionally restricted rice, freshwater fish, spinach, and soybean products. Radioactive iodine ablation therapy was considered successful when follow up {sup 123I} whole body scan was negative and stimulated serum thyroglobulin level was less than 2.0 ng/mL. The success rate of patients following less strict LID was 80.3% and for very strict LID 75.6%. There was no statistically significant difference in the success rates between the two LID groups (P=0.48). Very strict LID may not contribute to improving the success rate of initial radioactive iodine ablation therapy at the cost of great inconvenience to the patient.

  14. Article 6 of the UNESCO Universal Declaration of Bioethics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    s Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (UDBHR) was accepted unanimously in 2005 by the world community, consisting of 191 member nations. This means that the declaration is currently the first and only bioethical text to ...

  15. Year Class Coexistence or Competitive Exclusion for Strict Biennials?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davydova, N.V.; Diekmann, O.; van Gils, Stephanus A.

    2001-01-01

    We consider a discrete time model of semelparous biennial population dynamics. Interactions between individuals are modelled with the aid of an 'environmental'' variable I. The impact on and the sensitivity to the environmental condition is age specific. The main result is that competitive exclusion

  16. Year class coexistence or competitive exclusion for strict biennials?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davydova, N.V.; Diekmann, O.; van Gils, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    We consider a discrete time model of semelparous biennial population dynamics. Interactions between individuals are modelled with the aid of an ``environmental'' variable I. The impact on and the sensitivity to the environmental condition is age specific. The main result is that competitive

  17. Representation of 'Palliative Care' in Assisted Dying/Euthanasia Declarations

    OpenAIRE

    Inbadas, Hamilton; Zaman, Shahaduz; Whitelaw, Alexander; Clark, David

    2017-01-01

    Background: The production of 'declarations' (formal, public statements to influence policy, raise awareness and call others to action) is increasing in the end of life care field. Several declarations have been issued on ‘assisted dying/euthanasia’ but have not yet been analysed systematically.\\ud Aim: To map the emergence of assisted dying/euthanasia declarations in the international context and to establish the representation of palliative care in these declarations.\\ud Methods: A two stag...

  18. Mixed Causal-Noncausal Autoregressions with Strictly Exogenous Regressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hecq, Alain; Issler, J.V.; Telg, Sean

    2017-01-01

    The mixed autoregressive causal-noncausal model (MAR) has been proposed to estimate economic relationships involving explosive roots in their autoregressive part, as they have stationary forward solutions. In previous work, possible exogenous variables in economic relationships are substituted into

  19. 47 CFR 68.324 - Supplier's Declaration of Conformity requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplier's Declaration of Conformity... Terminal Equipment Approval § 68.324 Supplier's Declaration of Conformity requirements. (a) Each responsible party shall include in the Supplier's Declaration of Conformity, the following information: (1...

  20. Declarative camera control for automatic cinematography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christianson, D.B.; Anderson, S.E.; Li-wei He [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Animations generated by interactive 3D computer graphics applications are typically portrayed either from a particular character`s point of view or from a small set of strategically-placed viewpoints. By ignoring camera placement, such applications fail to realize important storytelling capabilities that have been explored by cinematographers for many years. In this paper, we describe several of the principles of cinematography and show how they can be formalized into a declarative language, called the Declarative Camera Control Language (DCCL). We describe the application of DCCL within the context of a simple interactive video game and argue that DCCL represents cinematic knowledge at the same level of abstraction as expert directors by encoding 16 idioms from a film textbook. These idioms produce compelling animations, as demonstrated on the accompanying videotape.

  1. The Fixed-Point Theory of Strictly Causal Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-09

    description languages such as VHDL (see [1]) and SystemC (see [2]), modeling and simulation tools such as Simulink and LabVIEW, network simulation tools such...context is another interesting direction for future work. References [1] IEEE standard VHDL language reference manual. IEEE Std 1076-2000, pages i–290, 2000

  2. IMPORTANT -Declaration of income for 2001-

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The local French tax authorities confirm that, in view of the particular procedure for income declaration for CERN members of the personnel, this year CERN income (as stated in the certificate of CERN remuneration provided by the Organization) may be exceptionally declared in either French Francs, or Euros (clearly specifying the currency selected). Practical information concerning the procedure for income declaration may be obtained at the following local information desks : Trésorerie de Gex: Tuesday 12 March 9 a.m. to 122 to 4 p.m. Trésoreriede Ferney: Monday 18 March 9 a.m. to 122 to 4 p.m. Trésoreriede Divonne: Thursday 21 March 9 a.m. to 122 to 4 p.m. French tax authorities have also organised the following information services:Web site Minitel: 3615 IR Service Vocal Server: 08 36 67 10 10 Telephone information: 08 20 32 42 52 Human Resources Division Tel. 72838

  3. Confidential Declaration of Family Situation (CDFS)

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    The Confidential Declaration of Family Situation (CDFS) becomes a new computerized EDH form from October 2005 In accordance with Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations, Staff Members and Fellows, married or separated, must notify any changes in their spouse's income or health insurance cover in writing to CERN, within 30 calendar days of the change. This is necessary for the Organization to determine if a supplementary contribution is payable to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) for the spouse's coverage and, if so, the amount. Until now a paper form called « Confidential Declaration of Family Situation » (CDFS) was used for that purpose.  From early October 2005 the CDFS will be computerized for the whole Organization. Henceforth, any changes in a spouse's income or health insurance cover must be notified using EDH (Electronic Document Handling). Additionally, annual updates of the declaration will be required and will be requested by automatic e-mail. Early October an email will be...

  4. Confidential Declaration of Family Situation (CDFS)

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    The Confidential Declaration of Family Situation (CDFS) becomes a new computerized EDH form from October 2005 In accordance with Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations, Staff Members and Fellows, married or separated, must notify any changes in their spouse's income or health insurance cover in writing to CERN, within 30 calendar days of the change. This is necessary for the Organization to determine if a supplementary contribution is payable to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) for the spouse's coverage and, if so, the amount. Until now a paper form called « Confidential Declaration of Family Situation » (CDFS) was used for that purpose.  From early October 2005 the CDFS will be computerized for the whole Organization. Henceforth, any changes in a spouse's income or health insurance cover must be notified using EDH (Electronic Document Handling). Additionally, annual updates of the declaration will be required and will be requested by automatic e-mail. Early October an email will be sent to...

  5. Validation of an automatic diagnosis of strict left bundle branch block criteria using 12-lead electrocardiograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Xiaojuan; Ruwald, Anne-Christine; Ruwald, Martin H

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Strict left bundle branch block (LBBB) criteria were recently proposed to identify LBBB patients to benefit most from cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The aim of our study was to automate identification of strict LBBB in order to facilitate its broader application. METHODS: We devel...

  6. 7 CFR 28.416 - Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.416 Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or... Cotton Source: 57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992, unless otherwise noted. ...

  7. Weight of fitness deviation governs strict physical chaos in replicator dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Varun; Mukhopadhyay, Archan; Chakraborty, Sagar

    2018-03-01

    Replicator equation—a paradigm equation in evolutionary game dynamics—mathematizes the frequency dependent selection of competing strategies vying to enhance their fitness (quantified by the average payoffs) with respect to the average fitnesses of the evolving population under consideration. In this paper, we deal with two discrete versions of the replicator equation employed to study evolution in a population where any two players' interaction is modelled by a two-strategy symmetric normal-form game. There are twelve distinct classes of such games, each typified by a particular ordinal relationship among the elements of the corresponding payoff matrix. Here, we find the sufficient conditions for the existence of asymptotic solutions of the replicator equations such that the solutions—fixed points, periodic orbits, and chaotic trajectories—are all strictly physical, meaning that the frequency of any strategy lies inside the closed interval zero to one at all times. Thus, we elaborate on which of the twelve types of games are capable of showing meaningful physical solutions and for which of the two types of replicator equation. Subsequently, we introduce the concept of the weight of fitness deviation that is the scaling factor in a positive affine transformation connecting two payoff matrices such that the corresponding one-shot games have exactly same Nash equilibria and evolutionary stable states. The weight also quantifies how much the excess of fitness of a strategy over the average fitness of the population affects the per capita change in the frequency of the strategy. Intriguingly, the weight's variation is capable of making the Nash equilibria and the evolutionary stable states, useless by introducing strict physical chaos in the replicator dynamics based on the normal-form game.

  8. Strict stoichiometric homeostasis of Cryptomonas pyrenoidifera (Cryptophyceae in relation to N:P supply ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Ramos Rodríguez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A common freshwater cryptophyte, Cryptomonas pyrenoidifera, was cultivated in batch-cultures to analyze intraspecific variation in elemental stoichiometry along a broad gradient of pulsed phosphorus (P enrichment during the early acclimation period and to determine the immediate homeostatic capacity of the nitrogen-to-phosphorus (N:P ratio of this alga when nutrients are at saturating levels. Experimental results revealed that nitrogen (N and P cell quotas significantly increased with increasing P concentration. However, despite the wide range of N:P ratios in the medium, Cryptomonas N:P ratios were highly stable at higher P-level treatments, indicating a highly conservative behavior and suggesting strict elemental homeostasis when nutrients are at saturating levels. The strictly homeostatic N:P ratio appears to be attributable to their high potential for a fast luxury consumption of both N and P after a brief and intense episode of increased resource availability and to physiological limits on their nutrient storage capacity. Most importantly, the N:P biomass ratio at nutrient saturating levels converged around 11:1, which was the observed ratio of maximum internal cell quotas for N and P (i.e. Qmax,N:Qmax,P under the prevailing experimental conditions. This value is particularly informative for C. pyrenoidifera because it represents cell storage quotients and may be a taxon-specific evolutionary optimum, providing a reference point to infer the grade of nutrient-limitation. The experimental data give ranges of variation in C. pyrenoidifera elemental composition permitting, among others, proper parameterization of cryptophyte stoichiometry models.

  9. Philosophiam profiteri or on Derrida's "declarative engagement"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Mile V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author reconstructs the meaning of Derrida's concept of "declarative engagement". He shows that Derrida revives the modern idea of the "engaged intellectual" and even develops it in a radical, prophetic/messianic form. The final consequence of such a position, in the opinion of the author, is a paradoxical coupling of political decisionism with social escapism, which renews in a specific way the nostalgia for the "heroic role" of the Marxist intellectual vanguard. This is a major reason for Derrida's popularity in Serbia, it is argued, but can also be taken as the starting point for an analysis of the problem of responsibility of engaged intellectuals.

  10. Synchronization control of cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic system based on cross active backstepping design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jing; Gao Jinfeng; Ma Xikui

    2007-01-01

    This Letter presents a novel cross active backstepping design method for synchronization control of cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic system, in which the ordinary backstepping design is unavailable. The proposed control method, combining backstepping design and active control approach, extends the application of backstepping technique in chaos control. Based on this method, different combinations of controllers can be designed to meet the needs of different applications. The proposed method is applied to achieve chaos synchronization of two identical cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic systems. Also it is used to implement synchronization between cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic system and Roessler hyperchaotic system. Numerical examples illustrate the validity of the control method

  11. Visuospatial declarative learning despite profound verbal declarative amnesia in Korsakoff's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudman, Erik; Postma, Albert; Nijboer, Tanja C W; Wijnia, Jan W; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2017-03-20

    Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterised by severe amnesia. Although the presence of impairments in memory has long been acknowledged, there is a lack of knowledge about the precise characteristics of declarative memory capacities in order to implement memory rehabilitation. In this study, we investigated the extent to which patients diagnosed with KS have preserved declarative memory capacities in working memory, long-term memory encoding or long-term memory recall operations, and whether these capacities are most preserved for verbal or visuospatial content. The results of this study demonstrate that patients with KS have compromised declarative memory functioning on all memory indices. Performance was lowest for the encoding operation compared to the working memory and delayed recall operation. With respect to the content, visuospatial memory was relatively better preserved than verbal memory. All memory operations functioned suboptimally, although the most pronounced disturbance was found in verbal memory encoding. Based on the preserved declarative memory capacities in patients, visuospatial memory can form a more promising target for compensatory memory rehabilitation than verbal memory. It is therefore relevant to increase the number of spatial cues in memory rehabilitation for KS patients.

  12. The Effect of Strict Segregation on Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mansfeld, Rosa; de Vrankrijker, Angelica; Brimicombe, Roland; Heijerman, Harry; Teding van Berkhout, Ferdinand; Spitoni, Cristian|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304625957; Grave, Sanne; van der Ent, Cornelis; Wolfs, Tom; Willems, Rob; Bonten, Marc

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Segregation of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) was implemented to prevent chronic infection with epidemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with presumed detrimental clinical effects, but its effectiveness has not been carefully evaluated. METHODS: The effect of strict segregation on

  13. Strict deformation quantization for actions of a class of symplectic lie groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieliavsky, Pierre; Massar, Marc

    2002-01-01

    We present explicit universal strict deformation quantization formulae for actions of Iwasawa subgroups AN of SN(1, n). This answers a question raised by Rieffel in [Contemp. Math. 228 (1998), 315]. (author)

  14. Strict optical orthogonal codes for purely asynchronous code-division multiple-access applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Guo

    1996-12-01

    Strict optical orthogonal codes are presented for purely asynchronous optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) applications. The proposed code can strictly guarantee the peaks of its cross-correlation functions and the sidelobes of any of its autocorrelation functions to have a value of 1 in purely asynchronous data communications. The basic theory of the proposed codes is given. An experiment on optical CDMA systems is also demonstrated to verify the characteristics of the proposed code.

  15. Declarative vs. Procedural Memory: Roles in Second Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Fakhraee Faruji

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Memory is not a single faculty but is a combination of multiple distinct abilities (Schacter, 1987. The declarative-procedural distinction is used both with regard to knowledge and memory that stores this knowledge. Ellis (2008 used the terms explicit/implicit, and declarative/procedural interchangeably. In this article the researcher aims at identifying the different aspects of declarative/procedural memory, interaction between these two types of memory, and the role they may play in second language acquisition.

  16. Plant use in the medicinal practices known as "strict diets" in Chazuta valley (Peruvian Amazon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Biset, Jaume; Cañigueral, Salvador

    2011-09-01

    Strict diets are traditional medicinal practices where plant remedies are consumed with nearly fasting and with some sort of social seclusion. The aim of this work was to describe these practices of Chazuta and the use of plants within, as well as to analyse the possible functions of the last. The information was obtained through interviews to the 6.3% of the district rural adult population (140 individuals, 75% of which was considered Quechua). In total, 122 strict diets were recorded and 106 different plant species were reported to be used. Strict diets present a characteristic structure and plant use. The main effects reported in strict diets were antinflammatory, antiinfective, brain function alteration and depuration. Strict diets are well structured traditional medicinal practices, also with a symbolic significance in the life cycle of chazutian men. Plants used in strict diets can contribute to the main effects through antinflammation, antiinfective actions, psychoactivity and depurative related activities. The correlation between literature evidence of activity of most used plants and effects reported for the correspondent diet (i.e. in which the plant was used) are 36% for antinflammatory activity, 29% for antimicrobial activity, 18% for psychoactivity and 5% for depurative related activities. The percentages go to 77%, 64%, 73% and 32%, respectively, when literature evidences on related taxa are also considered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Attitude Toward Death, Fear of Being Declared Dead Too Soon, and Donation of Organs After Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessing, Dick J.; Elffers, Henk

    1987-01-01

    Describes a study of willingness to donate organs for transplantation after death based on Weyant's cost-benefit model for altruistic behavior. Two death anxieties (the attitude toward death and the fear of being declared dead too soon) were introduced to help explain the discrepancy between attitudes and behavior in the matter of organ donation.…

  18. The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian

    2008-10-01

    The steps toward the adoption by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) of the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights took a number of years and generated considerable controversy. This editorial reviews the principal provisions in the Declaration and argues that the Declaration constitutes an important formalisation on the basis of international consensus of the fundamental attributes of bioethical work undertaken by medical practitioners and scientists. However, the Declaration is only a beginning; many challenges lie ahead to ensure its effective implementation.

  19. A GIS support system for declaration and verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poucet, A.; Contini, S.; Bellezza, F.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The timely detection of a diversion of a significant amount of nuclear material from the civil cycle represents a complex activity that requires the use of powerful support systems. In this field the authors developed SIT (Safeguards Inspection Tool), an integrated platform for collecting, managing and analysing data from a variety of sources to support declarations and verification activities. Information dealt with is that requested by both INFCIRC/153 and INFCIRC/540 protocols. SIT is based on a low-cost Geographic Information System platform and extensive use is made of commercial software to reduce maintenance costs. The system has been developed using ARCVIEW GIS for Windows NT platforms. SIT is conceived as an integrator of multimedia information stored into local and remote databases; efforts have been focused on the automation of several tasks in order to produce a user-friendly system. Main characteristics of SIT are: Capability to deal with multimedia data, e.g. text, images, video, using user-selected COTS; Easy access to external databases, e.g. Oracle, Informix, Sybase, MS-Access, directly from the site map; Selected access to open source information via Internet; Capability to easily geo-reference site maps, to generate thematic layers of interest and to perform spatial analysis; Capability of performing aerial and satellite image analysis operations, e.g. rectification, change detection, feature extraction; Capability to easily add and run external models for e.g. material data accounting, completeness check, air dispersion models, material flow graph generation and to describe results in graphical form; Capability to use a Geo-positioning systems (GPS) with a portable computer, SIT is at an advanced stage of development and will be very soon interfaced with VERITY, a powerful Web search engine in order to allow open source information retrieval from geographical maps. The paper will describe the main features of SIT and the advantages of

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging quantitation of changes in muscle volume during 7 days of strict bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A A; Stuart, C A; Brunder, D G; Hillman, G R

    1995-10-01

    Prolonged bed rest results in a loss of leg lean body mass. Previous studies using bed rest as a model for microgravity have shown decreases in leg mass after 12 and 14 d, 5 and 17 wk. As magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide a precise and non-invasive means of determining muscle volume, we sought to determine if changes in leg muscle volume could be detected in bed rest periods as short as 7 d. Five young, healthy, male volunteers were subjected to 7 d of absolute bed rest. Each subject underwent MRI quantitation of segmental muscle volumes of the calves and thighs before and after bed rest. Eleven (calf) and nine (thigh) contiguous 1-cm thick transaxial images were generated over prescribed regions using a Technicare MRI imager with a 0.6T superconducting magnet and body coil. Image processing was performed using a generalized 8-bit medical image analysis package developed at University of Texas Medical Branch. Images were analyzed for muscle and non-muscle volumes (including fat, blood vessel, and bone marrow volumes). The MRI quantitation demonstrated bed rest-induced significant decreases in segmental thigh muscle (approximately 3.0%, p image analysis of MRI images provides a sensitive tool capable of detecting leg volume changes of as little as 3.0% over a 7-d period of strict bed rest.

  1. DNA remodelling by Strict Partial Endoreplication in orchids, an original process in the plant kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Spencer C; Bourge, Mickaël; Maunoury, Nicolas; Wong, Maurice; Bianchi, Michele Wolfe; Lepers-Andrzejewski, Sandra; Besse, Pascale; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja; Dron, Michel; Satiat-Jeunemaître, Béatrice

    2017-04-13

    DNA remodelling during endoreplication appears to be a strong developmental characteristic in orchids. In this study, we analysed DNA content and nuclei in 41 species of orchids to further map the genome evolution in this plant family. We demonstrate that the DNA remodelling observed in 36 out of 41 orchids studied corresponds to strict partial endoreplication. Such process is developmentally regulated in each wild species studied. Cytometry data analyses allowed us to propose a model where nuclear states 2C, 4E, 8E, etc. form a series comprising a fixed proportion, the euploid genome 2C, plus 2 to 32 additional copies of a complementary part of the genome. The fixed proportion ranged from 89% of the genome in Vanilla mexicana down to 19% in V. pompona, the lowest value for all 148 orchids reported. Insterspecific hybridisation did not suppress this phenomenon. Interestingly, this process was not observed in mass-produced epiphytes. Nucleolar volumes grow with the number of endocopies present, coherent with high transcription activity in endoreplicated nuclei. Our analyses suggest species-specific chromatin rearrangement. Towards understanding endoreplication, V. planifolia constitutes a tractable system for isolating the genomic sequences that confer an advantage via endoreplication from those that apparently suffice at diploid level. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  2. Declarative Parallel Programming in Spreadsheet End-User Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biermann, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Spreadsheets are first-order functional languages and are widely used in research and industry as a tool to conveniently perform all kinds of computations. Because cells on a spreadsheet are immutable, there are possibilities for implicit parallelization of spreadsheet computations. In this liter...... can directly apply results from functional array programming to a spreadsheet model of computations.......Spreadsheets are first-order functional languages and are widely used in research and industry as a tool to conveniently perform all kinds of computations. Because cells on a spreadsheet are immutable, there are possibilities for implicit parallelization of spreadsheet computations....... In this literature study, we provide an overview of the publications on spreadsheet end-user programming and declarative array programming to inform further research on parallel programming in spreadsheets. Our results show that there is a clear overlap between spreadsheet programming and array programming and we...

  3. DeepDive: Declarative Knowledge Base Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sa, Christopher; Ratner, Alex; Ré, Christopher; Shin, Jaeho; Wang, Feiran; Wu, Sen; Zhang, Ce

    2016-03-01

    The dark data extraction or knowledge base construction (KBC) problem is to populate a SQL database with information from unstructured data sources including emails, webpages, and pdf reports. KBC is a long-standing problem in industry and research that encompasses problems of data extraction, cleaning, and integration. We describe DeepDive, a system that combines database and machine learning ideas to help develop KBC systems. The key idea in DeepDive is that statistical inference and machine learning are key tools to attack classical data problems in extraction, cleaning, and integration in a unified and more effective manner. DeepDive programs are declarative in that one cannot write probabilistic inference algorithms; instead, one interacts by defining features or rules about the domain. A key reason for this design choice is to enable domain experts to build their own KBC systems. We present the applications, abstractions, and techniques of DeepDive employed to accelerate construction of KBC systems.

  4. Operator declarations (OPD) for Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masataka; Yamazaki, Yoshihiro; Hiruta, Kazuhiko; Fujimaki, Kazunori; Wuester, Jan; Gerrein, Greg; Chesnay, Bruno; ); Takeda, Seiichi; Yoshida, Hideki

    2004-01-01

    The OPD scheme is outlined with the OPD rules, data format, the structure of computer system related to OPD, how and when OPD data is submitted in this paper. Currently, the OPD overall data structure and data items for all OPD types are almost determined and agreed. But for OPD Type 31 and 32, detail checks continue as to which data should be declared based on the specific material accounting procedure for each KMP. The MACS (Material accounting computer system) has already been manufactured and installed, but the current MACS does not have the OPD generation and submission functions. OPD type, OPD class, OPD status, XML format, XML schema, OPD relevant computer systems, OPD data flow and OPD submission are explained. The target data for using OPD generation and submission functions is the start of the RRP active test. (S.Y.)

  5. 19 CFR 148.111 - Written declaration for unaccompanied articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written declaration for unaccompanied articles... of the United States § 148.111 Written declaration for unaccompanied articles. The baggage... covers articles which do not accompany him and: (a) The articles are entitled to free entry under the $1...

  6. 50 CFR 14.62 - Exceptions to import declaration requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exceptions to import declaration requirements. 14.62 Section 14.62 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 14.62 Exceptions to import declaration requirements. (a) Except for wildlife requiring a permit...

  7. 50 CFR 14.61 - Import declaration requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Import declaration requirements. 14.61 Section 14.61 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... PLANTS IMPORTATION, EXPORTATION, AND TRANSPORTATION OF WILDLIFE Wildlife Declarations § 14.61 Import...

  8. Universal Declaration of Human Rights: 40th Anniversary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Juanita, Ed.

    December 10, 1988, marks the 40th anniversary of the adoption by the United Nations of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The Declaration represents the first comprehensive, global statement on basic human rights, embracing many of the values long held by U.S. citizens; and it urges all peoples and all nations to promote respect for the…

  9. How to Do Things Without Words : A Theory of Declarations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J. P.; Buekens, Filip

    Declarations like this meeting is adjourned make certain facts the case by representing them as being the case. Yet surprisingly little attention has been paid to the mechanism whereby the utterance of a declaration can bring about a new state of affairs. In this paper, we use the incentivization

  10. 12 CFR 5.62 - Date of declaration of dividend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Date of declaration of dividend. 5.62 Section 5.62 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES, POLICIES, AND PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE ACTIVITIES Payment of Dividends § 5.62 Date of declaration of dividend. A national...

  11. 76 FR 9231 - New Customs Declarations Label Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 New Customs Declarations Label Requirements AGENCY: Postal Service... goods that enter the Customs Territory of the United States (CTUS), from outside the CTUS, to bear a customs declaration label. Additionally, the Postal Service updates the standards for items weighing 16...

  12. 78 FR 70065 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs Declaration AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland... concerning the Customs Declaration. This request for comment is being made pursuant to the Paperwork...

  13. 28 CFR 8.8 - Advertisement and declaration of forfeiture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertisement and declaration of forfeiture. 8.8 Section 8.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FBI FORFEITURE AUTHORITY FOR CERTAIN STATUTES § 8.8 Advertisement and declaration of forfeiture. (a) The notice required by customs...

  14. 47 CFR 2.906 - Declaration of Conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Declaration of Conformity. 2.906 Section 2.906... Conformity. (a) A Declaration of Conformity is a procedure where the responsible party, as defined in § 2.909... of Conformity attaches to all items subsequently marketed by the responsible party which are...

  15. Division of labor in the interpretation of declaratives and interrogatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farkas, D.F.; Roelofsen, F.

    This article presents an account of the semantic content and conventional discourse effects of a range of sentence types in English, namely falling declaratives, polar interrogatives and certain kinds of rising declaratives and tag interrogatives. The account aims to divide the labor between

  16. Declaration on action for environment and health in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The Ministers of the Environment and the Ministers of Health of the European Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Members of the European Commission have met in Helsinki, Finland, and issued this declaration on Action for Environment and Health in Europe. The declaration primarily deals with environmental pollution protection, public health

  17. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights - Only a Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Elisabeth

    2002-01-01

    Explains provisions contained within the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, tracing historical beginnings of human rights to 1945, detailing events after 1945 up to the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations, and explaining essential terminology used in describing human rights instruments that have been…

  18. Thematic development of declarations on Sustainability in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou; Holm, Tove

    2012-01-01

    Declarations on Sustainability in Higher Education (SHE) have grown in number and significance over the last decade. SHE declarations can be viewed as a piece of non binding international regulation that shapes universities’ pioneering role in ensuring sustainable development. Examination...... of the international SHE literature reveals no study that deals specifically with the interaction between declarations developed by the university sector and declarations developed by governmental and intergovernmental institutions. An analysis of this type can give us important insights in what themes these parties......) an analysis of themes the two types of declarations might have in common; and if so (3) an analysis of how they have developed during the past decade. The article finds four new themes that previous research has not identified, and shows how the valuation of nature is under reconfiguration in higher education...

  19. Actions of a separately strict cpo-monoid on pointed directed complete posets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halimeh Moghbeli Damaneh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ‎ In the present article‎, ‎we study some categorical properties of the category {$bf‎ Cpo_{Sep}$-$S$} of all {separately strict $S$-cpo's}; cpo's equipped with‎ a compatible right action of a separately strict cpo-monoid $S$ which is‎ strict continuous in each component‎. ‎In particular‎, we show that this category is reflective and coreflective in the‎ category of $S$-cpo's‎, ‎find the free and cofree functors‎, characterize products and coproducts‎. ‎Furthermore‎, ‎epimorphisms and‎  monomorphisms in {$bf Cpo_{Sep}$-$S$} are studied‎, ‎and show that‎ {$bf Cpo_{Sep}$-$S$} is not cartesian closed‎.

  20. The photon is no strict particle and nonlocality is far from being proven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greulich, Karl Otto [Fritz Lipmann Institut, Jena (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Two aspects of philosophical discussions on physics are the wave particle dualism and non locality including entanglement. However the strict particle aspect of the photon, in the common sense view, has never been proven. The accumulation time argument, the only experimental verification of a strictly particle like photon, has so far not yet been satisfied. Also, experiments thought to prove nonlocality have loophole which have so far not yet been safely closed, and now an even more serious loophole emerges. Thus, also nonlocality cannot be seen as proven. This demands some fine tuning of philosophical discussions on critical experiments in physics.

  1. Nonhuman Primates do Declare! A Comparison of Declarative Symbol and Gesture Use in Two Children, Two Bonobos, and A Chimpanzee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyn, Heidi; Greenfield, Patricia M.; Savage-Rumbaugh, Sue; Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Hopkins, William D.

    2011-01-01

    While numerous publications have shown that apes can learn some aspects of human language, one frequently cited difference between humans and apes is the relative infrequency of declaratives (comments and statements) as opposed to imperatives (requests) in ape symbol use. This paper describes the use of declaratives in three language-competent apes and two children. The apes produced a lower proportion of spontaneous declaratives than did the children. However, both groups used declaratives to name objects, to interact and negotiate, and to make comments about other individuals. Both apes and children also made comments about past and future events. However, showing/offering/giving, attention getting, and comments on possession were declarative types made by the children but rarely by the apes. PMID:21516208

  2. 75 FR 60133 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... Activities: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or... the Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or...: Title: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or...

  3. More strictly protected areas are not necessarily more protective: evidence from Bolivia, Costa Rica, Indonesia, and Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Paul J; Hanauer, Merlin M; Miteva, Daniela A; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K; Canavire-Bacarreza, Gustavo Javier; Sims, Katharine R E

    2013-01-01

    National parks and other protected areas are at the forefront of global efforts to protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, not all protection is equal. Some areas are assigned strict legal protection that permits few extractive human uses. Other protected area designations permit a wider range of uses. Whether strictly protected areas are more effective in achieving environmental objectives is an empirical question: although strictly protected areas legally permit less anthropogenic disturbance, the social conflicts associated with assigning strict protection may lead politicians to assign strict protection to less-threatened areas and may lead citizens or enforcement agents to ignore the strict legal restrictions. We contrast the impacts of strictly and less strictly protected areas in four countries using IUCN designations to measure de jure strictness, data on deforestation to measure outcomes, and a quasi-experimental design to estimate impacts. On average, stricter protection reduced deforestation rates more than less strict protection, but the additional impact was not always large and sometimes arose because of where stricter protection was assigned rather than regulatory strictness per se. We also show that, in protected area studies contrasting y management regimes, there are y 2 policy-relevant impacts, rather than only y, as earlier studies have implied. (letter)

  4. Strict Monotonicity and Unique Continuation for the Third-Order Spectrum of Biharmonic Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Ben Haddouch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We will study the spectrum for the biharmonic operator involving the laplacian and the gradient of the laplacian with weight, which we call third-order spectrum. We will show that the strict monotonicity of the eigenvalues of the operator , where , holds if some unique continuation property is satisfied by the corresponding eigenfunctions.

  5. "Let the Master Respond": Should Schools Be Strictly Liable When Employees Sexually Abuse Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossey, Richard; DeMitchell, Todd

    Although sexual abuse against children is a problem in the public schools, school officials have generally not acted aggressively to stop it. This paper argues for a strict liability standard--the assessment of liability without fault--against a school district in cases of student sexual abuse by a school employee. Part 1 explores the principle of…

  6. Detection of low numbers of microplastics in North Sea fish using strict quality assurance criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermsen, E.; Pompe, R.; Besseling, E.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated 400 individual fish of four North Sea species: Atlantic Herring, Sprat, Common Dab, and Whiting on ingestion of > 20 μm microplastic. Strict quality assurance criteria were followed in order to control contamination during the study. Two plastic particles were found in only 1 (a

  7. History, administration, goals, values, and long-term data of Russia's strictly protected scientific nature reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin A. Spetich; Anna E. Kvashnina; Y.D. Nukhimovskya; Olin E. Jr. Rhodes

    2009-01-01

    One of the most comprehensive attempts at biodiversity conservation in Russia and the former Soviet Union has been the establishment of an extensive network of protected natural areas. Among all types of protected areas in Russia, zapovedniks (strictly protected scientific preserve) have been the most effective in protecting biodiversity at the ecosystem scale. Russia...

  8. The Preventive Effect of Strict Gun Control Laws on Suicide and Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; Murrell, Mary E.

    1982-01-01

    Examined state gun control laws and used a multidimensional scaling technique to study the relationship of strictness and death rates. Results showed states with stricter laws had lower suicide rates by firearms but higher rates by other means. No effect on homicide was found. (JAC)

  9. Strictly monolayer large continuous MoS{sub 2} films on diverse substrates and their luminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohapatra, P. K.; Deb, S.; Singh, B. P.; Vasa, P.; Dhar, S., E-mail: dhar@phy.iitb.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2016-01-25

    Despite a tremendous interest on molybdenum disulfide as a thinnest direct band gap semiconductor, single step synthesis of a large area purely monolayer MoS{sub 2} film has not yet been reported. Here, we report a CVD route to synthesize a continuous film of strictly monolayer MoS{sub 2} covering an area as large as a few cm{sup 2} on a variety of different substrates without using any seeding material or any elaborate pretreatment of the substrate. This is achieved by allowing the growth to take place in the naturally formed gap between a piece of SiO{sub 2} coated Si wafer and the substrate, when the latter is placed on top of the former inside a CVD reactor. We propose a qualitative model to explain why the MoS{sub 2} films are always strictly monolayer in this method. The photoluminescence study of these monolayers shows the characteristic excitonic and trionic features associated with monolayer MoS{sub 2}. In addition, a broad defect related luminescence band appears at ∼1.7 eV. As temperature decreases, the intensity of this broad feature increases, while the band edge luminescence reduces.

  10. Declaration of the Population Policy [April 1988].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The Declaration of the Population Policy, Ministry of Planning and Cooperation, Directorate of Human Resources, 1988, of Senegal begins with the basic principles of the population policy. The intervention by the State into "individual" problems is justified by the Constitution authorizing concrete action in all areas of national life, including population and family life, where the social and economic improvement of Senegal and the entire African continent rests. The population policy takes into account demographic, economic, social, and cultural factors, as well as respect for the fundamental rights of individual persons, the necessity of preserving the family unit, and respect for the rights of individuals and couples to choose the size of their family and to control their fertility. The policy's objectives are defined and include the reduction of morbidity and mortality rates, particularly among mothers and infants, by instituting maternal-child health programs, including family planning. While it would be premature to determine quantitative demographic objectives, reviewing demographic perspectives can clarify future choices, and tables are provided. Section 3.3 defines the following population policy strategies: maternal-child health; fertility and birth spacing; promotion of women (status of women); promotion of youth; promotion of the elderly; preservation of the family; migration, urbanization, and management of territory; employment; studies and research (on population, fertility, demographic and health, infant mortality, and a general population census); information, education, and communication on the population issues; and legislative measures and regulation. The institutional framework will be advanced through the efforts of several kinds of specified institutions, among them: The Interministerial Council on Population, presided over by the Head of States; the National Population Commission; the Directorate of Human Resources; the Ministry of Public

  11. STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP OF UKRAINE: DECLARATIONS AND REALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Demchenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The strategic partnership of cooperation is a higher step than conventional relationships. Conditioned by specific interests of the parties, such cooperation is possible between those partners who have mutual territorial claims and have mutual commitment to the territorial integrity. At the same time with many partners (it’s quantity is about 20, Ukraine has no simple partnership and cooperation, a lot of them reseived the status of "strategic partners, but often they are not the states, whose national interests in strategic areas correspondes to the current interests of Ukraine. It should be noted that today among the countries that have been declared as the strategic partners of Ukraine, not all of them support national interests in the present. Ukraine, appeared as an independent state, began use new methods of international cooperation, without adequately developed strategy for their use. Some problems facing the country, can be solved, other must be taken into account in determining its development strategy. Therefore, the subject of the research is global and specific problems that consider issues of economic security and partnership in Ukraine in modern conditions. The objective of the paper is to study options for a strategic partnership in Ukraine by improving the institutional mechanism to coordinate the integration processes. The article is based on studies of foreign and domestic scientists. Practical implications. Formation of effective international cooperation of Ukraine in the context of globalization, the choice of strategic partners on the basis of mutually beneficial cooperation. Results. The analysis of Ukraine’s cooperation with Russia; the features of the largest modern regional associations; reasonably objective need for Ukraine’s integration into the regional associations; recommendations on the necessary measures to accelerate the process of deepening Ukraine’s integration with the EU.

  12. Assessing the Land Subsidence Governance in Ningbo City: By a Close Study of the Building Collapse at the Strictly Protected Land Subsidence Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xia

    2016-04-01

    Ningbo is a coastal city in East China, its land subsidence problem was noticed in the 1960s. However, scientific management was insufficient at that time, so with the fast city development from the 1980s, groundwater was used by a large amount of small factories, and tall buildings were built on the land. It was in 2008, scientists predicted that if without doing anything to prevent the land from subsiding, the city will be covered by the East Sea in 2030. From then on, the local government implied several policies, such as shut down most of the groundwater pumping wells, set up a new authority to enhance the cooperation among different administration departments, and also set up a land subsidence monitoring center for the city. Recently, it is declared that a Stereo regulatory system of land subsidence governance has been achieved. However, in 2012, a 23-years old building in the city center collapsed. According to the City Planning 2009, this building is located just in the strictly protected land subsidence area. The experts, however, think that land subsidence is not the main reason, since there are many illegal changes to the building during the past 23 years. The aim of my research is to assess the land subsidence governance in Ningbo city. I studied the collapsed building, how it was built, what has changed after building, how the environment changed in this area, and how this area became the strictly protected land subsidence area, and what kind of protections have been made. Actually, during the case study I discuss the land subsidence governance design of Ningbo, and to see what practices and lessons we can learn from this case.

  13. Iterative algorithms for the input and state recovery from the approximate inverse of strictly proper multivariable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liwen; Xu, Qiang

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes new iterative algorithms for the unknown input and state recovery from the system outputs using an approximate inverse of the strictly proper linear time-invariant (LTI) multivariable system. One of the unique advantages from previous system inverse algorithms is that the output differentiation is not required. The approximate system inverse is stable due to the systematic optimal design of a dummy feedthrough D matrix in the state-space model via the feedback stabilization. The optimal design procedure avoids trial and error to identify such a D matrix which saves tremendous amount of efforts. From the derived and proved convergence criteria, such an optimal D matrix also guarantees the convergence of algorithms. Illustrative examples show significant improvement of the reference input signal tracking by the algorithms and optimal D design over non-iterative counterparts on controllable or stabilizable LTI systems, respectively. Case studies of two Boeing-767 aircraft aerodynamic models further demonstrate the capability of the proposed methods.

  14. New procedure for declaring accidents resulting in bodily injuries

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The HR Department would like to remind members of personnel that, according to Administrative Circular No. 14 (Rev. 3), entitled “Protection of members of the personnel against the financial consequences of illness, accident and incapacity for work”, accidents resulting in bodily injuries and presumed to be of an occupational nature should, under normal circumstances, be declared within 10 working days of the accident having occurred, accompanied by a medical certificate. In an effort to streamline procedures, occupational accident declarations should be made via EDH using the “declaration of occupational accident” electronic form. For the declaration of non-occupational accidents resulting in bodily injuries of members of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS), a new paper form has been elaborated that can be downloaded from the CHIS website and is also available from the UNIQA Helpdesk in the Main Building. If you encounter technical difficulties with these new ...

  15. The assessment of geodiversity – a premise for declaring the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , when UNESCO's initiative regarding UNESCO Global Network of. Geoparks took shape. Between 2004 and 2008, numerous geoparks were declared, which led to the globalization of this concept, and to geoparks being received as systemic ...

  16. Argentine-Brazilian declaration on common nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The document reproduces the texts of the speeches made by the Presidents of Argentina and Brazil at Foz do Iguacu, Brazil, on 28 November 1990, at the signing of the Argentine-Brazilian Declaration on Common Nuclear Policy

  17. The Brussels Declaration: the need for change in asthma management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgate, S.; Bisgaard, H.; Bjermer, L.

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is a highly prevalent condition across Europe and numerous guidelines have been developed to optimise management. However, asthma can be neither cured nor prevented, treatment choices are limited and many patients have poorly controlled or uncontrolled asthma. The Brussels Declaration on A...... reviews the evidence supporting the need for change in asthma management and summarises the ten key points contained in the Brussels Declaration Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12......Asthma is a highly prevalent condition across Europe and numerous guidelines have been developed to optimise management. However, asthma can be neither cured nor prevented, treatment choices are limited and many patients have poorly controlled or uncontrolled asthma. The Brussels Declaration...... on Asthma, sponsored by The Asthma, Allergy and Inflammation Research Charity, was developed to call attention to the shortfalls in asthma management and to urge European policy makers to recognise that asthma is a public health problem that should be a political priority. The Declaration urges recognition...

  18. Cartagena declaration on renunciation of weapons of mass destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Cartagena Declaration on Renunciation of Weapons of Mass Destruction, signed by the Presidents of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela at Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, on 4 December 1991

  19. KRITIK TERHADAP EPISTEMOLOGI UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS: PERSPEKTIF ISLAM

    OpenAIRE

    Afdal Afdal; Waston Waston

    2015-01-01

    Since established, Universal Declaracion of Human Rights (UDHR) upheld as a global value by all the countries in the world. UDHR through the UN as a reference as a common standard for measuring the level of success of a country in upholding human rights. How this study focus on the implications of the secular epistemology against the substance of the Universal Declaration Of Human Rights? and How does Islam look at epistemology Universal Declaration Of Human Rights? To answer t...

  20. Kritik Terhadap Epistemologi Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Perspektif Islam

    OpenAIRE

    Afdal, Afdal; Waston, Waston

    2015-01-01

    Since established, Universal Declaracion of Human Rights (UDHR) upheldas a global value by all the countries in the world. UDHR through the UN as a referenceas a common standard for measuring the level of success of a country in upholdinghuman rights. How this study focus on the implications of the secular epistemologyagainst the substance of the Universal Declaration Of Human Rights? and How doesIslam look at epistemology Universal Declaration Of Human Rights? To answer thesequestions used t...

  1. Needle-use declarations at the Olympic Games Rio 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Molly; Stuart, Mark Campbell; Gribble, Hannah; Budgett, Richard; Pipe, Andrew

    2017-11-21

    We report on the results of the 'IOC Needle Policy' applied during the course of the Games of the XXXI Summer Olympiad in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The policy was intended to empower physicians to ensure appropriate clinical use of needles within team medical environments, enhance the safety of those responsible for housekeeping services and others in the Olympic environment, and permit documentation of such procedures as an adjunct to the doping control programme. Any needle use required the submission of an 'Injection Declaration Form' to IOC medical officials. All ' Injection Declaration Forms' were reviewed and archived. The declarations provided basic information regarding the nature of the needle use and the product(s) involved, the physician, athlete and respective National Olympic Committee (NOC). The details of the declarations were subsequently categorised. A total of 367 declarations were received from physicians representing 49 NOCs. Needle-use declarations were more common in athletics, gymnastics, football and aquatics. A single product was administered in 60% of the cases, and more than one product was administered in 40%. The majority of declarations indicated the use of local anaesthetics, glucocorticoids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics. The introduction of a 'Needle Policy' in the Olympic Games setting was intended to minimise the use of needles by non-physicians, promote evidence-based practice and to deter needle-based doping practices. Declarations were received from 49 of 209 NOCs suggesting either that needle use is minimal among certain teams or opportunities remain to enhance compliance with such policies at future games. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Working, declarative and procedural memory in specific language impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Jarrad A.G.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Page, Debra; Ullman, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), abnormalities of brain structures underlying procedural memory largely explain the language deficits in children with specific language impairment (SLI). These abnormalities are posited to result in core deficits of procedural memory, which in turn explain the grammar problems in the disorder. The abnormalities are also likely to lead to problems with other, non-procedural functions, such as working memory, that rely at least partly on the affected brain structures. In contrast, declarative memory is expected to remain largely intact, and should play an important compensatory role for grammar. These claims were tested by examining measures of working, declarative and procedural memory in 51 children with SLI and 51 matched typically-developing (TD) children (mean age 10). Working memory was assessed with the Working Memory Test Battery for Children, declarative memory with the Children’s Memory Scale, and procedural memory with a visuo-spatial Serial Reaction Time task. As compared to the TD children, the children with SLI were impaired at procedural memory, even when holding working memory constant. In contrast, they were spared at declarative memory for visual information, and at declarative memory in the verbal domain after controlling for working memory and language. Visuo-spatial short-term memory was intact, whereas verbal working memory was impaired, even when language deficits were held constant. Correlation analyses showed neither visuo-spatial nor verbal working memory was associated with either lexical or grammatical abilities in either the SLI or TD children. Declarative memory correlated with lexical abilities in both groups of children. Finally, grammatical abilities were associated with procedural memory in the TD children, but with declarative memory in the children with SLI. These findings replicate and extend previous studies of working, declarative and procedural memory in SLI. Overall, we

  3. A Criterium for the Strict Positivity of the Density of the Law of a Poisson Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léandre Rémi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We translate in semigroup theory our result (Léandre, 1990 giving a necessary condition so that the law of a Markov process with jumps could have a strictly positive density. This result express, that we have to jump in a finite number of jumps in a "submersive" way from the starting point to the end point if the density of the jump process is strictly positive in . We use the Malliavin Calculus of Bismut type of (Léandre, (2008;2010 translated in semi-group theory as a tool, and the interpretation in semi-group theory of some classical results of the stochastic analysis for Poisson process as, for instance, the formula giving the law of a compound Poisson process.

  4. The effect of 8 days of strict bed rest on the incretin effect in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Harder-Lauridsen, Nina Majlund; Benatti, Fabiana Braga

    2016-01-01

    in the levels of GLP-1 and Glucagon. Bed rest led to a mean loss of 2.4 kg of fat-free mass, and induced insulin resistance evaluated by the Matsuda index, but did not affect the incretin effect (P = 0.6). In conclusion, 8 days of bed rest induces insulin resistance, but we did not see evidence of an associated......Bed rest and physical inactivity are the consequences of hospital admission for many patients. Physical inactivity induces changes in glucose metabolism, but its effect on the incretin effect, which is reduced in, e.g., Type 2 diabetes, is unknown. To investigate how 8 days of strict bed rest...... affects the incretin effect, 10 healthy nonobese male volunteers underwent 8 days of strict bed rest. Before and after the intervention, all volunteers underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) followed by an intravenous glucose infusion (IVGI) on the following day to mimic the blood glucose profile...

  5. Detection of low numbers of microplastics in North Sea fish using strict quality assurance criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsen, Enya; Pompe, Renske; Besseling, Ellen; Koelmans, Albert A

    2017-09-15

    We investigated 400 individual fish of four North Sea species: Atlantic Herring, Sprat, Common Dab, and Whiting on ingestion of >20μm microplastic. Strict quality assurance criteria were followed in order to control contamination during the study. Two plastic particles were found in only 1 (a Sprat) out of 400 individuals (0.25%, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.09-1.1%). The particles were identified to consist of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) through FTIR spectroscopy. No contamination occurred during the study, showing the method applied to be suitable for microplastic ingestion studies in biota. We discuss the low particle count for North Sea fish with those in other studies and suggest a relation between reported particle count and degree of quality assurance applied. Microplastic ingestion by fish may be less common than thought initially, with low incidence shown in this study, and other studies adhering to strict quality assurance criteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic hydrogen-producing culture enriched from digested household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Kotay, Shireen Meher; Trably, Eric

    2009-01-01

    sources. Growth on glucose produced acetate, H-2 and carbon dioxide. Maximal H-2 production rate on glucose was 1.1 mmol l(-1) h(-1) with a maximum H-2 yield of 1.9 mole H-2 per mole glucose. 16S ribosomal DNA clone library analyses showed that the culture members were phylogenetically affiliated......The aim of this study was to enrich, characterize and identify strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic hydrogen (H-2) producers from digested household solid wastes. A strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic H-2 producing bacterial culture was enriched from a lab-scale digester treating household...... wastes at 70 degrees C. The enriched mixed culture consisted of two rod-shaped bacterial members growing at an optimal temperature of 80 degrees C and an optimal pH 8.1. The culture was able to utilize glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, arabinose, maltose, sucrose, pyruvate and glycerol as carbon...

  7. A Hybrid P2P Overlay Network for Non-strictly Hierarchically Categorized Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yi; Asaka, Takuya; Takahashi, Tatsuro

    In P2P content distribution systems, there are many cases in which the content can be classified into hierarchically organized categories. In this paper, we propose a hybrid overlay network design suitable for such content called Pastry/NSHCC (Pastry for Non-Strictly Hierarchically Categorized Content). The semantic information of classification hierarchies of the content can be utilized regardless of whether they are in a strict tree structure or not. By doing so, the search scope can be restrained to any granularity, and the number of query messages also decreases while maintaining keyword searching availability. Through simulation, we showed that the proposed method provides better performance and lower overhead than unstructured overlays exploiting the same semantic information.

  8. Studi Komparatif antara Universal Declaration Of Human Rights 1948 dan The Cairo Declaration On Human Rights In Islam 1990

    OpenAIRE

    Sunaryo, Sunaryo

    2014-01-01

    Diskusi Hak Asasi Manusia (HAM) merupakan salah satu topik yang tetap aktual dan mengglobal di samping masalah demokrasi dan lingkungan hidup. Manusia sebagai makhluk Tuhan dan makhluk sosial memiliki hak-hak asasi yang mesti dihormati dan dilindungi oleh siapapun. Di dalam Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948 (UDHR) dan di dalam The Cairo Declaration on Human Rights In Islam 1990 (CD), berbagai macam hak-hak asasi dimaksud telah diatur secara general dan komprehensif. Meskipun demikian...

  9. Weak asymptotic solution for a non-strictly hyperbolic system of conservation laws-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Ranjan Sahoo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce a concept of entropy weak asymptotic solution for a system of conservation laws and construct the same for a prolonged system of conservation laws which is highly non-strictly hyperbolic. This is first done for Riemann type initial data by introducing $\\delta,\\delta',\\delta''$ waves along a discontinuity curve and then for general initial data by piecing together the Riemann solutions.

  10. Multiple-Set Split Feasibility Problems for κ-Strictly Pseudononspreading Mapping in Hilbert Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Quan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to prove some weak and strong convergence theorems for solving the multiple-set split feasibility problems for κ-strictly pseudononspreading mapping in infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces by using the proposed iterative method. The main results presented in this paper extend and improve the corresponding results of Xu et al. (2006, of Osilike et al. (2011, and of many other authors.

  11. Examination of the PCICE method in the nearly incompressible, as well as strictly incompressible, limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, Ray A.; Martineau, Richard C.

    2007-01-01

    The conservative-form, pressure-based PCICE numerical method (Martineau and Berry, 2004) (Berry, 2006), recently developed for computing transient fluid flows of all speeds from very low to very high (with strong shocks), is simplified and generalized. Though the method automatically treats a continuous transition of compressibility, three distinct, limiting compressibility regimes are formally defined for purposes of discussion and comparison with traditional methods - the strictly incompressible limit, the nearly incompressible limit, and the fully compressible limit. The PCICE method's behavior is examined in each limiting regime. In the strictly incompressible limit the PCICE algorithm reduces to the traditional MAC-type method with velocity divergence driving the pressure Poisson equation. In the nearly incompressible limit the PCICE algorithm is found to reduce to a generalization of traditional incompressible methods, i.e. to one in which not only the velocity divergence effect, but also the density gradient effect is included as a driving function in the pressure Poisson equation. This nearly incompressible regime has received little attention, and it appears that in the past, strictly incompressible methods may have been conveniently applied to flows in this regime at the expense of ignoring a potentially important coupling mechanism. This could be significant in many important flows; for example, in natural convection flows resulting from high heat flux. In the fully compressible limit or regime, the algorithm is found to reduce to an expression equivalent to density-based methods for high-speed flow. (author)

  12. Frequency effect on p-nitrophenol degradation under conditions of strict acoustic and electric control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-ping Zhu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of decomposing p-nitrophenol (PNP with power ultrasound requires strict control of acoustic and electric conditions. In this study, the conditions, including acoustic power and acoustic intensity, but not ultrasonic frequency, were controlled strictly at constant levels. The absorbency and the COD concentrations of the samples were measured in order to show the variation of the sample concentration. The results show significant differences in the trend of the solution degradation rate as acoustic power increases after the PNP solution (with a concentration of 114 mg/L and a pH value of 5.4 is irradiated for 60 min with ultrasonic frequencies of 530.8 kHz, 610.6 kHz, 855.0 kHz, and 1 130.0 kHz. The degradation rate of the solution increases with time and acoustic power (acoustic intensity. On the other hand, the degradation rate of the solution is distinctly dependent on frequency when the acoustic power and intensity are strictly controlled and maintained at constant levels. The degradation rate of the PNP solution declines with ultrasonic frequencies of 530.8 kHz, 610.6 kHz, 855.0 kHz, and 1 130.0 kHz; the COD concentration, on the contrary, increase.

  13. TESTING STRICT HYDROSTATIC EQUILIBRIUM IN SIMULATED CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR A1689

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, S. M.; Umetsu, K.; Chiu, I.-N.; Chen, P.; Hearn, N.; Broadhurst, T.; Bryan, G.; Shang, C.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate mass determination of clusters of galaxies is crucial if they are to be used as cosmological probes. However, there are some discrepancies between cluster masses determined based on gravitational lensing and X-ray observations assuming strict hydrostatic equilibrium (i.e., the equilibrium gas pressure is provided entirely by thermal pressure). Cosmological simulations suggest that turbulent gas motions remaining from hierarchical structure formation may provide a significant contribution to the equilibrium pressure in clusters. We analyze a sample of massive clusters of galaxies drawn from high-resolution cosmological simulations and find a significant contribution (20%-45%) from non-thermal pressure near the center of relaxed clusters, and, in accord with previous studies, a minimum contribution at about 0.1 R vir , growing to about 30%-45% at the virial radius, R vir . Our results strongly suggest that relaxed clusters should have significant non-thermal support in their core region. As an example, we test the validity of strict hydrostatic equilibrium in the well-studied massive galaxy cluster A1689 using the latest high-resolution gravitational lensing and X-ray observations. We find a contribution of about 40% from non-thermal pressure within the core region of A1689, suggesting an alternate explanation for the mass discrepancy: the strict hydrostatic equilibrium is not valid in this region.

  14. Temporary Strict Maternal Avoidance of Cow’s Milk and Infantile Colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Sajedi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Infant colic is a common problem characterized by excessive crying and fussing. We examined whether colic symptoms of exclusively breast-milk-fed infants would be improved by temporary strict maternal avoidance of cows milk. This study is analytic and experimental. Sixty-six subjects were recruited during winter of 2006 from a clinic in Isfahan, Iran. Breast-milk-fed in-fants with "colic", age 3-6 months and to be in otherwise good health were referred by pediatri-cians. The intervention was 1 week period of strict maternal avoidance of cows milk while they continued exclusive breast-milk-feeding. All infants showed improvement in distressed behavior (crying and fussing during intervention. The total recorded crying and fussing time was reduced by an average of 31%. A significant difference was found in cry and fuss time between first and last 2 days of intervention (P = 0.000. Cows milk proteins may play an etiologic role in colic. We propose that a brief intervention with strict maternal avoidance of cows milk may be an effective treatment for colic in some breast-milk-fed infants.

  15. The relation between receptive grammar and procedural, declarative, and working memory in specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Ullman, Michael T; Lum, Jarrad A G

    2015-01-01

    What memory systems underlie grammar in children, and do these differ between typically developing (TD) children and children with specific language impairment (SLI)? Whilst there is substantial evidence linking certain memory deficits to the language problems in children with SLI, few studies have investigated multiple memory systems simultaneously, examining not only possible memory deficits but also memory abilities that may play a compensatory role. This study examined the extent to which procedural, declarative, and working memory abilities predict receptive grammar in 45 primary school aged children with SLI (30 males, 15 females) and 46 TD children (30 males, 16 females), both on average 9;10 years of age. Regression analyses probed measures of all three memory systems simultaneously as potential predictors of receptive grammar. The model was significant, explaining 51.6% of the variance. There was a significant main effect of learning in procedural memory and a significant group × procedural learning interaction. Further investigation of the interaction revealed that procedural learning predicted grammar in TD but not in children with SLI. Indeed, procedural learning was the only predictor of grammar in TD. In contrast, only learning in declarative memory significantly predicted grammar in SLI. Thus, different memory systems are associated with receptive grammar abilities in children with SLI and their TD peers. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate a significant group by memory system interaction in predicting grammar in children with SLI and their TD peers. In line with Ullman's Declarative/Procedural model of language and procedural deficit hypothesis of SLI, variability in understanding sentences of varying grammatical complexity appears to be associated with variability in procedural memory abilities in TD children, but with declarative memory, as an apparent compensatory mechanism, in children with SLI.

  16. REMINDER : Changes in family situation are to be declared promptly

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2012-01-01

    All changes in the family situation of members of the personnel (employed or associated) have to be declared without delay and in writing to the Organization.   Among the changes that shall be notified within 30 calendar days of their occurrence, the most frequent ones are: • marriage; • divorce; • entering into a partnership officially registered in a Member State; • dissolution of such a partnership; • death of the spouse or partner; and • birth or death of a child. For more information, in particular on how to declare any of the above changes, please see the CERN Admin e-guide. In addition, any change to the health insurance situation, the income or retirement pension of the spouse or partner of any staff member or fellow also has to be declared to the Organization in writing within 30 calendar days of its occurrence. Such changes shall be declared using the EDH “CHIS Declaration of health insurance situation spouse/partner&...

  17. Rate Control Efficacy in Permanent Atrial Fibrillation : Successful and Failed Strict Rate Control Against a Background of Lenient Rate Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenveld, Hessel F.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Crijns, Harry J. G. M.; Van den Berg, Maarten P.; Hillege, Hans L.; Alings, Marco; Van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to investigate differences in outcome between patients treated with successful strict, failed strict, and lenient rate control. Background The RACE II (Rate Control Efficacy in Permanent Atrial Fibrillation) study showed no difference in outcome between lenient and

  18. The strict liability principle in antidoping rules and the human rights of athletes: an approach critical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Cunha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Back Ground: the human lives in search of overrun at all levels, whether professional, emotional or in their interpersonal relationships. In the middle of sports this search becomes more visible, because hundredths of seconds can make the difference between the podium and the failure. Journals at any moment announces a new case of a positive doping in several sports. Objective: analyse the processes judged for doping in the STJD of the Brazilian athletism and verify if the pronounced sentences are in accordance with the Brazilian Constitution and with the Universal Declaration of the Human Rights. Materials and Methods: 18 cases were reviewed by the use of prohibited substance, between the years 2003 to 2006 by the STJD of Athletism. Results: of the 18 cases examined only 3 were acquitted by the STJD, however, these three, two have met suspension for two years, in order that WADA, not satisfied with the results asked the International Federation (IAAF to analyze them, and after guided them to the Court of Arbitration Sports (CAS. Conclusion: the rule of objective responsibility are not in accordance with the Brazilian Constitution and with the Universal Declaration of the Human Rights, leading athletes to respond irrespective proven their guilt.

  19. Strict versus liberal insulin therapy in the cardiac surgery patient: An evidence-based practice development, implementation and evaluation project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jacqueline M; Lauver, Lori S; Buck, Harleah G

    2018-02-01

    Hyperglycemia post-cardiac surgery is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Recent studies suggest maintaining liberal glycemic control (liberal CII protocol. Retrospective review of 144 strict CII patient records and 147 liberal CII patient records. Mean blood glucose was 159.8mg/dL (liberal CII) compared to 143.3mg/dL (strict CII) (p≤0.001). No surgical site infections occurred in either group. Mean ICU length of stay was 4.5days (liberal) versus 4.4days (strict) (p=0.74). Two 30-day mortalities occurred for the liberal cohort compared to no deaths in the strict group (p=0.49). Hypoglycemia incidence within 24h after surgery was 0.1% (liberal) compared to 0.3% (strict) compared to (p=0.16). Use of a nurse managed liberal CII resulted in similar outcomes with fewer incidents of hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Effects of growth temperature and strictly anaerobic recovery on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes during pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knabel, S J; Walker, H W; Hartman, P A; Mendonca, A F

    1990-02-01

    Listeria monocytogenes F5069 was suspended in either Trypticase soy broth-0.6% yeast extract (TSBYE) or sterile, whole milk and heated at 62.8 degrees C in sealed thermal death time tubes. Severely heat-injured cells were recovered in TSBYE within sealed thermal death time tubes because of the formation of reduced conditions in the depths of the TSBYE. Also, the use of strictly anaerobic Hungate techniques significantly increased recovery in TSBYE containing 1.5% agar compared with aerobically incubated controls. The exogenous addition of catalase, but not superoxide dismutase, slightly increased the recovery of heat-injured cells in TSBYE containing 1.5% agar incubated aerobically. Growth of cells at 43 degrees C caused a greater increase in heat resistance as compared with cells heat shocked at 43 degrees C or cells grown at lower temperatures. Growth of L. monocytogenes at 43 degrees C and enumeration by the use of strictly anaerobic Hungate techniques resulted in D62.8 degrees C values that were at least sixfold greater than those previously obtained by using cells grown at 37 degrees C and aerobic plating. Results indicate that, under the conditions of the present study, high levels of L. monocytogenes would survive the minimum low-temperature, long-time treatment required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for pasteurizing milk. The possible survival of low levels of L. monocytogenes during high-temperature, short-time pasteurization and enumeration of injured cells by recovery on selective media under strictly anaerobic conditions are discussed.

  1. Effect of cryopreservation and lyophilization on viability and growth of strict anaerobic human gut microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bircher, Lea; Geirnaert, Annelies; Hammes, Frederik; Lacroix, Christophe; Schwab, Clarissa

    2018-04-17

    Strict anaerobic gut microbes have been suggested as 'next-generation probiotics' for treating several intestinal disorders. The development of preservation techniques is of major importance for therapeutic application. This study investigated cryopreservation (-80°C) and lyophilization survival and storage stability (4°C for 3 months) of the strict anaerobic gut microbes Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Roseburia intestinalis, Anaerostipes caccae, Eubacterium hallii and Blautia obeum. To improve preservation survival, protectants sucrose and inulin (both 5% w/v) were added for lyophilization and were also combined with glycerol (15% v/v) for cryopreservation. Bacterial fitness, evaluated by maximum growth rate and lag phase, viability and membrane integrity were determined using a standardized growth assay and by flow cytometry as markers for preservation resistance. Lyophilization was more detrimental to viability and fitness than cryopreservation, but led to better storage stability. Adding sucrose and inulin enhanced viability and the proportion of intact cells during lyophilization of all strains. Viability of protectant-free B. thetaiotaomicron, A. caccae and F. prausnitzii was above 50% after cryopreservation and storage and increased to above 80% if protectants were present. The addition of glycerol, sucrose and inulin strongly enhanced the viability of B. obeum, E. hallii and R. intestinalis from 0.03-2% in protectant-free cultures to 11-37%. This is the first study that quantitatively compared the effect of cryopreservation and lyophilization and the addition of selected protectants on viability and fitness of six strict anaerobic gut microbes. Our results suggest that efficiency of protectants is process- and species-specific. © 2018 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Not to declare dead someone still alive: Case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelić Slađana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diagnosing death represents an activity that carries a great deal of public responsibility for medical professionals and is continually exposed to the control of citizens and media. Although this is a taboo subject in medical circles, unfortunately in medical practice there are situations when the physician issues a death diagnosis form without even examining the person or for an already buried person. Such physician’s action is impermissible and it leads to the possibility of professional and criminal law punishment. Case Outline. By giving examples from practice, we wish to point out the need for exceptional caution when confirming and diagnosing death in order to diagnose the true, i.e. rule out apparent death and consequently avoid the mistake of declaring dead someone still alive. Conclusion. When confirming and declaring death, exceptional caution of the physician is necessary so as not to declare dead someone still alive!

  3. To prevent the diversion of chemical products or installations. CWC - An international regulation on chemical products. Handbook of PCOD declaration. Handbook for Table 1 declaration. Handbook for Table 2 declaration. Handbook for Table 3 declaration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) aims at preventing risks of diversion of chemical products and installations, and therefore may concern various types of companies. A first document, illustrated by graphs, figures and tables proposes an overview of concerned actors, sectors, products and usages, of involved chemical reactions and associated production thresholds, and of levels of concerned international trade for a country. It mentions obligations and indicates some of the concerned products which are classified in four categories: Discrete Organic Chemicals, Table 1, Table 2, and Table 3. The four other documents are handbooks aimed at defining and describing whether and how to make associated declarations about these four categories. They recall the definition of the concerned products, indicate the concerned establishments, describe how to assess whether a declaration must be made, present the associated declarations and describe how to complete them in terms of method (paper form or through the internet) and of content

  4. New procedure for declaring changes in family and personal situation

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    On taking up their appointment, Members of the Personnel (employed and associated) are required to provide official documents as evidence of their family situation. Any subsequent change in their personal situation, or that of their family members, must be declared in writing to the Organization within 30 calendar days.   As part of their efforts to simplify procedures, the Administrative Processes Section (DG-RPC-PA) and the HR and GS Departments have produced a new EDH form entitled “Change of family and personal situation", which must be used to declare the following changes: birth or adoption of a child; marriage; divorce; entry into a civil partnership officially registered in a Member State; dissolution of such a partnership; change of name; change of nationality or new nationality.   Members of the Personnel must create the form themselves and provide the information required for the type of declaration concerned, indicating, if applicable, any benefit...

  5. Working, declarative and procedural memory in specific language impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lum, J. A. G.; Conti-Ramsden, G.; Page, D.

    2012-01-01

    at declarative memory for visual information, and at declarative memory in the verbal domain after controlling for working memory and language. Visuo-spatial short-term memory was intact, whereas verbal working memory was impaired, even when language deficits were held constant. Correlation analyses showed......According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), abnormalities of brain structures underlying procedural memory largely explain the language deficits in children with specific language impairment (SLI). These abnormalities are posited to result in core deficits of procedural memory, which...... in turn explain the grammar problems in the disorder. The abnormalities are also likely to lead to problems with other, non-procedural functions, such as working memory, that rely at least partly on the affected brain structures. In contrast, declarative memory is expected to remain largely intact...

  6. Effects of growth temperature and strictly anaerobic recovery on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes during pasteurization.

    OpenAIRE

    Knabel, S J; Walker, H W; Hartman, P A; Mendonca, A F

    1990-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes F5069 was suspended in either Trypticase soy broth-0.6% yeast extract (TSBYE) or sterile, whole milk and heated at 62.8 degrees C in sealed thermal death time tubes. Severely heat-injured cells were recovered in TSBYE within sealed thermal death time tubes because of the formation of reduced conditions in the depths of the TSBYE. Also, the use of strictly anaerobic Hungate techniques significantly increased recovery in TSBYE containing 1.5% agar compared with aerobicall...

  7. The Dirichlet problem for the Monge-Ampere equation in convex (but not strictly convex domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hartenstine

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that the Dirichlet problem for the Monge-Amp`ere equation $det D^2 u = mu$ in a bounded strictly convex domain $Omega$ in $mathbb{R}^n$ has a weak solution (in the sense of Aleksandrov for any finite Borel measure $mu$ on $Omega$ and for any continuous boundary data. We consider the Dirichlet problem when $Omega$ is only assumed to be convex, and give a necessary and sufficient condition on the boundary data for solvability.

  8. Selections of the metric projection operator and strict solarity of sets with continuous metric projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimov, A. R.

    2017-07-01

    In a broad class of finite-dimensional Banach spaces, we show that a closed set with lower semicontinuous metric projection is a strict sun, admits a continuous selection of the metric projection operator onto it, has contractible intersections with balls, and its (nonempty) intersection with any closed ball is a retract of this ball. For sets with continuous metric projection, a number of new results relating the solarity of such sets to the stability of the operator of best approximation are obtained. Bibliography 25 titles.

  9. Transplanting Diseases from Organ Donors in Western Europe: Fault Liability or Strict Liability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckx, Nils; Verhoeven, Dimitri

    2015-06-01

    This article will examine the problem of disease transmission through organ transplantation from a civil liability perspective. Both fault liability and strict product liability might be possible. These two types of liability will be compared, while applying them to the actions of the central parties involved in organ donation and transplantation, namely the physician/hospital, the donor and the organ exchange organisation. While product liability is generally an easier way to obtain compensation than fault liability, it might nevertheless place too heavy a burden on the transplant professionals.

  10. Single molecule experiments challenge the strict wave-particle dualism of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greulich, Karl Otto

    2010-01-21

    Single molecule techniques improve our understanding of the photon and light. If the single photon double slit experiment is performed at the "single photon limit" of a multi-atom light source, faint light pulses with more than one photon hamper the interpretation. Single molecules, quantum dots or defect centres in crystals should be used as light source. "Single photon detectors" do not meet their promise-only "photon number resolving single photon detectors" do so. Particularly, the accumulation time argument, the only safe basis for the postulate of a strictly particle like photon, has so far not yet been verified.

  11. Single Molecule Experiments Challenge the Strict Wave-Particle Dualism of Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Otto Greulich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Single molecule techniques improve our understanding of the photon and light. If the single photon double slit experiment is performed at the “single photon limit” of a multi-atom light source, faint light pulses with more than one photon hamper the interpretation. Single molecules, quantum dots or defect centres in crystals should be used as light source. “Single photon detectors” do not meet their promise―only “photon number resolving single photon detectors” do so. Particularly, the accumulation time argument, the only safe basis for the postulate of a strictly particle like photon, has so far not yet been verified.

  12. The Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Federico

    2003-01-01

    Since 1985, UNESCO studies ethical questions arising in genetics. In 1992, I established the International Bioethics Committee at UNESCO with the mission to draft the Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights, which was adopted by UNESCO in 1997 and the United Nations in 1998. The Declaration relates the human genome with human dignity, deals with the rights of the persons concerned by human genome research and provides a reference legal framework for both stimulating the ethical debate and the harmonization of the law worldwide, favouring useful developments that respect human dignity.

  13. Conflict-of-interest, copyright and other declarations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peh, W C; Ng, K H

    2010-11-01

    Declarations of exclusive publication, author contribution, conflict-of-interest and copyright transfer are important formalities required by most biomedical journals. Conflict-of-interest may be personal, commercial, political, academic or financial. It is particularly important for authors to provide a full and complete disclosure of any financial relationship with a commercial organisation that may have an interest in the contents of the submitted manuscript. Editors, editorial board members and reviewers should also declare any possible conflicts-of-interest. The handling of conflict-of-interest during manuscript preparation, peer review and editorial decision making impacts the credibility of published articles and scientific research in general.

  14. A Declarative Approach to Architectural Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingstrup, Mads; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2005-01-01

    that the interface through which the meta-information of the running system is accessed, and possibly modified, lies at the heart of designing reflective systems. This paper proposes that such an interface should be like a database: accessed through queries expressed using the concepts with which architecture...... which both creates runtime models of specific distributed architectures and allow for evaluation of AQL queries on these models. We illustrate the viability of the approach in two particular applications of such a model: constraint checking relative to an architectural style, and reasoning about certain...

  15. Fuzzy Adaptive Decentralized Optimal Control for Strict Feedback Nonlinear Large-Scale Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kangkang; Sui, Shuai; Tong, Shaocheng

    2018-04-01

    This paper considers the optimal decentralized fuzzy adaptive control design problem for a class of interconnected large-scale nonlinear systems in strict feedback form and with unknown nonlinear functions. The fuzzy logic systems are introduced to learn the unknown dynamics and cost functions, respectively, and a state estimator is developed. By applying the state estimator and the backstepping recursive design algorithm, a decentralized feedforward controller is established. By using the backstepping decentralized feedforward control scheme, the considered interconnected large-scale nonlinear system in strict feedback form is changed into an equivalent affine large-scale nonlinear system. Subsequently, an optimal decentralized fuzzy adaptive control scheme is constructed. The whole optimal decentralized fuzzy adaptive controller is composed of a decentralized feedforward control and an optimal decentralized control. It is proved that the developed optimal decentralized controller can ensure that all the variables of the control system are uniformly ultimately bounded, and the cost functions are the smallest. Two simulation examples are provided to illustrate the validity of the developed optimal decentralized fuzzy adaptive control scheme.

  16. NASA declares no room for antimatter experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Law??, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    "The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a model of international cooperation, led by a dynamic Nobel Prize winner, and promises to do impressive science in space. But it may never get a chance to do its thing." (1 page)

  17. Declarative Event-Based Workflow as Distributed Dynamic Condition Response Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    2010-01-01

    We present Dynamic Condition Response Graphs (DCR Graphs) as a declarative, event-based process model inspired by the workflow language employed by our industrial partner and conservatively generalizing prime event structures. A dynamic condition response graph is a directed graph with nodes repr...... exemplify the use of distributed DCR Graphs on a simple workflow taken from a field study at a Danish hospital, pointing out their flexibility compared to imperative workflow models. Finally we provide a mapping from DCR Graphs to Buchi-automata....

  18. The Declaration of Principles on the Grand Renaissance Dam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dereje Zeleke Mekonnen

    2017-12-26

    Dec 26, 2017 ... GERD · Declaration of Principles · International Water Law · Equitable. Utilization · Nile Basin. DOI .... Negotiations and the Adoption of a Water Security Paradigm: Flight into Obscurity or a. Logical Cul-de-sac? ... billion cubic metres respectively realizing, thereby, the full control and utilization of the Nile ...

  19. Declarative Memory Consolidation: Mechanisms Acting during Human Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gais, Steffen; Born, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Of late, an increasing number of studies have shown a strong relationship between sleep and memory. Here we summarize a series of our own studies in humans supporting a beneficial influence of slow-wave sleep (SWS) on declarative memory formation, and try to identify some mechanisms that might underlie this influence. Specifically, these…

  20. The Birth of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Outlines the history of the ideals and enactment of the United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). Includes a discussion of the origins of the concept of human rights, the impact of World War II, the role of nongovernmental organizations, and the process of drafting and adopting the UDHR. (DSK)

  1. Sustainability Accounting Courses, Talloires Declaration and Academic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tehmina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to identify the offering and nature (scope) of sustainability accounting courses at universities that have signed the Talloires Declaration and also at universities with prominent sustainability accounting researchers' affiliations. For this purpose a university web sites content analysis for sustainability…

  2. 37 CFR 1.63 - Oath or declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or inventors of the subject matter which is claimed and for which a patent is sought. (b) In addition... or declaration acknowledges the duty to disclose to the Office all information known to the person to... address, and the residence if an inventor lives at a location which is different from where the inventor...

  3. How Effective Is Example Generation for Learning Declarative Concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Katherine A.; Dunlosky, John

    2016-01-01

    Declarative concepts (i.e., key terms and corresponding definitions for abstract concepts) represent foundational knowledge that students learn in many content domains. Thus, investigating techniques to enhance concept learning is of critical importance. Various theoretical accounts support the expectation that example generation will serve this…

  4. Learning History through the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landorf, Hilary; Pineda, Martha Fernanda

    2007-01-01

    Although adolescent students often do not have knowledge of specific laws, they usually have a keen sense of justice and fairness. In this article, the author discusses the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) as a powerful tool to channel students' sense of fairness into visible actions. Adopted in December 1948 by the General Assembly of…

  5. Uncommon Territory: Declaration, and the Supervision of Queer Design Theses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ings, Welby John

    2014-01-01

    While attempting to develop authentic, practice-led inquiries into identity, queer students face unique issues. They often need to consider questions of community and frequently find themselves with one foot outside of the academic environment. Many also have to carefully consider the implications of declaration, and the management of trust. This…

  6. 21 CFR 1313.13 - Contents of import declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contents of import declaration. 1313.13 Section 1313.13 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND... was amended by adding paragraph (d), effective May 4, 2010. For the convenience of the user, the added...

  7. The Declaration of Principles on the Grand Renaissance Dam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dereje Zeleke Mekonnen

    2017-12-26

    Dec 26, 2017 ... of Principles (DoP) poses challenges which might arguably neutralize the transformative impact of the GERD and entail institutionalization of the status quo. Key terms. GERD · Declaration of Principles · International Water Law · Equitable. Utilization · Nile Basin. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/mlr.v11i2.1.

  8. Declaration of Principles on the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A lasting solution which would ensure the equitable and sustainable utilization of the Nile waters for the benefit of all is, however, still elusive as the signing of the Declaration of Principles (DoP) poses challenges which might arguably neutralize the transformative impact of the GERD and entail institutionalization of the ...

  9. Alma-0: an imperative language that supports declarative programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.R. Apt (Krzysztof); J. Brunekreef; V. Partinton; A. Schaerf

    1997-01-01

    textabstractWe describe here an implemented small programming language, called Alma, that augments the expressive power of imperative programming by a limited number of features inspired by the logic programming paradigm. These additions encourage declarative programming and make it a more

  10. Toronto 2001 Inter-governmental Declaration on Clean Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This formal declaration commits the municipalities in the Greater Toronto Area, the provincial government of Ontario, and the federal government in Ottawa to undertake certain specific actions to improve air quality in their respective areas of jurisdiction, recognizing the validity of claims made by experts in numerous studies, linking air pollution to premature deaths, illnesses and hospitalization in major Canadian cities. The declaration also recognizes the validity of scientific claims as to the relationship between solar radiation, ambient heat, ground level ozone and global climate change, and the role played in air pollution by fossil fuel combustion. The Declaration calls for cooperation of all governments operating in the Greater Toronto Area to take inter-governmental actions to improve air quality by following up on key issues identified at annual Summits and by supporting the planning of future Summits, by working together with the Toronto Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games to ensure that the 2008 Olympic Games will contribute to a legacy of clean air for the Toronto region, and by implementing a social marketing campaign to help householders reduce both home energy use and vehicle kilometres travelled by 20 per cent. Beyond these inter-governmental commitments, special commitments of individual municipalities, and the provincial and federal governments also form part of the Declaration

  11. Study on Environment Performance Evaluation and Regional Differences of Strictly-Environmental-Monitored Cities in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Guo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid economic growth and development, the problem of environmental pollution in China’s cities is becoming increasingly serious, and environmental pollution takes on a regional difference. There is, however, little comprehensive evaluation on the environmental performance and the regional difference of strictly-environmental-monitored cities in China. In this paper, the environmental performance of 109 strictly-environmental-monitored cities in China is evaluated in terms of natural performance, management performance, and scale performance by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA, incorporating PM2.5 and PM10 as undesirable outputs. The empirical results show that: (1 At present, the natural performance is quite high, while the management performance is noticeably low for most cities. (2 The gap between the level of economic development and environmental protection among cities in China is large, and the scale efficiency of big cities is better than that of smaller cities. The efficiency value of large-scale cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, etc. is high, equaling 1; the value of smaller cities such as Sanmenxia, Baoding, Mudanjiang, and Pingdingshan is low, close to 0, indicating that big cities are characterized by high environmental efficiency. (3 From the perspective of region, the level of environmental performance in China is very uneven. For example, the environmental efficiency level of the Pan-Pearl River Delta region is superior to that of the Pan-Yangtze River region and the Bahia Rim region, whose values of environmental efficiency are 0.858, 0.658, and 0.622 respectively. The average efficiency of the Southern Coastal Economic Zone, Eastern Coastal Comprehensive Economic Zone, and the Comprehensive Economic Zone in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River is higher than that of other regions. Finally, corresponding countermeasures and suggestions are put forward. The method used in this paper is applicable

  12. Disordered strictly jammed binary sphere packings attain an anomalously large range of densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Adam B.; Stillinger, Frank H.; Torquato, Salvatore

    2013-08-01

    Previous attempts to simulate disordered binary sphere packings have been limited in producing mechanically stable, isostatic packings across a broad spectrum of packing fractions. Here we report that disordered strictly jammed binary packings (packings that remain mechanically stable under general shear deformations and compressions) can be produced with an anomalously large range of average packing fractions 0.634≤ϕ≤0.829 for small to large sphere radius ratios α restricted to α≥0.100. Surprisingly, this range of average packing fractions is obtained for packings containing a subset of spheres (called the backbone) that are exactly strictly jammed, exactly isostatic, and also generated from random initial conditions. Additionally, the average packing fractions of these packings at certain α and small sphere relative number concentrations x approach those of the corresponding densest known ordered packings. These findings suggest for entropic reasons that these high-density disordered packings should be good glass formers and that they may be easy to prepare experimentally. We also identify an unusual feature of the packing fraction of jammed backbones (packings with rattlers excluded). The backbone packing fraction is about 0.624 over the majority of the α-x plane, even when large numbers of small spheres are present in the backbone. Over the (relatively small) area of the α-x plane where the backbone is not roughly constant, we find that backbone packing fractions range from about 0.606 to 0.829, with the volume of rattler spheres comprising between 1.6% and 26.9% of total sphere volume. To generate isostatic strictly jammed packings, we use an implementation of the Torquato-Jiao sequential linear programming algorithm [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.82.061302 82, 061302 (2010)], which is an efficient producer of inherent structures (mechanically stable configurations at the local maxima in the density landscape). The identification and

  13. Disordered strictly jammed binary sphere packings attain an anomalously large range of densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Adam B; Stillinger, Frank H; Torquato, Salvatore

    2013-08-01

    Previous attempts to simulate disordered binary sphere packings have been limited in producing mechanically stable, isostatic packings across a broad spectrum of packing fractions. Here we report that disordered strictly jammed binary packings (packings that remain mechanically stable under general shear deformations and compressions) can be produced with an anomalously large range of average packing fractions 0.634≤φ≤0.829 for small to large sphere radius ratios α restricted to α≥0.100. Surprisingly, this range of average packing fractions is obtained for packings containing a subset of spheres (called the backbone) that are exactly strictly jammed, exactly isostatic, and also generated from random initial conditions. Additionally, the average packing fractions of these packings at certain α and small sphere relative number concentrations x approach those of the corresponding densest known ordered packings. These findings suggest for entropic reasons that these high-density disordered packings should be good glass formers and that they may be easy to prepare experimentally. We also identify an unusual feature of the packing fraction of jammed backbones (packings with rattlers excluded). The backbone packing fraction is about 0.624 over the majority of the α-x plane, even when large numbers of small spheres are present in the backbone. Over the (relatively small) area of the α-x plane where the backbone is not roughly constant, we find that backbone packing fractions range from about 0.606 to 0.829, with the volume of rattler spheres comprising between 1.6% and 26.9% of total sphere volume. To generate isostatic strictly jammed packings, we use an implementation of the Torquato-Jiao sequential linear programming algorithm [Phys. Rev. E 82, 061302 (2010)], which is an efficient producer of inherent structures (mechanically stable configurations at the local maxima in the density landscape). The identification and explicit construction of binary packings

  14. Lyme Neuroborreliosis: Preliminary Results from an Urban Referral Center Employing Strict CDC Criteria for Case Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Younger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyme neuroborreliosis or “neurological Lyme disease” was evidenced in 2 of 23 patients submitted to strict criteria for case selection of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention employing a two-tier test to detect antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi at a single institution. One patient had symptomatic polyradiculoneuritis, dysautonomia, and serological evidence of early infection; and another had symptomatic small fiber sensory neuropathy, distal polyneuropathy, dysautonomia, and serological evidence of late infection. In the remaining patients symptoms initially ascribed to Lyme disease were probably unrelated to B. burgdorferi infection. Our findings suggest early susceptibility and protracted involvement of the nervous system most likely due to the immunological effects of B. burgdorferi infection, although the exact mechanisms remain uncertain.

  15. On The Integral Representation of Strictly Continuous Set-Valued Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaté K. Lakmon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Let T be a completely regular topological space and C(T be the space of bounded, continuous real-valued functions on T. C(T is endowed with the strict topology (the topology generated by seminorms determined by continuous functions vanishing at in_nity. R. Giles ([13], p. 472, Theorem 4.6 proved in 1971 that the dual of C(T can be identi_ed with the space of regular Borel measures on T. We prove this result for positive, additive set-valued maps with values in the space of convex weakly compact non-empty subsets of a Banach space and we deduce from this result the theorem of R. Giles ([13], theorem 4.6, p.473.

  16. Residual diffeomorphisms and symplectic soft hairs: The need to refine strict statement of equivalence principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.

    2016-09-01

    General covariance is the cornerstone of Einstein’s general relativity (GR) and implies that any two metrics related by diffeomorphisms are physically equivalent. There are, however, many examples pointing to the fact that this strict statement of general covariance needs refinement. There are a very special (measure-zero) subset of diffeomorphisms, the residual diffeomorphisms, to which one can associate well-defined conserved charges. This would hence render these diffeomorphic geometries physically distinct. We discuss that these symmetries may be appropriately called “symplectic symmetries”. Existence of residual diffeomorphisms and symplectic symmetries can be a quite general feature and not limited to the examples discussed so far in the literature. We propose that, in the context of black holes, these diffeomorphic, but distinct, geometries may be viewed as “symplectic soft hair” on black holes. We comment on how this may remedy black hole microstate problem, which in this context are dubbed as “horizon fluffs”.

  17. Reactions to terror attacks in ultra-orthodox jews: the cost of maintaining strict identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankri, Yael L E; Bachar, Eytan; Shalev, Arieh Y

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic events can shatter faith and beliefs. The responses of Ultra-Orthodox survivors of deadly terrorist attacks illustrate an effort to reconcile dreadful experiences with deeply embedded beliefs. Qualified clinicians prospectively evaluated self-reported and interviewer-generated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and cognitive appraisal in Ultra-Orthodox (n = 20) and non-Ultra-Orthodox (n = 33) survivors of suicide bus-bombing incidents in Jerusalem. Ultra-Orthodox survivors reported higher levels of PTSD symptoms and more personal guilt. Their narratives reflected an unshaken belief in Just Providence, within which being a victim of terror was perceived as a Just retribution for known or unknown wrongdoing. Survivors' reactions to trauma often reflect an effort to reconcile incongruous experiences with previously held beliefs. When treating strict believers, helpers should be sensitive to the identity-preserving function of posttraumatic cognitions.

  18. On a class of adjustable rate mortgage loans subject to a strict balance principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Jensen, Bjarne

    We describe the background and the basic funding mechanisms for the type of adjustable rate mortgageloans that were introduced in the Danish market in 1996. Each loan is funded separately by tap issuingpass-through mortgage bonds (`strict balance principle'). The novelty is a funding mechanism...... that usesa roll-over strategy, where long term loans are funded by sequentially issuing short term pass-throughbonds, and the first issuer of these loans obtained a patent on the funding principles in 1999. Publiclyavailable descriptions of the principles leave an impression of very complicated numerical...... algorithms.The algorithms described here show that the essentials can be reduced to a `back of an envelope' complexity.Keywords: Adjustable rate mortgages, balance principle, patent, yield curve riding...

  19. Strict Liability Versus Policy and Regulation for Environmental Protection and Agricultural Waste Management in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Bakri Ishak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Basically, strict liability is part of the mechanism for expressing judgment or sentence by using direct evidence. This principle is very useful in order to obtain remedies from any damage either directly or indirectly. The principle in Rylands v Fletcher is responsible on imposing strict liability where if something brought onto land or collected there escapes liability under this rule can include not only the owner of land but also those who control or occupation on it. However, as a matter of fact, policy and regulation are also important in taking any action against any party who are responsible for environmental pollution or damage, which may include mismanagement of waste or industrial waste or agricultural waste. There are certain policies and regulations on environmental protection such as the National Environmental Policy, certain Acts and several regulations under the Environmental Quality Act 1974 (Act 127, which are very useful for agricultural waste management inter alia: Waters Act 1920 (Act 418, Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises (Crude Palm Oil Regulations 1977, Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises (Raw Natural Rubber Regulations 1978, Environmental Quality (Sewage and Industrial Effluents Regulations 1979, and Environmental Quality (Compounding of Offences Rules 1978. As a matter of fact, we should realize that time is of an essence for any parties which are involved in court cases and especially in avoiding the element of externality, which is commonly suffered by the government. In making this paper, therefore, some element of comparison with certain developed jurisdiction such as in the United Kingdom and Japan could not be avoided in order to obtain better outcome and to be more practical for the purpose of environmental protection and agricultural waste management.

  20. The Effect of Strict Segregation on Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa van Mansfeld

    Full Text Available Segregation of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF was implemented to prevent chronic infection with epidemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with presumed detrimental clinical effects, but its effectiveness has not been carefully evaluated.The effect of strict segregation on the incidence of P. aeruginosa infection in CF patients was investigated through longitudinal protocolized follow-up of respiratory tract infection before and after segregation. In two nested cross-sectional studies in 2007 and 2011 the P. aeruginosa population structure was investigated and clinical parameters were determined in patients with and without infection with the Dutch epidemic P. aeruginosa clone (ST406.Of 784 included patients 315 and 382 were at risk for acquiring chronic P. aeruginosa infection before and after segregation. Acquisition rates were, respectively, 0.14 and 0.05 per 1,000 days at risk (HR: 0.66, 95% CI [0.2548-1.541]; p = 0.28. An exploratory subgroup analysis indicated lower acquisition after segregation in children < 15 years of age (HR: 0.43, 95% CI[0.21-0.95]; p = 0.04. P. aeruginosa population structure did not change after segregation and ST406 was not associated with lung function decline, death or lung transplantation.Strict segregation was not associated with a statistically significant lower acquisition of chronic P. aeruginosa infection and ST406 was not associated with adverse clinical outcome. After segregation there were no new acquisitions of ST406. In an unplanned exploratory analysis chronic acquisition of P. aeruginosa was lower after implementation of segregation in patients under 15 years of age.

  1. Selvester scoring in patients with strict LBBB using the QUARESS software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaojuan; Chaudhry, Uzma; Wieslander, Björn; Borgquist, Rasmus; Wagner, Galen S; Strauss, David G; Platonov, Pyotr; Ugander, Martin; Couderc, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of the infarct size from body-surface ECGs in post-myocardial infarction patients has become possible using the Selvester scoring method. Automation of this scoring has been proposed in order to speed-up the measurement of the score and improving the inter-observer variability in computing a score that requires strong expertise in electrocardiography. In this work, we evaluated the quality of the QuAReSS software for delivering correct Selvester scoring in a set of standard 12-lead ECGs. Standard 12-lead ECGs were recorded in 105 post-MI patients prescribed implantation of an implantable cardiodefibrillator (ICD). Amongst the 105 patients with standard clinical left bundle branch block (LBBB) patterns, 67 had a LBBB pattern meeting the strict criteria. The QuAReSS software was applied to these 67 tracings by two independent groups of cardiologists (from a clinical group and an ECG core laboratory) to measure the Selvester score semi-automatically. Using various level of agreement metrics, we compared the scores between groups and when automatically measured by the software. The average of the absolute difference in Selvester scores measured by the two independent groups was 1.4±1.5 score points, whereas the difference between automatic method and the two manual adjudications were 1.2±1.2 and 1.3±1.2 points. Eighty-two percent score agreement was observed between the two independent measurements when the difference of score was within two point ranges, while 90% and 84% score agreements were reached using the automatic method compared to the two manual adjudications. The study confirms that the QuAReSS software provides valid measurements of the Selvester score in patients with strict LBBB with minimal correction from cardiologists. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Strict follow-up programme including CT and (18) F-FDG-PET after curative surgery for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, N F; Jensen, A B; Wille-Jørgensen, P

    2010-01-01

    Aim  The risk of local recurrence following curative surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC) is up to 50%. A rigorous follow-up program may increase survival. Guidelines on suitable methods for scheduled follow up examinations are needed. This study evaluates a strict follow-up program including...... supported a strict follow-up program following curative surgery for colorectal cancer. FDG-PET combined with CT should be included in control programs....

  3. 40 CFR 62.11485 - Identification of Plan-negative declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...—negative declaration. On August 20, 1996, the Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation submitted a... declaration. 62.11485 Section 62.11485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Incineration Units ...

  4. Frontal Cognitive Function and Memory in Parkinson’s Disease: Toward a Distinction between Prospective and Declarative Memory Impairments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Tröster

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Memory dysfunction is a frequent concomitant of Parkinson's disease (PD. Historically, two classes of hypotheses, focusing on different cognitive mechanisms, have been advanced to explain this memory impairment: one postulating retrieval deficits (common to several neurodegenerative disorders involving the basal ganglia, and the other postulating frontally mediated executive deficits as fundamental to memory impairment. After outlining empirical support for the retrieval deficit hypothesis, research on the more recent “frontal executive deficit hypothesis” is reviewed, and major challenges to this hypothesis are identified. It is concluded that the frontal executive deficit hypothesis cannot adequately account for all memory impairments in PD, and that a more parsimonious theoretical account might invoke a distinction between prospective and declarative memory impairments. It is suggested that there may be three subgroups of PD patients: one demonstrating prospective memory dysfunction only, one with declarative memory dysfunction only, and one with both prospective and declarative memory dysfunction. Consequently, PD might provide a useful model within which to investigate the relationship between prospective and declarative memory.

  5. [Adverse events self-declaration system and influenza vaccination coverage of healthcare workers in a tertiary hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco Munoz, Cesar; Sequera, Víctor-Guillermo; Vilajeliu, Alba; Aldea, Marta; Mena, Guillermo; Quesada, Sebastiana; Varela, Pilar; Olivé, Victoria; Bayas, José M; Trilla, Antoni

    2016-02-19

    During the influenza vaccination campaign 2011-2012 we established a self-declaration system of adverse events (AEs) in healthcare workers (HCW). The aim of this study is to describe the vaccinated population and analyse vaccination coverage and self-declared AEs after the voluntary flu vaccination in a university hospital in Barcelona. Observational study. We used the HCW immunization record to calculate the vaccination coverage. We collected AEs using a voluntary, anonymous, self-administered survey during the 2011-2012 flu vaccination campaign. We performed a logistic regression model to determine the associated factors to declare AEs. The influenza vaccination coverage in HCW was 30.5% (n=1,507/4,944). We received completed surveys from 358 vaccinated HCW (23.8% of all vaccinated). We registered AEs in 186 respondents to the survey (52.0% of all respondents). Of these, 75.3% (n=140) reported local symptoms after the flu vaccination, 9.7% (n=18) reported systemic symptoms and 15.1% (n=28) both local and systemic symptoms. No serious AEs were self-reported. Female sex and aged under 35 were both factors associated with declaring AEs. Our self-reporting system did not register serious AEs in HCW, resulting in an opportunity to improve HCW trust in flu vaccination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. A declarative approach to procedural modeling of virtual worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smelik, R.M.; Tutenel, T.; Kraker, K.J.de; Bidarra, R.

    2011-01-01

    With the ever increasing costs of manual content creation for virtual worlds, the potential of creating it automatically becomes too attractive to ignore. However, for most designers, traditional procedural content generation methods are complex and unintuitive to use, hard to control, and generated

  7. 77 FR 76063 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration for Free Entry of Unaccompanied Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... Activities: Declaration for Free Entry of Unaccompanied Articles AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... collection requirement concerning the Declaration for Free Entry of Unaccompanied Articles (Form 3299). This... concerning the following information collection: Title: Declaration for Free Entry of Unaccompanied Articles...

  8. 78 FR 69101 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee That Articles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... Activities: Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or... the Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee that Articles were Exported for Temporary Scientific or...: Title: Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee that Articles were Exported for Temporary Scientific or...

  9. 76 FR 11254 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of Unaccompanied Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... Activities: Declaration of Unaccompanied Articles AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP... collection requirement concerning the Declaration of Unaccompanied Articles (CBP Form 255). This request for...: Title: Declaration of Unaccompanied Articles. OMB Number: 1651-0030. Form Number: CBP Form 255. Abstract...

  10. Teaching the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in a U.S. Government Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Philip

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a vehicle for learning democratic and humanistic values. Provides goals for instruction about the Declaration. Compares the Declaration to U.S. Supreme Court cases and congressional acts, and suggests classroom activities using it. Includes an appendix on Supreme Court cases and…

  11. 75 FR 50713 - Procedural Changes to the Fire Management Assistance Declaration Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... FEMA-2010-0036] RIN-1660-AA72 Procedural Changes to the Fire Management Assistance Declaration Process... regulations to reflect a change in the internal delegation of authority for fire management assistance... applying for fire management assistance declarations by changing who reviews requests for FMAG declarations...

  12. 77 FR 6135 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Manifest/Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... Activities: Cargo Manifest/ Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing... the Paperwork Reduction Act: Cargo Manifest/Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and.../Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing. OMB Number: 1651-0001. Form...

  13. 76 FR 72715 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Manifest/Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... Activities: Cargo Manifest/ Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing... Manifest/Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing. This request for... concerning the following information collection. Title: Cargo Manifest/Declaration, Stow Plan, Container...

  14. Binge drinking and declarative memory in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, María; Corral, Montserrat; Caamaño-Isorna, Francisco; Mota, Nayara; Crego, Alberto; Holguín, Socorro Rodríguez; Cadaveira, Fernando

    2011-08-01

    Binge drinking (BD), which is characterized by sporadic consumption of large quantities of alcohol in short periods, is prevalent among university students. Animal studies have shown that BD is associated with damage to the hippocampus, a region of the brain that plays a key role in learning and memory. The temporal cortex undergoes structural and functional changes during adolescence. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between BD and declarative memory in male and female university students. The participants were 122 students (between 18 and 20 years of age): 62 BD (30 women) and 60 non-BD (29 women). The neuropsychological assessment included the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) and Weschler Memory Scale-3rd ed. (WMS-III) Logical Memory subtest, to evaluate verbal declarative memory, and the WMS-III Family Pictures subtest, to measure visual declarative memory. The BD students remembered fewer words in the interference list and displayed greater proactive interference in the RAVLT; they performed worse in the Logical Memory subtest, both on immediate and delayed recall. There were no differences between the groups in performance of the Family Pictures subtest. No significant interactions were observed between BD and sex. Binge drinking is associated with poorer verbal declarative memory, regardless of sex. The findings are consistent with the vulnerability of the adolescent hippocampus to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol. Longitudinal studies will help determine the nature of this relationship, the neurodevelopmental trajectories for each sex, and the repercussions on academic performance. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. Impaired Emotional Declarative Memory Following Unilateral Amygdala Damage

    OpenAIRE

    Adolphs, Ralph; Tranel, Daniel; Denburg, Natalie

    2000-01-01

    Case studies of patients with bilateral amygdala damage and functional imaging studies of normal individuals have demonstrated that the amygdala plays a critical role in encoding emotionally arousing stimuli into long-term declarative memory. However, several issues remain poorly understood: the separate roles of left and right amygdala, the time course over which the amygdala participates in memory consolidation, and the type of knowledge structures it helps consolidate. We investigated thes...

  16. Influence of different modalities of cooperative work forms on adopting declarative and procedural knowledge in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miščević-Kadijević Gordana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of papers on cooperative learning so far have discussed the variables of affective domain, and research within the cognitive domain, especially when it comes to different forms of knowledge, has not been conducted very much. Within the cognitive-developmental approach, Piaget's genetic-epistemological theory and Vygotsky's socio-cultural theory have the biggest importance for understanding cooperative learning and the topic we deal with. The influence of the three models of cooperative work in the instruction of Basic Science and Social Studies on the adoption of declarative and procedural knowledge of students is experimentally tested in the paper. The basis for formation of the applied models is grouping students within small homogenous, i.e. heterogeneous groups. The sample of respondents consisted of 259 students from 11 classes of the fourth grade of primary school. The experiment with parallel groups was applied. The results indicated that in students from experimental group the adoption of declarative and procedural knowledge in final measurement was better than in students from the control group, as well as that in final measurement there were no statistically significant differences with respect to adoption of the studied knowledge among the three subgroups in which different cooperative work models were applied. The obtained findings indicated that cooperative instruction yields good results when its theoretical assumptions are carefully operationalised, along with exhibiting patience and gradualism in working with students previously prepared for cooperation with peers.

  17. IMPORTANT — Declaration of income for 2001 —

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The local French tax authorities confirm that, in view of the particular procedure for income declaration for CERN members of the personnel, this year CERN income (as stated in the certificate of CERN remuneration provided by the Organization) may be exceptionally declared in either French Francs, or Euros (clearly specifying the currency selected). Practical information concerning the procedure for income declaration may be obtained at the following local information desks : Trésorerie deGex: Tuesday12 March 9 a.m. to 122 to 4 p.m. Trésorerie deFerney: Monday18 March 9 a.m. to 122 to 4 p.m. Trésorerie deDivonne: Thursday21 March 9 a.m. to 122 to 4 p.m. French tax authorities have also organised the following information services: Web site: http://www.impots.gouv.fr/ Minitel: 3615 IR Service Vocal Server: 08 36 67 10 10 Telephone information: 08 20 32 42 52 Human Resources Division Tel. 72838

  18. Immediate effect of instrumentation on the subgingival microflora in deep inflamed pockets under strict plaque control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhemrev, G E; Timmerman, M F; Veldkamp, I; Van Winkelhoff, A J; Van der Velden, U

    2006-01-01

    To investigate (1) reduction in the number of microorganisms obtained directly after subgingival instrumentation, (2) rate of bacterial re-colonization during 2 weeks, under supragingival plaque-free conditions. Effects of subgingival instrumentation were measured at one deep pocket in 22 patients (11 smokers and 11 non-smokers). Immediately after initial therapy, experimental sites, under strict plaque control, were instrumented subgingivally. Microbiological evaluation was performed at pre-instrumentation, immediate post-instrumentation and 1 and 2 weeks post-instrumentation. Mean total anaerobic colony forming units (CFUs) dropped from 3.9 x 10(6) before to 0.09 x 10(6) immediately following instrumentation. Significant reductions were found for Tannerella forsythia, Micromonas micros, Fusobacterium nucleatum and spirochetes. Significant reductions were not observed for Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Campylobacter rectus. Except for spirochetes, no reduction in prevalence of specific periodontal bacteria was found immediately after instrumentation. During follow-up, mean total CFU tended to increase. Prevalence of periodontal bacteria further reduced. No effect of smoking was found. Results indicate that subgingival mechanical cleaning in itself, has a limited effect, in actually removing bacteria. The subsequent reduction in prevalence of specific periodontal bacteria shows that it is apparently difficult for these species to survive in treated pockets.

  19. Managing curriculum transformation within strict university governance structures: an example from Damascus University Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayyal, Mohammad; Gibbs, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    As the world of medical education moves forward, it becomes increasingly clear that the transformative process is not as easy a process for all. Across the globe, there appears to be many barriers that obstruct or threaten innovation and change, most of which cause almost insurmountable problems to many schools. If transformative education is to result in an equitable raising of standards across such an unlevel playing field, schools have to find ways in overcoming these barriers. One seemingly common barrier to development occurs when medical schools are trapped within strict University governance structures; rules and regulations which are frequently inappropriate and obstructive to the transformation that must occur in today's medical educational paradigm. The Faculty of Medicine at Damascus University, one of the oldest and foremost medical schools in the Middle East, is one such school where rigid rules and regulations and traditional values are obstructing transformative change. This paper describes the problems, which the authors believe to be common to many, and explores how attempts have been made to overcome them and move the school into the twenty-first century. It is the ultimate purpose of this paper to raise awareness of the issue, share the lessons learned in order to assist others who are experiencing similar problems and possibly create opportunities for dialogue between schools.

  20. On a holomorphic Lefschetz formula in strictly pseudoconvex subdomains of complex manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kytmanov, A M; Myslivets, S G; Tarkhanov, N N

    2004-01-01

    The classical Lefschetz formula expresses the number of fixed points of a continuous map f:M→M in terms of the transformation induced by f on the cohomology of M. In 1966, Atiyah and Bott extended this formula to elliptic complexes over a compact closed manifold. In particular, they obtained a holomorphic Lefschetz formula on compact complex manifolds without boundary. Brenner and Shubin (1981, 1991) extended the Atiyah-Bott theory to compact manifolds with boundary. On compact complex manifolds with boundary the Dolbeault complex is not elliptic, therefore the Atiyah-Bott theory is not applicable. Bypassing difficulties related to the boundary behaviour of Dolbeault cohomology, Donnelly and Fefferman (1986) obtained a formula for the number of fixed points in terms of the Bergman metric. The aim of this paper is to obtain a Lefschetz formula on relatively compact strictly pseudoconvex subdomains of complex manifolds X with smooth boundary, that is, to find the total Lefschetz number for a holomorphic endomorphism f * of the Dolbeault complex and to express it in terms of local invariants of the fixed points of f.

  1. Divergent changes in serum sterols during a strict uncooked vegan diet in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agren, J J; Tvrzicka, E; Nenonen, M T; Helve, T; Hänninen, O

    2001-02-01

    The effects of a strict uncooked vegan diet on serum lipid and sterol concentrations were studied in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The subjects were randomized into a vegan diet group (n 16), who consumed a vegan diet for 2-3 months, or into a control group (n 13), who continued their usual omnivorous diets. Serum total and LDL-cholesterol and -phospholipid concentrations were significantly decreased by the vegan diet. The levels of serum cholestanol and lathosterol also decreased, but serum cholestanol:total cholesterol and lathosterol:total cholesterol did not change. The effect of a vegan diet on serum plant sterols was divergent as the concentration of campesterol decreased while that of sitosterol increased. This effect resulted in a significantly greater sitosterol:campesterol value in the vegan diet group than in the control group (1.48 (SD 0.39) v. 0.72 (SD 0.14); P vegan diet changes the relative absorption rates of these sterols and/or their biliary clearance.

  2. Clinical impact of strict criteria for selectivity and lateralization in adrenal vein sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparetto, Alessandro; Angle, John F; Darvishi, Pasha; Freeman, Colbey W; Norby, Ray G; Carey, Robert M

    2015-04-01

    Selectivity index (SI) and lateralization index (LI) thresholds determine the adequacy of adrenal vein sampling (AVS) and the degree of lateralization. The purpose of this study was investigate the clinical outcome of patients whose adrenal vein sampling was interpreted using "strict criteria" (SC) (SIpre-stimuli≥3, SIpost-stimuli≥5 and LIpre-stimuli≥4, LIpost-stimuli≥4). A retrospective review of 73 consecutive AVS procedures was performed and 67 were technically successful. Forty-three patients showed lateralization and underwent surgery, while 24 did not lateralize and were managed conservatively. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), kalemia (K(+)), and the change in number of blood pressure (BP) medications were recorded for each patient before and after AVS and potential surgery were performed. In the surgery group, BP and K(+) changed respectively from 160±5.3/100±2.0 mmHg to 127±3.3/80±1.9 (p blood pressure medications were six (14.0%) in the lateralized group and 22 (91.7%) in the non-lateralized group (p <0.001). AVS interpretation with SC leads to significant clinical improvement in both patients who underwent surgery and those managed conservatively.

  3. Generalized mechanical pain sensitivity over nerve tissues in patients with strictly unilateral migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Cuadrado, María Luz; Pareja, Juan A

    2009-06-01

    No study has previously analyzed pressure pain sensitivity of nerve trunks in migraine. This study aimed to examine the differences in mechanical pain sensitivity over specific nerves between patients with unilateral migraine and healthy controls. Blinded investigators assessed pressure pain thresholds (PPT) over the supra-orbital nerves (V1) and peripheral nerve trunks of both upper extremities (median, radial, and ulnar nerves) in 20 patients with strictly unilateral migraine and 20 healthy matched controls. Pain intensity after palpation over both supra-orbital nerves was also assessed. A pressure algometer was used to quantify PPT, whereas a 10-point numerical pain rate scale was used to evaluate pain to palpation over the supra-orbital nerve. The analysis of covariance revealed that pain to palpation over the supra-orbital nerve was significantly higher (P0.6). In patients with unilateral migraine, we found increased mechano-sensitivity of the supra-orbital nerve on the symptomatic side of the head. Outside the head, the same patients showed increased mechano-sensitivity of the main peripheral nerves of both upper limbs, without asymmetries. Such diffuse hypersensitivity of the peripheral nerves lends further evidence to the presence of a state of hyperexcitability of the central nervous system in patients with unilateral migraine.

  4. Strict Criteria for Selection of Laparoscopy for Women with Adnexal Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallum, Luis Felipe; Sarian, Luis Otávio; Bastos, Joana Fróes Bragança; Derchain, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We compared the indication of laparoscopy for treatment of adnexal masses based on the risk scores and tumor diameters with the indication based on gynecology-oncologists' experience. Methods: This was a prospective study of 174 women who underwent surgery for adnexal tumors (116 laparotomies, 58 laparoscopies). The surgeries begun and completed by laparoscopy, with benign pathologic diagnosis, were considered successful. Laparoscopic surgeries that required conversion to laparotomy, led to a malignant diagnosis, or facilitated cyst rupture were considered failures. Two groups were defined for laparoscopy indication: (1) absence of American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG) guideline for referral of high-risk adnexal masses criteria (ACOG negative) associated with 3 different tumor sizes (10, 12, and 14 cm); and (2) Index of Risk of Malignancy (IRM) with cutoffs at 100, 200, and 300, associated with the same 3 tumor sizes. Both groups were compared with the indication based on the surgeon's experience to verify whether the selection based on strict rules would improve the rate of successful laparoscopy. Results: ACOG-negative and tumors ≤10 cm and IRM with a cutoff at 300 points and tumors ≤10cm resulted in the same best performance (78% success = 38/49 laparoscopies). However, compared with the results of the gynecology-oncologists' experience, those were not statistically significant. Discussion: The selection of patients with adnexal mass to laparoscopy by the use of the ACOG guideline or IRM associated with tumor diameter had similar performance as the experience of gynecology-oncologists. Both methods are reproducible and easy to apply to all women with adnexal masses and could be used by general gynecologists to select women for laparoscopic surgery; however, referral to a gynecology-oncologist is advisable when there is any doubt. PMID:25392617

  5. Strict Host-Symbiont Cospeciation and Reductive Genome Evolution in Insect Gut Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Nikoh, Naruo; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

    2006-01-01

    Host-symbiont cospeciation and reductive genome evolution have been identified in obligate endocellular insect symbionts, but no such example has been identified from extracellular ones. Here we first report such a case in stinkbugs of the family Plataspidae, wherein a specific gut bacterium is vertically transmitted via “symbiont capsule.” In all of the plataspid species, females produced symbiont capsules upon oviposition and their gut exhibited specialized traits for capsule production. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the plataspid symbionts constituted a distinct group in the γ-Proteobacteria, whose sister group was the aphid obligate endocellular symbionts Buchnera. Removal of the symbionts resulted in retarded growth, mortality, and sterility of the insects. The host phylogeny perfectly agreed with the symbiont phylogeny, indicating strict host-symbiont cospeciation despite the extracellular association. The symbionts exhibited AT-biased nucleotide composition, accelerated molecular evolution, and reduced genome size, as has been observed in obligate endocellular insect symbionts. These findings suggest that not the endocellular conditions themselves but the population genetic attributes of the vertically transmitted symbionts are probably responsible for the peculiar genetic traits of these insect symbionts. We proposed the designation “Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata” for the plataspid symbionts. The plataspid stinkbugs, wherein the host-symbiont associations can be easily manipulated, provide a novel system that enables experimental approaches to previously untouched aspects of the insect-microbe mutualism. Furthermore, comparative analyses of the sister groups, the endocellular Buchnera and the extracellular Ishikawaella, would lead to insights into how the different symbiotic lifestyles have affected their genomic evolution. PMID:17032065

  6. Novel microsatellite DNA markers indicate strict parthenogenesis and few genotypes in the invasive willow sawfly Nematus oligospilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, V; Norgate, M; Ede, F J; Nyman, T; Sunnucks, P

    2013-02-01

    Invasive organisms can have major impacts on the environment. Some invasive organisms are parthenogenetic in their invasive range and, therefore, exist as a number of asexual lineages (=clones). Determining the reproductive mode of invasive species has important implications for understanding the evolutionary genetics of such species, more especially, for management-relevant traits. The willow sawfly Nematus oligospilus Förster (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) has been introduced unintentionally into several countries in the Southern Hemisphere where it has subsequently become invasive. To assess the population expansion, reproductive mode and host-plant relationships of this insect, microsatellite markers were developed and applied to natural populations sampled from the native and expanded range, along with sequencing of the cytochrome-oxidase I mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) region. Other tenthredinids across a spectrum of taxonomic similarity to N. oligospilus and having a range of life strategies were also tested. Strict parthenogenesis was apparent within invasive N. oligospilus populations throughout the Southern Hemisphere, which comprised only a small number of genotypes. Sequences of mtDNA were identical for all individuals tested in the invasive range. The microsatellite markers were used successfully in several sawfly species, especially Nematus spp. and other genera of the Nematini tribe, with the degree of success inversely related to genetic divergence as estimated from COI sequences. The confirmation of parthenogenetic reproduction in N. oligospilus and the fact that it has a very limited pool of genotypes have important implications for understanding and managing this species and its biology, including in terms of phenotypic diversity, host relationships, implications for spread and future adaptive change. It would appear to be an excellent model study system for understanding evolution of invasive parthenogens that diverge without sexual reproduction and

  7. Short Sleep Makes Declarative Memories Vulnerable to Stress in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedernaes, Jonathan; Rångtell, Frida H; Axelsson, Emil K; Yeganeh, Adine; Vogel, Heike; Broman, Jan-Erik; Dickson, Suzanne L; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to investigate the role of nocturnal sleep duration for the retrieval of oversleep consolidated memories, both prior to and after being cognitively stressed for ∼30 minutes the next morning. Participants learned object locations (declarative memory task comprising 15 card pairs) and a finger tapping sequence (procedural memory task comprising 5 digits) in the evening. After learning, participants either had a sleep opportunity of 8 hours (between ∼23:00 and ∼07:00, full sleep condition) or they could sleep between ∼03:00 and ∼07:00 (short sleep condition). Retrieval of both memory tasks was tested in the morning after each sleep condition, both before (∼08:30) and after being stressed (∼09:50). Sleep laboratory. 15 healthy young men. The analyses demonstrated that oversleep memory changes did not differ between sleep conditions. However, in their short sleep condition, following stress hallmarked by increased subjective stress feelings, the men were unable to maintain their pre-stress performance on the declarative memory task, whereas their performance on the procedural memory task remained unchanged. While men felt comparably subjectively stressed by the stress intervention, overall no differences between pre- and post-stress recalls were observed following a full night of sleep. The findings suggest that 8-h sleep duration, within the range recommended by the US National Sleep Foundation, may not only help consolidate newly learned procedural and declarative memories, but also ensure full access to both during periods of subjective stress. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  8. The Declaration of Istanbul on Organ Trafficking and Transplant Tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Organ commercialism, which targets vulnerable populations (such as illiterate and impoverished persons, undocumented immigrants, prisoners, and political or economic refugees) in resource-poor countries, has been condemned by international bodies such as the World Health Organization for decades. Yet in recent years, as a consequence of the increasing ease of Internet communication and the willingness of patients in rich countries to travel and purchase organs, organ trafficking and transplant tourism have grown into global problems. For example, as of 2006, foreigners received two-thirds of the 2000 kidney transplants performed annually in Pakistan. The Istanbul Declaration proclaims that the poor who sell their organs are being exploited, whether by richer people within their own countries or by transplant tourists from abroad. Moreover, transplant tourists risk physical harm by unregulated and illegal transplantation. Participants in the Istanbul Summit concluded that transplant commercialism, which targets the vulnerable, transplant tourism, and organ trafficking should be prohibited. And they also urged their fellow transplant professionals, individually and through their organizations, to put an end to these unethical activities and foster safe, accountable practices that meet the needs of transplant recipients while protecting donors. Countries from which transplant tourists originate, as well as those to which they travel to obtain transplants, are just beginning to address their respective responsibilities to protect their people from exploitation and to develop national self-sufficiency in organ donation. The Declaration should reinforce the resolve of governments and international organizations to develop laws and guidelines to bring an end to wrongful practices. "The legacy of transplantation is threatened by organ trafficking and transplant tourism. The Declaration of Istanbul aims to combat these activities and to preserve the nobility of organ

  9. Disentangling the roles of arousal and amygdala activation in emotional declarative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Voogd, Lycia D; Fernández, Guillén; Hermans, Erno J

    2016-09-01

    A large body of evidence in animals and humans implicates the amygdala in promoting memory for arousing experiences. Although the amygdala can trigger threat-related noradrenergic-sympathetic arousal, in humans amygdala activation and noradrenergic-sympathetic arousal do not always concur. This raises the question how these two processes play a role in enhancing emotional declarative memory. This study was designed to disentangle these processes in a combined subsequent-memory/fear-conditioning paradigm with neutral items belonging to two conceptual categories as conditioned stimuli. Functional MRI, skin conductance (index of sympathetic activity), and pupil dilation (indirect index of central noradrenergic activity) were acquired throughout procedures. Recognition memory for individual items was tested 24 h later. We found that pupil dilation and skin conductance responses were higher on CS+ (associated with a shock) compared with CS- trials, irrespective of later memory for those items. By contrast, amygdala activity was only higher for CS+ items that were later confidently remembered compared with CS+ items that were later forgotten. Thus, amygdala activity and not noradrenergic-sympathetic arousal, predicted enhanced declarative item memory. This dissociation is in line with animal models stating that the amygdala integrates arousal-related neuromodulatory changes to alter mnemonic processes elsewhere in the brain. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. [Family planning and diverse declarations of human rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gakwaya, D

    1990-08-01

    Human beings have always desired to claim their rights, even in times when only a small proportion of the population was considered fully human and the rest were slaves, servants, uncivilized, colonized, underdeveloped, or, in the recent euphemism, "developing". The French Declaration of the Rights of Man of 1789 marked the 1st time in history that rights for all people were publicly affirmed. The rights in question were essentially constitutional and political, but the idea of claiming rights had been born. In 1948, the international community approved the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which encompassed all types of rights. Other international acts on civil and political rights and the rights of women and children have complemented and interpreted the 1948 document. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights affirmed that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights and that all persons have a right to satisfaction of economic, social, and cultural needs. The convention on elimination of all forms of discrimination against women referred in its preamble to the particular disadvantages of women living in poverty and affirmed the right of all women to education in health and family welfare, including family planning, as well as to medical and family planning services. Women were affirmed to have the same rights as men to decide freely and in an informed manner on the number and spacing of their children and to have access to the information, education, and means to exercise these rights. The United Nations has demonstrated its interest in Population Commission in 1946 and of the UN Fund for Population Activities in 1969, and through decennial worldwide population conferences in 1954, 1965, 1974, and 1984. UN demographic goals include reduced fertility on a worldwide basis, a reduced proportion of women not using reliable contraception, a substantial reduction of early marriage and adolescent pregnancy, reduction in infant and maternal

  11. Quad Ropes: Immutable, Declarative Arrays with Parallelizable Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biermann, Florian; Sestoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    , they allow for fast concatenation and dynamic task-based parallelism and are well suited to represent sparse arrays. We describe their operational semantics and evaluate the performance of individual functions on quad ropes as well as declarative algorithms that use our quad rope implementation....... to let users choose between different array-like data structures. Instead, one should use the same, somewhat performance-robust, representation for every programming task. Quad ropes roughly retain array efficiency, as long as programmers express their programs using high-level constructs. Moreover...

  12. Solidarity and the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunson, Darryl

    2009-06-01

    Recent work has stressed the importance of the concept of solidarity to bioethics and social philosophy generally. But can and should it feature in documents such as the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights as anything more than a vague notion with multiple possible interpretations? Although noting the tension between universality and particularity that such documents have to deal with, and also noting that solidarity has a political content, the paper explores the suggestion that solidarity should feature more centrally in international regulations. The paper concludes with the view that when solidarity is seen aright, the UDBHR is an implicitly solidaristic document.

  13. Ethics of orthodontic clinical research based on Helsinki declaration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Erwansyah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Declaration of Helsinki code of ethics on human experimentation, states that the desin and peformance of experimental procedures involving human should be clearly formulated in an experimental protocol, Todeterminewhetheraninvestigationin accordancewiththe code of conductin a researchthen letusconsider the contentofthe declarationhelsinkiasour referencein conductingaclinicalstudyusinghuman subjects. In journals, authors are expected to report if the study was carried out in accordance with international and national ethical guidelines and inform readers if approval from ethics committee was obtained and if written informed consent was taken from the participant or legal guardian.

  14. Analyses des discours non strictement mathematiques accompagnant des cours de mathematiques (Analysis of Not Strictly Mathematical Discourse in Mathematics Classes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Aline

    1995-01-01

    Examines discourse, not strictly mathematical, that teachers might adopt in a mathematics class and presents three major functions of such discourse: communication; structuring and labeling; and reflection. Develops lines for further inquiry, notably on the third function, the most likely focus for specific preparation by the teacher. (13…

  15. Properties of N-person axiomatic bargaining solutions if the Pareto frontier is twice differentiable and strictly concave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douven, R.C.M.H.; Engwerda, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we discuss properties of N-person axiomatic bargaining problems, where the Pareto frontier of S can be described by a strictly concave and twice differentiable function. These type of problems are characteristic for the empirical policy coordination literature. In that literature the

  16. Convergence of Implicit and Explicit Schemes for an Asymptotically Nonexpansive Mapping in -Uniformly Smooth and Strictly Convex Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new iterative scheme with Meir-Keeler contractions for an asymptotically nonexpansive mapping in -uniformly smooth and strictly convex Banach spaces. We also proved the strong convergence theorems of implicit and explicit schemes. The results obtained in this paper extend and improve many recent ones announced by many others.

  17. A non-permselective membrane reactor for chemical processes normally requiring strict stoichiometric feed rates of reactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloot, H.J.; Versteeg, Geert; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1990-01-01

    A novel type of membrane reactor with separated feeding of the reactants is presented for chemical processes normally requiring strict stoichiometric feed rates of premixed reactants. The reactants are fed in the reactor to the different sides of a porous membrane which is impregnated with a

  18. Strict Fathers, Competing Culture(s), and Racialized Poverty: White South African Teachers' Conceptions of Themselves as Racialized Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Zachary A.

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses in particular on four white South African female practicing P-12 teachers' narratives about their own racialized understanding of their classroom practice(s) and their (racio-cultural) self-identity. Each of the four participants reported growing up with what they described as "strict fathers" and shared ways in…

  19. Use of declarative statements in creating and maintaining computer-interpretable knowledge bases for guideline-based care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Samson W; Hrabak, Karen M; Campbell, James R; Glasgow, Julie; Nyman, Mark A; McClure, Robert; McClay, James; Abarbanel, Robert; Mansfield, James G; Martins, Susana M; Goldstein, Mary K; Musen, Mark A

    2006-01-01

    Developing computer-interpretable clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) to provide decision support for guideline-based care is an extremely labor-intensive task. In the EON/ATHENA and SAGE projects, we formulated substantial portions of CPGs as computable statements that express declarative relationships between patient conditions and possible interventions. We developed query and expression languages that allow a decision-support system (DSS) to evaluate these statements in specific patient situations. A DSS can use these guideline statements in multiple ways, including: (1) as inputs for determining preferred alternatives in decision-making, and (2) as a way to provide targeted commentaries in the clinical information system. The use of these declarative statements significantly reduces the modeling expertise and effort required to create and maintain computer-interpretable knowledge bases for decision-support purpose. We discuss possible implications for sharing of such knowledge bases.

  20. The Luxembourg Declaration on Patient Safety: a political comment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mars Di Bartolomeo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Services provided for European citizens’ healthcare are not services like standard commercial services. Healthcare services need to be accessible, independent of the citizen’s economic or social background and should at the same time be available to all at the best possible quality level.

    The Luxembourg Declaration on Patient Safety recognizes these challenging fundamental principles. Patient safety is a key aspect for all European policy makers, as it is a vital question of equitable access to health care. Nevertheless we know that unfortunately a considerable amount of avoidable safety events still occur all across Europe!

    However differently organized our national health systems may be, it is vital to share experience and knowledge at a European level in order to be able to learn from the experiences of the different memberstates. No uniform solution can be found and decreed from the bottom down, nevertheless Europe can contribute and help to raise standards by a common effort. The Luxembourg Declaration is a launching pad for European progress in this field as it sets important goals and demonstrates the steps to be undertaken. It is a calling and gives us hope for measurable progress in the future.

  1. Product declaration for small refrigerators; Produktdeklaration fuer Kleinkuehlschraenke. Ausschreibungsformular - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burri, A.

    2008-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on a project that looked at the optimisation of cooling technology used in small refrigerators. This optimisation alone is considered as being not sufficient to increase the market perspectives for efficient refrigeration units. In contrast to household units, no energy declaration standards exist for the type of mini-bar used in hotel rooms. An 'Energy Declaration - Small Refrigerator' form created as a part of this project is discussed which makes it easier to compare the energy costs of various units. The form is based on uniform criteria, and increases the market perspectives for the most efficient units, even if they are somewhat more expensive. The Swiss Federal Office of Energy is now supplying this form (in German, French and Italian) to all manufacturers and vendors of small refrigerators. The vendor can fill out this form and include it in his offer. Likewise, the customer can request the form from the vendor. In this form the total energy costs for ten years of operation are added to the purchase price, so that the customer can obtain a clear indication of total life cycle costs.

  2. Revolutionary thoughts on taxonomy: declarations of independence and interdependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin D. Wheeler

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Credible biological research depends on accurate species identifications, reliable scientific names, and an evolutionary context provided by a phylogeny or phylogenetic classification. The emphasis on such taxonomic services has detracted from the fundamental taxonomic research necessary to create and sustain such knowledge systems. A taxonomic declaration of independence is presented, emphasizing the unique mission, goals, and needs of taxonomists and taxonomic (collection-based institutions and the non-experimental yet scientifically rigorous epistemology of taxonomy. At the same time taxonomic interdependence is declared. Questions pursued by taxonomists are planetary in scale and can only be answered given international collaboration and coordination in the growth and development of natural history collections and taxonomic hypotheses. Reciprocity of open access is urged between all nations and the taxonomic community creating information. Countries home to species diversity should allow access to taxon experts so that the world's species are discovered and described. In exchange all specimens collected should be in publicly accessible museums and all resultant taxonomic data, information, and knowledge should be openly available to all who can use them.

  3. The Oslo Declaration on High Seas Fishing in the Central Arctic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Molenaar, Erik Jaap

    2015-01-01

    On 16 July 2015, in Oslo, the coastal states of the Arctic Ocean – Canada, Denmark, Norway, the Russian Federation and the United States (Arctic Five) – took a long-awaited further step in the international regulation of Arctic Ocean fisheries by signing the ‘Declaration Concerning the Prevention of Unregulated High Seas Fishing in the Central Arctic Ocean’ (Oslo Declaration). Key features of the Declaration are that it contains various political commitments, rather than internati...

  4. Identité stricte ou partielle et identification dans les phrases à copule. Comment les identifier ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amary-Coudreau Valérie

    2014-07-01

    éristiques propres à l’identité, ainsi que celles propres à la spécification et à l’identification, pour lesquelles X et Y ont des degrés de référentialité et/ou de prédicativité différents. Enfin, cette hypothèse nous amène à distinguer l’identité de l’identification, sur la base de tests qui, à l’inverse de Larreya (2003, différencient l’identité stricte de l’identité partielle.

  5. STUDI KOMPARATIF ANTARA UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS 1948 DAN THE CAIRO DECLARATION ON HUMAN RIGHTS IN ISLAM 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunaryo Sunaryo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Diskusi Hak Asasi Manusia (HAM merupakan salah satu topik yang tetap aktual dan mengglobal di samping masalah demokrasi dan lingkungan hidup. Manusia sebagai makhluk Tuhan dan makhluk sosial memiliki hak-hak asasi yang mesti dihormati dan dilindungi oleh siapapun. Di dalam Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948 (UDHR dan di dalam The Cairo Declaration on Human Rights In Islam 1990 (CD, berbagai macam hak-hak asasi dimaksud telah diatur secara general dan komprehensif. Meskipun demikian, di antara kedua deklarasi tersebut di samping mempunyai persamaan juga memiliki perbedaan. Perbedaan-perbedaan tersebut antara lain tentang asal atau sumber dari masing-masing deklarasi yang tidak sama, hak atas kebebasan beragama dan hak untuk menikah, serta hak atas kewarganegaraan seseorang. Sementara itu ada juga ketentuan-ketentuan yang diatur di dalam CD tetapi tidak diatur dalam UDHR atau sebaliknya, seperti tentang riba (Pasal 14 CD tidak diatur di dalam UDHR, sebaliknya ketentuan tentang kebebasan berserikat dan berkumpul (Pasal 20 UDHR tidak diatur di dalam CD

  6. Significant event of patient radiation protection in radiotherapy (criterion 2.1): declaration and rating on the ASN-SFRO scale - ASN guide no. 16 - Release of 17/07/2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This document is an update of the previous version from October 2010. It brings together all the tools for the management of a significant event in radiation protection concerning a patient in radiotherapy. It contains the declaration form, a model for the reporting of significant events, and the ASN-SFRO scale which allows the event to be rated. After a presentation of the regulatory context and references, of the scope of application, this guide addresses the declaration of a significant event: general principles, definition of the 2.1 criterion, examples, delays and modalities of declaration, addressees of a declaration. It addresses the reporting of a significant event: general principles, sending delays and modalities. It addresses the rating on the ASN-SFRO scale: general principles, scale, and rating process. The last part deals with public information

  7. Significant event of patient radiation protection in radiotherapy (criterion 2.1): declaration and rating on the ASN-SFRO scale - ASN guide nr 16 - Release of the 01/01/2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document brings together all the tools for the management of a significant event in radiation protection concerning a patient in radiotherapy. It contains the declaration form, a model for the reporting of significant events, and the ASN-SFRO scale which allows the event to be rated. After a presentation of the regulatory context and references, of the scope of application, this guide addresses the declaration of a significant event: general principles, definition of the 2.1 criterion, examples, delays and modalities of declaration, addressees of a declaration. It addresses the reporting of a significant event: general principles, sending delays and modalities. It addresses the rating on the ASN-SFRO scale: general principles, scale, and rating process. The last part deals with public information

  8. Strict liability as a legal mechanism protecting the aggrieved parties' interests within the nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotna, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    The no-fault liability principle of nuclear liability regime, its compensation schemes, sociological and legal grounds of its construction as well as liberation grounds are analysed. The simple existence of causation of damage and nuclear accident without necessity of proving negligence or any other type of fault on the part of the operator as an adequate basis for the operator’s strict liability is highlighted thus simplifying the litigation process eliminating potential obstacles, especially such as might exist with the burden of proof. The question of weighing the interests of society in the development of nuclear industry, the necessary extent of protection of victims of nuclear accidents and the interests of operators of nuclear facilities as main determinants of the strict nature of nuclear liability is also described. (orig.)

  9. Declaration of Helsinki, 2008: Implications for stakeholders in research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puri K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Declaration of Helsinki (DoH was adopted by the World Medical Association (WMA in 1964, as a statement of ethical principles, to provide guidance to physicians and other participants in medical research involving human subjects. Having undergone several amendments, the most recent version was approved on 18 October 2008, by the WMA General Assembly at Seoul, South Korea, replacing all previous versions. This version highlights issues such as, participant safety, the need to include participants from otherwise underrepresented groups, clinical trial registration, post-study access, usage of data and human tissues, compensating participants with research-related injury, and usage of placebo. In this article, we discuss the major aspects of the 2008 version, including the impact of this version on all stakeholders in research, including, investigators, ethics committee members, sponsors, authors, editors, and reviewers.

  10. Towards Automated Design, Analysis and Optimization of Declarative Curation Workflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhong Song

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Data curation is increasingly important. Our previous work on a Kepler curation package has demonstrated advantages that come from automating data curation pipelines by using workflow systems. However, manually designed curation workflows can be error-prone and inefficient due to a lack of user understanding of the workflow system, misuse of actors, or human error. Correcting problematic workflows is often very time-consuming. A more proactive workflow system can help users avoid such pitfalls. For example, static analysis before execution can be used to detect the potential problems in a workflow and help the user to improve workflow design. In this paper, we propose a declarative workflow approach that supports semi-automated workflow design, analysis and optimization. We show how the workflow design engine helps users to construct data curation workflows, how the workflow analysis engine detects different design problems of workflows and how workflows can be optimized by exploiting parallelism.

  11. The impact of Sleep Time-Related Information and Communication Technology (STRICT) on sleep patterns and daytime functioning in American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polos, Peter G; Bhat, Sushanth; Gupta, Divya; O'Malley, Richard J; DeBari, Vincent A; Upadhyay, Hinesh; Chaudhry, Saqib; Nimma, Anitha; Pinto-Zipp, Genevieve; Chokroverty, Sudhansu

    2015-10-01

    This cross-sectional study explored the extent and impact of mobile device-based Sleep Time-Related Information and Communication Technology (STRICT) use among American adolescents (N = 3139, 49.3% female, mean age = 13.3 years). Nearly 62% used STRICT after bedtime, 56.7% texted/tweeted/messaged in bed, and 20.8% awoke to texts. STRICT use was associated with insomnia, daytime sleepiness, eveningness, academic underperformance, later bedtimes and shorter sleep duration. Moderation analysis demonstrated that the association between STRICT use and insomnia increased with age, the association between STRICT use and daytime sleepiness decreased with age, and the association between STRICT use and shorter sleep duration decreased with age and was stronger in girls. Insomnia and daytime sleepiness partially mediated the relationship between STRICT use and academic underperformance. Our results illustrate the adverse interactions between adolescent STRICT use and sleep, with deleterious effects on daytime functioning. These worrisome findings suggest that placing reasonable limitations on adolescent STRICT use may be appropriate. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Strict versus liberal target range for perioperative glucose in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Shalin P; Henry, Linda L; Holmes, Sari D; Hunt, Sharon L; Martin, Chidima T; Hebsur, Shrinivas; Ad, Niv

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a liberal blood glucose strategy (121-180 mg/dL) is not inferior to a strict blood glucose strategy (90-120 mg/dL) for outcomes in patients after first-time isolated coronary artery bypass grafting and is superior for glucose control and target blood glucose management. A total of 189 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting were investigated in this prospective randomized study to compare 2 glucose control strategies on patient perioperative outcomes. Three methods of analyses (intention to treat, completer, and per protocol) were conducted. Observed power was robust (>80%) for significant results. The groups were similar on preoperative hemoglobin A(1c) and number of diabetic patients. The liberal group was found to be noninferior to the strict group for perioperative complications and superior on glucose control and target range management. The liberal group had significantly fewer patients with hypoglycemic events (liberal range after coronary artery bypass grafting led to similar outcomes compared with a strict target range and was superior in glucose control and target range management. On the basis of the results of this study, a target blood glucose range of 121 to 180 mg/dL is recommended for patients after coronary artery bypass grafting as advocated by the Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Copyright © 2012 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 40 CFR 62.11350 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...—negative declaration. The State Agency of Environmental Conservation submitted on April 11, 1978, a letter... declaration. 62.11350 Section 62.11350 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... of this chapter. Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions From Sulfuric Acid Production Units ...

  14. 40 CFR 62.11375 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Vermont Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.11375 Identification of plan—negative declaration. The State Agency of Environmental Conservation submitted on April 11... declaration. 62.11375 Section 62.11375 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  15. 40 CFR 62.11490 - Identification of Plan-negative declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Vermont Air Emissions from Existing Other Solid Waste Incineration Units § 62.11490 Identification of Plan-negative declaration. On June 30, 2006, the Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation... declaration. 62.11490 Section 62.11490 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  16. The Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice on Kosovo's Declaration of Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik MURATI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The question raised by Serbia at the ICJ that, “Is the unilateral declaration of independence by the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government of Kosovo in accordance with international law?”, is my main focus in this study. The purpose of the paper is the study and analysis of the advisory opinion of the ICJ on Kosovo's declaration of independence. In the beginning, I will make a brief chronology of the process up to the Declaration of Independence, offering historical and legal facts that this way of declaration of independence was the only option for Kosovo. Later, I will focus on contesting the declaration of independence from Serbia at the ICJ of UN. After contesting the Declaration of Independence, will analyze the review and its judgment the ICJ, whether ICJ had jurisdiction in the treatment and trial of the case, countries with their statements that were in support of Kosovo and countries which they were against it and in favor of Serbia. After review and trial at the ICJ, I would analyze the decision of the ICJ that Kosovo's declaration of independence was in accordance with International Law? In conclusion, I would summarize the whole of the paper, the process through which Kosovo went during this period. Was also an undeniable fact that the Declaration of Independence was the only remaining option for Kosovo and its people?

  17. 78 FR 52599 - New Mexico Disaster #NM-00033 Declaration of Economic Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13717] New Mexico Disaster NM-00033... notice of an Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL) declaration for the State of New Mexico, dated 08/13...: Primary Counties: San Miguel. Contiguous Counties: New Mexico: Guadalupe; Harding; Mora; Quay; Santa Fe...

  18. 78 FR 16521 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration for Free Entry of Unaccompanied Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... Activities: Declaration for Free Entry of Unaccompanied Articles AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection...: Declaration for Free Entry of Unaccompanied Articles (Form 3299). This is a proposed extension of an... Unaccompanied Articles. OMB Number: 1651-0014. Form Number: Form 3299. Abstract: 19 U.S.C. 1498 provides that...

  19. 76 FR 27079 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of Unaccompanied Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... Activities: Declaration of Unaccompanied Articles AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of...: Declaration of Unaccompanied Articles (CBP Form 255). This is a proposed extension of an information... Articles. OMB Number: 1651-0030. Form Number: CBP Form 255. Abstract: CBP Form 255 is completed by...

  20. 75 FR 76746 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... Activities: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or... That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or Educational Purposes. This is a proposed... forms of information. Title: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary...

  1. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ggg of... - States That Submitted a Negative Declaration Letter a

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false States That Submitted a Negative Declaration Letter a 2 Table 2 to Subpart GGG of Part 62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.... GGG, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart GGG of Part 62—States That Submitted a Negative Declaration Letter a...

  2. 21 CFR 501.105 - Declaration of net quantity of contents when exempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... established general consumer usage and trade custom of declaring the contents of a liquid by weight, or a... usage and trade custom of employing different common fractions in the net quantity declaration of a... molded on a glass or plastic surface is permissible when all label information is so formed on the...

  3. 17 CFR 250.46 - Dividend declarations and payments on certain indebtedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... payments on certain indebtedness. 250.46 Section 250.46 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... certain indebtedness. (a) Dividends. No registered holding company or subsidiary thereof shall declare or... to such declaration under the applicable provisions of the act. (b) Payments on certain indebtedness...

  4. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing.

  5. Which Technique Is Most Effective for Learning Declarative Concepts--Provided Examples, Generated Examples, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamary, Amanda; Rawson, Katherine A.

    2018-01-01

    Students in many courses are commonly expected to learn declarative concepts, which are abstract concepts denoted by key terms with short definitions that can be applied to a variety of scenarios as reported by Rawson et al. ("Educational Psychology Review" 27:483-504, 2015). Given that declarative concepts are common and foundational in…

  6. 15 CFR 713.4 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production, processing, or consumption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. 713.4 Section 713.4..., processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. (a) Declaration requirements for additionally planned activities. (1) You must declare additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2...

  7. 9 CFR 93.422 - Import permit and declaration for ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Import permit and declaration for... IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS....422 Import permit and declaration for ruminants. (a) For ruminants intended for importation from...

  8. 9 CFR 93.520 - Import permit and declaration for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Import permit and declaration for... IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS... Import permit and declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from countries of Central...

  9. 9 CFR 93.319 - Import permit and declaration for horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Import permit and declaration for... IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS....319 Import permit and declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from regions of...

  10. Sleep in Children Enhances Preferentially Emotional Declarative But Not Procedural Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Goder, Robert; Chirobeja, Stefania; Bressman, Inka; Ferstl, Roman; Baving, Lioba

    2009-01-01

    Although the consolidation of several memory systems is enhanced by sleep in adults, recent studies suggest that sleep supports declarative memory but not procedural memory in children. In the current study, the influence of sleep on emotional declarative memory (recognition task) and procedural memory (mirror tracing task) in 20 healthy children…

  11. 9 CFR 381.119 - Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration of artificial flavoring or..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... Containers § 381.119 Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring. (a) When an artificial smoke flavoring...

  12. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: 50 Years Old but Still Coming of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Highlights the events of the past 50 years concerning the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that is the first document in human history to codify rights that apply to every person regardless of citizenship in a particular country. Explains why the United States does not comprehend the value of the declaration. (CMK)

  13. 44 CFR 204.23 - Processing a request for a fire management assistance declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAM Declaration Process § 204.23 Processing a request for a fire management assistance... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Processing a request for a fire management assistance declaration. 204.23 Section 204.23 Emergency Management and Assistance...

  14. 78 FR 60302 - Colorado; Amendment No. 3 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ....030, Community Disaster Loans; 97.031, Cora Brown Fund; 97.032, Crisis Counseling; 97.033, Disaster...; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households in Presidentially Declared Disaster Areas; 97.049, Presidentially Declared Disaster Assistance--Disaster Housing Operations for Individuals...

  15. 77 FR 71811 - Virginia; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of an Emergency Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ..., Community Disaster Loans; 97.031, Cora Brown Fund; 97.032, Crisis Counseling; 97.033, Disaster Legal..., Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households in Presidentially Declared Disaster Areas; 97.049, Presidentially Declared Disaster Assistance--Disaster Housing Operations for Individuals and Households; 97.050...

  16. 77 FR 73486 - District of Columbia; Amendment No. 3 to Notice of an Emergency Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ..., Community Disaster Loans; 97.031, Cora Brown Fund; 97.032, Crisis Counseling; 97.033, Disaster Legal..., Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households in Presidentially Declared Disaster Areas; 97.049, Presidentially Declared Disaster Assistance--Disaster Housing Operations for Individuals and Households; 97.050...

  17. 76 FR 80958 - Texas; Amendment No. 6 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ....030, Community Disaster Loans; 97.031, Cora Brown Fund; 97.032, Crisis Counseling; 97.033, Disaster...; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households in Presidentially Declared Disaster Areas; 97.049, Presidentially Declared Disaster Assistance--Disaster Housing Operations for Individuals...

  18. 78 FR 45547 - Massachusetts; Amendment No. 2 to Notice of an Emergency Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... funds: 97.030, Community Disaster Loans; 97.031, Cora Brown Fund; 97.032, Crisis Counseling; 97.033... Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households in Presidentially Declared Disaster Areas; 97.049, Presidentially Declared Disaster Assistance--Disaster Housing Operations for...

  19. 78 FR 70956 - New Mexico; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ....030, Community Disaster Loans; 97.031, Cora Brown Fund; 97.032, Crisis Counseling; 97.033, Disaster...; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially Declared Disaster Areas; 97.049, Presidentially Declared Disaster Assistance--Disaster Housing Operations for Individuals...

  20. 78 FR 27414 - Texas; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of an Emergency Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... drawing funds: 97.030, Community Disaster Loans; 97.031, Cora Brown Fund; 97.032, Crisis Counseling; 97... Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households in Presidentially Declared Disaster Areas; 97.049, Presidentially Declared Disaster Assistance--Disaster Housing Operations...

  1. 78 FR 35309 - Illinois; Amendment No. 2 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... reporting and drawing funds: 97.030, Community Disaster Loans; 97.031, Cora Brown Fund; 97.032, Crisis... Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially Declared Disaster Areas; 97.049, Presidentially Declared Disaster Assistance--Disaster Housing...

  2. 78 FR 59043 - Colorado; Amendment No. 2 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... funds: 97.030, Community Disaster Loans; 97.031, Cora Brown Fund; 97.032, Crisis Counseling; 97.033... Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially Declared Disaster Areas; 97.049, Presidentially Declared Disaster Assistance--Disaster Housing Operations for...

  3. 78 FR 72094 - Pennsylvania; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... funds: 97.030, Community Disaster Loans; 97.031, Cora Brown Fund; 97.032, Crisis Counseling; 97.033... Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially Declared Disaster Areas; 97.049, Presidentially Declared Disaster Assistance--Disaster Housing Operations for...

  4. 76 FR 38196 - Kentucky; Amendment No. 11 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... funds: 97.030, Community Disaster Loans; 97.031, Cora Brown Fund; 97.032, Crisis Counseling; 97.033... Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially Declared Disaster Areas; 97.049, Presidentially Declared Disaster Assistance--Disaster Housing Operations for...

  5. 78 FR 38728 - Illinois; Amendment No. 5 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... drawing funds: 97.030, Community Disaster Loans; 97.031, Cora Brown Fund; 97.032, Crisis Counseling; 97... Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially Declared Disaster Areas; 97.049, Presidentially Declared Disaster Assistance--Disaster Housing Operations...

  6. 77 FR 47655 - West Virginia; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ....030, Community Disaster Loans; 97.031, Cora Brown Fund; 97.032, Crisis Counseling; 97.033, Disaster...; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially Declared Disaster Areas; 97.049, Presidentially Declared Disaster Assistance--Disaster Housing Operations for Individuals...

  7. 76 FR 56211 - District of Columbia; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of an Emergency Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ..., Community Disaster Loans; 97.031, Cora Brown Fund; 97.032, Crisis Counseling; 97.033, Disaster Legal..., Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially Declared Disaster Areas; 97.049, Presidentially Declared Disaster Assistance--Disaster Housing Operations for Individuals and Households; 97.050...

  8. 78 FR 63486 - Colorado; Amendment No. 6 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... reporting and drawing funds: 97.030, Community Disaster Loans; 97.031, Cora Brown Fund; 97.032, Crisis... Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially Declared Disaster Areas; 97.049, Presidentially Declared Disaster Assistance--Disaster Housing...

  9. 78 FR 66038 - Colorado; Amendment No. 8 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... reporting and drawing funds: 97.030, Community Disaster Loans; 97.031, Cora Brown Fund; 97.032, Crisis... Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially Declared Disaster Areas; 97.049, Presidentially Declared Disaster Assistance--Disaster Housing...

  10. 77 FR 73486 - Massachusetts; Amendment No. 2 to Notice of an Emergency Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ..., Community Disaster Loans; 97.031, Cora Brown Fund; 97.032, Crisis Counseling; 97.033, Disaster Legal..., Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households in Presidentially Declared Disaster Areas; 97.049, Presidentially Declared Disaster Assistance--Disaster Housing Operations for Individuals and Households; 97.050...

  11. 78 FR 38727 - Iowa; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... funds: 97.030, Community Disaster Loans; 97.031, Cora Brown Fund; 97.032, Crisis Counseling; 97.033... Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially Declared Disaster Areas; 97.049, Presidentially Declared Disaster Assistance--Disaster Housing Operations for...

  12. 77 FR 5261 - Alaska; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ..., Community Disaster Loans; 97.031, Cora Brown Fund; 97.032, Crisis Counseling; 97.033, Disaster Legal..., Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households in Presidentially Declared Disaster Areas; 97.049, Presidentially Declared Disaster Assistance--Disaster Housing Operations for Individuals and Households; 97.050...

  13. The Power of Examples: Illustrative Examples Enhance Conceptual Learning of Declarative Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Katherine A.; Thomas, Ruthann C.; Jacoby, Larry L.

    2015-01-01

    Declarative concepts (i.e., key terms with short definitions of the abstract concepts denoted by those terms) are a common kind of information that students are expected to learn in many domains. A common pedagogical approach for supporting learning of declarative concepts involves presenting students with concrete examples that illustrate how the…

  14. 76 FR 63320 - Puerto Rico; Amendment No. 4 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Agency Docket No. FEMA-4017-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] Puerto Rico; Amendment No. 4 to Notice of a...: This notice amends the notice of a major disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA... notice of a major disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is hereby amended to include...

  15. 76 FR 58027 - Puerto Rico; Amendment No. 3 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Puerto Rico; Amendment No. 3 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017-DR), dated August... disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is hereby amended to include the following areas...

  16. 76 FR 64958 - Puerto Rico; Amendment No. 5 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Puerto Rico; Amendment No. 5 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017-DR), dated August... declaration for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is hereby amended to include the following area among those...

  17. 75 FR 70019 - Puerto Rico; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Puerto Rico; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-1946-DR), dated October... disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is hereby amended to include the following areas...

  18. 75 FR 77889 - Puerto Rico; Amendment No. 2 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Puerto Rico; Amendment No. 2 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-1946-DR), dated October... disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is hereby amended to include the following areas...

  19. The Title and Three Core Values from the First Three Lines of The Declaration of Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kenneth Michael

    2013-01-01

    Teaching the Declaration of Independence can be a challenge. This article presents a lesson plan based on an explication of the title and the first three lines of the Declaration intended to make the American founding era relevant to today's college students. Assuming civic education is a major goal of teaching American Government, assuming…

  20. Declaring Conflict of Interest - Current State of Affairs in the Ophthalmic Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Jamie Lea; Aubert Bonn, Noemie; Craenen, Geert

    2017-01-01

    The importance of transparency with financial ties in biomedical research is widely recognized, and most peer-reviewed journals require declarations of Conflicts of Interest (COI). Nonetheless, variability in the consistency of declarations of COI has been sparsely assessed. To assess consistency and rates of COI declarations in the ophthalmic literature and the effectiveness of journal COI policies. We analyzed consistency and completeness of declaration of COI in the ophthalmic literature and compared the levels of completeness to specific journal requirements. Six-hundred forty-two peer reviewed articles satisfied the inclusion criteria. In 64%, COIs were unreported, in 25% declaration of COI was incomplete, and 11% of the articles reviewed had complete declaration of COI. Of the 33 journals in which the most frequently published authors' articles appeared, 10 required the authors to complete the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) form or an equivalent form, but this did not affect the rates of COI declaration. In a random sampling of the most frequently published authors in the field of ophthalmology, declaration of COI was low and highly inconsistent. Requiring a standardized COI form has no significant effect on the rate of accurate COI reporting. Our findings lend support to the growing body of literature that shows that journals and editors may need to take a more active role in ensuring accurate and consistent COI reporting.

  1. 76 FR 56263 - Disaster Declaration #12782 and #12783; New Jersey Disaster #NJ-00024

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Disaster Declaration 12782 and 12783; New Jersey Disaster NJ-00024 ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of New Jersey (FEMA- 4021-DR), dated 08/31/2011. Incident: Hurricane Irene...

  2. 47 CFR 68.350 - Revocation of Supplier's Declaration of Conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Conformity. 68.350 Section 68.350 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON... Terminal Equipment Approval § 68.350 Revocation of Supplier's Declaration of Conformity. (a) The Commission may revoke any Supplier's Declaration of Conformity for cause in accordance with the provisions of...

  3. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, A Lay Version for the Common Man, Woman and Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankard, Alice Doumanian

    This lay version of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (the original version was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1948) has been written in simplified vocabulary to make it understandable to a wider range of ages and reading abilities. The declaration consists of a preamble followed by a listing of 30 goals common to…

  4. The UN Declaration of Human Rights: A Handbook for Teachers. Bulletin, 1951, No. 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Howard R.; Cummings, Howard H.

    1951-01-01

    The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations in Paris, December 10, 1948. The vote was 48 to 0, but 8 countries abstained from voting. The Declaration is a statement of principles approved a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations. It is not a treaty and therefore…

  5. 21 CFR 701.13 - Declaration of net quantity of contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... shall be expressed in terms of weight, measure, numerical count, or a combination of numerical count and... gallon and labeled in terms of weight or fluid measure: (1) The declaration shall be expressed both in... and labeled in terms of weight or fluid measure, the declaration shall be expressed in pounds for...

  6. Will international human rights subsume medical ethics? Intersections in the UNESCO Universal Bioethics Declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, T A

    2005-03-01

    The International Bioethics Committee (IBC) of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) is currently drafting a Universal Bioethics Declaration ("the declaration"). The content and even the name of the declaration has yet to be finalized, but it is expected to range widely over human and non-human bioethics. It appears likely to include many articles directly related to medical ethics. The declaration may well evolve, like the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, into a component of international customary law, or be the precursor to an International Convention on Bioethics. This article discusses whether this process will facilitate bioethics and, in particular, medical ethics, being subsumed by the normative system of international human rights.

  7. Text of the Vatican Declaration on Sexual Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-22

    The Vatican Declaration on Sexual Ethics opens with a statement that in the present period, the corruption of morals has increased, as demonstrated by the unbridled exaltation of sex. Widespread opposition to the teachings of the Church and questioning of beliefs prompted publication of the declaration. Contrary to the opinion of many that norms of the natural law or precepts of sacred scripture are merely expressions of a form of particular culture at a certain moment of history, divine revelation and philosophical wisdom emphasize that immutable laws do exist and are identical in all beings endowed with reason. The Church transmits without error the truths of the moral order, including those originating in human nature itself. The Church has always transmitted principles and norms of sexual ethics which are not manifestations of a certain type of culture but rather originate in knowledge of divine law and human nature, and therefore cannot be considered to have become out of date. These principles guided the Second Vatican Council in its reaffirmation that respect for the finality of the sexual act--procreation--ensures its moral goodness. The same principle is the basis of the traditional doctrine of the Church that the use of the sexual function has its true meaning and moral rectitude only in true marriage. Christian doctrine states that every genital act must be within the framework of marriage. Love must be safeguarded in the stability of marriage in order for sexual intercourse to respond to the requirements of its own finality and to those of human dignity. No pastoral method can give moral justification to homosexual acts on the grounds that they are consonant with the condition of definitive homosexuality, because according to the moral order, homosexual relations lack an essential and indispensable finality. The teaching of the Church holds that masturbation is an intrinsically and seriously disordered act because the deliberate use of the sexual

  8. Effectiveness of strict vs. multiple use protected areas in reducing tropical forest fires: a global analysis using matching methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Nelson

    Full Text Available Protected areas (PAs cover a quarter of the tropical forest estate. Yet there is debate over the effectiveness of PAs in reducing deforestation, especially when local people have rights to use the forest. A key analytic problem is the likely placement of PAs on marginal lands with low pressure for deforestation, biasing comparisons between protected and unprotected areas. Using matching techniques to control for this bias, this paper analyzes the global tropical forest biome using forest fires as a high resolution proxy for deforestation; disaggregates impacts by remoteness, a proxy for deforestation pressure; and compares strictly protected vs. multiple use PAs vs indigenous areas. Fire activity was overlaid on a 1 km map of tropical forest extent in 2000; land use change was inferred for any point experiencing one or more fires. Sampled points in pre-2000 PAs were matched with randomly selected never-protected points in the same country. Matching criteria included distance to road network, distance to major cities, elevation and slope, and rainfall. In Latin America and Asia, strict PAs substantially reduced fire incidence, but multi-use PAs were even more effective. In Latin America, where there is data on indigenous areas, these areas reduce forest fire incidence by 16 percentage points, over two and a half times as much as naïve (unmatched comparison with unprotected areas would suggest. In Africa, more recently established strict PAs appear to be effective, but multi-use tropical forest protected areas yield few sample points, and their impacts are not robustly estimated. These results suggest that forest protection can contribute both to biodiversity conservation and CO2 mitigation goals, with particular relevance to the REDD agenda. Encouragingly, indigenous areas and multi-use protected areas can help to accomplish these goals, suggesting some compatibility between global environmental goals and support for local livelihoods.

  9. Hydroxycinnamic acids used as external acceptors of electrons: an energetic advantage for strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filannino, Pasquale; Gobbetti, Marco; De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2014-12-01

    The metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids by strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (19 strains) was investigated as a potential alternative energy route. Lactobacillus curvatus PE5 was the most tolerant to hydroxycinnamic acids, followed by strains of Weissella spp., Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, for which the MIC values were the same. The highest sensitivity was found for Lactobacillus rossiae strains. During growth in MRS broth, lactic acid bacteria reduced caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids into dihydrocaffeic, phloretic, and dihydroferulic acids, respectively, or decarboxylated hydroxycinnamic acids into the corresponding vinyl derivatives and then reduced the latter compounds to ethyl compounds. Reductase activities mainly emerged, and the activities of selected strains were further investigated in chemically defined basal medium (CDM) under anaerobic conditions. The end products of carbon metabolism were quantified, as were the levels of intracellular ATP and the NAD(+)/NADH ratio. Electron and carbon balances and theoretical ATP/glucose yields were also estimated. When CDM was supplemented with hydroxycinnamic acids, the synthesis of ethanol decreased and the concentration of acetic acid increased. The levels of these metabolites reflected on the alcohol dehydrogenase and acetate kinase activities. Overall, some biochemical traits distinguished the common metabolism of strictly heterofermentative strains: main reductase activity toward hydroxycinnamic acids, a shift from alcohol dehydrogenase to acetate kinase activities, an increase in the NAD(+)/NADH ratio, and the accumulation of supplementary intracellular ATP. Taken together, the above-described metabolic responses suggest that strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria mainly use hydroxycinnamic acids as external acceptors of electrons. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Fermentative Degradation of Polyethylene Glycol by a Strictly Anaerobic, Gram-Negative, Nonsporeforming Bacterium, Pelobacter venetianus sp. nov

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    The synthetic polyether polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a molecular weight of 20,000 was anaerobically degraded in enrichment cultures inoculated with mud of limnic and marine origins. Three strains (Gra PEG 1, Gra PEG 2, and Ko PEG 2) of rod-shaped, gram-negative, nonsporeforming, strictly anaerobic bacteria were isolated in mineral medium with PEG as the sole source of carbon and energy. All strains degraded dimers, oligomers, and polymers of PEG up to a molecular weight of 20,000 completely...

  11. An Iterative Algorithm Combining Viscosity Method with Parallel Method for a Generalized Equilibrium Problem and Strict Pseudocontractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new approximation scheme combining the viscosity method with parallel method for finding a common element of the set of solutions of a generalized equilibrium problem and the set of fixed points of a family of finitely strict pseudocontractions. We obtain a strong convergence theorem for the sequences generated by these processes in Hilbert spaces. Based on this result, we also get some new and interesting results. The results in this paper extend and improve some well-known results in the literature.

  12. Composite Intelligent Learning Control of Strict-Feedback Systems With Disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Sun, Fuchun

    2018-02-01

    This paper addresses the dynamic surface control of uncertain nonlinear systems on the basis of composite intelligent learning and disturbance observer in presence of unknown system nonlinearity and time-varying disturbance. The serial-parallel estimation model with intelligent approximation and disturbance estimation is built to obtain the prediction error and in this way the composite law for weights updating is constructed. The nonlinear disturbance observer is developed using intelligent approximation information while the disturbance estimation is guaranteed to converge to a bounded compact set. The highlight is that different from previous work directly toward asymptotic stability, the transparency of the intelligent approximation and disturbance estimation is included in the control scheme. The uniformly ultimate boundedness stability is analyzed via Lyapunov method. Through simulation verification, the composite intelligent learning with disturbance observer can efficiently estimate the effect caused by system nonlinearity and disturbance while the proposed approach obtains better performance with higher accuracy.

  13. The "high solubility" definition of the current FDA Guidance on Biopharmaceutical Classification System may be too strict for acidic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanian, Mehran; Briggs, Katherine; Jankovsky, Corinne; Hawi, Amale

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess if the definition of high solubility as proposed in the FDA Guidance on Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) is too strict for highly permeable acidic drugs. The solubility and permeability values of 20 (18 acidic and 2 non-acidic) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) were determined. The NSAIDs were grouped into three different sets having acetic acid, propionic acid, or other acidic moieties such as fenamate, oxicam, and salicylate. Two nonacidic NSAIDs (celecoxib and rofecoxib) were also included for comparison purposes. Equilibrium solubility values were determined at pH 1.2, 5.0, 7.4, and in biorelevant media simulating fed intestinal fluid at pH 5.0. For a select number of acids, we also measured solubility values in media simulating gastric and fasted intestinal fluids. Permeability classification was established relative to that of reference drugs in the Caco-2 cell permeability model. Permeability coefficients for all drugs were measured at concentrations corresponding to the lowest and highest marketed dose strengths dissolved in 250 ml volume, and their potential interaction with cellular efflux pumps was investigated. All NSAIDs with different acidic functional groups were classified as highly permeable based on their Caco-2 cell permeability. Only ketorolac appeared to have a potential for interaction with cellular efflux pumps. Solubility classification was based on comparison of equilibrium solubility at pH 1.2, 5.0. and 7.4 relative to marketed dose strengths in 250 ml. The pKa values for the acidic NSAIDs studied were between 3.5 and 5.1. and, as expected, their solubility increased dramatically at pH 7.4 compared to pH 1.2. Only three NSAIDs, ketorolac, ketoprofen. and acetyl salicylic acid, meet the current criteria for high solubility over the entire pH range. However, with the exception of ibuprofen, oxaprozin, and mefenamic acid, the remaining compounds can be classified as Class I drugs

  14. Control of declared origin of bovine serum, a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horacek, M.; Papesch, W.

    2009-04-01

    Bovine serum is the essential culture medium for cell cultures. Therefore it is highly demanded and the quality of the serum, e.g.: absence of bacteria, viruses certain antibodies, etc.., are important criteria. as some cattle diseases are endemic in certain regions, the origin of bovine serum is an important quality measure for its value. Thus the need to control the declared origins is present. Bovine serum was measured for d2H, d13C, d15N and d34S of proteine (dry residue) and d2H and d18O of the serum water. The hydrogen and oxygen are mainly depending by the isotopic composition of the water ingested by the cattle, and thus usually influenced by the isotopic signal of the precipitation. The carbon isotope signal is reflecting the diet of the cattle, whether it mainly feed on C3- or C4-plants. The nitrogen and sulphur isotope ratio is transferred from the ground/soil into the plant material and into the animal tissue, with some offset for nitrogen and without any significant offset for sulphur. Bovine serum samples from Canada, USA, Mexico, Brazil, Australia and New Zealand have been analysed. Due to the variations in the environmental conditions in different countries and regions which influence the isotope signatures of the serum samples it is possible to discriminate samples of different origin. Main discriminating parameters are d2H and d18O, d13C and d34S.

  15. [The Declaration of Istanbul on organ trafficking and transplant tourism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A Summit Meeting that convened over 150 representatives of scientific and medical bodies from around the world was held in Istanbul from April 30 to May 2, 2008 to address the urgent and growing problem of organ sales, transplant tourism and trafficking in organ donors in the context of the global shortage of organs. Preparatory work for the meeting was undertaken by a Steering Committee convened by The Transplantation Society and the International Society of Nephrology in Dubai in December 2007. Participants at the Istanbul Summit were selected by the Steering Committee according to the following criteria: The country liaisons with The Transplantation Society representing virtually all countries with transplantation programs; representatives from international societies and the Vatican; key stakeholders in nephrology and transplantation; public policy experts in organ transplantation; and ethicists, anthropologists, sociologists, and legal academic well-recognized for their work on transplantation policy and practice. This Declaration represents the consensus of the Summit participants and is an authorized Spanish translation that will help disseminate this information among Mexican health professionals and interested readers.

  16. O-15-butanol PET activation study on declarative memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, B.J.; Schmidt, D.; Mottaghy, F.M.; Mueller-Gaertner, H.W.; Forschungszentrum Juelich; Halsband, U.; Tellmann, L.; Herzog, H.

    1998-01-01

    Aim: In this study, neuroanatomical correlates of encoding and retrieval in paired associate learning were evaluated with positron emission tomography using auditorily presented highly imaginable words. Methods: Six right-handed normal male volunteers took part in the study. Each subject underwent six O-15-butanol PET scans. On each of the six trials the memory task began with the injection of a bolus of O-15-butanol. The subjects had to learn and retrieve twelve word pairs (highly imaginable words, not semantically related). The presentation of nonsense words served as reference condition. Results: Recall accuracy after 2-4 presentations was high during the PET measurement. In both encoding and retrieval we found anterior cingulate activation. We show bilateral dorsalateral prefrontal activation during the encoding of auditorily presented word pair associates, whereas retrieval led to left frontal activation. Furthermore, we demonstrate the importance of the precuneus in the retrieval of highly imaginable world-pair associates. Conclusion: Our results support the hypothesis of the presence of distributed widespread brain structures subserving episodic declarative memory. (orig.) [de

  17. Deferred imitation and declarative memory in domestic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugazza, Claudia; Miklósi, Adám

    2014-03-01

    This study demonstrates for the first time deferred imitation of novel actions in dogs (Canis familiaris) with retention intervals of 1.5 min and memory of familiar actions with intervals ranging from 0.40 to 10 min. Eight dogs were trained using the 'Do as I do' method to match their own behaviour to actions displayed by a human demonstrator. They were then trained to wait for a short interval to elapse before they were allowed to show the previously demonstrated action. The dogs were then tested for memory of the demonstrated behaviour in various conditions, also with the so-called two-action procedure and in a control condition without demonstration. Dogs were typically able to reproduce familiar actions after intervals as long as 10 min, even if distracted by different activities during the retention interval and were able to match their behaviour to the demonstration of a novel action after a delay of 1 min. In the two-action procedure, dogs were typically able to imitate the novel demonstrated behaviour after retention intervals of 1.5 min. The ability to encode and recall an action after a delay implies that facilitative processes cannot exhaustively explain the observed behavioural similarity and that dogs' imitative abilities are rather based on an enduring mental representation of the demonstration. Furthermore, the ability to imitate a novel action after a delay without previous practice suggests presence of declarative memory in dogs.

  18. Influence of reward motivation on human declarative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miendlarzewska, Ewa A; Bavelier, Daphne; Schwartz, Sophie

    2016-02-01

    Motivational relevance can prioritize information for memory encoding and consolidation based on reward value. In this review, we pinpoint the possible psychological and neural mechanisms by which reward promotes learning, from guiding attention to enhancing memory consolidation. We then discuss how reward value can spill-over from one conditioned stimulus to a non-conditioned stimulus. Such generalization can occur across perceptually similar items or through more complex relations, such as associative or logical inferences. Existing evidence suggests that the neurotransmitter dopamine boosts the formation of declarative memory for rewarded information and may also control the generalization of reward values. In particular, temporally-correlated activity in the hippocampus and in regions of the dopaminergic circuit may mediate value-based decisions and facilitate cross-item integration. Given the importance of generalization in learning, our review points to the need to study not only how reward affects later memory but how learned reward values may generalize to related representations and ultimately alter memory structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. THE BOLOGNA DECLARATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON SWIMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milomir Trivun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The sample consisted of 24 tested students in 2009/10 academic year and 26 tested students in 2007/08 academic year. All of them were the second year students at the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport at the University in East Sarajevo and they were 22 years and ± 6 months old. There was done the results’ comparison in the following variables: swimming the crawl at 100m and swimming the backstroke. The method of the study The results of descriptive statistics are shown in the measures of central tendencies: mean, minimum, maximum, standard deviation. Besides, the got results were subjected to the analysis by t-test and they referred to the small samples. The results of the research and the conclusions Applying the descriptive statistics and comparing results’ success at swimming the crawl and backstroke at 100m there were got the results of the measures of central tendencies, this sample consisted of 26 tested students. There was applied t-test analysis at initial and final measuring of the swimming the crawl and backstroke. The results showed the statistically significant difference in swimming in relation to the population of 24 tested students in 2009/10 studying according to the Bologna Declaration.

  20. Wundt contested: The first crisis declaration in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mülberger, Annette

    2012-06-01

    When reflecting on the history and the present situation of their field, psychologists have often seen their discipline as being in a critical state. The first author to warn of a crisis was, in 1897, the now scarcely known philosopher Rudolf Willy. He saw a crisis in psychology resulting, firstly, from a profuse branching out of psychology. Adopting a radical empiriocriticist point of view, he, secondly, made the metaphysical stance of scholars like Wilhelm Wundt responsible for the crisis. Meanwhile, the priest Constantin Gutberlet responded to the claim of crisis arguing, on the contrary, that the crisis resulted from research that was empirical only. Throughout the discipline psychologists felt troubled by a widespread sense of fragmentation in the field. I will argue that this is due to psychology's early social success and popularization in modern society. Moreover the paper shows that the first declaration of crisis emerged at a time when a discussion of fundamentals was already underway between Wundt and the empiriocriticist Richard Avenarius. The present historical research reveals the depth of the confrontation between Wundt and Willy, entailing a clash of two worldviews that embrace psychological, epistemological, and political aspects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Realisation of Bologna Declaration at the Slovak medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergendi, L; Bernadic, M; Kralova, E; Kukurova, E

    2007-01-01

    Implementation of Bologna Declaration should result in development and facilitating of the education system. Following tasks need to be done: (1) Establish committees of expert, at the level of institutes, schools and universities, which would compare and harmonize syllabus and credits of individual courses with the aim to maximally support students' and teachers' mobility. (2) It is necessary to re-evaluate the transformation of medical education in Slovakia in the near future, so as key identical courses within Slovak schools of medicine have similar syllabus, number of hours and number of given credits. Then medical study at the School of Medicine Comenius University Bratislava will be comparable to study at Slovak, Czech and other European schools of medicine. (3) Harmonize academic titles within European Union. (4) Finish all syllabi of new study programs according the programs of European Union. (5) Evaluate the prerequisites and consider the variability of some study programs. (6) Maintain flexibility of theory and practice in relation 1:2 in theoretical and practical study. (7) Determine possible forms of thesis, their content and forms, technical equipment considering experience in student's research activity. (8) Develop conditions for an adequate teachers input. (9) Objectively validate and evaluate students' gained knowledge regarding their use in practice. (10) Solve transparent conditions of support and economic guarantee of higher education for universities, teachers and students by Ministry of Education of Slovak Republic (Ref. 18). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  2. The Bellagio Declaration: overcoming hunger in the 1990's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloo, F; Arizpe, L; Belford, T S; Clark, J; Csanadi, J; Davies, P J; Emmerij, L; George, S; Hyden, G; Jonsson, U

    1989-01-01

    In November 1989, 23 leading hunger experts met in Bellagio, Italy, issues a document called the "Bellagio Declaration: Overcoming Hunger in the 1990s." The report lists 4 achievable goals: eliminate famine deaths; end hunger in half of the world's poorest households; reduce by half malnutrition of mothers and small children; and eradicate iodine and vitamin A deficiencies. Famine deaths can be eliminated by setting up early-warning systems and longer-term relief objectives. The only remaining obstacle is how to prevent warring nations from blocking food deliveries and destroying food. Hunger can be eliminated in half the world's poor households by giving the poor access to resources and credit, rehabilitating degraded ecosystems, using sustainable farming, and using existing markets to distribute food equitably. Malnutrition can be halved by sustained breastfeeding, and supplementation of food and micronutrients. Iodine and vitamin A deficiencies can be eliminated by giving iodized oil injections, vitamin A capsules and iodized salt. Ways of dealing with obstacles such as population, deforestation, soil and water shortages, pollution, global warming and capital deficits in the South are discussed. There is hope that these goals can be attained because of the outbreak of peace and democracy, freeing up substantial portions of the 1 trillion US dollars spent on defense; abatement of feat of worldwide economic collapse; and evolution of a worldwide logistic system to provide emergency food aid.

  3. 47 CFR 68.348 - Changes in equipment and circuitry subject to a Supplier's Declaration of Conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Supplier's Declaration of Conformity. 68.348 Section 68.348 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... a Supplier's Declaration of Conformity. (a) No change shall be made in terminal equipment or... Declaration of Conformity Statement furnished to users. (b) Any other changes in terminal equipment or...

  4. Adaptive terminal sliding mode control for hypersonic flight vehicles with strictly lower convex function based nonlinear disturbance observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun-Jie; Zuo, Jing-Xing; Sun, Liang-Hua

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the altitude and velocity tracking control of a generic hypersonic flight vehicle (HFV) is considered. A novel adaptive terminal sliding mode controller (ATSMC) with strictly lower convex function based nonlinear disturbance observer (SDOB) is proposed for the longitudinal dynamics of HFV in presence of both parametric uncertainties and external disturbances. First, for the sake of enhancing the anti-interference capability, SDOB is presented to estimate and compensate the equivalent disturbances by introducing a strictly lower convex function. Next, the SDOB based ATSMC (SDOB-ATSMC) is proposed to guarantee the system outputs track the reference trajectory. Then, stability of the proposed control scheme is analyzed by the Lyapunov function method. Compared with other HFV control approaches, key novelties of SDOB-ATSMC are that a novel SDOB is proposed and drawn into the (virtual) control laws to compensate the disturbances and that several adaptive laws are used to deal with the differential explosion problem. Finally, it is illustrated by the simulation results that the new method exhibits an excellent robustness and a better disturbance rejection performance than the convention approach. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Event-Sampled Direct Adaptive NN Output- and State-Feedback Control of Uncertain Strict-Feedback System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szanto, Nathan; Narayanan, Vignesh; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2017-04-12

    In this paper, a novel event-triggered implementation of a tracking controller for an uncertain strict-feedback system is presented. Neural networks (NNs) are utilized in the backstepping approach to design a control input by approximating unknown dynamics of the strict-feedback nonlinear system with event-sampled inputs. The system state vector is assumed to be unknown and an NN observer is used to estimate the state vector. By using the estimated state vector and backstepping design approach, an event-sampled controller is introduced. As part of the controller design, first, input-to-state-like stability for a continuously sampled controller that has been injected with bounded measurement errors is demonstrated, and subsequently, an event-execution control law is derived, such that the measurement errors are guaranteed to remain bounded. Lyapunov theory is used to demonstrate that the tracking errors, the observer estimation errors, and the NN weight estimation errors for each NN are locally uniformly ultimately bounded in the presence bounded disturbances, NN reconstruction errors, as well as errors introduced by event sampling. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed controllers.

  6. Maintenance of Taste Organs Is Strictly Dependent on Epithelial Hedgehog/GLI Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermilov, Alexandre N; Kumari, Archana; Li, Libo; Joiner, Ariell M; Grachtchouk, Marina A; Allen, Benjamin L; Dlugosz, Andrzej A; Mistretta, Charlotte M

    2016-11-01

    For homeostasis, lingual taste papilla organs require regulation of epithelial cell survival and renewal, with sustained innervation and stromal interactions. To investigate a role for Hedgehog/GLI signaling in adult taste organs we used a panel of conditional mouse models to manipulate GLI activity within epithelial cells of the fungiform and circumvallate papillae. Hedgehog signaling suppression rapidly led to taste bud loss, papilla disruption, and decreased proliferation in domains of papilla epithelium that contribute to taste cells. Hedgehog responding cells were eliminated from the epithelium but retained in the papilla stromal core. Despite papilla disruption and loss of taste buds that are a major source of Hedgehog ligand, innervation to taste papillae was maintained, and not misdirected, even after prolonged GLI blockade. Further, vimentin-positive fibroblasts remained in the papilla core. However, retained innervation and stromal cells were not sufficient to maintain taste bud cells in the context of compromised epithelial Hedgehog signaling. Importantly taste organ disruption after GLI blockade was reversible in papillae that retained some taste bud cell remnants where reactivation of Hedgehog signaling led to regeneration of papilla epithelium and taste buds. Therefore, taste bud progenitors were either retained during epithelial GLI blockade or readily repopulated during recovery, and were poised to regenerate taste buds once Hedgehog signaling was restored, with innervation and papilla connective tissue elements in place. Our data argue that Hedgehog signaling is essential for adult tongue tissue maintenance and that taste papilla epithelial cells represent the key targets for physiologic Hedgehog-dependent regulation of taste organ homeostasis. Because disruption of GLI transcriptional activity in taste papilla epithelium is sufficient to drive taste organ loss, similar to pharmacologic Hedgehog pathway inhibition, the findings suggest that taste

  7. Nanoencapsulation of lutein and its effect on mice's declarative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Prado Silva, Jéssica Thaís; Geiss, Júlia Maria Tonin; Oliveira, Sara Marchesan; Brum, Evelyne da Silva; Sagae, Sara Cristina; Becker, Daniela; Leimann, Fernanda Vitória; Ineu, Rafael Porto; Guerra, Gustavo Petri; Gonçalves, Odinei Hess

    2017-07-01

    Lutein is a xanthophyll carotenoid widely known by its biological properties and low toxicity. When located in the brain, lutein may inhibit damage mechanisms, acting in neural cells maintenance. However, this carotenoid is very sensitive to external agents such as heat, light, pH and oxidation, besides presenting low absorption in gastrointestinal tract due its low solubility in water. Encapsulation procedures have shown promising results to increase lutein stability and bioavailability. In this work, lutein was encapsulated in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) matrix by the dissolution in common solvent method. Nanoparticles were characterized in respect to morphology, water solubility, and interactions between PVP and lutein. In vivo tests were carried out in order to investigate the influence of lutein encapsulation on mice's declarative memory. Ex vivo tests were also carried out to determine if nanoparticles may cause any inflammatory process per se. Results indicated that lutein was successfully encapsulated in PVP while nanoparticles presented spherical shape and uniform size. Encapsulation was able to increase water solubility of lutein by more than 43 times, which may be attributed to the formation of soluble complexes trough hydrogen bonds between lutein hydroxyl group and PVP carbonyl group. In vivo studies showed that the administration of free lutein at 100mg·kg -1 and lutein-loaded PVP nanoparticles at 10 and 1.5mg·kg -1 significantly increased mice's object recognition index, meaning that significant lower doses of lutein were needed to achieve the same effect when lutein was encapsulated. Ex vivo studies showed that lutein-loaded nanoparticles administration did not alter inflammatory parameters in plasma, liver and brain of mice. In this sense, lutein-loaded PVP nanocapsules showed to be an advantageous alternative to increase water solubility and to improve the memory of mice without causing inflammatory damage per se. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  8. Repeated labilization-reconsolidation processes strengthen declarative memory in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Forcato

    Full Text Available The idea that memories are immutable after consolidation has been challenged. Several reports have shown that after the presentation of a specific reminder, reactivated old memories become labile and again susceptible to amnesic agents. Such vulnerability diminishes with the progress of time and implies a re-stabilization phase, usually referred to as reconsolidation. To date, the main findings describe the mechanisms associated with the labilization-reconsolidation process, but little is known about its functionality from a biological standpoint. Indeed, two functions have been proposed. One suggests that destabilization of the original memory after the reminder allows the integration of new information into the background of the original memory (memory updating, and the other suggests that the labilization-reconsolidation process strengthens the original memory (memory strengthening. We have previously reported the reconsolidation of human declarative memories, demonstrating memory updating in the framework of reconsolidation. Here we deal with the strengthening function attributed to the reconsolidation process. We triggered labilization-reconsolidation processes successively by repeated presentations of the proper reminder. Participants learned an association between five cue-syllables and their respective response-syllables. Twenty-four hours later, the paired-associate verbal memory was labilized by exposing the subjects to one, two or four reminders. The List-memory was evaluated on Day 3 showing that the memory was improved when at least a second reminder was presented in the time window of the first labilization-reconsolidation process prompted by the earlier reminder. However, the improvement effect was revealed on Day 3, only when at least two reminders were presented on Day 2 and not as a consequence of only retrieval. Therefore, we propose central concepts for the reconsolidation process, emphasizing its biological role and the

  9. Technical Publications as Indicators for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Declarable Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, R.; El Gebaly, A.; Feldman, Y.; Gagne, D.; Schot, P.-M.; Ferguson, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Safeguards aims to provide credible assurances to the international community that States are fulfiling their safeguards obligations in that all nuclear material remains in peaceful use. It does so in part by developing and implementing methodologies for early detection of undeclared activities or misuse of nuclear material or technology, based on large and diverse sources of information. Analyzing scientific, technical and patent information allows analysts in the Department to understand the technology available to a State, to forecast possible technical developments, to map collaborative research activities within and across States, and compare that information with declarations received by the State for completeness and correctness. Furthermore, with regard to patent information, scientists or companies want to make sure their intellectual property is protected; accordingly, patents are frequently filed before the information is published elsewhere, making patent information also an early indicator of relevant activities. Dealing with such large information sources requires the use of an innovative methodology conducting analysis. The Department has recently begun to examine the efficacy of link analysis tools to help carry out its mission. Using the link analysis platform Palantir, the authors conducted several case studies with the aim of deriving sound analytical results from large amounts of technical information within a reasonable time frame. The authors used data sets of bibliographic references from the IAEA International Nuclear Information System (INIS),Web of Science, Science Direct and data on worldwide patents from the European Patent Office (EPO). Based on these case studies, the authors are developing methodologies for the efficient application of link analysis to scientific and technical information, thus strengthening the Department's information collection and analysis capabilities and the overall process of State

  10. Report from ILEWG and Cape Canaveral Lunar Declaration 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, B. H.

    2009-04-01

    We shall report on the ILEWG charter, goals and activities, on ICEUM "lunar declarations" and follow-up activities, with focus on societal questions, and the Cape Canaveral Lunar Declaration 2008. ILEWG charter: ILEWG , the International Lunar Exploration Working Group is a public forum created in 1994, sponsored by the world's space agencies to support "international cooperation towards a world strategy for the exploration and utilization of the Moon - our natural satellite". The charter of ILEWG is: - To develop an international strategy for the exploration of the Moon - To establish a forum and mechanisms for the communication and coordination of activities - To implement international coordination and cooperation - In order to facilitate communication among all interested parties ILEWG agrees to establish an electronic communication network for exchange of science, technology and programmatic information related to lunar activities ILEWG meets regularly, at least, once a year, and leads the organization of an International Conference in order to discuss the state of lunar exploration. Formal reports are given at COSPAR meetings and to space agencies. ILEWG is sponsored by the world's space agencies and is intended to serve three relevant groups: - actual members of the ILEWG, ie delegates and repre-sentatives of the participating Space Agencies and organizations - allowing them to discuss and possibly harmonize their draft concepts and plans - team members of the relevant space projects - allowing them to coordinate their internal work according to the guidelines provided by the Charter of the ILEWG - members of the general public and of the Lunar Explorer's Society who are interested and wish to be informed on the progress of the Moon projects and possibly contribute their own ideas ILEWG activities and working groups: ILEWG task groups include science, technology, human aspects, socio-economics, young explorers and outreach, programmatics, roadmaps and

  11. 76 FR 56464 - Puerto Rico; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... the President in his declaration of August 27, 2011. Arroyo, Cidra, Coamo, Humacao, Jayuya, Patillas..., A[ntilde]asco, Arecibo, Arroyo, Barranquitas, Bayam[oacute]n, Cata[ntilde]o, Ciales, Cidra, Coamo...

  12. Organ Allocation Policies 10 Years After UNESCO's Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, C

    2016-03-01

    October 19, 2015, marked the 10th anniversary of the adoption by the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) of the "Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights," which was signed by representatives of the 191 member states of the conference. The declaration is of major importance: it was the first legally binding document approved by a global organization to address the whole range of subjects covered by bioethics. Among the principles laid down in the declaration, those most relevant for the allocation of organs are benefit and harm (Article 4), equality, justice and equity (Article 10), nondiscrimination and nonstigmatization (Article 11), solidarity and cooperation (Article 13), social responsibility and health (including access to quality health care; Article 14), and sharing of benefits (Article 15). Policies concerning the allocation of organs cannot disregard the principles affirmed in the Declaration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 75 FR 57480 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs Declaration (Form 6059B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    .... Abstract: CBP Form 6059B, Customs Declaration, is used as a standard report of the identity and residence... the United States and helps CBP officers determine if any duties or taxes are due. A sample of CBP...

  14. 75 FR 71452 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs Declaration (Form 6059B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ...: CBP Form 6059B, Customs Declaration, is used as a standard report of the identity and residence of... goods arriving in the United States and helps CBP officers determine if any duties or taxes are due. A...

  15. Verbal declarative memory impairments in specific language impairment are related to working memory deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Jarrad A G; Ullman, Michael T; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2015-03-01

    This study examined verbal declarative memory functioning in SLI and its relationship to working memory. Encoding, recall, and recognition of verbal information was examined in children with SLI who had below average working memory (SLILow WM), children with SLI who had average working memory (SLIAvg. WM) and, a group of non-language impaired children with average working memory (TDAvg. WM). The SLILow WM group was significantly worse than both the SLIAvg. WM and TDAvg. WM groups at encoding verbal information and at retrieving verbal information following a delay. In contrast, the SLIAvg. WM group showed no verbal declarative memory deficits. The study demonstrates that verbal declarative memory deficits in SLI only occur when verbal working memory is impaired. Thus SLI declarative memory is largely intact and deficits are likely to be related to working memory impairments. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 77 FR 47083 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request, The Declaration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... Presidential Disaster Declaration Major Disaster or Emergency form. The form was approved and went into effect.... Hourly Wage Rate'' for each respondent includes a 1.4 multiplier to reflect a fully-loaded wage rate...

  17. 78 FR 2443 - Criminal Justice Interview Room Recording System (IRRS) Standard, Supplier's Declaration of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Criminal Justice Interview Room Recording System (IRRS) Standard, Supplier's... Criminal Justice IRRS Supplier's Declaration of Conformity Requirements 3. Draft Criminal Justice IRRS...

  18. Declarative memory consolidation in humans: a prospective functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takashima, A.; Petersson, K.M.; Rutters, F.; Tendolkar, I.; Jensen, O.; Zwarts, M.J.; McNaughton, B.L.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2006-01-01

    Retrieval of recently acquired declarative memories depends on the hippocampus, but with time, retrieval is increasingly sustainable by neocortical representations alone. This process has been conceptualized as system-level consolidation. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we assessed over

  19. 76 FR 80958 - Texas; Amendment No. 7 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ..., Wilbarger, and Winkler Counties for emergency protective measures (Category B) under the Public Assistance... declaration of July 1, 2011. Childress and Deaf Smith Counties for Public Assistance. Anderson, Bastrop...

  20. Developmental Dissociation Between the Maturation of Procedural Memory and Declarative Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Finn, Amy S.; Kalra, Priya B.; Goetz, Calvin; Leonard, Julia A.; Sheridan, Margaret A.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2015-01-01

    Declarative memory and procedural memory are known to be two fundamentally different kinds of memory that are dissociable in their psychological characteristics and measurement (explicit versus implicit) and in the neural systems that subserve each kind of memory. Declarative memory abilities are known to improve from childhood through young adulthood, but the developmental maturation of procedural memory is largely unknown. We compared 10-year-old children and young adults on measures of dec...

  1. [The preamble of the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights of the UNESCO].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros Espiell, Héctor

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with the importance that the preamble has in relation with the Declaration. There is an emphasis on the legal nature of such, as well as the characteristics of the preamble as an international instrument, as it shapes the "context of the document". All this is in reference to the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, whose preamble will be the object of a detailed study.

  2. Analysis gives the use he/she gives radioactive sources declared in disuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez Cruz, R.; Merayo Rodriguez, A.; Perez Gonzalez, F.

    1998-01-01

    Presently work is carried out an analysis the different factors that impact in the possibility for application the radioactive sources declared in disuse in the oriental territory entities in Cuba. With the objective to define the feasibility application sources declared in disuse, valuing the technical characteristics, the requirements give radiological protection, convenience use in other technological processes and the cost for those localized ones in the territory

  3. Heterogeneous Sensor Data Exploration and Sustainable Declarative Monitoring Architecture: Application to Smart Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servigne, S.; Gripay, Y.; Pinarer, O.; Samuel, J.; Ozgovde, A.; Jay, J.

    2016-09-01

    Concerning energy consumption and monitoring architectures, our goal is to develop a sustainable declarative monitoring architecture for lower energy consumption taking into account the monitoring system itself. Our second is to develop theoretical and practical tools to model, explore and exploit heterogeneous data from various sources in order to understand a phenomenon like energy consumption of smart building vs inhabitants' social behaviours. We focus on a generic model for data acquisition campaigns based on the concept of generic sensor. The concept of generic sensor is centered on acquired data and on their inherent multi-dimensional structure, to support complex domain-specific or field-oriented analysis processes. We consider that a methodological breakthrough may pave the way to deep understanding of voluminous and heterogeneous scientific data sets. Our use case concerns energy efficiency of buildings to understand relationship between physical phenomena and user behaviors. The aim of this paper is to give a presentation of our methodology and results concerning architecture and user-centric tools.

  4. HETEROGENEOUS SENSOR DATA EXPLORATION AND SUSTAINABLE DECLARATIVE MONITORING ARCHITECTURE: APPLICATION TO SMART BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Servigne

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Concerning energy consumption and monitoring architectures, our goal is to develop a sustainable declarative monitoring architecture for lower energy consumption taking into account the monitoring system itself. Our second is to develop theoretical and practical tools to model, explore and exploit heterogeneous data from various sources in order to understand a phenomenon like energy consumption of smart building vs inhabitants' social behaviours. We focus on a generic model for data acquisition campaigns based on the concept of generic sensor. The concept of generic sensor is centered on acquired data and on their inherent multi-dimensional structure, to support complex domain-specific or field-oriented analysis processes. We consider that a methodological breakthrough may pave the way to deep understanding of voluminous and heterogeneous scientific data sets. Our use case concerns energy efficiency of buildings to understand relationship between physical phenomena and user behaviors. The aim of this paper is to give a presentation of our methodology and results concerning architecture and user-centric tools.

  5. Left hemisphere EEG coherence in infancy predicts infant declarative pointing and preschool epistemic language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn-Popp, N; Kristen, S; Paulus, M; Meinhardt, J; Sodian, B

    2016-01-01

    Pointing plays a central role in preverbal communication. While imperative pointing aims at influencing another person's behavior, declarative gestures serve to convey epistemic information and to share interest in an object. Further, the latter are hypothesized to be a precursor ability of epistemic language. So far, little is known about their underlying brain maturation processes. Therefore, the present study investigated the relation between brain maturation processes and the production of imperative and declarative motives as well as epistemic language in N = 32 infants. EEG coherence scores were measured at 14 months, imperative and declarative point production at 15 months and epistemic language at 48 months. Results of correlational analyses suggest distinct behavioral and neural patterns for imperative and declarative pointing, with declarative pointing being associated with the maturation of the left hemisphere. Further, EEG coherence measures of the left hemisphere at 14 months and declarative pointing at 15 months are related to individual differences in epistemic language skills at 48 months, independently of child IQ. In regression analyses, coherence measures of the left hemisphere prove to be the most important predictor of epistemic language skills. Thus, neural processes of the left hemisphere seem particularly relevant to social communication.

  6. [Medico-legal opinionating in cases of medical errors in declaration of death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurek, Tomasz; Swiatek, Barbara; Drozd, Radosław

    2007-01-01

    Declaration of death is a diagnosis and it has legal consequences. While declaring death, there is a possibility of committing a medical error. The majority of irregularities in declaring an individual dead occur in emergency situations. When a physician declares death, he is released from the professional obligation of saving the individual's life. The studies were based on the results of medico-legal evaluations in criminal cases in medical errors. In case death is erroneously declared, we may face a situation of squandering the chance of saving the life of a human being. Exposure to loss of life or to severe detriment to health are possible charges here, along with failure to offer medical assistance, although a deliberate character of the offence according to article 162 of the Polish penal code renders such a legal qualification dubious in case of medical errors. In both cases verification is needed whether an interest protected by law was still in existence, i.e. whether the individual was still alive when the physician incorrectly declared him dead.

  7. Strict fibonacci heaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Lagogiannis, George; Tarjan, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first pointer-based heap implementation with time bounds matching those of Fibonacci heaps in the worst case. We support make-heap, insert, find-min, meld and decrease-key in worst-case O(1) time, and delete and delete-min in worst-case O(lg n) time, where n is the size of the heap...... of the smaller heap when doing a meld. We use the pigeonhole principle in place of the redundant counter mechanism. We present the first pointer-based heap implementation with time bounds matching those of Fibonacci heaps in the worst case. We support make-heap, insert, find-min, meld and decrease-key in worst...

  8. Online Recorded Data-Based Composite Neural Control of Strict-Feedback Systems With Application to Hypersonic Flight Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Daipeng; Shi, Zhongke; Pan, Yongping; Chen, Badong; Sun, Fuchun

    2017-09-25

    This paper investigates the online recorded data-based composite neural control of uncertain strict-feedback systems using the backstepping framework. In each step of the virtual control design, neural network (NN) is employed for uncertainty approximation. In previous works, most designs are directly toward system stability ignoring the fact how the NN is working as an approximator. In this paper, to enhance the learning ability, a novel prediction error signal is constructed to provide additional correction information for NN weight update using online recorded data. In this way, the neural approximation precision is highly improved, and the convergence speed can be faster. Furthermore, the sliding mode differentiator is employed to approximate the derivative of the virtual control signal, and thus, the complex analysis of the backstepping design can be avoided. The closed-loop stability is rigorously established, and the boundedness of the tracking error can be guaranteed. Through simulation of hypersonic flight dynamics, the proposed approach exhibits better tracking performance.

  9. Global neural dynamic surface tracking control of strict-feedback systems with application to hypersonic flight vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Chenguang; Pan, Yongping

    2015-10-01

    This paper studies both indirect and direct global neural control of strict-feedback systems in the presence of unknown dynamics, using the dynamic surface control (DSC) technique in a novel manner. A new switching mechanism is designed to combine an adaptive neural controller in the neural approximation domain, together with the robust controller that pulls the transient states back into the neural approximation domain from the outside. In comparison with the conventional control techniques, which could only achieve semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded stability, the proposed control scheme guarantees all the signals in the closed-loop system are globally uniformly ultimately bounded, such that the conventional constraints on initial conditions of the neural control system can be relaxed. The simulation studies of hypersonic flight vehicle (HFV) are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed global neural DSC design.

  10. Monolithic InP strictly non-blocking 8×8 switch for high-speed WDM optical interconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwack, Myung-Joon; Tanemura, Takuo; Higo, Akio; Nakano, Yoshiaki

    2012-12-17

    A strictly non-blocking 8 × 8 switch for high-speed WDM optical interconnection is realized on InP by using the phased-array scheme for the first time. The matrix switch architecture consists of over 200 functional devices such as star couplers, phase-shifters and so on without any waveguide cross-section. We demonstrate ultra-broad optical bandwidth covering the entire C-band through several Input/Output ports combination with extinction ratio performance of more than 20dB. Also, nanoseconds reconfiguration time was successfully achieved by dynamic switching experiment. Error-free transmission was verified for 40-Gbps (10-Gbps × 4ch) WDM signal.

  11. The LHC Continuous Cryostat Interconnections The Organization of a Logistically Complex Worksite Requiring Strict Quality Standards and High Output

    CERN Document Server

    Fessia, P; Bozzini, D; Cruikshank, P; Jacquemod, A; Maan, W; Musso, A; Oberli, L; Poncet, A; Russenschuck, Stephan; Savary, F; Struik, M; Tock, J Ph; Tommasini, D; Völlinger, C; Kotarba, A; Olek, S; Sulek, Z; Grimaud, A; Vaudaux, L

    2008-01-01

    The interconnections of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) continuous cryostat have been completed in fall 2007: 1695 interconnections magnet to magnet and 224 interconnections between the continuous cryostat and the cryogenic distribution line have been executed along the 27 km of the LHC. The very tight schedule, the complexity of the interconnection sequence, the strict quality standards applied have required the creation of an ad hoc organization in order to steer and coordinate the activities on the worksite dispersed along the whole accelerator ring. The concatenation of construction and test phases carried out by CERN staff, CERN collaborating institutes and contractors have led to the necessity of a common approach and of a very effective information flow. In this paper, after having recalled the main technical challenges, we review the organizational choices that have been taken and we briefly analyze the development of the worksite in term of allocated resources and production.

  12. Development of a PCR assay based on the 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer for identification of strictly anaerobic bacterium Zymophilus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Felsberg, Jürgen; Jelínková, Markéta; Kubizniaková, P.; Matoulková, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 33, June (2015), s. 85-89 ISSN 1075-9964 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Brewing microbiology * Strictly anaerobic bacteria * Yeast contamination Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 2.424, year: 2015

  13. Strict blood glucose control by an artificial endocrine pancreas during hepatectomy may prevent postoperative acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Naoji; Kawahito, Shinji; Soga, Tomohiro; Takaishi, Kazumi; Kitahata, Hiroshi; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Shimada, Mitsuo; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumi, Yasuo M; Tanaka, Katsuya

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of a closed-loop system (STG-55; Nikkiso, Tokyo, Japan), a type of artificial endocrine pancreas for the continuous monitoring and control of intraoperative blood glucose, for preventing postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients undergoing hepatectomy. Thirty-eight patients were enrolled in this study. Glucose concentrations were controlled with either a manual injection of insulin based on a commonly used sliding scale (manual insulin group, n = 19) or the programmed infusion of insulin determined by the control algorithm of the artificial endocrine pancreas (programmed insulin group, n = 19). After the induction of anesthesia, a 20-G intravenous catheter was inserted into the peripheral forearm vein of patients in the programmed insulin group and connected to an artificial endocrine pancreas (STG-55). The target range for glucose concentrations was set to 100-150 mg/dL. The mean serum creatinine concentrations of preoperative, postoperative 24 and 48 h were 0.72, 0.78, and 0.79 mg/dL in the programmed insulin group, and 0.81, 0.95, and 1.03 mg/dL in the manual insulin group, respectively. Elevations in serum creatinine concentrations postoperative 48 h were significantly suppressed in the programmed insulin group. The STG-55 closed-loop system was effective for maintaining strict blood glucose control during hepatectomy with minimal variability in blood glucose concentrations and for suppressing elevations in serum creatinine concentrations. Strict blood glucose control by an artificial endocrine pancreas during hepatectomy may prevent postoperative AKI.

  14. Abuja declaration calls for action against hazardous traditional practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    The UN Economic Commission for Africa organized a conference in Abuja, Nigeria, last November to review the "Role of Women in Africa in the 1990s" as a follow-up of the "Arusha Strategies" of 1984. Among topics examined were harmful traditional practices, such as early marriage and pregnancy, female circumcision, nutritional taboos, inadequate child spacing and unprotected delivery, which are still found to be current realities in many African countries. These practices often inflict permanent physical, psychological, and emotional damage, even death, and little progress has been achieved in the abolition, the Declaration states. The lives of women in Africa are dominated by traditions. Certain attitudes, structures, and traditional practices, such as female circumcision and nutritional taboos that have harmful effects on the health of women and children, have rarely been officially surveyed. They have not been fully acknowledged by policy makers and opinion leaders, nor have effective steps to stop them been given precedence in health development planning. There is need for action at national as well as subregional and regional levels. Action at the national levels means that: national research institutes should undertake in-depth research on various traditional practices and their effects on women; functional literacy campaigns should sensitize parents and disseminate information on the harmful effects of circumcision, childhood marriage and early pregnancy; guidance and counseling should be provided to adolescent girls as well as to parents to make them understand the harmful physical, social, and mental effects of some traditional practices; religious leaders, traditional rulers, women's organizational, professional bodies and others should act as pressure groups in promoting efforts against harmful practices through traditional and modern means of communication, dissemination of information, and other appropriate ways of communication; and legislative and

  15. Analysis of the Seismic Events Apparently Associated with the 3 September 2017 DPRK Declared Nuclear Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, W. R.; Dodge, D. A.; Ichinose, G.; Myers, S. C.; Ford, S. R.; Pitarka, A.; Pyle, M. L.; Pasyanos, M.; Matzel, E.; Rodgers, A. J.; Mellors, R. J.; Hauk, T. F.; Kroll, K.

    2017-12-01

    On September 3, 2017, an mb 6.3 seismic event was reported by the USGS in the vicinity of the DPRK nuclear test site at Punggye-ri. Shortly afterwards DPRK declared it had conducted a nuclear explosion. The seismic signals indicate this event is roughly an order of magnitude larger than the largest of the previous five DPRK declared nuclear tests. In addition to its size, this explosion was different from previous DPRK tests in being associated with a number of additional seismic events. Approximately eight and a half minutes after the explosion a seismic event reported as ML 4.0 by the USGS occurred. Regional waveform modeling indicated this event had a collapse mechanism (e.g. Ichinose et al., 2017, written communication). On September 23 and again on October 12, 2017, seismic events were reported near the DPRK test site by the USGS and the CTBTO (on 9/23/17 two events: USGS ML 3.6 and USGS ML 2.6; and on 10/12/17 one event: USGS mb(Lg) 2.9). Aftershocks following underground nuclear testing are expected, though at much lower magnitudes and rates than for comparably sized earthquakes. This difference in aftershock production has been proposed by Ford and Walter (2010), and others as a potential source-type discriminant. Seismic signals from the collapse of cavities formed by underground nuclear testing have also been previously observed. For example, the mb 5.7 nuclear test ATRISCO in Nevada in 1982 was followed twenty minutes later by a collapse with an mb of 4.0. Here we examine the seismic characteristics of nuclear tests, post-test collapses and post-test aftershocks from both the former Nevada test site and the DPRK test site to better understand the differences between these different source-type signals. In particular we look at discriminants such as P/S ratios, to see if there are unique characteristics to post-test collapses and aftershocks. Finally, we apply correlation methods to continuous data at regional stations to look for additional seismic

  16. Depressive Mood and Testosterone Related to Declarative Verbal Memory Decline in Middle-Aged Caregivers of Children with Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2016-03-04

    Caring for children diagnosed with a chronic psychological disorder such as an eating disorder (ED) can be used as a model of chronic stress. This kind of stress has been reported to have deleterious effects on caregivers' cognition, particularly in verbal declarative memory of women caregivers. Moreover, high depressive mood and variations in testosterone (T) levels moderate this cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to characterize whether caregivers of individuals with EDs (n = 27) show declarative memory impairments compared to non-caregivers caregivers (n = 27), using for this purpose a standardized memory test (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test). Its purpose was also to examine the role of depressive mood and T in memory decline. Results showed that ED caregivers presented high depressive mood, which was associated to worse verbal memory performance, especially in the case of women. In addition, all caregivers showed high T levels. Nonetheless, only in the case of women caregivers did T show a curvilinear relationship with verbal memory performance, meaning that the increases of T were associated to the improvement in verbal memory performance, but only up to a certain point, as after such point T continued to increase and memory performance decreased. Thus, chronic stress due to caregiving was associated to disturbances in mood and T levels, which in turn was associated to verbal memory decline. These findings should be taken into account in the implementation of intervention programs for helping ED caregivers cope with caregiving situations and to prevent the risk of a pronounced verbal memory decline.

  17. Intra-Genomic Heterogeneity in 16S rRNA Genes in Strictly Anaerobic Clinical Isolates from Periodontal Abscesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiazhen; Miao, Xinyu; Xu, Meng; He, Junlin; Xie, Yi; Wu, Xingwen; Chen, Gang; Yu, Liying; Zhang, Wenhong

    2015-01-01

    Background Members of the genera Prevotella, Veillonella and Fusobacterium are the predominant culturable obligate anaerobic bacteria isolated from periodontal abscesses. When determining the cumulative number of clinical anaerobic isolates from periodontal abscesses, ambiguous or overlapping signals were frequently encountered in 16S rRNA gene sequencing chromatograms, resulting in ambiguous identifications. With the exception of the genus Veillonella, the high intra-chromosomal heterogeneity of rrs genes has not been reported. Methods The 16S rRNA genes of 138 clinical, strictly anaerobic isolates and one reference strain were directly sequenced, and the chromatograms were carefully examined. Gene cloning was performed for 22 typical isolates with doublet sequencing signals for the 16S rRNA genes, and four copies of the rrs-ITS genes of 9 Prevotella intermedia isolates were separately amplified by PCR, sequenced and compared. Five conserved housekeeping genes, hsp60, recA, dnaJ, gyrB1 and rpoB from 89 clinical isolates of Prevotella were also amplified by PCR and sequenced for identification and phylogenetic analysis along with 18 Prevotella reference strains. Results Heterogeneity of 16S rRNA genes was apparent in clinical, strictly anaerobic oral bacteria, particularly in the genera Prevotella and Veillonella. One hundred out of 138 anaerobic strains (72%) had intragenomic nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in multiple locations, and 13 strains (9.4%) had intragenomic insertions or deletions in the 16S rRNA gene. In the genera Prevotella and Veillonella, 75% (67/89) and 100% (19/19) of the strains had SNPs in the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Gene cloning and separate amplifications of four copies of the rrs-ITS genes confirmed that 2 to 4 heterogeneous 16S rRNA copies existed. Conclusion Sequence alignment of five housekeeping genes revealed that intra-species nucleotide similarities were very high in the genera Prevotella, ranging from 94.3–100%. However, the

  18. Study on the System Requirements and Structures of Mailbox Declaration System for Reference Pyroprocessing Facility in the ROK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Jong Kyu

    2011-01-01

    The mailbox declaration system applied for the implementation of Safeguards at the Reference Pyroprocessing Facility (REPF) plays important role to support the declared information provided from Near-Real Time Accountancy (NRTA) and provides reference data to confirm the measurement results generated from the Unattended Monitoring System (UMS) for the purposes of verification and real-time monitoring of the movements and changes of nuclear materials (NM) at the processes in the REPF. In order to install and operate the mailbox declaration system at the REPF, this study focused on the operation, security, transmission of confidential information, procedure for transmission of mailbox declaration system as system requirements, and structure of mailbox declaration system to review the declared information through the mailbox by the national authority and to transmit the revised information to the IAEA

  19. Compulsory declaration of the disappearance, loss or theft of property and of serious incidents

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2006-01-01

    New rules and reminder The rules governing internal and external declarations have been modified as follows: internal declarations concerning CERN mobile phones must now be made to the Telecom Lab instead of the Fire Brigade in order to minimise call-outs, declarations concerning valid CERN access cards and CERN vehicle stickers must be made to the competent external authorities in order to make their holders more aware of their responsibilities and to prevent abuse. This notification replaces the notifications published in Bulletin Nos. 38/1999 and 13/2001 (ref. DSU-DO/RH/9198 and 10315 respectively). 1. What has to be declared? The disappearance, loss or theft of property and serious incidents must be declared if they occur: within the fenced part of the CERN site, irrespective of the person and item concerned, outside the fenced part of the CERN site if CERN is the owner or custodian of the item concerned. Definitions: 'fenced part of the CERN site'means all the different fenced areas used by...

  20. The Significance of UNESCO’s Universal Declaration on the Human Genome & Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn H.E. Harmon

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern medical research, particularly genetic research, is changing the nature of medicine. Concerns surrounding these changes and their potential negative impact on human rights led UNESCO to spearhead collaboration by experts in the creation of an international instrument intended to provide guidance for the promotion of bioethics and the protection of human rights in the genetic context. The result was the Universal Declaration of the Human Genome and Human Rights. This article briefly highlights the scientific and social setting into which the Declaration was injected. This is followed by a consideration of the drafting body (the IBC so as to assess whether UNESCO was the appropriate body to lead this project. The process by which the Declaration was created is also considered so as to assess whether it represents an example of ethical and democratic drafting. Finally, the substantive content of the Declaration is considered and measured against the pre-existing regime so as to assess whether it represents an intelligible and coherent response to the concerns raised capable of offering guidance now and into the future. By assessing these procedural and substantive matters, one can draw some tentative conclusions about the utility and significance of the Declaration.

  1. Difference in declarative tactical knowledge between U-11 and U-15 soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to compare the level of declarative tactical knowledge between U-11 and U-15 academy players. Methods. The sample comprised 36 U-11 (n = 18 and U-15 (n = 18 soccer players, with practice time of 1404.00 ± 469.52 hours and 2663.55 ± 594.91 hours, respectively. The players’ practice time was collected through a recording questionnaire. Declarative tactical knowledge was assessed through a verbal report used during a video simulation test. The answers provided during the test were scored as follows: best solution (1 point; second best solution (0.75 points; third best solution (0.50 points; fourth best solution (0.25 points; wrong solution (0 points. For statistical analysis, descriptive analysis was performed, as well as the Shapiro-Wilk and Mann-Whitney tests, with significance level set at p < 0.05. For statistical purposes, the SPSS 22.0 software was applied. Results. Significant differences were observed in declarative tactical knowledge between the U-11 and U-15 age groups. Players of the older age group displayed longer practice time and higher scores than their younger counterparts. Conclusions. Players with longer practice time (U-15 possess greater declarative tactical knowledge than those with less practice time (U-11, and declarative tactical knowledge is a factor that differentiates soccer players aged 11 and 15 years.

  2. The UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights: perspectives from Kenya and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Adèle

    2008-03-01

    In October 2005, UNESCO (the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) adopted the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. This was the culmination of nearly 2 years of deliberations and negotiations. As a non-binding instrument, the declaration must be incorporated by UNESCO's member states into their national laws, regulations or policies in order to take effect. Based on documentary evidence and data from interviews, this paper compares the declaration's universal principles with national bioethics guidelines and practice in Kenya and South Africa. It concentrates on areas of particular relevance to developing countries, such as protection of vulnerable persons and social responsibility. The comparison demonstrates the need for universal principles to be contextualised before they can be applied in a meaningful sense at national level. The paper also assesses the 'added value' of the declaration in terms of biomedical research ethics, given that there are already well-established international instruments on bioethics, namely the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki and the CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) guidelines on biomedical research. It may be that the added value lies as much in the follow-up capacity building activities being initiated by UNESCO as in the document itself.

  3. What Does 'Unpaid Consultant' Signify? A Survey of Euphemistic Language in Conflict of Interest Declarations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkes, David B; Masters, Jill D; Bröring, Angela; Blum, Alan

    2018-02-01

    Inadequate competing interest declarations present interpretive challenges for editors, reviewers, and readers. We systematically studied a common euphemism, 'unpaid consultant,' to determine its occurrence in declarations and its association with vested interests, authors, and journals. We used Google Scholar, a search engine that routinely includes disclosures, to identify 1164 occurrences and 787 unique biomedical journal publications between 1994 and 2014 that included one or more authors declaring themselves as an "unpaid consultant." Changes over time were reckoned with absolute and relative yearly rates, the latter normalized by overall biomedical publication volumes. We further analyzed declarations according to author, consultancy recipient, and journal. We demonstrate increases in the use of "unpaid consultant" since 2004 and show that such uninformative declarations are overwhelmingly (801/865, 92.6%) associated with for-profit companies and other vested interests, most notably in the pharmaceutical, device, and biotech industries. Disclosing 'unpaid' relationships with for-profit companies typically signals but does not explain competing interests. Our findings challenge editors to respond to the increasing use of language that may conceal rather than illuminate conflicts of interest.

  4. Fermentative degradation of polyethylene glycol by a strictly anaerobic, gram-negative, nonsporeforming bacterium, Pelobacter venetianus sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schink, B; Stieb, M

    1983-06-01

    The synthetic polyether polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a molecular weight of 20,000 was anaerobically degraded in enrichment cultures inoculated with mud of limnic and marine origins. Three strains (Gra PEG 1, Gra PEG 2, and Ko PEG 2) of rod-shaped, gram-negative, nonsporeforming, strictly anaerobic bacteria were isolated in mineral medium with PEG as the sole source of carbon and energy. All strains degraded dimers, oligomers, and polymers of PEG up to a molecular weight of 20,000 completely by fermentation to nearly equal amounts of acetate and ethanol. The monomer ethylene glycol was not degraded. An ethylene glycol-fermenting anaerobe (strain Gra EG 12) isolated from the same enrichments was identified as Acetobacterium woodii. The PEG-fermenting strains did not excrete extracellular depolymerizing enzymes and were inhibited by ethylene glycol, probably owing to a blocking of the cellular uptake system. PEG, some PEG-containing nonionic detergents, 1,2-propanediol, 1,2-butanediol, glycerol, and acetoin were the only growth substrates utilized of a broad variety of sugars, organic acids, and alcohols. The isolates did not reduce sulfate, sulfur, thiosulfate, or nitrate and were independent of growth factors. In coculture with A. woodii or Methanospirillum hungatei, PEGs and ethanol were completely fermented to acetate (and methane). A marine isolate is described as the type strain of a new species, Pelobacter venetianus sp. nov. Its physiology and ecological significance, as well as the importance and possible mechanism of anaerobic polyether degradation, are discussed.

  5. Molecular mechanism of strict substrate specificity of an extradiol dioxygenase, DesB, derived from Sphingobium sp. SYK-6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Sugimoto

    Full Text Available DesB, which is derived from Sphingobium sp. SYK-6, is a type II extradiol dioxygenase that catalyzes a ring opening reaction of gallate. While typical extradiol dioxygenases show broad substrate specificity, DesB has strict substrate specificity for gallate. The substrate specificity of DesB seems to be required for the efficient growth of S. sp. SYK-6 using lignin-derived aromatic compounds. Since direct coordination of hydroxyl groups of the substrate to the non-heme iron in the active site is a critical step for the catalytic reaction of the extradiol dioxygenases, the mechanism of the substrate recognition and coordination of DesB was analyzed by biochemical and crystallographic methods. Our study demonstrated that the direct coordination between the non-heme iron and hydroxyl groups of the substrate requires a large shift of the Fe (II ion in the active site. Mutational analysis revealed that His124 and His192 in the active site are essential to the catalytic reaction of DesB. His124, which interacts with OH (4 of the bound gallate, seems to contribute to proper positioning of the substrate in the active site. His192, which is located close to OH (3 of the gallate, is likely to serve as the catalytic base. Glu377' interacts with OH (5 of the gallate and seems to play a critical role in the substrate specificity. Our biochemical and structural study showed the substrate recognition and catalytic mechanisms of DesB.

  6. Effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy and strict plaque control on preterm/low birth weight: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidlich, Patricia; Moreira, Carlos Heitor C; Fiorini, Tiago; Musskopf, Marta L; da Rocha, José M; Oppermann, Maria Lucia R; Aass, Anne M; Gjermo, Per; Susin, Cristiano; Rösing, Cassiano K; Oppermann, Rui V

    2013-01-01

    This randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out to assess the effect of comprehensive nonsurgical periodontal treatment and strict plaque control performed during pregnancy on the reduction of preterm and/or low birth weight rates (PTLBW). Three hundred and three women were randomly allocated to receive periodontal treatment either during pregnancy (n = 147, test group) or after delivery (n = 156, control group). During pregnancy, the control group received only one session of supragingival scaling and oral hygiene instruction. In contrast, the test group received comprehensive periodontal treatment including multiple sessions of scaling and root planing, oral hygiene instructions, and frequent maintenance visits. At baseline, periodontal inflammation was observed in approximately 50% of sites and attachment loss affected controls, women in the test group had significant reductions in the percentage of sites with plaque (48.5% vs. 10.3%, p control significantly improved periodontal health; however, no reduction of PTLBW rates was observed. Thus, remaining periodontal inflammation posttreatment cannot explain the lack of effect of periodontal treatment on PTLBW. Clinical relevance This study demonstrated that periodontal diseases may be successfully treated during pregnancy. Our results do not support a potential beneficial effect of periodontal treatment on PTLBW.

  7. Nutritionally recommended food for semi- to strict vegetarian diets based on large-scale nutrient composition data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seunghyeon; Fenech, Michael F; Kim, Pan-Jun

    2018-03-12

    Diet design for vegetarian health is challenging due to the limited food repertoire of vegetarians. This challenge can be partially overcome by quantitative, data-driven approaches that utilise massive nutritional information collected for many different foods. Based on large-scale data of foods' nutrient compositions, the recent concept of nutritional fitness helps quantify a nutrient balance within each food with regard to satisfying daily nutritional requirements. Nutritional fitness offers prioritisation of recommended foods using the foods' occurrence in nutritionally adequate food combinations. Here, we systematically identify nutritionally recommendable foods for semi- to strict vegetarian diets through the computation of nutritional fitness. Along with commonly recommendable foods across different diets, our analysis reveals favourable foods specific to each diet, such as immature lima beans for a vegan diet as an amino acid and choline source, and mushrooms for ovo-lacto vegetarian and vegan diets as a vitamin D source. Furthermore, we find that selenium and other essential micronutrients can be subject to deficiency in plant-based diets, and suggest nutritionally-desirable dietary patterns. We extend our analysis to two hypothetical scenarios of highly personalised, plant-based methionine-restricted diets. Our nutrient-profiling approach may provide a useful guide for designing different types of personalised vegetarian diets.

  8. Lack of evidence for phase-only control of retinal photoisomerization in the strict one-photon limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebel, M.; Kukura, P.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of shaping electric fields to steer light-induced processes coherently has fascinated scientists for decades. Despite early theoretical considerations that ruled out one-photon coherent control (CC), several experimental studies reported that molecular responses are sensitive to the shape of the excitation field in the weak-field limit. These observations were largely attributed to the presence of rapid-decay channels, but experimental verification is lacking. Here, we test this hypothesis by investigating the degree of achievable control over the photoisomerization of the retinal protonated Schiff-base in bacteriorhodopsin, isorhodopsin and rhodopsin, all of which exhibit similar chromophores but different isomerization yields and excited-state lifetimes. Irrespective of the system studied, we find no evidence for dissipation-dependent behaviour, nor for any CC in the strict one-photon limit. Our results question the extent to which a photochemical process at ambient conditions can be controlled at the amplitude level, and how the underlying molecular potential-energy surfaces and dynamics may influence this controllability.

  9. Effect of strict metabolic control on regulation of subcutaneous blood flow in insulin-dependent diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J; Mathiesen, E R; Saurbrey, Nina

    1987-01-01

    washout technique. Mean arterial blood pressure was reduced by a maximum of 23 mmHg by elevating the limb above heart level and elevated to a maximum of 65 mmHg by head-up tilt; in the latter position venous pressure was kept constantly low by activation of the leg muscle vein pump (heel raising......The effect of 10 weeks of improved metabolic control on the impaired autoregulation of the subcutaneous blood flow was studied at the level of the lateral malleolus in eight long-term insulin-dependent diabetic patients with clinical microangiopathy. Blood flow was measured by the local 133-Xenon......). Improved metabolic control was achieved using either continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion or multiple insulin injections. The blood glucose concentration declined from (median) 12.7 to 6.8 mmol/l and the HbA1C level from 10.1 to 7.5% during strict metabolic control (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0...

  10. Iseseisvusdeklaratsioonid 1776–1918. The Estonian Declaration of Sovereignty: An Example of the Civilizing Force of Hypocrisy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hent Kalmo

    2012-06-01

    proposed amendments to the Soviet Constitution (that would have curbed the rights of the Union Republics by adopting a Declaration of Sovereignty, which effectively made the application of Soviet legal acts optional in the terrirory of the Estonian SSR. The Soviet leadership reacted in a confused manner, as it first responded positively to the Declaration, then condemned it as illegal, but also admitted that it was an expression of legitimate concerns. The fact that the notion of sovereignty was an important part of the orthodox Soviet constitutional doctrine, and the apprehension that the Estonian interpretative position might diffuse into other Union Republics, induced the Politburo to orchestrate a highly publicised denunciation of the Declaration. But this had the paradoxical effect of casting the Declaration as something that could be discussed, i.e. as something that deserved an argued rebuttal. In a way, the Politburo thus contributed to making the Estonian Declaration into a model that was later copied by almost all the Union Republics as they started either to head towards independence or jockey for a better position in the negotiations over the new Union Treaty, drafted in haste by the part of the Soviet leadership that was willing to opt for a confederate solution. The debate over the nature of Soviet federalism and its political aftermath illustrates the fact that a constitution which lies dormant under an authoritarian regime as a document of cynical hypocrisy has the potential to become a focal point for the formulation of political demands when circumstances change. The options open to the Soviet leadership in responding to the steps taken by the Baltic independence movements were clearly influenced, at least to some extent, by the vocabulary it was able to draw on to justify its response, especially since it had recently vowed to take the Soviet Constitution seriously in the future. Under propitious circumstances, its own hypocrisy could indeed exert a

  11. Compulsory declaration of the disappearance, loss or theft of property and of serious events

    CERN Document Server

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    Change The rules governing internal and external declarations have been modified as follows. Incidents concerning CERN access cards and CERN vehicle stickers must be reported as follows: in the case of theft, to the competent authorities of the country in which the theft was committed; in the case of loss or disappearance, to the Reception and Access Control Service. The Services responsible for issuing replacement documents will henceforth require the presentation of proof of declaration to the competent authorities (in the case of theft) or a declaration by the holder of the card or sticker, signed on his/her honour (in the case of loss). In both cases specific reference to the card or sticker concerned must be made. Relations with the Host States Service Tel.: 72848 mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch

  12. On the tenth anniversary of the "Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, C

    2015-01-01

    In 2005 the representatives of 191 states meeting for the General Conference of UNESCO unanimously approved the "Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights". The Declaration is the only instrument of its kind: it was the first document adopted by a global organisation that addressed the whole range of issues with which bioethics is concerned and that is a legal instrument. Many of the principles affirmed in the Declaration had already been amply absorbed into the discipline of bioethics. All of them can be traced to the dignity and equality of every individual. The most evident novelty is to be found less in the content of the principles than in the balancing of individual and societal perspectives. Also in evidence are several compromises that were adopted in order to promote dialogue and mutual understanding.

  13. [Cultural diversity and pluralism in the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2011-01-01

    The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights represents a significant milestone in the history of Law, particularly in the application of International Law to an important area of human activity, namely the medical sciences, the life sciences and the technologies which, linked to both, can be applied to human relations. In parallel with this, and as will be analysed in this article, the Declaration has involved adopting a clear position regarding cultural diversity and pluralism in relation to Biomedicine. In this paper the author highlights the fact that perspectives have been opened which have hardly been explored concerning Biomedicine, such as the recognition of the value and respect which cultural diversity (multiculturalism), economic and social diversity deserve in relation to the issues covered by the Declaration, and the acceptance that the owners of the rights are not only individuals, but can also be groups.

  14. The timing of learning before night-time sleep differentially affects declarative and procedural long-term memory consolidation in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Holz

    Full Text Available Sleep after learning has been shown to foster the consolidation of new memories. However, fundamental questions on the best timing of learning before night-time sleep persist. We tested the hypothesis that learning directly prior to night-time sleep compared to 7.5 hrs prior to night-time sleep provides better conditions for the consolidation of declarative and procedural memories. Fifty healthy female adolescents (aged 16-17 years were trained on a declarative word-pair and a procedural finger-tapping task at 3 pm (afternoon group, n = 25 or at 9 pm (evening group, n = 25, followed by a sleep laboratory night. Retrieval was assessed 24 hours and 7 days after initial training. Subjects trained in the afternoon showed a significantly elevated retention rate of word-pairs compared to subjects trained in the evening after 24 hours, but not after 7 days. In contrast, off-line gains in finger-tapping performance were significantly higher in subjects trained in the evening compared to those trained in the afternoon after both retention intervals. The observed enhanced consolidation of procedural memories after training in the evening fits to current models of sleep-related memory consolidation. In contrast, the higher retention of declarative memories after encoding in the afternoon is surprising, appeared to be less robust and needs further investigation.

  15. The timing of learning before night-time sleep differentially affects declarative and procedural long-term memory consolidation in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Johannes; Piosczyk, Hannah; Landmann, Nina; Feige, Bernd; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Riemann, Dieter; Nissen, Christoph; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Sleep after learning has been shown to foster the consolidation of new memories. However, fundamental questions on the best timing of learning before night-time sleep persist. We tested the hypothesis that learning directly prior to night-time sleep compared to 7.5 hrs prior to night-time sleep provides better conditions for the consolidation of declarative and procedural memories. Fifty healthy female adolescents (aged 16-17 years) were trained on a declarative word-pair and a procedural finger-tapping task at 3 pm (afternoon group, n = 25) or at 9 pm (evening group, n = 25), followed by a sleep laboratory night. Retrieval was assessed 24 hours and 7 days after initial training. Subjects trained in the afternoon showed a significantly elevated retention rate of word-pairs compared to subjects trained in the evening after 24 hours, but not after 7 days. In contrast, off-line gains in finger-tapping performance were significantly higher in subjects trained in the evening compared to those trained in the afternoon after both retention intervals. The observed enhanced consolidation of procedural memories after training in the evening fits to current models of sleep-related memory consolidation. In contrast, the higher retention of declarative memories after encoding in the afternoon is surprising, appeared to be less robust and needs further investigation.

  16. High variation in manufacturer-declared serving size of packaged discretionary foods in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskelberg, Hila; Neal, Bruce; Dunford, Elizabeth; Flood, Victoria; Rangan, Anna; Thomas, Beth; Cleanthous, Xenia; Trevena, Helen; Zheng, Jazzmin Miaobing; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Gill, Timothy; Wu, Jason H Y

    2016-05-28

    Despite the potential of declared serving size to encourage appropriate portion size consumption, most countries including Australia have not developed clear reference guidelines for serving size. The present study evaluated variability in manufacturer-declared serving size of discretionary food and beverage products in Australia, and how declared serving size compared with the 2013 Australian Dietary Guideline (ADG) standard serve (600 kJ). Serving sizes were obtained from the Nutrition Information Panel for 4466 packaged, discretionary products in 2013 at four large supermarkets in Sydney, Australia, and categorised into fifteen categories in line with the 2013 ADG. For unique products that were sold in multiple package sizes, the percentage difference between the minimum and the maximum serving size across different package sizes was calculated. A high variation in serving size was found within the majority of food and beverage categories - for example, among 347 non-alcoholic beverages (e.g. soft drinks), the median for serving size was 250 (interquartile range (IQR) 250, 355) ml (range 100-750 ml). Declared serving size for unique products that are available in multiple package sizes also showed high variation, particularly for chocolate-based confectionery, with median percentage difference between minimum and maximum serving size of 183 (IQR 150) %. Categories with a high proportion of products that exceeded the 600 kJ ADG standard serve included cakes and muffins, pastries and desserts (≥74 % for each). High variability in declared serving size may confound interpretation and understanding of consumers interested in standardising and controlling their portion selection. Future research is needed to assess if and how standardising declared serving size might affect consumer behaviour.

  17. Post-trial obligations in the Declaration of Helsinki 2013: classification, reconstruction and interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroleo, Ignacio

    2016-08-01

    The general aim of this article is to give a critical interpretation of post-trial obligations towards individual research participants in the Declaration of Helsinki 2013. Transitioning research participants to the appropriate health care when a research study ends is a global problem. The publication of a new version of the Declaration of Helsinki is a great opportunity to discuss it. In my view, the Declaration of Helsinki 2013 identifies at least two clearly different types of post-trial obligations, specifically, access to care after research and access to information after research. The agents entitled to receive post-trial access are the individual participants in research studies. The Declaration identifies the sponsors, researchers and host country governments as the main agents responsible for complying with the post-trial obligations mentioned above. To justify this interpretation of post-trial obligations, I first introduce a classification of post-trial obligations and illustrate its application with examples from post-trial ethics literature. I then make a brief reconstruction of the formulations of post-trial obligations of the Declaration of Helsinki from 2000 to 2008 to correlate the changes with some of the most salient ethical arguments. Finally I advance a critical interpretation of the latest formulation of post-trial obligations. I defend the view that paragraph 34 of 'Post-trial provisions' is an improved formulation by comparison with earlier versions, especially for identifying responsible agents and abandoning ambiguous 'fair benefit' language. However, I criticize the disappearance of 'access to other appropriate care' present in the Declaration since 2004 and the narrow scope given to obligations of access to information after research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The interface between bioethics and cultural diversity under the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chang-fa

    2008-06-01

    The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights has made clear its aims to provide a universal framework of principles and procedures to guide States in the formulation of their legislation, policies or other instruments in the field ofbioethics and also to guide the actions of individuals, groups, communities, institutions and corporations so as to promote appreciation for human dignity and to protect human rights. It also sets up 15 principles to be applied. One of the principles in the Declaration is about the recognition of cultural diversity as an important element of bioethics. Thus it is clear that bioethics has its relativeness and is susceptible to different cultures. However, in order not to have the bioethics principles being defeated because of the cultural factor, the Declaration set forth conditions to limit the application of the cultural diversity element. This approach is called "qualified absoluteness" by the author. The paper discusses these conditions and the problems arising from their applications. Basically, there is a clear line drawn to limit the application of cultural diversity in setting up and in applying bioethical rules. The line drawn is based on the concept of human rights, the principles and concepts of which have not only been set forth in the Human Rights Convention, but have also been prescribed in other provisions in the Declaration. From conceptual viewpoint, the Declaration has listed a number of soft-law rules, which in turn also provide authorization for the government or private or public groups to take cultural diversity into account. Although the rules set forth in most of the parts in the Declaration are of soft but absolute mandates in nature, the requirement of paying due regard to cultural diversity is in fact providing governments as well as groups a possibility to enact or apply their bioethical rules to reflect their cultural uniqueness. The term "qualified absoluteness" is used in this paper to reflect

  19. An agent architecture with on-line learning of both procedural and declarative knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, R.; Peterson, T.; Merrill, E. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In order to develop versatile cognitive agents that learn in situated contexts and generalize resulting knowledge to different environments, we explore the possibility of learning both declarative and procedural knowledge in a hybrid connectionist architecture. The architecture is based on the two-level idea proposed earlier by the author. Declarative knowledge is represented symbolically, while procedural knowledge is represented subsymbolically. The architecture integrates reactive procedures, rules, learning, and decision-making in a unified framework, and structures different learning components (including Q-learning and rule induction) in a synergistic way to perform on-line and integrated learning.

  20. Naps in school can enhance the duration of declarative memories learned by adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, Nathalia; Weissheimer, Janaina; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2014-01-01

    Sleep helps the consolidation of declarative memories in the laboratory, but the pro-mnemonic effect of daytime naps in schools is yet to be fully characterized. While a few studies indicate that sleep can indeed benefit school learning, it remains unclear how best to use it. Here we set out to evaluate the influence of daytime naps on the duration of declarative memories learned in school by students of 10–15 years old. A total of 584 students from 6th grade were investigated. Students withi...

  1. Naps in school can enhance the duration of declarative memories learned by adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalia eLemos; Nathalia eLemos; Janaina eWeissheimer; Janaina eWeissheimer; Sidarta eRibeiro; Sidarta eRibeiro; Sidarta eRibeiro

    2014-01-01

    Sleep helps the consolidation of declarative memories in the laboratory, but the pro-mnemonic effect of daytime naps in schools is yet to be fully characterized. While a few studies indicate that sleep can indeed benefit school learning, it remains unclear how best to use it. Here we set out to evaluate the influence of daytime naps on the duration of declarative memories learned in school by students of 10-15 years old. A total of 584 students from 6th grade were investigated. Students withi...

  2. Design of an accounting system that legally optimizes the IVA declaration in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Díaz Montenegro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of Ecuador’s contributors don’t prepare a well elaborate tax credit application form for their IVA declarations, which lead them to give a payment that goes unnecessary above the actual value, due to the inadequate form filling. In this article, we can see that through the implementation of a simple accounting system, taxpayers can optimize their IVA declaration without breaking any current tax provision, even more, going side by side with our country’s established law.

  3. The UNESCO Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights: a canon for the ages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Griffin

    2009-06-01

    The UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights of 2005 purports to articulate universal norms for bioethics. However, this document has met with mixed reviews. Some deny that the elaboration of universal bioethics norms is needed; some deny that UNESCO has the expertise or authority to articulate such norms; some regard the content of the UNESCO document as too vague or general to be useful; and some regard the document as a cog in the effort of like-minded cosmopolitans to codify their particular moral intuitions in international law. This issue examines the potential merits and pitfalls of the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights.

  4. Euroguidelines in Central and Eastern Europe (ECEE) conference and the Warsaw Declaration - a comprehensive meeting report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalska, J D; Oprea, C; de Witt, S

    2017-01-01

    country epidemiology, surveillance, national strategy for treatment and prevention, standards of care, access to care and treatment availability. Each participant filled in a questionnaire investigating HIV guidelines usage per country. RESULTS: In total, 16 Central and Eastern Europe (CEE...... and one in five the International Antiviral Society-USA (IAS-USA) Panel guidelines from 2012. CONCLUSIONS: Participants declared their will to promote the widespread use of EACS guidelines for HIV infection in the CEE region and neighbouring countries by signing the Warsaw Declaration. They also...

  5. Helsinki declaration to the actions for the environment and health in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter the Helsinki declaration to the actions for the environment and health in Europe is included. The Helsinki declaration contains next chapters: The heretofore development; The changes of the environment and health (Contaminated foods; Air pollution; Deaths and injuries as consequences of all forms of accidents, including nuclear accidents; Ecology and health; Health in settlements; Health of engaged persons; Consequences of armed adverse actions); Responsibility to perform; All-state, regional and local activities; Activities exceeding of state boundary and all-European activities; The actions for support of the states realizing of transformation and states suffering in consequence of armed conflicts; The institutional support; Conclusions

  6. Global bioethics: did the universal declaration on bioethics and human rights miss the boat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Cheryl Cox

    2007-10-01

    This paper explores the evolution of the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (UDBHR), which was adopted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco) in 2005. While the draft UDBHR generated controversy among bioethicists, the process through which it evolved excluded mainstream bioethicists. The absence of peer review affects the declaration's content and significance. This paper critically analyses its content, commenting on the failure to acknowledge socioeconomic and other factors that impede its implementation. The UDBHR outlines ideal standards but fails to provide guidance that can be readily applied in different settings. It strives for universality but does not contribute to understanding of universal or global bioethics.

  7. A novel strictly anaerobic recovery and enrichment system incorporating lithium for detection of heat-injured Listeria monocytogenes in pasteurized milk containing background microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonca, A F; Knabel, S J

    1994-11-01

    Heat-injured cells of Listeria monocytogenes were recovered from heated raw milk containing noninjured Enterococcus faecium by combining a simple method for obtaining strict anaerobiosis with a novel enrichment broth, Penn State University broth (PSU broth). Strictly anaerobic conditions were rapidly achieved by adding 0.5 g of filter-sterilized cysteine per liter to PSU broth and then purging the preparation with N2 gas. Little resuscitation or growth occurred in strictly anaerobic PSU broth without lithium chloride because of overgrowth by E. faecium. The growth of E. faecium decreased dramatically with increasing LiCl concentration; LiCl concentrations of 8 and 10 g/liter were completely bacteriostatic. The mechanism of inhibition by LiCl appeared to involve competition with the divalent cations Ca2+ and Mg2+. Heat-injured L. monocytogenes consistently recovered and grew rapidly in strictly anaerobic PSU broth containing 4, 6, or 7 g of LiCl per liter. The use of strictly anaerobic PSU broth containing 7 g of LiCl per liter permitted detection of severely heat-injured L. monocytogenes in one simple recovery-enrichment step by eliminating oxygen toxicity and inhibiting the growth of background microflora, without preventing the resuscitation and subsequent growth of heat-injured L. monocytogenes. L. monocytogenes heated in raw milk at 62.8 degrees C for 10, 15, and 20 min could be consistently recovered from strictly anaerobic PSU broth enrichment cultures at 30 degrees C after 48, 96, and 144 h, respectively, and hence, use of PSU broth may result in better recovery of both injured and noninjured cells from foods than currently used U.S. Department of Agriculture and Food and Drug Administration preenrichment procedures.

  8. Sporothrix schenckii (sensu strict S. globosa) mating type 1-2 (MAT1-2) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Rui; Anzawa, Kazushi; Mochizuki, Takashi; Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Hiruma, Masataro; Kamata, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2013-09-01

    Sporotix schenckii is a pathogenic fungus that causes human and animal sporotrichosis, and based on morphology of the sessile conidia and molecular analysis, it was recently recognized as a species complex comprising at least the following six sibling species: S. albicans, S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. luriei, S. mexicana and S. schenckii. However, apart from S. schenckii sensu strict, only S. brasiliensis, S. globosa and S. luriei are associated with human and animal infection. S. globosa has been most commonly isolated in Asia, Europe and the USA; therefore, molecular epidemiological study for S. globosa is important in relation to human sporotrichosis in Japan. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to determine the mating type 1-2 (MAT1-2) gene of Sporothrix schenckii with the aim of understanding the taxonomy of the genus Sporothrix. The MAT1-2 gene (1618 bp) encodes a protein sequence of 198 amino acids. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis also detected MAT1-2 gene mRNA expression in all of the S. schenckii strains examined, indicating that this gene is expressed in S. schenckii cells. Phylogenetic analysis of the MAT1-2 gene fragments of Ophiostoma himal-ulmi, O. novo-ulmi, O. ulmi and S. schenckii indicated that these isolates could be classified into four clusters. MAT1-1 gene-specific polymerase chain reaction was positive in 15 isolates, but negative in four human isolates and one feline isolate. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  9. Changes in Frequency Intake of Foods in Patients Undergoing Sleeve Gastrectomy and Following a Strict Dietary Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Bozhychko, Maryana; Del-Campo, Jone Miren; Boix, Evangelina; Zubiaga, Lorea; Muñoz, Jose Luis; Llavero, Carolina

    2017-12-17

    Dietary intake and food preferences change after bariatric surgery, secondary to gastrointestinal symptoms and dietitian counseling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the frequency intake of different foods in patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy and following a strict dietary control. A prospective observational study of all the morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy as bariatric procedure between 2007 and 2012 was performed. Dietary assessment was performed using the Alimentary Frequency Questionnaire 1991-2002, developed and validated by the Department of Epidemiology of Miguel Hernandez University (Elche, Alicante Spain). Ninety-three patients were included for analysis, 73 females and 20 males, with a mean preoperative BMI of 46.4 ± 7.9 kg/m 2 . One year after surgery, excess weight loss was 81.1 ± 8.3% and 5 years after surgery, 79.9 ± 6.4%. Total weight loss at 1 year was 38.8 ± 5.3% and at 5 years, 35.4 ± 4.9%. Postoperatively, a reduction in the intake of dairy products, red meat, deli meat products, shellfish, fried potatoes, sweets, rice, pasta, beer, and processed foods was observed. Vegetables, fruits, and legumes intake increased after surgery. In the first postoperative year, there was a slight intolerance to red meat, fruits, vegetables and legumes, dairy products, pasta, and rice that mostly disappeared 5 years after surgery. One year after sleeve gastrectomy, calibrated with a 50-French bougie, there are not important problems in the intake of foods a priori difficult to digest. These problems mostly disappeared 5 years after surgery. The decrease intake of other unhealthy foods is mostly based on the dietary counseling.

  10. Health for all beyond 2000: the demise of the Alma-Ata Declaration and primary health care in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John J; Taylor, Richard

    2003-01-06

    Access to basic health services was affirmed as a fundamental human right in the Declaration of Alma-Ata in 1978. The model formally adopted for providing healthcare services was "primary health care" (PHC), which involved universal, community-based preventive and curative services, with substantial community involvement. PHC did not achieve its goals for several reasons, including the refusal of experts and politicians in developed countries to accept the principle that communities should plan and implement their own healthcare services. Changes in economic philosophy led to the replacement of PHC by "Health Sector Reform", based on market forces and the economic benefits of better health. It is time to abandon economic ideology and determine the methods that will provide access to basic healthcare services for all people.

  11. 47 CFR 2.1205 - Filing of required declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... entry documentation and the entry summary documentation electronically. Follow procedures established by... (iv) A commercial product description which is to include the trade name, a model/type number (or...

  12. Altered Na+ transport after an intracellular alpha-subunit deletion reveals strict external sequential release of Na+ from the Na/K pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaragatupalli, Siddhartha; Olivera, J Fernando; Gatto, Craig; Artigas, Pablo

    2009-09-08

    The Na/K pump actively exports 3 Na(+) in exchange for 2 K(+) across the plasmalemma of animal cells. As in other P-type ATPases, pump function is more effective when the relative affinity for transported ions is altered as the ion binding sites alternate between opposite sides of the membrane. Deletion of the five C-terminal residues from the alpha-subunit diminishes internal Na(+) (Na(i)(+)) affinity approximately 25-fold [Morth et al. (2007) Nature 450:1043-1049]. Because external Na(+) (Na(o)(+)) binding is voltage-dependent, we studied the reactions involving this process by using two-electrode and inside-out patch voltage clamp in normal and truncated (DeltaKESYY) Xenopus-alpha1 pumps expressed in oocytes. We observed that DeltaKESYY (i) decreased both Na(o)(+) and Na(i)(+) apparent affinities in the absence of K(o)(+), and (ii) did not affect apparent Na(o)(+) affinity at high K(o)(+). These results support a model of strict sequential external release of Na(+) ions, where the Na(+)-exclusive site releases Na(+) before the sites shared with K(+) and the DeltaKESYY deletion only reduces Na(o)(+) affinity at the shared sites. Moreover, at nonsaturating K(o)(+), DeltaKESYY induced an inward flow of Na(+) through Na/K pumps at negative potentials. Guanidinium(+) can also permeate truncated pumps, whereas N-methyl-D-glucamine cannot. Because guanidinium(o)(+) can also traverse normal Na/K pumps in the absence of both Na(o)(+) and K(o)(+) and can also inhibit Na/K pump currents in a Na(+)-like voltage-dependent manner, we conclude that the normal pathway transited by the first externally released Na(+) is large enough to accommodate guanidinium(+).

  13. Improvement in kidney transplantation in the Balkans after the Istanbul Declaration: where do we stand today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasovski, Goce; Busic, Mirela; Delmonico, Francis

    2016-02-01

    Due to the limited access to kidney transplantation (KTx) in developing countries, desperate patients have engaged in the purchase and sale of kidneys. In 2004, the World Health Assembly urged member states to protect the poor and vulnerable from being exploited through practices of illegal organ trafficking that had become widespread throughout the world. In 2008, the international transplant community convened a summit of transplant professionals, legal experts and ethicists to combat organ trafficking, transplant tourism and transplant commercialism that resulted in the Declaration of Istanbul (DOI). The South-Eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN) represents a nine country multigovernmental collaboration on health systems. The Regional Health Development Centre on Organ Donation and Transplant Medicine (RHDC) was established in 2011 in Croatia to facilitate cooperation among south-eastern European countries to improve organ transplantation within the Balkan region. Since 2011, a collaboration between the RHDC, the Custodian Group of the DOI (DICG) and SEEHN professionals has enhanced strategic planning and definition of country-specific action plan priorities on organ donation and transplantation. Data of kidney transplantation provided in this report show a significant increase in transplantation activities in a 4-year period in Macedonia, Moldova, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Romania and Montenegro. The success of the donation and transplantation programmes was influenced by the engagement of key professionals and the establishment of organizational infrastructure with the implementation of an appropriate funding model. In conclusion, the DOI has provided an ethical framework for engagement of health professionals from south-eastern European countries. The newly established SEEHN RHDC as a technical coordinating body greatly contributed in building institutional capacity and strengthening regional collaboration between health authorities and professionals within

  14. 76 FR 4602 - Declaration of Prion as a Pest Under FIFRA and Amendment of EPA's Regulatory Definition of Pests...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... injurious to health or the environment.'' FIFRA section 2(t) defines a pest, in part, as ``* * * any other... Declaration of Prion as a Pest Under FIFRA and Amendment of EPA's Regulatory Definition of Pests To Include... declare a prion (i.e., proteinaceous infectious particle) a ``pest'' under the Federal Insecticide...

  15. Declarative Sentence Pattern in "Laskar Pelangi" and "The Rainbow Troops": A Translation Study of Indonesian to English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuswoyo, Heri

    2014-01-01

    This study is entitled "declarative sentence pattern in 'Laskar Pelangi' and 'The Rainbow Troops': A Translation Study of Indonesian to English". In this study, the present writer discusses about the differences & similarities of declarative sentence between Indonesian novel and English translation novel. Further, the data were taken…

  16. "One More Time, Let Me Justify This War": An Analysis of President Bush's Declaration of Days of Thanksgiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin T.

    President Bush's declaration of April 5-7, 1991 as National Days of Thanksgiving is a unique example of Presidential civil religious discourse: no other President has ever made such a declaration to thank God for a victory in war. Whether he intended to or not, President Bush engaged in a rhetorical form which allowed him to manipulate a very…

  17. 17 CFR 259.101 - Form U-1, application or declaration under the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... declaration under the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935. 259.101 Section 259.101 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY... declaration under the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935. This form shall be used pursuant to Rule 20...

  18. An Agreement to Disagree: The ASEAN Human Rights Declaration and the Absence of Regional Identity in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Davies

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ASEAN’s engagement with human rights culminated in the creation of the ASEAN Human Rights Declaration in 2012. The Declaration is fascinating in three ways: Its institutional origins are surprising, it was agreed upon by states with very different positions on the role of human rights domestically, and it both contains commitments far in advance of some members and is at the same time dangerously regressive. The three leading frameworks that currently interrogate the Declaration fail to provide convincing insights into all three of those dimensions. To correct these shortcomings, this article applies the notion of an “incompletely theorized agreement” to the study of the Declaration, arguing that member states understand the Declaration in very different ways and agreed to it for similarly diverse reasons. Further, I argue that the Declaration neither articulates a shared regional identity relating to respect for human rights, nor can it be understood as marking an early point towards the creation of this identity. Instead, the current diversity of regional opinions on human rights and democracy is perceived as legitimate and will endure. The article concludes by considering whether this denudes the Declaration of value, arguing that its importance will vary: The more progressive the member state, the more important the Declaration will be in the future.

  19. 40 CFR 62.10890 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... declaration. 62.10890 Section 62.10890 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED.... Letter from the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission submitted May 13, 1997 certifying that there are no existing municipal waste combustor units in the State of Texas that are subject to part 60...

  20. 40 CFR 62.354 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Department of Environmental Conservation submitted June 30, 1997 certifying that there are no existing municipal waste combustor units in the State of Alaska that are subject to part 60, subpart Cb, of this... declaration. 62.354 Section 62.354 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  1. Preventing dentists' involvement in torture: the developmental history of a new international declaration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speers, R.D.; Brands, W.G.; Nuzzolese, E.; Smith, D.; Swiss, P.B.; Woensel, M. van; Welie, J.V.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For more than half a century, the risk of physicians participating in torture has received thoughtful attention in the field of medicine, and a number of international organizations have issued declarations decrying such involvement. Despite publications that provide evidence of

  2. The Addis Ababa Declaration on Global Health Equity: A call to action

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MESKE

    Abstract. Background: Health inequalities occur through differences in health status or in the distribution of health determinants between different population groups. Access to basic health services was affirmed as a fundamental human right by the declaration of Alma-Ata in 1978. The reality is that, in 2012, more than 40 ...

  3. 21 CFR 201.62 - Declaration of net quantity of contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., 250 milligrams each”: Provided, That: (1) In the case of a firmly established, general consumer usage... firmly established, general consumer usage and trade custom of employing different common fractions in... a declaration of net quantity blown, embossed, or molded on a glass or plastic surface is...

  4. 21 CFR 801.62 - Declaration of net quantity of contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the case of a firmly established general consumer usage and trade custom of declaring the quantity of... there exists a firmly established, general consumer usage and trade custom of employing different common..., embossed, or molded on a glass or plastic surface is permissible when all label information is so formed on...

  5. 75 FR 51293 - [Disaster Declaration greek-i12272 and greek-i12273

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ...This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Kansas (FEMA-- 1932--DR), dated 08/10/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, and Tornadoes. Incident Period: 06/07/2010 through 07/21/2010.

  6. Declarative Specification of Fault Tolerant Auction Protocols: The English Auction Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragoni, Nicola; Gaspari, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    ‐allocation and negotiation mechanisms have also led to a great deal of interest in auctions within the agent community. A challenging issue for agents operating in open Multiagent Systems (such as the emerging semantic Web infrastructure) concerns the specification of declarative communication rules which could be published...

  7. 40 CFR 62.7860 - Identification of sources-negative declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... lands under the jurisdiction of the Albuquerque/Bernalillo county Air Quality Control Board subject to 40 CFR part 60, subpart Cb. [68 FR 35302, June 13, 2003] Emissions From Existing Hospital/Medical...—negative declaration. Letter from the City of Albuquerque Air Pollution Control Division dated September 10...

  8. 75 FR 57758 - Antrim Treatment Trust; Notice of Declaration of Intention and Soliciting Comments, Protests, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ...: Antrim Micro-Hydropower Project. f. Location: The proposed Antrim Micro-Hydropower Project will be..., protests, and/or motions filed. k. Description of Project: The proposed Antrim Micro-Hydropower Project... and the project will not be connected to an interstate grid. When a Declaration of Intention is filed...

  9. 40 CFR 62.13355 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Virgin Islands Air Emissions from Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units with the Capacity to Combust at Least 35 Tons Per Day But No More Than 250 Tons Per Day of Municipal Solid Waste Or...—negative declaration. Letter from the Virgin Islands Department of Planning and Natural Resources...

  10. 40 CFR 62.13354 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Virgin Islands Emissions from Existing Municipal Waste Combustors with the Capacity to Burn Greater Than 250 Tons Per Day of Municipal Solid Waste § 62.13354 Identification of plan—negative declaration. Letter from the Department of Planning and Natural Resources submitted September 29, 1997...

  11. Declarative and Procedural Memory as Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Short, Kara; Faretta-Stutenberg, Mandy; Brill-Schuetz, Katherine A.; Carpenter, Helen; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how individual differences in cognitive abilities account for variance in the attainment level of adult second language (L2) syntactic development. Participants completed assessments of declarative and procedural learning abilities. They subsequently learned an artificial L2 under implicit training conditions and received…

  12. Learning Declarative and Procedural Knowledge via Video Lectures: Cognitive Load and Learning Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jianzhong; Pi, Zhongling; Yang, Jiumin

    2018-01-01

    Video lectures are being widely used in online and blended learning classes worldwide, and their learning effectiveness is becoming a focus of many educators and researchers. This study examined the cognitive load and learning effectiveness of video lectures in terms of the type of knowledge being taught (declarative or procedural) and instructor…

  13. 77 FR 60454 - Proposed Information Collection; Declaration for Importation or Exportation of Fish or Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... it unlawful to import or export fish, wildlife, or plants without filing a declaration or report... agencies importing into or exporting from the United States any fish, wildlife, or ] wildlife product must... or individuals that import or export fish, wildlife, or wildlife products; scientific institutions...

  14. 9 CFR 93.214 - Import permit and declaration for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Import permit and declaration for... IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Poultry Canada 6 § 93.214 Import permit and...

  15. 9 CFR 93.417 - Import permit and declaration for ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Import permit and declaration for... IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.417 Import permit and...

  16. 9 CFR 93.315 - Import permit and declaration for horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Import permit and declaration for... IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.315 Import permit and...

  17. 9 CFR 93.516 - Import permit and declaration for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Import permit and declaration for... IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.516 Import permit and...

  18. WYSIWIB: A Declarative Approach to Finding API Protocols and Bugs in Linux Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia; Brunel, Julien Pierre Manuel; Palix, Nicolas Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    the tools on specific kinds of bugs and to relate the results to patterns in the source code. We propose a declarative approach to bug finding in Linux OS code using a control-flow based program search engine. Our approach is WYSIWIB (What You See Is Where It Bugs), since the programmer expresses...

  19. The UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights: Perspectives from Kenya and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    In October 2005, UNESCO (the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) adopted the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. This was the culmination of nearly 2 years of deliberations and negotiations. As a non-binding instrument, the declaration must be incorporated by UNESCO’s member states into their national laws, regulations or policies in order to take effect. Based on documentary evidence and data from interviews, this paper compares the declaration’s universal principles with national bioethics guidelines and practice in Kenya and South Africa. It concentrates on areas of particular relevance to developing countries, such as protection of vulnerable persons and social responsibility. The comparison demonstrates the need for universal principles to be contextualised before they can be applied in a meaningful sense at national level. The paper also assesses the ‘added value’ of the declaration in terms of biomedical research ethics, given that there are already well-established international instruments on bioethics, namely the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki and the CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) guidelines on biomedical research. It may be that the added value lies as much in the follow-up capacity building activities being initiated by UNESCO as in the document itself. PMID:18240025

  20. 77 FR 52379 - Disaster Declaration #13239 and #13240; OHIO Disaster # H-00030

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Disaster Declaration 13239 and 13240; OHIO Disaster H-00030 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business...: 05/20/2013. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration...